WorldWideScience

Sample records for respirator fit test

  1. Simplified pressure method for respirator fit testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D; Xu, M; Foo, S; Pilacinski, W; Willeke, K

    1991-08-01

    A simplified pressure method has been developed for fit testing air-purifying respirators. In this method, the air-purifying cartridges are replaced by a pressure-sensing attachment and a valve. While wearers hold their breath, a small pump extracts air from the respirator cavity until a steady-state pressure is reached in 1 to 2 sec. The flow rate through the face seal leak is a unique function of this pressure, which is determined once for all respirators, regardless of the respirator's cavity volume or deformation because of pliability. The contaminant concentration inside the respirator depends on the degree of dilution by the flow through the cartridges. The cartridge flow varies among different brands and is measured once for each brand. The ratio of cartridge to leakflow is a measure of fit. This flow ratio has been measured on human subjects and has been compared to fit factors determined on the same subjects by means of photometric and particle count tests. The aerosol tests gave higher values of fit.

  2. Effect of test exercises and mask donning on measured respirator fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, C D; Fairbank, E O; Greenstein, S L

    1999-12-01

    Quantitative respirator fit test protocols are typically defined by a series of fit test exercises. A rationale for the protocols that have been developed is generally not available. There also is little information available that describes the effect or effectiveness of the fit test exercises currently specified in respiratory protection standards. This study was designed to assess the relative impact of fit test exercises and mask donning on respirator fit as measured by a controlled negative pressure and an ambient aerosol fit test system. Multiple donnings of two different sizes of identical respirator models by each of 14 test subjects showed that donning affects respirator fit to a greater degree than fit test exercises. Currently specified fit test protocols emphasize test exercises, and the determination of fit is based on a single mask donning. A rationale for a modified fit test protocol based on fewer, more targeted test exercises and multiple mask donnings is presented. The modified protocol identified inadequately fitting respirators as effectively as the currently specified Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) quantitative fit test protocol. The controlled negative pressure system measured significantly (p < 0.0001) more respirator leakage than the ambient aerosol fit test system. The bend over fit test exercise was found to be predictive of poor respirator fit by both fit test systems. For the better fitting respirators, only the talking exercise generated aerosol fit factors that were significantly lower (p < 0.0001) than corresponding donning fit factors.

  3. Respirators. Does your face fit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, N M; Else, D

    1981-04-01

    The authors carried out a survey of face sizes of men and women of four different ethnic origins and carried out face-seal leakage trials on four corresponding test panels. No single respirator design is likely to fit all members of the workforce, and it may be necessary to stock respirators from more than one manufacturers.Three or four different respirators or size of respirator may be needed. However, the use of lossely-fitting respirators such as Airsteam helmets could remove the necessity for exhaustive fitting procedures.

  4. Development of an Advanced Respirator Fit Test Headform (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) for pro - tection studies against viable airborne particles. A Static (i.e., non-moving, non-speaking...requiredto wear respirators to reduce their exposure to air- borne hazards.(1) The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration ( OSHA ) Respiratory...13 workplace protection factors.(9,10). Inward leakage (IL) of con - taminants into a respirator facepiece has been described as a combination of

  5. Characterization of small-to-medium head-and-face dimensions for developing respirator fit test panels and evaluating fit of filtering facepiece respirators with different faceseal design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chun

    2017-01-01

    A respirator fit test panel (RFTP) with facial size distribution representative of intended users is essential to the evaluation of respirator fit for new models of respirators. In this study an anthropometric survey was conducted among youths representing respirator users in mid-Taiwan to characterize head-and-face dimensions key to RFTPs for application to small-to-medium facial features. The participants were fit-tested for three N95 masks of different facepiece design and the results compared to facial size distribution specified in the RFTPs of bivariate and principal component analysis design developed in this study to realize the influence of facial characteristics to respirator fit in relation to facepiece design. Nineteen dimensions were measured for 206 participants. In fit testing the qualitative fit test (QLFT) procedures prescribed by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration were adopted. As the results show, the bizygomatic breadth of the male and female participants were 90.1 and 90.8% of their counterparts reported for the U.S. youths (P < 0.001), respectively. Compared to the bivariate distribution, the PCA design better accommodated variation in facial contours among different respirator user groups or populations, with the RFTPs reported in this study and from literature consistently covering over 92% of the participants. Overall, the facial fit of filtering facepieces increased with increasing facial dimensions. The total percentages of the tests wherein the final maneuver being completed was “Moving head up-and-down”, “Talking” or “Bending over” in bivariate and PCA RFTPs were 13.3–61.9% and 22.9–52.8%, respectively. The respirators with a three-panel flat fold structured in the facepiece provided greater fit, particularly when the users moved heads. When the facial size distribution in a bivariate RFTP did not sufficiently represent petite facial size, the fit testing was inclined to overestimate the general fit

  6. Facepiece leakage and fitting of respirators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.M.

    1978-05-01

    The ways in which airborne contaminants can penetrate respirators and the factors which affect the fit of respirators are discussed. The fit of the respirator to the face is shown to be the most critical factor affecting the protection achieved by the user. Qualitative and quantitative fit testing techniques are described and their application to industrial respirator programs is examined. Quantitative measurement of the leakage of a respirator while worn can be used to numerically indicate the protection achieved. These numbers, often referred to as protection factors, are sometimes used as the basis for selecting suitable respirators and this practice is reviewed. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the protection factor of half-masks with respirator fitting test apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, M.; Ikezawa, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Matsui, H.; Kokubu, M.

    1980-01-01

    A respirator fitting test apparatus has been developed to select half-masks of high performance and to estimate their protective ability. With the apparatus, the facepiece leakage was measured for six different half-masks worn by 40 volunteer subjects, under simulated working conditions of normal breathing, smiling, moving head, and talking. A cloud of submicron sodium chloride particles was fed into a test hood in which the subject wore a mask. The air sampled from inside the mask with a miniature pump was assessed by a flame photometer. It is hown that the protection factor (ratio of the concentration of test cloud outside the mask to that inside) for each mask varies widely with the subject and the working conditions, and that the protection factors roughly fit a lognormal distribution. The values characterizing the distributions of respective masks are given. (H.K.)

  8. 46 CFR Appendix E to Subpart C to... - Respirator Fit Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (v) Upon entering the test chamber, the test subject must be given a six inch by five inch piece of... these are facial shape, temple pieces of eyeglasses, facial abnormalities (e.g., scars and indentations... is about six inches above the test subject's head. The inside top center of the chamber must have a...

  9. Evaluation of one-year results of the full-face respirator quantitative man-test fitting program at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, B.J.; Cross, J.; Ellis, K.P.; Richards, C.P.; Rodriques, R.

    1976-01-01

    In August 1975, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory began to quantitatively fit all employees who are or may be required to wear any type of full-face respirator. After one year, 306 employees have been fitted. A total of 1362 tests were made, using seven makes of full-face respirators. Of the 306 employees fitted, 284 were tested using more than one make of full-face mask. All employees fitted could get a maximum use limit (MUL) of at least 100, 8 percent has a MUL of 100 to 499 on at least one of the makes of masks tested, 11 percent had an MUL of 500 to 999, 13 percent had an MUL of 1000 to 1999, 24 percent had an MUL of 2000 to 4999, and 44 percent had an MUL greater than 5000. These numbers were derived using the average of the peak leakages occurring during each of six exercises performed while wearing each mask. If the overall average leakage occurring during the six exercises rather than the peak average is used in the calculations, 90 percent of the employees could obtain an MUL over 1000 on at least one make of mask

  10. Disclosure and Fit Capability of the Filtering Facepiece Respirator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Don J

    2018-05-01

    The filtering facepiece air-purifying respirator is annually purchased in the tens of millions and widely used for worker protection from harmful airborne particulates. The workplace consumers of this safety product, i.e., employers, workers, and safety and health professionals, have assurances of its effectiveness through the respirator certification and disclosure requirements of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. However, the certification of a critical performance requirement has been missing for the approved filtering facepiece respirator since 1995: fit capability. Without this certification, consumers continue to be at risk of purchasing a respirator model that may fit a small percentage of the intended users. This commentary updates and expands an earlier one by this author, addresses the consequences of poorly fitting certified models on the market and lack of disclosure, and calls for further action by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to meet the needs and expectations of the consumer.

  11. A mechanical breathing simulator for respirator test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Mikio; Ikezawa, Yoshio; Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    1976-01-01

    A mechanical breathing simulator has been developed to produce the human respiration for use in respirator test. The respirations were produced through the strokes of piston controlled by a rockerarm with adjustable fulcrum. The respiration rate was governed by motor-speed control, independent of the tidal volume achieved by adjustment of the piston stroke. By the breather, the simulated respirations for work rate 0, 208, 415, 622 and 830 kg-m/min could be produced through the typical dummy head. (auth.)

  12. Measuring temperature dependence of soil respiration: importance of incubation time, soil type, moisture content and model fits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, L. A.; Robinson, J.; O'Neill, T.; Ryburn, J.; Arcus, V. L.

    2015-12-01

    Developing robust models of the temperature response and sensitivity of soil respiration is critical for determining changes carbon cycling in response to climate change and at daily to annual time scales. Currently, approaches for measuring temperature dependence of soil respiration generally use long incubation times (days to weeks and months) at a limited number of incubation temperatures. Long incubation times likely allow thermal adaptation by the microbial population so that results are poorly representative of in situ soil responses. Additionally, too few incubation temperatures allows for the fit and justification of many different predictive equations, which can lead to inaccuracies when used for carbon budgeting purposes. We have developed a method to rapidly determine the response of soil respiration rate to wide range of temperatures. An aluminium block with 44 sample slots is heated at one end and cooled at the other to give a temperature gradient from 0 to 55°C at about one degree increments. Soil respiration is measured within 5 hours to minimise the possibility of thermal adaptation. We have used this method to demonstrate the similarity of temperature sensitivity of respiration for different soils from the same location across seasons. We are currently testing whether long-term (weeks to months) incubation alter temperature response and sensitivity that occurs in situ responses. This method is also well suited for determining the most appropriate models of temperature dependence and sensitivity of soil respiration (including macromolecular rate theory MMRT). With additional testing, this method is expected to be a more reliable method of measuring soil respiration rate for soil quality and modelling of soil carbon processes.

  13. Temperature dependence of bulk respiration of crop stands. Measurement and model fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Takashi; Arai, Ryuji; Tako, Yasuhiro

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine whether the temperature dependence of respiration at a crop-stand scale could be directly represented by an Arrhenius function that was widely used for representing the temperature dependence of leaf respiration. We determined temperature dependences of bulk respiration of monospecific stands of rice and soybean within a range of the air temperature from 15 to 30degC using large closed chambers. Measured responses of respiration rates of the two stands were well fitted by the Arrhenius function (R 2 =0.99). In the existing model to assess the local radiological impact of the anthropogenic carbon-14, effects of the physical environmental factors on photosynthesis and respiration of crop stands are not taken into account for the calculation of the net amount of carbon per cultivation area in crops at harvest which is the crucial parameter for the estimation of the activity concentration of carbon-14 in crops. Our result indicates that the Arrhenius function is useful for incorporating the effect of the temperature on respiration of crop stands into the model which is expected to contribute to a more realistic estimate of the activity concentration of carbon-14 in crops. (author)

  14. Workplace performance of a loose-fitting powered air purifying respirator during nanoparticle synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivisto, Antti J.; Aromaa, Mikko; Koponen, Ismo K.; Fransman, Wouter; Jensen, Keld A.; Mäkelä, Jyrki M.; Hämeri, Kaarle J.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle (particles with diameter ≤100 nm) exposure is recognized as a potentially harmful size fraction for pulmonary particle exposure. During nanoparticle synthesis, the number concentrations in the process room may exceed 10 × 10 6 cm −3 . During such conditions, it is essential that the occupants in the room wear highly reliable high-performance respirators to prevent inhalation exposure. Here we have studied the in-use program protection factor (PPF) of loose-fitting powered air purifying respirators, while workers were coating components with TiO 2 or Cu x O y nanoparticles under a hood using a liquid flame spray process. The PPF was measured using condensation particle counters, an electrical low pressure impactor, and diffusion chargers. The room particle concentrations varied from 4 × 10 6 to 40 × 10 6 cm −3 , and the count median aerodynamic diameter ranged from 32 to 180 nm. Concentrations inside the respirator varied from 0.7 to 7.2 cm −3 . However, on average, tidal breathing was assumed to increase the respirator concentration by 2.3 cm −3 . The derived PPF exceeded 1.1 × 10 6 , which is more than 40 × 10 3 times the respirator assigned protection factor. We were unable to measure clear differences in the PPF of respirators with old and new filters, among two male and one female user, or assess most penetrating particle size. This study shows that the loose-fitting powered air purifying respirator provides very efficient protection against nanoparticle inhalation exposure if used properly

  15. Workplace performance of a loose-fitting powered air purifying respirator during nanoparticle synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivisto, Antti J., E-mail: jok@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark); Aromaa, Mikko [Tampere University of Technology, Department of Physics (Finland); Koponen, Ismo K. [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark); Fransman, Wouter [TNO (Netherlands); Jensen, Keld A. [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark); Mäkelä, Jyrki M. [Tampere University of Technology, Department of Physics (Finland); Hämeri, Kaarle J. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics (Finland)

    2015-04-15

    Nanoparticle (particles with diameter ≤100 nm) exposure is recognized as a potentially harmful size fraction for pulmonary particle exposure. During nanoparticle synthesis, the number concentrations in the process room may exceed 10 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −3}. During such conditions, it is essential that the occupants in the room wear highly reliable high-performance respirators to prevent inhalation exposure. Here we have studied the in-use program protection factor (PPF) of loose-fitting powered air purifying respirators, while workers were coating components with TiO{sub 2} or Cu{sub x}O{sub y} nanoparticles under a hood using a liquid flame spray process. The PPF was measured using condensation particle counters, an electrical low pressure impactor, and diffusion chargers. The room particle concentrations varied from 4 × 10{sup 6} to 40 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −3}, and the count median aerodynamic diameter ranged from 32 to 180 nm. Concentrations inside the respirator varied from 0.7 to 7.2 cm{sup −3}. However, on average, tidal breathing was assumed to increase the respirator concentration by 2.3 cm{sup −3}. The derived PPF exceeded 1.1 × 10{sup 6}, which is more than 40 × 10{sup 3} times the respirator assigned protection factor. We were unable to measure clear differences in the PPF of respirators with old and new filters, among two male and one female user, or assess most penetrating particle size. This study shows that the loose-fitting powered air purifying respirator provides very efficient protection against nanoparticle inhalation exposure if used properly.

  16. The Andersen aerobic fitness test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadland, Eivind; Terum, Torkil; Mamen, Asgeir

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High aerobic fitness is consistently associated with a favorable metabolic risk profile in children. Direct measurement of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is often not feasible, thus indirect tests such as the Andersen test are required in many settings. The present study seeks...... of agreement) were 26.7±125.2 m for test 2 vs. test 1 (pfit in the present sample; thus, we suggest a new equation: VO2peak = 23....... Researchers should be aware of the amount of noise in indirect tests that estimate aerobic fitness....

  17. In situ respiration testing: A field treatability test for bioventing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittel, J.A.; Hinchee, R.E.; Miller, R.; Vogel, C.; Hoeppel, R.

    1993-01-01

    Bioventing is the process of aerating subsurface soils to stimulate in situ biological activity and promote bioremediation. Bioventing differs from soil venting in remedial approach. Soil venting is designed and operated to maximize the volatilization of low-molecular-weight compounds, with some biodegradation occurring. In contrast, bioventing is designed to maximize biodegradation of aerobically biodegradable compounds, regardless of their molecular weight, with some volatilization occurring. Bioventing is gaining wide acceptance as a remediation alternative at petroleum-contaminated sites. However, site variability usually requires that a short term treatability test be conducted in situ at potential sites to determine the applicability of bioventing. Battelle has worked with the US Air Force and the US Navy to develop a simple and inexpensive field test to evaluate bioventing potential-contaminated sites. This test has been used to evaluate the applicability of bioventing at over 50 sites. The in situ respiration test consists of injecting air and an inert tracer gas (helium) over a 24-hour period to aerate soils at an oxygen-deficient, petroleum-contaminated site. Soil vapor samples are collected to determine oxygen utilization rates and carbon dioxide production rates. The stoichiometric relationship for the oxidation of hexane is used to calculate the biodegradation rate. The tracer gas is monitored to estimate the effect of diffusion on changes in soil-gas concentrations

  18. Quantitative respirator man-testing at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, J.D.

    The dioctyl phthalate quantitative respirator man-testing method used at Rocky Flats is outlined. Using this method, 93 persons trained to use self contained breathing equipment were tested with eight respiratory protective devices. Test results obtained with the seven devices using high efficiency particulate filters are compared to the results obtained with the self contained breathing equipment. Also comparison is made for these results to test results for 1667 other employees

  19. Quantitative respirator man-testing at Rocky Flats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The dioctyl phthalate quantitative respirator man-testing method used at Rocky Flats is outlined. Using this method, 93 persons trained to use self contained breathing equipment were tested with eight respiratory protective devices. Test results obtained with the seven devices using high efficiency particulate filters are compared to the results obtained with the self contained breathing equipment. Also comparison is made for these results to test results for 1667 other employees.

  20. Effectiveness of three just-in-time training modalities for N-95 mask fit testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David; Stoler, Genevieve; Suyama, Joe

    2013-01-01

    To compare and contrast three different training modalities for fit testing N-95 respirator face masks. Block randomized interventional study. Urban university. Two hundred eighty-nine medical students. Students were randomly assigned to video, lecture, or slide show to evaluate the effectiveness of the methods for fit testing large groups of people. Ease of fit and success of fit for each instructional technique. Mask 1 was a Kimberly-Clark duckbill N-95 respirator mask, and mask 2 was a 3M™ carpenters N-95 respirator mask. "Ease of fit" was defined as the ability to successfully don a mask in less than 30 seconds. "Success of fit" was defined as the ability to correctly don a mask in one try. There were no statistical differences by training modality for either mask regarding ease of fit or success of fit. There were no differences among video presentation, small group demonstration, and self-directed slide show just-in-time training modalities for ease of fit or success of fit N-95 respirator mask fitting. Further study is needed to explore more effective fit training modalities.

  1. Comparison of physical fitness tests in swimming

    OpenAIRE

    Dostálová, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Title: Comparison of physical fitness tests in swimming. Objective: The aim of this thesis is to evaluate specific tests, used while testing selected physical abilities in swimming. By specific tests we mean tests realized in the water. Selected tests are intended for swim coaches, who train junior to senior age groups. Methods: The chosen method was a comparison of studies, that pursue selected specific tests. We created partial conclusions for every test by summing up the results of differe...

  2. Quantitative respirator man-testing and anthropometric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported of a recent anthropometric survey and test procedures related to the respiratory protection program to safeguard the health of personnel. Respiratory protection procedures involve the selection of face masks worn by plant personnel. The fitting, handling, and use of face masks through explicit instructions can assure optimum protection. Comparisons are made with the test-panel selection parameters established by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, and recommendations by Webb Associates of Yellow Springs, Ohio. (U.S.)

  3. Construct Validity of Physical Fitness Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    Powers, S. K., Lawler, J., Ayers, D., & Stuart, M. K. (1991). Physiological correlates to 800 meter running performance. Journal of Sports Medicine and... isokinetic tests. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 36, 169-177. *Myers, D. C., Gebhardt, D. L., Crump, C.E., & Fleishman, E. A. (1984

  4. 42 CFR 84.1151 - DOP filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOP filter test; respirators designed as... filter test; respirators designed as respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air...) All single air-purifying respirator filter units will be tested in an atmosphere concentration of 100...

  5. Choosing the right respirator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidwell, J.

    1997-01-01

    Selecting respirators to help protect workers from airborne contaminants can be a confusing process. The consequences of selecting the incorrect respirator can be intimidating, and worker safety and health may be dramatically and irreparably affected if an inappropriate respirator is chosen. When used in the workplace, a formal respiratory protection program must be established covering the basic requirements outlined in the OSHA Respiratory Protection Standard (29 CFR 1910.134). Education and training must be properly emphasized and conducted periodically. Maintenance, cleaning, and storage programs must be established and routinely followed for reusable respirators. The process of establishing a respiratory protection program can be broken down into four basic steps: Identify respiratory hazards and concentrations; understand the contaminants effects on workers' health; select appropriate respiratory protection; and train in proper respirator use and maintenance. These four steps are the foundation for establishing a basic respirator protection program. Be sure to consult state and federal OSHA requirements to ensure that the program complies. Leading industrial respirator manufacturers should be able to assist with on-site training and education in this four-step process, in addition to helping employers train their workers and conduct respirator fit testing

  6. Goodness of Fit Test and Test of Independence by Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sharifdoost; N. Nematollahi; E. Pasha

    2009-01-01

    To test whether a set of data has a specific distribution or not, we can use the goodness of fit test. This test can be done by one of Pearson X 2 -statistic or the likelihood ratio statistic G 2 , which are asymptotically equal, and also by using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic in continuous distributions. In this paper, we introduce a new test statistic for goodness of fit test which is based on entropy distance, and which can be applied for large sample sizes...

  7. A study of the differences in respirator fit factor values between years and masks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longo, Anastasia [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-08-15

    The work described in this report was carried out at a national laboratory of the Department of Energy, during the time that the author was engaged in a Department of Energy Industrial Hygiene Graduate Fellowship. The national laboratory had a respiratory protection program with approximately 50 employees participating. The program was in place to protect employees from over-exposure to airborne contaminants while engineering and work practice controls were being installed and implemented. It was also in place to protect workers in situations where engineering and work control practices were not feasible, such as during maintenance and repair work, as well as in situations where engineering and work practice controls were not enough to lower the exposure to or below the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) as set by the Occupational Safety and Health Association (OSHA) as an eight-hour time weighted average (TWA) or an excursion limit. Respirators were also used for emergencies by the emergency response team.

  8. A study of the differences in respirator fit factor values between years and masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, A.

    1995-01-01

    The work described in this report was carried out at a national laboratory of the Department of Energy, during the time that the author was engaged in a Department of Energy Industrial Hygiene Graduate Fellowship. The national laboratory had a respiratory protection program with approximately 50 employees participating. The program was in place to protect employees from over-exposure to airborne contaminants while engineering and work practice controls were being installed and implemented. It was also in place to protect workers in situations where engineering and work control practices were not feasible, such as during maintenance and repair work, as well as in situations where engineering and work practice controls were not enough to lower the exposure to or below the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) as set by the Occupational Safety and Health Association (OSHA) as an eight-hour time weighted average (TWA) or an excursion limit. Respirators were also used for emergencies by the emergency response team

  9. Goodness-of-fit test for copulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, Valentyn

    2005-09-01

    Copulas are often used in finance to characterize the dependence between assets. However, a choice of the functional form for the copula is an open question in the literature. This paper develops a goodness-of-fit test for copulas based on positive definite bilinear forms. The suggested test avoids the use of plug-in estimators that is the common practice in the literature. The test statistics can be consistently computed on the basis of V-estimators even in the case of large dimensions. The test is applied to a dataset of US large cap stocks to assess the performance of the Gaussian copula for the portfolios of assets of various dimension. The Gaussian copula appears to be inadequate to characterize the dependence between assets.

  10. Miniaturized test system for soil respiration induced by volatile pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Karin; Chapman, Stephen J.; Campbell, Colin D.; Harms, Hauke; Hoehener, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    A miniaturized method based on 96-well microtitre plates was developed and used to study respiration in pristine and contaminated soils following addition of volatile substrates. Small soil samples were exposed to fuel components, which were volatilized from spatially separate reservoirs of 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN) as an organic carrier. Respiration was determined as CO 2 production by means of a pH-indicator and bicarbonate-containing agar, or as 14 CO 2 evolution from 14 C-labelled substrates. Substrate concentrations inducing maximum microbial activity or inhibition were determined and CO 2 production profiles examined by multivariate analysis. When high concentrations of fuel components were applied, distinction of hydrocarbon exposed soils from unexposed soil was achieved within 6 h of incubation. With low concentrations, adequate distinction was achieved after 24 h, probably as a result of community adaptation. Nutrient limitation was identified with the 14 C method for toluene, and the optimal N and P amendment determined. Further potential applications of this rapid and inexpensive method are outlined. - A new method to study soil respiration is used when volatile organic contaminants are added

  11. Applications of the nuclear Techniques in medicine: 13C or 14C respiration tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero Santamaria, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    The 14 C or 13 C respiration tests have been applied to the study of metabolic and infectious processes, but most of them have not entered yet the clinical practice stage. In this paper, it is offered an overview of the present and future of respiration tests and how they are taking part and will take part in a future in the non-invasive diagnosis of diverse pathologies

  12. Applications of the nuclear Techniques in medicine: 13o14C respiration tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero Santamaria, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    The 1 4 C or 1 3 C respiration tests have been applied to the study of metabolic and infectious processes, but most of them have not entered yet the clinical practice stage. In this paper, it is offered an overview of the present and future of respiration tests and how they are taking part and will take part in a future in the non-invasive diagnosis of diverse pathologies

  13. Goodness of Fit Test and Test of Independence by Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sharifdoost

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available To test whether a set of data has a specific distribution or not, we can use the goodness of fit test. This test can be done by one of Pearson X 2 -statistic or the likelihood ratio statistic G 2 , which are asymptotically equal, and also by using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic in continuous distributions. In this paper, we introduce a new test statistic for goodness of fit test which is based on entropy distance, and which can be applied for large sample sizes. We compare this new statistic with the classical test statistics X 2 , G 2 , and Tn by some simulation studies. We conclude that the new statistic is more sensitive than the usual statistics to the rejection of distributions which are almost closed to the desired distribution. Also for testing independence, a new test statistic based on mutual information is introduced

  14. Inappropriate Practices in Fitness Testing and Reporting: Alternative Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xihe; Davis, Summer; Kirk, T. Nicole; Haegele, Justin A.; Knott, Stephen E.

    2018-01-01

    Fitness education is becoming an integrated component for many physical education programs. As such, many physical educators conduct health-related fitness tests on a regular basis. Some states even mandate certain types of physical fitness tests to be administered and reported annually or by semester. Yet, inappropriate practices have been…

  15. Goodness-of-fit tests for the Gompertz distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenart, Adam; Missov, Trifon

    The Gompertz distribution is often fitted to lifespan data, however testing whether the fit satisfies theoretical criteria was neglected. Here five goodness-of-fit measures, the Anderson-Darling statistic, the Kullback-Leibler discrimination information, the correlation coefficient test, testing ...... for the mean of the sample hazard and a nested test against the generalized extreme value distributions are discussed. Along with an application to laboratory rat data, critical values calculated by the empirical distribution of the test statistics are also presented.......The Gompertz distribution is often fitted to lifespan data, however testing whether the fit satisfies theoretical criteria was neglected. Here five goodness-of-fit measures, the Anderson-Darling statistic, the Kullback-Leibler discrimination information, the correlation coefficient test, testing...

  16. Bioavailability assessment of contaminants in soils via respiration and nitrification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Simon, Markus

    2008-01-01

    For the assessment of contaminated soils ecotoxicological tests are used to estimate the bioavailability of contaminants in soil samples. Terrestrial tests reveal the habitat function of soils, and parameters applied in tests involving microorganisms include respiration activity and potential ammonium oxidation. For such tests, the threshold values needed to assess the results have already been established in guidelines ISO 17155 and ISO 15685. In this paper, we discuss about the respiration activity and potential ammonium oxidation results obtained from a wide variety of soils with different physico-chemical properties and levels of contamination. These results show that microbial respiration and potential ammonium oxidation have different sensitivities to various classes of contaminants. We demonstrated that both organic and inorganic contaminants influence potential ammonium oxidation, whereas microbial respiration is predominantly affected by biodegradable organic contaminants. These differences might be useful for more detailed assessments of soil contamination, leading to different recommended actions depending on which parameter is affected. - The paper provides a further criterion for a more detailed assessment of soil contamination, leading to different recommended actions depending on which parameter is affected

  17. Bioavailability assessment of contaminants in soils via respiration and nitrification tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund-Rinke, Kerstin [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Auf dem Aberg 1, 57392 Schmallenberg (Germany)], E-mail: kerstin.hund-rinke@ime.fraunhofer.de; Simon, Markus [Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Auf dem Aberg 1, 57392 Schmallenberg (Germany)], E-mail: markus.simon@ime.fraunhofer.de

    2008-05-15

    For the assessment of contaminated soils ecotoxicological tests are used to estimate the bioavailability of contaminants in soil samples. Terrestrial tests reveal the habitat function of soils, and parameters applied in tests involving microorganisms include respiration activity and potential ammonium oxidation. For such tests, the threshold values needed to assess the results have already been established in guidelines ISO 17155 and ISO 15685. In this paper, we discuss about the respiration activity and potential ammonium oxidation results obtained from a wide variety of soils with different physico-chemical properties and levels of contamination. These results show that microbial respiration and potential ammonium oxidation have different sensitivities to various classes of contaminants. We demonstrated that both organic and inorganic contaminants influence potential ammonium oxidation, whereas microbial respiration is predominantly affected by biodegradable organic contaminants. These differences might be useful for more detailed assessments of soil contamination, leading to different recommended actions depending on which parameter is affected. - The paper provides a further criterion for a more detailed assessment of soil contamination, leading to different recommended actions depending on which parameter is affected.

  18. 42 CFR 84.157 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. (a) The static... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, pressure-demand class; minimum requirements. 84.157 Section 84.157 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...

  19. 42 CFR 84.161 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type B and Type BE respirators; test requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type B and Type BE respirators; test requirements. 84.161 Section 84.161 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air...

  20. 42 CFR 84.160 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements. 84.160 Section 84.160 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air...

  1. Workplace field testing of the pressure drop of particulate respirators using welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Woo; Yoon, Chung-Sik

    2012-10-01

    In a previous study, we concluded that respirator testing with a sodium chloride aerosol gave a conservative estimate of filter penetration for welding fume aerosols. A rapid increase in the pressure drop (PD) of some respirators was observed as fumes accumulated on the filters. The present study evaluated particulate respirator PD based on workplace field tests. A field PD tester was designed and validated using the TSI 8130 Automatic Filter Tester, designed in compliance with National Institute for Occupational and Safety and Health regulation 42 CFR part 84. Three models (two replaceable dual-type filters and one replaceable single-type filter) were evaluated against CO(2) gas arc welding on mild steel in confined booths in the workplace. Field tests were performed under four airborne concentrations (27.5, 15.4, 7.9, and 2.1 mg m(-3)). The mass concentration was measured by the gravimetric method, and number concentration was monitored using P-Trak (Model 8525, TSI, USA). Additionally, photos and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to visualize and analyze the composition of welding fumes trapped in the filters. The field PD tester showed no significant difference compared with the TSI tester. There was no significant difference in the initial PD between laboratory and field results. The PD increased as a function of fume load on the respirator filters for all tested models. The increasing PD trend differed by models, and PD increased rapidly at high concentrations because greater amount of fumes accumulated on the filters in a given time. The increase in PD as a function of fume load on the filters showed a similar pattern as fume load varied for a particular model, but different patterns were observed for different models. Images and elemental analyses of fumes trapped on the respirator filters showed that most welding fumes were trapped within the first layer, outer web cover, and second layer, in order, while no fumes

  2. Respirator field performance factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, B.J.; DeField, J.D.; Strandberg, S.W.; Sutcliffe, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Industrial Hygiene Group assisted OSHA and the NRC in measurements of respirator performance under field conditions. They reviewed problems associated with sampling aerosols within the respirator in order to determine fit factors (FFs) or field performance factor (FPF). In addition, they designed an environmental chamber study to determine the effects of temperature and humidity on a respirator wearer

  3. 42 CFR 84.1141 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... mist respirators designed for respiratory protection against fumes of various metals having an air... HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist....1141 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; dust, fume, and mist respirators designed for respiratory...

  4. 42 CFR 84.156 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. (a) Inhalation resistance shall not... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, demand class; minimum requirements. 84.156 Section 84.156 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...

  5. CUSUM-based person-fit statistics for adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith; Meijer, R.R.

    1999-01-01

    Item scores that do not fit an assumed item response theory model may cause the latent trait value to be estimated inaccurately. Several person-fit statistics for detecting nonfitting score patterns for paper-and-pencil tests have been proposed. In the context of computerized adaptive tests (CAT),

  6. CUSUM-based person-fit statistics for adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith; Meijer, R.R.

    2001-01-01

    Item scores that do not fit an assumed item response theory model may cause the latent trait value to be inaccurately estimated. Several person-fit statistics for detecting nonfitting score patterns for paper-and-pencil tests have been proposed. In the context of computerized adaptive tests (CAT),

  7. Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Fitness Fitness Want to look and feel your best? Physical ... are? Check out this info: What is physical fitness? top Physical fitness means you can do everyday ...

  8. Universal Physical Fitness Testing for United States Guardians Afloat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    fitness tests assist with establishing a high retention rate and reducing absenteeism .”58 Robert Behn talks about measurements as an “overall...https://www.policeone.com/police- products /fitness-health-wellness/articles/ 1641504-Final-Word-Mandatory-Fitness-Standards-for-In-Service-Officers...30, 2016, http://static.e-publishing.af.mil/ production /1/af_a1/ publication/afi36-2905/afi36-2905.pdf. 95 Major Richard T. Gindhard Jr., “The Air

  9. Testing GUTs: where do monopoles fit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1982-10-01

    The report shows why the inadequacies of the standard model of elementary particles impel some theorists toward embedding the strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions in a simple GUT group, and explains why the grand unification scale and hence the GUM (Grand Unified Monopoles) mass are expected to be so large (greater than or equal to 10 14 GeV). It goes on to describe some model GUTs, notably minimal SU(5) and supersymmetric (susy) GUTs. The grand unified analogues of generalized Cabibbo mixing angles are introduced relevant to the prediction of baryon decay modes in different theories as well as to the Decay modes catalyzed by GUMs. Phenomenologies of conventional and susy GUTs are contrasted including the potential increase in the grand unification scale as well as possible different baryon decay modes in susy GUTs. The phenomenology of GUMs is discussed, principally their ability to catalyze baryon decays. Some of the astrophysical and cosmological constraints on GUMs, GUMs, which make it difficult to imagine ever seeing a GUM and may impose serious restrictions on GUT model-building via their behavior in the very early universe are introduced. Finally, the reasons why GUMs are crucial aspects and tests of GUTs are summarized

  10. The Marine Corps Physical Fitness Test: The Need to Replace it with a Combat Fitness Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-19

    unforeseen emergencies.”1 Crossfit , a website-based workout program, has popularized the en vogue, yet relatively old concept of “functional fitness...Sports; 1996. <http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/sgr.htm> 2 Greg Glassman, “What is Fitness?” Crossfit Journal, October 2002, 1-2. 3 human...short, intense workouts aimed at increasing power, speed, and strength. Additionally, Crossfit explains the crossover between the three pathways

  11. A person fit test for IRT models for polytomous items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Dagohoy, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    A person fit test based on the Lagrange multiplier test is presented for three item response theory models for polytomous items: the generalized partial credit model, the sequential model, and the graded response model. The test can also be used in the framework of multidimensional ability

  12. Respiration testing for bioventing and biosparging remediation of petroleum contaminated soil and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, A.L.; Brown, A.; Moore, B.J.; Payne, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Respiration tests were performed to measure the effect of subsurface aeration on the biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in vadose zone soils (bioventing) and ground water (biosparging). The aerobic biodegradation of petroleum contamination is typically limited by the absence of oxygen in the soil and ground water. Therefore, the goal of these bioremediation technologies is to increase the oxygen concentration in the subsurface and thereby enhance the natural aerobic biodegradation of the organic contamination. One case study for biosparging bioremediation testing is presented. At this site atmospheric air was injected into the ground water to increase the dissolved oxygen concentration in the ground water surrounding a well, and to aerate the smear zone above the ground water table. Aeration flow rates of 3 to 8 cfm (0.09 to 0.23 m 3 /min) were sufficient to increase the dissolved oxygen concentration. Petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation rates of 32 to 47 microg/l/hour were calculated based on measurements of dissolved oxygen concentration in ground water. The results of this test have demonstrated that biosparging enhances the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, but the results as they apply to remediation are not known. Two case studies for bioventing respiration testing are presented

  13. Quantum chi-squared and goodness of fit testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temme, Kristan [IQIM, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Verstraete, Frank [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Wien, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Wien, Austria and Faculty of Science, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-01-15

    A quantum mechanical hypothesis test is presented for the hypothesis that a certain setup produces a given quantum state. Although the classical and the quantum problems are very much related to each other, the quantum problem is much richer due to the additional optimization over the measurement basis. A goodness of fit test for i.i.d quantum states is developed and a max-min characterization for the optimal measurement is introduced. We find the quantum measurement which leads both to the maximal Pitman and Bahadur efficiencies, and determine the associated divergence rates. We discuss the relationship of the quantum goodness of fit test to the problem of estimating multiple parameters from a density matrix. These problems are found to be closely related and we show that the largest error of an optimal strategy, determined by the smallest eigenvalue of the Fisher information matrix, is given by the divergence rate of the goodness of fit test.

  14. A note on goodness of fit test using moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Papadopoulos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to introduce a general moment-based approach to derive formal goodness of fit tests of a parametric family. We show that, in general, an approximate normal test or a chi-squared test can be derived by exploring the moment structure of a parametric family, when moments up to certain order exist. The idea is simple and the resulting tests are easy to implement. To illustrate the use of this approach, we derive moment-based goodness of fit tests for some common discrete and continuous parametric families. We also compare the proposed tests with the well known Pearson-Fisher chi-square test and some distance tests in a simulation study.

  15. Testing the validity of stock-recruitment curve fits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, S.W.; Goodyear, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    The utilities relied heavily on the Ricker stock-recruitment model as the basis for quantifying biological compensation in the Hudson River power case. They presented many fits of the Ricker model to data derived from striped bass catch and effort records compiled by the National Marine Fisheries Service. Based on this curve-fitting exercise, a value of 4 was chosen for the parameter alpha in the Ricker model, and this value was used to derive the utilities' estimates of the long-term impact of power plants on striped bass populations. A technique was developed and applied to address a single fundamental question: if the Ricker model were applicable to the Hudson River striped bass population, could the estimates of alpha from the curve-fitting exercise be considered reliable. The technique involved constructing a simulation model that incorporated the essential biological features of the population and simulated the characteristics of the available actual catch-per-unit-effort data through time. The ability or failure to retrieve the known parameter values underlying the simulation model via the curve-fitting exercise was a direct test of the reliability of the results of fitting stock-recruitment curves to the real data. The results demonstrated that estimates of alpha from the curve-fitting exercise were not reliable. The simulation-modeling technique provides an effective way to identify whether or not particular data are appropriate for use in fitting such models. 39 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  16. A Comparison of the US Air Force Fitness Test and Sister Services’ Combat-Oriented Fitness Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    their status quo. These changes included changing their road runs into 400- to 800- meter (m) interval training, reducing their test run distance from 5...sleep were recorded throughout the operation. Measures of fitness were the isokinetic strength of the arms and legs, isometric handgrip strength...JIT = Just-In-Time (training) km = kilometer MANUF = Maneuver-Under-Fire (drill within the CFT) MFTC = Master Fitness Trainer Course m = meter

  17. Chi-squared goodness of fit tests with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, N; Nikulin, MS

    2013-01-01

    Chi-Squared Goodness of Fit Tests with Applications provides a thorough and complete context for the theoretical basis and implementation of Pearson's monumental contribution and its wide applicability for chi-squared goodness of fit tests. The book is ideal for researchers and scientists conducting statistical analysis in processing of experimental data as well as to students and practitioners with a good mathematical background who use statistical methods. The historical context, especially Chapter 7, provides great insight into importance of this subject with an authoritative author team

  18. Test of Seal System for Flexible Pipe End Fitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars; Jensen, Thomas Gregers

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the end fitting seal system is to ensure leak proof termination of flexible pipes. The seal system of an NKT end fitting normally consists of a number of ring joint gaskets mounted in a steel sleeve on the outside of the polymeric inner liner of the pipe. The seal system is activated...... by compression of the gaskets, thus using the geometry to establish a seal towards the inner liner of the pipe and the steel sleeve of the end fitting. This paper describes how the seal system of an end fitting can be tested using an autoclave. By regulating temperature and pressure, the seal system can...... be tested up to 130oC and 51.7 MPa. Pressure, temperature and the mechanical behaviours of the pipe are measured for use in further research. The set-up is used to test the efficiency of the seal system as function of parameters such as cross sectional shapes of the gaskets, tolerances between gaskets...

  19. Exact goodness-of-fit tests for Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besag, J; Mondal, D

    2013-06-01

    Goodness-of-fit tests are useful in assessing whether a statistical model is consistent with available data. However, the usual χ² asymptotics often fail, either because of the paucity of the data or because a nonstandard test statistic is of interest. In this article, we describe exact goodness-of-fit tests for first- and higher order Markov chains, with particular attention given to time-reversible ones. The tests are obtained by conditioning on the sufficient statistics for the transition probabilities and are implemented by simple Monte Carlo sampling or by Markov chain Monte Carlo. They apply both to single and to multiple sequences and allow a free choice of test statistic. Three examples are given. The first concerns multiple sequences of dry and wet January days for the years 1948-1983 at Snoqualmie Falls, Washington State, and suggests that standard analysis may be misleading. The second one is for a four-state DNA sequence and lends support to the original conclusion that a second-order Markov chain provides an adequate fit to the data. The last one is six-state atomistic data arising in molecular conformational dynamics simulation of solvated alanine dipeptide and points to strong evidence against a first-order reversible Markov chain at 6 picosecond time steps. © 2013, The International Biometric Society.

  20. Sport specific fitness testing of elite badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, M K; Wong, A S; So, R C; Siu, O T; Steininger, K; Lo, D T

    1995-01-01

    There is a scarcity of descriptive data on the performance capacity of elite badminton players, whose fitness requirements are quite specific. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the physiological response of elite badminton players in a sport-specific fitness test. Twelve Hong Kong national badminton team players performed a field test on a badminton court. Six light bulbs were connected to a programming device causing individual bulbs to light up in a given sequence. The players were instructed to react to the flashes by running towards them, and striking shuttles mounted in the vicinity of the bulbs. Exercise intensity was controlled by altering the interval between successive lightings. A low correlation (r = 0.65) was found between the results of the field test and the rank-order list of subjects, based on an objective on-field physiological assessment and subjective ranking. This may be explained by the requirements of other factors besides physical fitness which contribute to success in elite level badminton competition. These factors may include, for example, technical skill, mental power, and aesthetic judgements on the court. Maximum mean (s.d.) heart rate data (187(8) beats.min-1) and blood lactate values (10.4(2.9) mmol.l-1) in this study showed that players were under maximal load during the field test. From the testing data, it seems reasonable to speculate that the intensity of level 3 (20 light pulses.min-1; 3.0 s.pulse-1) and level 4 (22 light pulses.min-1; 2.7 s.pulse-1) simulates the requirement of actual games energy expenditure of the Hong Kong badminton players exercising at close to their anaerobic threshold. The results also show that an estimate of fitness can be derived from measurements involving exercise closely resembling that which is specific for the sports activity in question. Improved training advice and guidance may result from such studies. PMID:8800846

  1. Automated Calculation of Protection Factors for the Sodium Chloride Respirator Quantitative Fit Test Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    ohms, 1/4 W, 5% R7 lOOK ohms, 1/4 W, 5% R8 50K ohms, 1/4 W, 5% R9 lOOK ohms, 1/4 W, 5% RIO 50K ohms, 1/4 W, 5% R11 100K ohms, 1/4 W, 5% R12 WOOK ohms, 1...AND-DOWN HEAD MOVEMENTS’/ C’ (DEEP BREATHING) ’,21X,lPE12.1) WRITE(3,3069) PF(6) TYPE 3069,PF(6) 3069 FORMAT(6X,’FACIAL C~ RIMACING ’,21X,lPE12.1

  2. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  3. High School Physical Education Teachers' Attitudes and Use of Fitness Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Kevin; Phillips, Sharon; Silverman, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Recommendations for using and implementing fitness tests have been extensively researched and teachers' attitudes toward fitness tests are beginning to be studied. Less understood is how high school teachers use fitness tests and the role their attitudes toward fitness tests affect students' attitudes toward physical activity. The purpose of this…

  4. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL...

  5. Full-scale tank car rollover tests - survivability of top fittings and top fittings protective structures : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Full-scale rollover crash tests were performed on three non-pressure tank carbodies to validate previous analytical work and : determine the effectiveness of two different types of protective structures in protecting the top fittings. The tests were ...

  6. Goodness-of-fit tests with dependent observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicheportiche, Rémy; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the Kolmogorov–Smirnov and Cramér–von Mises goodness-of-fit (GoF) tests and propose a generalization to identically distributed, but dependent univariate random variables. We show that the dependence leads to a reduction of the 'effective' number of independent observations. The generalized GoF tests are not distribution-free but rather depend on all the lagged bivariate copulas. These objects, that we call 'self-copulas', encode all the non-linear temporal dependences. We introduce a specific, log-normal model for these self-copulas, for which a number of analytical results are derived. An application to financial time series is provided. As is well known, the dependence is to be long-ranged in this case, a finding that we confirm using self-copulas. As a consequence, the acceptance rates for GoF tests are substantially higher than if the returns were iid random variables

  7. Fitness Testing: How Do Students Make Sense of the Gender Disparities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domangue, Elizabeth A.; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2012-01-01

    The ways in which students make sense of the gendered fitness expectations found in a norm-referenced fitness testing program (i.e. President's challenge physical fitness test) were the focus of this study. Participants were 18 fifth grade students who completed fitness tests in their physical education classes. They were interviewed using a…

  8. A Study of the Physical Fitness Test in Relation to Demographics, Academic Achievement, and Students' Physical Fitness Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobilia-Jones, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the overall results of the Physical Fitness Test (PFT) and the six fitness areas of the PFT, academic achievement, demographics and self perceptions and the potential impact on students' performance on the PFT. While academic expectations are increasing, the adolescent obesity rate is also increasing, producing a decline in the…

  9. Results of Additional Bioventing Respiration Testing at Sites ST61, ST71, and ST43/55 (Pumphouse III and Valve Pit 3-4)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    ...). Vent well and monitoring point construction, respiration and air permeability testing, soil and soil gas sampling, and blower system installation and startup was performed at each site as part of the initial testing...

  10. Independent Evaluation of The Lepestok Filtering Facepiece Respirator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, Mark D; Vargo, George J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the protection factor of the Lepestok-200 filtering facepiece respirator by conducting a standard quantitative fit test on a panel of 25 representative adults (14 males and 11 females) using the TSI Incorporated PortaCount PlusTM quantitative fit-testing system. Each subject was tested four times. In the total of 100 tests, 95% of the overall fit factors were greater than 3, more than 80% of the overall fit factors were greater than 14, approximately 50% were greater than 86, and 20% were greater than 200. The pass-fail performance of the respirator was similar for each of the six exercises in the test series: (1) normal breathing, (2) deep breathing, (3) moving the head side to side, (4) moving the head up and down, (5) reading a passage of text out loud, and (6) normal breathing, indicating that the respirator performs equally well for each type of exercise. A significant and sustained improvement in fit factor was observed after the initial test, indicating that the subjects benefited from the knowledge gained in the first of the four quantitative fit tests. In the 75 tests conducted after the initial test for each individual, 95% of the overall fit factors were greater than 6, more than 80% of the overall fit factors were greater than 23, and 50% were greater than 116, and 20% were greater than 200. Thus, the initial learning experienced doubled the fit factor for subsequent tests. In addition, there is an indication that the Lepestok-200 may perform better on wearers with wider faces than on individuals with narrower faces. The results of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of the Lepestok-200 respirator and reinforce the general conclusion that quantitative fit-testing can make an important contribution to ensuring that proper protection factors are achieved for workers

  11. A simple field test for the assessment of physical fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-04-01

    An essential factor in air safety is the physical and mental fitness of all personnel directly involved in operations of general, commercial, and military aviation. Standardization and classification of fitness, however, have not been established to ...

  12. Modified Distribution-Free Goodness-of-Fit Test Statistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, So Yeon; Browne, Michael W; Shapiro, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    Covariance structure analysis and its structural equation modeling extensions have become one of the most widely used methodologies in social sciences such as psychology, education, and economics. An important issue in such analysis is to assess the goodness of fit of a model under analysis. One of the most popular test statistics used in covariance structure analysis is the asymptotically distribution-free (ADF) test statistic introduced by Browne (Br J Math Stat Psychol 37:62-83, 1984). The ADF statistic can be used to test models without any specific distribution assumption (e.g., multivariate normal distribution) of the observed data. Despite its advantage, it has been shown in various empirical studies that unless sample sizes are extremely large, this ADF statistic could perform very poorly in practice. In this paper, we provide a theoretical explanation for this phenomenon and further propose a modified test statistic that improves the performance in samples of realistic size. The proposed statistic deals with the possible ill-conditioning of the involved large-scale covariance matrices.

  13. Why is muscularity sexy? Tests of the fitness indicator hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Haselton, Martie G

    2007-08-01

    Evolutionary scientists propose that exaggerated secondary sexual characteristics are cues of genes that increase offspring viability or reproductive success. In six studies the hypothesis that muscularity is one such cue is tested. As predicted, women rate muscular men as sexier, more physically dominant and volatile, and less committed to their mates than nonmuscular men. Consistent with the inverted-U hypothesis of masculine traits, men with moderate muscularity are rated most attractive. Consistent with past research on fitness cues, across two measures, women indicate that their most recent short-term sex partners were more muscular than their other sex partners (ds = .36, .47). Across three studies, when controlling for other characteristics (e.g., body fat), muscular men rate their bodies as sexier to women (partial rs = .49-.62) and report more lifetime sex partners (partial rs = .20-.27), short-term partners (partial rs = .25-.28), and more affairs with mated women (partial r = .28).

  14. Feasibility and Reliability of Physical Fitness Tests in Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness is relevant for wellbeing and health, but knowledge on the feasibility and reliability of instruments to measure physical fitness for older adults with intellectual disability is lacking. Methods: Feasibility and test-retest reliability of a physical fitness test battery (Box and Block Test, Response Time Test, walking…

  15. Assessing SOC labile fractions through respiration test, density-size fractionation and thermal analysis - A comparison of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Cécillon, Lauric; Chenu, Claire; Baudin, François; Nicolas, Manuel; Savignac, Florence; Barré, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is the biggest terrestrial carbon reservoir, storing 3 to 4 times more carbon than the atmosphere. However, despite its major importance for climate regulation SOM dynamics remains insufficiently understood. For instance, there is still no widely accepted method to assess SOM lability. Soil respiration tests and particulate organic matter (POM) obtained by different fractionation schemes have been used for decades and are now considered as classical estimates of very labile and labile soil organic carbon (SOC), respectively. But the pertinence of these methods to characterize SOM turnover can be questioned. Moreover, they are very time-consuming and their reproducibility might be an issue. Alternate ways of determining the labile SOC component are thus well-needed. Thermal analyses have been used to characterize SOM among which Rock-Eval 6 (RE6) analysis of soil has shown promising results in the determination of SOM biogeochemical stability (Gregorich et al., 2015; Barré et al., 2016). Using a large set of samples of French forest soils representing contrasted pedoclimatic conditions, including deep samples (up to 1 m depth), we compared different techniques used for SOM lability assessment. We explored whether results from soil respiration test (10-week laboratory incubations), SOM size-density fractionation and RE6 thermal analysis were comparable and how they were correlated. A set of 222 (respiration test and RE6), 103 (SOM fractionation and RE6) and 93 (respiration test, SOM fractionation and RE6) forest soils samples were respectively analyzed and compared. The comparison of the three methods (n = 93) using a principal component analysis separated samples from the surface (0-10 cm) and deep (40-80 cm) layers, highlighting a clear effect of depth on the short-term persistence of SOC. A correlation analysis demonstrated that, for these samples, the two classical methods of labile SOC determination (respiration and SOM fractionation

  16. Developing Effective Physical Fitness Testing Standards for Pre Service Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kory; Thornburg, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators are often held to a higher standard of physical fitness. The ability to effectively convey the importance of physical fitness may depend upon the ability to appear physically fit. The ability to perform at a minimal level of proficiency on fitness tests was deemed important by the faculty of one physical education teacher…

  17. Feasibility and reliability of physical fitness tests in older adults with intellectual disability : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    Background Physical fitness is relevant for wellbeing and health, but knowledge on the feasibility and reliability of instruments to measure physical fitness for older adults with intellectual disability is lacking. Methods Feasibility and test-retest reliability of a physical fitness test battery

  18. Effects of Pregnancy on the Army Physical Fitness Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Usher, Stacy

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the actual and perceived amount of time needed for the postpartum soldier to return to pre-pregnancy fitness condition as evidenced by APFT scores before and after pregnancy...

  19. Effects of Pregnancy on the Army Physical Fitness Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Usher, Stacy

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the actual and perceived amount of time needed for the postpartum soldier to return to pre-pregnancy fitness condition as evidenced by APFT scores before and after...

  20. Pulmonary artery wave propagation and reservoir function in conscious man: impact of pulmonary vascular disease, respiration and dynamic stress tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junjing; Manisty, Charlotte; Simonsen, Ulf; Howard, Luke S; Parker, Kim H; Hughes, Alun D

    2017-10-15

    Wave travel plays an important role in cardiovascular physiology. However, many aspects of pulmonary arterial wave behaviour remain unclear. Wave intensity and reservoir-excess pressure analyses were applied in the pulmonary artery in subjects with and without pulmonary hypertension during spontaneous respiration and dynamic stress tests. Arterial wave energy decreased during expiration and Valsalva manoeuvre due to decreased ventricular preload. Wave energy also decreased during handgrip exercise due to increased heart rate. In pulmonary hypertension patients, the asymptotic pressure at which the microvascular flow ceases, the reservoir pressure related to arterial compliance and the excess pressure caused by waves increased. The reservoir and excess pressures decreased during Valsalva manoeuvre but remained unchanged during handgrip exercise. This study provides insights into the influence of pulmonary vascular disease, spontaneous respiration and dynamic stress tests on pulmonary artery wave propagation and reservoir function. Detailed haemodynamic analysis may provide novel insights into the pulmonary circulation. Therefore, wave intensity and reservoir-excess pressure analyses were applied in the pulmonary artery to characterize changes in wave propagation and reservoir function during spontaneous respiration and dynamic stress tests. Right heart catheterization was performed using a pressure and Doppler flow sensor tipped guidewire to obtain simultaneous pressure and flow velocity measurements in the pulmonary artery in control subjects and patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) at rest. In controls, recordings were also obtained during Valsalva manoeuvre and handgrip exercise. The asymptotic pressure at which the flow through the microcirculation ceases, the reservoir pressure related to arterial compliance and the excess pressure caused by arterial waves increased in PAH patients compared to controls. The systolic and diastolic rate constants

  1. Permutation tests for goodness-of-fit testing of mathematical models to experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fişek, M Hamit; Barlas, Zeynep

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents statistical procedures for improving the goodness-of-fit testing of theoretical models to data obtained from laboratory experiments. We use an experimental study in the expectation states research tradition which has been carried out in the "standardized experimental situation" associated with the program to illustrate the application of our procedures. We briefly review the expectation states research program and the fundamentals of resampling statistics as we develop our procedures in the resampling context. The first procedure we develop is a modification of the chi-square test which has been the primary statistical tool for assessing goodness of fit in the EST research program, but has problems associated with its use. We discuss these problems and suggest a procedure to overcome them. The second procedure we present, the "Average Absolute Deviation" test, is a new test and is proposed as an alternative to the chi square test, as being simpler and more informative. The third and fourth procedures are permutation versions of Jonckheere's test for ordered alternatives, and Kendall's tau(b), a rank order correlation coefficient. The fifth procedure is a new rank order goodness-of-fit test, which we call the "Deviation from Ideal Ranking" index, which we believe may be more useful than other rank order tests for assessing goodness-of-fit of models to experimental data. The application of these procedures to the sample data is illustrated in detail. We then present another laboratory study from an experimental paradigm different from the expectation states paradigm - the "network exchange" paradigm, and describe how our procedures may be applied to this data set. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved Precision and Efficiency of a Modified ORG0020 Dynamic Respiration Test Setup for Compost Stability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Guillen Ferrari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ORG0020 dynamic respiration test is effective at distinguishing source segregated organic waste derived composts across a wide range of stabilities when compared to other standard tests; however, using the original diaphragm pump and manifold setup, the test is affected by variability in flow rate with time and across sample replicate vessels. Here, we demonstrate the use of a multichannel peristaltic pump to deliver a more consistent air flow to individual vessels. Using finished and unfinished industry compost samples from different sites with varying stabilities, we provide evidence of greater precision of the modified setup compared to the original. Furthermore, the reduced need for air flow adjustment resulted in improved running cost efficiency with less labour demand. Analysis of compost sample oxygen demand supports the current test air flow rate of 25–75 mL min−1, although the improved air flow control will enable future narrowing of the acceptable range for better inter-laboratory performance.

  3. A Women-Only Comparison of the U.S. Air Force Fitness Test and the Marine Combat Fitness Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Air Force established the Fitness Assessment Cell to conduct fitness assessments for all Air Force members and to encourage standardization in...objective. “The MCFT was specifically designed to evaluate strength, stamina , agility and coordination as well as overall anaerobic capacity” (Department...1308.1, “Service members must possess stamina and strength to perform, successfully, any mission,” and that “…each service develops a quality 78

  4. The Constitutional Fit of European Standardization Put to the Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senden, L.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The adoption of harmonized standards (HSs) within the framework of the ‘New Approach’ is a long-standing phenomenon of the European decision-making process. Yet, an important question remains how their use actually fits in with the Union’s legal system, in particular in the light of the changes

  5. Evaluation of the filtration performance of NIOSH-approved N95 filtering facepiece respirators by photometric and number-based test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, Samy; Miller, Adam; Eimer, Benjamin C

    2011-01-01

    N95 particulate filtering facepiece respirators are certified by measuring penetration levels photometrically with a presumed severe case test method using charge neutralized NaCl aerosols at 85 L/min. However, penetration values obtained by photometric methods have not been compared with count-based methods using contemporary respirators composed of electrostatic filter media and challenged with both generated and ambient aerosols. To better understand the effects of key test parameters (e.g., particle charge, detection method), initial penetration levels for five N95 model filtering facepiece respirators were measured using NaCl aerosols with the aerosol challenge and test equipment employed in the NIOSH respirator certification method (photometric) and compared with an ultrafine condensation particle counter method (count based) for the same NaCl aerosols as well as for ambient room air particles. Penetrations using the NIOSH test method were several-fold less than the penetrations obtained by the ultrafine condensation particle counter for NaCl aerosols as well as for room particles indicating that penetration measurement based on particle counting offers a more difficult challenge than the photometric method, which lacks sensitivity for particles photometric method may not be a more challenging aerosol test method. Filter penetrations can vary among workplaces with different particle size distributions, which suggests the need for the development of new or revised "more challenging" aerosol test methods for NIOSH certification of respirators.

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Fitness Testing in U.S. Schools--2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Fulton, Janet E.; Brener, Nancy D.; Kohl, Harold W., III

    2008-01-01

    Because of the perceived lack of youth physical fitness and/or concerns for increased obesity, physical education teachers are interested in youth fitness and physical activity levels. Statewide mandates are being developed that require school-based teachers to complete physical fitness testing. Data from the nationally representative School…

  7. Goodness-of-fit tests for a heavy tailed distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Koning (Alex); L. Peng (Liang)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractFor testing whether a distribution function is heavy tailed, we study the Kolmogorov test, Berk-Jones test, score test and their integrated versions. A comparison is conducted via Bahadur efficiency and simulations. The score test and the integrated score test show the best

  8. Fitness Testing in Physical Education--A Misdirected Effort in Promoting Healthy Lifestyles and Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness testing is commonplace within schools and the physical education (PE) curriculum, with advocates claiming one of the key purposes of testing to be the promotion of healthy lifestyles and physical activity. Despite this, much controversy has surrounded the fitness testing of young people. Purpose: This paper draws on…

  9. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements. 84.163 Section 84.163 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF...

  10. Test-retest reliability of Eurofit Physical Fitness items for children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Hartman, Esther; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of physical fitness items from the European Test of Physical Fitness (Eurofit) for children with visual impairments. A sample of 21 children, ages 6-12 years, that were recruited from a special school for children with visual

  11. Student Motivation Associated with Fitness Testing in the Physical Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Timo Tapio; Sääkslahti, Arja; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Manninen, Mika; Watt, Anthony; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze students' motivation in relation to their participation in fitness testing classes. Participants were 134 Finnish Grade 5 and 8 students. Students completed the contextual motivation and perceived physical competence scales before the fitness testing class and the situational motivation questionnaire…

  12. Unilateral Arm Crank Exercise Test for Assessing Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Individuals with Hemiparetic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oyake, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Oda, Chihiro

    2017-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness assessment with leg cycle exercise testing may be influenced by motor impairments in the paretic lower extremity. Hence, this study examined the usefulness of a unilateral arm crank exercise test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with stroke, including s...

  13. A job-related fitness test for the Dutch police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strating, M; Bakker, R H; Dijkstra, G J; Lemmink, K A P M; Groothoff, J W

    2010-06-01

    The variety of tasks that characterize police work highlights the importance of being in good physical condition. To take a first step at standardizing the administration of a job-related test to assess a person's ability to perform the physical demands of the core tasks of police work. The principal research questions were: are test scores related to gender, age and function and are test scores related to body mass index (BMI) and the number of hours of physical exercise? Data of 6999 police officers, geographically spread over all parts of The Netherlands, who completed a physical competence test over a 1 year period were analysed. Women performed the test significantly more slowly than men. The mean test score was also related to age; the older a person the longer it took to complete the test. A higher BMI was associated with less hours of body exercise a week and a slower test performance, both in women and men. The differences in individual test scores, based on gender and age, have implications for future strategy within the police force. From a viewpoint of 'same job, same standard' one has to accept that test-score differences may lead to the exclusion of certain staff. However, from a viewpoint of 'diversity as a business issue', one may have to accept that on average, both female and older police officers are physically less tailored to their jobs than their male and younger colleagues.

  14. Maximal cardiorespiratory fitness testing in individuals with chronic stroke with cognitive impairment: practice test effects and test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Charles; Doré, Jean; Blanchet, Sophie; Brooks, Dina; Richards, Carol L; Martel, Guy; Robitaille, Nancy-Michelle; Maltais, Désirée B

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate, for individuals with chronic stroke with cognitive impairment, (1) the effects of a practice test on peak cardiorespiratory fitness test results; (2) cardiorespiratory fitness test-retest reliability; and (3) the relationship between individual practice test effects and cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional. Rehabilitation center. A convenience sample of 21 persons (men [n=12] and women [n=9]; age range, 48-81y; 44.9±36.2mo poststroke) with cognitive impairments who had sufficient lower limb function to perform the test. Not applicable. Peak oxygen consumption (Vo(2)peak, ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Test-retest reliability of Vo(2)peak was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient model 2,1 [ICC2,1]=.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], .86-.98). A paired t test showed that there was no significant difference for the group for Vo(2)peak obtained from 2 symptom-limited cardiorespiratory fitness tests performed 1 week apart on a semirecumbent cycle ergometer (test 2-test 1 difference, -.32ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); 95% CI, -.69 to 1.33ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); P=.512). Individual test-retest differences in Vo(2)peak were, however, positively related to general cognitive function as measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (ρ=.485; Preliably measured in this group without a practice test. General cognitive function, however, may influence the effect of a practice test in that those with lower general cognitive function appear to respond differently to a practice test than those with higher cognitive function. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nanoparticle filtration performance of NIOSH-certified particulate air-purifying filtering facepiece respirators: evaluation by light scattering photometric and particle number-based test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, Samy; Eimer, Benjamin C

    2012-01-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) certification test methods employ charge neutralized NaCl or dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosols to measure filter penetration levels of air-purifying particulate respirators photometrically using a TSI 8130 automated filter tester at 85 L/min. A previous study in our laboratory found that widely different filter penetration levels were measured for nanoparticles depending on whether a particle number (count)-based detector or a photometric detector was used. The purpose of this study was to better understand the influence of key test parameters, including filter media type, challenge aerosol size range, and detector system. Initial penetration levels for 17 models of NIOSH-approved N-, R-, and P-series filtering facepiece respirators were measured using the TSI 8130 photometric method and compared with the particle number-based penetration (obtained using two ultrafine condensation particle counters) for the same challenge aerosols generated by the TSI 8130. In general, the penetration obtained by the photometric method was less than the penetration obtained with the number-based method. Filter penetration was also measured for ambient room aerosols. Penetration measured by the TSI 8130 photometric method was lower than the number-based ambient aerosol penetration values. Number-based monodisperse NaCl aerosol penetration measurements showed that the most penetrating particle size was in the 50 nm range for all respirator models tested, with the exception of one model at ~200 nm size. Respirator models containing electrostatic filter media also showed lower penetration values with the TSI 8130 photometric method than the number-based penetration obtained for the most penetrating monodisperse particles. Results suggest that to provide a more challenging respirator filter test method than what is currently used for respirators containing electrostatic media, the test method should utilize a sufficient number

  16. Two-dimensional goodness-of-fit testing in astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, J.A

    1983-01-01

    This paper deals with the techniques available to test for consistency between the empirical distribution of data points on a plane and a hypothetical density law. Two new statistical tests are developed. The first is a two-dimensional version of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, for which the distribution of the test statistic is investigated using a Monte Carlo method. This test is found in practice to be very nearly distribution-free, and empirical formulae for the confidence levels are given. Secondly, the method of power-spectrum analysis is extended to deal with cases in which the null hypothesis is not a uniform distribution. These methods are illustrated by application to the distribution of quasar candidates found on an objective-prism plate of the Virgo Cluster. (author)

  17. Bootstrap Power of Time Series Goodness of fit tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Chand

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we looked at power of various versions of Box and Pierce statistic and Cramer von Mises test. An extensive simulation study has been conducted to compare the power of these tests. Algorithms have been provided for the power calculations and comparison has also been made between the semi parametric bootstrap methods used for time series. Results show that Box-Pierce statistic and its various versions have good power against linear time series models but poor power against non linear models while situation reverses for Cramer von Mises test. Moreover, we found that dynamic bootstrap method is better than xed design bootstrap method.

  18. Goodness-of-fit tests in mixed models

    KAUST Repository

    Claeskens, Gerda

    2009-05-12

    Mixed models, with both random and fixed effects, are most often estimated on the assumption that the random effects are normally distributed. In this paper we propose several formal tests of the hypothesis that the random effects and/or errors are normally distributed. Most of the proposed methods can be extended to generalized linear models where tests for non-normal distributions are of interest. Our tests are nonparametric in the sense that they are designed to detect virtually any alternative to normality. In case of rejection of the null hypothesis, the nonparametric estimation method that is used to construct a test provides an estimator of the alternative distribution. © 2009 Sociedad de Estadística e Investigación Operativa.

  19. Establishing placement test fit and performance: Serving local needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerriet Janssens

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Accountability in language education is often associated with top-down national policies unresponsive—or even hostile to—local needs; however, when accountability is driven by local stakeholders seeking to better understand and enhance their programs, it can foster productive cycles of action research and curriculum development. This paper reports on one such internally-motivated accountability effort, in which program insiders sought to determine the efficacy of a reading test being administered to a new population of students at one Colombian university. Descriptive statistics, reliability estimates, and item facility and discrimination measures were used to determine whether this test was sufficiently reliable and appropriately matched to test takers’ ability in order to warrant its use as part of a high-stakes English-language placement exam. A detailed analysis of this test is used not only to propose specific recommendations for revision but also to illustrate a useful set of statistical tools appropriate for test analysis in other language programs. Moreover, we conclude that the involvement of local instructors as part of an iterative, self-reflective, test development process provides opportunities for professional development and deeper engagement in accountability projects.

  20. Finite impulse testing (FIT) system for Emergency Cooling System (ECS) in Dhruva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punekar, Parag; Ramkumar, N.; Kulkarni, U.S.; Darbhea, M.D.; Bharadhwaj, G; Jangra, L.R.; Geetha, Patil; Das, Shantanu; Sonnis, S.T.; Trevedi, P.; Patil, M.B.; Biswas, B.B.

    2006-01-01

    Finite Impulse Testing (FIT) system for Emergency Cooling System (ECS) is used to check healthiness of ECS logic circuits in an online mode. The ECS is an important safety system that ensures the cooling of reactor core during shutdown state of Main Coolant Pumps (MCPs), and hence FIT-ECS that monitors the health of ECS logic circuits in an online (real time) mode is an important part of it. Based on a Safety Related Unusual Occurrence in ECS system due to the malfunction of its earlier single channel FIT system, the new FIT-ECS system has been designed with new features and is commissioned. The FIT-ECS system feeds the simulated input signals (fine impulses of nominal width 575 μS) to the ECS logic circuits and read the outputs. These output (predicted) signals from ECS logic circuit are processed in the FIT-ECS system and in event of any discrepancy, the FIT-ECS system displays fault signature on local panel, detailed information of the fault on Operator Console (OC), and generates an alarm 'ECS logic Fail' in the control room. FIT-ECS also monitors the inputs and outputs of ECS logic circuit. All the information required is stored as a database that can be subsequently displayed in various formats. ECS system is designated as Category I-A system and is a hardwired system and FIT-ECS monitors the healthiness of the logics of the ECS System is a computerized system. As per IEC 1226, FIT-ECS is categorized as Category I-B system. This paper provides technical information on FIT-ECS system design, its important features, the testing carried on the FIT-ECS system, interconnections of FIT-ECS and ECS and the commissioning experience of FIT-ECS system. (author)

  1. 42 CFR 84.1147 - Silica mist test for dust, fume, and mist respirators; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be ground to pass 99+ percent through a 270-mesh sieve. (e) Samples of the test suspension will be taken during each test period for analysis. (f) The total amount of silica mist unretained in the...

  2. A job-related fitness test for the Dutch police

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strating, M.; Bakker, R. H.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.; Groothoff, J. W.

    Background The variety of tasks that characterize police work highlights the importance of being in good physical condition. Aims To take a first step at standardizing the administration of a job-related test to assess a person's ability to perform the physical demands of the core tasks of police

  3. Goodness-of-fit tests in mixed models

    KAUST Repository

    Claeskens, Gerda; Hart, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    Mixed models, with both random and fixed effects, are most often estimated on the assumption that the random effects are normally distributed. In this paper we propose several formal tests of the hypothesis that the random effects and/or errors

  4. Hearing protector fit testing with off-shore oil-rig inspectors in Louisiana and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William J; Themann, Christa L; Murata, Taichi K

    2016-11-01

    This field study aimed to assess the noise reduction of hearing protection for individual workers, demonstrate the effectiveness of training on the level of protection achieved, and measure the time required to implement hearing protector fit testing in the workplace. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted field studies in Louisiana and Texas to test the performance of HPD Well-Fit. Fit tests were performed on 126 inspectors and engineers working in the offshore oil industry. Workers were fit tested with the goal of achieving a 25-dB PAR. Less than half of the workers were achieving sufficient protection from their hearing protectors prior to NIOSH intervention and training; following re-fitting and re-training, over 85% of the workers achieved sufficient protection. Typical test times were 6-12 minutes. Fit testing of the workers' earplugs identified those workers who were and were not achieving the desired level of protection. Recommendations for other hearing protection solutions were made for workers who could not achieve the target PAR. The study demonstrates the need for individual hearing protector fit testing and addresses some of the barriers to implementation.

  5. A simple non-parametric goodness-of-fit test for elliptical copulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaser Miriam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a simple non-parametric goodness-of-fit test for elliptical copulas of any dimension. It is based on the equality of Kendall’s tau and Blomqvist’s beta for all bivariate margins. Nominal level and power of the proposed test are investigated in a Monte Carlo study. An empirical application illustrates our goodness-of-fit test at work.

  6. Development of 1-Mile Walk Tests to Estimate Aerobic Fitness in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hoyong; Collier, David N.; DuBose, Katrina D.; Kemble, C. David; Mahar, Matthew T.

    2018-01-01

    To examine the reliability and validity of 1-mile walk tests for estimation of aerobic fitness (VO[subscript 2max]) in 10- to 13-year-old children and to cross-validate previously published equations. Participants (n = 61) walked 1-mile on two different days. Self-reported physical activity, demographic variables, and aerobic fitness were used in…

  7. Study on driver training, testing and medical fitness.

    OpenAIRE

    Helman, S. Vlakveld, W. Fildes, B. Oxley, J. Fernández-Medina, K. & Weekley, J.

    2017-01-01

    The information and views set out in this study are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official opinion of the Commission. The Commission does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this study. Neither the Commission nor any person acting on the Commission’s behalf may be held responsible for the use which may be made of the information contained therein. Improving the education and training of road users in Europe through a range of training, testing and lice...

  8. Fit for high altitude: are hypoxic challenge tests useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthys Heinrich

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Altitude travel results in acute variations of barometric pressure, which induce different degrees of hypoxia, changing the gas contents in body tissues and cavities. Non ventilated air containing cavities may induce barotraumas of the lung (pneumothorax, sinuses and middle ear, with pain, vertigo and hearing loss. Commercial air planes keep their cabin pressure at an equivalent altitude of about 2,500 m. This leads to an increased respiratory drive which may also result in symptoms of emotional hyperventilation. In patients with preexisting respiratory pathology due to lung, cardiovascular, pleural, thoracic neuromuscular or obesity-related diseases (i.e. obstructive sleep apnea an additional hypoxic stress may induce respiratory pump and/or heart failure. Clinical pre-altitude assessment must be disease-specific and it includes spirometry, pulsoximetry, ECG, pulmonary and systemic hypertension assessment. In patients with abnormal values we need, in addition, measurements of hemoglobin, pH, base excess, PaO2, and PaCO2 to evaluate whether O2- and CO2-transport is sufficient. Instead of the hypoxia altitude simulation test (HAST, which is not without danger for patients with respiratory insufficiency, we prefer primarily a hyperoxic challenge. The supplementation of normobaric O2 gives us information on the acute reversibility of the arterial hypoxemia and the reduction of ventilation and pulmonary hypertension, as well as about the efficiency of the additional O2-flow needed during altitude exposure. For difficult judgements the performance of the test in a hypobaric chamber with and without supplemental O2-breathing remains the gold standard. The increasing numbers of drugs to treat acute pulmonary hypertension due to altitude exposure (acetazolamide, dexamethasone, nifedipine, sildenafil or to other etiologies (anticoagulants, prostanoids, phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists including mechanical aids to

  9. Fit for high altitude: are hypoxic challenge tests useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Heinrich

    2011-02-28

    Altitude travel results in acute variations of barometric pressure, which induce different degrees of hypoxia, changing the gas contents in body tissues and cavities. Non ventilated air containing cavities may induce barotraumas of the lung (pneumothorax), sinuses and middle ear, with pain, vertigo and hearing loss. Commercial air planes keep their cabin pressure at an equivalent altitude of about 2,500 m. This leads to an increased respiratory drive which may also result in symptoms of emotional hyperventilation. In patients with preexisting respiratory pathology due to lung, cardiovascular, pleural, thoracic neuromuscular or obesity-related diseases (i.e. obstructive sleep apnea) an additional hypoxic stress may induce respiratory pump and/or heart failure. Clinical pre-altitude assessment must be disease-specific and it includes spirometry, pulsoximetry, ECG, pulmonary and systemic hypertension assessment. In patients with abnormal values we need, in addition, measurements of hemoglobin, pH, base excess, PaO2, and PaCO2 to evaluate whether O2- and CO2-transport is sufficient.Instead of the hypoxia altitude simulation test (HAST), which is not without danger for patients with respiratory insufficiency, we prefer primarily a hyperoxic challenge. The supplementation of normobaric O2 gives us information on the acute reversibility of the arterial hypoxemia and the reduction of ventilation and pulmonary hypertension, as well as about the efficiency of the additional O2-flow needed during altitude exposure. For difficult judgements the performance of the test in a hypobaric chamber with and without supplemental O2-breathing remains the gold standard. The increasing numbers of drugs to treat acute pulmonary hypertension due to altitude exposure (acetazolamide, dexamethasone, nifedipine, sildenafil) or to other etiologies (anticoagulants, prostanoids, phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists) including mechanical aids to reduce periodical or

  10. Respirator Filter Efficiency Testing Against Particulate and Biological Aerosols Under Moderate to High Flow Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    flow rate through the test filter. The flow rate was measured using a mass flow meter (Series 4000, TSI, Shoreview, MN). Several modifications were made...operating conditions. This included assessing the effect of non- isokinetic sampling, flow calibrations, and characterization of the challenge...sampling bias on the measured penetrations due to the non- isokinetic sampling downstream. 3.3.2.2 System Characterization. Shakedown tests were

  11. The 6-min push test is reliable and predicts low fitness in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Rachel E; Callahan, Morgan K; Nash, Mark S

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study is to assess 6-min push test (6MPT) reliability, determine whether the 6MPT is sensitive to fitness differences, and assess if 6MPT distance predicts fitness level in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) or disease. Forty individuals with SCI who could self-propel a manual wheelchair completed an incremental arm crank peak oxygen consumption assessment and two 6MPTs across 3 d (37% tetraplegia (TP), 63% paraplegia (PP), 85% men, 70% white, 63% Hispanic, mean age = 34 ± 10 yr, mean duration of injury = 13 ± 10 yr, and mean body mass index = 24 ± 5 kg.m). Intraclass correlation and Bland-Altman plots assessed 6MPT distance (m) reliability. Mann-Whitney U test compared 6MPT distance (m) of high and low fitness groups for TP and PP. The fitness status prediction was developed using N = 30 and validated in N = 10 (validation group (VG)). A nonstatistical prediction approach, below or above a threshold distance (TP = 445 m and PP = 604 m), was validated statistically by binomial logistic regression. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were computed to evaluate the threshold approach. Intraclass correlation coefficients exceeded 0.90 for the whole sample and the TP/PP subsets. High fitness persons propelled farther than low fitness persons for both TP/PP (both P < 0.05). Binomial logistic regression (P < 0.008) predicted the same fitness levels in the VG as the threshold approach. In the VG, overall accuracy was 70%. Eighty-six percent of low fitness persons were correctly identified (sensitivity), and 33% of high fitness persons were correctly identified (specificity). The 6MPT may be a useful tool for SCI clinicians and researchers. 6MPT distance demonstrates excellent reliability and is sensitive to differences in fitness level. 6MPT distances less than a threshold distance may be an effective approach to identify low fitness in person with SCI.

  12. Development and design of a late-model fitness test instrument based on LabView

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying; Wu, Feiqing

    2010-12-01

    Undergraduates are pioneers of China's modernization program and undertake the historic mission of rejuvenating our nation in the 21st century, whose physical fitness is vital. A smart fitness test system can well help them understand their fitness and health conditions, thus they can choose more suitable approaches and make practical plans for exercising according to their own situation. following the future trends, a Late-model fitness test Instrument based on LabView has been designed to remedy defects of today's instruments. The system hardware consists of fives types of sensors with their peripheral circuits, an acquisition card of NI USB-6251 and a computer, while the system software, on the basis of LabView, includes modules of user register, data acquisition, data process and display, and data storage. The system, featured by modularization and an open structure, is able to be revised according to actual needs. Tests results have verified the system's stability and reliability.

  13. Design and interpretation of anthropometric and fitness testing of basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, Eric J; Pyne, David B; McKenna, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    The volume of literature on fitness testing in court sports such as basketball is considerably less than for field sports or individual sports such as running and cycling. Team sport performance is dependent upon a diverse range of qualities including size, fitness, sport-specific skills, team tactics, and psychological attributes. The game of basketball has evolved to have a high priority on body size and physical fitness by coaches and players. A player's size has a large influence on the position in the team, while the high-intensity, intermittent nature of the physical demands requires players to have a high level of fitness. Basketball coaches and sport scientists often use a battery of sport-specific physical tests to evaluate body size and composition, and aerobic fitness and power. This testing may be used to track changes within athletes over time to evaluate the effectiveness of training programmes or screen players for selection. Sports science research is establishing typical (or 'reference') values for both within-athlete changes and between-athlete differences. Newer statistical approaches such as magnitude-based inferences have emerged that are providing more meaningful interpretation of fitness testing results in the field for coaches and athletes. Careful selection and implementation of tests, and more pertinent interpretation of data, will enhance the value of fitness testing in high-level basketball programmes. This article presents reference values of fitness and body size in basketball players, and identifies practical methods of interpreting changes within players and differences between players beyond the null-hypothesis.

  14. Push-off tests and strength evaluation of joints combining shrink fitting with bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneno, Masahiro; Sawa, Toshiyuki; Shimotakahara, Ken; Motegi, Yoichi

    1997-03-01

    Shrink fitted joints have been used in mechanical structures. Recently, joints combining shrink fitting with anaerobic adhesives bonded between the shrink fitted surfaces have been appeared in order to increase the joint strength. In this paper, push-off test was carried out on strength of joints combining shrink fitting with bonding by material testing machine. In addition, the push-off strength of shrink fitting joints without an anaerobic adhesive was also measured. In the experiments, the effects of the shrinking allowance and the outer diameter of the rings on the joint strength are examined. The interface stress distribution in bonded shrink fitted joints subjected to a push-off load is analyzed using axisymmetrical theory of elasticity as a four-body contact problem. Using the interface stress distribution, a method for estimating joint strength is proposed. The experimental results are in a fairly good agreement with the numerical results. It is found that the strength of combination joints is greater than that of shrink fitted joints.

  15. A new fit-for-purpose model testing framework: Decision Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, Bryan; Craig, James

    2016-04-01

    Decision-makers in water resources are often burdened with selecting appropriate multi-million dollar strategies to mitigate the impacts of climate or land use change. Unfortunately, the suitability of existing hydrologic simulation models to accurately inform decision-making is in doubt because the testing procedures used to evaluate model utility (i.e., model validation) are insufficient. For example, many authors have identified that a good standard framework for model testing called the Klemes Crash Tests (KCTs), which are the classic model validation procedures from Klemeš (1986) that Andréassian et al. (2009) rename as KCTs, have yet to become common practice in hydrology. Furthermore, Andréassian et al. (2009) claim that the progression of hydrological science requires widespread use of KCT and the development of new crash tests. Existing simulation (not forecasting) model testing procedures such as KCTs look backwards (checking for consistency between simulations and past observations) rather than forwards (explicitly assessing if the model is likely to support future decisions). We propose a fundamentally different, forward-looking, decision-oriented hydrologic model testing framework based upon the concept of fit-for-purpose model testing that we call Decision Crash Tests or DCTs. Key DCT elements are i) the model purpose (i.e., decision the model is meant to support) must be identified so that model outputs can be mapped to management decisions ii) the framework evaluates not just the selected hydrologic model but the entire suite of model-building decisions associated with model discretization, calibration etc. The framework is constructed to directly and quantitatively evaluate model suitability. The DCT framework is applied to a model building case study on the Grand River in Ontario, Canada. A hypothetical binary decision scenario is analysed (upgrade or not upgrade the existing flood control structure) under two different sets of model building

  16. Goodness-of-fit tests for multi-dimensional copulas: Expanding application to historical drought data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-wei Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of how to choose a copula model that best fits a given dataset is a predominant limitation of the copula approach, and the present study aims to investigate the techniques of goodness-of-fit tests for multi-dimensional copulas. A goodness-of-fit test based on Rosenblatt's transformation was mathematically expanded from two dimensions to three dimensions and procedures of a bootstrap version of the test were provided. Through stochastic copula simulation, an empirical application of historical drought data at the Lintong Gauge Station shows that the goodness-of-fit tests perform well, revealing that both trivariate Gaussian and Student t copulas are acceptable for modeling the dependence structures of the observed drought duration, severity, and peak. The goodness-of-fit tests for multi-dimensional copulas can provide further support and help a lot in the potential applications of a wider range of copulas to describe the associations of correlated hydrological variables. However, for the application of copulas with the number of dimensions larger than three, more complicated computational efforts as well as exploration and parameterization of corresponding copulas are required.

  17. Local and omnibus goodness-of-fit tests in classical measurement error models

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Yanyuan

    2010-09-14

    We consider functional measurement error models, i.e. models where covariates are measured with error and yet no distributional assumptions are made about the mismeasured variable. We propose and study a score-type local test and an orthogonal series-based, omnibus goodness-of-fit test in this context, where no likelihood function is available or calculated-i.e. all the tests are proposed in the semiparametric model framework. We demonstrate that our tests have optimality properties and computational advantages that are similar to those of the classical score tests in the parametric model framework. The test procedures are applicable to several semiparametric extensions of measurement error models, including when the measurement error distribution is estimated non-parametrically as well as for generalized partially linear models. The performance of the local score-type and omnibus goodness-of-fit tests is demonstrated through simulation studies and analysis of a nutrition data set.

  18. Assessment of fitness to drive after acquired brain injury: The role of neuropsychological tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Annette

    It is a well established fact that Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) can affect fitness to drive. Some cognitive functions have been emphasized as particular important when driving e.g. attention, reaction time, visual perception, and executive functioning. Research attempts have been made in order...... to identify a neuropsychological test battery to predict driving ability. However, there is no consensus as to which test such a test battery should consist of. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between some neuropsychological test results and the results of an on-road test.......g. WCST will not predict the driving ability of this group. This illustrates that many things can affect the predictive value a neuropsychological test and the belief that neuropsychological testing on its own cannot predict fitness to drive. As findings in the field of driving assessment of older people...

  19. Respiratory fit testing for farmworkers in the Black Dirt region of Hudson Valley, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle-Richardson, Giulia; Fiske, Todd; Wyckoff, Sherry; Shuford, James; May, John

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory protection in agriculture has lagged behind other industries. Migrant farmworkers often work in dusty environments yet do not receive appropriate, fitted respiratory protection. During May and June of 2013, researchers pilot-tested a respiratory protection program adapted to fit the unique needs of migrant and seasonal farmworkers. It was implemented in Spanish, with literacy support, at convenient times and locations. Additionally, staff was known to workers, and a farmworker medical center provided medical follow-up. Fifty-six farmworkers participated (68%; 82 invited). Of the participants, 88% were male; 20% reported using respiratory protection. One worker had been fit tested previously; 57% reported being exposed to pesticides. All but six farmworkers passed the medical clearance (91%). The mask most commonly fit to the American-born population was a good fit for only 41% of Latino farmworkers. The fact that two thirds of invited farmworkers participated in the clearance and over half completed mask fitting indicates that the modified protocol meets farmworker needs. A wide range of mask types should be made available for Latino farmworkers.

  20. The Meaning of Goodness-of-Fit Tests: Commentary on "Goodness-of-Fit Assessment of Item Response Theory Models"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thissen, David

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, David Thissen states that "Goodness-of-fit assessment for IRT models is maturing; it has come a long way from zero." Thissen then references prior works on "goodness of fit" in the index of Lord and Novick's (1968) classic text; Yen (1984); Drasgow, Levine, Tsien, Williams, and Mead (1995); Chen and…

  1. Reliability of Health-Related Physical Fitness Tests among Colombian Children and Adolescents: The FUPRECOL Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence indicates that youth physical fitness levels are an important marker of lifestyle and cardio-metabolic health profiles and predict future risk of chronic diseases. The reliability physical fitness tests have not been explored in Latino-American youth population. This study's aim was to examine the reliability of health-related physical fitness tests that were used in the Colombian health promotion "Fuprecol study". Participants were 229 Colombian youth (boys n = 124 and girls n = 105 aged 9 to 17.9 years old. Five components of health-related physical fitness were measured: 1 morphological component: height, weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, and body fat (% via impedance; 2 musculoskeletal component: handgrip and standing long jump test; 3 motor component: speed/agility test (4x10 m shuttle run; 4 flexibility component (hamstring and lumbar extensibility, sit-and-reach test; 5 cardiorespiratory component: 20-meter shuttle-run test (SRT to estimate maximal oxygen consumption. The tests were performed two times, 1 week apart on the same day of the week, except for the SRT which was performed only once. Intra-observer technical errors of measurement (TEMs and inter-rater (reliability were assessed in the morphological component. Reliability for the Musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness components was examined using Bland-Altman tests. For the morphological component, TEMs were small and reliability was greater than 95% of all cases. For the musculoskeletal, motor, flexibility and cardiorespiratory components, we found adequate reliability patterns in terms of systematic errors (bias and random error (95% limits of agreement. When the fitness assessments were performed twice, the systematic error was nearly 0 for all tests, except for the sit and reach (mean difference: -1.03% [95% CI = -4.35% to -2.28%]. The results from this study indicate that the

  2. Piecewise Polynomial Fitting with Trend Item Removal and Its Application in a Cab Vibration Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The trend item of a long-term vibration signal is difficult to remove. This paper proposes a piecewise integration method to remove trend items. Examples of direct integration without trend item removal, global integration after piecewise polynomial fitting with trend item removal, and direct integration after piecewise polynomial fitting with trend item removal were simulated. The results showed that direct integration of the fitted piecewise polynomial provided greater acceleration and displacement precision than the other two integration methods. A vibration test was then performed on a special equipment cab. The results indicated that direct integration by piecewise polynomial fitting with trend item removal was highly consistent with the measured signal data. However, the direct integration method without trend item removal resulted in signal distortion. The proposed method can help with frequency domain analysis of vibration signals and modal parameter identification for such equipment.

  3. Fit-for-purpose wastewater treatment: Testing to implementation of decision support tool (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhipi-Shrestha, Gyan; Hewage, Kasun; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-12-31

    This paper is the second in a series of two papers. In Paper I, a decision support tool (DST), FitWater, was developed for evaluating the potential of wastewater treatment (WWT) trains for various water reuse applications. In the present paper, the proposed DST has been tested and implemented. FitWater has been tested with several existing WWT plants in Canada and the USA, demonstrating FitWater's effectiveness in estimating life cycle cost (LCC), health risk, and energy use. FitWater has also been implemented in a newly planned neighbourhood in the Okanagan Valley (BC, Canada) by developing 12 alternative WWT trains for water reuse in lawn and public parks irrigation. The results show that FitWater can effectively rank WWT train alternatives based on LCC, health risk, amount of reclaimed water, energy use, and carbon emissions. Moreover, functions have been developed for the variation of unit annualized LCC and energy intensity per unit log removal of microorganisms in different treatment technologies with varying plant capacities. The functions have power relations, showing the economies of scale. FitWater can be applied to identify a cost-effective, risk-acceptable, and energy efficient wastewater treatment train with a plant capacity of 500m 3 /day or more. Furthermore, FitWater can be used to assess potential economic impacts of developing microbiologically stringent effluent standards. The capability of FitWater can be enhanced by including physio-chemical quality of wastewater, additional treatment technologies, and carbon emissions from wastewater decomposition processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A note on Poisson goodness-of-fit tests for ionizing radiation induced chromosomal aberration samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, Manuel; González, J E; Di Giorgio, Marina; Barquinero, J F

    2018-05-18

    To present Poisson exact goodness-of-fit tests as alternatives and complements to the asymptotic u-test, which is the most widely used in cytogenetic biodosimetry, to decide whether a sample of chromosomal aberrations in blood cells comes from an homogeneous or inhomogeneous exposure. Three Poisson exact goodness-of-fit test from the literature are introduced and implemented in the R environment. A Shiny R Studio application, named GOF Poisson, has been updated for the purpose of giving support to this work. The three exact tests and the u-test are applied in chromosomal aberration data from clinical and accidental radiation exposure patients. It is observed how the u-test is not an appropriate approximation in small samples with small yield of chromosomal aberrations. Tools are provided to compute the three exact tests, which is not as trivial as the implementation of the u-test. Poisson exact goodness-of-fit tests should be considered jointly to the u-test for detecting inhomogeneous exposures in the cytogenetic biodosimetry practice.

  5. Examine the Relationship between Dynamic Balance and Physical Fitness Tests in Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    杉浦, 宏季; Sugiura, Hiroki; 杉本, 寛恵; Sugimoto, Hiroe

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between dynamic balance tests and various physical fitness tests in preschool children. The subjects were 22 preschool children (age, 5.0+0.4years; height, 107.3+5.7cm; weight, 17.9+3.4 kg). Dynamic balance was assessed by walking the length of a balance beam several times (beam height, 30cm; width, 10cm; length, 200cm) and walking a pathway (width, 10cm; length, 200cm). Physical fitness was assessed with activities such as a 25-meter run, continuous bilat...

  6. Different goodness of fit tests for Rayleigh distribution in ranked set sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Al-Omari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, different goodness of fit tests for the Rayleigh distribution are considered based on simple random sampling (SRS and ranked set sampling (RSS techniques. The performance of the suggested estimators is evaluated in terms of the power of the tests by using Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that the suggested RSS tests perform better than their counterparts  in SRS.

  7. Person Fit Based on Statistical Process Control in an Adaptive Testing Environment. Research Report 98-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith M. L. A.; Meijer, Rob R.

    Person-fit research in the context of paper-and-pencil tests is reviewed, and some specific problems regarding person fit in the context of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) are discussed. Some new methods are proposed to investigate person fit in a CAT environment. These statistics are based on Statistical Process Control (SPC) theory. A…

  8. A distinct seasonal pattern of the ratio of soil respiration to total ecosystem respiration in a spruce-dominated forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.A. Davidson; A.D. Richardson; K.E. Savage; D.Y. Hollinger

    2006-01-01

    Annual budgets and fitted temperature response curves for soil respiration and ecosystem respiration provide useful information for partitioning annual carbon budgets of ecosystems, but they may not adequately reveal seasonal variation in the ratios of these two fluxes. Soil respiration (Rs) typically contributes 30-80% of...

  9. Empirical Power Comparison Of Goodness of Fit Tests for Normality In The Presence of Outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saculinggan, Mayette; Balase, Emily Amor

    2013-01-01

    Most statistical tests such as t-tests, linear regression analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) require the normality assumptions. When the normality assumption is violated, interpretation and inferences may not be reliable. Therefore it is important to assess such assumption before using any appropriate statistical test. One of the commonly used procedures in determining whether a random sample of size n comes from a normal population are the goodness-of-fit tests for normality. Several studies have already been conducted on the comparison of the different goodness-of-fit(see, for example [2]) but it is generally limited to the sample size or to the number of GOF tests being compared(see, for example [2] [5] [6] [7] [8]). This paper compares the power of six formal tests of normality: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (see [3]), Anderson-Darling test, Shapiro-Wilk test, Lilliefors test, Chi-Square test (see [1]) and D'Agostino-Pearson test. Small, moderate and large sample sizes and various contamination levels were used to obtain the power of each test via Monte Carlo simulation. Ten thousand samples of each sample size and contamination level at a fixed type I error rate α were generated from the given alternative distribution. The power of each test was then obtained by comparing the normality test statistics with the respective critical values. Results show that the power of all six tests is low for small sample size(see, for example [2]). But for n = 20, the Shapiro-Wilk test and Anderson – Darling test have achieved high power. For n = 60, Shapiro-Wilk test and Liliefors test are most powerful. For large sample size, Shapiro-Wilk test is most powerful (see, for example [5]). However, the test that achieves the highest power under all conditions for large sample size is D'Agostino-Pearson test (see, for example [9]).

  10. Sport-specific fitness testing and intervention for an adolescent with cerebral palsy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lisa K; Sleeper, Mark D; Tovin, Melissa M

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes the development, implementation, and outcomes of a fitness-related intervention program that addressed the sport-specific goals of an adolescent with cerebral palsy. The participant in this case was a 16-year-old African American male with spastic diplegia. The participant joined his high school wrestling team and asked to focus his physical therapy on interventions that would improve his wrestling performance. An examination was performed using the muscle power sprint test, the 10 x 5-m sprint test, strength tests, the 10-m shuttle run test, and the Gross Motor Function Measure. The intervention consisted of interval training, which focused on the demands of wrestling. Scores on all tests and measures were higher after the intervention. The outcomes of this case report seem to support the use of a fitness-related intervention program for addressing the sport-specific goals of an adolescent with cerebral palsy.

  11. A goodness-of-fit test for occupancy models with correlated within-season revisits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Wilson; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Occupancy modeling is important for exploring species distribution patterns and for conservation monitoring. Within this framework, explicit attention is given to species detection probabilities estimated from replicate surveys to sample units. A central assumption is that replicate surveys are independent Bernoulli trials, but this assumption becomes untenable when ecologists serially deploy remote cameras and acoustic recording devices over days and weeks to survey rare and elusive animals. Proposed solutions involve modifying the detection-level component of the model (e.g., first-order Markov covariate). Evaluating whether a model sufficiently accounts for correlation is imperative, but clear guidance for practitioners is lacking. Currently, an omnibus goodnessof- fit test using a chi-square discrepancy measure on unique detection histories is available for occupancy models (MacKenzie and Bailey, Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, 9, 2004, 300; hereafter, MacKenzie– Bailey test). We propose a join count summary measure adapted from spatial statistics to directly assess correlation after fitting a model. We motivate our work with a dataset of multinight bat call recordings from a pilot study for the North American Bat Monitoring Program. We found in simulations that our join count test was more reliable than the MacKenzie–Bailey test for detecting inadequacy of a model that assumed independence, particularly when serial correlation was low to moderate. A model that included a Markov-structured detection-level covariate produced unbiased occupancy estimates except in the presence of strong serial correlation and a revisit design consisting only of temporal replicates. When applied to two common bat species, our approach illustrates that sophisticated models do not guarantee adequate fit to real data, underscoring the importance of model assessment. Our join count test provides a widely applicable goodness-of-fit test and

  12. Acceptable respiratory protection program and LASL respirator research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    A short history is presented on the LASL Respiratory Protection Training Programs. Then a discussion is given on the major points of an acceptable respiratory protection program utilizing the points required by the Occupational, Safety, and Health Administration (OSHA) Regulation 29 CFR 1910.134. Contributions to respirator research are reviewed. Discussion is presented under the following section headings: program administration; respirator selection; respirator use; fitting and training; respirator maintenance; medical clearance and surveillance; special problems; program evaluation; and documentation

  13. Validation of an Instrument to Measure High School Students' Attitudes toward Fitness Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Kevin; Silverman, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to develop an instrument that has scores that are valid and reliable for measuring students' attitudes toward fitness testing. Method: The method involved the following steps: (a) an elicitation study, (b) item development, (c) a pilot study, and (d) a validation study. The pilot study included 427…

  14. Reliability of fitness tests using methods and time periods common in sport and occupational management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnstein, Bryan D; Steele, Russell J; Shrier, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Fitness testing is used frequently in many areas of physical activity, but the reliability of these measurements under real-world, practical conditions is unknown. To evaluate the reliability of specific fitness tests using the methods and time periods used in the context of real-world sport and occupational management. Cohort study. Eighteen different Cirque du Soleil shows. Cirque du Soleil physical performers who completed 4 consecutive tests (6-month intervals) and were free of injury or illness at each session (n = 238 of 701 physical performers). Performers completed 6 fitness tests on each assessment date: dynamic balance, Harvard step test, handgrip, vertical jump, pull-ups, and 60-second jump test. We calculated the intraclass coefficient (ICC) and limits of agreement between baseline and each time point and the ICC over all 4 time points combined. Reliability was acceptable (ICC > 0.6) over an 18-month time period for all pairwise comparisons and all time points together for the handgrip, vertical jump, and pull-up assessments. The Harvard step test and 60-second jump test had poor reliability (ICC < 0.6) between baseline and other time points. When we excluded the baseline data and calculated the ICC for 6-month, 12-month, and 18-month time points, both the Harvard step test and 60-second jump test demonstrated acceptable reliability. Dynamic balance was unreliable in all contexts. Limit-of-agreement analysis demonstrated considerable intraindividual variability for some tests and a learning effect by administrators on others. Five of the 6 tests in this battery had acceptable reliability over an 18-month time frame, but the values for certain individuals may vary considerably from time to time for some tests. Specific tests may require a learning period for administrators.

  15. Unilateral Arm Crank Exercise Test for Assessing Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Individuals with Hemiparetic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuaki Oyake

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory fitness assessment with leg cycle exercise testing may be influenced by motor impairments in the paretic lower extremity. Hence, this study examined the usefulness of a unilateral arm crank exercise test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with stroke, including sixteen individuals with hemiparetic stroke (mean ± SD age, 56.4±7.5 years and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Participants performed the unilateral arm crank and leg cycle exercise tests to measure oxygen consumption (V˙O2 and heart rate at peak exercise. The V˙O2 at peak exercise during the unilateral arm crank exercise test was significantly lower in the stroke group than in the control group (p<0.001. In the stroke group, the heart rate at peak exercise during the unilateral arm crank exercise test did not significantly correlate with the Brunnstrom recovery stages of the lower extremity (p=0.137, whereas there was a significant correlation during the leg cycle exercise test (rho = 0.775, p<0.001. The unilateral arm crank exercise test can detect the deterioration of cardiorespiratory fitness independently of lower extremity motor impairment severity in individuals with hemiparetic stroke. This study is registered with UMIN000014733.

  16. Youth fitness testing: the effect of percentile-based evaluative feedback on intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, J R; Corbin, C B

    1991-06-01

    This study was a test of Deci and Ryan's (1985) cognitive evaluation theory in a fitness testing situation. More specifically, it was a test of Proposition 2 of that theory, which posits that external events that increase or decrease perceived competence will increase or decrease intrinsic motivation. Seventh and eighth grade schoolchildren (N = 105) volunteered for an experiment that was ostensibly to collect data on a new youth fitness test (the Illinois Agility Run). After two untimed practice runs, a specially adapted version of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) was administered as a pretest of intrinsic motivation. Two weeks later when subjects ran again, they were apparently electronically timed. In reality, the subjects were given bogus feedback. Subjects in a positive feedback condition were told their scores were above the 80th percentile, while those in a negative feedback condition were told their scores were below the 20th percentile. Those in a control condition received no feedback. The IMI was again administered to the subjects after their runs. Multivariate and subsequent univariate tests were significant for all four subscale dependent variables (perceived interest-enjoyment, competence, effort, and pressure-tension). Positive feedback enhanced all aspects of intrinsic motivation, whereas negative feedback decreased them. In a further test of cognitive evaluation theory, path analysis results supported the prediction that perceived competence would mediate changes in the other IMI subscales. Taken together, these results clearly support cognitive evaluation theory and also may have important implications regarding motivation for those who administer youth fitness tests.

  17. GOODNESS-OF-FIT TEST FOR THE ACCELERATED FAILURE TIME MODEL BASED ON MARTINGALE RESIDUALS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2013), s. 40-59 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06047 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) SVV 261315/2011 Keywords : accelerated failure time model * survival analysis * goodness-of-fit Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.563, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/SI/novak-goodness-of-fit test for the aft model based on martingale residuals.pdf

  18. Validity of a Newly-Designed Rectilinear Stepping Ergometer Submaximal Exercise Test to Assess Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin Zhang, Likui Zhan, Shaoming Sun, Wei Peng, Yining Sun

    2017-01-01

    The maximum oxygen uptake (V̇O2 max), determined from graded maximal or submaximal exercise tests, is used to classify the cardiorespiratory fitness level of individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the YMCA submaximal exercise test protocol performed on a newly-designed rectilinear stepping ergometer (RSE) that used up and down reciprocating vertical motion in place of conventional circular motion and giving precise measurement of workload, to det...

  19. Fitness testing as a discriminative tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, V A; Carbonell-Baeza, A; Ruiz, J R; Aranda, P; Tercedor, P; Delgado-Fernández, M; Ortega, F B

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to determine the ability of a set of physical fitness tests to discriminate between presence/absence of fibromyalgia (FM) and moderate/severe FM. The sample comprised 94 female FM patients (52 ± 8 years) and 66 healthy women (54 ± 6 years). We assessed physical fitness by means of the 30-s chair stand, handgrip strength, chair sit and reach, back scratch, blind flamingo, 8-feet up and go, and 6-min walking tests. Patients were classified as having moderate FM if the score in the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) was FIQ was ≥70. FM patients and patients with severe FM performed worse in most of the fitness tests studied (P < 0.001). Except the back scratch test, all the tests were able to discriminate between presence and absence of FM [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.66 to 0.92; P ≤ 0.001], and four tests also discriminated FM severity (AUC = 0.62 to 0.66; P ≤ 0.05). The 30-s chair stand test showed the highest ability to discriminate FM presence and severity (AUC = 0.92, P < 0.001; and AUC = 0.66, P = 0.008, respectively), being the corresponding discriminating cutoffs 9 and 6 repetitions, respectively. Physical fitness in general, and particularly the 30-s chair stand test, is able to discriminate between women with FM from those without FM, as well as between those with moderate FM from their peers with severe FM. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Physiological testing of basketball players: toward a standard evaluation of anaerobic fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delextrat, Anne; Cohen, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the changes in the rules of the game instituted in 2000 have modified the physiological factors of success in basketball. The performances of 8 elite male players and 8 average-level players were compared in order to identify which components of fitness among agility, speed, anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, and upper body strength were key determinants of performance in modern basketball. Each subject performed 7 tests, including vertical jump (VJ), 20-m sprint, agility T test, suicide sprint, 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), isokinetic testing of the knee extensors, and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press test. The statistical difference in the anaerobic performances was assessed by Student's t test. The main results showed that, compared to average-level players, elite-level players achieved significantly better performances in the agility T test (+6.2%), VJ test (+8.8%), peak torques developed by knee extensors (+20.2%), and 1RM bench press (+18.6%, p 0.05). These results emphasized the importance of anaerobic power in modern basketball, whereas anaerobic capacity does not seem to be a key aspect to consider. In this context, coaches are advised to avoid using exercises lasting >/=30 seconds in their physical fitness programs, but instead to focus on short and intense tests such as VJ, agility T test, and sprints over very short distances (5 or 10 m).

  1. Reliability, validity and usefulness of 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test in Female Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedim Čović

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the reliability, validity and usefulness of the 30-15IFT in competitive female soccer players. METHODS: Seventeen elite female soccer players participated in the study. A within subject test-retest study design was utilized to assess the reliability of the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (IFT. Seven days prior to 30-15IFT, subjects performed a continuous aerobic running test (CT under laboratory conditions to assess the criterion validity of the 30-15IFT. End running velocity (VCT and VIFT, peak heart rate (HRpeak and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max were collected and/or estimated for both tests. RESULTS: VIFT (ICC = 0.91; CV = 1.8%, HRpeak (ICC = 0.94; CV = 1.2%, and VO2max (ICC = 0.94; CV = 1.6% obtained from the 30-15IFT were all deemed highly reliable (p>0.05. Pearson product moment correlations between the CT and 30-15IFT for VO2max, HRpeak and end running velocity were large (r = 0.67, p=0.013, very large (r = 0.77, p=0.02 and large (r = 0.57, p=0.042, respectively. CONCLUSION: Current findings suggest that the 30 -15IFT is a valid and reliable intermittent aerobic fitness test of elite female soccer players. The findings have also provided practitioners with evidence to support the accurate detection of meaningful individual changes in VIFT of 0.5 km/h (1 stage and HRpeak of 2 bpm. This information may assist coaches in monitoring ‘real’ aerobic fitness changes to better inform training of female intermittent team sport athletes. Lastly, coaches could use the 30-15IFT as a practical alternative to laboratory based assessments to assess and monitor intermittent aerobic fitness changes in their athletes. Keywords: 30-15 intermittent fitness test, aerobic, cardiorespiratory fitness, intermittent activity, soccer, high intensity interval training.

  2. Detection of colorectal serrated polyps by stool DNA testing: comparison with fecal immunochemical testing for occult blood (FIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell I Heigh

    Full Text Available Precursors to 1/3 of colorectal cancer (CRC, serrated polyps have been under-detected by screening due to their inconspicuous, non-hemorrhagic, and proximal nature. A new multi-target stool DNA test (multi-target sDNA shows high sensitivity for both CRC and advanced adenomas. Screen detection of serrated polyps by this approach requires further validation. We sought to assess and compare noninvasive detection of sessile serrated polyps (SSP ≥ 1 cm by sDNA and an occult blood fecal immunochemical test (FIT.In a blinded prospective study, a single stool sample used for both tests was collected from 456 asymptomatic adults prior to screening or surveillance colonoscopy (criterion standard. All 29 patients with SSP ≥ 1 cm were included as cases and all 232 with no neoplastic findings as controls. Buffered stool samples were processed and frozen on receipt; Exact Sciences performed sDNA in batches using optimized analytical methods. The sDNA multi-marker panel targets methylated BMP3 (mBMP3 and NDRG4, mutant KRAS, β-actin, and hemoglobin. FIT (Polymedco OC-FIT Check was performed in separate lab ≤ 2 days post defecation and evaluated at cutoffs of 50 (FIT-50 and 100 ng/ml (FIT-100.MEDIAN AGES: cases 61 (range 57-77, controls 62 (52-70, p = NS. Women comprised 59% and 51%, p = NS, respectively. SSP median size was 1.2 cm (1-3 cm, 93% were proximal, and 64% had synchronous diminutive polyps. Among multi-target sDNA markers, mBMP3 proved highly discriminant for detection of SSP ≥ 1 cm (AUC = 0.87, p<0.00001; other DNA markers provided no incremental sensitivity. Hemoglobin alone showed no discrimination (AUC = 0.50, p = NS. At matched specificities, detection of SSP ≥ 1 cm by stool mBMP3 was significantly greater than by FIT-50 (66% vs 10%, p = 0.0003 or FIT-100 (63% vs 0%, p<0.0001.In a screening and surveillance setting, SSP ≥ 1 cm can be detected noninvasively by stool assay of exfoliated DNA markers, especially mBMP3. FIT appears to

  3. Exploiting the information content of hydrological ''outliers'' for goodness-of-fit testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Laio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Validation of probabilistic models based on goodness-of-fit tests is an essential step for the frequency analysis of extreme events. The outcome of standard testing techniques, however, is mainly determined by the behavior of the hypothetical model, FX(x, in the central part of the distribution, while the behavior in the tails of the distribution, which is indeed very relevant in hydrological applications, is relatively unimportant for the results of the tests. The maximum-value test, originally proposed as a technique for outlier detection, is a suitable, but seldom applied, technique that addresses this problem. The test is specifically targeted to verify if the maximum (or minimum values in the sample are consistent with the hypothesis that the distribution FX(x is the real parent distribution. The application of this test is hindered by the fact that the critical values for the test should be numerically obtained when the parameters of FX(x are estimated on the same sample used for verification, which is the standard situation in hydrological applications. We propose here a simple, analytically explicit, technique to suitably account for this effect, based on the application of censored L-moments estimators of the parameters. We demonstrate, with an application that uses artificially generated samples, the superiority of this modified maximum-value test with respect to the standard version of the test. We also show that the test has comparable or larger power with respect to other goodness-of-fit tests (e.g., chi-squared test, Anderson-Darling test, Fung and Paul test, in particular when dealing with small samples (sample size lower than 20–25 and when the parent distribution is similar to the distribution being tested.

  4. On the optimal number of classes in the Pearson goodness-of-fit tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morales, D.; Pardo, L.; Vajda, Igor

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 6 (2005), s. 677-698 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1075403 Grant - others:BFM(ES) 2003-00892; GV(ES) 04B-670 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : pearson-type goodness -of- fit test s * asymptotic local test power * asymptotic equivalence of test s * optimal number of classes Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.343, year: 2005

  5. Reference Curves for Field Tests of Musculoskeletal Fitness in U.S. Children and Adolescents: The 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurson, Kelly R; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2017-08-01

    Laurson, KR, Saint-Maurice, PF, Welk, GJ, and Eisenmann, JC. Reference curves for field tests of musculoskeletal fitness in U.S. children and adolescents: The 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2075-2082, 2017-The purpose of the study was to describe current levels of musculoskeletal fitness (MSF) in U.S. youth by creating nationally representative age-specific and sex-specific growth curves for handgrip strength (including relative and allometrically scaled handgrip), modified pull-ups, and the plank test. Participants in the National Youth Fitness Survey (n = 1,453) were tested on MSF, aerobic capacity (via submaximal treadmill test), and body composition (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, and skinfolds). Using LMS regression, age-specific and sex-specific smoothed percentile curves of MSF were created and existing percentiles were used to assign age-specific and sex-specific z-scores for aerobic capacity and body composition. Correlation matrices were created to assess the relationships between z-scores on MSF, aerobic capacity, and body composition. At younger ages (3-10 years), boys scored higher than girls for handgrip strength and modified pull-ups, but not for the plank. By ages 13-15, differences between the boys and girls curves were more pronounced, with boys scoring higher on all tests. Correlations between tests of MSF and aerobic capacity were positive and low-to-moderate in strength. Correlations between tests of MSF and body composition were negative, excluding absolute handgrip strength, which was inversely related to other MSF tests and aerobic capacity but positively associated with body composition. The growth curves herein can be used as normative reference values or a starting point for creating health-related criterion reference standards for these tests. Comparisons with prior national surveys of physical fitness indicate that some components of MSF have likely decreased in the United States over

  6. Measuring fit of sequence data to phylogenetic model: gain of power using marginal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Peter J; Ota, Rissa; Penny, David

    2009-10-01

    Testing fit of data to model is fundamentally important to any science, but publications in the field of phylogenetics rarely do this. Such analyses discard fundamental aspects of science as prescribed by Karl Popper. Indeed, not without cause, Popper (Unended quest: an intellectual autobiography. Fontana, London, 1976) once argued that evolutionary biology was unscientific as its hypotheses were untestable. Here we trace developments in assessing fit from Penny et al. (Nature 297:197-200, 1982) to the present. We compare the general log-likelihood ratio (the G or G (2) statistic) statistic between the evolutionary tree model and the multinomial model with that of marginalized tests applied to an alignment (using placental mammal coding sequence data). It is seen that the most general test does not reject the fit of data to model (P approximately 0.5), but the marginalized tests do. Tests on pairwise frequency (F) matrices, strongly (P < 0.001) reject the most general phylogenetic (GTR) models commonly in use. It is also clear (P < 0.01) that the sequences are not stationary in their nucleotide composition. Deviations from stationarity and homogeneity seem to be unevenly distributed amongst taxa; not necessarily those expected from examining other regions of the genome. By marginalizing the 4( t ) patterns of the i.i.d. model to observed and expected parsimony counts, that is, from constant sites, to singletons, to parsimony informative characters of a minimum possible length, then the likelihood ratio test regains power, and it too rejects the evolutionary model with P < 0.001. Given such behavior over relatively recent evolutionary time, readers in general should maintain a healthy skepticism of results, as the scale of the systematic errors in published trees may really be far larger than the analytical methods (e.g., bootstrap) report.

  7. Person fit for test speededness: normal curvatures, likelihood ratio tests and empirical Bayes estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goegebeur, Y.; de Boeck, P.; Molenberghs, G.

    2010-01-01

    The local influence diagnostics, proposed by Cook (1986), provide a flexible way to assess the impact of minor model perturbations on key model parameters’ estimates. In this paper, we apply the local influence idea to the detection of test speededness in a model describing nonresponse in test data,

  8. Poisson goodness-of-fit tests for radiation-induced chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, W.

    1981-01-01

    Asymptotic and exact Poisson goodness-to-fit tests have been reviewed with regard to their applicability in analysing distributional properties of data on chromosome aberrations. It has been demonstrated that for typical cytogenetic samples, i.e. when the average number of aberrations per cell is smaller than one, results of asymptotic tests, especially of the most commonly used u-test, differ greatly from results of corresponding exact tests. While the u-statistic can serve as a qualitative index to indicate a tendency towards under- or over-dispersion, exact tests should be used if the assumption of a Poisson distribution is crucial, e.g. in investigating induction mechanisms. If the main interest is to detect a difference between the mean and the variance of a sample it is furthermore important to realize that a much larger sample size is required to detect underdispersion than it is to detect overdispersion. (author)

  9. Goodness-of-Fit Tests For Elliptical and Independent Copulas through Projection Pursuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Touboul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Two goodness-of-fit tests for copulas are being investigated. The first one deals with the case of elliptical copulas and the second one deals with independent copulas. These tests result from the expansion of the projection pursuit methodology that we will introduce in the present article. This method enables us to determine on which axis system these copulas lie as well as the exact value of these very copulas in the basis formed by the axes previously determined irrespective of their value in their canonical basis. Simulations are also presented as well as an application to real datasets.

  10. Tests of fit of historically-informed models of African American Admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jessica M

    2018-02-01

    African American populations in the U.S. formed primarily by mating between Africans and Europeans over the last 500 years. To date, studies of admixture have focused on either a one-time admixture event or continuous input into the African American population from Europeans only. Our goal is to gain a better understanding of the admixture process by examining models that take into account (a) assortative mating by ancestry in the African American population, (b) continuous input from both Europeans and Africans, and (c) historically informed variation in the rate of African migration over time. We used a model-based clustering method to generate distributions of African ancestry in three samples comprised of 147 African Americans from two published sources. We used a log-likelihood method to examine the fit of four models to these distributions and used a log-likelihood ratio test to compare the relative fit of each model. The mean ancestry estimates for our datasets of 77% African/23% European to 83% African/17% European ancestry are consistent with previous studies. We find admixture models that incorporate continuous gene flow from Europeans fit significantly better than one-time event models, and that a model involving continuous gene flow from Africans and Europeans fits better than one with continuous gene flow from Europeans only for two samples. Importantly, models that involve continuous input from Africans necessitate a higher level of gene flow from Europeans than previously reported. We demonstrate that models that take into account information about the rate of African migration over the past 500 years fit observed patterns of African ancestry better than alternative models. Our approach will enrich our understanding of the admixture process in extant and past populations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Predicting future protection of respirator users: Statistical approaches and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chengcheng; Harber, Philip; Su, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a statistical approach for predicting a respirator user's fit factor in the future based upon results from initial tests. A statistical prediction model was developed based upon joint distribution of multiple fit factor measurements over time obtained from linear mixed effect models. The model accounts for within-subject correlation as well as short-term (within one day) and longer-term variability. As an example of applying this approach, model parameters were estimated from a research study in which volunteers were trained by three different modalities to use one of two types of respirators. They underwent two quantitative fit tests at the initial session and two on the same day approximately six months later. The fitted models demonstrated correlation and gave the estimated distribution of future fit test results conditional on past results for an individual worker. This approach can be applied to establishing a criterion value for passing an initial fit test to provide reasonable likelihood that a worker will be adequately protected in the future; and to optimizing the repeat fit factor test intervals individually for each user for cost-effective testing.

  12. Pulmonary artery wave propagation and reservoir function in conscious man: impact of pulmonary vascular disease, respiration and dynamic stress tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Junjing; Manisty, Charlotte; Simonsen, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Detailed haemodynamic analysis may provide novel insights into the pulmonary circulation. Therefore, wave intensity and reservoir-excess pressure analyses were applied in the pulmonary artery to characterize changes in wave propagation and reservoir function during spontaneous respiration......, recordings were also obtained during Valsalva manoeuvre and handgrip exercise. The asymptotic pressure at which the flow through the microcirculation ceases, the reservoir pressure related to arterial compliance and the excess pressure caused by arterial waves increased in PAH patients compared to controls....... The systolic and diastolic rate constants also increased, while the diastolic time constant decreased. The forward compression wave energy decreased by ∼8% in controls and ∼6% in PAH patients during expiration compared to inspiration, while the wave speed remained unchanged throughout the respiratory cycle...

  13. Statistical alignment: computational properties, homology testing and goodness-of-fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein, J; Wiuf, Carsten; Møller, Martin

    2000-01-01

    The model of insertions and deletions in biological sequences, first formulated by Thorne, Kishino, and Felsenstein in 1991 (the TKF91 model), provides a basis for performing alignment within a statistical framework. Here we investigate this model.Firstly, we show how to accelerate the statistical...... alignment algorithms several orders of magnitude. The main innovations are to confine likelihood calculations to a band close to the similarity based alignment, to get good initial guesses of the evolutionary parameters and to apply an efficient numerical optimisation algorithm for finding the maximum...... analysis.Secondly, we propose a new homology test based on this model, where homology means that an ancestor to a sequence pair can be found finitely far back in time. This test has statistical advantages relative to the traditional shuffle test for proteins.Finally, we describe a goodness-of-fit test...

  14. Variability in performance on a work simulation test of physical fitness for firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Liam; Rogers, Todd; Docherty, David; Petersen, Stewart

    2015-04-01

    The Canadian Forces Firefighter Physical Fitness Maintenance Evaluation (FF PFME) requires firefighters in full fire-protective ensemble, including self-contained breathing apparatus, to correctly complete 10 work-related tasks on a measured and calibrated course. Fitness for duty is inferred from completion time of the course. We hypothesized that completion time may be dependent on pacing strategy and day-to-day fluctuations in biological function. To examine variability in performance, 20 females and 31 males (mean ± SD; age, 27.6 ± 10.5 years; height, 176.7 ± 8.3 cm; mass, 77.3 ± 13.4 kg) were familiarized with the FF PFME and then completed the test on 6 separate days. Pre-test behaviours (e.g., sleep, diet) and test conditions (e.g., calibration, time of day) were consistent. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant decrease in completion time between tests 1 and 6 (18.7%) and between all sequential pairs (e.g., tests 1 and 2). There was also a small but significant increase in the fraction of total test time for task completion and a corresponding decrease in the time to transition between tasks. The performance improvements cannot be explained by differences in effort (heart rate and perceived exertion). Coefficient of variation for tests 1, 2, and 3 was 7% and for tests 4, 5, and 6 was 2.6%. The results indicate the importance of practice on performance and the potential for false-positive or false-negative decision errors if biological variability is not taken into account.

  15. Effects of respirator use on worker performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardarelli, R. [Yankee Atomic Electric Co., Bolton, MA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    In 1993, EPRI funded Yankee Atomic Electric Company to examine the effects of respirator use on worker efficiency. Phase I of Yankee`s effort was to develop a study design to determine respirator effects. Given success in Phase I, a larger population will be tested to determine if a stasitically significant respirator effect on performance can be measured. This paper summarizes the 1993 EPRI/Yankee Respirator Effects of Pilot Study, and describes the study design for the 1994 EPRI/Yankee Respirator Study to be conducted at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant. Also described is a summary of respirator effect studies that have been conducted during the last ten (10) years.

  16. Relationships Among Two Repeated Activity Tests and Aerobic Fitness of Volleyball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckel, Yoav; May-Rom, Moran; Ekshtien, Aya; Eisenstein, Tamir; Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine performance indices of a repeated sprint test (RST) and to examine their relationships with performance indices of a repeated jump test (RJT) and with aerobic fitness among trained volleyball players. Sixteen male volleyball players performed RST (6 × 30 m sprints), RJT (6 sets of 6 consecutive jumps), and an aerobic power test (20-m Shuttle Run Test). Performance indices for the RST and the RJT were (a) the ideal 30-m run time (IS), the total run time (TS) of the 6 sprints, and the performance decrement (PD) during the test and (b) the ideal jump height (IJ), the total jump height (TJ) of all the jumps, and the PD during the test, respectively. No significant correlations were found between performance indices of the RST and RJT. Significant correlations were found between PD, IS, and TS in the RST protocol and predicted peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (r = -0.60, -0.75, -0.77, respectively). No significant correlations were found between performance indices of the RJT (IJ, TJ, and PD) and peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2. The findings suggest that a selection of repeated activity test protocols should acknowledge the specific technique used in the sport, and that a distinct RJT, rather than the classic RST, is more appropriate for assessing the anaerobic capabilities of volleyball players. The findings also suggest that aerobic fitness plays only a minor role in performance maintenance throughout characteristic repeated jumping activity of a volleyball game.

  17. Goodness-of-Fit Tests for Generalized Normal Distribution for Use in Hydrological Frequency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Samiran

    2018-04-01

    The use of three-parameter generalized normal (GNO) as a hydrological frequency distribution is well recognized, but its application is limited due to unavailability of popular goodness-of-fit (GOF) test statistics. This study develops popular empirical distribution function (EDF)-based test statistics to investigate the goodness-of-fit of the GNO distribution. The focus is on the case most relevant to the hydrologist, namely, that in which the parameter values are unidentified and estimated from a sample using the method of L-moments. The widely used EDF tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Cramer von Mises, and Anderson-Darling (AD) are considered in this study. A modified version of AD, namely, the Modified Anderson-Darling (MAD) test, is also considered and its performance is assessed against other EDF tests using a power study that incorporates six specific Wakeby distributions (WA-1, WA-2, WA-3, WA-4, WA-5, and WA-6) as the alternative distributions. The critical values of the proposed test statistics are approximated using Monte Carlo techniques and are summarized in chart and regression equation form to show the dependence of shape parameter and sample size. The performance results obtained from the power study suggest that the AD and a variant of the MAD (MAD-L) are the most powerful tests. Finally, the study performs case studies involving annual maximum flow data of selected gauged sites from Irish and US catchments to show the application of the derived critical values and recommends further assessments to be carried out on flow data sets of rivers with various hydrological regimes.

  18. An experimental test of fitness variation across a hydrologic gradient predicts willow and poplar species distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojing; Savage, Jessica A; Riggs, Charlotte E; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine

    2017-05-01

    Environmental filtering is an important community assembly process influencing species distributions. Contrasting species abundance patterns along environmental gradients are commonly used to provide evidence for environmental filtering. However, the same abundance patterns may result from alternative or concurrent assembly processes. Experimental tests are an important means to decipher whether species fitness varies with environment, in the absence of dispersal constraints and biotic interactions, and to draw conclusions about the importance of environmental filtering in community assembly. We performed an experimental test of environmental filtering in 14 closely related willow and poplar species (family Salicaceae) by transplanting cuttings of each species into 40 common gardens established along a natural hydrologic gradient in the field, where competition was minimized and herbivory was controlled. We analyzed species fitness responses to the hydrologic environment based on cumulative growth and survival over two years using aster fitness models. We also examined variation in nine drought and flooding tolerance traits expected to contribute to performance based on a priori understanding of plant function in relation to water availability and stress. We found substantial evidence that environmental filtering along the hydrologic gradient played a critical role in determining species distributions. Fitness variation of each species in the field experiment was used to model their water table depth optima. These optima predicted 68% of the variation in species realized hydrologic niches based on peak abundance in naturally assembled communities in the surrounding region. Multiple traits associated with water transport efficiency and water stress tolerance were correlated with species hydrologic niches, but they did not necessarily covary with each other. As a consequence, species occupying similar hydrologic niches had different combinations of trait values

  19. Tests of α{sub s} running from QCD fits to collider data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuprash, Oleg; Geiser, Achim [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg University, Institute of Experimental Physics, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The running of the strong coupling constant, α{sub s}(μ), is tested in a QCD analysis using jet measurements at LHC, Tevatron and HERA in combination with inclusive DIS data. Here μ is associated with the energy scale in the process, typically with the jet transverse energy. For the α{sub s} running test, the parameter n{sub f} of the running, which gives the number of active quarks contributing to loop corrections of the jet and DIS cross sections, is replaced by n{sub f} + Δn{sub f} at energy scales greater than μ > μ{sub thresh}. A series of simultaneous α{sub s}(M{sub Z}) + Δn{sub f} + proton PDF fits to world collider cross section data is done at Next-to-Leading Order QCD, for μ{sub thresh} values ranging from 1 GeV to 1 TeV. The fitted Δn{sub f} is consistent with zero at all tested scales, which gives a precise quantitative confirmation of the QCD running of α{sub s} over 3 orders of magnitude in energy scale. The presented study also provides a new way for indirect searches of the physics beyond the Standard Model.

  20. A Spline-Based Lack-Of-Fit Test for Independent Variable Effect in Poisson Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chin-Shang; Tu, Wanzhu

    2007-05-01

    In regression analysis of count data, independent variables are often modeled by their linear effects under the assumption of log-linearity. In reality, the validity of such an assumption is rarely tested, and its use is at times unjustifiable. A lack-of-fit test is proposed for the adequacy of a postulated functional form of an independent variable within the framework of semiparametric Poisson regression models based on penalized splines. It offers added flexibility in accommodating the potentially non-loglinear effect of the independent variable. A likelihood ratio test is constructed for the adequacy of the postulated parametric form, for example log-linearity, of the independent variable effect. Simulations indicate that the proposed model performs well, and misspecified parametric model has much reduced power. An example is given.

  1. The GP tests of competence assessment: which part best predicts fitness to practise decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaweera, Hirosha Keshani; Potts, Henry W W; Keshwani, Karim; Valerio, Chris; Baker, Magdalen; Mehdizadeh, Leila; Sturrock, Alison

    2018-01-02

    The General Medical Council (GMC) conducts Tests of Competence (ToC) for doctors referred for Fitness to Practise (FtP) issues. GPs take a single best answer knowledge test, an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), and a Simulated Surgery (SimSurg) assessment which is a simulated GP consultation. The aim of this study was to examine the similarities between OSCEs and SimSurg to determine whether each assessment contributed something unique to GP ToCs. A mixed methods approach was used. Data were collated on 153 GPs who were required to undertake a ToC as a part of being investigated for FtP issues between February 2010 and October 2016. Using correlation analysis, we examined to what degree performance on the knowledge test, OSCE, and SimSurg related to case examiner recommendations and FtP outcomes, including the unique predictive power of these three assessments. The outcome measures were case examiner recommendations (i) not fit to practise; ii) fit to practise on a limited basis; or iii) fit to practise) as well as FtP outcomes (i) erased/removed from the register; ii) having restrictions/conditions; or iii) be in good standing). For the qualitative component, 45 GP assessors were asked to rate whether they assess the same competencies and which assessment provides better feedback about candidates. There was significant overlap between OSCEs and SimSurg, p < 0.001. SimSurg had additional predictive power in the presence of OSCEs and the knowledge test (p = 0.030) in distinguishing doctors from different FtP categories, while OSCEs did not (p = 0.080). Both the OSCEs (p = 0.004) and SimSurg (p < 0.001) had significant negative correlations with case examiner recommendations when accounting for the effects of the other two assessments. Inductive thematic analysis of the responses to the questionnaire showed that assessors perceived OSCEs to be better suited to target specific knowledge and skills. SimSurg was thought to produce a

  2. A Bayesian goodness of fit test and semiparametric generalization of logistic regression with measurement data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schörgendorfer, Angela; Branscum, Adam J; Hanson, Timothy E

    2013-06-01

    Logistic regression is a popular tool for risk analysis in medical and population health science. With continuous response data, it is common to create a dichotomous outcome for logistic regression analysis by specifying a threshold for positivity. Fitting a linear regression to the nondichotomized response variable assuming a logistic sampling model for the data has been empirically shown to yield more efficient estimates of odds ratios than ordinary logistic regression of the dichotomized endpoint. We illustrate that risk inference is not robust to departures from the parametric logistic distribution. Moreover, the model assumption of proportional odds is generally not satisfied when the condition of a logistic distribution for the data is violated, leading to biased inference from a parametric logistic analysis. We develop novel Bayesian semiparametric methodology for testing goodness of fit of parametric logistic regression with continuous measurement data. The testing procedures hold for any cutoff threshold and our approach simultaneously provides the ability to perform semiparametric risk estimation. Bayes factors are calculated using the Savage-Dickey ratio for testing the null hypothesis of logistic regression versus a semiparametric generalization. We propose a fully Bayesian and a computationally efficient empirical Bayesian approach to testing, and we present methods for semiparametric estimation of risks, relative risks, and odds ratios when parametric logistic regression fails. Theoretical results establish the consistency of the empirical Bayes test. Results from simulated data show that the proposed approach provides accurate inference irrespective of whether parametric assumptions hold or not. Evaluation of risk factors for obesity shows that different inferences are derived from an analysis of a real data set when deviations from a logistic distribution are permissible in a flexible semiparametric framework. © 2013, The International Biometric

  3. Correlations between the simulated military tasks performance and physical fitness tests at high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Borba Neves

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the Correlations between the Simulated Military Tasks Performance and Physical Fitness Tests at high altitude. This research is part of a project to modernize the physical fitness test of the Colombian Army. Data collection was performed at the 13th Battalion of Instruction and Training, located 30km south of Bogota D.C., with a temperature range from 1ºC to 23ºC during the study period, and at 3100m above sea level. The sample was composed by 60 volunteers from three different platoons. The volunteers start the data collection protocol after 2 weeks of acclimation at this altitude. The main results were the identification of a high positive correlation between the 3 Assault wall in succession and the Simulated Military Tasks performance (r = 0.764, p<0.001, and a moderate negative correlation between pull-ups and the Simulated Military Tasks performance (r = -0.535, p<0.001. It can be recommended the use of the 20-consecutive overtaking of the 3 Assault wall in succession as a good way to estimate the performance in operational tasks which involve: assault walls, network of wires, military Climbing Nets, Tarzan jump among others, at high altitude.

  4. 75 FR 4323 - Additional Quantitative Fit-testing Protocols for the Respiratory Protection Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ...-mask and full face piece respirators are normally considered two different types of air purifying... article published in a peer-reviewed industrial-hygiene journal describing the protocol and explaining how... article from an industrial- hygiene journal describing the accuracy and reliability of these proposed...

  5. Comment on the asymptotics of a distribution-free goodness of fit test statistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Michael W; Shapiro, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    In a recent article Jennrich and Satorra (Psychometrika 78: 545-552, 2013) showed that a proof by Browne (British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology 37: 62-83, 1984) of the asymptotic distribution of a goodness of fit test statistic is incomplete because it fails to prove that the orthogonal component function employed is continuous. Jennrich and Satorra (Psychometrika 78: 545-552, 2013) showed how Browne's proof can be completed satisfactorily but this required the development of an extensive and mathematically sophisticated framework for continuous orthogonal component functions. This short note provides a simple proof of the asymptotic distribution of Browne's (British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology 37: 62-83, 1984) test statistic by using an equivalent form of the statistic that does not involve orthogonal component functions and consequently avoids all complicating issues associated with them.

  6. The interpretation of Charpy impact test data using hyper-logistic fitting functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The hyperbolic tangent function is used almost exclusively for computer assisted curve fitting of Charpy impact test data. Unfortunately, there is no physical basis to justify the use of this function and it cannot be generalized to test data that exhibits asymmetry. Using simple physical arguments, a semi-empirical model is derived and identified as a special case of the so called hyper-logistic equation. Although one solution of this equation is the hyperbolic tangent, other more physically interpretable solutions are provided. From the mathematics of the family of functions derived from the hyper-logistic equation, several useful generalizations are made such that asymmetric and wavy Charpy data can be physically interpreted

  7. Validity of a Newly-Designed Rectilinear Stepping Ergometer Submaximal Exercise Test to Assess Cardiorespiratory Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rubin; Zhan, Likui; Sun, Shaoming; Peng, Wei; Sun, Yining

    2017-09-01

    The maximum oxygen uptake (V̇O 2 max), determined from graded maximal or submaximal exercise tests, is used to classify the cardiorespiratory fitness level of individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the YMCA submaximal exercise test protocol performed on a newly-designed rectilinear stepping ergometer (RSE) that used up and down reciprocating vertical motion in place of conventional circular motion and giving precise measurement of workload, to determine V̇O 2 max in young healthy male adults. Thirty-two young healthy male adults (32 males; age range: 20-35 years; height: 1.75 ± 0.05 m; weight: 67.5 ± 8.6 kg) firstly participated in a maximal-effort graded exercise test using a cycle ergometer (CE) to directly obtain measured V̇O 2 max. Subjects then completed the progressive multistage test on the RSE beginning at 50W and including additional stages of 70, 90, 110, 130, and 150W, and the RSE YMCA submaximal test consisting of a workload increase every 3 minutes until the termination criterion was reached. A metabolic equation was derived from the RSE multistage exercise test to predict oxygen consumption (V̇O 2 ) from power output (W) during the submaximal exercise test (V̇O 2 (mL·min -1 )=12.4 ×W(watts)+3.5 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ×M+160mL·min -1 , R 2 = 0.91, standard error of the estimate (SEE) = 134.8mL·min -1 ). A high correlation was observed between the RSE YMCA estimated V̇O 2 max and the CE measured V̇O 2 max (r=0.87). The mean difference between estimated and measured V̇O 2 max was 2.5 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 , with an SEE of 3.55 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 . The data suggest that the RSE YMCA submaximal exercise test is valid for predicting V̇O 2 max in young healthy male adults. The findings show that the rectilinear stepping exercise is an effective submaximal exercise for predicting V̇O 2 max. The newly-designed RSE may be potentially further developed as an alternative ergometer for assessing

  8. Bridging naturalistic and laboratory assessment of memory: the Baycrest mask fit test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armson, Michael J; Abdi, Hervé; Levine, Brian

    2017-09-01

    Autobiographical memory tests provide a naturalistic counterpoint to the artificiality of laboratory research methods, yet autobiographical events are uncontrolled and, in most cases, unverifiable. In this study, we capitalised on a scripted, complex naturalistic event - the mask fit test (MFT), a standardised procedure required of hospital employees - to bridge the gap between naturalistic and laboratory memory assessment. We created a test of recognition memory for the MFT and administered it to 135 hospital employees who had undertaken the MFT at various points over the past five years. Multivariate analysis revealed two dimensions defined by accuracy and response bias. Accuracy scores showed the expected relationship to encoding-test delay, supporting the validity of this measure. Relative to younger adults, older adults' memory for this naturalistic event was better than would be predicted from the cognitive ageing literature, a result consistent with the notion that older adults' memory performance is enhanced when stimuli are naturalistic and personally relevant. These results demonstrate that testing recognition memory for a scripted event is a viable method of studying autobiographical memory.

  9. Adaptive Test Selection for Factorization-based Surrogate Fitness in Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawiec Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic programming (GP is a variant of evolutionary algorithm where the entities undergoing simulated evolution are computer programs. A fitness function in GP is usually based on a set of tests, each of which defines the desired output a correct program should return for an exemplary input. The outcomes of interactions between programs and tests in GP can be represented as an interaction matrix, with rows corresponding to programs in the current population and columns corresponding to tests. In previous work, we proposed SFIMX, a method that performs only a fraction of interactions and employs non-negative matrix factorization to estimate the outcomes of remaining ones, shortening GP’s runtime. In this paper, we build upon that work and propose three extensions of SFIMX, in which the subset of tests drawn to perform interactions is selected with respect to test difficulty. The conducted experiment indicates that the proposed extensions surpass the original SFIMX on a suite of discrete GP benchmarks.

  10. Systematic review and proposal of a field-based physical fitness-test battery in preschool children: the PREFIT battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Cadenas-Sánchez, Cristina; Sánchez-Delgado, Guillermo; Mora-González, José; Martínez-Téllez, Borja; Artero, Enrique G; Castro-Piñero, Jose; Labayen, Idoia; Chillón, Palma; Löf, Marie; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2015-04-01

    Physical fitness is a powerful health marker in childhood and adolescence, and it is reasonable to think that it might be just as important in younger children, i.e. preschoolers. At the moment, researchers, clinicians and sport practitioners do not have enough information about which fitness tests are more reliable, valid and informative from the health point of view to be implemented in preschool children. Our aim was to systematically review the studies conducted in preschool children using field-based fitness tests, and examine their (1) reliability, (2) validity, and (3) relationship with health outcomes. Our ultimate goal was to propose a field-based physical fitness-test battery to be used in preschool children. PubMed and Web of Science. Studies conducted in healthy preschool children that included field-based fitness tests. When using PubMed, we included Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms to enhance the power of the search. A set of fitness-related terms were combined with 'child, preschool' [MeSH]. The same strategy and terms were used for Web of Science (except for the MeSH option). Since no previous reviews with a similar aim were identified, we searched for all articles published up to 1 April 2014 (no starting date). A total of 2,109 articles were identified, of which 22 articles were finally selected for this review. Most studies focused on reliability of the fitness tests (n = 21, 96%), while very few focused on validity (0 criterion-related validity and 4 (18%) convergent validity) or relationship with health outcomes (0 longitudinal and 1 (5%) cross-sectional study). Motor fitness, particularly balance, was the most studied fitness component, while cardiorespiratory fitness was the least studied. After analyzing the information retrieved in the current systematic review about fitness testing in preschool children, we propose the PREFIT battery, field-based FITness testing in PREschool children. The PREFIT battery is composed of the following

  11. A Monte Carlo-adjusted goodness-of-fit test for parametric models describing spatial point patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Dao, Ngocanh; Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the goodness-of-fit (GOF) for intricate parametric spatial point process models is important for many application fields. When the probability density of the statistic of the GOF test is intractable, a commonly used procedure is the Monte

  12. Between-Day Reliability and Usefulness of a Fitness Testing Battery in Youth Sport Athletes: Reference Data for Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawczuk, Thomas; Jones, Ben; Scantlebury, Sean; Weakley, Jonathan; Read, Dale; Costello, Nessan; Darrall-Jones, Joshua David; Stokes, Keith; Till, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the between-day reliability and usefulness of a fitness testing battery in a group of youth sport athletes. Fifty-nine youth sport athletes (age = 17.3 ± 0.7 years) undertook a fitness testing battery including the isometric mid-thigh pull, counter-movement jump, 5-40 m sprint splits, and the 5-0-5 change of direction…

  13. The protozoan, Paramecium primaurelia, as a non-sentient model to test laser light irradiation: The effects of an 808nm infrared laser diode on cellular respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaroli, Andrea; Ravera, Silvia; Parker, Steven; Panfoli, Isabella; Benedicenti, Alberico; Benedicenti, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) has been used in clinical practice for more than 40 years. Unfortunately, conflicting literature has led to the labelling of PBM as a complementary or alternative medicine approach. However, past and ongoing clinical and research studies by reputable investigators have re-established the merits of PBM as a genuine medical therapy, and the technique has, in the last decade, seen an exponential increase in the numbers of clinical instruments available, and their applications. This resurgence has led to a clear need for appropriate experimental models to test the burgeoning laser technology being developed for medical applications. In this context, an ethical model that employs the protozoan, Paramecium primaurelia, is proposed. We studied the possibility of using the measure of oxygen consumption to test PBM by irradiation with an infrared or near-infrared laser. The results show that an 808nm infrared laser diode (1W; 64J/cm²) affects cellular respiration in P. primaurelia, inducing, in the irradiated cells, a significantly (p Paramecium can be an excellent tool in biological assays involving infrared and near-infrared PBM, as it combines the advantages of in vivo results with the practicality of in vitro testing. This test represents a fast, inexpensive and straightforward assay, which offers an alternative to both traditional in vivo testing and more expensive mammalian cellular cultures. 2015 FRAME.

  14. Cardiorespiratory and cardiac autonomic responses to 30-15 intermittent fitness test in team sport players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Al Haddad, Hani; Millet, Grégoire Paul; Lepretre, Pierre Marie; Newton, Michael; Ahmaidi, Said

    2009-01-01

    The 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT) is an attractive alternative to classic continuous incremental field tests for defining a reference velocity for interval training prescription in team sport athletes. The aim of the present study was to compare cardiorespiratory and autonomic responses to 30-15IFT with those observed during a standard continuous test (CT). In 20 team sport players (20.9 +/- 2.2 years), cardiopulmonary parameters were measured during exercise and for 10 minutes after both tests. Final running velocity, peak lactate ([La]peak), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also measured. Parasympathetic function was assessed during the postexercise recovery phase via heart rate (HR) recovery time constant (HRR[tau]) and HR variability (HRV) vagal-related indices. At exhaustion, no difference was observed in peak oxygen uptake VO2peak), respiratory exchange ratio, HR, or RPE between 30-15IFT and CT. In contrast, 30-15IFT led to significantly higher minute ventilation, [La]peak, and final velocity than CT (p HRV vagal-related indices (i.e., the root mean square of successive R-R intervals differences [rMSSD]: 4.1 +/- 2.4 and 7.0 +/- 4.9 milliseconds, p < 0.05). In conclusion, the 30-15IFT is accurate for assessing VThs and VO2peak, but it alters postexercise parasympathetic function more than a continuous incremental protocol.

  15. Scintigraphic test of the vitality and functional fitness of organs conserved for transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozduganov, A.; Marinov, V.

    1976-01-01

    Having reviewed critically present-day methods of testing the vitality of isolated perfused organs, the authors propose their own. It is founded in the principles of colour scintigraphy after introduction of short-lived nuclides. The method was applied in testing 57 isolated preserved organs (5 kidneys, 12 livers, 5 hearts and 4 spleens from dogs; 2 kidneys and 27 livers from rabbits; 1 kidney and 1 liver from young pigs). Moreover, compararive scintigraphic and biochemical investigations were conducted on 2 dogs and 4 young pigs (A. Bozduganov, E. Simeonov, N. Bogdanova). The techniques of isolation and perfusion of the organ have been given a detailed description. Sup(113m)In was used as tracer. Areas of radioactivity deposits were visualized more or less intensely, depending on the degree of vitality and functional fitness still present actually; else, blanks were seen. Orthotransplantation and heterotransplantation with subsequent scintigraphic examination in vivo served, in scattered instances, the purpose of confirming or of rejecting ambiguous vitality findings in preserved organs. Advantages of the method are a general and specified evaluation of the organ in all of its areas; anatomical integrity of the object under test; applicability to various organs; possibility of conducting dynamic tests; accurate reproduction of vitality and functional findings, etc

  16. Evaluation of the user seal check on gross leakage detection of 3 different designs of N95 filtering facepiece respirators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Simon C; Lui, Andrew K F; Lee, Linda Y K; Lee, Joseph K L; Wong, K F; Lee, Cathy N Y

    2016-05-01

    The use of N95 respirators prevents spread of respiratory infectious agents, but leakage hampers its protection. Manufacturers recommend a user seal check to identify on-site gross leakage. However, no empirical evidence is provided. Therefore, this study aims to examine validity of a user seal check on gross leakage detection in commonly used types of N95 respirators. A convenience sample of 638 nursing students was recruited. On the wearing of 3 different designs of N95 respirators, namely 3M-1860s, 3M-1862, and Kimberly-Clark 46827, the standardized user seal check procedure was carried out to identify gross leakage. Repeated testing of leakage was followed by the use of a quantitative fit testing (QNFT) device in performing normal breathing and deep breathing exercises. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios were calculated accordingly. As indicated by QNFT, prevalence of actual gross leakage was 31.0%-39.2% with the 3M respirators and 65.4%-65.8% with the Kimberly-Clark respirator. Sensitivity and specificity of the user seal check for identifying actual gross leakage were approximately 27.7% and 75.5% for 3M-1860s, 22.1% and 80.5% for 3M-1862, and 26.9% and 80.2% for Kimberly-Clark 46827, respectively. Likelihood ratios were close to 1 (range, 0.89-1.51) for all types of respirators. The results did not support user seal checks in detecting any actual gross leakage in the donning of N95 respirators. However, such a check might alert health care workers that donning a tight-fitting respirator should be performed carefully. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Measuring fitness of Kenyan children with polyparasitic infections using the 20-meter shuttle run test as a morbidity metric.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaya L Bustinduy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available To date, there has been no standardized approach to the assessment of aerobic fitness among children who harbor parasites. In quantifying the disability associated with individual or multiple chronic infections, accurate measures of physical fitness are important metrics. This is because exercise intolerance, as seen with anemia and many other chronic disorders, reflects the body's inability to maintain adequate oxygen supply (VO(2 max to the motor tissues, which is frequently linked to reduced quality-of-life in terms of physical and job performance. The objective of our study was to examine the associations between polyparasitism, anemia, and reduced fitness in a high risk Kenyan population using novel implementation of the 20-meter shuttle run test (20mSRT, a well-standardized, low-technology physical fitness test.Four villages in coastal Kenya were surveyed during 2009-2010. Children 5-18 years were tested for infection with Schistosoma haematobium (Sh, malaria, filaria, and geohelminth infections by standard methods. After anthropometric and hemoglobin testing, fitness was assessed with the 20 mSRT. The 20 mSRT proved easy to perform, requiring only minimal staff training. Parasitology revealed high prevalence of single and multiple parasitic infections in all villages, with Sh being the most common (25-62%. Anemia prevalence was 45-58%. Using multiply-adjusted linear modeling that accounted for household clustering, decreased aerobic capacity was significantly associated with anemia, stunting, and wasting, with some gender differences.The 20 mSRT, which has excellent correlation with VO(2, is a highly feasible fitness test for low-resource settings. Our results indicate impaired fitness is common in areas endemic for parasites, where, at least in part, low fitness scores are likely to result from anemia and stunting associated with chronic infection. The 20 mSRT should be used as a common metric to quantify physical fitness and compare sub

  18. "Graded Cycling Test with Talk Test" Is a Reliable Test to Monitor Cardiovascular Fitness in Patients with Minor Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Krawcyk, Rikke; Vinther, Anders; Caesar Petersen, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    variability may challenge currently used cardiovascular monitoring. The Graded Cycling Test with Talk Test is a submaximal exercise test independent of heart rate variability, shown reliable for patients with cardiac disease. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with lacunar stroke according to TOAST (Trial of Org...... a minor measurement error: 12.9 W for groups of patients (standard error of measurement, SEM95) and 18.3 W for individual patients (smallest real difference). CONCLUSION: The "Graded Cycling Test with Talk Test" is feasible and reliable for monitoring exercise effects in patients with lacunar stroke...... 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) criteria performed an incremental exercise test on a stationary bicycle with a 15 W (watt) increase in workload every minute. Toward the end of each incremental step, the patients recited a standardized text passage and subsequently were asked: "Are you still able...

  19. A 45-second self-test for cardiorespiratory fitness: heart rate-based estimation in healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartor, F.; Bonato, M.; Papini, G.; Bosio, A.; Mohammed, R.; Bonomi, A.G.; Moore, J.P.; Merati, G.; Della Torre, A.; Kubis, H.P.

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) is a widespread essential indicator in Sports Science as well as in Sports Medicine. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for CRF based on a 45 second self-test, which can be conducted anywhere. Criterion validity, test re-test study was set up

  20. Tests and standards for express-control of physical fitness and health of middle school age pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Bodnar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: to day, physical fitness testing often causes negative emotions in pupils. It results in sharp loss of pupils’ wish to fulfill physical exercises in free time and worsens their health. Possibility to assess health level is an important motivation factor for pupils’ passing physical tests. Objective testing system will form positive motivation for physical exercises’ practicing and will facilitate increase of pupils’ motor functioning. It will also facilitate optimization of their physical condition, improvement of physical fitness and strengthening of health. Material: we tested physical fitness level and made diagnosis of pupils’ functional state (10-15 years’ age; n=85 with the help of tool methodic. We also used regressive analysis. Results: the system of tests and standards for express-control over physical fitness and health of middle school age pupils has been worked out and substantiated. The system of tests envisages fulfillment of 4 exercises: back pressing ups on bench during 20 seconds; throwing and catching of ball with two hands from wall during 30 seconds; side bending; torso rising from lying position into sitting during 30 seconds. Integral indicator of pupils’ physical fitness and health correlates with functional state of organism’s leading systems. We worked out 5 levels’ scale for express-control over physical fitness and health of middle school age pupils. The system stipulates calculation of integrative indicator with the help of regression equation by results of 4 test exercises and calculation of one index. Conclusions: The system of tests and standards permits the following: to divide pupils into relatively uniform groups even at the beginning of academic year for successful reasonable physical load. The system also permits to determine standard and find what shall be strived for by a pupil in order to achieve optimal physical fitness and somatic state; to motivate relatively weakly

  1. Influence of muscle fitness test performance on metabolic risk factors among adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Jorge

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the association between muscular fitness (MF, assessed by 2 components of Fitnessgram test battery, the Curl-Up and Push-Ups tests and the metabolic risk score among adolescent girls. Methods A total of 229 girls (aged 12-15 years old comprised the sample of this study. Anthropometric data (height, body mass, waist circumference were collected. Body mass index (BMI was also calculated. Muscular strength was assessed taking into account the tests that comprised the FITNESSGRAM test battery, i.e. the curl-up and the push-up. Participants were then categorized in one of 3 categories according the number of tests in which they accomplished the scores that allow them to be classified in health or above health zone. The blood pressure [BP], fasting total cholesterol [TC], low density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], high density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], triglycerides [TG], glucose, and a metabolic risk score (MRS were also examined. Physical Activity Index (PAI was obtained by questionnaire. Results Higher compliance with health-zone criteria (good in the 2 tests, adjusted for age and maturation, were positive and significantly (p ≤ 0.05 associated with height (r = 0.19 and PAI (r = 0.21, while a significant but negative association was found for BMI (r = -0.12; WC (r = -0.19; TC (r = -0.16; TG (r = -0.16; LDL (r = -0.16 and MRS (r = -0.16. Logistic regression showed that who were assigned to MF fittest group were less likely (OR = 0.27; p = 0.003 to be classified overweight/obese and less likely (OR = 0.26; p = 0.03 to be classified as having MRS. This last association was also found for those whom only performed 1 test under the health zone (OR = 0.23; p = 0.02. Conclusions Our data showed that low strength test performance was associated with increased risk for obesity and metabolic risk in adolescent girls even after adjustment for age and maturation.

  2. Effects of Various Warm Up Protocol on Special Judo Fitness Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Danny

    2017-02-13

    The purposed of this study was to compare the effects of postactivation potentiation (PAP) on Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) performance using explosive exercises that activates upper and lower limbs muscles. Eleven male judo athletes (mean ± SD, age, 16 - 29 years; height, 170 ± 7 cm; body mass, 73 ± 16 kg) attended four separate sessions. The first session was used to familiarise the subjects to the experimental procedure, the SJFT, the high pull test (HPT) and the two explosive exercises including resistance band pull and standing broad jump. Subsequently, subjects were randomly assigned in a counterbalanced manner to either perform the upper and lower body PAP (ULB), lower body PAP (LB) or usual competition (CON) warm up routine prior to performing the HPT and SJFT. The following variables were quantified: throws performed during series A, B, and C; total number of throws; heart rate immediately and 1 minute after the test; test index; peak power; and RPE after warm up. During series 1, number of throws performed in LB and ULB were significantly greater than CON (p < 0.05). Only ULB resulted in significantly greater number of total throws (p < 0.01) and higher peak power (p < 0.01) than CON. The RPE for both LB and ULB were significantly lower than CON (p < 0.01). Peak power was moderately correlated to total number of throws performed (r=0.4, p < 0.05). This study suggest that performing ULB before SJFT can result in improved performance and peak power.

  3. A Special Pre-Service-Inspection Using Radiographic Testing(RT) for Brazing Fitting used in Aircraft Hydraulic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyu Ho

    2010-01-01

    Brazing fitting which is one of the aircraft hydraulic power system components is widely used for saving weight and achieving higher reliability. Any inherent defects or damage of fitting can cause system failure and/or physical damage of human body due to highly pressurized fluid. Radiographic testing(RT) technique and additional micro-structure investigation on cut-away surfaces have been accomplished to find out some defect-like-inhomogeneity in the fittings. The radiography results showed that some defect-like-inhomogeneity existed inside body. Additional micro-structure investigation on cut-away surface reveals that the inhomogeneity is due to internal voids. In this study, it can be is said that RT technique can be a useful tool for field acceptance test of hydraulic brazing fitting in short time

  4. Comparison of Physical Fitness Parameters with EUROFIT Test Battery of Male Adolescent Soccer Players and Sedentary Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür ERİKOĞLU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare physical fitness parameters of male adolescent soccer players and sedentary counterparts. A total of 26 male adolescents participated in this study voluntarily: Active soccer players (n: 3, age x : 13,00 ± 0,00 and sedentary counterparts (n: 13, age x :12,92 ± 0,75. The EUROFIT test battery was used to determine physical fitness. The test battery includes body height and weight measurements, touching the discs, flamingo balan ce, throwing health ball, vertical jumping, sit and reach, sit - up for 30 s, 20 meter sprint run, and 20 meter shuttle run tests. Data were analyzed by Mann Whitney U test. Significance was defined as p.05. In conclusion, children who do sports are more successful on most of the fitness parameters than sedentary children.

  5. Assessment of Cardiovascular Fitness of Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis Using Six Minute Walk Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeek Oluwole Awotidebe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB tends to have limited exercise tolerance and a significant disability affecting their activities of daily living. The importance of exercise in the management of these patients has not been well investigated. This study was designed to assess the cardiovascular fitness of patients with pulmonary TB using the six-minute walk test (6-MWT. METHOD: Sixty five consented patients with Pulmonary TB were consecutively recruited into the study. The patients performed 6-MWT over a 30 meter course on a level walkway at a speed as fast as they could. Data were obtained on participants’ physical characteristics, pre and post exercise blood pressure and heart rate, and maximum oxygen consumption. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation and paired t-test. RESULTS: The post walk test cardiovascular parameters were significantly higher than the resting cardiovascular parameters. The mean VO2 max and MET of the participants were 11.7±0.97 (ml O2kg -1min-1 and 3.35±0.28 (mL/Kg respectively. The means 6-MWT distance for male and female participants were 502.0±43.0m 481.7±68.3m respectively. CONCLUSION: The result implies that the 6-MWT is capable of evoking a significant cardiovascular change among patients with pulmonary TB. The 6-MWT may be useful in the assessment of functional capacity of patients with pulmonary TB. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 99-106

  6. Residuals and the Residual-Based Statistic for Testing Goodness of Fit of Structural Equation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldnes, Njal; Foss, Tron; Olsson, Ulf Henning

    2012-01-01

    The residuals obtained from fitting a structural equation model are crucial ingredients in obtaining chi-square goodness-of-fit statistics for the model. The authors present a didactic discussion of the residuals, obtaining a geometrical interpretation by recognizing the residuals as the result of oblique projections. This sheds light on the…

  7. Testing Vocational Interests and Personality as Predictors of Person-Vocation and Person-Job Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Karen Holcombe; Makransky, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The fit between individuals and their work environments has received decades of theoretical and empirical attention. This study investigated two antecedents to individuals' perceptions of fit: vocational interests and personality. More specifically, the authors hypothesized that vocational interests assessed in terms of the Career Occupational…

  8. Goodness-of-fit tests and model diagnostics for negative binomial regression of RNA sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Gu; Di, Yanming; Schafer, Daniel W

    2015-01-01

    This work is about assessing model adequacy for negative binomial (NB) regression, particularly (1) assessing the adequacy of the NB assumption, and (2) assessing the appropriateness of models for NB dispersion parameters. Tools for the first are appropriate for NB regression generally; those for the second are primarily intended for RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data analysis. The typically small number of biological samples and large number of genes in RNA-Seq analysis motivate us to address the trade-offs between robustness and statistical power using NB regression models. One widely-used power-saving strategy, for example, is to assume some commonalities of NB dispersion parameters across genes via simple models relating them to mean expression rates, and many such models have been proposed. As RNA-Seq analysis is becoming ever more popular, it is appropriate to make more thorough investigations into power and robustness of the resulting methods, and into practical tools for model assessment. In this article, we propose simulation-based statistical tests and diagnostic graphics to address model adequacy. We provide simulated and real data examples to illustrate that our proposed methods are effective for detecting the misspecification of the NB mean-variance relationship as well as judging the adequacy of fit of several NB dispersion models.

  9. Respirator studies for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Progress report, July 1, 1974--June 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, D.D.; Revoir, W.; Lowry, P.L.

    1976-08-01

    Respirator studies carried out in FY 1975 for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health were concentrated in two major areas: (1) the development of respirator test equipment and methods to improve the means of evaluating the performance of respirators, (2) the testing of respirators to obtain quantitative data to permit recommendations to be made to upgrade respirator performance criteria. Major accomplishments included obtaining man-test results on several different respirators using an anthropometrically selected test panel, determination of respirator exhalation valve leakages under static and dynamic conditions, and determination of the effects of respirator strap tension on facepiece leakage

  10. Exercise Capacity and the Obesity Paradox in Heart Failure: The FIT (Henry Ford Exercise Testing) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Paul A; Keteyian, Steven J; Brawner, Clinton A; Dardari, Zeina A; Al Rifai, Mahmoud; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Whelton, Seamus P; Blaha, Michael J

    2018-05-03

    To assess the influence of exercise capacity and body mass index (BMI) on 10-year mortality in patients with heart failure (HF) and to synthesize these results with those of previous studies. This large biracial sample included 774 men and women (mean age, 60±13 years; 372 [48%] black) with a baseline diagnosis of HF from the Henry Ford Exercise Testing (FIT) Project. All patients completed a symptom-limited maximal treadmill stress test from January 1, 1991, through May 31, 2009. Patients were grouped by World Health Organization BMI categories for Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and stratified by exercise capacity (<4 and ≥4 metabolic equivalents [METs] of task). Associations of BMI and exercise capacity with all-cause mortality were assessed using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. During a mean follow-up of 10.1±4.6 years, 380 patients (49%) died. Kaplan-Meier survival plots revealed a significant positive association between BMI category and survival for exercise capacity less than 4 METs (log-rank, P=.05), but not greater than or equal to 4 METs (P=.76). In the multivariable-adjusted models, exercise capacity (per 1 MET) was inversely associated, but BMI was not associated, with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.85-0.94; P<.001 and hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.97-1.01; P=.16, respectively). Maximal exercise capacity modified the relationship between BMI and long-term survival in patients with HF, upholding the presence of an exercise capacity-obesity paradox dichotomy as observed over the short-term in previous studies. Copyright © 2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of machine learning techniques to predict all-cause mortality using fitness data: the Henry ford exercIse testing (FIT) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, Sherif; Elshawi, Radwa; Ahmed, Amjad M; Qureshi, Waqas T; Brawner, Clinton A; Keteyian, Steven J; Blaha, Michael J; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2017-12-19

    Prior studies have demonstrated that cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a strong marker of cardiovascular health. Machine learning (ML) can enhance the prediction of outcomes through classification techniques that classify the data into predetermined categories. The aim of this study is to present an evaluation and comparison of how machine learning techniques can be applied on medical records of cardiorespiratory fitness and how the various techniques differ in terms of capabilities of predicting medical outcomes (e.g. mortality). We use data of 34,212 patients free of known coronary artery disease or heart failure who underwent clinician-referred exercise treadmill stress testing at Henry Ford Health Systems Between 1991 and 2009 and had a complete 10-year follow-up. Seven machine learning classification techniques were evaluated: Decision Tree (DT), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Naïve Bayesian Classifier (BC), Bayesian Network (BN), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) and Random Forest (RF). In order to handle the imbalanced dataset used, the Synthetic Minority Over-Sampling Technique (SMOTE) is used. Two set of experiments have been conducted with and without the SMOTE sampling technique. On average over different evaluation metrics, SVM Classifier has shown the lowest performance while other models like BN, BC and DT performed better. The RF classifier has shown the best performance (AUC = 0.97) among all models trained using the SMOTE sampling. The results show that various ML techniques can significantly vary in terms of its performance for the different evaluation metrics. It is also not necessarily that the more complex the ML model, the more prediction accuracy can be achieved. The prediction performance of all models trained with SMOTE is much better than the performance of models trained without SMOTE. The study shows the potential of machine learning methods for predicting all-cause mortality using cardiorespiratory fitness

  12. Comparison between 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test and Multistage Field Test on physiological responses in wheelchair basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry eWeissland

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The intermittent nature of wheelchair court sports suggests using a similar protocol to assess repeated shuttles and recovery abilities. This study aimed to compare performances, physiological responses and perceived rating exertion obtained from the continuous multistage field test (MFT and the 30-15 intermittent field test (30-15IFT. Eighteen trained wheelchair basketball players (WBP (WBP: 32.0±5.7y, IWBF classification: 2.9±1.1points performed both incremental field tests in randomized order. Time to exhaustion, maximal rolling velocity (MRV, VO2peak and the peak values of minute ventilation (VEpeak, respiratory frequency (RF and heart rate (HRpeak were measured throughout both tests; peak and net blood lactate (Δ [Lact-] = peak–rest values and perceived rating exertion (RPE values at the end of each exercise. No significant difference in VO2peak, VEpeak and RF was found between both tests. 30-15IFT was shorter (12.4±2.4 vs. 14.9±5.1min, P<0.05 but induced higher values of MRV and Δ [Lact-] compared to MFT (14.2±1.8 vs. 11.1±1.9km•h-1 and 8.3±4.2 vs. 6.9±3.3mmol•L-1, P<0.05. However, HRpeak and RPE values were higher during MFT than 30-15IFT (172.8±14.0 vs. 166.8±13.8bpm and 15.3±3.8 vs.13.8±3.5, respectively, P<0.05. The intermittent shuttles intercepted with rest period occurred during the 30-15IFT could explain a greater anaerobic solicitation. The higher HR and overall RPE values measured at the end of MFT could be explained by its longer duration and a continuous load stress compared to 30-15IFT. In conclusion, 30-15IFT has some advantages over MFT for assess in addition physical fitness and technical performance in WBP.

  13. Test and intercomparisons of data fitting with general least squares code GMA versus Bayesian code GLUCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronyaev, V.G.

    2003-01-01

    Data fitting with GMA and GLUCS gives consistent results. Difference in the evaluated central values obtained with different formalisms can be related to the general accuracy with which fits could be done in different formalisms. It has stochastic nature and should be accounted in the final results of the data evaluation as small SERC uncertainty. Some shift in central values of data evaluated with GLUCS and GMA relative the central values evaluated with the R-matrix model code RAC is observed for cases of fitting strongly varying data and is related to the PPP. The procedure of evaluation, free from PPP, should be elaborated. (author)

  14. Assessing child belt fit, volume II : effect of restraint configuration, booster seat designs, seating procedure, and belt fit on the dynamic response of the hybrid III 10-year-old ATD in sled tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    A total of 49 dynamic sled tests were performed with the Hybrid III 10YO to examine issues relating to child belt fit. The goals of these tests were to evaluate ATD response to realistic belt geometries and belt fit, develop methods for accurate, rep...

  15. Particulate face masks for protection against airborne pathogens - one size does not fit all: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Susan; Thomas, Jane H; Stephens, Dianne P; Davis, Joshua S

    2010-03-01

    To determine the proportion of hospital staff who pass fit tests with each of three commonly used particulate face masks, and factors influencing preference and fit test results. Observational study. 50 healthy hospital staff volunteers in an 18-bed general intensive care unit in an Australian teaching hospital. Participants were administered a questionnaire about mask use and their preferred mask and underwent qualitative fit-testing with each of three different particulate masks: Kimberly-Clark Tecnol FluidShield N95 particulate filter respirator (KC), 3M Flat Fold 9320 particulate respirator and 3M 8822 particulate respirator with exhalation valve. Participants who failed fittesting were trained in correct mask donning, and fittesting was repeated. Proportion of participants who passed the fit test for each mask and the effect of training. The proportion of participants who passed a fit test was low for all three masks tested (KC, 16%; flat fold, 28%; and valved, 34%). Rates improved after training: the first mask tested fitted in 18% of participants pre-training and 40% post-training (P = 0.02). None of the masks fitted for 28% of participants. There were no significant predictors of fit-test results. A large proportion of individuals failed a fit test with any given mask, and we were not able to identify any factors that predicted mask fit in individuals. Training on mask use improved the rates of adequate fit. Hospitals should carry a range of P2 masks, and should conduct systematic P2 mask training and fit-testing programs for all staff potentially exposed to airborne pathogens.

  16. Analysing model fit of psychometric process models: An overview, a new test and an application to the diffusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias; Szardenings, Carsten

    2017-05-01

    Cognitive psychometric models embed cognitive process models into a latent trait framework in order to allow for individual differences. Due to their close relationship to the response process the models allow for profound conclusions about the test takers. However, before such a model can be used its fit has to be checked carefully. In this manuscript we give an overview over existing tests of model fit and show their relation to the generalized moment test of Newey (Econometrica, 53, 1985, 1047) and Tauchen (J. Econometrics, 30, 1985, 415). We also present a new test, the Hausman test of misspecification (Hausman, Econometrica, 46, 1978, 1251). The Hausman test consists of a comparison of two estimates of the same item parameters which should be similar if the model holds. The performance of the Hausman test is evaluated in a simulation study. In this study we illustrate its application to two popular models in cognitive psychometrics, the Q-diffusion model and the D-diffusion model (van der Maas, Molenaar, Maris, Kievit, & Boorsboom, Psychol Rev., 118, 2011, 339; Molenaar, Tuerlinckx, & van der Maas, J. Stat. Softw., 66, 2015, 1). We also compare the performance of the test to four alternative tests of model fit, namely the M 2 test (Molenaar et al., J. Stat. Softw., 66, 2015, 1), the moment test (Ranger et al., Br. J. Math. Stat. Psychol., 2016) and the test for binned time (Ranger & Kuhn, Psychol. Test. Asess. , 56, 2014b, 370). The simulation study indicates that the Hausman test is superior to the latter tests. The test closely adheres to the nominal Type I error rate and has higher power in most simulation conditions. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  17. FITTING AND TESTING ALLOMETRIC EQUATIONS FOR MEXICO’S SINALOAN TROPICAL DRY TREES AND FOREST INVENTORY PLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose de Jesus Navar Chaidez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aboveground tree biomass (bole, branches and foliage, M, plays a key role in the conventional and sustainable management of forest communities. The standard approach to assess tree or plot M is harvesting trees, developing and fitting allometric equations to trees or forest inventory plot data. In the absence of local tree allometry, it is usually recommended to fit off site allometric equations to evaluate tree or plot M. This research aims: (a to develop an updated on site allometric equation (b to fit available off site allometric equations to destructively harvested trees and (c to fit available allometric equations to plot M of Mexico’s Sinaloan tropical dry forests to understand sources of inherent tree and plot M variability. Results showed that: (a the improved on site allometric equation increases precision in contrast to the conventional biomass equation previously reported as well as to off site tree M equations, (b off site allometry projects tree and plot M deviates by close to one order of magnitude. Two tested and recommended approaches to increase tree and plot M precision when fitting off site equations are: (i to use all available tree allometric functions to come up with a mean equation or (ii to calibrate off site equations by fitting new, local parameters that can be calculated using statistical programs.These options would eventually increase tree and plot M precision in regional evaluations.

  18. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  19. Challenge of N95 and P100 Filtering Facepiece Respirators with Particles Containing Viable H1N1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-02

    test protocols have been previously described (2). Briefly, the LSAT is composed of 10-cm diameter stainless steel sanitary fittings and a 15-cm...coughing in Human Subjects. Journal of Aerosol Medicine 20:484-494. 15. WK19997: Standard test method for effectiveness of decontamination of air...facepiece respirator g gram(s) H1N1 a strain of influenza A identified by its hemagglutinin and neuraminindase Kr-85 a radioactive isotope of krypton

  20. Testing for strategy-structure fit and its importance for performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Aleksić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding different organizational elements, their mutual influence and creating congruence among them has been recognized as an important determinant of organizational performance. These complex interrelationships, and necessity of creating a fit between them, raises the question of how to align different organizational elements to contribute to overall organizational performance. In that sense, this paper addresses the issue of fit and, more specifically, analyses the presence and influence of strategy-structure fit on organizational performance. By using Miles and Snow typology, our goal was to capture and determine the pattern of relationships between strategy, structure, and strategy implementation processes and their influence on organizational performance. This paper presents results of a cross-sectional field research on a sample of 113 organizations in order to gain a better understanding of strategy-structure fit and its relation to performance. Results reinforce the existing literature and confirm the importance of fit among strategy, structure and strategy implementation process for higher levels of organizational performance.

  1. Differences in physical-fitness test scores between actively and passively recruited older adults : Consequences for norm-based classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heuvelen, M.J.G.; Stevens, M.; Kempen, G.I.J.M.

    This study investigated differences in physical-fitness test scores between actively and passively recruited older adults and the consequences thereof for norm-based classification of individuals. Walking endurance, grip strength, hip flexibility, balance, manual dexterity, and reaction time were

  2. Anthropometry of a Fit Test Sample used in Evaluating the Current and Improved MCU-2/P Masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    METHOD Forty-two head and face measurements were taken on each subject after he/she had completed MSA’s series of fit tests. Of these, 15 were measured...BREADTH Using spreading calipers, the hori- zontal distance between the fronto- temporale landmarks. 25 MEASUREMENT DESCRIPTIONS (cont’d) 13. NASAL

  3. Measures of effect size for chi-squared and likelihood-ratio goodness-of-fit tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janis E; Berry, Kenneth J; Mielke, Paul W

    2006-10-01

    A fundamental shift in editorial policy for psychological journals was initiated when the fourth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (1994) placed emphasis on reporting measures of effect size. This paper presents measures of effect size for the chi-squared and the likelihood-ratio goodness-of-fit statistic tests.

  4. Testing Usability and Acceptability of a Web Application to Promote Physical Activity (iCanFit) Among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Daniel; Dahlke, Deborah Vollmer; Ory, Marcia G; Cargill, Jessica S; Coughlin, Rachel; Hernandez, Edgar; Kellstedt, Debra K; Peres, S Camille

    2014-01-01

    Background Most older Americans do not exercise regularly and many have chronic conditions. Among an increasing number of fitness mobile and Web apps, few are designed for older adults with chronic conditions despite high ownership rates of mobile tools and Internet access in this population. We designed a mobile-enabled Web app, iCanFit, to promote physical activity in this population. Objective This study aimed to test the usability and acceptability of iCanFit among older adults in a community setting. Methods A total of 33 older adults (aged 60 to 82 years) were recruited from communities to test iCanFit. Of these 33, 10 participants completed the usability testing in a computer room of a senior community center. A research assistant timed each Web application task and observed user navigation behavior using usability metrics. The other 23 participants used the website on their own devices at home and provided feedback after 2-3 weeks by completing a user-experience survey assessing ease of use, helpfulness, and satisfaction with iCanFit. Results Participants completed all 15 tasks on the iCanFit site in an average of 31 (SD 6.9) minutes; some tasks required more time or needed assistance. Participants’ comments were addressed to improve the site’s senior friendliness and ease of use. In the user-experience survey, participants reported high levels of usefulness and satisfaction. More than 56% (13/23) of participants indicated they would continue using the program and recommend it to their families or friends. Conclusions Testing usability and acceptability is a very important step in developing age-appropriate and user-friendly Web apps, especially for older adults. Testing usability and acceptability in a community setting can help reveal users’ experiences and feedback in a real-life setting. Our study suggested that older adults had a high degree of acceptance of iCanFit and could use it easily. The efficacy trial of iCanFit is currently underway

  5. Isolated Rhabdomyolysis of the Infraspinatus Muscle Following the CrossFit "Sissy Test": A Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routman, Howard D; Triplet, Jacob J; Kurowicki, Jennifer; Singh, Neil

    2018-01-01

    Following the completion of a CrossFit-style challenge (the "Sissy Test"), 2 patients presented with severe pain and swelling over the posterior aspect of the scapula. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated isolated edema of the infraspinatus muscle in both patients; the compartments were compressible. Neurovascular checks and observation of range of motion were performed. The patients were treated nonoperatively and were discharged with the diagnosis of overuse syndrome with rhabdomyolysis of the infraspinatus muscle. With marked increase in the popularity of extreme fitness, monitoring for rhabdomyolysis and potential renal dysfunction is essential.

  6. Feasibility of a pre-implantation fitting test for an implantable hearing aid using a VR (virtual reality) software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dammann, F.; Bode, A.; Heuschmid, M.; Schwaderer, E.; Schaich, M.; Seemann, M.; Claussen, C.D.; Maassen, M.; Zenner, H.P.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To prove the feasibility of a preoperative fitting test for an implantable hearing aid using a VR environment. Methods: A high-resolution spiral CT was performed after mastoidectomy in 10 temporal bone specimens. The bony structures were segmented and merged with the computer-aided design (CAD) data of the hearing aid in a VR environment. For each specimen a three-dimensional fitting test was carried out by three examiners determining the implantability of the hearing aid. The implantation simulation was compared with the real implantation procedure performed by an experienced ENT surgeon. Results: The used VR system enabled real-time 3D-visualisation and manipulation of CT- and CAD-data. All objects could be independently moved in all three dimensions. The VR fitting test corresponded closely with the real implantation. The implantability of the hearing aid was properly predicted by all three examiners. Conclusion: Merging CT and CAD data in a virtual reality environment bears high potential for the presurgical determination of the fit and mountability of medical implants in complex anatomical regions. (orig.) [de

  7. Relationships of leaf dark respiration to leaf nitrogen, specific leaf area and leaf life-span: a test across biomes and functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Peter B; Walters, Michael B; Ellsworth, David S; Vose, James M; Volin, John C; Gresham, Charles; Bowman, William D

    1998-05-01

    Based on prior evidence of coordinated multiple leaf trait scaling, we hypothesized that variation among species in leaf dark respiration rate (R d ) should scale with variation in traits such as leaf nitrogen (N), leaf life-span, specific leaf area (SLA), and net photosynthetic capacity (A max ). However, it is not known whether such scaling, if it exists, is similar among disparate biomes and plant functional types. We tested this idea by examining the interspecific relationships between R d measured at a standard temperature and leaf life-span, N, SLA and A max for 69 species from four functional groups (forbs, broad-leafed trees and shrubs, and needle-leafed conifers) in six biomes traversing the Americas: alpine tundra/subalpine forest, Colorado; cold temperate forest/grassland, Wisconsin; cool temperate forest, North Carolina; desert/shrubland, New Mexico; subtropical forest, South Carolina; and tropical rain forest, Amazonas, Venezuela. Area-based R d was positively related to area-based leaf N within functional groups and for all species pooled, but not when comparing among species within any site. At all sites, mass-based R d (R d-mass ) decreased sharply with increasing leaf life-span and was positively related to SLA and mass-based A max and leaf N (leaf N mass ). These intra-biome relationships were similar in shape and slope among sites, where in each case we compared species belonging to different plant functional groups. Significant R d-mass -N mass relationships were observed in all functional groups (pooled across sites), but the relationships differed, with higher R d at any given leaf N in functional groups (such as forbs) with higher SLA and shorter leaf life-span. Regardless of biome or functional group, R d-mass was well predicted by all combinations of leaf life-span, N mass and/or SLA (r 2 ≥ 0.79, P morphological, chemical and metabolic traits.

  8. In situ Hearing Tests for the Purpose of a Self-Fit Hearing Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boymans, Monique; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the potential and limitations of a self-fit hearing aid. This can be used in the "developing" world or in countries with large distances between the hearing-impaired subjects and the professional. It contains an on-board tone generator for in situ user-controlled, automated

  9. Synergy effects of fluoxetine and variability in temperature lead to proportionally greater fitness costs in Daphnia: A multigenerational test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Miguel; Inocentes, Núrya; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Oliveira, Miguel

    2017-12-01

    Increased variability in water temperature is predicted to impose disproportionally greater fitness costs than mean increase in temperature. Additionally, water contaminants are currently a major source of human-induced stress likely to produce fitness costs. Global change models forecast an increase in these two human-induced stressors. Yet, in spite the growing interest in understanding how organisms respond to global change, the joint fitness effects of water pollution and increased variability in temperature remain unclear. Here, using a multigenerational design, we test the hypothesis that exposure to high concentrations of fluoxetine, a human medicine commonly found in freshwater systems, causes increased lifetime fitness costs, when associated with increased variability in temperature. Although fluoxetine and variability in temperature elicited some fitness cost when tested alone, when both stressors acted together the costs were disproportionally greater. The combined effect of fluoxetine and variability in temperature led to a reduction of 37% in lifetime reproductive success and a 17.9% decrease in population growth rate. Interestingly, fluoxetine and variability in temperature had no effect on the probability of survival. Freshwater systems are among the most imperilled ecosystems, often exposed to multiple human-induced stressors. Our results indicate that organisms face greater fitness risk when exposed to multiple stressors at the same time than when each stress acts alone. Our study highlights the importance of using a multi-generational approach to fully understand individual environmental tolerance and its responses to a global change scenario in aquatic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reliable Prediction of Insulin Resistance by a School-Based Fitness Test in Middle-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Varness

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 Determine the predictive value of a school-based test of cardiovascular fitness (CVF for insulin resistance (IR; (2 compare a “school-based” prediction of IR to a “laboratory-based” prediction, using various measures of fitness and body composition. Methods. Middle school children (n=82 performed the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER, a school-based CVF test, and underwent evaluation of maximal oxygen consumption treadmill testing (VO2 max, body composition (percent body fat and BMI z score, and IR (derived homeostasis model assessment index [HOMAIR]. Results. PACER showed a strong correlation with VO2 max/kg (rs = 0.83, P<.001 and with HOMAIR (rs = −0.60, P<.001. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that a school-based model (using PACER and BMI z score predicted IR similar to a laboratory-based model (using VO2 max/kg of lean body mass and percent body fat. Conclusions. The PACER is a valid school-based test of CVF, is predictive of IR, and has a similar relationship to IR when compared to complex laboratory-based testing. Simple school-based measures of childhood fitness (PACER and fatness (BMI z score could be used to identify childhood risk for IR and evaluate interventions.

  11. Reliable Prediction of Insulin Resistance by a School-Based Fitness Test in Middle-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen DavidB

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 Determine the predictive value of a school-based test of cardiovascular fitness (CVF for insulin resistance (IR; (2 compare a "school-based" prediction of IR to a "laboratory-based" prediction, using various measures of fitness and body composition. Methods. Middle school children ( performed the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER, a school-based CVF test, and underwent evaluation of maximal oxygen consumption treadmill testing ( max, body composition (percent body fat and BMI z score, and IR (derived homeostasis model assessment index []. Results. PACER showed a strong correlation with max/kg ( = 0.83, and with ( = , . Multivariate regression analysis revealed that a school-based model (using PACER and BMI z score predicted IR similar to a laboratory-based model (using max/kg of lean body mass and percent body fat. Conclusions. The PACER is a valid school-based test of CVF, is predictive of IR, and has a similar relationship to IR when compared to complex laboratory-based testing. Simple school-based measures of childhood fitness (PACER and fatness (BMI z score could be used to identify childhood risk for IR and evaluate interventions.

  12. Measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness in children from two commonly used field tests after accounting for body fatness and maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Michael J; Fraser, Meegan; Lizamore, Catherine A; Draper, Nick; Shearman, Jeremy P; Kimber, Nicholas E

    2014-03-27

    Body fat and maturation both influence cardiorespiratory fitness, however few studies have taken these variables into account when using field tests to predict children's fitness levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between two field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m Maximal Multistage Shuttle Run [20-MST], 550 m distance run [550-m]) and direct measurement of VO2max after adjustment for body fatness and maturity levels. Fifty-three participants (25 boys, 28 girls, age 10.6 ± 1.2 y, mean ± SD) had their body fat levels estimated using bioelectrical impedance (16.6% ± 6.0% and 20.0% ± 5.8% for boys and girls, respectively). Participants performed in random order, the 20-MST and 550-m run followed by a progressive treadmill test to exhaustion during which gas exchange measures were taken. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the participants' performance in the 20-MST and 550-m run were highly correlated to VO2max obtained during the treadmill test to exhaustion (r = 0.70 and 0.59 for 20-MST and 550-m run, respectively). Adjusting for body fatness and maturity levels in a multivariate regression analysis increased the associations between the field tests and VO2max (r = 0.73 for 20-MST and 0.65 for 550-m). We may conclude that both the 20-MST and the 550-m distance run are valid field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness in New Zealand 8-13 year old children and incorporating body fatness and maturity levels explains an additional 5-7% of the variance.

  13. A systematic review to determine reliability and usefulness of the field-based test batteries for the assessment of physical fitness in adolescents – The ASSO Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Bianco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review is to investigate the main field-based tests, used alone or included in sport or fitness batteries, for the assessment of health- and skill-related physical fitness components in adolescents. Different scientific databases were searched through using the selected key words related to physical fitness and its components for adolescence. The search focused on original articles and reviews/meta-analyses using valid, reproducible and feasible tests that fit within the school environment. A total of 100 scientific manuscripts were included in the qualitative synthesis. The present systematic review pointed out 5 fitness tests that well adapt to the evaluation of the components of physical fitness of adolescents within a school environment: the 20 m shuttle run test for cardio-respiratory endurance; the handgrip strength test for upper body maximal strength; the standing broad jump test for lower body maximal strength; the sit-up test to exhaustion for muscular endurance and the 4×10 m shuttle run test for speed, agility and coordination. These fitness tests have been finally selected and incorporated into the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity prevention – Fitness Test Battery (ASSO-FTB, and will be adopted within the ASSO Project for evaluation purposes. This instrument could be also provided to teachers and people working in schools in order to assess physical fitness of adolescents over time and prevent obesity and related diseases.

  14. Evaluation of Cooper 12-minute walk/run test as a marker of cardiorespiratory fitness in young urban children with persistent asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgerber, Michael; Danduran, Michael; Meurer, John; Hartmann, Kathryn; Berger, Stuart; Flores, Glenn

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate Cooper 12-minute run/walk test (CT12) as a one-time estimate of cardiorespiratory fitness and marker of fitness change compared with treadmill fitness testing in young children with persistent asthma. A cohort of urban children with asthma participated in the asthma and exercise program and a subset completed pre- and postintervention fitness testing. Treadmill fitness testing was conducted by an exercise physiologist in the fitness laboratory at an academic children's hospital. CT12 was conducted in a college recreation center gymnasium. Forty-five urban children with persistent asthma aged 7 to 14 years participated in exercise interventions. A subset of 19 children completed pre- and postintervention exercise testing. Participants completed a 9-week exercise program where they participated in either swimming or golf 3 days a week for 1 hour. A subset of participants completed fitness testing by 2 methods before and after program completion. CT12 results (meters), maximal oxygen consumption ((.)Vo2max) (mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)), and treadmill exercise time (minutes). CT12 and maximal oxygen consumption were moderately correlated (preintervention: 0.55, P = 0.003; postintervention: 0.48, P = 0.04) as one-time measures of fitness. Correlations of the tests as markers of change over time were poor and nonsignificant. In children with asthma, CT12 is a reasonable one-time estimate of fitness but a poor marker of fitness change over time.

  15. Feasibility and Reliability of Tests Measuring Health-Related Physical Fitness in Children with Moderate to Severe Levels of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Marieke; van der Zanden, Anna M.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.

    2017-01-01

    Physical fitness is an important marker for health. In this study we investigated the feasibility and reliability of health-related physical fitness tests in children with moderate to severe levels of intellectual disability. Thirty-nine children (2-18 yrs) performed tests for muscular strength and endurance, the modified 6-minute walk test (6mwt)…

  16. Testing Cort-Fitness and Cort-Adaptation hypotheses in a habitat suitability gradient for roe deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Avila, Gema; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Virgós, Emilio; Lara-Romero, Carlos; Lozano, Jorge; Barja, Isabel; Cuadra, Felipe S.; Puerta, Marisa

    2013-11-01

    According to the Cort-Fitness Hypothesis, higher stress levels (glucocorticoids) in vertebrates are correlated to lower fitness. However, recent studies have failed to validate this hypothesis. A proposed wider framework suggests that reproduction can be perceived as an overload adds up to other environmental challenges that individuals must adjust to. In this case, elevated glucocorticoids could help individuals to allocate resources to reproduction without comprising other functions, leading to the expectation of a positive cort-fitness relationship. This has been proposed as the Cort-Adaptation Hypothesis. Stress levels result from a complex interaction between the environment and the neuroendocrine system of animals. Accounting for physiological functions involved in how animals cope with their environment would help to clarify the relationship between glucocorticoids and animal performance. We used roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) inhabiting diverse habitats in the Iberian Peninsula to: i) test the Cort-Fitness and Cort-Adaptation hypotheses by indexing fitness using a comprehensive physiological approach which takes into account fundamental physiological functions and their trade-offs; and ii) evaluate the link between primary productivity and individuals' condition in a seasonal environment. We evaluated spatial and temporal variation in stress levels, reproductive hormone levels, nutritional status and immune function from fecal samples collected in 2010. Lower stress levels were related to better condition in non-reproductive seasons but not to higher primary productivity. In contrast, stress levels were always positively related to reproductive condition, which was better in most productive habitats. Summer and winter were the less productive seasons and the more challenging for the species in the habitat gradient studied. In winter, reproductive condition traded off against immune function being biased toward immune function in less productive habitats. In

  17. A Rigorous Test of the Fit of the Circumplex Model to Big Five Personality Data: Theoretical and Methodological Issues and Two Large Sample Empirical Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGeest, David Scott; Schmidt, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to apply the rigorous test developed by Browne (1992) to determine whether the circumplex model fits Big Five personality data. This test has yet to be applied to personality data. Another objective was to determine whether blended items explained correlations among the Big Five traits. We used two working adult samples, the Eugene-Springfield Community Sample and the Professional Worker Career Experience Survey. Fit to the circumplex was tested via Browne's (1992) procedure. Circumplexes were graphed to identify items with loadings on multiple traits (blended items), and to determine whether removing these items changed five-factor model (FFM) trait intercorrelations. In both samples, the circumplex structure fit the FFM traits well. Each sample had items with dual-factor loadings (8 items in the first sample, 21 in the second). Removing blended items had little effect on construct-level intercorrelations among FFM traits. We conclude that rigorous tests show that the fit of personality data to the circumplex model is good. This finding means the circumplex model is competitive with the factor model in understanding the organization of personality traits. The circumplex structure also provides a theoretically and empirically sound rationale for evaluating intercorrelations among FFM traits. Even after eliminating blended items, FFM personality traits remained correlated.

  18. Strain Gage Load Calibration of the Wing Interface Fittings for the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flap Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric J.; Holguin, Andrew C.; Cruz, Josue; Lokos, William A.

    2014-01-01

    This is the presentation to follow conference paper of the same name. The adaptive compliant trailing edge (ACTE) flap experiment safety of flight requires that the flap to wing interface loads be sensed and monitored in real time to ensure that the wing structural load limits are not exceeded. This paper discusses the strain gage load calibration testing and load equation derivation methodology for the ACTE interface fittings. Both the left and right wing flap interfaces will be monitored and each contains four uniquely designed and instrumented flap interface fittings. The interface hardware design and instrumentation layout are discussed. Twenty one applied test load cases were developed using the predicted in-flight loads for the ACTE experiment.

  19. The fitness landscape of HIV-1 gag: advanced modeling approaches and validation of model predictions by in vitro testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaclyn K Mann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Viral immune evasion by sequence variation is a major hindrance to HIV-1 vaccine design. To address this challenge, our group has developed a computational model, rooted in physics, that aims to predict the fitness landscape of HIV-1 proteins in order to design vaccine immunogens that lead to impaired viral fitness, thus blocking viable escape routes. Here, we advance the computational models to address previous limitations, and directly test model predictions against in vitro fitness measurements of HIV-1 strains containing multiple Gag mutations. We incorporated regularization into the model fitting procedure to address finite sampling. Further, we developed a model that accounts for the specific identity of mutant amino acids (Potts model, generalizing our previous approach (Ising model that is unable to distinguish between different mutant amino acids. Gag mutation combinations (17 pairs, 1 triple and 25 single mutations within these predicted to be either harmful to HIV-1 viability or fitness-neutral were introduced into HIV-1 NL4-3 by site-directed mutagenesis and replication capacities of these mutants were assayed in vitro. The predicted and measured fitness of the corresponding mutants for the original Ising model (r = -0.74, p = 3.6×10-6 are strongly correlated, and this was further strengthened in the regularized Ising model (r = -0.83, p = 3.7×10-12. Performance of the Potts model (r = -0.73, p = 9.7×10-9 was similar to that of the Ising model, indicating that the binary approximation is sufficient for capturing fitness effects of common mutants at sites of low amino acid diversity. However, we show that the Potts model is expected to improve predictive power for more variable proteins. Overall, our results support the ability of the computational models to robustly predict the relative fitness of mutant viral strains, and indicate the potential value of this approach for understanding viral immune evasion

  20. Testing the goodness of fit of selected infiltration models on soils with different land use histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.

    1993-10-01

    Six infiltration models, some obtained by reformulating the fitting parameters of the classical Kostiakov (1932) and Philip (1957) equations, were investigated for their ability to describe water infiltration into highly permeable sandy soils from the Nsukka plains of SE Nigeria. The models were Kostiakov, Modified Kostiakov (A), Modified Kostiakov (B), Philip, Modified Philip (A) and Modified Philip (B). Infiltration data were obtained from double ring infiltrometers on field plots established on a Knadic Paleustult (Nkpologu series) to investigate the effects of land use on soil properties and maize yield. The treatments were; (i) tilled-mulched (TM), (ii) tilled-unmulched (TU), (iii) untilled-mulched (UM), (iv) untilled-unmulched (UU) and (v) continuous pasture (CP). Cumulative infiltration was highest on the TM and lowest on the CP plots. All estimated model parameters obtained by the best fit of measured data differed significantly among the treatments. Based on the magnitude of R 2 values, the Kostiakov, Modified Kostiakov (A), Philip and Modified Philip (A) models provided best predictions of cumulative infiltration as a function of time. Comparing experimental with model-predicted cumulative infiltration showed, however, that on all treatments the values predicted by the classical Kostiakov, Philip and Modified Philip (A) models deviated most from experimental data. The other models produced values that agreed very well with measured data. Considering the eases of determining the fitting parameters it is proposed that on soils with high infiltration rates, either Modified Kostiakov model (I = Kt a + Ict) or Modified Philip model (I St 1/2 + Ict), (where I is cumulative infiltration, K, the time coefficient, t, time elapsed, 'a' the time exponent, Ic the equilibrium infiltration rate and S, the soil water sorptivity), be used for routine characterization of the infiltration process. (author). 33 refs, 3 figs 6 tabs

  1. Plant species richness regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, André Tavares Corrêa; van Ruijven, Jasper; Berendse, Frank

    2010-07-01

    Soil respiration is an important pathway of the C cycle. However, it is still poorly understood how changes in plant community diversity can affect this ecosystem process. Here we used a long-term experiment consisting of a gradient of grassland plant species richness to test for effects of diversity on soil respiration. We hypothesized that plant diversity could affect soil respiration in two ways. On the one hand, more diverse plant communities have been shown to promote plant productivity, which could increase soil respiration. On the other hand, the nutrient concentration in the biomass produced has been shown to decrease with diversity, which could counteract the production-induced increase in soil respiration. Our results clearly show that soil respiration increased with species richness. Detailed analysis revealed that this effect was not due to differences in species composition. In general, soil respiration in mixtures was higher than would be expected from the monocultures. Path analysis revealed that species richness predominantly regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity. No evidence supporting the hypothesized negative effect of lower N concentration on soil respiration was found. We conclude that shifts in productivity are the main mechanism by which changes in plant diversity may affect soil respiration.

  2. Do Fitness Apps Need Text Reminders? An Experiment Testing Goal-Setting Text Message Reminders to Promote Self-Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Willoughby, Jessica F

    2018-01-01

    Fitness tracking apps have the potential to change unhealthy lifestyles, but users' lack of compliance is an issue. The current intervention examined the effectiveness of using goal-setting theory-based text message reminders to promote tracking activities on fitness apps. We conducted a 2-week experiment with pre- and post-tests with young adults (n = 50). Participants were randomly assigned to two groups-a goal-setting text message reminder group and a generic text message reminder group. Participants were asked to use a fitness tracking app to log physical activity and diet for the duration of the study. Participants who received goal-setting reminders logged significantly more physical activities than those who only received generic reminders. Further, participants who received goal-setting reminders liked the messages and showed significantly increased self-efficacy, awareness of personal goals, motivation, and intention to use the app. The study shows that incorporating goal-setting theory-based text message reminders can be useful to boost user compliance with self-monitoring fitness apps by reinforcing users' personal goals and enhancing cognitive factors associated with health behavior change.

  3. Designing and testing a classroom curriculum to teach preschoolers about the biology of physical activity: The respiration system as an underlying biological causal mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Tracy S.

    The present study examined young children's understanding of respiration and oxygen as a source of vital energy underlying physical activity. Specifically, the purpose of the study was to explore whether a coherent biological theory, characterized by an understanding that bodily parts (heart and lungs) and processes (oxygen in respiration) as part of a biological system, can be taught as a foundational concept to reason about physical activity. The effects of a biology-based intervention curriculum designed to teach preschool children about bodily functions as a part of the respiratory system, the role of oxygen as a vital substance and how physical activity acts an energy source were examined. Participants were recruited from three private preschool classrooms (two treatment; 1 control) in Southern California and included a total of 48 four-year-old children (30 treatment; 18 control). Findings from this study suggested that young children could be taught relevant biological concepts about the role of oxygen in respiratory processes. Children who received biology-based intervention curriculum made significant gains in their understanding of the biology of respiration, identification of physical and sedentary activities. In addition these children demonstrated that coherence of conceptual knowledge was correlated with improved accuracy at activity identification and reasoning about the inner workings of the body contributing to endurance. Findings from this study provided evidence to support the benefits of providing age appropriate but complex coherent biological instruction to children in early childhood settings.

  4. Cattle respiration facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, the emission rate of methane from dairy cows has been calculated using the IPCC standard values for dairy cows in Western countries, due to the lack of national data. Therefore, four respiration chambers for dairy cows were built with the main purpose of measuring methane, but also...

  5. Nintendo Wii Fit-Based Sleepiness Testing is Not Impaired by Contagious Sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietäväinen, Aino; Kuvaldina, Maria; Hæggström, Edward

    2018-06-01

    Sleep deprivation may cause accidents, and it has deteriorating effects on health. A measurement of postural steadiness by a portable and affordable Nintendo Wii Fit balance board can be used to quantify a person's alertness. At work, people are under the influence of their environment-often other people-that may affect their alertness. This work investigates whether sleep deprivation among people is "contagious," as quantified by sway measures. We measured 21 volunteers' postural steadiness while alert and sleep deprived. During the measurements, a screen placed in front of the participants showed a footage of either alert or sleep-deprived faces. We found a significant difference between the day time and night time steadiness, but found no effect resulting from watching footage of sleep-deprived people. This finding shows that a posturographic sleepiness tester quantifies physiological sleep deprivation, and is insensitive to the influence of social factors.

  6. The Development and Testing of a Prototype Mini-Baghouse to Control the Release of Respirable Crystalline Silica from Sand Movers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Barbara M.; Esswein, Eric J.; Gressel, Michael G.; Kratzer, Jerry L.; Feng, H. Amy; King, Bradley; Miller, Arthur L.; Cauda, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation of respirable crystalline silica (RCS) is a significant risk to worker health during well completions operations (which include hydraulic fracturing) at conventional and unconventional oil and gas extraction sites. RCS is generated by pneumatic transfer of quartz-containing sand during hydraulic fracturing operations. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers identified concentrations of RCS at hydraulic fracturing sites that exceed 10 times the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) and up to 50 times the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit (REL). NIOSH research identified at least seven point sources of dust release at contemporary oil and gas extraction sites where RCS aerosols were generated. NIOSH researchers recommend the use of engineering controls wherever they can be implemented to limit the RCS released. A control developed to address one of the largest sources of RCS aerosol generation is the NIOSH mini-baghouse assembly, mounted on the thief hatches on top of the sand mover. This manuscript details the results of a trial of the NIOSH mini-baghouse at a sand mine in Arkansas, November 18 – 21, 2013. During the trial, area air samples were collected at 12 locations on and around a sand mover with and without the mini-baghouse control installed. Analytical results for respirable dust and RCS indicate the use of the mini-baghouse effectively reduced both respirable dust and RCS downwind of the thief hatches. Reduction of airborne respirable dust ranged from 85% to 98%; reductions in airborne RCS ranged from 79% to 99%. A bulk sample of dust collected by the baghouse assembly showed the likely presence of freshly fractured quartz, a particularly hazardous form of RCS. Planned future design enhancements will increase the performance and durability of the mini-baghouse, including an improved bag clamp mechanism and upgraded filter fabric with a modified air-to-cloth ratio

  7. Arm cranking versus wheelchair propulsion for testing aerobic fitness in children with spina bifida who are wheelchair dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemen, Manon A T; de Groot, Janke F; Backx, Frank J G; Westerveld, Rosalyne A; Takken, Tim

    2015-05-01

    To determine the best test performance and feasibility using a Graded Arm Cranking Test vs a Graded Wheelchair Propulsion Test in young people with spina bifida who use a wheelchair, and to determine the reliability of the best test. Validity and reliability study. Young people with spina bifida who use a wheelchair. Physiological responses were measured during a Graded Arm Cranking Test and a Graded Wheelchair Propulsion Test using a heart rate monitor and calibrated mobile gas analysis system (Cortex Metamax). For validity, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and peak heart rate (HRpeak) were compared using paired t-tests. For reliability, the intra-class correlation coefficients, standard error of measurement, and standard detectable change were calculated. VO2peak and HRpeak were higher during wheelchair propulsion compared with arm cranking (23.1 vs 19.5 ml/kg/min, p = 0.11; 165 vs 150 beats/min, p propulsion showed high intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) for both VO2peak (ICC = 0.93) and HRpeak (ICC = 0.90). This pilot study shows higher HRpeak and a tendency to higher VO2peak in young people with spina bifida who are using a wheelchair when tested during wheelchair propulsion compared with arm cranking. Wheelchair propulsion showed good reliability. We recommend performing a wheelchair propulsion test for aerobic fitness testing in this population.

  8. Plant Respiration and Climate Change Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, D.

    2002-04-01

    Plant respiration is one of the key processes in terms of an understanding of plant growth and functioning in a future climate. Short- and long-term effects of temperature and CO 2 on plant respiration were investigated in a number of plant species. The experiments tested effects of either temperature and/or CO 2 from the level of individual respiratory enzymes, isolated mitochondria, whole-tissue, and up to the whole canopy level. The short-term effects of elevated atmospheric CO 2 on plant respiration appeared to be less than suggested so far in the literature. This was true both at the tissue level and for intact mitochondria. Respiratory enzymes can, however, be affected already at low CO 2 . These effects did not manifest itself at the tissue level, though, due to low degrees of control on the whole respiratory process exerted by the particular enzymes. Plant respiration on the other hand was affected by long-term growth at elevated atmospheric CO 2 . The findings of the reduced plant respiration at the leaf level were consistent with the literature and potential causes are discussed. Short-term effects of temperature on plant respiration were demonstrated to be dependent on the actual measurement temperature. Further, it is shown that mitochondrial leaf respiration in darkness and light differ substantially in the temperature sensitivity with the former being the far most sensitive. This has implications for modelling CO 2 exchange between vegetation and atmosphere as demonstrated here, since this has so far been neglected. Long-term effects of temperature resulted in respiratory acclimation in a number of species. Respiratory acclimation appeared not to occur to any one single type of growth temperature. The implications of this finding in combination with the timing of acclimation are discussed for modelling respiratory CO 2 release. (au)

  9. Plant Respiration and Climate Change Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruhn, D

    2002-04-01

    Plant respiration is one of the key processes in terms of an understanding of plant growth and functioning in a future climate. Short- and long-term effects of temperature and CO{sub 2} on plant respiration were investigated in a number of plant species. The experiments tested effects of either temperature and/or CO{sub 2} from the level of individual respiratory enzymes, isolated mitochondria, whole-tissue, and up to the whole canopy level. The short-term effects of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on plant respiration appeared to be less than suggested so far in the literature. This was true both at the tissue level and for intact mitochondria. Respiratory enzymes can, however, be affected already at low CO{sub 2}. These effects did not manifest itself at the tissue level, though, due to low degrees of control on the whole respiratory process exerted by the particular enzymes. Plant respiration on the other hand was affected by long-term growth at elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The findings of the reduced plant respiration at the leaf level were consistent with the literature and potential causes are discussed. Short-term effects of temperature on plant respiration were demonstrated to be dependent on the actual measurement temperature. Further, it is shown that mitochondrial leaf respiration in darkness and light differ substantially in the temperature sensitivity with the former being the far most sensitive. This has implications for modelling CO{sub 2} exchange between vegetation and atmosphere as demonstrated here, since this has so far been neglected. Long-term effects of temperature resulted in respiratory acclimation in a number of species. Respiratory acclimation appeared not to occur to any one single type of growth temperature. The implications of this finding in combination with the timing of acclimation are discussed for modelling respiratory CO{sub 2} release. (au)

  10. Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores with cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaara, Jani P; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Niemi, Jaakko; Ohrankämmen, Olli; Häkkinen, Arja; Kocay, Sheila; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationships between maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores additionally to previously widely studied measures of body composition and maximal aerobic capacity. 846 young men (25.5 ± 5.0 yrs) participated in the study. Maximal strength was measured using isometric bench press, leg extension and grip strength. Muscular endurance tests consisted of push-ups, sit-ups and repeated squats. An indirect graded cycle ergometer test was used to estimate maximal aerobic capacity (V(O2)max). Body composition was determined with bioelectrical impedance. Moreover, waist circumference (WC) and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Maximal bench press was positively correlated with push-ups (r = 0.61, p strength (r = 0.34, p strength correlated positively (r = 0.36-0.44, p test scores were related to maximal aerobic capacity and body fat content, while fat free mass was associated with maximal strength test scores and thus is a major determinant for maximal strength. A contributive role of maximal strength to muscular endurance tests could be identified for the upper, but not the lower extremities. These findings suggest that push-up test is not only indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity but also maximal strength of upper body, whereas repeated squat test is mainly indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity, but not maximal strength of lower extremities.

  11. Asymptotically Distribution-Free Goodness-of-Fit Testing for Copulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Can, S.U.; Einmahl, John; Laeven, R.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Consider a random sample from a continuous multivariate distribution function F with copula C. In order to test the null hypothesis that C belongs to a certain parametric family, we construct an under H0 asymptotically distribution-free process that serves as a tests generator. The process is a

  12. Reliability and Usefulness of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test in Male and Female Professional Futsal Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valladares-Rodríguez Santiago

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and usefulness of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT in professional male and female futsal players. Thirteen male (24.4 ± 5.6 years; 174.5 ± 10.3 cm; 70.3 ± 9.9 kg and fourteen female (23.3 ± 4.5 years; 165.8 ± 6.2 cm; 61.7 ± 5.5 kg professional futsal players performed the 30-15IFT on two occasions, separated by 5 days. Maximal intermittent running velocity (VIFT and heart rate at exhaustion (HRpeak data were collected for both tests. Reliability was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, typical error (TE expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV, and smallest worthwhile change (SWC. VIFT demonstrated very good reliability between sessions, both for male (ICC = 0.92 and female (ICC = 0.96 players. As the TE for VIFT and HRpeak was similar to the calculated SWC for both male and female players, the usefulness of the test was rated as “medium”. A change in performance of at least 2 stages in male players, or a change of more than 1 stage in female players could be interpreted as a meaningful change in aerobic futsal fitness. The results of this study demonstrate that the 30-15IFT is both a reliable and useful test for male and female professional futsal players.

  13. Electron Energy Resolution of the ATLAS TILECAL Modules with Fit Filter Method (July 2002 test beam)

    CERN Document Server

    Kulchitskii, Yu A; Vinogradov, V B

    2006-01-01

    The constructed ATLAS detector at the LHC will have the great physics discovery potential, in particular in the detection of a heavy Higgs boson. Calorimeters will play a crucial role in it. It is necessary to have confidence that the calorimeters will perform as expected. With the aim of understanding of performance of the ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter to electrons 12\\% of modules have been exposed in electron beams with various energies by three possible ways: cell-scan at $\\theta =20^o$ at the centers of the front face cells, $\\eta$-scan and tilerow scan at $\\theta = 90^o$ for the module side cells. We have extracted the electron energy resolutions of the $EBM-$ (ANL-44), $EBM+$ (IFA-42) and $BM$ (JINR-55) Modules of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter at energies E = 10, 20, 50, 100 and 180 GeV and $\\theta = 20^o$ and $90^o $ and $\\eta$ scan from the July 2002 testbeam run data using the fit filter method of the PMT signal reconstruction. We have determined the statistical and constant terms for the electron ene...

  14. Nintendo Wii Fit-Based Sleepiness Testing is Not Impaired by Contagious Sleepiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino Tietäväinen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation may cause accidents, and it has deteriorating effects on health. A measurement of postural steadiness by a portable and affordable Nintendo Wii Fit balance board can be used to quantify a person's alertness. At work, people are under the influence of their environment—often other people—that may affect their alertness. This work investigates whether sleep deprivation among people is “contagious,” as quantified by sway measures. We measured 21 volunteers' postural steadiness while alert and sleep deprived. During the measurements, a screen placed in front of the participants showed a footage of either alert or sleep-deprived faces. We found a significant difference between the day time and night time steadiness, but found no effect resulting from watching footage of sleep-deprived people. This finding shows that a posturographic sleepiness tester quantifies physiological sleep deprivation, and is insensitive to the influence of social factors. Keywords: contagious sleepiness, portable and affordable sleepiness tester, posturography, social contagion

  15. Comparison Between 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test and Multistage Field Test on Physiological Responses in Wheelchair Basketball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Weissland, Thierry; Faupin, Arnaud; Borel, Benoit; Leprêtre, Pierre-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The intermittent nature of wheelchair court sports suggests using a similar protocol to assess repeated shuttles and recovery abilities. This study aimed to compare performances, physiological responses and perceived rating exertion obtained from the continuous multistage field test (MFT) and the 30-15 intermittent field test (30-15IFT). Eighteen trained wheelchair basketball players (WBP) (WBP: 32.0 ? 5.7 y, IWBF classification: 2.9 ? 1.1 points) performed both incremental field tests in ran...

  16. Local and omnibus goodness-of-fit tests in classical measurement error models

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Yanyuan; Hart, Jeffrey D.; Janicki, Ryan; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    We consider functional measurement error models, i.e. models where covariates are measured with error and yet no distributional assumptions are made about the mismeasured variable. We propose and study a score-type local test and an orthogonal

  17. A Monte Carlo-adjusted goodness-of-fit test for parametric models describing spatial point patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Dao, Ngocanh

    2014-04-03

    Assessing the goodness-of-fit (GOF) for intricate parametric spatial point process models is important for many application fields. When the probability density of the statistic of the GOF test is intractable, a commonly used procedure is the Monte Carlo GOF test. Additionally, if the data comprise a single dataset, a popular version of the test plugs a parameter estimate in the hypothesized parametric model to generate data for theMonte Carlo GOF test. In this case, the test is invalid because the resulting empirical level does not reach the nominal level. In this article, we propose a method consisting of nested Monte Carlo simulations which has the following advantages: the bias of the resulting empirical level of the test is eliminated, hence the empirical levels can always reach the nominal level, and information about inhomogeneity of the data can be provided.We theoretically justify our testing procedure using Taylor expansions and demonstrate that it is correctly sized through various simulation studies. In our first data application, we discover, in agreement with Illian et al., that Phlebocarya filifolia plants near Perth, Australia, can follow a homogeneous Poisson clustered process that provides insight into the propagation mechanism of these plants. In our second data application, we find, in contrast to Diggle, that a pairwise interaction model provides a good fit to the micro-anatomy data of amacrine cells designed for analyzing the developmental growth of immature retina cells in rabbits. This article has supplementary material online. © 2013 American Statistical Association, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and Interface Foundation of North America.

  18. A 45-Second Self-Test for Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Heart Rate-Based Estimation in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Francesco; Bonato, Matteo; Papini, Gabriele; Bosio, Andrea; Mohammed, Rahil A; Bonomi, Alberto G; Moore, Jonathan P; Merati, Giampiero; La Torre, Antonio; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) is a widespread essential indicator in Sports Science as well as in Sports Medicine. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for CRF based on a 45 second self-test, which can be conducted anywhere. Criterion validity, test re-test study was set up to accomplish our objectives. Data from 81 healthy volunteers (age: 29 ± 8 years, BMI: 24.0 ± 2.9), 18 of whom females, were used to validate this test against gold standard. Nineteen volunteers repeated this test twice in order to evaluate its repeatability. CRF estimation models were developed using heart rate (HR) features extracted from the resting, exercise, and the recovery phase. The most predictive HR feature was the intercept of the linear equation fitting the HR values during the recovery phase normalized for the height2 (r2 = 0.30). The Ruffier-Dickson Index (RDI), which was originally developed for this squat test, showed a negative significant correlation with CRF (r = -0.40), but explained only 15% of the variability in CRF. A multivariate model based on RDI and sex, age and height increased the explained variability up to 53% with a cross validation (CV) error of 0.532 L ∙ min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.91). The best predictive multivariate model made use of the linear intercept of HR at the beginning of the recovery normalized for height2 and age2; this had an adjusted r2 = 0. 59, a CV error of 0.495 L·min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.93). It also had a higher agreement in classifying CRF levels (κ = 0.42) than RDI-based model (κ = 0.29). In conclusion, this simple 45 s self-test can be used to estimate and classify CRF in healthy individuals with moderate accuracy and large repeatability when HR recovery features are included.

  19. A 45-Second Self-Test for Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Heart Rate-Based Estimation in Healthy Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Sartor

    Full Text Available Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF is a widespread essential indicator in Sports Science as well as in Sports Medicine. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for CRF based on a 45 second self-test, which can be conducted anywhere. Criterion validity, test re-test study was set up to accomplish our objectives. Data from 81 healthy volunteers (age: 29 ± 8 years, BMI: 24.0 ± 2.9, 18 of whom females, were used to validate this test against gold standard. Nineteen volunteers repeated this test twice in order to evaluate its repeatability. CRF estimation models were developed using heart rate (HR features extracted from the resting, exercise, and the recovery phase. The most predictive HR feature was the intercept of the linear equation fitting the HR values during the recovery phase normalized for the height2 (r2 = 0.30. The Ruffier-Dickson Index (RDI, which was originally developed for this squat test, showed a negative significant correlation with CRF (r = -0.40, but explained only 15% of the variability in CRF. A multivariate model based on RDI and sex, age and height increased the explained variability up to 53% with a cross validation (CV error of 0.532 L ∙ min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.91. The best predictive multivariate model made use of the linear intercept of HR at the beginning of the recovery normalized for height2 and age2; this had an adjusted r2 = 0. 59, a CV error of 0.495 L·min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.93. It also had a higher agreement in classifying CRF levels (κ = 0.42 than RDI-based model (κ = 0.29. In conclusion, this simple 45 s self-test can be used to estimate and classify CRF in healthy individuals with moderate accuracy and large repeatability when HR recovery features are included.

  20. Physical Fitness Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Alice

    This document presents baseline data on physical fitness that provides an outline for assessing the physical fitness of students. It consists of 4 tasks and a 13-item questionnaire on fitness-related behaviors. The fitness test evaluates cardiorespiratory endurance by a steady state jog; muscular strength and endurance with a two-minute bent-knee…

  1. Performance differences between male and female marines on standardized physical fitness tests and combat proxy tasks: identifying the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Jason; Pappa, Leon; McGuire, Brian; Kelly, Karen R

    2015-01-01

    For decades women have been restricted from direct assignment to certain military occupational specialties such as infantry. These restrictions can limit the advancement of women through the ranks of military leadership. Thus, the purpose of this effort was to identify those physical requirements most likely to serve as barriers for women wanting to enter closed combat arms positions, and to evaluate the quality of existing physical fitness tests as potential measures of assessment of combat readiness. Data were collected from 3 different sites within the US Marine Corps Training and Education Command. All participants (409 male, 379 femaile) were active-duty Marines who recently completed the Physical Fitness Test (PFT) and Combat Fitness Test (CFT). Participants completed 6 physical tasks: 120-mm tank loading drill, 155-mm artillery round carry, negotiating an obstacle course wall while wearing a fighting load (≈30 lb), pull-ups, deadlift, and clean and press. Overall, there was a high rate of successful completion on the combat proxy tasks (men, ≈80% to 100%; women, ≈70% to 100%), with the notable exception being the clean and press (men, 80%; women, 9%) and pull-ups (men, 16±4; women, 4±2). The PFT and CFT components tasks were also related, strongly in some cases, with performance on combat-related proxy tasks (Spearman's ρ typically ranged from 0.60 to 0.80). Estimates of fat-free mass and VO2max were also strongly related to an overall measure of combat readiness (Spearman's ρ=0.77 and ρ=0.56, respectively). The primary physical obstacle for women is upper body strength. However, some women could successfully complete all of the proxy tasks and thus are physically capable of meeting the demands of closed combat occupations. The fact that some female Marines could complete the most challenging upper body strength tasks suggests that these barriers are not inherent but may be due to a lack of training specificity.

  2. Epigenetics and sex-specific fitness: an experimental test using male-limited evolution in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Jessica K; Innocenti, Paolo; Chippindale, Adam K; Morrow, Edward H

    2013-01-01

    When males and females have different fitness optima for the same trait but share loci, intralocus sexual conflict is likely to occur. Epigenetic mechanisms such as genomic imprinting (in which expression is altered according to parent-of-origin) and sex-specific maternal effects have been suggested as ways by which this conflict can be resolved. However these ideas have not yet been empirically tested. We designed an experimental evolution protocol in Drosophila melanogaster that enabled us to look for epigenetic effects on the X-chromosome-a hotspot for sexually antagonistic loci. We used special compound-X females to enforce father-to-son transmission of the X-chromosome for many generations, and compared fitness and gene expression levels between Control males, males with a Control X-chromosome that had undergone one generation of father-son transmission, and males with an X-chromosome that had undergone many generations of father-son transmission. Fitness differences were dramatic, with experimentally-evolved males approximately 20% greater than controls, and with males inheriting a non-evolved X from their father about 20% lower than controls. These data are consistent with both strong intralocus sexual conflict and misimprinting of the X-chromosome under paternal inheritance. However, expression differences suggested that reduced fitness under paternal X inheritance was largely due to deleterious maternal effects. Our data confirm the sexually-antagonistic nature of Drosophila's X-chromosome and suggest that the response to male-limited X-chromosome evolution entails compensatory evolution for maternal effects, and perhaps modification of other epigenetic effects via coevolution of the sex chromosomes.

  3. Community-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening in a Rural Population: Who Returns Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) Kits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Stradtman, Lindsay; Collins, Tom; Vanderpool, Robin

    2017-09-01

    To determine the return rate of community-delivered fecal immunochemical test (FIT) kits in a rural population and to identify significant predictors of returning kits. Residents were recruited in 8 rural Kentucky counties to enroll in the study and receive an FIT kit. Of 345 recruited, 82.0% returned an FIT kit from the point of distribution. These participants were compared to the remainder relative to age, sex, marital status, having an annual income below $15,000, not graduating from high school, not having a regular health care provider, not having health care coverage, being a current smoker, indicating current overweight or obese status, and a scale measure of fatalism pertaining to colorectal cancer. Predictors achieving significance at the bivariate level were entered into a stepwise logistic regression model to calculate adjusted OR and 95% CI. The return rate was 82.0%. In adjusted analyses, those indicating an annual income of less than $15,000 were 2.85 times more likely to return their kits (95% CI: 1.56-5.24; P < .001). Also, those not perceiving themselves to be overweight/obese were 1.95 times more likely to return their kits (95% CI: 1.07-3.55; P = .029). An outreach-based colorectal cancer screening program in a rural population may yield high return rates. People with annual incomes below $15,000 and those not having perceptions of being overweight/obese may be particularly likely to return FIT kits. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  4. Criterion validity and reliability of a smartphone delivered sub-maximal fitness test for people with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinklov, Cecilie Fau; Thorsen, Ida Kær; Karstoft, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prevention of multi-morbidities following non-communicable diseases requires a systematic registration of adverse modifiable risk factors, including low physical fitness. The aim of the study was to establish criterion validity and reliability of a smartphone app (InterWalk) delivered....... The algorithm was validated using leave-one-out cross validation. Test-retest reliability was tested in a subset of participants (N = 10). Results: The overall VO2peak prediction of the algorithm (R2) was 0.60 and 0.45 when the smartphone was placed in the pockets of the pants and jacket, respectively (p ... calorimetry and the acceleration (vector magnitude) from the smartphone was obtained. The vector magnitude was used to predict VO2peak along with the co-variates weight, height and sex. The validity of the algorithm was tested when the smartphone was placed in the right pocket of the pants or jacket...

  5. State adaptation reserves cardiorespiratory system first-year students with varying degrees of physical fitness in terms of treadmill test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Levchenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to examine the state of the cardiorespiratory system in terms of the stress test in first-year students with different levels of fitness. Material : the study involved 43 students, of which 18 boys and 25devushek basic medical group. The study used a treadmill, a pulse oximeter, spirometer. Results : more adjustment disorders were detected in students that are not involved in physical education at school. Decreased ability of the cardiorespiratory system to maintain proper oxygen supply of the organism in the stress test. This is not observed in students who were attending school in addition sports clubs. Found that students with low tolerance to physical exercise need a separate program of physical training, the dynamic control of the teachers and the need for additional medical examination. Conclusions : the treadmill test is an ideal way of revealing hidden maladjustment cardiorespiratory system in adolescence.

  6. Comparison of hypertabastic survival model with other unimodal hazard rate functions using a goodness-of-fit test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, M Ramzan; Tran, Quang X; Nikulin, Mikhail S

    2017-05-30

    We studied the problem of testing a hypothesized distribution in survival regression models when the data is right censored and survival times are influenced by covariates. A modified chi-squared type test, known as Nikulin-Rao-Robson statistic, is applied for the comparison of accelerated failure time models. This statistic is used to test the goodness-of-fit for hypertabastic survival model and four other unimodal hazard rate functions. The results of simulation study showed that the hypertabastic distribution can be used as an alternative to log-logistic and log-normal distribution. In statistical modeling, because of its flexible shape of hazard functions, this distribution can also be used as a competitor of Birnbaum-Saunders and inverse Gaussian distributions. The results for the real data application are shown. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Thermo-Mechanical Test of Seal System in Flexible Pipe End Fittings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1999-01-01

    are driven radially into the barrier layer and supported by the surrounding steel casing. In order to verify the integrity of the concept the seal system is subjected cyclic pressure and temperature variations to simulate the service conditions.The aim of the testing is to demonstrate the sensitivity...... of the seal system geometry and its tolerances necessary to maintain a tight seal. The test is carried out in a purpose built autoclave, in which the seal system can be tested while undergoing variations in pressure and temperature.The paper will present a study on the importance of the geometry of the gasket...... and the inner liner. The inner and outer diameter of the gasket are varied to see the effectiveness of the seal mechanism. The effect of varying the width of the gasket as well as the surface roughness of the components in the seal system is analysed. Finally, it is investigated how the seal system is affected...

  8. Predicting diabetes mellitus using SMOTE and ensemble machine learning approach: The Henry Ford ExercIse Testing (FIT) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Manal; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Keteyian, Steven; Brawner, Clinton; Ehrman, Jonathan; Sakr, Sherif

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning is becoming a popular and important approach in the field of medical research. In this study, we investigate the relative performance of various machine learning methods such as Decision Tree, Naïve Bayes, Logistic Regression, Logistic Model Tree and Random Forests for predicting incident diabetes using medical records of cardiorespiratory fitness. In addition, we apply different techniques to uncover potential predictors of diabetes. This FIT project study used data of 32,555 patients who are free of any known coronary artery disease or heart failure who underwent clinician-referred exercise treadmill stress testing at Henry Ford Health Systems between 1991 and 2009 and had a complete 5-year follow-up. At the completion of the fifth year, 5,099 of those patients have developed diabetes. The dataset contained 62 attributes classified into four categories: demographic characteristics, disease history, medication use history, and stress test vital signs. We developed an Ensembling-based predictive model using 13 attributes that were selected based on their clinical importance, Multiple Linear Regression, and Information Gain Ranking methods. The negative effect of the imbalance class of the constructed model was handled by Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique (SMOTE). The overall performance of the predictive model classifier was improved by the Ensemble machine learning approach using the Vote method with three Decision Trees (Naïve Bayes Tree, Random Forest, and Logistic Model Tree) and achieved high accuracy of prediction (AUC = 0.92). The study shows the potential of ensembling and SMOTE approaches for predicting incident diabetes using cardiorespiratory fitness data.

  9. Predicting diabetes mellitus using SMOTE and ensemble machine learning approach: The Henry Ford ExercIse Testing (FIT project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Alghamdi

    Full Text Available Machine learning is becoming a popular and important approach in the field of medical research. In this study, we investigate the relative performance of various machine learning methods such as Decision Tree, Naïve Bayes, Logistic Regression, Logistic Model Tree and Random Forests for predicting incident diabetes using medical records of cardiorespiratory fitness. In addition, we apply different techniques to uncover potential predictors of diabetes. This FIT project study used data of 32,555 patients who are free of any known coronary artery disease or heart failure who underwent clinician-referred exercise treadmill stress testing at Henry Ford Health Systems between 1991 and 2009 and had a complete 5-year follow-up. At the completion of the fifth year, 5,099 of those patients have developed diabetes. The dataset contained 62 attributes classified into four categories: demographic characteristics, disease history, medication use history, and stress test vital signs. We developed an Ensembling-based predictive model using 13 attributes that were selected based on their clinical importance, Multiple Linear Regression, and Information Gain Ranking methods. The negative effect of the imbalance class of the constructed model was handled by Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique (SMOTE. The overall performance of the predictive model classifier was improved by the Ensemble machine learning approach using the Vote method with three Decision Trees (Naïve Bayes Tree, Random Forest, and Logistic Model Tree and achieved high accuracy of prediction (AUC = 0.92. The study shows the potential of ensembling and SMOTE approaches for predicting incident diabetes using cardiorespiratory fitness data.

  10. Hypoxic Challenge Testing (Fitness to Fly) in children with complex congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Nitha; Doughty, Victoria L; Starling, Luke; Franklin, Rodney C; Ward, Simon; Daubeney, Piers E F; Balfour-Lynn, Ian M

    2018-02-14

    Commercial airplanes fly with an equivalent cabin fraction of inspired oxygen of 0.15, leading to reduced oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) in passengers. How this affects children with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) is unknown. We conducted Hypoxic Challenge Testing (HCT) to assess need for inflight supplemental oxygen. Children aged heart rate, QT interval corrected for heart rate and partial pressure of carbon dioxide measured transcutaneously (PtcCO 2 ). A test failed when children with (1) normal baseline SpO 2 desaturated to 85%, (2) baseline SpO 2 85%-94% desaturated by 15% of baseline; and (3) baseline SpO 2 75%-84% desaturated to 70%. There were 68 children, mean age 3.3 years (range 10 weeks-14.5 years). Children with normal (n=36) baseline SpO 2 desaturated from median 99% to 91%, Pheart rate and QT interval corrected for heart rate were unaffected by the hypoxic state. This is the first evidence to help guide which children with CHD need a preflight HCT. We suggest all children with an actual or potential R-L shunt should be tested. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Respirable dust measured downwind during rock dust application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M L; Organiscak, J; Klima, S; Perera, I E

    2017-05-01

    The Pittsburgh Mining Research Division of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted underground evaluations in an attempt to quantify respirable rock dust generation when using untreated rock dust and rock dust treated with an anticaking additive. Using personal dust monitors, these evaluations measured respirable rock dust levels arising from a flinger-type application of rock dust on rib and roof surfaces. Rock dust with a majority of the respirable component removed was also applied in NIOSH's Bruceton Experimental Mine using a bantam duster. The respirable dust measurements obtained downwind from both of these tests are presented and discussed. This testing did not measure miners' exposure to respirable coal mine dust under acceptable mining practices, but indicates the need for effective continuous administrative controls to be exercised when rock dusting to minimize the measured amount of rock dust in the sampling device.

  12. Normative Values of Physical Fitness Test in the Elderly: A Community Based Study in an Urban Population in Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta Kumar Bhattacharya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical inactivity exposes elderly people to higher risk of diseases. Assessing their functional fitness using fitness assessment tools like Senior Fitness Test (SFT is helpful in geriatric care. Determination of normative values of SFT increases its interpretability of interindividual and intergroup performances scores and usefulness. Aim: To determine normative values of SFT in geriatric population in an urban community setting. Materials and Methods: A community based prospective study in 400 elderly participants (284 men, 116 women, aged >=65 years, selected by multistage random sampling from 60 municipal wards of Guwahati city in Northeast India. Descriptive statistics, percentiles, univariate Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Bonferroni correction methods were used. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Mean ages in males and females were 69.80±3.82 and 67.25±2.57 years. Mean height, weight and BMI in males and females respectively were 165.61±5.36 cm and 161.03±7.93 cm; 63.63±5.99 kg and 55.54±6.74 kg; 23.2±2.03 kg/m2 and 21.5±3.42 kg/m2. Males aged 65-69 years had highest BMI (23.4±2.11 kg/m2 while those =80 had lowest (21.8±1.30 kg/m2. Females aged 70-74 years had highest BMI (23.3±3.50 kg/m2 while 65-69 years (21.3±3.39 kg/m2 had lowest. ‘Armcurl’ test showed maximum values in 70-79 year and 65-69 year age-groups in males and females respectively (11.4±3.89; 14.5±4.63. In ‘chair-stand’ test, maximum values were in 65-69 year for both sexes (males=15.2±4.64; females=13.6±4.26 respectively. In ‘back-scratch’ and ‘chair-sit and reach’ tests, maximum values were found in age-groups 70-74 and 65-69 in males and females respectively (10.5±9.11 and 13.4±8.91; 9.8±7.28 and -8.4±6.92. In ‘8-foot up-and-go’ test, maximum time to perform in males and females were in =80 and 75-79 year groups respectively (13.9±4.11; 20.3±0. In both sexes, maximum values of ‘2-minute step up

  13. The Use of Statistical Process Control-Charts for Person-Fit Analysis on Computerized Adaptive Testing. LSAC Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Rob R.; van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith M. L. A.

    In this study a cumulative-sum (CUSUM) procedure from the theory of Statistical Process Control was modified and applied in the context of person-fit analysis in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) environment. Six person-fit statistics were proposed using the CUSUM procedure, and three of them could be used to investigate the CAT in online test…

  14. Use of the bootstrap method to develop a physical fitness test for public safety officers who serve as both police officers and firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jenny; Cheng, Dunlei; Lee, John; Shock, Tiffany; Kennedy, Kathleen; Pate, Scotty

    2014-07-01

    Physical fitness testing is a common tool for motivating employees with strenuous occupations to reach and maintain a minimum level of fitness. Nevertheless, the use of such tests can be hampered by several factors, including required compliance with US antidiscrimination laws. The Highland Park (Texas) Department of Public Safety implemented testing in 1991, but no single test adequately evaluated its sworn employees, who are cross-trained and serve as police officers and firefighters. In 2010, the department's fitness experts worked with exercise physiologists from Baylor Heart and Vascular Hospital to develop and evaluate a single test that would be equitable regardless of race/ethnicity, disability, sex, or age >50 years. The new test comprised a series of exercises to assess overall fitness, followed by two sequences of job-specific tasks related to firefighting and police work, respectively. The study group of 50 public safety officers took the test; raw data (e.g., the number of repetitions performed or the time required to complete a task) were collected during three quarterly testing sessions. The statistical bootstrap method was then used to determine the levels of performance that would correlate with 0, 1, 2, or 3 points for each task. A sensitivity analysis was done to determine the overall minimum passing score of 17 points. The new physical fitness test and scoring system have been incorporated into the department's policies and procedures as part of the town's overall employee fitness program.

  15. Untenable nonstationarity: An assessment of the fitness for purpose of trend tests in hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinaldi, Francesco; Kilsby, Chris G.; Lombardo, Federico

    2018-01-01

    The detection and attribution of long-term patterns in hydrological time series have been important research topics for decades. A significant portion of the literature regards such patterns as 'deterministic components' or 'trends' even though the complexity of hydrological systems does not allow easy deterministic explanations and attributions. Consequently, trend estimation techniques have been developed to make and justify statements about tendencies in the historical data, which are often used to predict future events. Testing trend hypothesis on observed time series is widespread in the hydro-meteorological literature mainly due to the interest in detecting consequences of human activities on the hydrological cycle. This analysis usually relies on the application of some null hypothesis significance tests (NHSTs) for slowly-varying and/or abrupt changes, such as Mann-Kendall, Pettitt, or similar, to summary statistics of hydrological time series (e.g., annual averages, maxima, minima, etc.). However, the reliability of this application has seldom been explored in detail. This paper discusses misuse, misinterpretation, and logical flaws of NHST for trends in the analysis of hydrological data from three different points of view: historic-logical, semantic-epistemological, and practical. Based on a review of NHST rationale, and basic statistical definitions of stationarity, nonstationarity, and ergodicity, we show that even if the empirical estimation of trends in hydrological time series is always feasible from a numerical point of view, it is uninformative and does not allow the inference of nonstationarity without assuming a priori additional information on the underlying stochastic process, according to deductive reasoning. This prevents the use of trend NHST outcomes to support nonstationary frequency analysis and modeling. We also show that the correlation structures characterizing hydrological time series might easily be underestimated, further

  16. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Get in Shape for Summer with the CERN Fitness Club Saturday 23 June 2012 from 14:30 to 16.30 (doors open at 14.00) Germana’s Fitness Workshop. Build strength and stamina, sculpt and tone your body and get your heart pumping with Germana’s workout mixture of Cardio Attack, Power Pump, Power Step, Cardio Combat and Cross-Training. Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 15 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Test_Subscription/NewForm.aspx? Join the Party and dance yourself into shape at Marco + Marials Zumba Masterclass. Saturday 30 June 2012 from 15:00 to 16:30 Marco + Mariel’s Zumba Masterclass Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 25 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20...

  17. Screening Applications to Test Cellular Fitness in Transwell® Models After Nanoparticle Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Bastian; Fey, Christina; Cubukova, Alevtina; Walles, Heike; Dembski, Sofia; Metzger, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) in biotechnology hold great promise for revolutionizing medical treatments and therapies. In order to bring NPs into clinical application there is a number of preclinical in vitro and in vivo tests, which have to be applied before. The initial in vitro evaluation includes a detailed physicochemical characterization as well as biocompatibility tests, among others. For determination of biocompatibility at the cellular level, the correct choice of the in vitro assay as well as NP pretreatment is absolutely essential. There are a variety of assay technologies available that use standard plate readers to measure metabolic markers to estimate the number of viable cells in culture. Each cell viability assay has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. Regardless of the assay method chosen, the major factors critical for reproducibility and success include: (1) choosing the right assay after comparing optical NP properties with the read-out method of the assay, (2) verifying colloidal stability of NPs in cell culture media, (3) preparing a sterile and stable NP dispersion in cell culture media used in the assay, (4) using a tightly controlled and consistent cell model allowing appropriate characterization of NPs. This chapter will briefly summarize these different critical points, which can occur during biocompatibility screening applications of NPs.

  18. Respirable dust and respirable silica exposure in Ontario gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dave K; Rajhans, Gyan S; Malik, Om P; des Tombe, Karen

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of respirable dust and respirable silica in Ontario gold mines was conducted by the Ontario Ministry of Labor during 1978-1979. The aim was to assess the feasibility of introducing gravimetric sampling to replace the assessment method which used konimeters, a device which gave results in terms of number of particles per cubic centimeter (ppcc) of air. The study involved both laboratory and field assessments. The field assessment involved measurement of airborne respirable dust and respirable silica at all eight operating gold mines of the time. This article describes the details of the field assessment. A total of 288 long-term (7-8 hr) personal respirable dust air samples were collected from seven occupational categories in eight gold mines. The respirable silica (α-quartz) was determined by x-ray diffraction method. The results show that during 1978-1979, the industry wide mean respirable dust was about 1 mg/m(3), and the mean respirable silica was 0.08 mg/m(3.)The mean% silica in respirable dust was 7.5%. The data set would be useful in future epidemiological and health studies, as well as in assessment of workers' compensation claims for occupational diseases such as silicosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and autoimmune diseases such as renal disease and rheumatoid arthritis.

  19. [Effects of management regime on soil respiration from agroecosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-tao; Zhu, Da-wei; Niu, Chuan-po; Zou, Jian-wen; Wang, Chao; Sun, Wen-juan

    2009-10-15

    In order to examine the effects of management regime, such as nitrogen application and plowing method, on soil respiration from farmland, the static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method was used to measure soil CO2 fluxes in situ. The field measurement was carried out for 5 growing seasons, which were the 2002-2003 wheat, 2003 maize and soybean, 2003-2004 wheat, 2004 maize and 2004-2005 wheat seasons. Our results showed that soil respiration increased in fertilizer-applied treatments compared with no fertilizer treatment after 3 times of fertilizer application on 9 November 2002, 14 February and 26 March 2003. And the most obvious increase appeared following the third fertilizer application. No significant difference in soil respiration was found among several fertilizer application treatments. The effect of plowing depth on soil respiration was contingent on preceding cropping practice. Over the 2003-2004 wheat-growing seasons (its preceding cropping practice was rice paddy), mean soil respiration rates were not significant different (p > 0.05) between no plowing treatment and shallow plowing treatment. The shallow plowing treatment CT2 led to higher soil CO2 losses compared with no plowing treatment of NT2 in the 2004 maize-growing season, however, the significant higher (p soil respiration rates occurred with no plowing treatment of NT3 in the following 2004-2005 wheat-growing season. Intensive plowing (25 cm depth), compared with no plowing practice (NT4), increased soil respiration significantly during the 2004-2005 wheat-growing season. Regression analysis showed that the exponential function could be employed to fit the relationship between soil respiration and temperature. The exponential relationship yielded the Q10 values which were varied from 1.26 to 3.60, with a mean value of 2.08. To evaluate the effect of temperature on soil respiration, the CO2 emission fluxes were normalized for each treatment and each crop growing season. Plotting the

  20. Fitness to Fly Testing in Patients with Congenital Heart and Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoorenberg, Mandy E; van den Oord, Marieke H A H; Meeuwsen, Ted; Takken, Tim

    2016-01-01

    During commercial air travel passengers are exposed to a low ambient cabin pressure, comparable to altitudes of 5000 to 8000 ft (1524 to 2438 m). In healthy passengers this causes a fall in partial pressure of oxygen, which results in relative hypoxemia, usually without symptoms. Patients with congenital heart or lung disease may experience more severe hypoxemia during air travel. This systematic review provides an overview of the current literature focusing on whether it is safe for patients with congenital heart or lung disease to fly. The Pubmed database was searched and all studies carried out at an (simulated) altitude of 5000-8000 ft (1524-2438 m) for a short time period (several hours) and related to patients with congenital heart or lung disease were reviewed. Included were 11 studies. These studies examined patients with cystic fibrosis, neonatal (chronic) lung disease and congenital (a)cyanotic heart disease during a hypoxic challenge test, in a hypobaric chamber, during commercial air travel, or in the mountains. Peripheral/arterial saturation, blood gases, lung function, and/or the occurrence of symptoms were listed. Based on the current literature, it can be concluded that air travel is safe for most patients. However, those at risk of hypoxia can benefit from supplemental in-flight oxygen. Therefore, patients with congenital heart and lung disease should be evaluated carefully prior to air travel to select the patients at risk for hypoxia using the current studies and guidelines.

  1. A closer look at the effect of preliminary goodness-of-fit testing for normality for the one-sample t-test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, Justine; Kieser, Meinhard

    2011-11-01

    Student's one-sample t-test is a commonly used method when inference about the population mean is made. As advocated in textbooks and articles, the assumption of normality is often checked by a preliminary goodness-of-fit (GOF) test. In a paper recently published by Schucany and Ng it was shown that, for the uniform distribution, screening of samples by a pretest for normality leads to a more conservative conditional Type I error rate than application of the one-sample t-test without preliminary GOF test. In contrast, for the exponential distribution, the conditional level is even more elevated than the Type I error rate of the t-test without pretest. We examine the reasons behind these characteristics. In a simulation study, samples drawn from the exponential, lognormal, uniform, Student's t-distribution with 2 degrees of freedom (t(2) ) and the standard normal distribution that had passed normality screening, as well as the ingredients of the test statistics calculated from these samples, are investigated. For non-normal distributions, we found that preliminary testing for normality may change the distribution of means and standard deviations of the selected samples as well as the correlation between them (if the underlying distribution is non-symmetric), thus leading to altered distributions of the resulting test statistics. It is shown that for skewed distributions the excess in Type I error rate may be even more pronounced when testing one-sided hypotheses. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  2. A Comparison of Aerobic Fitness Testing on a Swim Bench and Treadmill in a Recreational Surfing Cohort: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Khundaqji

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The intermittent manner of surfing accentuates the importance of both the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems. Currently, the optimal method of assessing surfing-specific aerobic fitness is using a swim bench (SWB ergometer; however, their limited availability presents a barrier to surfers wanting to know their maximal aerobic power (VO2peak. As a result, the aims of this pilot study were to determine the VO2peak of recreational surfers using a new commercial SWB ergometer and to propose and examine the feasibility of a regression model to predict SWB ergometer VO2peak values. A total of nine recreational surfers were assessed where body measurements were conducted followed by maximal aerobic capacity testing (swim bench and treadmill to profile the cohort. Findings demonstrated that VO2peak values were significantly greater (p < 0.001 on the treadmill compared to the SWB ergometer (M = 66.01 ± 8.23 vs. 37.41 ± 8.73 mL/kg/min. Peak heart rate was also significantly greater on the treadmill compared to the SWB ergometer. Multiple regression analysis was used to produce a model which predicted SWB VO2peak values with an R2 value of 0.863 and an adjusted R2 value of 0.726. The physiological profiling of the recreational cohort coupled with a surfer’s predicted SWB VO2peak value will allow for identification of surfing-specific aerobic fitness levels and evidence-based training recommendations.

  3. Resimulation of noise: a precision estimator for least square error curve-fitting tested for axial strain time constant imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, S. P.; Righetti, R.

    2015-05-01

    Recent elastography techniques focus on imaging information on properties of materials which can be modeled as viscoelastic or poroelastic. These techniques often require the fitting of temporal strain data, acquired from either a creep or stress-relaxation experiment to a mathematical model using least square error (LSE) parameter estimation. It is known that the strain versus time relationships for tissues undergoing creep compression have a non-linear relationship. In non-linear cases, devising a measure of estimate reliability can be challenging. In this article, we have developed and tested a method to provide non linear LSE parameter estimate reliability: which we called Resimulation of Noise (RoN). RoN provides a measure of reliability by estimating the spread of parameter estimates from a single experiment realization. We have tested RoN specifically for the case of axial strain time constant parameter estimation in poroelastic media. Our tests show that the RoN estimated precision has a linear relationship to the actual precision of the LSE estimator. We have also compared results from the RoN derived measure of reliability against a commonly used reliability measure: the correlation coefficient (CorrCoeff). Our results show that CorrCoeff is a poor measure of estimate reliability for non-linear LSE parameter estimation. While the RoN is specifically tested only for axial strain time constant imaging, a general algorithm is provided for use in all LSE parameter estimation.

  4. Respirator studies for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, B.J.; Fairchild, C.I.; DeField, J.D.; Hack, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    A project of the Health, Safety and Environment Division is described. The project provides the NRC with information of respiratory protective devices and programs for their licensee personnel. The following activities were performed during FY 1983: selection of alternate test aerosols for quality assurance testing of high-efficiency particulate air respirator filters; evaluation of MAG-1 spectacles for use with positive and negative-pressure respirators; development of a Manual of Respiratory Protection in Emergencies Involving Airborne Radioactive Materials, and technical assistance to NRC licensees regarding respirator applications. 2 references, 1 figure

  5. The Functional Fitness MOT Test Battery for Older Adults: Protocol for a Mixed-Method Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Lex D; Peters, Andy; Hooper, Julie; Chalmers, Nina; Henderson, Claire; Laventure, Robert Me; Skelton, Dawn A

    2016-06-20

    Increasing physical activity (PA) brings many health benefits, but engaging people in higher levels of PA after their 60s is not straightforward. The Functional Fitness MOT (FFMOT) is a new approach which aims to raise awareness about the importance of components of fitness (strength, balance, flexibility), highlight benefits of PA, engages older people in health behavior change discussions, and directs them to local activity resources. This battery of tests combined with a brief motivational interview has not been tested in terms of feasibility or effectiveness. To assess whether the FFMOT, provided in a health care setting, is appealing to older patients of a community physiotherapy service and to understand the views and perceptions of the older people undergoing the FFMOT regarding the intervention, as well as the views of the physiotherapy staff delivering the intervention. Secondary aims are to assess the feasibility of carrying out a phase 2 pilot randomized controlled trial of the FFMOT, in the context of a community physiotherapy service, by establishing whether enough patients can be recruited and retained in the study, and enough outcome data can be generated. A mixed-methods feasibility study will be conducted in two physiotherapy outpatient clinics in the United Kingdom. A total of 30 physically inactive, medically stable older adults over the age of 60 will be provided with an individual FFMOT, comprising a set of six standardized, validated, age-appropriate tests aimed at raising awareness of the different components of fitness. The results of these tests will be used to provide the participants with feedback on performance in comparison to sex and age-referenced norms. This will be followed by tailored advice on how to become more active and improve fitness, including advice on local opportunities to be more active. Subsequently, participants will be invited to attend a focus group to discuss barriers and motivators to being more active, health

  6. Sample Size and Statistical Conclusions from Tests of Fit to the Rasch Model According to the Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Model (Rumm) Program in Health Outcome Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagell, Peter; Westergren, Albert

    Sample size is a major factor in statistical null hypothesis testing, which is the basis for many approaches to testing Rasch model fit. Few sample size recommendations for testing fit to the Rasch model concern the Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Models (RUMM) software, which features chi-square and ANOVA/F-ratio based fit statistics, including Bonferroni and algebraic sample size adjustments. This paper explores the occurrence of Type I errors with RUMM fit statistics, and the effects of algebraic sample size adjustments. Data with simulated Rasch model fitting 25-item dichotomous scales and sample sizes ranging from N = 50 to N = 2500 were analysed with and without algebraically adjusted sample sizes. Results suggest the occurrence of Type I errors with N less then or equal to 500, and that Bonferroni correction as well as downward algebraic sample size adjustment are useful to avoid such errors, whereas upward adjustment of smaller samples falsely signal misfit. Our observations suggest that sample sizes around N = 250 to N = 500 may provide a good balance for the statistical interpretation of the RUMM fit statistics studied here with respect to Type I errors and under the assumption of Rasch model fit within the examined frame of reference (i.e., about 25 item parameters well targeted to the sample).

  7. Carbon dioxide titration method for soil respiration measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Rubio, Luis

    2017-01-01

    This thesis was commissioned by Tampere University of Applied Sciences, which was interested in studying and developing a titration measurement method for soil respiration and biodegradability. Some experiments were carried out measuring soil respiration for testing the method and others adding some biodegradable material like polylactic acid compressed material and 100% biodegradable plastic bags to test its biodegradability and the possibility to measure it via titration. The thesi...

  8. Occurrence of trace elements in respirable coal dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Inhalation of fine particles of coal dust contributes significantly to the occurrence of the disease, pneumoconiosis, prevailing in coal mining community. It is not presently known whether only the coal dust or specific chemical compounds or synergistic effects of several compounds associated with respirable coal dust is responsible for the disease, pneumoconiosis. The present paper describes the quantitative determination of ten minor and trace elements in respirable coal dust particles by atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods. The respirable coal dust samples are collected at the mine atmosphere during drilling in coal scams by using Messrs. Casella's Hexlet apparatus specially designed and fitted with horizontal elutriator to collect the respirable coal dust fraction simulating as near as possible to the lung's retention of the coal miners. After destruction of organic matter by wet oxidation and filtering off clay and silica, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni were determined directly in the resulting solution by atomic absorption spectrophotometric procedures. The results show that the trace metals are more acute in lower range of size spectrum. Correlation coefficient, enrichment factor and linear regression values and their inverse relationship between the slope and EF values suggest that, in general, the trace metals in respirable particulates are likely to be from coal derived source if their concentrations are likewise high in the coal. The trace metal analytical data of respirable particulates fitted well to the linear regressive equation. The results of the studies are of importance as it may throw some light on the respirable lung disease 'pneumoconiosis' which are predominant in coal mining community. (author). 13 refs., 6 tabs

  9. Measuring virgin female aggression in the female intruder test (FIT): effects of oxytocin, estrous cycle, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Trynke R; Beiderbeck, Daniela I; Neumann, Inga D

    2014-01-01

    The costs of violence and aggression in our society have stimulated the scientific search for the predictors and causes of aggression. The majority of studies have focused on males, which are considered to be more aggressive than females in most species. However, rates of offensive behavior in girls and young women are considerable and are currently rising in Western society. The extrapolation of scientific results from males to young, non-maternal females is a priori limited, based on the profound sex differences in brain areas and functioning of neurotransmitters involved in aggression. Therefore, we established a paradigm to assess aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats, i.e. the female intruder test (FIT). We found that approximately 40% of un-manipulated adult (10-11 weeks old) female Wistar rats attack an intruder female during the FIT, independent of their estrous phase or that of their intruder. In addition, adolescent (7-8 weeks old) female rats selected for high anxiety behavior (HABs) displayed significantly more aggression than non-selected (NAB) or low-anxiety (LAB) rats. Intracerebroventricular infusion of oxytocin (OXT, 0.1 µg/5 µl) inhibited aggressive behavior in adult NAB and LAB, but not HAB females. Adolescent NAB rats that had been aggressive towards their intruder showed increased pERK immunoreactivity (IR) in the hypothalamic attack area and reduced pERK-IR in OXT neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus compared to non-aggressive NAB rats. Taken together, aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats is partly dependent on trait anxiety, and appears to be under considerable OXT control.

  10. Measuring virgin female aggression in the female intruder test (FIT: effects of oxytocin, estrous cycle, and anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trynke R de Jong

    Full Text Available The costs of violence and aggression in our society have stimulated the scientific search for the predictors and causes of aggression. The majority of studies have focused on males, which are considered to be more aggressive than females in most species. However, rates of offensive behavior in girls and young women are considerable and are currently rising in Western society. The extrapolation of scientific results from males to young, non-maternal females is a priori limited, based on the profound sex differences in brain areas and functioning of neurotransmitters involved in aggression. Therefore, we established a paradigm to assess aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats, i.e. the female intruder test (FIT. We found that approximately 40% of un-manipulated adult (10-11 weeks old female Wistar rats attack an intruder female during the FIT, independent of their estrous phase or that of their intruder. In addition, adolescent (7-8 weeks old female rats selected for high anxiety behavior (HABs displayed significantly more aggression than non-selected (NAB or low-anxiety (LAB rats. Intracerebroventricular infusion of oxytocin (OXT, 0.1 µg/5 µl inhibited aggressive behavior in adult NAB and LAB, but not HAB females. Adolescent NAB rats that had been aggressive towards their intruder showed increased pERK immunoreactivity (IR in the hypothalamic attack area and reduced pERK-IR in OXT neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus compared to non-aggressive NAB rats. Taken together, aggressive behavior in young virgin female rats is partly dependent on trait anxiety, and appears to be under considerable OXT control.

  11. Using Movement Test to Evaluate Effectiveness of Health and Fitness Activities of Students in Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pashkevich

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study objective is to evaluate the possibility of using screening methods for determining the effectiveness of health and fitness activities of students in higher education institutions. Materials and methods. The participants in the experiment were 37 first-year students (17 boys and 20 girls of the School of History of H. S. Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University. The experiment lasted during the fall semester. Using the Framingham method for analyzing weekly timing, the study conducted a survey among the students on their level of motor activity and performed a functional movement screen testing. To tentatively evaluate the cause and effect relationship between the level of motor activity and the occurrence of a pathological movement pattern, the study used the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. The characteristics between the groups were analyzed by using the Mann-Whitney test for comparing the distribution of ordinal variables. Results. The correlation analysis showed that the first-year students’ motor activity was positively related to the results of functional movement screening (R=+0.69, p< 0.05. At the same time, the students (EG1 who mainly had a high level of physical activity at physical education classes showed low values of functional movement evaluation, compared to the students (EG2 participating in extra-curricular physical activity. In EG1, the overall screening score was 10.3±0.7, in EG2 — 14.2±0.9 (p<0.05. Conclusions. The students with insufficient weekly motor activity had risk values of the test (10.3±0.7, which requires further analysis of the causes of a pathological movement pattern. The study results have confirmed the existence of the relationship between motor activity indicators and functional movement evaluation (R=+0.69, p<0.05. This provides a way to use the screening method of determining motor competence for the effectiveness evaluation of health and fitness programs, but further

  12. Studies and testing in water and steam of valves and fittings, and nuclear components. The result of 25 years of testing using a comprehensive range of test facilities under service conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berail, J.F.; Bruneau, S.; Crouzet, D.; Haas, J.L.; Zbinden, M.

    1998-05-01

    Electricite de France operates 58 PWR nuclear power stations, for which the behaviour of valves and fittings is of major importance for safety, for the availability of the plants, and for maintenance costs. Since the early 70's, EDF has developed a comprehensive range of facilities to test valves and fittings in PWR service and accident conditions. It has carried out studies, tests, development work, experimental and numerical research in collaboration with external organisations and manufacturers, to improve the technologies of these equipment as well as maintenance tools and methods. In the present paper, the authors quantify the importance of valves and fittings studies for EDF, which has led to the drawing up of a catalogue of approved equipment. They describe the principle test facilities, and the structure of the EDF 'valves and fittings tests results' data base. They show the importance of twenty-five years of testing experience for both the evolution of equipment and for the increase in French nuclear plants availability. (author)

  13. [Effects of Warming and Straw Application on Soil Respiration and Enzyme Activity in a Winter Wheat Cropland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-tao; Sang, Lin; Zhang, Xu; Hu, Zheng-hua

    2016-02-15

    In order to investigate the effects of warming and straw application on soil respiration and enzyme activity, a field experiment was performed from November 2014 to May 2015. Four treatments, which were control (CK), warming, straw application, and warming and straw application, were arranged in field. Seasonal variability in soil respiration, soil temperature and soil moisture for different treatments were measured. Urease, invertase, and catalase activities for different treatments were measured at the elongation, booting, and anthesis stages. The results showed that soil respiration in different treatments had similar seasonal variation patterns. Seasonal mean soil respiration rates for the CK, warming, straw application, and warming and straw application treatments were 1.46, 1.96, 1.92, and 2.45 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1), respectively. ANOVA indicated that both warming and straw applications significantly (P soil respiration compared to the control treatment. The relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature in different treatments fitted with the exponential regression function. The exponential regression functions explained 34.3%, 28.1%, 24.6%, and 32.0% variations of soil respiration for CK, warming, straw application, and warming and straw application treatments, respectively. Warming and straw applications significantly (P soil respiration and urease activity fitted with a linear regression function, with the P value of 0.061. The relationship between soil respiration and invertase (P = 0.013), and between soil respiration and catalase activity (P = 0.002) fitted well with linear regression functions.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of the protective effect of respirators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Mikio

    1983-01-01

    The present status and related problems of the quantitative evaluation method for respirator efficiency are generally reviewed. As the introduction, the special features of various types of respirators are summarized, and the basic concept of leakage and the protection factor are explained. As for the quantitative measurement of the protective efficiency, the features of various existing man-test methods such as NaCl aerosol man-test, DOP (dioctyl phthalate) man-test, and SF 6 gas man-test are reviewed and discussed. As the important problems associated with those man-tests, the following aspects are discussed. The measurement of the aerosol concentration within masks; the calculation method for the protection factor; the effect of beards. The examples of measuring the protection factor are also explained for the following respirator systems: half mask respirator with a high efficiency filter; full face mask respirator with a high efficiency filter; demand mode and pressure-demand mode respirators; and mound suit with suspenders. Finally, the outline of the manual of respiratory protection published by NRC in 1976 is briefly reviewed. (Aoki, K.)

  15. A MEMS turbine prototype for respiration harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goreke, U.; Habibiabad, S.; Azgin, K.; Beyaz, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The design, manufacturing, and performance characterization of a MEMS-scale turbine prototype is reported. The turbine is designed for integration into a respiration harvester that can convert normal human breathing into electrical power through electromagnetic induction. The device measures 10 mm in radius, and employs 12 blades located around the turbine periphery along with ball bearings around the center. Finite element simulations showed that an average torque of 3.07 μNm is induced at 12 lpm airflow rate, which lies in normal breathing levels. The turbine and a test package were manufactured using CNC milling on PMMA. Tests were performed at respiration flow rates between 5-25 lpm. The highest rotational speed was measured to be 9.84 krpm at 25 lpm, resulting in 8.96 mbar pressure drop across the device and 370 mW actuation power.

  16. Figure-of-merit (FOM), an improved criterion over the normalized chi-squared test for assessing goodness-of-fit of gamma-ray spectral peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garo Balian, H.; Eddy, N.W.

    1977-01-01

    A careful experimenter knows that in order to choose the best curve fits of peaks from a gamma ray spectrum for such purposes as energy or intensity calibration, half-life determination, etc., the application of the normalized chi-squared test, [chisub(N)] 2 =chi 2 /(n-m), is insufficient. One must normally verify the goodness-of-fit with plots, detailed scans of residuals, etc. Because of different techniques of application, variations in backgrounds, in peak sizes and shapes, etc., quotation of the [chisub(N)] 2 value associated with an individual peak fit conveys very little information unless accompanied by considerable ancillary data. (This is not to say that the traditional chi 2 formula should not be used as the source of the normal equations in the least squares fitting procedure. But after the fitting, it is unreliable as a criterion for comparison with other fits.) The authors present a formula designated figure-of-merit (FOM) which greatly improves on the uncertainty and fluctuations of the [chisub(N)] 2 formula. An FOM value of less than 2.5% indicates a good fit (in the authors' judgement) irrespective of background conditions and variations in peak sizes and shapes. Furthermore, the authors feel the FOM formula is less subject to fluctuations resulting from different techniques of application. (Auth.)

  17. Genome-wide fitness test and mechanism-of-action studies of inhibitory compounds in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deming Xu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a prevalent fungal pathogen amongst the immunocompromised population, causing both superficial and life-threatening infections. Since C. albicans is diploid, classical transmission genetics can not be performed to study specific aspects of its biology and pathogenesis. Here, we exploit the diploid status of C. albicans by constructing a library of 2,868 heterozygous deletion mutants and screening this collection using 35 known or novel compounds to survey chemically induced haploinsufficiency in the pathogen. In this reverse genetic assay termed the fitness test, genes related to the mechanism of action of the probe compounds are clearly identified, supporting their functional roles and genetic interactions. In this report, chemical-genetic relationships are provided for multiple FDA-approved antifungal drugs (fluconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, 5-fluorocytosine, and amphotericin B as well as additional compounds targeting ergosterol, fatty acid and sphingolipid biosynthesis, microtubules, actin, secretion, rRNA processing, translation, glycosylation, and protein folding mechanisms. We also demonstrate how chemically induced haploinsufficiency profiles can be used to identify the mechanism of action of novel antifungal agents, thereby illustrating the potential utility of this approach to antifungal drug discovery.

  18. Physical employment standard for Canadian wildland firefighters: examining test-retest reliability and the impact of familiarisation and physical fitness training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumieniak, Robert J; Gledhill, Norman; Jamnik, Veronica K

    2018-05-04

    To assess the impact of repeat performances (familiarisation) plus exercise training on completion time for the Ontario Wildland Firefighter (WFF) Fitness Test circuit (WFX-FIT), normally active general population participants (n = 145) were familiarised to the protocol then randomised into (i) exercise training, (ii) circuit only weekly performances or (iii) controls. At Baseline, the WFX-FIT pass rate for all groups combined was 11% for females and 73% for males, indicating that the Ontario WFX-FIT standard had a possible adverse impact on females. Following test familiarisation, mean circuit completion times improved by 11.9% and 10.2% for females and males, respectively. There were significant improvements in completion time for females (19.8%) and males (16.9%) who trained, plus females (12.2%) and males (9.8%) who performed the circuit only, while control participants were unchanged. Post training, the pass rate of the training group was 80% for females and 100% for males. Practitioner Summary: This paper details the impact of familiarisation plus exercise training as accommodation to mitigate potential adverse impact on initial attack wildland firefighter test performance. The results underscore the importance of test familiarisation opportunities and physical fitness training programmes that are specific to the demands of the job.

  19. Exploring the utility of cardiorespiratory fitness as a population health surveillance indicator for children and youth: An international analysis of results from the 20-m shuttle run test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Justin J

    2018-02-01

    Emerging evidence has demonstrated the strong link between cardiorespiratory fitness and multiple aspects of health (i.e., physiological, physical, psychosocial, cognitive), independent of physical activity, among school-aged children and youth. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a trait that does not vary substantially from day-to-day, and provides an indication of recent physical activity levels, making it an important possible indicator of population health. Thus, the objective of this dissertation was to investigate the utility of cardiorespiratory fitness, measured using the 20-m shuttle run test, as a broad, holistic health indicator for population health surveillance among children and youth. To achieve this objective we completed 7 manuscripts, all prepared for submission to peer-reviewed, scientific journals: (1) Systematic review of the relationship between 20-m shuttle run performance and health indicators among children and youth. (2) Review of criterion-referenced standards for cardiorespiratory fitness: what percentage of 1 142 026 international children and youth are apparently healthy? (3) Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with physical literacy in a large sample of Canadian children aged 8 to 12 years. (4) International variability in 20-m shuttle run performance in children and youth: Who are the fittest from a 50-country comparison? A systematic review with pooling of aggregate results. (5) Making a case for cardiorespiratory fitness surveillance among children and youth. (6) International normative 20-m shuttle run values from 1 142 026 children and youth representing 50 countries. (7) Temporal trends in the cardiorespiratory fitness of children and adolescents representing 19 high-income and upper middle-income countries between 1981 and 2014. Combined, this dissertation provides support for the importance of cardiorespiratory fitness for health surveillance among school-aged children and youth. Results from the international analysis

  20. Respiration in spiders (Araneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Anke

    2016-05-01

    Spiders (Araneae) are unique regarding their respiratory system: they are the only animal group that breathe simultaneously with lungs and tracheae. Looking at the physiology of respiration the existence of tracheae plays an important role in spiders with a well-developed tracheal system. Other factors as sex, life time, type of prey capture and the high ability to gain energy anaerobically influence the resting and the active metabolic rate intensely. Most spiders have metabolic rates that are much lower than expected from body mass; but especially those with two pairs of lungs. Males normally have higher resting rates than females; spiders that are less evolved and possess a cribellum have lower metabolic rates than higher evolved species. Freely hunting spiders show a higher energy turnover than spiders hunting with a web. Spiders that live longer than 1 year will have lower metabolic rates than those species that die after 1 year in which development and reproduction must be completed. Lower temperatures and starvation, which most spiders can cope with, will decrease the metabolic rate as well.

  1. Aerobic fitness testing in 6- to 9-year-old children: reliability and validity of a modified Yo-Yo IR1 test and the Andersen test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahler, T; Bendiksen, Mads; Krustrup, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study analysed the reliability and validity of two intermittent running tests (the Yo-Yo IR1 test and the Andersen test) as tools for estimating VO(2max) in children under the age of 10. Two groups, aged 6-7 years (grade 0, n = 18) and 8-9 years (grade 2, n = 16), carried out two repetitions...

  2. Mitochondrial Respiration and Oxygen Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S; Meitha, Karlia; Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of respiration and oxygen tension in plant organs allow a precise understanding of mitochondrial capacity and function within the context of cellular oxygen metabolism. Here we describe methods that can be routinely used for the isolation of intact mitochondria, and the determination of respiratory electron transport, together with techniques for in vivo determination of oxygen tension and measurement of respiration by both CO 2 production and O 2 consumption that enables calculation of the respiratory quotient [CO 2 ]/[O 2 ].

  3. Respirable versus inhalable dust sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondros, J.

    1987-01-01

    The ICRP uses a total inhalable dust figure as the basis of calculations on employee lung dose. This paper was written to look at one aspect of the Olympic Dam dust situation, namely, the inhalable versus respirable fraction of the dust cloud. The results of this study will determine whether it is possible to use respirable dust figures, as obtained during routine monitoring to help in the calculations of employee exposure to internal radioactive contaminants

  4. Measurement and Modeling of Respiration Rate of Tomato (Cultivar Roma) for Modified Atmosphere Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Palani; Moitra, Ranabir; Mukherjee, Souti

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the respiration rate of tomato at 10, 20 and 30 °C using closed respiration system. Oxygen depletion and carbon dioxide accumulation in the system containing tomato was monitored. Respiration rate was found to decrease with increasing CO2 and decreasing O2 concentration. Michaelis-Menten type model based on enzyme kinetics was evaluated using experimental data generated for predicting the respiration rate. The model parameters that obtained from the respiration rate at different O2 and CO2 concentration levels were used to fit the model against the storage temperatures. The fitting was fair (R2 = 0.923 to 0.970) when the respiration rate was expressed as O2 concentation. Since inhibition constant for CO2 concentration tended towards negetive, the model was modified as a function of O2 concentration only. The modified model was fitted to the experimental data and showed good agreement (R2 = 0.998) with experimentally estimated respiration rate.

  5. Interpreting, measuring, and modeling soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan; Beverly E. Law

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of soil respiration in determining ecosystem carbon balance, and the conceptual basis for measuring and modeling soil respiration. We developed it to provide background and context for this special issue on soil respiration and to synthesize the presentations and discussions at the workshop. Soil respiration is the largest component of...

  6. Manual Development and Pilot Testing of a Mindfulness- and Acceptance-Based Intervention for Increasing Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Sedentary Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Emily Cecile

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research project was to conduct a manual development study and an open clinical trial in order to demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of a mindfulness and acceptance based intervention for increasing cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in sedentary adults through adherence to a fitness walking program. Development of the treatment manual followed a 3-phase process (literature review and initial draft preparation, expert review, draft revision) based on expert systems analysis...

  7. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2011-01-01

    General fitness Classes Enrolments are open for general fitness classes at CERN taking place on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday lunchtimes in the Pump Hall (building 216). There are shower facilities for both men and women. It is possible to pay for 1, 2 or 3 classes per week for a minimum of 1 month and up to 6 months. Check out our rates and enrol at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  8. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Wenping [College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China; Luo, Yiqi [Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, USA; Li, Xianglan [College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China; Liu, Shuguang; Yu, Guirui [Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Synthesis Research Center of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Zhou, Tao [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China; Bahn, Michael [Institute of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria; Black, Andy [Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B. C., Canada; Desai, Ankur R. [Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Department, Center for Climatic Research, Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; Cescatti, Alessandro [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Ispra, Italy; Marcolla, Barbara [Sustainable Agro-ecosystems and Bioresources Department, Fondazione Edmund Mach-IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, San Michele all' Adige, Italy; Jacobs, Cor [Alterra, Earth System Science-Climate Change, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands; Chen, Jiquan [Department of Earth, Ecological, and Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, USA; Aurela, Mika [Climate and Global Change Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland; Bernhofer, Christian [Chair of Meteorology, Institute of Hydrology and Meteorology, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; Gielen, Bert [Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium; Bohrer, Gil [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geodetic Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA; Cook, David R. [Climate Research Section, Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, USA; Dragoni, Danilo [Department of Geography, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA; Dunn, Allison L. [Department of Physical and Earth Sciences, Worcester State College, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA; Gianelle, Damiano [Sustainable Agro-ecosystems and Bioresources Department, Fondazione Edmund Mach-IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, San Michele all' Adige, Italy; Grünwald, Thomas [Chair of Meteorology, Institute of Hydrology and Meteorology, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; Ibrom, Andreas [Risø DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Biosystems Division, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark; Leclerc, Monique Y. [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Georgia, Griffin, Georgia, USA; Lindroth, Anders [Geobiosphere Science Centre, Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Liu, Heping [Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington, USA; Marchesini, Luca Belelli [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-Food and Forest Systems, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, Italy; Montagnani, Leonardo; Pita, Gabriel [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal; Rodeghiero, Mirco [Sustainable Agro-ecosystems and Bioresources Department, Fondazione Edmund Mach-IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, San Michele all' Adige, Italy; Rodrigues, Abel [Unidade de Silvicultura e Produtos Florestais, Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biológicos, Oeiras, Portugal; Starr, Gregory [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA; Stoy, Paul C. [Department of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, USA

    2011-10-13

    Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models still use a global constant BR largely due to the lack of a functional description for BR. In this study, we redefined BR to be ecosystem respiration rate at the mean annual temperature. To test the validity of this concept, we conducted a synthesis analysis using 276 site-years of eddy covariance data, from 79 research sites located at latitudes ranging from ~3°S to ~70°N. Results showed that mean annual ER rate closely matches ER rate at mean annual temperature. Incorporation of site-specific BR into global ER model substantially improved simulated ER compared to an invariant BR at all sites. These results confirm that ER at the mean annual

  9. Aerobic fitness testing in 6- to 9-year-old children: reliability and validity of a modified Yo–Yo IR1 test and the Andersen test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahler, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Målet med dette studie var at undersøge to indirekte VO2max tests (Yo–Yo IR1 og Andersen test) hos en gruppe 0 og 2. klasses børn mht. reproducerbarhed og mht. validitet i relation til en direkte målt VO2max. 35 skolelever i alderen 6-9 år blev inkluderet i studiet (18 fra 0., og 17 fra 2. klasse...

  10. Intelligence Tests with Higher G-Loadings Show Higher Correlations with Body Symmetry: Evidence for a General Fitness Factor Mediated by Developmental Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokosch, M.D.; Yeo, R.A.; Miller, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Just as body symmetry reveals developmental stability at the morphological level, general intelligence may reveal developmental stability at the level of brain development and cognitive functioning. These two forms of developmental stability may overlap by tapping into a ''general fitness factor.'' If so, then intellectual tests with higher…

  11. Lord-Wingersky Algorithm Version 2.0 for Hierarchical Item Factor Models with Applications in Test Scoring, Scale Alignment, and Model Fit Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li

    2015-06-01

    Lord and Wingersky's (Appl Psychol Meas 8:453-461, 1984) recursive algorithm for creating summed score based likelihoods and posteriors has a proven track record in unidimensional item response theory (IRT) applications. Extending the recursive algorithm to handle multidimensionality is relatively simple, especially with fixed quadrature because the recursions can be defined on a grid formed by direct products of quadrature points. However, the increase in computational burden remains exponential in the number of dimensions, making the implementation of the recursive algorithm cumbersome for truly high-dimensional models. In this paper, a dimension reduction method that is specific to the Lord-Wingersky recursions is developed. This method can take advantage of the restrictions implied by hierarchical item factor models, e.g., the bifactor model, the testlet model, or the two-tier model, such that a version of the Lord-Wingersky recursive algorithm can operate on a dramatically reduced set of quadrature points. For instance, in a bifactor model, the dimension of integration is always equal to 2, regardless of the number of factors. The new algorithm not only provides an effective mechanism to produce summed score to IRT scaled score translation tables properly adjusted for residual dependence, but leads to new applications in test scoring, linking, and model fit checking as well. Simulated and empirical examples are used to illustrate the new applications.

  12. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Fitness Club is organising Zumba Classes on the first Wednesday of each month, starting 7 September (19.00 – 20.00). What is Zumba®? It’s an exhilarating, effective, easy-to-follow, Latin-inspired, calorie-burning dance fitness-party™ that’s moving millions of people toward joy and health. Above all it’s great fun and an excellent work out. Price: 22 CHF/person Sign-up via the following form: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20Subscription/NewForm.aspx For more info: fitness.club@cern.ch

  13. Effect of organic synthetic food colours on mitochondrial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, F G; Valim, M F; Vercesi, A E

    1996-01-01

    Eleven organic synthetic dyes, currently or formerly used as food colours in Brazil, were tested to determine their effect on mitochondrial respiration in mitochondria isolated from rat liver and kidney. The compounds tested were: Erythrosine, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red, Sunset yellow, Tartrazine, Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Blue, Fast Red E, Orange GGN and Scarlet GN. All food colours tested inhibited mitochondrial respiration (State III respiration, uncoupled) supported either by alpha-ketoglutarate or succinate. This inhibition varied largely, e.g. from 100% to 16% for Erythrosine and Tartrazine respectively, at a concentration of 0.1 mg food colour per mitochondrial protein. Both rat liver and kidney mitochondria showed similar patterns of inhibition among the food colours tested. This effect was dose related and the concentration to give 50% inhibition was determined for some of the dyes. The xanthene dye Erythrosine, which showed the strongest effect, was selected for further investigation on mitochondria in vivo.

  14. Validity and reliability of the one-mile walk test (the Rockport Fitness Walk Test among 70-to-79 year old women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Marques

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the reliability and concurrent validity of the One-Mile Walk Test (OMWT (The Rockport Fitness Walk Test, Kline et al., 1987, as a preditor of the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max among women aged 70 to 79 years. The study used a convenient sample, composed by 30 healthy seniors from Florianópolis, SC. Data collection was structured in three phases: 1 answering questionnaires on sociodemographics, on readiness for physical activity (PAR-Q and on physical activity level (IPAQ. Anthropometric variables were measured and the participant performed the first evaluation of the RFWT. Afterwards, the subject visited the laboratory for a treadmill walk and for a trial of the equipments (K4 b2 - COSMED to be used during the stress test (ST for directly measuring the VO2max; 2 the seniors performed the ST following an incremental test protocol, from 2.4 km.h-1 to 5.6 km.h-1 with grades varying from 0% to 15%; 3 the second RFWT. The statistical analyses included the criteria suggested by Lohman (1992 for validity and the procedures were performed using the SPSS (v. 7.5 and MedCalc (v. 9.1. The level of significance was established at 5%. For reliability, the generalized (GE and sex-specific equations (SSE presented high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC=0.942 and 0.948, p < 0,001 for predicted VO2max and low standard error of the estimate (1.14 and 1.48 ml O2.kg-1.min-1. For validity, the predicted VO2max was underestimated by both equations (GE=17.11±5.97 ml O2.kg-1.min-1; SSE=17.15±4.99 ml O2.kg-1.min-1 vs measured VO2max=26.67±3.53 ml O2.kg-1.min-1 (p < 0.001, and low correlation coeficients (r=0.488 and 0.471 between predicted and measured VO2max were observed. The equations presented high constant error (-9.56 and –9.53 ml O2.kg-1.min-1, with only 16.7% of agreement between the methods. Therefore, the RFWT was reliable, however, not valid for predicting VO2max among active elderly women aged 70 to

  15. Validity and reliability of the one-mile walk test (the Rockport Fitness Walk Test among 70-to-79 year old women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Marques

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n3p364   The purpose of this study was to verify the reliability and concurrent validity of the One-Mile Walk Test (OMWT (The Rockport Fitness Walk Test, Kline et al., 1987, as a preditor of the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max among women aged 70 to 79 years. The study used a convenient sample, composed by 30 healthy seniors from Florianópolis, SC. Data collection was structured in three phases: 1 answering questionnaires on sociodemographics, on readiness for physical activity (PAR-Q and on physical activity level (IPAQ. Anthropometric variables were measured and the participant performed the first evaluation of the RFWT. Afterwards, the subject visited the laboratory for a treadmill walk and for a trial of the equipments (K4 b2 - COSMED to be used during the stress test (ST for directly measuring the VO2max; 2 the seniors performed the ST following an incremental test protocol, from 2.4 km.h-1 to 5.6 km.h-1 with grades varying from 0% to 15%; 3 the second RFWT. The statistical analyses included the criteria suggested by Lohman (1992 for validity and the procedures were performed using the SPSS (v. 7.5 and MedCalc (v. 9.1. The level of significance was established at 5%. For reliability, the generalized (GE and sex-specific equations (SSE presented high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC=0.942 and 0.948, p < 0,001 for predicted VO2max and low standard error of the estimate (1.14 and 1.48 ml O2.kg-1.min-1. For validity, the predicted VO2max was underestimated by both equations (GE=17.11±5.97 ml O2.kg-1.min-1; SSE=17.15±4.99 ml O2.kg-1.min-1 vs measured VO2max=26.67±3.53 ml O2.kg-1.min-1 (p < 0.001, and low correlation coeficients (r=0.488 and 0.471 between predicted and measured VO2max were observed. The equations presented high constant error (-9.56 and –9.53 ml O2.kg-1.min-1, with only 16.7% of agreement between the methods. Therefore, the RFWT was reliable, however, not valid for

  16. Analysis of the Pull-Up Requirement in the U.S. Marine Corps Physical Fitness Test for Female Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    level of fitness, it will be “easier” to adapt once again. That said, it’s also muscle dependent, therefore a cross-country runner in high school...needed to change the hearts, minds, and resilience of female Marines having served years of their lives in the Corps. Marines follow orders, and they

  17. The efficacy of the PACER versus the modified PACER test for assessing aerobic fitness in overweight children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overweight status is negatively related to health in children. Achieving adequate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) may reduce the health problems associated with pediatric overweight. It is important to accurately measure CRF. There is limited research concerning the validity of existing CRF field te...

  18. High School Females' Emotions, Self-Efficacy, and Attributions during Soccer and Fitness Testing in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodewyk, Ken R.; Muir, Amber

    2017-01-01

    Female enthusiasm toward engaging in physical education decreases significantly with age. This has been linked to, among other things, the negative emotional experiences that sometimes occur when learning and participating in a variety of curricular content such as games or fitness activities. Little is yet known about how females' enjoyment,…

  19. Respirator studies for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Protection factors for supplied-air respirators. Progress report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hack, A.; Bradley, O.D.; Trujillo, A.

    1977-12-01

    This report describes the work performed during FY 1977 for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Protection Factors (efficiency) provided by 25 NIOSH approved supplied-air respirators were determined while the devices were worn by a panel of anthropometrically selected test subjects. The major recommendation was that demand-type respirators should neither be used nor approved

  20. Fitness of Mass-Reared Males of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) Resulting From Mating Competition Tests in Field Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Emilio; Liedo, Pablo; Toledo, Jorge; Montoya, Pablo; Perales, Hugo; Ruiz-Montoya, Lorena

    2017-12-05

    The sterile insect technique uses males that have been mass-reared in a controlled environment. The insects, once released in the field, must compete to mate. However, the mass-rearing condition supposes a loss of fitness that will be noticeable by wild females. To compare the fitness of wild males and mass-reared males, three competition settings were established. In setting 1, wild males, mass-reared males and wild females were released in field cages. In setting 2, wild females and wild males were released without competition, and in setting 3, mass-reared males and mass-reared females were also released without competition. Male fitness was based on their mating success, fecundity, weight and longevity. The fitness of the females was measured based on weight and several demographic parameters. The highest percentage of mating was between wild males and wild females between 0800 and 0900 h in the competition condition, while the mass-reared males started one hour later. The successful wild males weighed more and showed longer mating times, greater longevity and a higher number of matings than the mass-reared males. Although the mass-reared males showed the lowest percentage of matings, their fecundity when mating with wild females indicated a high fitness. Since the survival and fecundity of wild females that mated with mass-reared males decreased to become similar to those of mass-reared females that mated with mass-reared males, females seem to be influenced by the type of male (wild or mass-reared). © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Penetration of asbestos fibers in respirator filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Pearson, S.D.; Rohrbacher, K.D.; Yeh, Hsu-Chi.

    1994-01-01

    Currently, the health risks associated with asbestos have restricted its use and created a growing asbestos abatement industry with a need for respirator filters that are effective for worker protection. The main purpose of this project is to determine the influence of fiber size, electrostatic charge, and flow rate on the penetration of asbestos fibers in respirator filter cartridges. The study includes four types of filters each tested at two flow rates: the AO-R57A, a dual cartridge HEPA filter tested at 16 and 42.5 L/min; the MSA-S, a dust and mist filter tested at 16 and 42.5 L/min; the MSA-A power filter tested at 32 and 85 L/min; and the 3M-8710, a low-efficiency disposable face mask filter tested at 32 and 85 L/min. The three types of asbestos fibers used (amosite, crocidolite, and chrysotile) ranged in length from 0.04-0.5 μm and in aspect ratio (ratio of length to diameter) from 3 to 60. The fibers were used in both charged and neutralized forms. The results from amosite fibers are reported here

  2. Novel artificial stool material for external quality assurance (EQA) on a fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin (FIT): The confirmed utility of stable hemoglobin and an internal standard material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Ryota; Yamada, Miyu; Takehara, Shizuka; Sakurabayashi, Ikunosuke; Watanabe, Katsunori

    2018-04-16

    The fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin (FIT), which detects lower gastrointestinal bleeding, is widely accepted for population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs. However, the FIT screening process has not been standardized yet, and standardizing the pre-analytical phase and establishing an external quality assurance (EQA) program compliant with ISO requirements is urgently needed. Although there have been various attempts to establish EQA materials suitable for FIT, no materials have yet been reported to have sufficient uniformity and acceptable immunochemical stability of hemoglobin (Hb). The Health Care Technology Foundation (HECTEF; Tokyo Japan) is now developing a ready-to-use artificial stool containing Hb and an internal standard, glycerol. Accordingly, we verified the adaptability and efficacy of this material for the evaluation of the specimen collection phase of FIT. This material uniformly contained both Hb and glycerol. The glycerol allowed us to estimate the weight of the collected artificial stool and to correct the Hb concentration with the estimated weight. Furthermore, the stability of both Hb and glycerol were confirmed to be sufficient for an EQA material under appropriate storage, in-use, repeated freeze-thaw, and heated conditions. These in-house performance characteristics suggest that HECTEF artificial stool is acceptable as an EQA material for FIT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fodbold Fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren

    Samfundet forandrer sig og ligeså gør danskernes idrætsmønstre. Fodbold Fitness, der er afhandlingens omdrejningspunkt, kan iagttages som en reaktion på disse forandringer. Afhandlingen ser nærmere på Fodbold Fitness og implementeringen af dette, der ingenlunde er nogen let opgave. Bennike bidrager...

  4. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    phage types, predominantly only penicillin resistant. We investigated whether isolates of this epidemic were associated with a fitness cost, and we employed a mathematical model to ask whether these fitness costs could have led to the observed reduction in frequency. Bacteraemia isolates of S. aureus...... from Denmark have been stored since 1957. We chose 40 S. aureus isolates belonging to phage complex 83A, clonal complex 8 based on spa type, ranging in time of isolation from 1957 to 1980 and with varyous antibiograms, including both methicillin-resistant and -susceptible isolates. The relative fitness...... of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...

  5. Getting CSR communication fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line

    2017-01-01

    Companies experience increasing legal and societal pressure to communicate about their corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagements from a number of different publics. One very important group is that of young consumers who are predicted to be the most important and influential consumer group...... in the near future. From a value- theoretical base, this article empirically explores the role and applicability of ‘fit’ in strategic CSR communication targeted at young consumers. Point of departure is taken in the well-known strategic fit (a logical link between a company’s CSR commitment and its core...... values) and is further developed by introducing two additional fits, the CSR- Consumer fit and the CSR-Consumer-Company fit (Triple Fit). Through a sequential design, the three fits are empirically tested and their potential for meeting young consumers’ expectations for corporate CSR messaging...

  6. Effects of musicality and motivational orientation on auditory category learning: a test of a regulatory-fit hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, J Devin; Henry, Molly J; Wedd, Alan; Pleskac, Timothy J; Cesario, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of musicality and motivational orientation on auditory category learning. In both experiments, participants learned to classify tone stimuli that varied in frequency and duration according to an initially unknown disjunctive rule; feedback involved gaining points for correct responses (a gains reward structure) or losing points for incorrect responses (a losses reward structure). For Experiment 1, participants were told at the start that musicians typically outperform nonmusicians on the task, and then they were asked to identify themselves as either a "musician" or a "nonmusician." For Experiment 2, participants were given either a promotion focus prime (a performance-based opportunity to gain entry into a raffle) or a prevention focus prime (a performance-based criterion that needed to be maintained to avoid losing an entry into a raffle) at the start of the experiment. Consistent with a regulatory-fit hypothesis, self-identified musicians and promotion-primed participants given a gains reward structure made more correct tone classifications and were more likely to discover the optimal disjunctive rule than were musicians and promotion-primed participants experiencing losses. Reward structure (gains vs. losses) had inconsistent effects on the performance of nonmusicians, and a weaker regulatory-fit effect was found for the prevention focus prime. Overall, the findings from this study demonstrate a regulatory-fit effect in the domain of auditory category learning and show that motivational orientation may contribute to musician performance advantages in auditory perception.

  7. The use of Yo-Yo IR1 and Andersen testing for fitness and maximal heart rate assessments of 6-10 yr old school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahler, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    ; grade 2, n=16) and six weeks apart by 9-10 year olds (grade 3, n=49). Grade (G) 0-2's also performed an incremental treadmill test (ITT). G2's had a better (pSD) vs 536±218 m) and Andersen test performance (10%; 1050±71 vs 955±56 m) than G0's. For G0-2's YYIR1C......-10 year old children. Additionally, submaximal YYIR1C testing can be used for frequent non-exhaustive fitness assessments....

  8. General Instructions for Disposable Respirators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    This podcast, intended for the general public, demonstrates how to put on and take off disposable respirators that are to be used in areas affected by the influenza outbreak.  Created: 4/9/2009 by CDC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 4/29/2009.

  9. Use of Facemasks and Respirators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-05-15

    This program demonstrates the differences of facemasks and respirators that are to be used in public settings during an influenza pandemic.  Created: 5/15/2007 by CDC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 5/25/2007.

  10. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Open to All: http://cern.ch/club-fitness  fitness.club@cern.ch Boxing Your supervisor makes your life too tough ! You really need to release the pressure you've been building up ! Come and join the fit-boxers. We train three times a week in Bd 216, classes for beginners and advanced available. Visit our website cern.ch/Boxing General Fitness Escape from your desk with our general fitness classes, to strengthen your heart, muscles and bones, improve you stamina, balance and flexibility, achieve new goals, be more productive and experience a sense of well-being, every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtime, Tuesday mornings before work and Thursday evenings after work – join us for one of our monthly fitness workshops. Nordic Walking Enjoy the great outdoors; Nordic Walking is a great way to get your whole body moving and to significantly improve the condition of your muscles, heart and lungs. It will boost your energy levels no end. Pilates A body-conditioning technique de...

  11. Methodology review: evaluating person fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2001-01-01

    Person-fit methods based on classical test theory-and item response theory (IRT), and methods investigating particular types of response behavior on tests, are examined. Similarities and differences among person-fit methods and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Sound person-fit

  12. Measurements of CO2 exchange with an automated chamber system throughout the year: challenges in measuring night-time respiration on porous peat soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koskinen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We built an automatic chamber system to measure greenhouse gas (GHG exchange in forested peatland ecosystems. We aimed to build a system robust enough which would work throughout the year and could measure through a changing snowpack in addition to producing annual GHG fluxes by integrating the measurements without the need of using models. The system worked rather well throughout the year, but it was not service free. Gap filling of data was still necessary. We observed problems in carbon dioxide (CO2 respiration flux estimation during calm summer nights, when a CO2 concentration gradient from soil/moss system to atmosphere builds up. Chambers greatly overestimated the night-time respiration. This was due to the disturbance caused by the chamber to the soil-moss CO2 gradient and consequent initial pulse of CO2 to the chamber headspace. We tested different flux calculation and measurement methods to solve this problem. The estimated flux was strongly dependent on (1 the starting point of the fit after closing the chamber, (2 the length of the fit, (3 the type of the fit (linear and polynomial, (4 the speed of the fan mixing the air inside the chamber, and (5 atmospheric turbulence (friction velocity, u*. The best fitting method (the most robust, least random variation for respiration measurements on our sites was linear fitting with the period of 120–240 s after chamber closure. Furthermore, the fan should be adjusted to spin at minimum speed to avoid the pulse-effect, but it should be kept on to ensure mixing. If night-time problems cannot be solved, emissions can be estimated using daytime data from opaque chambers.

  13. Measurements of CO2 exchange with an automated chamber system throughout the year: challenges in measuring night-time respiration on porous peat soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, M.; Minkkinen, K.; Ojanen, P.; Kämäräinen, M.; Laurila, T.; Lohila, A.

    2014-01-01

    We built an automatic chamber system to measure greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange in forested peatland ecosystems. We aimed to build a system robust enough which would work throughout the year and could measure through a changing snowpack in addition to producing annual GHG fluxes by integrating the measurements without the need of using models. The system worked rather well throughout the year, but it was not service free. Gap filling of data was still necessary. We observed problems in carbon dioxide (CO2) respiration flux estimation during calm summer nights, when a CO2 concentration gradient from soil/moss system to atmosphere builds up. Chambers greatly overestimated the night-time respiration. This was due to the disturbance caused by the chamber to the soil-moss CO2 gradient and consequent initial pulse of CO2 to the chamber headspace. We tested different flux calculation and measurement methods to solve this problem. The estimated flux was strongly dependent on (1) the starting point of the fit after closing the chamber, (2) the length of the fit, (3) the type of the fit (linear and polynomial), (4) the speed of the fan mixing the air inside the chamber, and (5) atmospheric turbulence (friction velocity, u*). The best fitting method (the most robust, least random variation) for respiration measurements on our sites was linear fitting with the period of 120-240 s after chamber closure. Furthermore, the fan should be adjusted to spin at minimum speed to avoid the pulse-effect, but it should be kept on to ensure mixing. If night-time problems cannot be solved, emissions can be estimated using daytime data from opaque chambers.

  14. Validity and reliability of skill-related fitness tests for wheelchair-using youth with Spina Bifida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, M.A.; Takken, T.; Backx, F.J.; Vos, M.; Kruitwagen, C.L.; Groot, J.F. de

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine content validity of the Muscle Power Sprint Test (MPST), and construct validity and reliability of the MPST, 10x5 Meter Sprint Test (10x5MST), slalom test, and One Stroke Push Test (1SPT) in wheelchair-using youth with spina bifida (SB). Design: Clinimetric study. Setting:

  15. Validity and Reliability of Skill-Related Fitness Tests for Wheelchair-Using Youth With Spina Bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, Manon A.; Takken, Tim; Backx, Frank J.; Vos, Marleen; Kruitwagen, Cas L.; de Groot, Janke F.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine content validity of the Muscle Power Sprint Test (MPST) and construct validity and reliability of the MPST, 10x5 Meter Sprint Test (10x5MST), slalom test and one stroke push test (1SPT) in wheelchair-using youth with spina bifida (SB). DESIGN: Clinimetric study SETTING:

  16. Validity and Reliability of Skill-Related Fitness Tests for Wheelchair-Using Youth with Spina Bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cas L.J.J. Kruitwagen; Frank J.G. Backx; Tim Takken; Janke de Groot; Marleen Vos; Manon A.T. Bloemen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine content validity of the Muscle Power Sprint Test (MPST) and construct validity and reliability of the MPST, 10x5 Meter Sprint Test (10x5MST), slalom test and one stroke push test (1SPT) in wheelchair-using youth with spina bifida (SB). Design: Clinimetric study Setting:

  17. Arm cranking versus wheelchair propulsion for testing aerobic fitness in children with spina bifida who are wheelchair dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, Manon A T; De Groot, Janke F.; Backx, FJG; Westerveld, Rosalyne A.; Takken, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the best test performance and feasibility using a Graded Arm Cranking Test vs a Graded Wheelchair Propulsion Test in young people with spina bifida who use a wheelchair, and to determine the reliability of the best test. Design: Validity and reliability study. Subjects: Young

  18. Arm cranking versus wheelchair propulsion for testing aerobic fitness in children with spina bifida who are wheelchair dependent.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, M.A.T.; Groot, J.F. de; Backx, F.J.G.; Westerveld, R.A.; Takken, T.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the best test performance and feasibility using a Graded Arm Cranking Test vs a Graded Wheelchair Propulsion Test in young people with spina bifida who use a wheelchair, and to determine the reliability of the best test. DESIGN: Validity and reliability study. SUBJECTS: Young

  19. A simulation-based goodness-of-fit test for random effects in generalized linear mixed models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    The goodness-of-fit of the distribution of random effects in a generalized linear mixed model is assessed using a conditional simulation of the random effects conditional on the observations. Provided that the specified joint model for random effects and observations is correct, the marginal...... distribution of the simulated random effects coincides with the assumed random effects distribution. In practice, the specified model depends on some unknown parameter which is replaced by an estimate. We obtain a correction for this by deriving the asymptotic distribution of the empirical distribution...

  20. A simulation-based goodness-of-fit test for random effects in generalized linear mixed models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    The goodness-of-fit of the distribution of random effects in a generalized linear mixed model is assessed using a conditional simulation of the random effects conditional on the observations. Provided that the specified joint model for random effects and observations is correct, the marginal...... distribution of the simulated random effects coincides with the assumed random effects distribution. In practice the specified model depends on some unknown parameter which is replaced by an estimate. We obtain a correction for this by deriving the asymptotic distribution of the empirical distribution function...

  1. 78 FR 18535 - Respirator Certification Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... facepiece respirators. The North American respiratory protection market generated revenues around $1,830 million in 2007, the most recent data available.\\4\\ A summary of market segmentation, by respirator type... management. Of the U.S. respirator market of products approved by NIOSH, approximately 35 percent of approval...

  2. Contribution of Root Respiration to Soil Respiration in Sugarcane Plantation in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wilaiwan Sornpoon; Sebastien Bonnet; Poonpipope Kasemsap; Savitri Garivait

    2013-01-01

    The understanding on the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration is still very limited, especially for sugarcane. In this study, trenching experiments in sugarcane plantations were conducted to separate and investigate soil respiration for this crop. The measurements were performed for the whole growing period of 344 days to quantify root respiration. The obtained monitoring data showed that the respiration rate is increasing with the age of the plant, accounting for up to ...

  3. Calibrating soil respiration measures with a dynamic flux apparatus using artificial soil media of varying porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Butnor; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2004-01-01

    Measurement of soil respiration to quantify ecosystem carbon cyclingrequires absolute, not relative, estimates of soil CO2 efflux. We describe a novel, automated efflux apparatus that can be used to test the accuracy of chamber-based soil respiration measurements by generating known CO2 fluxes. Artificial soil is supported...

  4. One size does not fit all: HIV testing preferences differ among high-risk groups in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Jan; Njau, Bernard; Mtuy, Tara; Brown, Derek S; Mühlbacher, Axel; Thielman, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    In order to maximize the effectiveness of "Seek, Test, and Treat" strategies for curbing the HIV epidemic, new approaches are needed to increase the uptake of HIV testing services, particularly among high-risk groups. Low HIV testing rates among such groups suggest that current testing services may not align well with the testing preferences of these populations. Female bar workers and male mountain porters have been identified as two important high-risk groups in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. We used conventional survey methods and a discrete choice experiment (DCE), a preference elicitation method increasingly applied by economists and policy-makers to inform health policy and services, to analyze trade-offs made by individuals and quantify preferences for HIV testing services. Bivariate descriptive statistics were used to analyze differences in survey responses across groups. Compared to 486 randomly selected community members, 162 female bar workers and 194 male Kilimanjaro porters reported 2-3 times as many lifetime sexual partners (p porters preferred testing in venues where antiretroviral therapy was readily available. Both high-risk groups were less averse to traveling longer distances to test compared to their community counterparts. These results expose systematic differences in HIV testing preferences across high-risk populations compared to their community peers. Tailoring testing options to the preferences of high-risk populations should be evaluated as a means of improving uptake of testing in these populations.

  5. SU-E-J-67: Evaluation of Breathing Patterns for Respiratory-Gated Radiation Therapy Using Respiration Regularity Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, K; Lee, M; Kang, S; Yoon, J; Park, S; Hwang, T; Kim, H; Kim, K; Han, T; Bae, H

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the importance of accurately estimating the respiration regularity of a patient in motion compensation treatment, an effective and simply applicable method has rarely been reported. The authors propose a simple respiration regularity index based on parameters derived from a correspondingly simplified respiration model. Methods: In order to simplify a patient's breathing pattern while preserving the data's intrinsic properties, we defined a respiration model as a power of cosine form with a baseline drift. According to this respiration formula, breathing-pattern fluctuation could be explained using four factors: sample standard deviation of respiration period, sample standard deviation of amplitude and the results of simple regression of the baseline drift (slope and standard deviation of residuals of a respiration signal. Overall irregularity (δ) was defined as a Euclidean norm of newly derived variable using principal component analysis (PCA) for the four fluctuation parameters. Finally, the proposed respiration regularity index was defined as ρ=ln(1+(1/ δ))/2, a higher ρ indicating a more regular breathing pattern. Subsequently, we applied it to simulated and clinical respiration signals from real-time position management (RPM; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) and investigated respiration regularity. Moreover, correlations between the regularity of the first session and the remaining fractions were investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The respiration regularity was determined based on ρ; patients with ρ 0.7 was suitable for respiratory-gated radiation therapy (RGRT). Fluctuations in breathing cycle and amplitude were especially determinative of ρ. If the respiration regularity of a patient's first session was known, it could be estimated through subsequent sessions. Conclusions: Respiration regularity could be objectively determined using a respiration regularity index, ρ. Such single-index testing of

  6. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

      Nordic Walking Classes Come join the Nordic walking classes and outings offered by the CERN Fitness Club starting September 2013. Our licensed instructor Christine offers classes for people who’ve never tried Nordic Walking and who would like to learn the technique, and outings for people who have completed the classes and enjoy going out as a group. Course 1: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 24 September, 1 October, 8 October, 15 October Course 2: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 5 November, 12 November, 19 November, 26 November Outings will take place on Thursdays (12:30 to 13:30) from 12 September 2013. We meet at the CERN Club Barracks car park (close to Entrance A) 10 minutes before departure. Prices: 50 CHF for 4 classes, including the 10 CHF Club membership. Payments made directly to instructor. Renting Poles: Poles can be rented from Christine at 5 CHF / hour. Subscription: Please subscribe at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Looking forward to seeing you among us! Fitness Club FitnessClub@c...

  7. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2010-01-01

    Nordic Walking Please note that the subscriptions for the general fitness classes from July to December are open: Subscriptions general fitness classes Jul-Dec 2010 Sign-up to the Fitness Club mailing list here Nordic Walking: Sign-up to the Nordic Walking mailing list here Beginners Nordic walking lessons Monday Lunchtimes (rdv 12:20 for 12:30 departure) 13.09/20.09/27.09/04.10 11.10/18.10/08.11/15.11 22.11/29.11/06.12/20.12 Nordic walking lessons Tuesday evenings (rdv 17:50 for 18:00 departure) 07.09/14.09/21.09/28.09 05.10/12.10/19.10/26.10 Intermediate/Advanced Nordic walking outings (follow the nordic walking lessons before signing up for the outings) every Thursday from 16.09 - 16.12, excluding 28.10 and 09.12 Subscriptions and info: fitness.club@cern.ch  

  8. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

      The CERN Fitness Club is pleased to announce its new early morning class which will be taking place on: Tuesdays from 24th April 07:30 to 08:15 216 (Pump Hall, close to entrance C) – Facilities include changing rooms and showers. The Classes: The early morning classes will focus on workouts which will help you build not only strength and stamina, but will also improve your balance, and coordination. Our qualified instructor Germana will accompany you throughout the workout  to ensure you stay motivated so you achieve the best results. Sign up and discover the best way to start your working day full of energy! How to subscribe? We invite you along to a FREE trial session, if you enjoy the activity, please sign up via our website: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Activities/SUBSCRIBE.aspx. * * * * * * * * Saturday 28th April Get in shape for the summer at our fitness workshop and zumba dance party: Fitness workshop with Germana 13:00 to 14:30 - 216 (Pump Hall) Price...

  9. Plant species richness regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavares Correa Dias, A.; van Ruijven, J.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    Soil respiration is an important pathway of the C cycle. However, it is still poorly understood how changes in plant community diversity can affect this ecosystem process. Here we used a long-term experiment consisting of a gradient of grassland plant species richness to test for effects of

  10. 75 FR 29699 - Total Inward Leakage Requirements for Respirators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... or other half-mask respirator inward leakage measurement, and offer any additional comments on the..., facsimile (412) 386-4089, e-mail [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The Department of... order to conduct tests and prepare responses. On April 20, 2010, NIOSH responded by reopening the docket...

  11. Plant species richness regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias, A.A.; Ruijven, van J.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    Soil respiration is an important pathway of the C cycle. However, it is still poorly understood how changes in plant community diversity can affect this ecosystem process. Here we used a long-term experiment consisting of a gradient of grassland plant species richness to test for effects of

  12. Significance of cold-season respiration and photosynthesis in a subarctic heath ecosystem in Northern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Ibrom, Andreas; Jonasson, S.

    2007-01-01

    While substantial cold-season respiration has been documented in most arctic and alpine ecosystems in recent years, the significance of cold-season photosynthesis in these biomes is still believed to be small. In a mesic, subartic heath during both the cold and warm season, we measured in situ...... ecosystem respiration and photosynthesis with a chamber technique at ambient conditions and at artificially, increased frequency of freeze-thaw (FT) cycles during fall and spring. We fitted the measured ecosystem exchange rates to respiration and photosynthesis models with R-2-values ranging from 0.81 to 0.......85. As expected, estimated cold-season (October, November, April and May) respiration was significant and accounted for at least 22% of the annual respiratory CO2 flux. More surprisingly, estimated photosynthesis during this period accounted for up to 19% of the annual gross CO2 uptake, suggesting that cold...

  13. The importance of in vitro diagnostics in respiration allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wever, A.M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Out of the 4 types of allergic reactions, in respiration allergy the anaphylactic reaction caused by IgE antibodies is the most important. Determination of IgE with radioimmunoassay: the radio-allergo-sorbent test (Rast) and the Phadiatop (pharmacie-differential atopy test) was investigated in 248 patients with pulmonal complaints. Phadiatop can be used as a screening test and for a better application of the specific Rast-diagnostic. 1 table

  14. Statistical energy as a tool for binning-free, multivariate goodness-of-fit tests, two-sample comparison and unfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslan, B.; Zech, G.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the novel concept of statistical energy as a statistical tool. We define statistical energy of statistical distributions in a similar way as for electric charge distributions. Charges of opposite sign are in a state of minimum energy if they are equally distributed. This property is used to check whether two samples belong to the same parent distribution, to define goodness-of-fit tests and to unfold distributions distorted by measurement. The approach is binning-free and especially powerful in multidimensional applications

  15. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes Sessions of four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Session 1 =  11.09 / 18.09 / 25.09 / 02.10, 18:15 - 19:15 Session 2 = 25.09 / 02.10 / 09.10 / 16.10, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 3 = 23.10 / 30.10 / 06.11 / 13.11, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 4 = 20.11 / 27.11 / 04.12 / 11.12, 12:30 - 13:30 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness   Hope to see you among us!  fitness.club@cern.ch In spring 2012 there was a long-awaited progress in CERN Fitness club. We have officially opened a Powerlifting @ CERN, and the number of members of the new section has been increasing since then reaching 70+ people in less than 4 months. Powerlifting is a strength sport, which is simple as 1-2-3 and efficient. The "1-2-3" are the three basic lifts (bench press...

  16. Reliability and Model Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Leanne M.; Edwards, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between the reliability of test scores and the fit of psychometric measurement models, reminding readers why it is important to consider both when evaluating whether test scores are valid for a proposed interpretation and/or use. It is often the case that an investigator judges both the…

  17. Vegetation types alter soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity at the field scale in an estuary wetland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxuan Han

    Full Text Available Vegetation type plays an important role in regulating the temporal and spatial variation of soil respiration. Therefore, vegetation patchiness may cause high uncertainties in the estimates of soil respiration for scaling field measurements to ecosystem level. Few studies provide insights regarding the influence of vegetation types on soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity in an estuary wetland. In order to enhance the understanding of this issue, we focused on the growing season and investigated how the soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity are affected by the different vegetation (Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa and bare soil in the Yellow River Estuary. During the growing season, there were significant linear relationships between soil respiration rates and shoot and root biomass, respectively. On the diurnal timescale, daytime soil respiration was more dependent on net photosynthesis. A positive correlation between soil respiration and net photosynthesis at the Phragmites australis site was found. There were exponential correlations between soil respiration and soil temperature, and the fitted Q10 values varied among different vegetation types (1.81, 2.15 and 3.43 for Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa and bare soil sites, respectively. During the growing season, the mean soil respiration was consistently higher at the Phragmites australis site (1.11 µmol CO2 m(-2 s(-1, followed by the Suaeda salsa site (0.77 µmol CO2 m(-2 s(-1 and the bare soil site (0.41 µmol CO2 m(-2 s(-1. The mean monthly soil respiration was positively correlated with shoot and root biomass, total C, and total N among the three vegetation patches. Our results suggest that vegetation patchiness at a field scale might have a large impact on ecosystem-scale soil respiration. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the differences in vegetation types when using models to evaluate soil respiration in an estuary wetland.

  18. Vegetation Types Alter Soil Respiration and Its Temperature Sensitivity at the Field Scale in an Estuary Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guangxuan; Xing, Qinghui; Luo, Yiqi; Rafique, Rashad; Yu, Junbao; Mikle, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation type plays an important role in regulating the temporal and spatial variation of soil respiration. Therefore, vegetation patchiness may cause high uncertainties in the estimates of soil respiration for scaling field measurements to ecosystem level. Few studies provide insights regarding the influence of vegetation types on soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity in an estuary wetland. In order to enhance the understanding of this issue, we focused on the growing season and investigated how the soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity are affected by the different vegetation (Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa and bare soil) in the Yellow River Estuary. During the growing season, there were significant linear relationships between soil respiration rates and shoot and root biomass, respectively. On the diurnal timescale, daytime soil respiration was more dependent on net photosynthesis. A positive correlation between soil respiration and net photosynthesis at the Phragmites australis site was found. There were exponential correlations between soil respiration and soil temperature, and the fitted Q 10 values varied among different vegetation types (1.81, 2.15 and 3.43 for Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa and bare soil sites, respectively). During the growing season, the mean soil respiration was consistently higher at the Phragmites australis site (1.11 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1), followed by the Suaeda salsa site (0.77 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1) and the bare soil site (0.41 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1). The mean monthly soil respiration was positively correlated with shoot and root biomass, total C, and total N among the three vegetation patches. Our results suggest that vegetation patchiness at a field scale might have a large impact on ecosystem-scale soil respiration. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the differences in vegetation types when using models to evaluate soil respiration in an estuary wetland. PMID:24608636

  19. Management effects on European cropland respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugster, Werner; Moffat, Antje M.; Ceschia, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Increases in respiration rates following management activities in croplands are considered a relevant anthropogenic source of CO2. In this paper, we quantify the impact of management events on cropland respiration fluxes of CO2 as they occur under current climate and management conditions. Our....... This allowed us to address the question of how management activities influence ecosystem respiration. This was done by comparing respiration fluxes during 7, 14, and 28 days after the management with those observed during the matching time period before management. Median increases in respiration ranged from...... than management alone are also important at a given site. Temperature is the climatic factor that showed best correlation with site-specific respiration fluxes. Therefore, the effect of temperature changes between the time periods before and after management were taken into account for a subset of 13...

  20. Dependence of Soil Respiration on Soil Temperature and Soil Moisture in Successional Forests in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu-Li Tang; Guo-Yi Zhou; Shu-Guang Liu; De-Qiang Zhang; Shi-Zhong Liu; Jiong Li; Cun-Yu Zhou

    2006-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variations in soil respiration and its relationship with biophysical factors in forests near the Tropic of Cancer remain highly uncertain. To contribute towards an improvement of actual estimates, soil respiration rates, soil temperature, and soil moisture were measured in three successional subtropical forests at the Dinghushan Nature Reserve (DNR) in southern China from March 2003 to February 2005. The overall objective of the present study was to analyze the temporal variations of soil respiration and its biophysical dependence in these forests. The relationships between biophysical factors and soil respiration rates were compared in successional forests to test the hypothesis that these forests responded similarly to biophysical factors. The seasonality of soil respiration coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with high respiration rates in the hot humid season (April-September) and with low rates in the cool dry season (October-March). Soil respiration measured at these forests showed a clear increasing trend with the progressive succession. Annual mean (± SD) soil respiration rate in the DNR forests was (9.0±4.6) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year, ranging from (6.1±3.2) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year in early successional forests to (10.7±4.9) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year in advanced successional forests. Soil respiration was correlated with both soil temperature and moisture. The T/M model, where the two biophysical variables are driving factors, accounted for 74%-82% of soil respiration variation in DNR forests. Temperature sensitivity decreased along progressive succession stages, suggesting that advanced-successional forests have a good ability to adjust to temperature. In contrast, moisture increased with progressive succession processes. This increase is caused, in part, by abundant respirators in advanced-successional forest, where more soil moisture is needed to maintain their activities.

  1. Dependence of soil respiration on soil temperature and soil moisture in successional forests in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X.-L.; Zhou, G.-Y.; Liu, S.-G.; Zhang, D.-Q.; Liu, S.-Z.; Li, Ji; Zhou, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variations in soil respiration and its relationship with biophysical factors in forests near the Tropic of Cancer remain highly uncertain. To contribute towards an improvement of actual estimates, soil respiration rates, soil temperature, and soil moisture were measured in three successional subtropical forests at the Dinghushan Nature Reserve (DNR) in southern China from March 2003 to February 2005. The overall objective of the present study was to analyze the temporal variations of soil respiration and its biophysical dependence in these forests. The relationships between biophysical factors and soil respiration rates were compared in successional forests to test the hypothesis that these forests responded similarly to biophysical factors. The seasonality of soil respiration coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with high respiration rates in the hot humid season (April-September) and with low rates in the cool dry season (October-March). Soil respiration measured at these forests showed a clear increasing trend with the progressive succession. Annual mean (±SD) soil respiration rate in the DNR forests was (9.0 ± 4.6) Mg CO2-C/hm2per year, ranging from (6.1 ± 3.2) Mg CO2-C/hm2per year in early successional forests to (10.7 ± 4.9) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year in advanced successional forests. Soil respiration was correlated with both soil temperature and moisture. The T/M model, where the two biophysical variables are driving factors, accounted for 74%-82% of soil respiration variation in DNR forests. Temperature sensitivity decreased along progressive succession stages, suggesting that advanced-successional forests have a good ability to adjust to temperature. In contrast, moisture increased with progressive succession processes. This increase is caused, in part, by abundant respirators in advanced-successional forest, where more soil moisture is needed to maintain their activities.

  2. Evaluation of the effects of supplementation with Pycnogenol® on fitness in normal subjects with the Army Physical Fitness Test and in performances of athletes in the 100-minute triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinciguerra, G; Belcaro, G; Bonanni, E; Cesarone, M R; Rotondi, V; Ledda, A; Hosoi, M; Dugall, M; Cacchio, M; Cornelli, U

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this registry study was to evaluate the effects of Pycnogenol® (French pine bark extract) on improving physical fitness (PF) in normal individuals using the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). The study evaluated the efficacy of Pycnogenol, used as a supplement, in improving training, exercise, recovery and oxidative stress. The study was divided into 2 parts. In PART 1 (Pycnogenol 100 mg/day), the APFT was used to assess an improvement in PF during an 8-week preparation and training program. In PART 2 (Pycnogenol 150 mg/day), the study evaluated the effects of Pycnogenol supplementation in athletes in training for a triathlon. PART 1. There was a significant improvement in both males and females in the 2-mile running time within both groups, but the group using Pycnogenol (74 subjects) performed statistically better than controls (73 subjects). The number of push-ups was improved, with Pycnogenol subjects performing better. Sit-ups also improved in the Pycnogenol group. Oxidative stress decreased with exercise in all subjects; in Pycnogenol subjects the results were significantly better. PART 2. In the Pycnogenol group 32 males (37.9; SD 4.4 years) were compliant with the training plan at 4 weeks. In controls there were 22 subjects (37.2;3.5) completing the training plans. The swimming, biking and running scores in both groups improved with training. The Pycnogenol group had more benefits in comparison with controls. The total triathlon time was 89 min 44 s in Pycnogenol subjects versus 96 min 5 s in controls. Controls improved their performing time on average 4.6 minutes in comparison with an improvement of 10.8 minutes in Pycnogenol subjects. A significant decrease in cramps and running and post-running pain was seen in the Pycnogenol group; there were no significant differences in controls. There was an important, significant post-triathlon decrease of PFR one hour after the end of the triathlon with an average of -26.7, whereas PFR in controls

  3. Development and acceptability testing of decision trees for self-management of prosthetic socket fit in adults with lower limb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel Joseph; Veneri, Diana A

    2018-05-01

    The most common complaint lower limb prosthesis users report is inadequacy of a proper socket fit. Adjustments to the residual limb-socket interface can be made by the prosthesis user without consultation of a clinician in many scenarios through skilled self-management. Decision trees guide prosthesis wearers through the self-management process, empowering them to rectify fit issues, or referring them to a clinician when necessary. This study examines the development and acceptability testing of patient-centered decision trees for lower limb prosthesis users. Decision trees underwent a four-stage process: literature review and expert consultation, designing, two-rounds of expert panel review and revisions, and target audience testing. Fifteen lower limb prosthesis users (average age 61 years) reviewed the decision trees and completed an acceptability questionnaire. Participants reported agreement of 80% or above in five of the eight questions related to acceptability of the decision trees. Disagreement was related to the level of experience of the respondent. Decision trees were found to be easy to use, illustrate correct solutions to common issues, and have terminology consistent with that of a new prosthesis user. Some users with greater than 1.5 years of experience would not use the decision trees based on their own self-management skills. Implications for Rehabilitation Discomfort of the residual limb-prosthetic socket interface is the most common reason for clinician visits. Prosthesis users can use decision trees to guide them through the process of obtaining a proper socket fit independently. Newer users may benefit from using the decision trees more than experienced users.

  4. Respirators: Supervisors Self-Study #43442

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-20

    This course, Respirators: Supervisors Self-Study (#43442), addresses training requirements for supervisors of respirator wearers as specified by the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) Standard for Respiratory Protection, ANSI Z88.2, and as incorporated by reference in the Department of Energy (DOE) Worker Health and Safety Rule, 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 851. This course also presents the responsibilities of supervisors of respirator wearers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  5. The universal Higgs fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giardino, P. P.; Kannike, K.; Masina, I.

    2014-01-01

    We perform a state-of-the-art global fit to all Higgs data. We synthesise them into a 'universal' form, which allows to easily test any desired model. We apply the proposed methodology to extract from data the Higgs branching ratios, production cross sections, couplings and to analyse composite...... Higgs models, models with extra Higgs doublets, supersymmetry, extra particles in the loops, anomalous top couplings, and invisible Higgs decays into Dark Matter. Best fit regions lie around the Standard Model predictions and are well approximated by our 'universal' fit. Latest data exclude the dilaton...... as an alternative to the Higgs, and disfavour fits with negative Yukawa couplings. We derive for the first time the SM Higgs boson mass from the measured rates, rather than from the peak positions, obtaining M-h = 124.4 +/- 1.6 GeV....

  6. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes New session of 4 classes of 1 hour each will be held on Tuesdays in May 2013. Meet at the CERN barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Dates and time: 07.05, 14.05, 21.05 and 28.05, fom  12 h 30 to 13 h 30 Prices: 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership – 5 CHF / hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! 

  7. Cardiac, Skeletal, and smooth muscle mitochondrial respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Song-Young; Gifford, Jayson R; Andtbacka, Robert H I

    2014-01-01

    , skeletal, and smooth muscle was harvested from a total of 22 subjects (53±6 yrs) and mitochondrial respiration assessed in permeabilized fibers. Complex I+II, state 3 respiration, an index of oxidative phosphorylation capacity, fell progressively from cardiac, skeletal, to smooth muscle (54±1; 39±4; 15......±1 pmol•s(-1)•mg (-1), prespiration rates were normalized by CS (respiration...... per mitochondrial content), oxidative phosphorylation capacity was no longer different between the three muscle types. Interestingly, Complex I state 2 normalized for CS activity, an index of non-phosphorylating respiration per mitochondrial content, increased progressively from cardiac, skeletal...

  8. Dynamics of enhanced mitochondrial respiration in female compared with male rat cerebral arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkai, Ibolya; Dutta, Somhrita; Katakam, Prasad V; Busija, David W

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial respiration has never been directly examined in intact cerebral arteries. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial energetics of large cerebral arteries ex vivo are sex dependent. The Seahorse XFe24 analyzer was used to examine mitochondrial respiration in isolated cerebral arteries from adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. We examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) on mitochondrial respiration under basal conditions, using N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, and following pharmacological challenge using diazoxide (DZ), and also determined levels of mitochondrial and nonmitochondrial proteins using Western blot, and vascular diameter responses to DZ. The components of mitochondrial respiration including basal respiration, ATP production, proton leak, maximal respiration, and spare respiratory capacity were elevated in females compared with males, but increased in both male and female arteries in the presence of the NOS inhibitor. Although acute DZ treatment had little effect on mitochondrial respiration of male arteries, it decreased the respiration in female arteries. Levels of mitochondrial proteins in Complexes I-V and the voltage-dependent anion channel protein were elevated in female compared with male cerebral arteries. The DZ-induced vasodilation was greater in females than in males. Our findings show that substantial sex differences in mitochondrial respiratory dynamics exist in large cerebral arteries and may provide the mechanistic basis for observations that the female cerebral vasculature is more adaptable after injury. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Evaluation of 14C abundance in soil respiration using accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koarashi, Jun; Iida, Takao; Moriizumi, Jun; Asano, Tomohiro

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the behavior of 14 C in terrestrial ecosystems, 14 C abundance in soil respiration was evaluated in an urban forest with a new method involving a closed chamber technique and 14 C measurement by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Soil respiration had a higher Δ 14 C than the contemporary atmosphere. This indicates that a significant portion of soil respiration is derived from the decomposition of soil organic matter enriched in 14 C by atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, with a notable time lag between atmospheric 14 C addition and re-emission from soil. On the other hand, δ 14 C in soil respiration demonstrated that 14 C abundance ratio itself in soil-respired CO 2 is not always high compared with that in atmospheric CO 2 because of the isotope fractionation during plant photosynthesis and microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. The Δ 14 C in soil respiration was slightly lower in August than in March, suggesting a relatively high contribution of plant root respiration and decomposition of newly accumulated and/or 14 C-depleted soil organic matter to the total soil respiration in August

  10. Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 to monitor changes in aerobic fitness in pre-pubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Luís; Krustrup, Peter; Silva, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study aimed to examine the performance and heart rate responses during the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1) in children under the age of 10. One hundred and seven male children (7-9 years) performed the Yo-Yo IE1 at the beginning (M1), middle (M2) and end...... (M3) of the school year. Data from individual heart rate curves of the Yo-Yo IE1 were analysed in order to detect the inflection point between an initial phase of fast rise in heart rate values and a second phase in which the rise of the heart rate values is much smaller. The distance covered...

  11. [Effects of Tillage on Soil Respiration and Root Respiration Under Rain-Fed Summer Corn Field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xing-li; Liao, Yun-cheng

    2015-06-01

    To explore the effects of different tillage systems on soil respiration and root respiration under rain-fed condition. Based on a short-term experiment, this paper investigated soil respiration in summer corn growth season under four tillage treatments including subsoiling tillage (ST), no tillage (NT), rotary tillage (RT) and moldboard plow tillage (CT). The contribution of root respiration using root exclusion method was also discussed. The results showed that soil respiration rate presented a single peak trend under four tillage methods during the summer corn growing season, and the maximum value was recorded at the heading stage. The trends of soil respiration were as follows: heading stage > flowering stage > grain filling stage > maturity stage > jointing stage > seedling stage. The trends of soil respiration under different tillage systems were as follows: CT > ST > RT > NT. There was a significant correlation between soil respiration rate and soil temperatures (P soil respiration using exponential function equation. However, there was no significant correlation between soil respiration rate and soil moisture. Root respiration accounted for 45.13%-56.86% of the proportion of soil respiratio n with the mean value 51.72% during the summer corn growing season under different tillage systems. Therefore, root exclusion method could be used to study the contribution of crop growth to carbon emission, to compare effects of different tillage systems on the contribution of root respiration provides the bases for selecting the measures to slow down the decomposition of soil carbon.

  12. Effect of Simvastatin, Coenzyme Q10, Resveratrol, Acetylcysteine and Acetylcarnitine on Mitochondrial Respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fišar, Z; Hroudová, J; Singh, N; Kopřivová, A; Macečková, D

    2016-01-01

    Some therapeutic and/or adverse effects of drugs may be related to their effects on mitochondrial function. The effects of simvastatin, resveratrol, coenzyme Q10, acetylcysteine, and acetylcarnitine on Complex I-, Complex II-, or Complex IV-linked respiratory rate were determined in isolated brain mitochondria. The protective effects of these biologically active compounds on the calcium-induced decrease of the respiratory rate were also studied. We observed a significant inhibitory effect of simvastatin on mitochondrial respiration (IC50 = 24.0 μM for Complex I-linked respiration, IC50 = 31.3 μM for Complex II-linked respiration, and IC50 = 42.9 μM for Complex IV-linked respiration); the inhibitory effect of resveratrol was found at very high concentrations (IC50 = 162 μM for Complex I-linked respiration, IC50 = 564 μM for Complex II-linked respiration, and IC50 = 1454 μM for Complex IV-linked respiration). Concentrations required for effective simvastatin- or resveratrol-induced inhibition of mitochondrial respiration were found much higher than concentrations achieved under standard dosing of these drugs. Acetylcysteine and acetylcarnitine did not affect the oxygen consumption rate of mitochondria. Coenzyme Q10 induced an increase of Complex I-linked respiration. The increase of free calcium ions induced partial inhibition of the Complex I+II-linked mitochondrial respiration, and all tested drugs counteracted this inhibition. None of the tested drugs showed mitochondrial toxicity (characterized by respiratory rate inhibition) at drug concentrations achieved at therapeutic drug intake. Resveratrol, simvastatin, and acetylcarnitine had the greatest neuroprotective potential (characterized by protective effects against calcium-induced reduction of the respiratory rate).

  13. Test-retest reliability and four-week changes in cardiopulmonary fitness in stroke patients: evaluation using a robotics-assisted tilt table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengsuwan, Jittima; Berger, Lucia; Schuster-Amft, Corina; Nef, Tobias; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2016-09-06

    Exercise testing devices for evaluating cardiopulmonary fitness in patients with severe disability after stroke are lacking, but we have adapted a robotics-assisted tilt table (RATT) for cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Using the RATT in a sample of patients after stroke, this study aimed to investigate test-retest reliability and repeatability of CPET and to prospectively investigate changes in cardiopulmonary outcomes over a period of four weeks. Stroke patients with all degrees of disability underwent 3 separate CPET sessions: 2 tests at baseline (TB1 and TB2) and 1 test at follow up (TF). TB1 and TB2 were at least 24 h apart. TB2 and TF were 4 weeks apart. A RATT equipped with force sensors in the thigh cuffs, a work rate estimation algorithm and a real-time visual feedback system was used to guide the patients' exercise work rate during CPET. Test-retest reliability and repeatability of CPET variables were analysed using paired t-tests, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the coefficient of variation (CoV), and Bland and Altman limits of agreement. Changes in cardiopulmonary fitness during four weeks were analysed using paired t-tests. Seventeen sub-acute and chronic stroke patients (age 62.7 ± 10.4 years [mean ± SD]; 8 females) completed the test sessions. The median time post stroke was 350 days. There were 4 severely disabled, 1 moderately disabled and 12 mildly disabled patients. For test-retest, there were no statistically significant differences between TB1 and TB2 for most CPET variables. Peak oxygen uptake, peak heart rate, peak work rate and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) and respiratory compensation point (RCP) showed good to excellent test-retest reliability (ICC 0.65-0.94). For all CPET variables, CoV was 4.1-14.5 %. The mean difference was close to zero in most of the CPET variables. There were no significant changes in most cardiopulmonary performance parameters during the 4-week period

  14. Cross-sectional study assessing the addition of contrast sensitivity to visual acuity when testing for fitness to drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreng, Lucie; Favrat, Bernard; Borruat, François-Xavier; Vaucher, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to quantify the importance of loss of contrast sensitivity (CS) and its relationship to loss of visual acuity (VA), driving restrictions and daytime, on-road driving evaluations in drivers aged 70+. Design A predictive cross-sectional study. Setting Volunteer participants to a drivers’ refresher course for adults aged 70+ delivered by the Swiss Automobile Club in western Switzerland from 2011 to 2013. Participants 162 drivers, male and female, aged 70 years or older. Clinical predictors We used a vision screener to estimate VA and the The Mars Letter Contrast Sensitivity Test to test CS. Outcomes We asked drivers to report whether they found five driving restrictions useful for their condition; restrict driving to known roads, avoid driving on highways, avoid driving in the dark, avoid driving in dense traffic and avoid driving in fog. All participants also underwent a standardised on-road evaluation carried out by a driving instructor. Results Moderate to severe loss of CS for at least one eye was frequent (21.0% (95% CI 15.0% to 28.1%)) and often isolated from a loss of VA (11/162 cases had a VA ≥0.8 decimal and a CS of ≤1.5 log(CS); 6.8% (95% CI 3.4% to 11.8%)). Drivers were more likely (R2=0.116, P=0.004) to report a belief that self-imposed driving restrictions would be useful if they had reduced CS in at least one eye. Daytime evaluation of driving performance seems limited in its ability to correctly identify difficulties related to CS loss (VA: R2=0.004, P=0.454; CS: R2=0.006, P=0.332). Conclusion CS loss is common for older drivers. Screening CS and referring for cataract surgery even in the absence of VA loss could help maintain mobility. Reduced CS and moderate reduction of VA were both poor predictors of daytime on-road driving performances in this research study. PMID:29374663

  15. Prognostic value of exercise capacity among patients with treated depression: The Henry Ford Exercise Testing (FIT) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Amjad M; Qureshi, Waqas T; Sakr, Sherif; Blaha, Michael J; Brawner, Clinton A; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Keteyian, Steven J; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2018-04-01

    Exercise capacity is associated with survival in the general population. Whether this applies to patients with treated depression is not clear. High exercise capacity remains associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) and nonfatal myocardial infraction (MI) among patients with treated depression. We included 5128 patients on antidepressant medications who completed a clinically indicated exercise stress test between 1991 and 2009. Patients were followed for a median duration of 9.4 years for ACM and 4.5 years for MI. Exercise capacity was estimated in metabolic equivalents of tasks (METs). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used. Patients with treated depression who achieved ≥12 METs (vs those achieving model, exercise capacity was associated with a lower ACM (HR per 1-MET increase in exercise capacity: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.79-0.85, P capacity had an inverse association with both ACM and nonfatal MI in patients with treated depression, independent of cardiovascular risk factors. These results highlight the potential impact of assessing exercise capacity to identify risk, as well as promoting an active lifestyle among treated depression patients. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. AN EXACT GOODNESS-OF-FIT TEST BASED ON THE OCCUPANCY PROBLEMS TO STUDY ZERO-INFLATION AND ZERO-DEFLATION IN BIOLOGICAL DOSIMETRY DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fontelo, Amanda; Puig, Pedro; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Higueras, Manuel

    2018-01-12

    The goal in biological dosimetry is to estimate the dose of radiation that a suspected irradiated individual has received. For that, the analysis of aberrations (most commonly dicentric chromosome aberrations) in scored cells is performed and dose response calibration curves are built. In whole body irradiation (WBI) with X- and gamma-rays, the number of aberrations in samples is properly described by the Poisson distribution, although in partial body irradiation (PBI) the excess of zeros provided by the non-irradiated cells leads, for instance, to the Zero-Inflated Poisson distribution. Different methods are used to analyse the dosimetry data taking into account the distribution of the sample. In order to test the Poisson distribution against the Zero-Inflated Poisson distribution, several asymptotic and exact methods have been proposed which are focused on the dispersion of the data. In this work, we suggest an exact test for the Poisson distribution focused on the zero-inflation of the data developed by Rao and Chakravarti (Some small sample tests of significance for a Poisson distribution. Biometrics 1956; 12 : 264-82.), derived from the problems of occupancy. An approximation based on the standard Normal distribution is proposed in those cases where the computation of the exact test can be tedious. A Monte Carlo Simulation study was performed in order to estimate empirical confidence levels and powers of the exact test and other tests proposed in the literature. Different examples of applications based on in vitro data and also data recorded in several radiation accidents are presented and discussed. A Shiny application which computes the exact test and other interesting goodness-of-fit tests for the Poisson distribution is presented in order to provide them to all interested researchers. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Inhibitory Effects of Respiration Inhibitors on Aflatoxin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Sakuda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin production inhibitors, which do not inhibit the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi, may be used to control aflatoxin without incurring a rapid spread of resistant strains. A respiration inhibitor that inhibits aflatoxin production was identified during a screening process for natural, aflatoxin-production inhibitors. This prompted us to evaluate respiration inhibitors as potential aflatoxin control agents. The inhibitory activities of four natural inhibitors, seven synthetic miticides, and nine synthetic fungicides were evaluated on aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus. All of the natural inhibitors (rotenone, siccanin, aptenin A5, and antimycin A inhibited fungal aflatoxin production with IC50 values around 10 µM. Among the synthetic miticides, pyridaben, fluacrypyrim, and tolfenpyrad exhibited strong inhibitory activities with IC50 values less than 0.2 µM, whereas cyflumetofen did not show significant inhibitory activity. Of the synthetic fungicides, boscalid, pyribencarb, azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, and kresoxim-methyl demonstrated strong inhibitory activities, with IC50 values less than 0.5 µM. Fungal growth was not significantly affected by any of the inhibitors tested at concentrations used. There was no correlation observed between the targets of respiration inhibitors (complexes I, II, and III and their IC50 values for aflatoxin-production inhibitory activity. This study suggests that respiration inhibitors, including commonly used pesticides, are useful for aflatoxin control.

  18. Inhibitory Effects of Respiration Inhibitors on Aflatoxin Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuda, Shohei; Prabowo, Diyan Febri; Takagi, Keiko; Shiomi, Kazuro; Mori, Mihoko; Ōmura, Satoshi; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin production inhibitors, which do not inhibit the growth of aflatoxigenic fungi, may be used to control aflatoxin without incurring a rapid spread of resistant strains. A respiration inhibitor that inhibits aflatoxin production was identified during a screening process for natural, aflatoxin-production inhibitors. This prompted us to evaluate respiration inhibitors as potential aflatoxin control agents. The inhibitory activities of four natural inhibitors, seven synthetic miticides, and nine synthetic fungicides were evaluated on aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus. All of the natural inhibitors (rotenone, siccanin, aptenin A5, and antimycin A) inhibited fungal aflatoxin production with IC50 values around 10 µM. Among the synthetic miticides, pyridaben, fluacrypyrim, and tolfenpyrad exhibited strong inhibitory activities with IC50 values less than 0.2 µM, whereas cyflumetofen did not show significant inhibitory activity. Of the synthetic fungicides, boscalid, pyribencarb, azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, and kresoxim-methyl demonstrated strong inhibitory activities, with IC50 values less than 0.5 µM. Fungal growth was not significantly affected by any of the inhibitors tested at concentrations used. There was no correlation observed between the targets of respiration inhibitors (complexes I, II, and III) and their IC50 values for aflatoxin-production inhibitory activity. This study suggests that respiration inhibitors, including commonly used pesticides, are useful for aflatoxin control. PMID:24674936

  19. Mitochondrial respiration is sensitive to cytoarchitectural breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Judith; Angelin, Alessia A; Wallace, Douglas C; Eckmann, David M

    2016-11-07

    An abundance of research suggests that cellular mitochondrial and cytoskeletal disruption are related, but few studies have directly investigated causative connections between the two. We previously demonstrated that inhibiting microtubule and microfilament polymerization affects mitochondrial motility on the whole-cell level in fibroblasts. Since mitochondrial motility can be indicative of mitochondrial function, we now further characterize the effects of these cytoskeletal inhibitors on mitochondrial potential, morphology and respiration. We found that although they did not reduce mitochondrial inner membrane potential, cytoskeletal toxins induced significant decreases in basal mitochondrial respiration. In some cases, basal respiration was only affected after cells were pretreated with the calcium ionophore A23187 in order to stress mitochondrial function. In most cases, mitochondrial morphology remained unaffected, but extreme microfilament depolymerization or combined intermediate doses of microtubule and microfilament toxins resulted in decreased mitochondrial lengths. Interestingly, these two particular exposures did not affect mitochondrial respiration in cells not sensitized with A23187, indicating an interplay between mitochondrial morphology and respiration. In all cases, inducing maximal respiration diminished differences between control and experimental groups, suggesting that reduced basal respiration originates as a largely elective rather than pathological symptom of cytoskeletal impairment. However, viability experiments suggest that even this type of respiration decrease may be associated with cell death.

  20. Elemental Concentration of Inhalable and Respirable Particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    20537 and respirable foam for I.O.M sampler. The elemental composition (Co, Ni, Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Cr, Mn and Cd) were analyzed by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric (AAS). The data generated were subjected to descriptive analysis. In inhalable fraction,the enrichment factor ranged from 1-73.3 while in respirable ...

  1. Respirators: APR Issuer Self Study 33461

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-07-13

    Respirators: APR Issuer Self-Study (course 33461) is designed to introduce and familiarize employees selected as air-purifying respirator (APR) issuers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with the responsibilities, limitations, procedures, and resources for issuing APRs at LANL. The goal is to enable these issuers to consistently provide proper, functioning APRs to authorized users

  2. Teste de respiração em sementes de soja para avaliação da qualidade fisiológica Respiration test soybean seed as related of physiological quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Souza Dode

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Com a constante evolução tecnológica, a indústria sementeira exige cada vez mais rapidez na identificação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes. Nesse sentido, o trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência e rapidez do método de Pettenkofer na determinação da atividade respiratória para diferenciar o vigor de cinco lotes de sementes de soja cv. 'Taura'. Além da determinação da atividade respiratória, foram realizados testes de germinação em areia, condutividade elétrica, comprimento de parte aérea e raiz, massa seca da parte aérea, das raízes e massa seca total. Os resultados dos testes de qualidade fisiológica e da atividade respiratória das sementes permitiram a classificação dos lotes em diferentes níveis de qualidade fisiológica, sendo que a determinação da atividade respiratória, pelo método de Pettenkofer, é eficiente, rápida e útil como alternativa na diferenciação do vigor de lotes de sementes de soja.The seed industry with the constant technological developments increasingly requires quick identification of seed quality. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the efficiency and speed of the Pettenkofer method for the breathing activity determination in order to distinguish the effect of the vitality of seeds. Five seed lots of soybean cv. 'Taura' were used. Besides the determination of the breathing activity, the following benchmark tests were performed: moisture content, germination, electrical conductivity, shoot length, root and total dry mass. The results of benchmark tests and breathing activity of seeds allowed the classification of the lots at different levels of vitality. The determination of breathing activity by the Pettenkofer method is efficient, fast and useful as an alternative test to distinguish soybean seed lots.

  3. Predictive value of health-related fitness tests for self-reported mobility difficulties among high-functioning elderly men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, H Pauliina; Suni, Jaana H; Pasanen, Matti E; Malmberg, Jarmo J; Miilunpalo, Seppo I

    2006-06-01

    The functional independence of elderly populations deteriorates with age. Several tests of physical performance have been developed for screening elderly persons who are at risk of losing their functional independence. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether several components of health-related fitness (HRF) are valid in predicting the occurrence of self-reported mobility difficulties (MD) among high-functioning older adults. Subjects were community-dwelling men and women, born 1917-1941, who participated in the assessment of HRF [6.1-m (20-ft) walk, one-leg stand, backwards walk, trunk side-bending, dynamic back extension, one-leg squat, 1-km walk] and who were free of MD in 1996 (no difficulties in walking 2- km, n=788; no difficulties in climbing stairs, n=647). Postal questionnaires were used to assess the prevalence of MD in 1996 and the occurrence of new MD in 2002. Logistic regression analysis was used as the statistical method. Both inability to perform the backwards walk and a poorer result in it were associated with risk of walking difficulties in the logistic model, with all the statistically significant single test items included. Results of 1-km walk time and one-leg squat strength test were also associated with risk, although the squat was statistically significant only in two older birth cohorts. Regarding stair-climbing difficulties, poorer results in the 1-km walk, dynamic back extension and one-leg squat tests were associated with increased risk of MD. The backwards walk, one-leg squat, dynamic back extension and 1-km walk tests were the best predictors of MD. These tests are recommended for use in screening high-functioning older people at risk of MD, as well as to target physical activity counseling to those components of HRF that are important for functional independence.

  4. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W.; Luo, Y.; Li, X.; Liu, S.; Yu, G.; Zhou, T.; Bahn, M.; Black, A.; Desai, A.R.; Cescatti, A.; Marcolla, B.; Jacobs, C.; Chen, J.; Aurela, M.; Bernhofer, C.; Gielen, B.; Bohrer, G.; Cook, D.R.; Dragoni, D.; Dunn, A.L.; Gianelle, D.; Grnwald, T.; Ibrom, A.; Leclerc, M.Y.; Lindroth, A.; Liu, H.; Marchesini, L.B.; Montagnani, L.; Pita, G.; Rodeghiero, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Starr, G.; Stoy, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models still use a global constant BR largely due to the lack of a functional description for BR. In this study, we redefined BR to be ecosystem respiration rate at the mean annual temperature. To test the validity of this concept, we conducted a synthesis analysis using 276 site-years of eddy covariance data, from 79 research sites located at latitudes ranging from ∼3°S to ∼70°N. Results showed that mean annual ER rate closely matches ER rate at mean annual temperature. Incorporation of site-specific BR into global ER model substantially improved simulated ER compared to an invariant BR at all sites. These results confirm that ER at the mean annual temperature can be considered as BR in empirical models. A strong correlation was found between the mean annual ER and mean annual gross primary production (GPP). Consequently, GPP, which is typically more accurately modeled, can be used to estimate BR. A light use efficiency GPP model (i.e., EC-LUE) was applied to estimate global GPP, BR and ER with input data from MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The global ER was 103 Pg C yr −1, with the highest respiration rate over tropical forests and the lowest value in dry and high-latitude areas.

  5. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test for non-identically distributed random variables: with application to empirical Bayes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conover, W.J.; Cox, D.D.; Martz, H.F.

    1997-12-01

    When using parametric empirical Bayes estimation methods for estimating the binomial or Poisson parameter, the validity of the assumed beta or gamma conjugate prior distribution is an important diagnostic consideration. Chi-square goodness-of-fit tests of the beta or gamma prior hypothesis are developed for use when the binomial sample sizes or Poisson exposure times vary. Nine examples illustrate the application of the methods, using real data from such diverse applications as the loss of feedwater flow rates in nuclear power plants, the probability of failure to run on demand and the failure rates of the high pressure coolant injection systems at US commercial boiling water reactors, the probability of failure to run on demand of emergency diesel generators in US commercial nuclear power plants, the rate of failure of aircraft air conditioners, baseball batting averages, the probability of testing positive for toxoplasmosis, and the probability of tumors in rats. The tests are easily applied in practice by means of corresponding Mathematica reg-sign computer programs which are provided

  6. Effects of cadmium, zinc, lead, and mercury on respiration and fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafl, H J; Schwantes, H O

    1983-01-01

    Zinc and lead did not affect the rate of respiration and fermentation. Concentrations of cadmium higher than 10/sup -7/ M and concentrations of mercury higher than 5 x 10/sup -5/ M significantly reduced the O/sub 2/ consumption and the CO/sub 2/ production. 10/sup -2/ M cadmium and 10/sup -3/ M mercury completely inhibited respiration and fermentation. Low concentrations of mercury inhibited respiration irreversibly and fermentation reversibly. High concentrations of zinc reduced the toxicity of low concentrations of cadmium but they enhanced the effects of high concentrations of cadmium and mercury. No interactions between lead and the other tested heavy metals were observed.

  7. BOREAS TE-5 Soil Respiration Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Ehleriinger, Jim; Brooks, J. Renee; Flanagan, Larry

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-5 team collected measurements in the NSA and SSA on gas exchange, gas composition, and tree growth. Soil respiration data were collected from 26-May-94 to 07-Sep-94 in the BOREAS NSA and SSA to compare the soil respiration rates in different forest sites using a LI-COR 6200 soil respiration chamber (model 6299). The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distrobuted Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  8. The Contribution of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied by Concept Mapping to Eleventh-Grade Students Understanding of Cellular Respiration Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al khawaldeh, Salem A.; Al Olaimat, Ali M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study conducted to investigate the contribution of conceptual change texts, accompanied by concept mapping instruction to eleventh-grade students' understanding of cellular respiration concepts, and their retention of this understanding. Cellular respiration concepts test was developed as a result of examination of related literature…

  9. Respiration of midges (Diptera; Chironomidae) in British Columbian lakes: oxy-regulation, temperature and their role as palaeo-indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Klaus Peter; Pedersen, Ole; Walker, Ian R.

    2008-01-01

    1. The specific respiration rate of 13 chironomid taxa and Chaoborus were measured to test the hypothesis of the relation between a species' ability to regulate their oxygen uptake and their distributional patterns among nine study lakes in British Columbia, Canada. 2. Respiration patterns of ind...

  10. Misconception of biology education student of teacher training and education of Sriwijaya University to the concept of photosynthesis and respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, Rahmi

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to gain an overview of misconceptions on the concept of photosynthesis and respiration. The study involved 58 students from Biology Education of Sriwijaya University. Collecting data used written test of 16 questions, which are 10 questions of multiple choice and 6 of choice with reason. The results showed that:photosynthesis occurs continuously (37.9%), energy used for photosynthesis are light and heat energy (34.5%), plants take CO2to respiration (47%), plants carry on respiration in the absence of light for photosynthesis (22.4%), respiration in plants occurs only in leaf cells (76.4%), and only animals that take O2 of photosynthesis to respiration (68.9%). The conclusion: 1) on the concept of photosynthesis is still prevailing misconceptions about the concept of the place and time of the occurrence of photosynthesis in plants, the role of the sun in photosynthesis, energy is required in the form of photosynthesis, and the role of photosynthesis for the plant. 2) on the concept of respiration is still prevailing misconceptions about the place of the respiration in plants, gas necessary for respiration of plants, and the plants perform respiration time, as well as the cycle of CO2 and O2 that occurs in nature.

  11. The role of python eggshell permeability dynamics in a respiration-hydration trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlschmidt, Zachary R; Heulin, Benoit; DeNardo, Dale F

    2010-01-01

    Parental care is taxonomically widespread because it improves developmental conditions and thus fitness of offspring. Although relatively simplistic compared with parental behaviors of other taxa, python egg-brooding behavior exemplifies parental care because it mediates a trade-off between embryonic respiration and hydration. However, because egg brooding increases gas-exchange resistance between embryonic and nest environments and because female pythons do not adjust their brooding behavior in response to the increasing metabolic requirements of developing offspring, python egg brooding imposes hypoxic costs on embryos during the late stages of incubation. We conducted a series of experiments to determine whether eggshells coadapted with brooding behavior to minimize the negative effects of developmental hypoxia. We tested the hypotheses that python eggshells (1) increase permeability over time to accommodate increasing embryonic respiration and (2) exhibit permeability plasticity in response to chronic hypoxia. Over incubation, we serially measured the atomic and structural components of Children's python (Antaresia childreni) eggshells as well as in vivo and in vitro gas exchange across eggshells. In support of our first hypothesis, A. childreni eggshells exhibited a reduced fibrous layer, became more permeable, and facilitated greater gas exchange as incubation progressed. Our second hypothesis was not supported, as incubation O(2) concentration did not affect the shells' permeabilities to O(2) and H(2)O vapor. Our results suggest that python eggshell permeability changes during incubation but that the alterations over time are fixed and independent of environmental conditions. These findings are of broad evolutionary interest because they demonstrate that, even in relatively simple parental-care models, successful parent-offspring relationships depend on adjustments made by both the parent (i.e., egg-brooding behavioral shifts) and the offspring (i

  12. How much work is expended for respiration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A T

    1993-01-01

    The rate of work expended to move air in the respiratory system has been determined for five different airflow waveshapes, a non-linear respiratory model and five exercise levels. As expected, the rectangular waveshape was the most efficient. Model conditions were then changed one a time: (i) starting lung volume was allowed to vary, (ii) exhalation flow limitation was added, (iii) respiration was considered to be a metabolic burden determining part of the ventilation requirement and (iv) a respirator mask was added. Although there is no direct work advantage to varying initial lung volume, such volume changes appear to be dictated by the asymmetry of lung recoil pressure about the lung relaxation volume; allowing the work of respiration to become a metabolic burden clearly shows why respiratory waveforms change from rest to exercise; and, adding a respirator imposes a severe respiratory burden on the wearer engaging in moderate, heavy and very heavy exercise.

  13. Separating rhizosphere respiration from total soil respiration in two larch plantations in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lifen; Shi, Fuchen; Li, Bo; Luo, Yiqi; Chen, Jiquan; Chen, Jiakuan

    2005-09-01

    The potential capacity of soil to sequester carbon in response to global warming is strongly regulated by the ratio of rhizosphere respiration to respiration by soil microbial decomposers, because of their different temperature sensitivities. To quantify relative contributions of rhizosphere respiration to total soil respiration as influenced by forest stand development, we conducted a trenching study in two larch (Larix gmelini (Rupr.) Rupr.) plantations, aged 17 and 31 years, in northeastern China. Four plots in each plantation were randomly selected and trenched in early May 2001. Soil surface CO2 effluxes both inside and outside the plots were measured from May 2001 to August 2002. Soil respiration (i.e., the CO2 effluxes outside the trenched plots) varied similarly in the two plantations from 0.8 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in winter to 6.0 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in summer. Rhizosphere respiration (i.e., CO2 efflux outside the trenched plots minus that inside the plots) varied from 0.2 to 2.0 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in the old forest and from 0.3 to 4.0 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in the young forest over the seasons. Rhizosphere respiration, on average, accounted for 25% of soil respiration in the old forest and 65% in the young forest. Rhizosphere and soil respiration were significantly correlated with soil temperature but not with soil water content. We conclude that the role forests play in regulating climate change may depend on their age.

  14. 42 CFR 84.134 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.134... Respirators § 84.134 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Supplied-air respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type and...

  15. 42 CFR 84.197 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.197... Cartridge Respirators § 84.197 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type and...

  16. 42 CFR 84.174 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.174... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.174 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except..., durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type of respirator it contains...

  17. Feasibility of Eight Physical Fitness Tests in 1,050 Older Adults with Intellectual Disability : Results of the Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    Although physical fitness is relevant for well-being and health, knowledge on the feasibility of instruments to measure physical fitness in older adults with intellectual disability (ID) is lacking. As part of the study Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities with 1,050 older clients with ID

  18. Feasibility of Eight Physical Fitness Tests in 1,050 Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: Results of the Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Although physical fitness is relevant for well-being and health, knowledge on the feasibility of instruments to measure physical fitness in older adults with intellectual disability (ID) is lacking. As part of the study Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities with 1,050 older clients with ID in three Dutch care services, the feasibility of 8…

  19. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, James T

    2013-01-01

    In 1963-1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's 'special difficulty'-the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of 'offspring ideas' that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated.

  20. Respiration of Nitrate and Nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey A; Richardson, David J

    2008-09-01

    Nitrate reduction to ammonia via nitrite occurs widely as an anabolic process through which bacteria, archaea, and plants can assimilate nitrate into cellular biomass. Escherichia coli and related enteric bacteria can couple the eight-electron reduction of nitrate to ammonium to growth by coupling the nitrate and nitrite reductases involved to energy-conserving respiratory electron transport systems. In global terms, the respiratory reduction of nitrate to ammonium dominates nitrate and nitrite reduction in many electron-rich environments such as anoxic marine sediments and sulfide-rich thermal vents, the human gastrointestinal tract, and the bodies of warm-blooded animals. This review reviews the regulation and enzymology of this process in E. coli and, where relevant detail is available, also in Salmonella and draws comparisons with and implications for the process in other bacteria where it is pertinent to do so. Fatty acids may be present in high levels in many of the natural environments of E. coli and Salmonella in which oxygen is limited but nitrate is available to support respiration. In E. coli, nitrate reduction in the periplasm involves the products of two seven-gene operons, napFDAGHBC, encoding the periplasmic nitrate reductase, and nrfABCDEFG, encoding the periplasmic nitrite reductase. No bacterium has yet been shown to couple a periplasmic nitrate reductase solely to the cytoplasmic nitrite reductase NirB. The cytoplasmic pathway for nitrate reduction to ammonia is restricted almost exclusively to a few groups of facultative anaerobic bacteria that encounter high concentrations of environmental nitrate.

  1. Application of tests of goodness of fit in determining the probability density function for spacing of steel sets in tunnel support system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnoosh Basaligheh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the conventional methods for temporary support of tunnels is to use steel sets with shotcrete. The nature of a temporary support system demands a quick installation of its structures. As a result, the spacing between steel sets is not a fixed amount and it can be considered as a random variable. Hence, in the reliability analysis of these types of structures, the selection of an appropriate probability distribution function of spacing of steel sets is essential. In the present paper, the distances between steel sets are collected from an under-construction tunnel and the collected data is used to suggest a proper Probability Distribution Function (PDF for the spacing of steel sets. The tunnel has two different excavation sections. In this regard, different distribution functions were investigated and three common tests of goodness of fit were used for evaluation of each function for each excavation section. Results from all three methods indicate that the Wakeby distribution function can be suggested as the proper PDF for spacing between the steel sets. It is also noted that, although the probability distribution function for two different tunnel sections is the same, the parameters of PDF for the individual sections are different from each other.

  2. Fitting ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The support structures for the detectors inside the ALICE solenoid magnet (the L3 magnet) were finished in December 2003. After commissioning and testing, over the next year, the structures will be lowered into the cavern and installed in the magnet by spring 2005. At first sight you might mistake them for scaffolding. But a closer look reveals unusual features: Two are made of austenitic (non-magnetic) stainless steel with a cross section that looks like an "H". Another is made of 8 centimetre aluminium square tubes. "Them" are the support structures for the detectors and services inside the ALICE solenoid magnet (the L3 magnet) which were finished in December 2003. «The physicists don't want to have a lot of material close to their detectors; it has to be as few as possible,» says Diego Perini, who is responsible for the common support structures of ALICE. «We therefore had the very difficult task to design something relatively light that i...

  3. The Evaluation of Basal Respiration for Various Soil Textures in Ecologically Sensitive Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huličová, P.; Kotorová, D.; Fazekašová, D.; Hynšt, J.

    2017-10-01

    The present contribution was focused on monitoring changes in the soil basal respiration in different textures of soil in the dry polder Beša. The research was conducted between 2012 and 2014 on soil type Fluvisol locations on three soil textures: clay - loam soil, clayey soil and clay soil in three soil depths. The basal respiration (BR) has been determine by soil CO2 production measuring from incubated soil samples in serum bottles in laboratory condition. Release Co2 has been analysed by gas chromatography. Content of clay particles were in the range 52.18 % to 81.31%, indicating the high difference between the minimum and maximum content. By using of multiple LSD-test we recorded statistically significant impact of clay on basal respiration. Results confirm the values of basal respiration with the depth of the soil profile decreased.

  4. Oxygen dependence of respiration in rat spinotrapezius muscle in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Roland N.

    2012-01-01

    The oxygen dependence of respiration in striated muscle in situ was studied by measuring the rate of decrease of interstitial Po2 [oxygen disappearance curve (ODC)] following rapid arrest of blood flow by pneumatic tissue compression, which ejected red blood cells from the muscle vessels and made the ODC independent from oxygen bound to hemoglobin. After the contribution of photo-consumption of oxygen by the method was evaluated and accounted for, the corrected ODCs were converted into the Po2 dependence of oxygen consumption, V̇o2, proportional to the rate of Po2 decrease. Fitting equations obtained from a model of heterogeneous intracellular Po2 were applied to recover the parameters describing respiration in muscle fibers, with a predicted sigmoidal shape for the dependence of V̇o2 on Po2. This curve consists of two regions connected by the point for critical Po2 of the cell (i.e., Po2 at the sarcolemma when the center of the cell becomes anoxic). The critical Po2 was below the Po2 for half-maximal respiratory rate (P50) for the cells. In six muscles at rest, the rate of oxygen consumption was 139 ± 6 nl O2/cm3·s and mitochondrial P50 was k = 10.5 ± 0.8 mmHg. The range of Po2 values inside the muscle fibers was found to be 4–5 mmHg at the critical Po2. The oxygen dependence of respiration can be studied in thin muscles under different experimental conditions. In resting muscle, the critical Po2 was substantially lower than the interstitial Po2 of 53 ± 2 mmHg, a finding that indicates that V̇o2 under this circumstance is independent of oxygen supply and is discordant with the conventional hypothesis of metabolic regulation of the oxygen supply to tissue. PMID:22523254

  5. [Analysis of soil respiration and influence factors in wheat farmland under conservation tillage in southwest hilly region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Long-Chang; Luo, Hai-Xiu; Zhou, Hang-Fei; Ma, Zhong-Lian; Zhang, Cui-Wei

    2013-07-01

    In order to investigate the effect of conservation tillage on soil respiration in dry cropping farmland in southwest purple hilly region, the LI6400-09 respiratory chamber was adopted in the experiment conducted in the experimental field in Southwest University in Beibei, Chongqing. The respiration and the hydrothermal and biotic factors of soil were measured and analyzed during the growth period of wheat in the triple intercropping system of wheat/maize/soybean. There were four treatments including T (traditional tillage), R (ridge tillage), TS (traditional tillage + straw mulching) and RS (ridge tillage + straw mulching), which were all in triplicates. The results indicated that the soil respiration rate changed in the range of 1.100-2.508 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1) during the reproductive growth stage of wheat. There were significant differences in soil respiration rate among different treatments, which could be ranked as RS > R > TS > T. The soil temperature in the 10cm layer was ranked as T > R > TS > RS. The relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature fitted well with an exponential function, in which the Q10 values were 1.25, 1.20, 1.31 and 1.26, respectively. The soil moisture in the 5cm layer was ranked as TS > RS > T > R. The best fitting model between soil moisture and soil respiration was a parabolic curve, indicating the presence of soil moisture with the strongest soil respiration. The response threshold of wheat to soil moisture was 14.80%-17.47% during the reproductive stage. The dominant groups of soil animals were Collembola and Acarina, which were correlated with soil respiration to some extent. The correlation was high in the treatments T and R, ranged from 0.669-0.921, whereas there was no remarkable correlation in the other treatments.

  6. Soil Respiration And Respiration Partitioning In An Oak-Savannah With A History Of Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, K. A.; Nair, R.; Schrumpf, M.; Migliavacca, M.

    2017-12-01

    Soil respiration is a combination of autotrophic and heterotrophic components. These components have different controls and structurally complex ecosystems such as oak-savannahs offer an opportunity to study strongly contrasting conditions (ie., soil from under trees versus open areas) in an environment with similar soil mineralogy and climatic patterns. To measure respiration coming from plant roots, fungal hyphae, and free-living microbes we established stations of soil cores comprised of three selectively permeable meshes under tree canopies and in open grassy areas of a Holm Oak (Quercus ilex) savannah in Extremadura, Spain. Large plots of this ecosystem had previously been fertilized as part of a stoichiometeric imbalance study (in 2015). Stations were installed in Dec. 2016 within four plots; control, N added, P added, and N+P added. Respiration from cores was measured in campaigns at key phenological stages with a portable Li-Cor 8100A unit. Six months after installation > 50% of soil respiration was attributable to free-living microbes. There is a persistent effect of the prior fertilization, resulting in increased soil respiration in open areas regardless of fertilizer type, while respiration from under tree canopies had a varied response. Soil under tree canopies showed distinct sensitivity to stoichiometric imbalance, meaning that addition of N or P alone either did not change respiration or decreased it slightly, while N+P stimulated respiration. We determined that respiration from free-living microbes is a major component of soil respiration even in the most active plant growing season. However, because of the lag between the time of fertilization and the time of measurement, it not possible to say whether treatment responses are due solely to nutrient status of the soil or whether changes in plant biomass and species composition also play a role. Additional work planned at the site will shed light on this uncertainty as well as the contribution of

  7. [Research progress on photosynthesis regulating and controlling soil respiration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yan-Li; Guan, De-Xin; Wu, Jia-Bing; Wang, An-Zhi; Yuan, Feng-Hui

    2013-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of soil respiration and accurately estimate its magnitude are the crucial basis of evaluating global carbon balance. However, the previously built soil respiration forecast models usually neglect the physiological processes that photosynthesis supplies substrates for rhizospheric respiration, leading to the defect in evaluating the mechanisms of soil respiration. This paper summarized the research progress on the mechanisms of photosynthetic regulation and control of soil respiration, introduced the related main research methods, and discussed the existing problems and research hotspots.

  8. Construct validity and test-retest reliability of the International Fitness Scale (IFIS) in Colombian children and adolescents aged 9-17.9 years: the FUPRECOL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Cruz-Salazar, Sandra Milena; Martínez, Myriam; Cadore, Eduardo L; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Izquierdo, Mikel; Ortega, Francisco B; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    There is a lack of instruments and studies written in Spanish evaluating physical fitness, impeding the determination of the current status of this important health indicator in the Latin population, especially in Colombia. The aim of the study was two-fold: to examine the validity of the International Fitness Scale (IFIS) with a population-based sample of schoolchildren from Bogota, Colombia and to examine the reliability of the IFIS with children and adolescents from Engativa, Colombia. The sample comprised 1,873 Colombian youths (54.5% girls) aged 9-17.9 years. We measured their adiposity markers (waist-to-height ratio, skinfold thickness, percentage of body fat and body mass index), blood pressure, lipids profile, fasting glucose, and physical fitness level (self-reported and measured). A validated cardiometabolic risk index score was also used. An age- and sex-matched subsample of 229 schoolchildren who were not originally included in the sample completed the IFIS twice for reliability purposes. Our data suggest that both measured and self-reported overall physical fitness levels were inversely associated with percentage of body fat indicators and the cardiometabolic risk index score. Overall, schoolchildren who self-reported "good" or "very good" fitness had better measured fitness levels than those who reported "very poor/poor" fitness (all p  studies with Latin schoolchildren from Colombia.

  9. Short Communication: HIV Patient Systemic Mitochondrial Respiration Improves with Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Morgan; McDermott, Mindy; Lindsey, Rachel; Shikuma, Cecilia M; Gerschenson, Mariana; Chow, Dominic C; Kohorn, Lindsay B; Hetzler, Ronald K; Kimura, Iris F

    2017-10-01

    In HIV-infected individuals, impaired mitochondrial function may contribute to cardiometabolic disease as well as to fatigue and frailty. Aerobic exercise improves total body energy reserves; however, its impact at the cellular level is unknown. We assessed alterations in cellular bioenergetics in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and after a 12-week aerobic exercise study in sedentary HIV-infected subjects on stable antiretroviral therapy who successfully completed a 12-week aerobic exercise program. In this prospective study, participants underwent supervised 20-40 min of light aerobic exercise (walking or jogging) performed three times per week for 12 weeks, gradually increasing to maintain an intensity of 50%-80% of heart rate reserve. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO 2MAX ) was assessed by a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer before and after completion of the study. PBMC from compliant subjects (attended at least 70% of exercise sessions) were assessed for mitochondrial respiration using the Seahorse XF24 Bio-Analyzer. Seven of 24 enrolled subjects were compliant with the exercise regimen. In these individuals, a significant increase (p = .04) in VO 2MAX over 12 weeks was found with a median increase of 14%. During the same interval, a 2.45-fold increase in PBMC mitochondrial respiratory capacity (p = .04), a 5.65-fold increase in spare respiratory capacity (p = .01), and a 3.15-fold (p = .04) increase in nonmitochondrial respiration was observed. Aerobic exercise improves respiration at the cellular level. The diagnostic and prognostic value of such improved cellular respiration in the setting of chronic HIV warrants further investigation.

  10. Partitioning autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration at Howland Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Mariah; Hollinger, Dave; Davidson, Eric; Savage, Kathleen; Hughes, Holly

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem respiration is the combined flux of CO2 to the atmosphere from above- and below-ground, plant (autotrophic) and microbial (heterotrophic) sources. Flux measurements alone (e.g., from eddy covariance towers or soil chambers) cannot distinguish the contributions from these sources, which may change seasonally and respond differently to temperature and moisture. The development of improved process-based models that can predict how plants and microbes respond to changing environmental conditions (on seasonal, interannual, or decadal timescales) requires data from field observations and experiments to distinguish among these respiration sources. We tested the viability of partitioning of soil and ecosystem respiration into autotrophic and heterotrophic components with different approaches at the Howland Forest in central Maine, USA. These include an experimental manipulation using the classic root trenching approach and targeted ∆14CO2 measurements. For the isotopic measurements, we used a two-end member mass balance approach to determine the fraction of soil respiration from autotrophic and heterotrophic sources. When summed over the course of the growing season, the trenched chamber flux (heterotrophic) accounted for 53 ± 2% of the total control chamber flux. Over the four different 14C sampling periods, the heterotrophic component ranged from 35-55% and the autotrophic component ranges 45-65% of the total flux. Next steps will include assessing the value of the flux partitioning for constraining a simple ecosystem model using a model-data fusion approach to reduce uncertainties in estimates of NPP and simulation of future soil C stocks and fluxes.

  11. Influence of vestibular activation on respiration in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kevin D.; Sharpe, Melissa K.; Drury, Daniel; Ertl, Andrew C.; Ray, Chester A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the semicircular canals and otolith organs on respiration in humans. On the basis of animal studies, we hypothesized that vestibular activation would elicit a vestibulorespiratory reflex. To test this hypothesis, respiratory measures, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate were measured during engagement of semicircular canals and/or otolith organs. Dynamic upright pitch and roll (15 cycles/min), which activate the otolith organs and semicircular canals, increased respiratory rate (Delta2 +/- 1 and Delta3 +/- 1 breaths/min, respectively; P < 0.05). Dynamic yaw and lateral pitch (15 cycles/min), which activate the semicircular canals, increased respiration similarly (Delta3 +/- 1 and Delta2 +/- 1, respectively; P < 0.05). Dynamic chair rotation (15 cycles/min), which mimics dynamic yaw but eliminates neck muscle afferent, increased respiration (Delta3 +/- 1; P < 0.05) comparable to dynamic yaw (15 cycles/min). Increases in respiratory rate were graded as greater responses occurred during upright (Delta5 +/- 2 breaths/min) and lateral pitch (Delta4 +/- 1) and roll (Delta5 +/- 1) performed at 30 cycles/min. Increases in breathing frequency resulted in increases in minute ventilation during most interventions. Static head-down rotation, which activates otolith organs, did not alter respiratory rate (Delta1 +/- 1 breaths/min). Collectively, these data indicate that semicircular canals, but not otolith organs or neck muscle afferents, mediate increased ventilation in humans and support the concept that vestibular activation alters respiration in humans.

  12. The use of Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 and Andersen testing for fitness and maximal heart rate assessments of 6- to 10-year-old school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendiksen, Mads; Ahler, Thomas; Clausen, Helle

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: We evaluated a sub-maximal and maximal version of the Yo-Yo IR1 childrens test (YYIR1C) and the Andersen test for fitness and maximal HR assessments of children aged 6-10. Two repetitions of the YYIR1C and Andersen tests were carried out within one week by 6-7 and 8-9 year olds (grade 0...

  13. How fit are children and adolescents with haemophilia in Germany? Results of a prospective study assessing the sport-specific motor performance by means of modern test procedures of sports science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuser, A; Boehm, P; Ochs, S; Trunz-Carlisi, E; Halimeh, S; Klamroth, R

    2015-07-01

    There are a lot of publications on the physical fitness of patients with haemophilia (PWH), however, most studies only reflect individual sport-specific motor capacities or focus on a single fitness ability. They involve small patient populations. In this respect principal objective of this study was to compare the physical fitness in all respects and the body composition of young PWH to healthy peers based on the most valid data we could get. Twenty-one German haemophilia treatment centres were visited from 2002 to 2009. PWH between 8 and 25 years were included. They performed a five-stage fitness test covering the sport-specific motor capacities for coordination, measured by one leg stand, strength, aerobic fitness and mobility as well as body composition. The patients' results were compared with age- and gender-specific reference values of healthy subjects. Two hundred and eighty-five PWH (mean age 13.2 ± 4.5 years, 164 PWH with severe disease) were included prospectively in the study. PWH are significantly below the reference values of healthy subjects in the one-leg stand test, the mobility of the lower extremity, the strength ratio of chest and back muscles and the endurance test. In body composition, the back strength and the mobility of the upper extremity PWH are significantly above the reference values. There are no significant differences in abdominal strength. In conclusion we found specific differences in different fitness abilities between PWH and healthy subjects. Knowing this, we are able to work out exercise programmes to compensate the diminished fitness abilities for our PWH. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates risk for major adverse cardiac events in hyperlipidemic men and women independent of statin therapy: The Henry Ford ExercIse Testing Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Rupert K; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Qadi, Mohamud A; Shaya, Gabriel E; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram; Brawner, Clinton A; Keteyian, Steven J; Blaha, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    We sought to evaluate the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in predicting mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and revascularization in patients with hyperlipidemia after stratification by gender and statin therapy. This retrospective cohort study included 33,204 patients with hyperlipidemia (57 ± 12 years old, 56% men, 25% black) who underwent physician-referred treadmill stress testing at the Henry Ford Health System from 1991 to 2009. Patients were stratified by gender, baseline statin therapy, and estimated metabolic equivalents from stress testing. We computed hazard ratios using Cox regression models after adjusting for demographics, cardiac risk factors, comorbidities, pertinent medications, interaction terms, and indication for stress testing. There were 4,851 deaths, 1,962 MIs, and 2,686 revascularizations over a median follow-up of 10.3 years. In men and women not on statin therapy and men and women on statin therapy, each 1-metabolic equivalent increment in CRF was associated with hazard ratios of 0.86 (95% CI 0.85-0.88), 0.83 (95% CI 0.81-0.85), 0.85 (95% CI 0.83-0.87), and 0.84 (95% CI 0.81-0.87) for mortality; 0.93 (95% CI 0.90-0.96), 0.87 (95% CI 0.83-0.91), 0.89 (95% CI 0.86-0.92), and 0.90 (95% CI 0.86-0.95) for MI; and 0.91 (95% CI 0.88-0.93), 0.87 (95% CI 0.83-0.91), 0.89 (95% CI 0.87-0.92), and 0.90 (95% CI 0.86-0.94) for revascularization, respectively. No significant interactions were observed between CRF and statin therapy (P > .23). Higher CRF attenuated risk for mortality, MI, and revascularization independent of gender and statin therapy in patients with hyperlipidemia. These results reinforce the prognostic value of CRF and support greater promotion of CRF in this patient population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. SU-E-J-67: Evaluation of Breathing Patterns for Respiratory-Gated Radiation Therapy Using Respiration Regularity Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, K; Lee, M; Kang, S; Yoon, J; Park, S; Hwang, T; Kim, H; Kim, K; Han, T; Bae, H [Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    using a respiration regularity index, ρ. Such single-index testing of respiration regularity can facilitate determination of RGRT availability in clinical settings, especially for free-breathing cases. This work was supported by a Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) grant funded by the Korean Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (No. 2013043498)

  16. Testing a Model of the Relationship of Demographic, Affective, and Fitness Variables to Academic Achievement among Non-Science Majors at an Independent University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Andrew Martin

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of specific attributes of college students to their academic achievement at an independent university in central Florida. Academic achievement was measured as the numeric score on the final exam in a survey-of-science course (EDS 1032) required for non-science majors. Attribute sets included personological, affective, and fitness variables. A hypothesized diagram of the direct and indirect effects among these attributes relative to academic achievement was developed and tested using data collected Spring 2014 from 168 students in four sections of EDS 1032 at Florida Institute of Technology. Multiple regression results revealed that 19% of the variance in a students' academic achievement was due to the influence of these three sets of research factors; this was found to be statistically significant. The results of mediation analyses also indicated that three variables had significant direct effects on academic achievement, namely gender, number of academic credits, and sports motivation. In addition, gender had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via stress, and the number of academic credits had a significant indirect effect on academic achievement via sports motivation. These findings indicated that female students scored roughly six points higher than male students on this final exam. Also, gender's influence on academic achievement was partially attributable to the student's level of stress (e.g., male students with high levels of stress had lower grades on this final exam than female students with the same level of stress). In addition, it was found that students taking more academic credits were likely to score higher on this final exam than those students taking fewer credits. Further, as students' level of sports amotivation increased, the strength of the relationship between the number of student academic credits and academic achievement decreased. These results support Self

  17. Improving respiration measurements with gas exchange analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, R; Ribas-Carbó, M; Del Saz, N F; El Aou-Ouad, H; Berry, J A; Flexas, J; Bota, J

    2016-12-01

    Dark respiration measurements with open-flow gas exchange analyzers are often questioned for their low accuracy as their low values often reach the precision limit of the instrument. Respiration was measured in five species, two hypostomatous (Vitis Vinifera L. and Acanthus mollis) and three amphistomatous, one with similar amount of stomata in both sides (Eucalyptus citriodora) and two with different stomata density (Brassica oleracea and Vicia faba). CO 2 differential (ΔCO 2 ) increased two-fold with no change in apparent R d , when the two leaves with higher stomatal density faced outside. These results showed a clear effect of the position of stomata on ΔCO 2 . Therefore, it can be concluded that leaf position is important to guarantee the improvement of respiration measurements increasing ΔCO 2 without affecting the respiration results by leaf or mass units. This method will help to increase the accuracy of leaf respiration measurements using gas exchange analyzers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors associated with use and non-use of the Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) kit for Colorectal Cancer Screening in Response to a 2012 outreach screening program: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Nancy P; Green, Beverly B

    2015-06-11

    The one-sample fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is gaining popularity for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening of average-risk people. However, uptake and annual use remain suboptimal. In 2013, we mailed questionnaires to three groups of nonHispanic White, Black, and Latino Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) members ages 52-76 who received FIT kits in 2010-2012: Continuers did the FIT all 3 years; Converts in 2012, but not 2010 or 2011; and Nonusers in none of the 3 years. The questionnaires covered social influences, perceived CRC risk, reasons for using (Continuers, Converts) or avoiding using (Nonusers) the FIT, and recommendations for improving the kit. Continuers (n = 607, response rate 67.5%), Converts (n = 317, response rate 35.6%), and Nonusers (n = 215, response rate 21.1%) did not differ in perceived risk or family history of CRC, but Nonusers were less likely than Continuers and Converts to know someone who had polyps or CRC. Continuers, Converts, and Nonusers did not differ in social network encouragement of CRC screening, but did differ in believing that it was very important that they be screened (88.3%, 68.4%, 47.7%) and that their medical team thought it very important that they be screened (88.6%, 79.9%, 53.9%). Approximately half of Continuers and Converts completed the FIT to please their doctor. Converts were less likely than Continuers to use the FIT to "make sure they were OK" (53.7% vs. 72.6%) or "protect their health" (46.1% vs. 76.4%). Nearly half of Converts completed the FIT out of guilt. Approximately half of FIT kit users suggested adding a disposable glove, extra paper, and wider-mouth tube to the kit. Nonusers' reasons for not using the FIT included discomfort, disgust, or embarrassment (59.6%); thinking it unnecessary (32.9%); fatalism/fear (15.5%); and thinking it too difficult to use (14.5%), but screening at all. Nonusers and irregular users of the FIT are less intrinsically motivated to get CRC screening than

  19. Análise da correlação entre o protocolo Polar Fitness Test® para predição de VO2máx e ergoespirometria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Marocolo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A importância da mensuração do consumo máximo de oxigênio (O2máxé justificada por sua aceitação internacional como o melhor parâmetro fisiológico para avaliar a capacidade funcional do sistema cardiorrespiratório tanto em atletas como em não atletas que treinam fisicamente com objetivo de obter melhor saúde. OBJETIVO: Verificar a concordância entre os protocolos Polar Fitness Test® para a estimativa do O2máx e o teste de esforço máximo com medida direta de gases. MÉTODOS: Dezessete homens ativos (22,5 ± dois anos participaram. Em repouso, aplicou-se o protocolo Polar Fitness Test® e, em seguida, a coleta direta de gases sob o esforço máximo, em esteira, seguindo o protocolo de Bruce. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença significativa entre os valores médios dos métodos para estimativa do O2máx. O protocolo Polar Fitness Test® subestimou o O2máx, em média 15% (IC95%: 24; -53% comparado com a medida direta de gases. Os valores obtidos pelo Polar Fitness Test® não tiveram boa correlação com a medida direta em ergoespirômetro (r = 0,1. CONCLUSÃO: O protocolo Polar Fitness Test® não é válido para a estimativa do O2máx em homens jovens ativos fisicamente.

  20. Abnormal mitochondrial respiration in failed human myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, V G; Todor, A V; Silverman, N; Goldstein, S; Sabbah, H N

    2000-12-01

    Chronic heart failure (HF) is associated with morphologic abnormalities of cardiac mitochondria including hyperplasia, reduced organelle size and compromised structural integrity. In this study, we examined whether functional abnormalities of mitochondrial respiration are also present in myocardium of patients with advanced HF. Mitochondrial respiration was examined using a Clark electrode in an oxygraph cell containing saponin-skinned muscle bundles obtained from myocardium of failed explanted human hearts due to ischemic (ICM, n=9) or idiopathic dilated (IDC, n=9) cardiomyopathy. Myocardial specimens from five normal donor hearts served as controls (CON). Basal respiratory rate, respiratory rate after addition of the substrates glutamate and malate (V(SUB)), state 3 respiration (after addition of ADP, V(ADP)) and respiration after the addition of atractyloside (V(AT)) were measured in scar-free muscle bundles obtained from the subendocardial (ENDO) and subepicardial (EPI) thirds of the left ventricular (LV) free wall, interventricular septum and right ventricular (RV) free wall. There were no differences in basal and substrate-supported respiration between CON and HF regardless of etiology. V(ADP)was significantly depressed both in ICM and IDC compared to CON in all the regions studied. The respiratory control ratio, V(ADP)/V(AT), was also significantly decreased in HF compared to CON. In both ICM and IDC, V(ADP)was significantly lower in ENDO compared to EPI. The results indicate that mitochondrial respiration is abnormal in the failing human heart. The findings support the concept of low myocardial energy production in HF via oxidative phosphorylation, an abnormality with a potentially impact on global cardiac performance. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  1. Organic fuels for respiration in tropical river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, N.; Keil, R. G.; Richey, J. E.; Krusche, A. V.; Medeiros, P. M.

    2011-12-01

    Watershed-derived organic matter is thought to provide anywhere from 30-90% of the organic matter in rivers (e.g. Hernes et al 2008; Spencer et al 2010). The most abundant biochemicals on land are cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. Combined, they represent as much as 80% of the biomass in a typical forest and as much as 60% of the biomass in a typical field (natural or crop)(Bose et al 2009; Bridgeman et al., 2007; Hu and Zu 2006; Martens et al 2004). They are often assumed to be refractory and hard to degrade, but this assumption is at odds with virtually all observations: soils and marine sediments are not accumulating vast amounts of these compounds (Hedges and Oades, 1997), and degradation experiments suggest that cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin are reactive and likely to be important fuels for respiration (Benner, 1991; Haddad et al, 1992; Dittmar et al, 2001; Otto and Simpson, 2006). During several trips to the lower Amazon River, incubation experiments were performed in which the biological degradation of lignin phenols was observed in order to assess the contribution of microbial respiration of terrestrially-derived macromolecules to gross respiration and CO2 gas evasion rates. Both particulate and dissolved lignin concentrations decreased by ~40% after being incubated in the dark for 5-7 days, indicating a turnover time of the entire lignin pool of 12-18 days. These results shift the paradigm that lignocellulose derived OM is highly recalcitrant, and indicate that microbial respiration of lignocellulose may play a larger role in total respiration rates/CO2 outgassing than previously thought. A simple mass balance calculation was done to test whether microbial degradation alone could explain the lignin data observed in the field. First, a theoretical particulate lignin concentration for Macapa was calculated based on the observed data at Obidos. The measured rate of particulate lignin degradation was multiplied by the transit time of water from

  2. Health hazards associated with the use of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (commonly referred to as DOP) in HEPA filter test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), commonly referred to as di-octyl phthalate, is an important production chemical in the US. In addition to its major use as an additive in plastics, DEHP is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Historically, DEHP was also used in quantitative fit testing for respirators. Evaluations of this compound a decade ago showed that it can induce hepatocellular carcinomas in laboratory animals. Although most Department of Energy (DOE) facilities have since discontinued using DEHP in respirator fit testing, DEHP continues to be used for evaluating HEPA filters. This report summarizes available information on the toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and other hazards and problems posed by DEHP, specifically with reference to HEPA filter testing. Information on work practice improvements as well as the availability and suitability of DEHP substitutes are also presented. This material should assist the DOE in the safe use of this material.

  3. Impacts of temperature on primary productivity and respiration in naturally structured macroalgal assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh W Tait

    Full Text Available Rising global temperatures caused by human-mediated change has already triggered significant responses in organismal physiology, distribution and ecosystem functioning. Although the effects of rising temperature on the physiology of individual organisms are well understood, the effect on community-wide processes has remained elusive. The fixation of carbon via primary productivity is an essential ecosystem function and any shifts in the balance of primary productivity and respiration could alter the carbon balance of ecosystems. Here we show through a series of tests that respiration of naturally structured algal assemblages in southern New Zealand greatly increases with rising temperature, with implications for net primary productivity (NPP. The NPP of in situ macroalgal assemblages was minimally affected by natural temperature variation, possibly through photo-acclimation or temperature acclimation responses, but respiration rates and compensating irradiance were negatively affected. However, laboratory experiments testing the impacts of rising temperature on several photosynthetic parameters showed a decline in NPP, increasing respiration rates and increasing compensating irradiance. The respiration Q10 of laboratory assemblages (the difference in metabolic rates over 10°C averaged 2.9 compared to a Q10 of 2 often seen in other autotrophs. However, gross primary productivity (GPP Q10 averaged 2, indicating that respiration was more severely affected by rising temperature. Furthermore, combined high irradiance and high temperature caused photoinhibition in the laboratory, and resulted in 50% lower NPP at high irradiance. Our study shows that communities may be more severely affected by rising global temperatures than would be expected by responses of individual species. In particular, enhanced respiration rates and rising compensation points have the potential to greatly affect the carbon balance of macroalgal assemblages through declines in

  4. Relationship among Fitness, Morphological Characteristics, Skills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The specific morphological and fitness demands of the sport are, therefore, not fully understood. The purpose of this ... The findings convincingly suggest that coaches should include fitness, morphological and skills tests in their coaching and fitness programmes, team selection and talent identification processes. Keywords: ...

  5. Unge, sundhed og fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness.......Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness....

  6. Estimating Canopy Dark Respiration for Crop Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje Mejia, Oscar Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Crop production is obtained from accurate estimates of daily carbon gain.Canopy gross photosynthesis (Pgross) can be estimated from biochemical models of photosynthesis using sun and shaded leaf portions and the amount of intercepted photosyntheticallyactive radiation (PAR).In turn, canopy daily net carbon gain can be estimated from canopy daily gross photosynthesis when canopy dark respiration (Rd) is known.

  7. LIMITATION OF SOIL RESPIRATION DURING DRY PERIOD

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Marian; Janouš, Dalibor; Acosta, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2003), s. 47-52. ISBN 80-7157-297-7 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A141; GA AV ČR IBS6087005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : moisture * Norway spruce * precipitation * respiration * soil CO2 efflux Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  8. Internal current generation in respiration chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saborowski, R.; Buchholz, F.

    1998-06-01

    A technical device generating a constant and directed current within a sealed respiration chamber is described. It does not involve any external pumps or tubing. This system is easy to handle, and improved the maintenance of rheotactic pelagic species like the Northern krill ( Meganyctiphanes norvegica, Crustacea) or small fishes ( Gasterosteus aculeatus) under experimental conditions.

  9. 42 CFR 84.1130 - Respirators; description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84...., dust clouds produced in mining, quarrying, and tunneling, and in dusts produced during industrial... respective vapors, or from the chemical reaction between their respective vapors and gases. (3) Air-purifying...

  10. Development of conformal respirator monitoring technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shonka, J.J.; Weismann, J.J.; Logan, R.J.

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a Small Business Innovative Research Phase II project to develop a modular, surface conforming respirator monitor to improve upon the manual survey techniques presently used by the nuclear industry. Research was performed with plastic scintillator and gas proportional modules in an effort to find the most conducive geometry for a surface conformal, position sensitive monitor. The respirator monitor prototype developed is a computer controlled, position-sensitive detection system employing 56 modular proportional counters mounted in molds conforming to the inner and outer surfaces of a commonly used respirator (Scott Model 801450-40). The molds are housed in separate enclosures and hinged to create a open-quotes waffle-ironclose quotes effect so that the closed monitor will simultaneously survey both surfaces of the respirator. The proportional counter prototype was also designed to incorporate Shonka Research Associates previously developed charge-division electronics. This research provided valuable experience into pixellated position sensitive detection systems. The technology developed can be adapted to other monitoring applications where there is a need for deployment of many traditional radiation detectors

  11. Geochemical importance of isotopic fractionation during respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleser, G.; Foerstel, H.

    1975-01-01

    In 1935 it was found that atmospheric oxygen contained a relatively greater abundance of the 18 O isotope than did the oxygen bound in water (Dole effect). A major contribution to the fractionation of the stable oxygen isotopes should result from the respiration of microorganisms. In this respect our interest centers on the soil because nearly all organic material produced on land is decomposed within the soil. The oceans are less important because the primary productivity on land is twice the value for the oceans. In a first approach we measured the oxygen isotope fractionation during the respiration of E. coli K12 for different respiration rates. These results, accomplished with a chemostat, indicate that the fractionation factor α of the oxygen isotopes increases with the increasing respiratory activity, measured as Q/sub O 2 /. At low dilution rates or growth rates respectively of about 0.05 h -1 , the fractionation factor amounts to 1.006 increasing to 1.017 at dilution rates of about 1.0 h -1 . The results are interpreted as a kinetic mass fractionation due to the slightly different diffusion coefficients of 16 O 2 and 18 O 16 O. The respiration rates in conjunction with the corresponding fractionation data are compared with the respiration rates of typical soil microorganisms such as Azotobacter, in order to deduce fractionation data for these organisms. This is necessary to calculate a mean global fractionation factor. Understanding the Dole effect with these fractionation processes should finally give us the opportunity to calculate gas-exchange rates between the atmosphere and the oceans, on the basis of the behavior of the stable oxygen isotopes

  12. Contribution of root to soil respiration and carbon balance in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil respiration varied from 2.5 to 11.9 g CO2 m-2 d-1 and from 1.5 to 9.3 g CO2 m-2 d-1, and the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration from 38% to 76% and from 25% to 72% in Communities 1 and 2, respectively. During the growing season (May–September), soil respiration, shoot biomass, live root ...

  13. Nutrients and temperature additively increase stream microbial respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. P. Manning; Amy D. Rosemond; Vladislav Gulis; Jonathan P. Benstead; John S. Kominoski

    2017-01-01

    Rising temperatures and nutrient enrichment are co‐occurring global‐change drivers that stimulate microbial respiration of detrital carbon, but nutrient effects on the temperature dependence of respiration in aquatic ecosystems remain uncertain. We measured respiration rates associated with leaf litter, wood, and fine benthic organic matter (FBOM) across...

  14. Thermal adaptation of heterotrophic soil respiration in laboratory microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Bradford; Brian W. Watts; Christian A. Davies

    2010-01-01

    Respiration of heterotrophic microorganisms decomposing soil organic carbon releases carbon dioxide from soils to the atmosphere. In the short term, soil microbial respiration is strongly dependent on temperature. In the long term, the response of heterotrophic soil respiration to temperature is uncertain. However, following established evolutionary tradeoffs, mass-...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1134 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1134 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section each respirator shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container...

  16. 21 CFR 892.1970 - Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. 892.1970... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1970 Radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer. (a) Identification. A radiographic ECG/respirator synchronizer is a device intended to be used to...

  17. What controls respiration rate in stored sugarbeet roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although respiration is estimated to be responsible for 60 to 80% of the sucrose lost during storage, the mechanisms by which sugarbeet roots regulate their respiration rate are unknown. In plants, respiration rate is regulated by (1) available respiratory capacity, (2) cellular energy status, (3) ...

  18. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Wenping; Luo, Yiqi; Li, Xianglan

    2011-01-01

    Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models sti...

  19. Quantifying soil respiration at landscape scales. Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Bradford; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Soil CO2, efflux, or soil respiration, represents a substantial component of carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Consequently, quantifying soil respiration over large areas and long time periods is an increasingly important goal. However, soil respiration rates vary dramatically in space and time in response to both environmental conditions...

  20. Induction by ethylene of cyanide-resistant respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomos, T.; Laties, G.G.

    1976-05-17

    Ethylene and cyanide induce an increase in respiration in a variety of plant tissues, whereas ethylene has no effect on tissues whose respiration is strongly inhibited by cyanide. It is suggested that the existence of a cyanide-insensitive electron transport path is a prerequisite for stimulation of respiration by ethylene.

  1. Amplification and dampening of soil respiration by changes in temperature variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Sierra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated release of carbon from soils is one of the most important feedbacks related to anthropogenically induced climate change. Studies addressing the mechanisms for soil carbon release through organic matter decomposition have focused on the effect of changes in the average temperature, with little attention to changes in temperature variability. Anthropogenic activities are likely to modify both the average state and the variability of the climatic system; therefore, the effects of future warming on decomposition should not only focus on trends in the average temperature, but also variability expressed as a change of the probability distribution of temperature. Using analytical and numerical analyses we tested common relationships between temperature and respiration and found that the variability of temperature plays an important role determining respiration rates of soil organic matter. Changes in temperature variability, without changes in the average temperature, can affect the amount of carbon released through respiration over the long-term. Furthermore, simultaneous changes in the average and variance of temperature can either amplify or dampen the release of carbon through soil respiration as climate regimes change. These effects depend on the degree of convexity of the relationship between temperature and respiration and the magnitude of the change in temperature variance. A potential consequence of this effect of variability would be higher respiration in regions where both the mean and variance of temperature are expected to increase, such as in some low latitude regions; and lower amounts of respiration where the average temperature is expected to increase and the variance to decrease, such as in northern high latitudes.

  2. Amplification and dampening of soil respiration by changes in temperature variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, C.A.; Harmon, M.E.; Thomann, E.; Perakis, S.S.; Loescher, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    Accelerated release of carbon from soils is one of the most important feed backs related to anthropogenically induced climate change. Studies addressing the mechanisms for soil carbon release through organic matter decomposition have focused on the effect of changes in the average temperature, with little attention to changes in temperature vari-ability. Anthropogenic activities are likely to modify both the average state and the variability of the climatic system; therefore, the effects of future warming on decomposition should not only focus on trends in the average temperature, but also variability expressed as a change of the probability distribution of temperature.Using analytical and numerical analyses we tested common relationships between temperature and respiration and found that the variability of temperature plays an important role determining respiration rates of soil organic matter. Changes in temperature variability, without changes in the average temperature, can affect the amount of carbon released through respiration over the long term. Furthermore, simultaneous changes in the average and variance of temperature can either amplify or dampen there release of carbon through soil respiration as climate regimes change. The effects depend on the degree of convexity of the relationship between temperature and respiration and the magnitude of the change in temperature variance. A potential consequence of this effect of variability would be higher respiration in regions where both the mean and variance of temperature are expected to increase, such as in some low latitude regions; and lower amounts of respiration where the average temperature is expected to increase and the variance to decrease, such as in northern high latitudes.

  3. An Improved Cognitive Model of the Iowa and Soochow Gambling Tasks With Regard to Model Fitting Performance and Tests of Parameter Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi eDai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and the Soochow Gambling Task (SGT are two experience-based risky decision-making tasks for examining decision-making deficits in clinical populations. Several cognitive models, including the expectancy-valence learning model (EVL and the prospect valence learning model (PVL, have been developed to disentangle the motivational, cognitive, and response processes underlying the explicit choices in these tasks. The purpose of the current study was to develop an improved model that can fit empirical data better than the EVL and PVL models and, in addition, produce more consistent parameter estimates across the IGT and SGT. Twenty-six opiate users (mean age 34.23; SD 8.79 and 27 control participants (mean age 35; SD 10.44 completed both tasks. Eighteen cognitive models varying in evaluation, updating, and choice rules were fit to individual data and their performances were compared to that of a statistical baseline model to find a best fitting model. The results showed that the model combining the prospect utility function treating gains and losses separately, the decay-reinforcement updating rule, and the trial-independent choice rule performed the best in both tasks. Furthermore, the winning model produced more consistent individual parameter estimates across the two tasks than any of the other models.

  4. A Time-Frequency Respiration Tracking System using Non-Contact Bed Sensors with Harmonic Artifact Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Zachary T.; Jacobs, Peter G.; Riley, Thomas C.; Hagen, Chad C.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep apnea is a serious health condition that affects many individuals and has been associated with serious health conditions such as cardiovascular disease. Clinical diagnosis of sleep apnea requires that a patient spend the night in a sleep clinic while being wired up to numerous obtrusive sensors. We are developing a system that utilizes respiration rate and breathing amplitude inferred from non-contact bed sensors (i.e. load cells placed under bed supports) to detect sleep apnea. Multi-harmonic artifacts generated either biologically or as a result of the impulse response of the bed have made it challenging to track respiration rate and amplitude with high resolution in time. In this paper, we present an algorithm that can accurately track respiration on a second-by-second basis while removing noise harmonics. The algorithm is tested using data collected from 5 patients during overnight sleep studies. Respiration rate is compared with polysomnography estimations of respiration rate estimated by a technician following clinical standards. Results indicate that certain subjects exhibit a large harmonic component of their breathing signal that can be removed by our algorithm. When compared with technician transcribed respiration rates using polysomnography signals, we demonstrate improved accuracy of respiration rate tracking using harmonic artifact rejection (mean error: 0.18 breaths/minute) over tracking not using harmonic artifact rejection (mean error: −2.74 breaths/minute). PMID:26738176

  5. Dynamic respiration index as a descriptor of the biological stability of organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adani, Fabrizio; Confalonieri, Roberto; Tambone, Fulvia

    2004-01-01

    Analytical methods applicable to different organic wastes are needed to establish the extent to which readily biodegradable organic matter has decomposed (i.e., biological stability). The objective of this study was to test a new respirometric method for biological stability determination of organic wastes. Dynamic respiration index (DRI) measurements were performed on 16 organic wastes of different origin, composition, and biological stability degree to validate the test method and result expression, and to propose biological stability limits. In addition, theoretical DRI trends were obtained by using a mathematical model. Each test lasted 96 h in a 148-L-capacity respirometer apparatus, and DRI was monitored every hour. The biological stability was expressed as both single and cumulative DRI values. Results obtained indicated that DRI described biological stability in relation to waste typology and age well, revealing lower-stability waste characterized by a well-pronounced DRI profile (a marked peak was evident) that became practically flat for samples with higher biological stability. Fitting indices showed good model prediction compared with the experimental data, indicating that the method was able to reproduce the aerobic process, providing a reliable indication of the biological stability. The DRI can therefore be proposed as a useful method to measure the biological stability of organic wastes, and DRI values, calculated as a mean of 24 h of the highest microbial activity, of 1000 and 500 mg O(2) kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) h(-1) are proposed to indicate medium (e.g., fresh compost) and high (e.g., mature compost) biological stabilities, respectively.

  6. Extracting the respiration cycle lengths from ECG signal recorded with bed sheet electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehkaoja, A; Peltokangas, M; Lekkala, J

    2013-01-01

    A method for recognizing the respiration cycle lengths from the electrocardiographic (ECG) signal recorded with textile electrodes that are attached to a bed sheet is proposed. The method uses two features extracted from the ECG that are affected by the respiration: respiratory sinus arrhythmia and the amplitude of the R-peaks. The proposed method was tested in one hour long recordings with ten healthy young adults. A relative mean absolute error of 5.6 % was achieved when the algorithm was able to provide a result for approximately 40 % of the time. 90 % of the values were within 0.5 s and 97 % within 1 s from the reference respiration value. In addition to the instantaneous respiration cycle lengths, also the mean values during 1 and 5 minutes epochs are calculated. The effect of the ECG signal source is evaluated by calculating the result also from the simultaneously recorded reference ECG signal. The acquired respiration information can be used in the estimation of sleep quality and the detection of sleep disorders

  7. Experimental study on effects of drilling parameters on respirable dust production during roof bolting operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Luo, Yi; McQuerrey, Joe

    2018-02-01

    Underground coalmine roof bolting operators exhibit a continued risk for overexposure to airborne levels of respirable coal and crystalline silica dust from the roof drilling operation. Inhaling these dusts can cause coal worker's pneumoconiosis and silicosis. This research explores the effect of drilling control parameters, specifically drilling bite depth, on the reduction of respirable dust generated during the drilling process. Laboratory drilling experiments were conducted and results demonstrated the feasibility of this dust control approach. Both the weight and size distribution of the dust particles collected from drilling tests with different bite depths were analyzed. The results showed that the amount of total inhalable and respirable dust was inversely proportional to the drilling bite depth. Therefore, control of the drilling process to achieve proper high-bite depth for the rock can be an important approach to reducing the generation of harmful dust. Different from conventional passive engineering controls, such as mist drilling and ventilation approaches, this approach is proactive and can cut down the generation of respirable dust from the source. These findings can be used to develop an integrated drilling control algorithm to achieve the best drilling efficiency as well as reducing respirable dust and noise.

  8. Particulate Respirators Functionalized with Silver Nanoparticles Showed Excellent Real-Time Antimicrobial Effects against Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Clark Renjun; Li, Shuai; Ye, Chengsong; Li, Xinyang; Zhang, Chiqian; Yu, Xin

    2016-07-05

    Particulate respirators designed to filtrate fine particulate matters usually do not possess antimicrobial functions. The current study aimed to functionalize particulate respirators with silver nanoparticles (nanosilver or AgNPs), which have excellent antimicrobial activities, utilizing a straightforward and effective method. We first enhanced the nanosilver-coating ability of nonwoven fabrics from a particulate respirator through surface modification by sodium oleate. The surfactant treatment significantly improved the fabrics' water wet preference where the static water contact angles reduced from 122° to 56°. Both macroscopic agar-plate tests and microscopic scanning electron microscope (SEM) characterization revealed that nanosilver functionalized fabrics could effectively inhibit the growth of two model bacterial strains (i.e., Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The coating of silver nanoparticles would not affect the main function of particulate respirators (i.e., filtration of fine air-borne particles). Nanosilver coated particulate respirators with excellent antimicrobial activities can provide real-time protection to people in regions with severe air pollution against air-borne pathogens.

  9. Frost Induces Respiration and Accelerates Carbon Depletion in Trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Or Sperling

    Full Text Available Cellular respiration depletes stored carbohydrates during extended periods of limited photosynthesis, e.g. winter dormancy or drought. As respiration rate is largely a function of temperature, the thermal conditions during such periods may affect non-structural carbohydrate (NSC availability and, ultimately, recovery. Here, we surveyed stem responses to temperature changes in 15 woody species. For two species with divergent respirational response to frost, P. integerrima and P. trichocarpa, we also examined corresponding changes in NSC levels. Finally, we simulated respiration-induced NSC depletion using historical temperature data for the western US. We report a novel finding that tree stems significantly increase respiration in response to near freezing temperatures. We observed this excess respiration in 13 of 15 species, deviating 10% to 170% over values predicted by the Arrhenius equation. Excess respiration persisted at temperatures above 0 °C during warming and reoccurred over multiple frost-warming cycles. A large adjustment of NSCs accompanied excess respiration in P. integerrima, whereas P. trichocarpa neither excessively respired nor adjusted NSCs. Over the course of the years included in our model, frost-induced respiration accelerated stem NSC consumption by 8.4 mg (glucose eq. cm(-3 yr(-1 on average in the western US, a level of depletion that may continue to significantly affect spring NSC availability. This novel finding revises the current paradigm of low temperature respiration kinetics.

  10. Frost Induces Respiration and Accelerates Carbon Depletion in Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Or; Earles, J Mason; Secchi, Francesca; Godfrey, Jessie; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2015-01-01

    Cellular respiration depletes stored carbohydrates during extended periods of limited photosynthesis, e.g. winter dormancy or drought. As respiration rate is largely a function of temperature, the thermal conditions during such periods may affect non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) availability and, ultimately, recovery. Here, we surveyed stem responses to temperature changes in 15 woody species. For two species with divergent respirational response to frost, P. integerrima and P. trichocarpa, we also examined corresponding changes in NSC levels. Finally, we simulated respiration-induced NSC depletion using historical temperature data for the western US. We report a novel finding that tree stems significantly increase respiration in response to near freezing temperatures. We observed this excess respiration in 13 of 15 species, deviating 10% to 170% over values predicted by the Arrhenius equation. Excess respiration persisted at temperatures above 0 °C during warming and reoccurred over multiple frost-warming cycles. A large adjustment of NSCs accompanied excess respiration in P. integerrima, whereas P. trichocarpa neither excessively respired nor adjusted NSCs. Over the course of the years included in our model, frost-induced respiration accelerated stem NSC consumption by 8.4 mg (glucose eq.) cm(-3) yr(-1) on average in the western US, a level of depletion that may continue to significantly affect spring NSC availability. This novel finding revises the current paradigm of low temperature respiration kinetics.

  11. Did Respiration or Photosynthesis Come First

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1979-01-01

    The similarity of the mechanisms in photosynthetic and in oxidative phosphorylation suggests a common origin ( convers ion hypothesis). It is proposed that an early form of electron flow with oxidative phosphorylation ("prerespiration"), to terminal electron acceptors available in a reducing biosphere, was supplemented by a photocatalyst capable of a redox reaction. In this way, cyclic photophosphorylation arose. Further stages in evolution were reverse electron flow powered by ATP, to make NADH as a reductant for CO2 , and subsequently noncyclic electron flow. These processes concomitantly provided the oxidants indispensable for full development of oxidative phosphorylation, i.e. for normal respiration: sulphate, O2 and with participation of the nitrificants, nitrite and nitrate. Thus, prerespiration preceded photosynthesis, and this preceded respiration. It is also suggested that nonredox photoprocesses of the Halobacterium type are not part of the mainstream of bioenergetic evolution. They do not lead to photoprocesses with electron flow. (author)

  12. FITS: a function-fitting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Chezem, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    FITS is an iterating computer program that adjusts the parameters of a function to fit a set of data points according to the least squares criterion and then lists and plots the results. The function can be programmed or chosen from a library that is provided. The library can be expanded to include up to 99 functions. A general plotting routine, contained in the program but useful in its own right, is described separately in an Appendix.

  13. Family Activities for Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  14. Respiration rate detection based on intensity modulation using plastic optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Zawawi Mohd; Ziran Nurul Sufia, Nor; Hadi, Manap

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the implementation of respiration rate measurement via a simple intensity-based optical fiber sensor using optical fiber technology. The breathing rate is measured based on the light intensity variation due to the longitudinal gap changes between two separated fibers. In order to monitor the breathing rate continuously, the output from the photodetector conditioning circuit is connected to a low-cost Arduino kit. At the sensing point, two optical fiber cables are positioned in series with a small gap and fitted inside a transparent plastic tube. To ensure smooth movement of the fiber during inhale and exhale processes as well as to maintain the gap of the fiber during idle condition, the fiber is attached firmly to a stretchable bandage. This study shows that this simple fiber arrangement can be applied to detect respiration activity which might be critical for patient monitoring.

  15. Respiration rate detection based on intensity modulation using plastic optical fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Anwar Zawawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation of respiration rate measurement via a simple intensity-based optical fiber sensor using optical fiber technology. The breathing rate is measured based on the light intensity variation due to the longitudinal gap changes between two separated fibers. In order to monitor the breathing rate continuously, the output from the photodetector conditioning circuit is connected to a low-cost Arduino kit. At the sensing point, two optical fiber cables are positioned in series with a small gap and fitted inside a transparent plastic tube. To ensure smooth movement of the fiber during inhale and exhale processes as well as to maintain the gap of the fiber during idle condition, the fiber is attached firmly to a stretchable bandage. This study shows that this simple fiber arrangement can be applied to detect respiration activity which might be critical for patient monitoring.

  16. Computer code FIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohmann, D.; Koehler, T.

    1987-02-01

    This is a description of the computer code FIT, written in FORTRAN-77 for a PDP 11/34. FIT is an interactive program to decude position, width and intensity of lines of X-ray spectra (max. length of 4K channels). The lines (max. 30 lines per fit) may have Gauss- or Voigt-profile, as well as exponential tails. Spectrum and fit can be displayed on a Tektronix terminal. (orig.) [de

  17. [Biomechanics and regulation of the external respiration in the conditions of 5-day dry immersion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Iu A; Suvorov, A V; D'iachenko, A I; Kolesnikov, V I

    2011-01-01

    The work was concerned with evaluation of the external respiration function and regulation in healthy human subjects participating in simulation of the microgravity effects by dry immersion (DI). In the baseline data collection period, in DI (days 2 and 4) and after DI completion pulmonary volumes were registered, the ratio of thoracic and abdominal components of quiet breathing and respiratory maneuvers calculated, and parameters of respiration regulation, i.e. length of breath-holding and ability to voluntary control breathing motions, were determined. It was shown that breathing pattern did not undergo gross changes in immersion as compared with pre-DI test data; however, inspiratory reserve volume grew (p immersion. We believe that similar to microgravity, exposure in DI produces regular alterations of pulmonary RV (partly because of changed body position), thoracic-abdominal ratio in breathing motions, and shifts in voluntary respiration regulation.

  18. Translation of First North American 50 and 70 cc Total Artificial Heart Virtual and Clinical Implantations: Utility of 3D Computed Tomography to Test Fit Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferng, Alice S; Oliva, Isabel; Jokerst, Clinton; Avery, Ryan; Connell, Alana M; Tran, Phat L; Smith, Richard G; Khalpey, Zain

    2017-08-01

    Since the creation of SynCardia's 50 cc Total Artificial Hearts (TAHs), patients with irreversible biventricular failure now have two sizing options. Herein, a case series of three patients who have undergone successful 50 and 70 cc TAH implantation with complete closure of the chest cavity utilizing preoperative "virtual implantation" of different sized devices for surgical planning are presented. Computed tomography (CT) images were used for preoperative planning prior to TAH implantation. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of preoperative chest CT images were generated and both 50 and 70 cc TAHs were virtually implanted into patients' thoracic cavities. During the simulation, the TAHs were projected over the native hearts in a similar position to the actual implantation, and the relationship between the devices and the atria, ventricles, chest wall, and diaphragm were assessed. The 3D reconstructed images and virtual modeling were used to simulate and determine for each patient if the 50 or 70 cc TAH would have a higher likelihood of successful implantation without complications. Subsequently, all three patients received clinical implants of the properly sized TAH based on virtual modeling, and their chest cavities were fully closed. This virtual implantation increases our confidence that the selected TAH will better fit within the thoracic cavity allowing for improved surgical outcome. Clinical implantation of the TAHs showed that our virtual modeling was an effective method for determining the correct fit and sizing of 50 and 70 cc TAHs. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Fitness for duty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.; Matney, C.

    1991-01-01

    A Fitness For Duty training program was developed to satisfy the requirements of the NRC, 10 CFR 26, 10 CFR 707 and to meet requirements at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Interactive videodisc technology was selected as the training medium using the TenCore authoring language. Computer-based training was chosen because of the large number of trainees, the advantages of the reduced overall cost, and the increased trainee retention of course material compared to traditional instruction. The resulting training program utilizes extensive role playing exercises in which employees and supervisors are exposed to real life situations. Extensive interactions by the trainees are required in that they must answer questions concerning the behav ior of individuals, random and for-cause drug testing, and the employee assistance program. Feedback is given in each case. Emphasis is placed on recognition of deteriorating job performance

  20. Changes in soil respiration after thinning activities in dense Aleppo pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llovet, Joan; Alonso, Macià; Cerdà, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Forest fires are a widespread perturbation in Mediterranean areas, and they have tended to increase during the last decades (Pausas, 2004; Moreno et al, 1998). Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill) is dominant specie in some forest landscapes of western Mediterranean Basin, due to its capacity to colonize abandoned fields, and also due to afforestation practices mainly performed during the 20th century (Ruiz Navarro et al., 2009). Aleppo pine tends to die as consequence of forest fires, although it is able to disperse a high quantity of seeds which easily germinates. These dispersion and germination can result in dense forests with high inter and intra-specific competition, low diversity, low growth, and high fuel accumulation, increasing the risk of new forest fires. These forests of high density present ecological problems and management difficulties that require preventive treatments. Thinning treatments are common in these types of communities, but the management has to be oriented towards strengthening their functions. In the context of global change, better understandings of the implications of forest management practices in the carbon cycle are necessary. The objective of this study was to examine the evolution of seasonal soil respiration after treatment of selective thinning in dense Aleppo pine forests. The study area covers three localities placed in the Valencian Community (E Spain) affected by a forest fire in 1994. Thinning activities were done 16 years after the fire, reducing pine density from around 100,000 individuals per hectare to around 900 individuals per hectare. Soil respiration was measured in situ with a portable soil respiration instrument (LI-6400, LiCor, Lincoln, NB, USA) fitted with a soil respiration chamber (6400-09, LiCor, Lincoln, NB, USA). We installed 12 plots per treatment (control and thinned) and locality, being a total of 72 plots. We carried out 13 measurements covering a period of one year. We also estimated other related

  1. Effects of precipitation changes on aboveground net primary production and soil respiration in a switchgrass field

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study attempted to test whether switchgrass aboveground net primary production (ANPP) responds to precipitation (PPT) changes in a double asymmetry pattern as framed by Knapp et al. (2016), and whether it is held true for other ecosystem processes such as soil respiration (SR). Data were colle...

  2. Root respiration in North American forests: Effects of nitrogen concentration and temperature across biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.J. Burton; K.S. Pregitzer; R.W. Ruess; R.L. Hendrick; Mike F. Allen

    2002-01-01

    Root respiration rates have been shown to be correlated with temperature and root N concentration in studies of individual forest types or species, but it is not known how universal these relationships are across forest species adapted to widely different climatic and edaphic conditions. In order to test for broad, cross-species relationships, we measured fine root...

  3. Spinal cord motion. Influence of respiration and cardiac cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winklhofer, S. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Schoth, F. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Stolzmann, P. [University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Krings, T. [Toronto Western Hospital, ON (Canada). Div. of Neuroradiology; Mull, M.; Wiesmann, M. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Stracke, C.P. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Alfried-Krupp-Hospital, Essen (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2014-11-15

    To assess physiological spinal cord motion during the cardiac cycle compared with the influence of respiration based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements. Anterior-posterior spinal cord motion within the spinal canal was assessed in 16 healthy volunteers (median age, 25 years) by cardiac-triggered and cardiac-gated gradient echo pulse sequence MRI. Image acquisition was performed during breath-holding, normal breathing, and forced breathing. Normal spinal cord motion values were computed using descriptive statistics. Breathing-dependent differences were assessed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with the cardiac-based cord motion. A normal value table was set up for the spinal cord motion of each vertebral cervico-thoracic-lumbar segment. Significant differences in cord motion were found between cardiac-based motion while breath-holding and the two breathing modalities (P < 0.01 each). Spinal cord motion was found to be highest during forced breathing, with a maximum in the lower cervical spinal segments (C5; mean, 2.1 mm ± 1.17). Image acquisition during breath-holding revealed the lowest motion. MRI permits the demonstration and evaluation of cardiac and respiration-dependent spinal cord motion within the spinal canal from the cervical to lumbar segments. Breathing conditions have a considerably greater impact than cardiac activity on spinal cord motion.

  4. Spinal cord motion. Influence of respiration and cardiac cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winklhofer, S.; University Hospital Zurich; Schoth, F.; Stolzmann, P.; Krings, T.; Mull, M.; Wiesmann, M.; Stracke, C.P.; Alfried-Krupp-Hospital, Essen

    2014-01-01

    To assess physiological spinal cord motion during the cardiac cycle compared with the influence of respiration based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements. Anterior-posterior spinal cord motion within the spinal canal was assessed in 16 healthy volunteers (median age, 25 years) by cardiac-triggered and cardiac-gated gradient echo pulse sequence MRI. Image acquisition was performed during breath-holding, normal breathing, and forced breathing. Normal spinal cord motion values were computed using descriptive statistics. Breathing-dependent differences were assessed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with the cardiac-based cord motion. A normal value table was set up for the spinal cord motion of each vertebral cervico-thoracic-lumbar segment. Significant differences in cord motion were found between cardiac-based motion while breath-holding and the two breathing modalities (P < 0.01 each). Spinal cord motion was found to be highest during forced breathing, with a maximum in the lower cervical spinal segments (C5; mean, 2.1 mm ± 1.17). Image acquisition during breath-holding revealed the lowest motion. MRI permits the demonstration and evaluation of cardiac and respiration-dependent spinal cord motion within the spinal canal from the cervical to lumbar segments. Breathing conditions have a considerably greater impact than cardiac activity on spinal cord motion.

  5. Factors Influencing Physical Fitness Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarer, Barbara G.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on works that examine areas in which the physical educator can improve the administration of physical fitness tests in the elementary and secondary schools. The first part contains annotations that examine modifications of existing components which measure aspects of muscular and cardiovascular endurance. The…

  6. Transfer of bacteriophage MS2 and fluorescein from N95 filtering facepiece respirators to hands: Measuring fomite potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Tyler M.; Strauch, Amanda L.; Almaguer, Claudia M.; Niezgoda, George; Shafer, Ronald E.; Yorio, Patrick L.; Fisher, Edward M.

    2017-01-01

    Contact transmission of pathogens from personal protective equipment is a concern within the healthcare industry. During public health emergency outbreaks, resources become constrained and the reuse of personal protective equipment, such as N95 filtering facepiece respirators, may be needed. This study was designed to characterize the transfer of bacteriophage MS2 and fluorescein between filtering facepiece respirators and the wearer’s hands during three simulated use scenarios. Filtering facepiece respirators were contaminated with MS2 and fluorescein in droplets or droplet nuclei. Thirteen test subjects performed filtering facepiece respirator use scenarios including improper doffing, proper doffing and reuse, and improper doffing and reuse. Fluorescein and MS2 contamination transfer were quantified. The average MS2 transfer from filtering facepiece respirators to the subjects’ hands ranged from 7.6–15.4% and 2.2–2.7% for droplet and droplet nuclei derived contamination, respectively. Handling filtering facepiece respirators contaminated with droplets resulted in higher levels of MS2 transfer compared to droplet nuclei for all use scenarios (p = 0.007). MS2 transfer from droplet contaminated filtering facepiece respirators during improper doffing and reuse was greater than transfer during improper doffing (p = 0.008) and proper doffing and reuse (p = 0.042). Droplet contamination resulted in higher levels of fluorescein transfer compared to droplet nuclei contaminated filtering facepiece respirators for all use scenarios (p = 0.009). Fluorescein transfer was greater for improper doffing and reuse (p = 0.007) from droplet contaminated masks compared to droplet nuclei contaminated filtering facepiece respirators and for improper doffing and reuse when compared improper doffing (p = 0.017) and proper doffing and reuse (p = 0.018) for droplet contaminated filtering facepiece respirators. For droplet nuclei contaminated filtering facepiece respirators, the

  7. FITS: a function-fitting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Chezem, C.G.

    1982-08-01

    FITS is an iterating computer program that adjusts the parameters of a function to fit a set of data points according to the least squares criterion and then lists and plots the results. The function can be programmed or chosen from a library that is provided. The library can be expanded to include up to 99 functions. A general plotting routine, contained in the program but useful in its own right, is described separately in Appendix A. An example problem file and its solution is given in Appendix B.

  8. Measurements of CO2 exchange with an automated chamber system throughout the year: challenges in measuring nighttime respiration on porous peat soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, M.; Minkkinen, K.; Ojanen, P.; Kämäräinen, M.; Laurila, T.; Lohila, A.

    2013-08-01

    We built an automatic chamber system to measure greehouse gas (GHG) exchange in forested peatland ecosystems. We aimed to build a system robust enough which would work throughout the year and could measure through a changing snowpackin addition to producing annual GHG fluxes by integrating the measurements without the need of using models. The system worked rather well throughout the year, but it was not service free. Gap filling of data was still necessary. We observed problems in carbon dioxide (CO2) flux estimation during calm summer nights, when a CO2 concentration gradient from soil/moss system to atmosphere builds up. Chambers greatly overestimated the nighttime respiration. This was due to the disturbance caused by the chamber to the soil-moss CO2 gradient and consequent initial pulse of CO2 to the chamber headspace. We tested different flux calculation and measurement methods to solve this problem. The estimated flux was strongly dependent on (1) the type of the fit (linear and polynomial), (2) the starting point of the fit after closing the chamber, (3) the length of the fit, (4) the speed of the fan mixing the air inside the chamber, and (5) atmospheric turbulence (friction velocity, u*). The best fitting method (the most robust, least random variation) was linear fitting with the period of 120-240 s after chamber closure. Furthermore, the fan should be adjusted to spin at minimum speed to avoid the pulse-effect, but it should be kept on to ensure mixing. If nighttime problems cannot be solved, emissions can be estimated using daytime data from opaque chambers.

  9. Fitting a Mixture Rasch Model to English as a Foreign Language Listening Tests: The Role of Cognitive and Background Variables in Explaining Latent Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryadoust, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    The present study uses a mixture Rasch model to examine latent differential item functioning in English as a foreign language listening tests. Participants (n = 250) took a listening and lexico-grammatical test and completed the metacognitive awareness listening questionnaire comprising problem solving (PS), planning and evaluation (PE), mental…

  10. Re-Fitting for a Different Purpose: A Case Study of Item Writer Practices in Adapting Source Texts for a Test of Academic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Anthony; Hawkey, Roger

    2012-01-01

    The important yet under-researched role of item writers in the selection and adaptation of texts for high-stakes reading tests is investigated through a case study involving a group of trained item writers working on the International English Language Testing System (IELTS). In the first phase of the study, participants were invited to reflect in…

  11. Motor competence and physical fitness in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gísladóttir, Ordís; Haga, Monika; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between physical fitness and motor competence in adolescents aged 15 to 16 years. A sample of 94 adolescents participated in the study. To test motor competence, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 was used. Physical fitness was assessed using the following test items: standing broad jump, 20-m dash, reduced Cooper test, and sit-and-reach test. The results revealed a significant but weak relationship (0.248) between motor competence and physical fitness for the whole sample. More specifically, the correlation between the 2 variables was significant for girls (0.353) but not for boys (0.248). The relatively weak relationship between motor competence and physical fitness suggests that motor competence might not be critical in adolescents to maintain their physical fitness.

  12. Partitioning of ecosystem respiration in a beech forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brændholt, Andreas; Ibrom, Andreas; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg

    2018-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem respiration (Reco) represents a major component of the global carbon cycle. It consists of many sub-components, such as aboveground plant respiration and belowground root and microbial respiration, each of which may respond differently to abiotic factors, and thus to global...... of Reco in a temperate beech forest at diel, seasonal and annual time scales. Reco was measured by eddy covariance while respiration rates from soil, tree stems and isolated coarse tree roots were measured bi-hourly by an automated closed-chamber system. Soil respiration (Rsoil) was measured in intact...... plots, and heterotrophic Rsoil was measured in trenched plots. Tree stem (Rstem) and coarse root (Rroot) respiration were measured by custom made closed-chambers. We found that the contribution of Rstem to total Reco varied across the year, by only accounting for 6% of Reco during winter and 16% during...

  13. Workplace performance of a loose-fitting powered air purifying respirator during nanoparticle synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koivisto, A.J.; Aromaa, M.; Koponen, I.K.; Fransman, W.; Jensen, K.A.; Mäkelä, J.M.; Hämeri, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle (particles with diameter ≤100 nm) exposure is recognized as a potentially harmful size fraction for pulmonary particle exposure. During nanoparticle synthesis, the number concentrations in the process room may exceed 10 × 106 cm−3. During such conditions, it is essential that the

  14. Tillage Effects on Soil Properties & Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Teodor; Bogdan, Ileana; Moraru, Paula; Pop, Adrian; Duda, Bogdan; Cacovean, Horea; Coste, Camelia

    2015-04-01

    Soil tillage systems can be able to influence soil compaction, water dynamics, soil temperature and soil structural condition. These processes can be expressed as changes of soil microbiological activity, soil respiration and sustainability of agriculture. Objectives of this study were: 1) to assess the effects of tillage systems (Conventional System-CS, Minimum Tillage-MT, No-Tillage-NT) on soil compaction, soil temperature, soil moisture and soil respiration and 2) to establish the relationship that exists in changing soil properties. Three treatments were installed: CS-plough + disc; MT-paraplow + rotary grape; NT-direct sowing. The study was conducted on an Argic-Stagnic Faeoziom. The MT and NT applications reduce or completely eliminate the soil mobilization, due to this, soil is compacted in the first year of application. The degree of compaction is directly related to soil type and its state of degradation. The state of soil compaction diminished over time, tending toward a specific type of soil density. Soil moisture was higher in NT and MT at the time of sowing and in the early stages of vegetation and differences diminished over time. Moisture determinations showed statistically significant differences. The MT and NT applications reduced the thermal amplitude in the first 15 cm of soil depth and increased the soil temperature by 0.5-2.20C. The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration; the daily average was lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1) and followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Comparing with CS, all the two conservation tillage measures decreased soil respiration, with the best effects of no-tillage. An exceeding amount of CO2 produced in the soil and released into the atmosphere, resulting from aerobic processes of mineralization of organic matter (excessive loosening) is considered to be not only a way of increasing the CO2 in the atmosphere, but also a loss of

  15. Maintenance, endogeneous, respiration, lysis, decay and predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    loosdrecht, Marc C. M. Van; Henze, Mogens

    1999-01-01

    mechanism is microbiologically correct. The lysis/decay model mechanism is a strongly simplified representation of reality. This paper tries to review the processes grouped under endogenous respiration in activated sludge models. Mechanisms and processes such as maintenance, lysis, internal and external...... decay, predation and death-regeneration are discussed. From recent microbial research it has become evident that cells do not die by themselves. Bacteria are however subject to predation by protozoa. Bacteria store reserve polymers that in absence of external substrate are used for growth...

  16. Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevitz, Daniel Wolf [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Key, Brian P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garcia, Daniel B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT) is a software package used for probabilistic consequence evaluation of fragmenting sources. The typical use case for FIT is to simulate an exploding shell and evaluate the consequence on nearby objects. FIT is written in the programming language Python and is designed as a collection of interacting software modules. Each module has a function that interacts with the other modules to produce desired results.

  17. A novel hardware implementation for detecting respiration rate using photoplethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinable, Joseph; Jones, Peter; Thamrin, Cindy; McEwan, Alistair

    2017-07-01

    Asthma is a serious public health problem. Continuous monitoring of breathing may offer an alternative way to assess disease status. In this paper we present a novel hardware implementation for the capture and storage of a photoplethysmography (PPG) signal. The LED duty cycle was altered to determine the effect on respiratory rate accuracy. The oximeter was mounted to the left index finger of ten healthy volunteers. The breathing rate derived from the oximeter was validated against a nasal airflow sensor. The duty cycle of a pulse oximeter was changed between 5%, 10% and 25% at a sample rate of 500 Hz. A PPG signal and reference signal was captured for each duty cycle. The PPG signals were post processed in Matlab to derive a respiration rate using an existing Matlab toolbox. At a 25% duty cycle the RMSE was <;2 breaths per minute for the top performing algorithm. The RMSE increased to over 5 breaths per minute when the duty cycle was reduced to 5%. The power consumed by the hardware for a 5%, 10% and 25% duty cycle was 5.4 mW, 7.8 mW, and 15 mW respectively. For clinical assessment of respiratory rate, a RSME of <;2 breaths per minute is recommended. Further work is required to determine utility in asthma management. However for non-clinical applications such as fitness tracking, lower accuracy may be sufficient to allow a reduced duty cycle setting.

  18. Soil Respiration under Different Land Uses in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li-Chao; Yang, Ming-Zhen; Han, Wen-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Land-use change has a crucial influence on soil respiration, which further affects soil nutrient availability and carbon stock. We monitored soil respiration rates under different land-use types (tea gardens with three production levels, adjacent woodland, and a vegetable field) in Eastern China at weekly intervals over a year using the dynamic closed chamber method. The relationship between soil respiration and environmental factors was also evaluated. The soil respiration rate exhibited a remarkable single peak that was highest in July/August and lowest in January. The annual cumulative respiration flux increased by 25.6% and 20.9% in the tea garden with high production (HP) and the vegetable field (VF), respectively, relative to woodland (WL). However, no significant differences were observed between tea gardens with medium production (MP), low production (LP), WL, and VF. Soil respiration rates were significantly and positively correlated with organic carbon, total nitrogen, and available phosphorous content. Each site displayed a significant exponential relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature measured at 5 cm depth, which explained 84–98% of the variation in soil respiration. The model with a combination of soil temperature and moisture was better at predicting the temporal variation of soil respiration rate than the single temperature model for all sites. Q10 was 2.40, 2.00, and 1.86–1.98 for VF, WL, and tea gardens, respectively, indicating that converting WL to VF increased and converting to tea gardens decreased the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature. The equation of the multiple linear regression showed that identical factors, including soil organic carbon (SOC), soil water content (SWC), pH, and water soluble aluminum (WSAl), drove the changes in soil respiration and Q10 after conversion of land use. Temporal variations of soil respiration were mainly controlled by soil temperature, whereas spatial variations were

  19. Computer programs for locating and fitting full energie peak in γ-ray spectra. Test and rules for an estimation of the main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    After the different interlaboratory tests on gamma spectrum analysis organised by the 'Laboratoire de Metrologie des Rayonnements Ionisants' and by the International Atomic Energy Agency, it looked useful to manage a same type of intercomparison with the different supplies of Data acquisition and Analysis systems including mini-ordinator or microprocessor. Four spectrum have been chosen between those of the interlaboratory tests. The test dealt with the investigation of total absorption peaks of different levels in a complex spectrum and the calculation of their main parameters. Four supplies participed in the intercomparison with their own logicial. The result allow to suggest a few tests in order to try a new logicial, or to compare results with standards [fr

  20. Physical fitness testing of students did not specialized departments in the selection and admission to the department of military-sports-round

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buryanovaty A.N.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern progress of military-sports-round trends are considered. Influence of informing tests is rotined on a selection and put in the separation of military-sports-round. 180 (n = 180 students of the not special faculties took part in research. On results testing 18 students which rotined the level of preparedness above average were selected. 72 students were yet selected with a low level, 54 - below the average and to 36 middle. The optimum distributing has testing and it is counted on two days. It is set that the selection of these tests helps to define the level of physical preparedness of students and take away physically geared-up for future fruitful work. Directions and examples of planning of educational training process are rotined for achievement of certain results.

  1. Contribution of root respiration to soil respiration in a C3/C4 mixed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The linear regression relationship between soil respiration and root biomass was used to determine the .... 10 days, sieved 50 g soil samples were placed in a 100 ml beaker and a 250 ..... Comparatively, the method can take multi-samples by ...

  2. ESTIMATING ROOT RESPIRATION IN SPRUCE AND BEECH: DECREASES IN SOIL RESPIRATION FOLLOWING GIRDLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was undertaken to follow seasonal fluxes of CO2 from soil and to estimate the contribution of autotrophic (root + mycorrhizal) to total soil respiration (SR) in a mixed stand of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) near Freising, Germany. Matu...

  3. [The development of a respiration and temperature monitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X; Wu, B; Liu, Y; He, Q; Xiao, J

    2001-12-01

    This paper introduces the design of a monitoring system to measure the respiration and temperature of a body with an 8Xc196 single-chip microcomputer. This system can measure and display the respiration wave, respiration frequency and the body temperature in real-time with a liquid crystal display (LCD) and give an alarm when the parameters are beyond the normal scope. In addition, this device can provide a 24 hours trend graph of the respiration frequency and the body temperature parameters measured. Data can also be exchanged through serial communication interfaces (RS232) between the PC and the monitor.

  4. Metabolic interactions between methanogenic consortia and anaerobic respiring bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stams, A.J.; Oude Elferink, S.J.; Westermann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Most types of anaerobic respiration are able to outcompete methanogenic consortia for common substrates if the respective electron acceptors are present in sufficient amounts. Furthermore, several products or intermediate compounds formed by anaerobic respiring bacteria are toxic to methanogenic...... consortia. Despite the potentially adverse effects, only few inorganic electron acceptors potentially utilizable for anaerobic respiration have been investigated with respect to negative interactions in anaerobic digesters. In this chapter we review competitive and inhibitory interactions between anaerobic...... respiring populations and methanogenic consortia in bioreactors. Due to the few studies in anaerobic digesters, many of our discussions are based upon studies of defined cultures or natural ecosystems...

  5. State of the art in monitoring respirable mine aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkwein, J.C.; Mischler, S.E.; Thimons, E.D.; Timko, R.J.; Kissell, F.N.

    2005-07-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been developing several new tools to help miners monitor respirable coal dust, silica, and diesel particulate matter. This paper discusses three main topics. First, the latest results of the person wearable dust monitor (PDM), developed by Rupprecht and Patashnick under CDC contract. The PDM was tested side by side with conventional samplers at a number of US coal mines and results indicated that the PDM was comparable to conventional samplers. Second, improvements to the Dust Dosimeter monitoring technique that includes a new pump with built in pressure transducer and algorithm to convert differential pressure to dust concentration have shown good precision. Third, advances in the use of the detector tube technique to monitor tailpipe diesel emissions and ambient diesel particulate matter show that strong correlations exist between differential pressure measurement and elemental carbon in the samplers. 3 figs.

  6. The axon-protective WLD(S) protein partially rescues mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis after axonal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godzik, Katharina; Coleman, Michael P

    2015-04-01

    The axon-protective Wallerian degeneration slow (WLD(S)) protein can ameliorate the decline in axonal ATP levels after neurite transection. Here, we tested the hypothesis that this effect is associated with maintenance of mitochondrial respiration and/or glycolysis. We used isolated neurites of superior cervical ganglion (SCG) cultures in the Seahorse XF-24 Metabolic Flux Analyser to determine mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis under different conditions. We observed that both mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis declined significantly during the latent phase of Wallerian degeneration. WLD(S) partially reduced the decline both in glycolysis and in mitochondrial respiration. In addition, we found that depleting NAD levels in uncut cultures led to changes in mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis similar to those rescued by WLD(S) after cut, suggesting that the maintenance of NAD levels in Wld(S) neurites after axonal injury at least partially underlies the maintenance of ATP levels. However, by using another axon-protective mutation (Sarm1(-/-)), we could demonstrate that rescue of basal ECAR (and hence probably glycolysis) rather than basal OCR (mitochondrial respiration) may be part of the protective phenotype to delay Wallerian degeneration. These findings open new routes to study glycolysis and the connection between NAD and ATP levels in axon degeneration, which may help to eventually develop therapeutic strategies to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Respirator studies for the ERDA Division of Safety, Standards, and Compliance. Progress report, July 1, 1974--June 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, D.D.; Hack, A.L.; Davis, T.O.; Shafer, C.; Moore, T.O.; Richards, C.P.; Revoir, W.H.

    1976-08-01

    Major accomplishments during FY 1975 were the initiation of a respirator research program to investigate the physiological effects of wearing a respirator under stress, assisting ERDA contractors by providing information and training concerning respirator programs, quality assurance of respirators, and respirator applications. A newsletter of respirator developments for ERDA contractor personnel was published, and a Respirator Symposium was conducted

  8. Relació entre potència aeròbica i anaeròbica i l’Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) en judokes iranians d’elit

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Hesari, A.; Mirzaei, B.; Mahdavi Ortakand, S.; Rabienejad, A.; Nikolaïdis, P.

    2014-01-01

    Introducció L’objectiu d’aquest estudi fou valorar la relació entre potència aeròbica i anaeròbica, i el test específic per al judo, Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT), en judokes iranians d’elit. Mètode Dinou judokes d’elit (edat 24,3 [3,1] anys, alçada 1,78 [0,06] m, massa corporal 76,4 [11,2] kg, índex de massa corporal 20,2 [3,6] kg/m2 i greix corporal 11,0 [1,8] %) realitzaren una prova d’esforç en una cinta ergomètrica, el test anaeròbic de Wingate amb acció de braços i l’S...

  9. Proposed Objective Odor Control Test Methodology for Waste Containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    The Orion Cockpit Working Group has requested that an odor control testing methodology be proposed to evaluate the odor containment effectiveness of waste disposal bags to be flown on the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. As a standardized "odor containment" test does not appear to be a matter of record for the project, a new test method is being proposed. This method is based on existing test methods used in industrial hygiene for the evaluation of respirator fit in occupational settings, and takes into consideration peer reviewed documentation of human odor thresholds for standardized contaminates, industry stardnard atmostpheric testing methodologies, and established criteria for laboratory analysis. The proposed methodology is quantitative, though it can readily be complimented with a qualitative subjective assessment. Isoamyl acetate (IAA - also known at isopentyl acetate) is commonly used in respirator fit testing, and there are documented methodologies for both measuring its quantitative airborne concentrations. IAA is a clear, colorless liquid with a banana-like odor, documented detectable smell threshold for humans of 0.025 PPM, and a 15 PPB level of quantation limit.

  10. Association of Physical Fitness with Depression in Women with Fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Estévez-López, Fernando; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    , muscle strength, flexibility, and motor agility) was assessed using the standardized Senior Fitness Test battery and the handgrip strength test. A standardized composite score for fitness was computed and divided into quintiles. RESULTS: . Overall, the fitness tests presented inverse associations......, arm-curl, and eight-feet up-and-go tests. When all the fitness tests were simultaneously considered, the back-scratch test was the only one independently associated with the total BDI-II score (P = 0.001; R(2) = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: . Although higher physical fitness was generally associated...

  11. Can we distinguish autotrophic respiration from heterotrophic respiration in a field site using high temporal resolution CO2 flux measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Beatrice; Berger, Sina; Praetzel, Leandra; Blodau, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The processes behind C-cycling in peatlands are important to understand for assessing the vulnerability of peatlands as carbon sinks under changing climate conditions. Especially boreal peatlands are likely to underlie strong alterations in the future. It is expected that C-pools that are directly influenced by vegetation and water table fluctuations can be easily destabilized. The CO2 efflux through respiration underlies autotrophic and heterotrophic processes that show different feedbacks on changing environmental conditions. In order to understand the respiration fluxes better for more accurate modelling and prognoses, the determination of the relative importance of different respiration sources is necessary. Earlier studies used e.g. exfoliation experiments, incubation experiments or modelling approaches to estimate the different respiration sources for the total ecosystem respiration (Reco). To further the understanding in this topic, I want to distinguish autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration using high temporal resolution measurements. The study site was selected along a hydrological gradient in a peatland in southern Ontario (Canada) and measurements were conducted from May to September 2015 once per month. Environmental controls (water table, soil temperature and soil moisture) that effect the respiration sources were recorded. In my study I used a Li-COR 6400XT and a Los Gatos greenhouse gas analyzer (GGA). Reco was determined by chamber flux measurements with the GGA, while simultaneously CO2 respiration measurements on different vegetation compartments like roots, leaves and mosses were conducted using the Li-COR 6400XT. The difference between Reco and autotrophic respiration equals heterotrophic respiration. After the measurements, the vegetation plots were harvested and separated for all compartments (leaves, roots, mosses, soil organic matter), dried and weighed. The weighted respiration rates from all vegetation compartments sum up to

  12. Fitness: Tips for Staying Motivated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Fitness is for life. Motivate yourself with these practical tips. By Mayo Clinic Staff Have ... 27, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/fitness/art-20047624 . Mayo Clinic ...

  13. Physical fitness of schoolgirls with Turner syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milde, K.; Tomaszewski, P.K.; Stupnicki, R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess physical fitness of girls with Turner syndrome (TS) and to determine the relative contributions of age, body height, and body mass to performance in fitness tests. Girls with TS aged 10-18 years (n = 184), and age- and stature-matched healthy controls (n = 280)

  14. Modeling temporal and large-scale spatial variability of soil respiration from soil water availability, temperature and vegetation productivity indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichstein, Markus; Rey, Ana; Freibauer, Annette; Tenhunen, John; Valentini, Riccardo; Banza, Joao; Casals, Pere; Cheng, Yufu; Grünzweig, Jose M.; Irvine, James; Joffre, Richard; Law, Beverly E.; Loustau, Denis; Miglietta, Franco; Oechel, Walter; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Pereira, Joao S.; Peressotti, Alessandro; Ponti, Francesca; Qi, Ye; Rambal, Serge; Rayment, Mark; Romanya, Joan; Rossi, Federica; Tedeschi, Vanessa; Tirone, Giampiero; Xu, Ming; Yakir, Dan

    2003-12-01

    Field-chamber measurements of soil respiration from 17 different forest and shrubland sites in Europe and North America were summarized and analyzed with the goal to develop a model describing seasonal, interannual and spatial variability of soil respiration as affected by water availability, temperature, and site properties. The analysis was performed at a daily and at a monthly time step. With the daily time step, the relative soil water content in the upper soil layer expressed as a fraction of field capacity was a good predictor of soil respiration at all sites. Among the site variables tested, those related to site productivity (e.g., leaf area index) correlated significantly with soil respiration, while carbon pool variables like standing biomass or the litter and soil carbon stocks did not show a clear relationship with soil respiration. Furthermore, it was evidenced that the effect of precipitation on soil respiration stretched beyond its direct effect via soil moisture. A general statistical nonlinear regression model was developed to describe soil respiration as dependent on soil temperature, soil water content, and site-specific maximum leaf area index. The model explained nearly two thirds of the temporal and intersite variability of soil respiration with a mean absolute error of 0.82 μmol m-2 s-1. The parameterized model exhibits the following principal properties: (1) At a relative amount of upper-layer soil water of 16% of field capacity, half-maximal soil respiration rates are reached. (2) The apparent temperature sensitivity of soil respiration measured as Q10 varies between 1 and 5 depending on soil temperature and water content. (3) Soil respiration under reference moisture and temperature conditions is linearly related to maximum site leaf area index. At a monthly timescale, we employed the approach by [2002] that used monthly precipitation and air temperature to globally predict soil respiration (T&P model). While this model was able to

  15. Pattern recognition of obstructive sleep apnoea and Cheyne–Stokes respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinreich, Gerhard; Teschler, Helmut; Armitstead, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of an artificial neural network based on flow-related spectral entropy as a diagnostic test for obstructive sleep apnoea and Cheyne–Stokes respiration. A data set of 37 subjects was used for spectral analysis of the airflow by performing a fast Fourier transform. The examined intervals were divided into epochs of 3 min. Spectral entropy S was applied as a measure for the spread of the related power spectrum. The spectrum was divided into several frequency areas with various subsets of spectral entropy. We studied 11 subjects with obstructive apnoeas (n = 267 epochs), 10 subjects with obstructive hypopnoeas (n = 80 epochs), 11 subjects with Cheyne–Stokes respiration (n = 253 epochs) and 5 subjects with normal breathing in non-REM sleep (n = 174 epochs). Based on spectral entropy an artificial neural network was built, and we obtained a sensitivity of 90.2% and a specificity of 90.9% for distinguishing between obstructive apnoeas and Cheyne–Stokes respiration, and a sensitivity of 91.3% and a specificity of 94.6% for discriminating between obstructive hypopnoeas and normal breathing in non-REM sleep. This resulted in an accuracy of 91.5% for identifying flow patterns of obstructive sleep apnoea, Cheyne–Stokes respiration and normal breathing in non-REM sleep. It is concluded that the use of an artificial neural network relying on spectral analysis of the airflow could be a useful method as a diagnostic test for obstructive sleep apnoea and Cheyne–Stokes respiration

  16. Relationship between oxygen concentration, respiration and filtration rate in blue mussel Mytilus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Baojun; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2018-03-01

    The large water-pumping and particle-capturing gills of the filter-feeding blue mussel Mytilus edulis are oversized for respiratory purposes. Consequently, the oxygen uptake rate of the mussel has been suggested to be rather insensitive to decreasing oxygen concentrations in the ambient water, since the diffusion rate of oxygen from water flowing through the mussel determines oxygen uptake. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the oxygen uptake in mussels exposed to various oxygen concentrations. These concentrations were established via N2-bubbling of the water in a respiration chamber with mussels fed algal cells to stimulate fully opening of the valves. It was found that mussels exposed to oxygen concentrations decreasing from 9 to 2 mg O2/L resulted in a slow but significant reduction in the respiration rate, while the filtration rate remained high and constant. Thus, a decrease of oxygen concentration by 78% only resulted in a 25% decrease in respiration rate. However, at oxygen concentrations below 2 mg O2/L M. edulis responded by gradually closing its valves, resulting in a rapid decrease of filtration rate, concurrent with a rapid reduction of respiration rate. These observations indicated that M. edulis is no longer able to maintain its normal aerobic metabolism at oxygen concentration below 2 mg O2/L, and there seems to be an energy-saving mechanism in bivalve molluscs to strongly reduce their activity when exposed to low oxygen conditions.

  17. [Effects of compaction on diurnal variaaton of soil respiration in Larix gmellini plantation in summer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Na; Wang, Li-hai

    2010-12-01

    Taking the Larix gmellinii plantation in the experimental forest farm of Northeast Forestry University as test object, and by using Li-8100 automatic instrument, the daily CO2 emission rate of soil in summer under different degrees of man-made compaction was measured, with the regression models established. There were significant differences in the diurnal variation of soil respiration rate under different degrees of man-made compaction. In CK (no compaction), the maximum value of soil respiration appeared at 15:30-17:30, and the minimum value appeared at 03:30-05:30, which were obviously lagged behind those in compaction treatments. The maximum and minimum values of soil respiration rate in main roads appeared at 09:30-11:30 and 23:30-01:30, and those in branch roads appeared at 11:30 and 01:30-03:30, respectively. In all treatments, soil respiration rate had significant correlations with surface temperature, relative humidity, and the temperature at 10 cm soil depth, but the correlation with the soil moisture at 5 cm depth tended to be not significant when the compaction degree was increasing. Compaction altered surface soil physical structure, decreased surface soil CO2 release rate.

  18. Temperature response of soil respiration is dependent on concentration of readily decomposable C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionova, A. A.; Yevdokimov, I. V.; Bykhovets, S. S.

    2007-12-01

    Temperature acclimation of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is one of the major uncertainties in predicting soil CO2 efflux associated with the increase in global mean temperature. A reasonable explanation for an apparent acclimation proposed by Davidson and colleagues (2006) based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics suggests that temperature sensitivity decreases when both maximal activity of respiratory enzymes (Vmax) and half-saturation constant (Ks) cancel each other upon temperature increase. We tested the hypothesis of the canceling effect by the mathematical simulation of data obtained in incubation experiments with forest and arable soils. Our data support the hypothesis and suggest that concentration of readily decomposable C substrate (as glucose equivalents) and temperature dependent substrate release are the important factors controlling temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. The highest temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was observed when substrate release was temperature dependent and C substrate concentration was much lower than Ks. Increase of substrate content to the half-saturation constant by glucose addition resulted in temperature acclimation associated with the canceling effect. Addition of the substrate to the level providing respiration at a maximal rate Vmax leads to the acclimation of the whole microbial community as such. However, growing microbial biomass was more sensitive to the temperature alterations. This study improves our understanding of the instability of temperature sensitivity of soil respiration under field conditions, attributing this phenomenon to changes in concentration of readily decomposable C substrate.

  19. The Obesity Paradox and Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. McAuley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory fitness as an explanation for the obesity paradox warrants further examination. We evaluated independent and joint associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity with all-cause mortality in 811 middle-aged (age, 53.3±7.2 years male never smokers without documented cardiopulmonary disease or diabetes from the Veterans Exercise Testing Study (VETS. Cardiorespiratory fitness was quantified in metabolic equivalents (METs using final treadmill speed and grade achieved on a maximal exercise test. Subjects were grouped for analysis by METs: unfit (lowest third and fit (upper two-thirds; and by body mass index (kg/m2: nonobese (18.5−29.9 and obese (≥30.0. Associations of baseline fitness and adiposity measures with all-cause mortality were determined by Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusted for age, ethnicity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, family history of coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular medication use. In multivariate analysis, mortality risk for obese/fit men did not differ significantly from the nonobese/fit reference group. However, compared to the reference group, nonobese and obese unfit men were 2.2 (=0.01 and 1.9 (=0.03 times more likely to die, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness altered the obesity paradox such that mortality risk was lower for both obese and nonobese men who were fit.

  20. Ammonium excretion and oxygen respiration of tropical copepods and euphausiids exposed to oxygen minimum zone conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiko, Rainer; Hauss, Helena; Buchholz, Friedrich; Melzner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    E. gibboides (Q10, respiration = 2.0; Q10, NH4-excretion = 2.4; E. mucronata not tested). Exposure to differing carbon dioxide levels had no overall significant impact on the respiration or excretion rates. Species from the ETNA were less tolerant to low oxygen levels than E. mucronata from the ETSP, which survived exposure to anoxia at 13 °C. Respiration and excretion rates were reduced upon exposure to low oxygen levels, albeit at different species-specific levels. Reduction of the excretion and respiration rates in ETNA species occurred at a pO2 of 0.6 (P. abdominalis) and 2.4 kPa (U. vulgaris and E. gibboides) at OMZ temperatures. Such low oxygen levels are normally not encountered by these species in the ETNA. E. mucronata however regularly migrates into the strongly hypoxic to anoxic core of the ETSP OMZ. Exposure to low oxygen levels led to a strong reduction of respiration and ammonium excretion in E. mucronata (pcrit respiration = 0.6, pcrit NH4-excretion = 0.73). A drastic reduction of respiratory activity was also observed by other authors for euphausiids, squat lobsters and calanoid copepods, but was not yet accounted for when calculating DVM-mediated active fluxes into the ETSP OMZ. Current estimates of DVM-mediated active export of carbon and nitrogen into the ETSP OMZ are therefore likely too high and future efforts to calculate these export rates should take the physiological responses of migratory species to OMZ conditions into account.

  1. Lymphocyte respiration in children with Trisomy 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aburawi Elhadi H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study measured lymphocyte mitochondrial O2 consumption (cellular respiration in children with trisomy 21. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from whole blood of trisomy 21 and control children and these cells were immediately used to measure cellular respiration rate. [O2] was determined as a function of time from the phosphorescence decay rates (1/τ of Pd (II-meso-tetra-(4-sulfonatophenyl-tetrabenzoporphyrin. In sealed vials containing lymphocytes and glucose as a respiratory substrate, [O2] declined linearly with time, confirming the zero-order kinetics of O2 conversion to H2O by cytochrome oxidase. The rate of respiration (k, in μM O2 min-1, thus, was the negative of the slope of [O2] vs. time. Cyanide inhibited O2 consumption, confirming that oxidation occurred in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Results For control children (age = 8.8 ± 5.6 years, n = 26, the mean (± SD value of kc (in μM O2 per min per 107 cells was 1.36 ± 0.79 (coefficient of variation, Cv = 58%; median = 1.17; range = 0.60 to 3.12; -2SD = 0.61. For children with trisomy 21 (age = 7.2 ± 4.6 years, n = 26, the values of kc were 0.82 ± 0.62 (Cv = 76%; median = 0.60; range = 0.20 to 2.80, pp6.1 mU/L. Fourteen of 26 (54% children with trisomy 21 had kc values of 0.20 to 0.60 (i.e., kc positively correlated with body-mass index (BMI, R >0.302, serum creatinine (R >0.507, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, R >0.535 and albumin (R >0.446. Conclusions Children with trisomy 21 in this study have reduced lymphocyte bioenergetics. The clinical importance of this finding requires further studies.

  2. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  3. Simulation of Human Respiration with Breathing Thermal Manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik

    The human respiration contains carbon dioxide, bioeffluents, and perhaps virus or bacteria. People may also indulge in activities that produce contaminants, as for example tobacco smoking. For these reasons, the human respiration remains one of the main contributors to contamination of the indoor...

  4. Interpreting diel hysteresis between soil respiration and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Phillips; N. Nickerson; D. Risk; B.J. Bond

    2011-01-01

    Increasing use of automated soil respiration chambers in recent years has demonstrated complex diel relationships between soil respiration and temperature that are not apparent from less frequent measurements. Soil surface flux is often lagged from soil temperature by several hours, which results in semielliptical hysteresis loops when surface flux is plotted as a...

  5. Differential soil respiration responses to changing hydrologic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent J. Pacific; Brian L. McGlynn; Diego A. Riveros-Iregui; Howard E. Epstein; Daniel L. Welsch

    2009-01-01

    Soil respiration is tightly coupled to the hydrologic cycle (i.e., snowmelt and precipitation timing and magnitude). We examined riparian and hillslope soil respiration across a wet (2005) and a dry (2006) growing season in a subalpine catchment. When comparing the riparian zones, cumulative CO2 efflux was 33% higher, and peak efflux occurred 17 days earlier during the...

  6. Automatic patient respiration failure detection system with wireless transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeff, J.; Pope, J. M.

    1968-01-01

    Automatic respiration failure detection system detects respiration failure in patients with a surgically implanted tracheostomy tube, and actuates an audible and/or visual alarm. The system incorporates a miniature radio transmitter so that the patient is unencumbered by wires yet can be monitored from a remote location.

  7. Soil respiration response to experimental disturbances over 3 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy Concilio; Siyan Ma; Soung-Ryoul Ryu; Malcolm North; Jiquan Chen

    2006-01-01

    Soil respiration is a major pathway for carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems yet little is known about its response to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. This study examined soil respiration response to prescribed burning and thinning treatments in an old-growth, mixed-conifer forest on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Experimental treatments...

  8. Respirators: Air Purifying, Self-Study, Course 40723

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-21

    Respirators: Air Purifying Self-Study (COURSE 40723) is designed for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) workers, support services subcontractors, and other LANL subcontractors who work under the LANL Respiratory Protection Program (RPP). This course also meets the air-purifying respirators (APRs) retraining requirement.

  9. Soil Respiration and Student Inquiry: A Perfect Match

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Catherine Marie; Wallenstein, Matthew David

    2011-01-01

    This activity explores the cycling of carbon between the atmosphere (primarily as CO[subscript 2]) and biomass in plants, animals, and microscopic organisms. Students design soil respiration experiments using a protocol that resembles current practice in soil ecology. Three methods for measuring soil respiration are presented. Student-derived…

  10. GOSSIP: SED fitting code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetti, Paolo; Scodeggio, Marco

    2012-10-01

    GOSSIP fits the electro-magnetic emission of an object (the SED, Spectral Energy Distribution) against synthetic models to find the simulated one that best reproduces the observed data. It builds-up the observed SED of an object (or a large sample of objects) combining magnitudes in different bands and eventually a spectrum; then it performs a chi-square minimization fitting procedure versus a set of synthetic models. The fitting results are used to estimate a number of physical parameters like the Star Formation History, absolute magnitudes, stellar mass and their Probability Distribution Functions.

  11. Fitness Club / Nordic Walking

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    Nordic Walking at CERN Enrollments are open for Nordic Walking courses and outings at CERN. Classes will be on Tuesdays as of 20 September, and outings for the more experienced will be on Thursdays as of 15 September. We meet at the CERN Club barracks car park (near entrance A). • 18:00 to 19:00 on 20 & 27 September, as well as 4 & 11 October. Check out our schedule and rates and enroll at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  12. Temperature Dependence of Soil Respiration Modulated by Thresholds in Soil Water Availability Across European Shrubland Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lellei-Kovács, Eszter; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán; de Dato, Giovanbattista

    2016-01-01

    that improved the model fit in all cases. The direct soil moisture effect on SR, however, was weak at the annual time scale. We conclude that the exponential soil temperature function may only be a good predictor for SR in a narrow temperature range, and that extrapolating predictions for future climate based...... on this function should be treated with caution as modelled outputs may underestimate SR. The addition of soil moisture thresholds improved the model fit at all sites, but had a far greater ecological significance in the wet Atlantic shrubland where a fundamental change in the soil CO2 efflux would likely have......Soil respiration (SR) is a major component of the global carbon cycle and plays a fundamental role in ecosystem feedback to climate change. Empirical modelling is an essential tool for predicting ecosystem responses to environmental change, and also provides important data for calibrating...

  13. Response of Respiration of Soybean Leaves Grown at Ambient and Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentrations to Day-to-day Variation in Light and Temperature under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    BUNCE, JAMES A.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Respiration is an important component of plant carbon balance, but it remains uncertain how respiration will respond to increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, and there are few measurements of respiration for crop plants grown at elevated [CO2] under field conditions. The hypothesis that respiration of leaves of soybeans grown at elevated [CO2] is increased is tested; and the effects of photosynthesis and acclimation to temperature examined. • Methods Net rates of carbon dioxide exchange were recorded every 10 min, 24 h per day for mature upper canopy leaves of soybeans grown in field plots at the current ambient [CO2] and at ambient plus 350 µmol mol−1 [CO2] in open top chambers. Measurements were made on pairs of leaves from both [CO2] treatments on a total of 16 d during the middle of the growing seasons of two years. • Key Results Elevated [CO2] increased daytime net carbon dioxide fixation rates per unit of leaf area by an average of 48 %, but had no effect on night-time respiration expressed per unit of area, which averaged 53 mmol m−2 d−1 (1·4 µmol m−2 s−1) for both the ambient and elevated [CO2] treatments. Leaf dry mass per unit of area was increased on average by 23 % by elevated [CO2], and respiration per unit of mass was significantly lower at elevated [CO2]. Respiration increased by a factor of 2·5 between 18 and 26 °C average night temperature, for both [CO2] treatments. • Conclusions These results do not support predictions that elevated [CO2] would increase respiration per unit of area by increasing photosynthesis or by increasing leaf mass per unit of area, nor the idea that acclimation of respiration to temperature would be rapid enough to make dark respiration insensitive to variation in temperature between nights. PMID:15781437

  14. A Global Database of Soil Respiration Data, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides a soil respiration data database (SRDB), a near-universal compendium of published soil respiration (RS) data. Soil respiration, the...

  15. A Global Database of Soil Respiration Data, Version 2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides an updated soil respiration database (SRDB), a near-universal compendium of published soil respiration (RS) data. Soil respiration,...

  16. Migration of mineral oil from party plates of recycled paperboard into foods: 1. Is recycled paperboard fit for the purpose? 2. Adequate testing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, Giovanna; Verzera, Antonella; Grob, Koni

    2011-11-01

    Party plates made of recycled paperboard with a polyolefin film on the food contact surface (more often polypropylene than polyethylene) were tested for migration of mineral oil into various foods applying reasonable worst case conditions. The worst case was identified as a slice of fried meat placed onto the plate while hot and allowed to cool for 1 h. As it caused the acceptable daily intake (ADI) specified by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) to be exceeded, it is concluded that recycled paperboard is generally acceptable for party plates only when separated from the food by a functional barrier. Migration data obtained with oil as simulant at 70°C was compared to the migration into foods. A contact time of 30 min was found to reasonably cover the worst case determined in food.

  17. Modelling temporal and large-scale spatial variability of soil respiration from soil water availability, temperature and vegetation productivity indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichstein, M.; Rey, A.; Freibauer, A.; Tenhunen, J.; Valentini, R.; Soil Respiration Synthesis Team

    2003-04-01

    Field-chamber measurements of soil respiration from 17 different forest and shrubland sites in Europe and North America were summarized and analyzed with the goal to develop a model describing seasonal, inter-annual and spatial variability of soil respiration as affected by water availability, temperature and site properties. The analysis was performed at a daily and at a monthly time step. With the daily time step, the relative soil water content in the upper soil layer expressed as a fraction of field capacity was a good predictor of soil respiration at all sites. Among the site variables tested, those related to site productivity (e.g. leaf area index) correlated significantly with soil respiration, while carbon pool variables like standing biomass or the litter and soil carbon stocks did not show a clear relationship with soil respiration. Furthermore, it was evidenced that the effect of precipitation on soil respiration stretched beyond its direct effect via soil moisture. A general statistical non-linear regression model was developed to describe soil respiration as dependent on soil temperature, soil water content and site-specific maximum leaf area index. The model explained nearly two thirds of the temporal and inter-site variability of soil respiration with a mean absolute error of 0.82 µmol m-2 s-1. The parameterised model exhibits the following principal properties: 1) At a relative amount of upper-layer soil water of 16% of field capacity half-maximal soil respiration rates are reached. 2) The apparent temperature sensitivity of soil respiration measured as Q10 varies between 1 and 5 depending on soil temperature and water content. 3) Soil respiration under reference moisture and temperature conditions is linearly related to maximum site leaf area index. At a monthly time-scale we employed the approach by Raich et al. (2002, Global Change Biol. 8, 800-812) that used monthly precipitation and air temperature to globally predict soil respiration (T

  18. Measuring Your Fitness Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... online calculator. If you'd rather do the math yourself, divide your weight in pounds by your ... Human Services recommends one of the following activity levels for adult fitness and health benefits: 150 minutes ...

  19. ACSM Fit Society Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fitness topics. Expert commentary and features on exercise, nutrition, sports and health offer tips and techniques for maintaining ... Special Populations 2011 -- Behavior Change & Exercise Adherence 2011 -- ... Preparing for Fall Sports 2009 -- Cancer and Exercise 2008 -- Group Exercise 2008 -- ...

  20. Driver fitness medical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This guide provides guidance to assist licensing agencies in making decisions about an individuals fitness for driving. This is the first attempt to produce a consolidated document covering medical conditions included in the task agreement between...