... Pregnancy has sub items, Reproductive Health & Teen Pregnancy Contraceptive Use STDs Teen Pregnancy & Childbearing Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Trends Negative Impacts Strategies & Approaches for Prevention Engaging Adolescent Males in Prevention Tips for Parents of Teens ...
McCracken, Katherine A; Loveless, Meredith
To provide clinicians with a review of recent research and clinically applicable tools regarding teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy rates have declined but still remain a significant problem in the USA. Teen pregnancy prevention was identified by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as one of its top six priorities, which is increasing research and intervention data. Long-acting contraceptive methods are acceptable to teens and have been shown to reduce teen birth rates. Pregnant teens need special attention to counseling on pregnancy options and reducing risk during pregnancy with regular prenatal care. Postpartum teens should be encouraged and supported to breastfeed, monitored for depression, and have access to reliable contraception to avoid repeat undesired pregnancy. This review highlights important issues for all providers caring for female adolescents and those who may encounter teen pregnancy. Foremost prevention of teen pregnancy by comprehensive sexual education and access to contraception is the priority. Educating patients and healthcare providers about safety and efficacy of long-acting reversible contraception is a good step to reducing undesired teen pregnancies. Rates of postpartum depression are greater in adolescents than in adults, and adolescent mothers need to be screened and monitored for depression. Strategies to avoid another undesired pregnancy shortly after delivery should be implemented.
... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Teen Pregnancy A Key Role for Health Care Providers Language: ... Battles: Teen Pregnancy Prevention Status Reports (PSRs): Teen Pregnancy FastStats: Teen Births Vital Signs – Preventing Teen Pregnancy [PODCAST – 1: ...
Ahern, Nancy R; Bramlett, Traci
After years of high teen birth rates, there is currently a decline in U.S. pregnancy and birth rates among teens. Nevertheless, these rates continue to be higher than those of most global counterparts, and psychosocial and physical adversities still occur for pregnant teens and their children. The declining birth rates may be due to teens making better choices about contraceptive use and sexual behaviors. Psychiatric-mental health nurses are in key positions to enhance pregnancy prevention for teens. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(2), 25-28.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Aquilino, M L; Bragadottir, H
To elicit the views of teens concerning effective strategies to prevent pregnancy. Qualitative methods and a focus group approach were used. The sample consisted of male and female adolescents, 14 to 19 years of age, in grades 9 to 12, who volunteered to participate in the study. Seven groups of teens met with the investigator twice over 2 consecutive weeks. Instruments included a Screening Questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion Guidelines. Teens were concerned about teen pregnancy, and supported a comprehensive approach to sex education beginning in the early elementary grades, with age and developmentally appropriate content and reinforcement from late grade school through high school. Generally, teens thought that teaching abstinence in grade school followed by contraception education in junior high and high school was a realistic strategy for pregnancy prevention. They wanted to discuss sexual feelings as well as the mechanical aspects of sex. Finally, they did not want to be told not to have sex, but rather wanted to be guided in their own decision making. Teens wanted parents and other adults to be involved in helping them understand sexuality and make decisions about sexual behavior. Nurses who work with families need to understand why teens are becoming pregnant, provide opportunities for teens to discuss sexual behavior, and educate parents on sexual development and parent-child communication. Nurses also need to let parents and teens know that they are a resource for information, guidance, and health services related to sexual development and behavior.
Lavin, Claudia; Cox, Joanne E
Teen pregnancy has been subject of public concern for many years. In the United States, despite nearly 2 decades of declining teen pregnancy and birth rates, the problem persists, with significant disparities present across racial groups and in state-specific rates. This review examines recent trends, pregnancy prevention initiatives and family planning policies that address the special needs of vulnerable youth. Unintended teen pregnancies impose potentially serious social and health burdens on teen parents and their children, as well as costs to society. Trends in teen pregnancy and birth rates show continued decline, but state and racial disparities have widened. Demographic factors and policy changes have contributed to these disparities. Research supports comprehensive pregnancy prevention initiatives that are multifaceted and promote consistent and correct use of effective methods of contraception for youth at risk of becoming pregnant. There is strong consensus that effective teen pregnancy prevention strategies should be multifaceted, focusing on delay of sexual activity especially in younger teens while promoting consistent and correct use of effective methods of contraception for those youth who are or plan to be sexually active. There is a need for further research to identify effective interventions for vulnerable populations.
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Births to teens are declining, still, more than 305,000 teens ages 15 to 19 gave birth. This program discusses what health care providers, parents, and teens can do to help prevent teen pregnancy.
Garwick, Ann W; Rhodes, Kristine L; Peterson-Hickey, Melanie; Hellerstedt, Wendy L
American Indian adolescent pregnancy rates are high, yet little is known about how Native youth view primary pregnancy prevention. The aim was to identify pregnancy prevention strategies from the perspectives of both male and female urban Native youth to inform program development. Native Teen Voices (NTV) was a community-based participatory action research study in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Twenty focus groups were held with 148 Native youth who had never been involved in a pregnancy. Groups were stratified by age (13-15 and 16-18 years) and sex. Participants were asked what they would do to prevent adolescent pregnancy if they were in charge of programs for Native youth. Content analyses were used to identify and categorize the range and types of participants' recommendations within and across the age and sex cohorts. Participants in all cohorts emphasized the following themes: show the consequences of adolescent pregnancy; enhance and develop more pregnancy prevention programs for Native youth in schools and community-based organizations; improve access to contraceptives; discuss teen pregnancy with Native youth; and use key messages and media to reach Native youth. Native youth perceived limited access to comprehensive pregnancy prevention education, community-based programs and contraceptives. They suggested a variety of venues and mechanisms to address gaps in sexual health services and emphasized enhancing school-based resources and involving knowledgeable Native peers and elders in school and community-based adolescent pregnancy prevention initiatives. A few recommendations varied by age and sex, consistent with differences in cognitive and emotional development.
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Births to teens are declining, still, more than 305,000 teens ages 15 to 19 gave birth. This program discusses what health care providers, parents, and teens can do to help prevent teen pregnancy. Created: 4/8/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 4/8/2014.
Dempsey, P L
The author finds that teenage pregnancy is more complicated than access to contraception or abortion. At risk teenagers are not identifiable, only at risk factors such as isolation, lack of perception of future opportunities, lack of self esteem, lack of self worth, poor performance in school, poor role models or lack of role models at home or in the community. There is indictment of parents who are just as much in need. The focus on teen pregnancy as one dimensional belies the reality that health, family, work, social and cultural experience affect people's decisions and sexual behavior. The recommendation is for a holistic approach, regardless of race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic background. Adolescents need education and jobs as well as preventive health, body image, and nutrition in conjunction with contraceptives. Where success is defined by motherhood or fatherhood, birth control pills sit in drawers at home. Teenagers need to be convinced that there is some benefit in being connected to mainstream society. Support services need to help teenagers answer the question of what's in it for me? Why? Teenagers need assistance in attaining educational success, job success, the ability to handle anger, and leadership opportunities. A holistic approach is not only realistic but also is the most practical with the longest term benefit. With resources for teen pregnancy superseded by the problems of AIDs and crack gangs, there is a constantly changing political agenda for resource allocation. In fact, teenage pregnancy is reflective of social ills in an urban society simultaneous with drug abuse, school dropouts, juvenile crime and gang activity. The common denominator is that teens all need good educational opportunities, good health, and good housing. Parent involvement is needed, and it is presumptuous to believe that a couple of hours of contact a week can change lives. Parents need respect and understanding for their important role; they need information and a role
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Teen births in the U.S. have declined, but still, more than 273,000 infants were born to teens ages 15 to 19 in 2013. Learn about the most effective types of birth control.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie
Teen pregnancy is a cultural battleground in struggles over morality, education, and family. At its heart are norms about teen sex, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. Analyzing 57 interviews with college students, we found that "bundles" of related norms shaped the messages teens hear. Teens did not think their communities encouraged teen sex or pregnancy, but normative messages differed greatly, with either moral or practical rationalizations. Teens readily identified multiple norms intended to regulate teen sex, contraception, abortion, childbearing, and the sanctioning of teen parents. Beyond influencing teens' behavior, norms shaped teenagers' public portrayals and post hoc justifications of their behavior. Although norm bundles are complex to measure, participants could summarize them succinctly. These bundles and their conflicting behavioral prescriptions create space for human agency in negotiating normative pressures. The norm bundles concept has implications for teen pregnancy prevention policies and can help revitalize social norms for understanding health behaviors. © The Author(s) 2014.
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Teen births in the U.S. have declined, but still, more than 273,000 infants were born to teens ages 15 to 19 in 2013. Learn about the most effective types of birth control. Created: 4/7/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 4/7/2015.
Preventing Teen Pregnancy: Coordinating Community Efforts. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight.
The Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations of the House of Representatives Committee on Government Reform and Oversight met to consider the causes of and solutions to teen pregnancy and the role of community organizations in prevention efforts. Opening remarks by Representative Christopher Shays were followed by statements…
This podcast is based on the April 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Births to teens are declining, still, in 2012, more than 86,000 teens ages 15 to 17 gave birth. This program discusses what health care providers, parents, and teens can do to help prevent teen pregnancy.
Liu, Ning; Vigod, Simone N; Farrugia, M Michèle; Urquia, Marcelo L; Ray, Joel G
To estimate the intergenerational association in teenage pregnancy, and whether there is a coupling tendency between a mother and daughter in how their teen pregnancies end, such as an induced abortion (IA) vs. a livebirth. Population-based cohort study. Ontario, Canada. 15,097 mothers and their 16,177 daughters. Generalized estimating equations generated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of a daughter experiencing a teen pregnancy in relation to the number of teen pregnancies her mother had. Multinomial logistic regression estimated the odds that a teen pregnancy ended with IA among both mother and daughter. All models were adjusted for maternal age and world region of origin, the daughter's socio-demographic characteristics and comorbidities, mother-daughter cohabitation, and neighborhood-level teen pregnancy rate. Teen pregnancy in the daughter, between ages 15-19 years, and also the nature of the daughter's teen pregnancy, categorized as i) no teen pregnancy, ii) at least one teen pregnancy, all exclusively ending with a livebirth, and iii) at least one teen pregnancy, with at least one teen pregnancy ending with an IA. The proportion of daughters having a teen pregnancy among those whose mother had 0, 1, 2, or ≥ 3 teen pregnancies was 16.3%, 24.9%, 33.5% and 36.3%, respectively. The aOR of a daughter having a teen pregnancy was 1.42 (95% CI 1.25-1.61) if her mother had 1, 1.97 (95% CI 1.71-2.26) if she had 2, and 2.17 (95% CI 1.84-2.56) if her mother had ≥ 3 teen pregnancies, relative to none. If a mother had ≥ 1 teen pregnancy ending with IA, then her daughter had an aOR of 2.12 (95% CI 1.76-2.56) for having a teen pregnancy also ending with IA; whereas, if a mother had ≥ 1 teen pregnancy, all ending with a livebirth, then her daughter had an aOR of 1.73 (95% CI 1.46-2.05) for that same outcome. There is a strong intergenerational occurrence of teenage pregnancy between a mother and daughter, including a coupling tendency in how the pregnancy ends. This
Subuhi Asheer; Ellen Kisker
This report discusses findings from the first 18 months of a program implementation evaluation of AIM 4 Teen Moms, a teen pregnancy intervention designed to delay rapid repeat pregnancies among parenting teen mothers in Los Angeles.
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Young, Tamera; Turner, Jean; Denny, George; Young, Michael
Objectives: To identify antecedents of teen pregnancy. Methods: Data from the National Education Longitudinal Study were analyzed. This data set allowed us to identify eighth-grade antecedents of teen pregnancy/childbearing. Results: The variables that were found to be most predictive of later pregnancy were reflective of internal poverty (locus…
... A-Glance Project Connect Sexual Health STD Teen Pregnancy Sexual Risk Behaviors: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... their risk for HIV , other STDs , and unintended pregnancy . The National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for all Americans to be ...
This podcast is based on the April 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Births to teens are declining, still, in 2012, more than 86,000 teens ages 15 to 17 gave birth. This program discusses what health care providers, parents, and teens can do to help prevent teen pregnancy. Created: 4/8/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 4/8/2014.
National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.
This report discusses critical social issues linked to teen pregnancy, explaining that teen pregnancy prevention should be viewed as working to improve these social issues. After providing general background on teen pregnancy, the report offers five fact sheets: (1) "Teen Pregnancy, Welfare Dependency, and Poverty" (continuing to reduce…
Rodriguez Gonzalez, Zaskia M; Leavitt, Karla; Martin, Jose; Benabe, Erika; Romaguera, Josefina; Negrón, Ivette
Based on our population data, the teen pregnancy rate and the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) reported during pregnancy are worrisome. STIs appear to pose a threat to pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth (PTB), neonatal low birth weight (NLBW) and premature rupture of membranes (PROM). The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of STIs in pregnant teens and the association of this variable to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We performed a cross sectional study to assess the prevalence of STIs among pregnant teens during a 4-year period at our institution. Birth outcomes such as gestational age at delivery, PROM and NLBW were analyzed and compared with adults. In the four years of our study, teen pregnancy rate fluctuated from 21.7% in 2010 to 16.8% in 2013. The rate of STIs for adult and teen pregnancies was similar, 21% and 23%, respectively. Chlamydia was the most common STI (67.3%) for both groups. PTB was more prevalent among adults affected with STIs than teens, 13.8% and 11.5%, respectively. NLBW was similar among teens and adults with STIs. PROM complicated 9.1% of teen pregnancies with STIs, compared to 6.7% in adults. There was no significant correlation between the STIs and adverse pregnancy outcomes on teen pregnancies for our population, except for PROM. This age group is associated with a high-risk sexual behavior and poor adherence to treatment. They would benefit from efforts to prevent unintended pregnancies and infectious diseases.
This 60 second PSA is based on the April, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Having a child during the teen years comes at a high cost to the young mother, her child, and the community. Get tips to help break the cycle of teen pregnancy.
Basch, Charles E.
Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of teen pregnancy among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which nonmarital teen births adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address this problem. Methods: Literature review. Results: In 2006, the birth rate among 15-…
Herrman, Judith W.; Moore, Christopher C.; Anthony, Becky
Teaching pregnancy prevention to large groups offers many challenges. This article describes the use of film clips, with guided discussion, to teach pregnancy prevention. In order to analyze the costs associated with teen pregnancy, a film clip discussion session based with the film "The Gloucester 18" was the keynote of a youth summit. The lesson…
Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D
Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys' perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls' perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens' likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys' contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors.
Layde, Molly M; Remington, Patrick L
Despite recent declines in teen birth rates, teenage pregnancy remains an important public health problem in Wisconsin with significant social, economic, and health-related effects. Compare and contrast teen birth rate trends by race, ethnicity, and county in Wisconsin. Teen (ages 15-19 years) birth rates (per 1000 teenage females) in Wisconsin from 2001-2010 were compared by racelethnicity and county of residence using data from the Wisconsin Interactive Statistics on Health. Teen birth rates in Wisconsin have declined by 20% over the past decade, from 35.5/1000 teens in 2001 to 28.3/1000 teens in 2010-a relative decline of 20.3%. However, trends vary by race, with declines among blacks (-33%) and whites (-26%) and increases among American Indians (+21%) and Hispanics (+30%). Minority teen birth rates continue to be 3 to 5 times greater than birth rates among whites. Rates varied even more by county, with an over 14-fold difference between Ozaukee County (7.8/1000) and Menominee County (114.2). Despite recent declines, teen pregnancy continues to be an important public health problem in Wisconsin. Pregnancy prevention programs should be targeted toward the populations and counties with the highest rates.
Noone, Joanne; Allen, Tiffany L; Sullivan, Maggie; McKenzie, Glenise; Esqueda, Teresa; Ibarra, Nancy
Half of Latina teens in the United States will become pregnant at least once by age 20 years. The purpose of this study was to explore a Pacific Northwest community's strengths and weaknesses, through photovoice, as viewed by Latino youth to understand their concerns related to teen pregnancy. Participants were asked to take photographs of what they believe contributes to preventing or increasing the risk of teen pregnancy. There were 14 Latino youth, ages 15-20 years, who enrolled in the study, and 9 completed all aspects of the project including public dissemination. The themes were categorized as (a) risks for teens, (b) pressure, (c) education is key, (d) community resources, and (e) Latino values. Presentations to the community generated dialogue and problem solving and laid the groundwork for planning interventions.
Herrman, Judith W; Waterhouse, Julie K; Chiquoine, Julie
To evaluate the effectiveness of simulation as a strategy to influence teens' perceptions of pregnancy and parenting. This pilot study was a preexperimental, one group pre/posttest design. The school-based wellness center of a high school was the setting for the weekly sessions and the pre/posttest administration. Sample members participated in 6 weekly Baby Think it Over (BTIO) classes and an infant simulator experience. The final sample included 79 teens age 14 to 18 years who attended one of eight BTIO sessions. We used the Thoughts on Teen Parenting Survey (TTPS) to assess the perceptions of teens with regard to the costs and rewards associated with teen parenting. The TTPS yields a composite score of the teen attitudes toward the teen parenting experience and eight subscale scores that assess different areas of teen life. No significant differences were found in the mean pre/posttest scores or in correlations of the demographic data and mean scores. Two significant differences in pre/posttest subscale scores were in the areas of friends and personal characteristics. The results of this study suggest that the effectiveness of using infant simulators to influence the perceptions of teens about the reality of teen parenting is minimal. © 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Bickel, R; Weaver, S; Williams, T; Lange, L
This study examines female adolescents' responses to opportunities, costs, and community in West Virginia. It is posited that adolescent women's responses to structurally determined contextual factors will be the most important determinant of the teen birth rate. It is posited that girls avoid becoming pregnant and work to stay in school as a wise investment in their future. The variation in males' participation in contributing to teen pregnancy is not considered due to data limitations. West Virginia is a state with low teen abortion rates and limited teen mobility out of state. Community is construed as having a positive sense of affiliation and value for adolescents. Community is measured by school size and a range of 7 measures of community social organization: percentage of urban population in the district, percentage Black, percentage neither Black nor White, level of educational attainment, percentage of college preparatory students, percentage of college students, and percentage of service employees. The 7 factors were reduced with principal component analysis to a measure of modernity. Findings indicate that the birth rate increased by 8% for every increase of 100 students in average school size. The modern variable, which indicates departures from traditional patterns of community organization, was positively, statistically significantly related to the teenage birth rate. The college degree variable was related to increased teen pregnancy as a departure from traditional norms and decreased teen pregnancy as a measure of opportunity. Findings contrast with traditional interpretations of teen pregnancy. Findings indicate that teen pregnancy reflects a lack of opportunity, a decline in traditional community patterns, and the replacement of traditional social relations by shifting labor market relations. Teen births are consequences of disadvantage and disruption as context-driven factors.
About half of the almost 1 million US teenagers who become pregnant each year carry their pregnancies to term and give birth. However, after years of steady increases, teen birthrates in the US are lower and pregnancy rates have fallen to their lowest level in 20 years. Teenage sexual activity is also declining. Over the period 1991-96, the birthrate in the US among teens declined from the 20-year high of 62.1 births/1000 females aged 15-19 to 54.4/1000. This 12% decline comes after a 24% increase in the birthrate between 1986 and 1991. Declines in the teen birthrate were observed for the nation overall, as well as in each state, ranging from 6% in Alabama to 29% in Alaska. The teen birthrate among Blacks declined 21% to reach a record low of 91.4/1000 in 1996, while the rate for Hispanic teens barely changed during 1991-95, but eventually declined 5% during 1995-96 to 101.8/1000. The birthrate among non-Hispanic White teens declined 9% during the period to 48.1/1000, while the birthrate for teens aged 15-17 fell 13% during the period and 9% for 18-19 year olds. Pregnancy rates among women aged 15-19 years declined 14% between 1990 and 1995, to 101.1/1000, the lowest level since the mid-1970s. Although researchers are unsure why teen pregnancy and birthrates have fallen, recent survey data suggest that the declines have occurred because both fewer teens are having sex and more sexually active adolescents are using contraception.
Out, Jennifer W.; Lafreniere, Kathryn D.
Examined the effectiveness of Baby Think It Over (BTIO), an infant simulation program that seeks to modify attitudes toward teen pregnancy and teen parenting. After experiencing BTIO, teens in the intervention group were more likely to accurately access their personal risk for an unplanned pregnancy than were teens in the comparison group. (Author)
Paton, David; Wright, Liam
In recent years, English local authorities have been forced to make significant cuts to devolved expenditure. In this paper, we examine the impact of reductions in local expenditure on one particular public health target: reducing rates of teen pregnancy. Contrary to predictions made at the time of the cuts, panel data estimates provide no evidence that areas which reduced expenditure the most have experienced relative increases in teenage pregnancy rates. Rather, expenditure cuts are associated with small reductions in teen pregnancy rates, a result which is robust to a number of alternative specifications and tests for causality. Underlying socio-economic factors such as education outcomes and alcohol consumption are found to be significant predictors of teen pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This 60 second PSA is based on the April, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Having a child during the teen years comes at a high cost to the young mother, her child, and the community. Get tips to help break the cycle of teen pregnancy. Created: 4/5/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 4/5/2011.
This podcast is based on the April 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Teen births in the U.S. have declined, but still, more than 273,000 infants were born to teens ages 15 to 19 in 2013. Learn about the most effective types of birth control.
Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Manlove, Jennifer
This research brief focuses on the birth, pregnancy, contraceptive, and relationship behaviors of Hispanic teens because they represent an important risk group. Teen pregnancy and birth rates for U.S. teens have declined dramatically in recent years. Yet for Hispanic teens, reductions in teen pregnancy and childbearing have lagged behind that of…
% of males had not spoken with their parents about either topic. Only 2% of females who had sexual intercourse in the past 3 months used LARCs at last sexual intercourse. Teen birth rates in the United States have declined but remain high, especially among black and Hispanic teens and in southern states. Fewer high school students are having sexual intercourse, and more sexually active students are using some method of contraception. However, many teens who have had sexual intercourse have not spoken with their parents about sex, and use of LARCs remains rare. Teen childbearing is associated with adverse consequences for mothers and their children and imposes high public sector costs. Prevention of teen pregnancy requires evidence-based sex education, support for parents in talking with their children about pregnancy prevention and other aspects of sexual and reproductive health, and ready access to effective and affordable contraception for teens who are sexually active.
This podcast is based on the April 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Teen births in the U.S. have declined, but still, more than 273,000 infants were born to teens ages 15 to 19 in 2013. Learn about the most effective types of birth control. Created: 4/7/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 4/7/2015.
Killoren, Sarah E; Zeiders, Katharine H; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J
Given the negative developmental risks associated with adolescent motherhood, it is important to examine the sociocultural context of adolescent mothers' lives to identify those most at risk for poor outcomes. Our goals were to identify profiles of Mexican-origin pregnant adolescents' cultural orientations and their attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and to investigate how these profiles were linked to adolescents' pregnancy intentions, family resources, and short-term family, educational, and parenting outcomes. With a sample of 205 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers, we identified three profiles based on cultural orientations and attitudes toward teen pregnancy: Bicultural-Moderate Attitudes, Acculturated-Moderate Attitudes, and Enculturated-Low Attitudes. The results indicated that enculturated pregnant adolescents had the least favorable attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and the lowest levels of family income, pregnancy intentions, pregnancy support, and educational expectations compared to acculturated and bicultural pregnant adolescents; acculturated adolescents (with the highest family income and high levels of pregnancy support) had the highest levels of parenting efficacy 10 months postpartum. Our findings suggest that enculturated adolescent mothers (with less positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from educational support programs and enculturated and bicultural adolescent mothers (with moderately positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from programs to increase parenting efficacy. Such targeted interventions may, in turn, reduce the likelihood of adolescent mothers experiencing negative educational and parenting outcomes.
Killoren, Sarah E.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.
Given the negative developmental risks associated with adolescent motherhood, it is important to examine the sociocultural context of adolescent mothers’ lives to identify those most at risk for poor outcomes. Our goals were to identify profiles of Mexican-origin pregnant adolescents’ cultural orientations and their attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and to investigate how these profiles were linked to adolescents’ pregnancy intentions, family resources, and short-term family, educational, and parenting outcomes. With a sample of 205 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers, we identified three profiles based on cultural orientations and attitudes toward teen pregnancy: Bicultural-Moderate Attitudes, Acculturated-Moderate Attitudes, and Enculturated-Low Attitudes. The results indicated that enculturated pregnant adolescents had the least favorable attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and the lowest levels of family income, pregnancy intentions, pregnancy support, and educational expectations compared to acculturated and bicultural pregnant adolescents; acculturated adolescents (with the highest family income and high levels of pregnancy support) had the highest levels of parenting efficacy 10 months postpartum. Our findings suggest that enculturated adolescent mothers (with less positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from educational support programs and enculturated and bicultural adolescent mothers (with moderately positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from programs to increase parenting efficacy. Such targeted interventions may, in turn, reduce the likelihood of adolescent mothers experiencing negative educational and parenting outcomes. PMID:26573862
Hacker, K A; Amare, Y; Strunk, N; Horst, L
To ascertain views of public high school students on preventing teen pregnancy. The authors hypothesized that students at varying risk for pregnancy (e.g., abstinent, consistent contraceptors, inconsistent contraceptors) would have differing views which would have implications for future pregnancy prevention programming. A 75-question anonymous survey designed for this study was administered in six Boston high schools. The sample consisted of 49% females and 51% males in 10th and 11th grades from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds. One thousand surveys were received and analyzed using Chi-square tests to assess statistically significant differences in student responses. Sixty-three percent of the students had had sexual intercourse: 72% of males and 54% of females. Of these, 35% were consistent contraceptors and 65% were inconsistent. Students believed that having more information on pregnancy and birth control (52%), education about relationships (33%), parental communication (32%), improved contraceptive access (31%), and education about parenting realities (30%) would prevent teen pregnancy. Abstinent teens were more likely (58%) to say that information on pregnancy and birth control was important (pbirth control (p school, and health arenas can prevent pregnancy. Abstinent, consistent contraceptors, and inconsistent contraceptors have different preferences regarding strategies. This information has important implications for educational content and policy discussions.
This article examines how the field of adolescent sexual health came to embrace evidence-based interventions (EBIs); whether or not this approach is effective in meeting the needs of adolescents, especially those at high risk for teen pregnancy; concerns related to the scaling up of EBIs; and identifies issues which must be resolved as we move forward.
Full Text Available This article examines how the field of adolescent sexual health came to embrace evidence-based interventions (EBIs; whether or not this approach is effective in meeting the needs of adolescents, especially those at high risk for teen pregnancy; concerns related to the scaling up of EBIs; and identifies issues which must be resolved as we move forward.
Anda, Robert F; Chapman, Daniel P; Felitti, Vincent J; Edwards, Valerie; Williamson, David F; Croft, Janet B; Giles, Wayne H
Few studies have investigated risk factors that predispose males to be involved in teen pregnancies. To provide new information on such factors, we examined the relationships of eight common adverse childhood experiences to a male's risk of impregnating a teenager. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using questionnaire responses from 7399 men who visited a primary care clinic of a large health maintenance organization in California. Data included age of the youngest female ever impregnated; the man's own age at the time; his history of childhood emotional, physical, or sexual abuse; having a battered mother; parental separation or divorce; and having household members who were substance abusers, mentally ill, or criminals. Odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of involvement in a teen pregnancy were adjusted for age, race, and education. At least one adverse childhood experience was reported by 63% of participants, and 34% had at least two adverse childhood experiences; 19% of men had been involved in a teen pregnancy. Each adverse childhood experience was positively associated with impregnating a teenager, with ORs ranging from 1.2 (sexual abuse) to 1.8 (criminal in home). We found strong graded relationships (P teen pregnancy for each of four birth cohorts during the last century. Compared with males with no adverse childhood experiences, a male with at least five adverse childhood experiences had an OR of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0, 3.4) for impregnating a teenager. The magnitude of the ORs for the adverse childhood experiences was reduced 64-100% by adjustment for potential intermediate variables (age at first intercourse, number of sexual partners, having a sexually transmitted disease, and alcohol or drug abuse) that also exhibited a strong graded relationship to adverse childhood experiences. Adverse childhood experiences have an important relationship to male involvement in teen pregnancy. This relationship has persisted throughout four
Noting that rates of teen pregnancies and births have declined over the past decade, this analysis examined how much of the progress is due to fewer teens having sex and how much to lower rates of pregnancy among sexually active teens. The analysis drew on data from the federal government's National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), a large,…
Loke, Alice Yuen; Lam, Pui-Ling
Teenagers are unprepared to face or to deal with an unexpected pregnancy. Adolescents do not necessarily possess the cognitive ability needed to clearly evaluate such a situation or to determine how to resolve their pregnancy. This study seeks to shed light on what pregnant adolescents consider when coming to a decision about what to do about their pregnancy. In-depth interviews were conducted among a purposive sample of Hong Kong Chinese women recruited from a Maternal and Child Health Centre, who had a history of being pregnant in their teens and out of wedlock. Interviews were conducted to explore the considerations surrounding their decision on how to resolve their pregnancy. A total of nine women were interviewed. An analysis of the interview transcripts revealed that to arrive at a decision on what to do about their pregnancy, pregnant teens took into consideration their relationship with their boyfriend, their family's advice or support, practical considerations, their personal values in life, and views on adoption. The results of this study results highlighted that during this life-altering event for adolescents, an open discussion should take place among all of the parties concerned. A better understanding of each party's perspective would allow for better decision making on the resolution of the pregnancy. Health professionals or social workers are there to help pregnant adolescents, romantic partners, and family members make informed choices on how to resolve the pregnancy.
Until recently, teen pregnancy and birth rates had declined in the United States. Despite these declines, U.S. teen birth and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates remain among the highest in the industrialized world. Given the need to focus limited prevention resources on effective programs, Advocates for Youth undertook exhaustive reviews…
Thomas, Charles L.; Dimitrov, Dimiter M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of program interventions in a school-based teen pregnancy program on hypothesized constructs underlying teens' attitudes toward sexuality. An important task related to this purpose was the validation of the constructs and their stability from pre- to postintervention measures. Data from 1,136…
McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete
Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program effectiveness, few teen pregnancy prevention programs have published on recommendations for adapting these programs to address the specific needs of Nort...
Barfield, Wanda D; Warner, Lee; Kappeler, Evelyn
Teen pregnancy and childbearing have declined over the past two decades to historic lows. The most recent declines have occurred during a time of coordinated national efforts focused on teen pregnancy. This article highlights a federal partnership to reduce teen pregnancy through the implementation of innovative, evidence-based approaches in affected communities, with a focus on reaching African-American and Latino/Hispanic youth. This initiative has the potential to transform the design and implementation of future teen pregnancy prevention efforts and provide a model that can be replicated in communities across the nation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Charlton, Brittany M; Roberts, Andrea L; Rosario, Margaret; Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Calzo, Jerel P; Spiegelman, Donna; Austin, S Bryn
Young women who are sexual minorities (eg, bisexual and lesbian) are approximately twice as likely as those who are heterosexual to have a teen pregnancy. Therefore, we hypothesized that risk factors for teen pregnancy would vary across sexual orientation groups and that other potential risk factors exist that are unique to sexual minorities. We used multivariable log-binomial models gathered from 7120 young women in the longitudinal cohort known as the Growing Up Today Study to examine the following potential teen pregnancy risk factors: childhood maltreatment, bullying victimization and perpetration, and gender nonconformity. Among sexual minorities, we also examined the following: sexual minority developmental milestones, sexual orientation-related stress, sexual minority outness, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual social activity involvement. Childhood maltreatment and bullying were significant teen pregnancy risk factors among all participants. After adjusting for childhood maltreatment and bullying, the sexual orientation-related teen pregnancy disparities were attenuated; these risk factors explained 45% of the disparity. Among sexual minorities, reaching sexual minority developmental milestones earlier was also associated with an increased teen pregnancy risk. The higher teen pregnancy prevalence among sexual minorities compared with heterosexuals in this cohort was partially explained by childhood maltreatment and bullying, which may, in part, stem from sexual orientation-related discrimination. Teen pregnancy prevention efforts that are focused on risk factors more common among young women who are sexual minorities (eg, childhood maltreatment, bullying) can help to reduce the existing sexual orientation-related teen pregnancy disparity. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Katz, Kathy S; Rodan, Margaret; Milligan, Renee; Tan, Sylvia; Courtney, Lauren; Gantz, Marie; Blake, Susan M; McClain, Lenora; Davis, Maurice; Kiely, Michele; Subramanian, Siva
Adolescent mothers in Washington, DC have a high rate of subsequent teen pregnancies, often within 24 months. Children of teen mothers are at risk for adverse psychosocial outcomes. When adolescents are strongly attached to parents, schools, and positive peers, they may be less likely to repeat a pregnancy. This study tested the efficacy of a counseling intervention delivered by cell phone and focused on postponing subsequent teen pregnancies by strengthening healthy relationships, reproductive practices, and positive youth assets. The objective of this study was to compare time to a repeat pregnancy between the intervention and usual care groups, and, secondarily, to determine whether treatment intensity influenced time to subsequent conception. Primiparous pregnant teens ages 15-19, were recruited in Washington, DC. Of 849 teens screened, 29.3% (n = 249) met inclusion criteria, consented to participate, and completed baseline measures. They were then randomized to the intervention (N = 124) or to usual care (N = 125). Intervention group teens received cell phones for 18 months of counseling sessions, and quarterly group sessions. Follow-up measures assessed subsequent pregnancy through 24 months post-delivery. A survival analysis compared time to subsequent conception in the two treatment groups. Additional models examined the effect of treatment intensity. By 24 months, 31% of the intervention and 36% of usual care group teens had a subsequent pregnancy. Group differences were not statistically significant in intent-to-treat analysis. Because there was variability in the degree of exposure of teens to the curriculum, a survival analysis accounting for treatment intensity was performed and a significant interaction with age was detected. Participants who were aged 15-17 years at delivery showed a significant reduction in subsequent pregnancy with increased levels of intervention exposure (P teen pregnancy. Cell phone-based approaches to counseling may not be the
Bhuiya, Nazmim; House, L Duane; Desmarais, Jeffrey; Fletcher, Erica; Conlin, Maeve; Perez-McAdoo, Sarah; Waggett, Jessica; Tendulkar, Shalini A
This paper describes an assessment of community readiness to implement a community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative, Youth First, and presents strategies used to enhance this readiness as informed by the assessment. Twenty-five community stakeholder interviews were conducted to assess four domains of readiness: (1) attitudes, perception, and knowledge of teen pregnancy; (2) perceived level of readiness; (3) resources, existing and current efforts; and (4) leadership. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Stakeholders acknowledged teen pregnancy as an issue but lacked contextual information. They also perceived the community as ready to address the issue and recognized some organizations already championing efforts. However, many key players were not involved, and ongoing data collection to assess teen pregnancy and prevention efforts was limited. Though many stakeholders were ready to engage in teen pregnancy prevention efforts, they required additional information and training to appropriately address the issue. In response to the assessment findings, several strategies were applied to address readiness and build Youth First partners' capacity to implement the community-wide initiative. Thus, to successfully implement community-wide prevention efforts, it is valuable to assess the level of community readiness to address health issues. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oman, Roy F.; Merritt, Breanca T.; Fluhr, Janene; Williams, Jean M.
Background: The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of a national comprehensive teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) intervention to a national abstinence-only TPP intervention on middle school students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to teen sexual behaviors in a state with high teen birth rates. Methods: Pre- and…
Kandakai, Tina L.; Smith, Leonie C. R.
Objective: To explore the impact of teen-adult sexual relationships as a public health threat and the effectiveness of statutory rape laws in protecting adolescent children. Methods: A comprehensive review of current literature surrounding child abuse, teen pregnancy, and statutory rape was conducted. Results: Of one million teen girls who become…
Omar, H A; Fowler, A; McClanahan, K K
To describe a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach to teen mothers and their children that significantly reduces repeat pregnancies. Retrospective review of repeat teen pregnancy data. Young Parent Program (YPP) at a university-based health center. 1386 teen mothers between the ages of 11 and 19 who participated in the YPP for at least three years. Comprehensive Care: for both teen mother and her baby, including prenatal and postnatal care, preventive care, reproductive services, mental health, and acute care visits. Family counseling and similar services were also provided to siblings of the teen. CONTINUITY OF CARE: Patients are seen by the same staff and attending physicians on each visit. The treatment team includes physicians, nurses, social worker, nutritionist, and psychologist, all of whom are available to provide care at each visit. Flexible hours: Including evening clinic to allow teens to attend school or work during the day. Financial incentive: Patients with no insurance are given free contraceptives and a "no charge" clinic visit. Extensive contraceptive counseling is provided prior to start of contraceptive use and at every clinic visit. Routine telephone and/or mail reminders of appointments Rate of repeat teen pregnancy. Only 11(.79%) had repeat pregnancies. Older youth appeared more likely to repeat a pregnancy. Comprehensive intervention for teen mothers can be very successful in reducing repeat teen pregnancy in those teens who participate consistently in the program over a period of years.
... Adolescent Friendship LGBTQ Youth Healthy Parent-Child Relationships Parenting Styles and Healthy Parent-Child Relationships Communicating Setting Limits Additional Resources Mental Health has sub items, Mental Health Adolescent Mental Health ...
Wilkinson-Lee, Ada M.; Russell, Stephen T.; Lee, Faye C. H.
This study examined practitioners' understandings of cultural sensitivity in the context of pregnancy prevention programs for Latina teens. Fifty-eight practitioners from teen pregnancy prevention programs in California were interviewed in a guided conversation format. Three themes emerged in our analysis. First, practitioners' definitions of…
Craft, Lesley R.; Brandt, Heather M.; Prince, Mary
Background: To reduce teen pregnancy rates, prevention programs must be consistently available to large numbers of youth. However, prevention efforts have been historically conducted with little emphasis on ensuring program sustainability. This study examined the needs and barriers to sustaining teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) programming in…
McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete
Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program…
Solomon, Nancy M.
This policy brief highlights the interrelationship between sports participation and teen pregnancy prevention, noting barriers that have prevented sports from being utilized in teen pregnancy prevention. Discrimination against girls and women in school sports persists 30 years after Congress enacted Title IX, and this prevents girls and young…
Brian Goesling; Silvie Colman; Christopher Trenholm; Mary Terzian; Kristin Moore
This paper presents findings from an ongoing systematic review of research on teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection prevention programs, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to help support evidence-based approaches to teen pregnancy prevention. A total of 88 studies met the review criteria for study quality and were included in the analysis.
Brian Goesling; Joanne Lee; Julieta Lugo-Gil; Timothy Novak
Since 2009, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has sponsored an ongoing systematic review of the teen pregnancy prevention research literature to help identify programs with evidence of effectiveness in reducing teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and associated sexual risk behaviors.
Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Lesser, Janna; Uman, Gwen; Nyamathi, Adeline
The sexual behaviors and attitudes toward condom use of adolescent mothers (N = 572) from ethnic minority groups were examined. Constructs from social cognitive theory (SCT), the theory of reasoned action (TRA), and the theory of planned behavior (TPB; e.g., intentions to use condoms, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies) were measured with questionnaires. Measures of AIDS and condom-use knowledge and selected psychosocial, behavioral, and demographic variables were included. Many adolescents reported early onset of sexual activity, multiple lifetime sexual partners, substance use, and childhood sexual or physical abuse. Only 18% stated a condom was used at last intercourse. Using hierarchical regression analysis, 13% of the variance for factors associated with unprotected sex was accounted for by TRA constructs. Other variables contributed an additional 17% of the variance. Unprotected sex was associated with behavioral intentions to use condoms, pregnancy, having a steady partner, more frequent church service attendance, and ever having anal sex. Findings support the urgent need for broad-based HIV prevention efforts for adolescent mothers that build on theoretical concepts and address the realities of their lives. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Charlton, Brittany M; Corliss, Heather L; Missmer, Stacey A; Rosario, Margaret; Spiegelman, Donna; Austin, S Bryn
To examine whether sexual orientation is associated with disparities in teen pregnancy and hormonal contraception use among adolescent females in 2 intergenerational cohorts. Data were collected from 91,003 women in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII), born between 1947-1964, and 6463 of their children, born between 1982-1987, enrolled in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS). Log-binomial models were used to estimate risk ratios for teen pregnancy and hormonal contraception use in sexual minorities compared with heterosexuals and metaanalysis techniques were used to compare the 2 cohorts. Overall, teen hormonal contraception use was lower and teen pregnancy was higher in NHSII than GUTS. In both cohorts, lesbians were less likely, whereas the other sexual minorities were more likely, to use hormonal contraception as teenagers compared with their heterosexual peers. All sexual minority groups in both cohorts, except NHSII lesbians, were at significantly increased risk for teen pregnancy, with risk ratios ranging from 1.61 (95% confidence interval, 0.40-6.55) to 5.82 (95% confidence interval, 2.89-11.73). Having an NHSII mother who was pregnant as a teen was not associated with teen pregnancy in GUTS participants. Finally, significant heterogeneity was found between the 2 cohorts. Adolescent sexual minorities have been, and continue to be, at increased risk for pregnancy. Public health and clinical efforts are needed to address teen pregnancy in this population. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Charlton, Brittany M.; Corliss, Heather L.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Rosario, Margaret; Spiegelman, Donna; Austin, S. Bryn
Objectives To examine whether sexual orientation is associated with disparities in teen pregnancy and hormonal contraception use among adolescent females in two intergenerational cohorts. Study Design Data were collected from 91,003 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII),born between 1947–1964, and 6,463 of their children, born between 1982–1987, enrolled in the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS). Log-binomial models were used to estimate risk ratios (RR) for teen pregnancy and hormonal contraception use in sexual minorities compared to heterosexuals and meta-analysis techniques were used to compare the two cohorts. Results Overall, teen hormonal contraception use was lower and teen pregnancy was higher in NHSII than GUTS. In both cohorts, lesbians were less likely, whereas the other sexual minorities were more likely, to use hormonal contraception as teenagers compared to their heterosexual peers. All sexual minority groups in both cohorts, except NHSII lesbians, were at significantly increased risk for teen pregnancy, with RRs ranging from 1.61 (95%CI 0.40, 6.55) to 5.82 (95%CI 2.89, 11.73). Having a NHSII mother who was pregnant as a teen was not associated with teen pregnancy in GUTS participants. Finally, significant heterogeneity was found between the two cohorts. Conclusions Adolescent sexual minorities have been, and continue to be, at increased risk for pregnancy. Public health and clinical efforts are needed to address teen pregnancy in this population. PMID:23796650
Dippel, Elizabeth A; Hanson, Jessica D; McMahon, Tracey R; Griese, Emily R; Kenyon, DenYelle B
Objectives American Indian girls have higher teen pregnancy rates than the national rate. Intervention studies that utilize the Theory of Reasoned Action have found that changing attitudes and subjective norms often leads to subsequent change in a variety of health behaviors in young adults. The current study goal is to better understand sexual decision-making among American Indian youth using the Theory of Reasoned Action model and to introduce ways to utilize attitudes and subjective norms to modify risky behaviors. Methods The project collected qualitative data at a reservation site and an urban site through 16 focus groups with American Indian young people aged 16-24. Results Attitudes towards, perceived impact of, and perception of how others felt about teen pregnancy vary between American Indian parents and non-parents. Particularly, young American Indian parents felt more negatively about teen pregnancy. Participants also perceived a larger impact on female than male teen parents. Conclusions There are differences between American Indian parents and non-parents regarding attitudes towards, the perceived impact of, and how they perceived others felt about teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy prevention programs for American Indian youth should include youth parents in curriculum creation and curriculum that addresses normative beliefs about teen pregnancy and provides education on the ramifications of teen pregnancy to change attitudes.
Full Text Available Using a unique microsimulation tool, Teen FamilyScape, the present study explores how changes in the mix of contraceptive methods used by teens contributed to the decline in the U.S. teen pregnancy rate between 2002 and 2010. Results indicate that changes in contraceptive use contributed to approximately half of the decline in the teen pregnancy rate during this time period (48% and that a little more than half of this “contraceptive effect” was due to an increase in teen condom use (58%. The remaining share of the contraceptive effect can be attributed to an increase in the use of more effective hormonal (pill, patch, ring and long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC/injectable methods (Intrauterine Devices (IUD, implant and injectable. Results from an additional counterfactual analysis suggest that the contraceptive effect was driven by the fact that the percentage of teens using no birth control fell during the study time period, rather than by the fact that some teens switched from less effective methods (condoms to more effective hormonal and LARC/injectable methods. However, very high typical use failure rates for teen condom users suggest the need for a two-pronged approach for continuing reductions in teen pregnancy for sexually active teens: first, targeting the youth most at risk of not using contraception and helping them choose contraception, and second, increasing the effectiveness of method use among existing contraceptors.
Clark, M P
Politicians in the US have made adolescent parents the scapegoat of changing cultural patterns by suggesting punitive solutions to nonmarital births rather than addressing underlying causes of premature child-bearing. It is known that the percentages of young people of all races and all social classes reporting early, nonmarital sexual intercourse have increased dramatically, while adolescent fertility rates peaked in the 1950s. Improved access to contraception and abortion caused a decline in teen pregnancy and birth rates from 1970 to 1986. During 1986-91, service providers could not match growing demand, and the birth rate increased 25%. Increased rates of sexual activity have also led to increases in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS among adolescents. This situation was exacerbated by Reagan and Bush policies, which reduced funding for services to adolescents and supported abstinence-only sex education courses. The concern voiced by policy-makers today centers on nonmarital childbearing by low-income adolescents who will rely on public assistance to survive. A proper response to this situation would involve the following policy actions: 1) mandating comprehensive sexuality education from kindergarten through high school, 2) funding mentoring programs, 3) improving economic and educational opportunities, 4) expanding STD and HIV/AIDS prevention programs, 5) increasing access to confidential health services (including mental health care and substance abuse treatment), 6) expanding child sexual abuse prevention and intervention programs, and 7) increasing access to and acceptability of teen contraceptive usage and abortion.
This podcast is based on the April, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Having a child during the teen years comes at a high cost to the young mother, her child, and the community. Get tips to help break the cycle of teen pregnancy.
Little, Tim; Henderson, Jessica; Pedersen, Peggy; Stonecipher, Linda
Background: The purpose of this study was to gain insights into the perceptions and attitudes about teen pregnancy among high school students in a rural area with high teen pregnancy rates. Methods: Five focus groups were conducted with: (1) females in 9th-10th grades; (2) females in 11th-12th grades; (3) males in 9th-10th grades; (4) males in…
... Having a mutually respectful and honest relationship. Using birth control if they have sex and a condom every time. Know where their teens are and what they are doing, particularly after school. Be aware of their teen's use of social ...
Workman, Lauren M.; Flynn, Shannon; Kenison, Kelli; Prince, Mary
Continued efforts are needed to reduce teenage pregnancy in the United States. Implementation of evidence-based curricula in schools is one strategy toward meeting this goal. In 2010, the South Carolina Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy (SC Campaign) received funding to implement a teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) curriculum. Congruent with South…
Tevendale, Heather D; Condron, D Susanne; Garraza, Lucas Godoy; House, L Duane; Romero, Lisa M; Brooks, Megan A M; Walrath, Christine
This paper presents an overview of the key evaluation components for a set of community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiatives. We first describe the performance measures selected to assess progress toward meeting short-term objectives on the reach and quality of implementation of evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention interventions and adolescent reproductive health services. Next, we describe an evaluation that will compare teen birth rates in intervention communities relative to synthetic control communities. Synthetic controls are developed via a data-driven technique that constructs control communities by combining information from a pool of communities that are similar to the intervention community. Finally, we share lessons learned thus far in the evaluation of the project, with a focus on those lessons that may be valuable for local communities evaluating efforts to reduce teen pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.
Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys’ perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls’ perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens’ likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys’ contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors. PMID:25104920
Smith, Tamara; Clark, Judith F; Nigg, Claudio R
Hawai'i Youth Services Network (HYSN) was founded in 1980 and is incorporated as a 501(c) (3) organization. HYSN plays a key role in the planning, creation, and funding of local youth services. One of HYSN's focuses is teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention among foster youth. Foster youth are at a greater risk for teen pregnancy and STI due to a variety of complex factors including instability, trauma, and emancipation from the foster care system. This article highlights how HYSN is leveraging both federal and local funding, as well as other resources, in order to implement an evidence-based teen pregnancy and STI prevention program adapted for foster youth.
Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Kim, Kyungbo
This article examines the impact of a popular documentary series about teen pregnancy, MTV's 16 and Pregnant, on adolescent girls' pregnancy-related attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions. The results suggest that girls who watched 16 and Pregnant, compared with a control group, reported a lower perception of their own risk for pregnancy and a greater perception that the benefits of teen pregnancy outweigh the risks. The authors also examined the relationships between homophily and parasocial interaction with the teen moms featured in 16 and Pregnant and attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions, finding that homophily predicted lower risk perceptions, greater acceptance of myths about teen pregnancy, and more favorable attitudes about teen pregnancy. Parasocial interaction demonstrated the same pattern of results, with the addition of also predicting fewer behavioral intentions to avoid teen pregnancy. Last, results revealed that teen girls' perceptions that the message of 16 and Pregnant was encouraging of teen pregnancy predicted homophily and parasocial interaction with the teen moms. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
The historical context of teen pregnancy in the US and its evolution to the present embodiment of the predominantly urban "welfare mother" developed from specific socio-historical contexts that deemed early childbirth, especially illegitimate pregnancies, as morally and socially deviant. Two conceptual elements missing within the literature on…
Patchen, Loral; Letourneau, Kathryn; Berggren, Erica
This article details the evaluation of a clinical services program for teen mothers in the District of Columbia. The program's primary objectives are to prevent unintended subsequent pregnancy and to promote contraceptive utilization. We calculated contraceptive utilization at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after delivery, as well as occurrence of subsequent pregnancy and birth. Nearly seven in ten (69.5%) teen mothers used contraception at 24 months after delivery, and 57.1% of contraceptive users elected long-acting reversible contraception. In the 24-month follow-up period, 19.3% experienced at least one subsequent pregnancy and 8.0% experienced a subsequent birth. These results suggest that an integrated clinical services model may contribute to sustained contraceptive use and may prove beneficial in preventing subsequent teen pregnancy and birth.
Full Text Available This paper reviews the changing strategies for both process and outcome evaluations of teen pregnancy prevention programs over the past few decades. Implementation evaluations have emphasized discovery of what program attributes are most effective in reducing teen pregnancy and its antecedents. Outcome evaluations have moved from collecting data to measure knowledge, attitudes, and program satisfaction to measuring behavior change including postponement of sexual involvement, increased used of contraception, or reduction in teen pregnancy. High quality randomized control trials or quasi-experimental designs are being increasingly emphasized, as are sophisticated analysis techniques using multi-variate analyses, controls for cluster sampling, and other strategies designed to build a more solid knowledge base about how to prevent early pregnancy.
Conroy, K N; Engelhart, T G; Martins, Y; Huntington, N L; Snyder, A F; Coletti, K D; Cox, J E
Rapid repeat pregnancy accounts for 18% of teen pregnancies and leads to adverse health, economic, and developmental outcomes for teen mothers and their children. Few interventions have been successful in reducing rapid repeat pregnancy. In this qualitative study we examined adolescent mothers' perceptions of their decision-making and behaviors that helped prevent or promote a rapid repeat pregnancy. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 31 adolescent mothers, aged 16-21 years; 15 of these subjects experienced a repeat pregnancy within a year of their first child's birth and 16 had not. Two researchers used a grounded, inductive technique to identify emergent themes; interviews were subsequently coded accordingly. Counts were tabulated of the number of times themes were endorsed among those with or without a repeat pregnancy. Four overarching themes emerged from the interviews: intentionality regarding pregnancy planning, patients' degree of independence in making contraceptive choices, sense of control over life experience, and barriers to follow-through on contraceptive planning. Teens who had not experienced a rapid repeat pregnancy more often endorsed themes of intentionality in preventing or promoting a pregnancy, independence in decision-making, and feelings of control over their experience. Ambivalence and lack of decision-making about seeking another pregnancy were frequently endorsed by mothers who had experienced a second pregnancy. Decision-making regarding seeking or preventing a rapid repeat pregnancy is complex for teen mothers; techniques to help support decision-making or to delay pregnancy until decision-repeat making is complete might be important in reducing rapid pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fuller, Taleria R; White, Carla P; Chu, Jocelyn; Dean, Deborah; Clemmons, Naomi; Chaparro, Carmen; Thames, Jessica L; Henderson, Anitra Belle; King, Pebbles
Addressing the social determinants of health (SDOH) that influence teen pregnancy is paramount to eliminating disparities and achieving health equity. Expanding prevention efforts from purely individual behavior change to improving the social, political, economic, and built environments in which people live, learn, work, and play may better equip vulnerable youth to adopt and sustain healthy decisions. In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in partnership with the Office of Adolescent Health funded state- and community-based organizations to develop and implement the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Community-Wide Initiative. This effort approached teen pregnancy from an SDOH perspective, by identifying contextual factors that influence teen pregnancy and other adverse sexual health outcomes among vulnerable youth. Strategies included, but were not limited to, conducting a root cause analysis and establishing nontraditional partnerships to address determinants identified by community members. This article describes the value of an SDOH approach for achieving health equity, explains the integration of such an approach into community-level teen pregnancy prevention activities, and highlights two project partners' efforts to establish and nurture nontraditional partnerships to address specific SDOH.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D
Social norms are a group-level phenomenon, but past quantitative research has rarely measured them in the aggregate or considered their group-level properties. We used the school-based design of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to measure normative climates regarding teen pregnancy across 75 U.S. high schools. We distinguished between the strength of a school's norm against teen pregnancy and the consensus around that norm. School-level norm strength and dissensus were strongly (r = -0.65) and moderately (r = 0.34) associated with pregnancy prevalence within schools, respectively. Normative climate partially accounted for observed racial differences in school pregnancy prevalence, but norms were a stronger predictor than racial composition. As hypothesized, schools with both a stronger average norm against teen pregnancy and greater consensus around the norm had the lowest pregnancy prevalence. Results highlight the importance of group-level normative processes and of considering the local school environment when designing policies to reduce teen pregnancy.
This podcast is based on the April, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Having a child during the teen years comes at a high cost to the young mother, her child, and the community. Get tips to help break the cycle of teen pregnancy. Created: 4/5/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 4/5/2011.
Full Text Available This study asked two broad questions: (1 what is the prevalence of teen pregnancy in contemporary Vietnam; and (2 what selected social, family, and individual factors are associated with teen pregnancy in Vietnam? The study utilized Vietnam Survey Assessment of Vietnamese Youth surveys conducted in 2003 and 2008 to answer the two research questions within the context of fast political, economic, and social change in Vietnam in the last two decades. Results of this study show that the prevalence of pregnancy among Vietnamese teenagers in the surveys was stable at 4%, or 40 pregnancies per 1000 adolescent girls aged 14 to 19. Age, experience of domestic violence, and early sexual debut were positively correlated with higher odds of teenage pregnancy for both survey cohorts; however, being an ethnic minority, educational attainment, sexual education at school, Internet use, and depressive symptoms were significantly related to teenage pregnancy only in the 2008 cohort.
Rosenberg, Molly; Pettifor, Audrey; Miller, William C; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Emch, Michael; Afolabi, Sulaimon A; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark; Tollman, Stephen
Sexual activity may be less likely to occur during periods of school enrolment because of the structured and supervised environment provided, the education obtained and the safer peer networks encountered while enrolled. We examined whether school enrolment was associated with teen pregnancy in South Africa. Using longitudinal demographic surveillance data from the rural Agincourt sub-district, we reconstructed the school enrolment status from 2000 through 2011 for 15 457 young women aged 12-18 years and linked them to the estimated conception date for each pregnancy during this time. We examined the effect of time-varying school enrolment on teen pregnancy using a Cox proportional hazard model, adjusting for: age; calendar year; household socioeconomic status; household size; and gender, educational attainment and employment of household head. A secondary analysis compared the incidence of pregnancy among school enrolees by calendar time: school term vs school holiday. School enrolment was associated with lower teen pregnancy rates [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.57 (0.50, 0.65)].This association was robust to potential misclassification of school enrolment. For those enrolled in school, pregnancy occurred less commonly during school term than during school holidays [incidence rate ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.90 (0.78, 1.04)]. Young women who drop out of school may be at higher risk for teen pregnancy and could likely benefit from receipt of accessible and high quality sexual health services. Preventive interventions designed to keep young women in school or addressing the underlying causes of dropout may also help reduce the incidence of teen pregnancy. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
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Shah, Monisha K; Gee, Rebekah E; Theall, Katherine P
Despite hypothesized relationships between lack of partner support during a woman's pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes, few studies have examined partner support among teens. We examined a potential proxy measure of partner support and its impact on adverse birth outcomes (low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB) and pregnancy loss) among women who have had a teenage pregnancy in the United States. In a secondary data analysis utilizing cross-sectional data from 5609 women who experienced a teen pregnancy from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), we examined an alternative measure of partner support and its impact on adverse birth outcomes. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess differences in women who were teens at time of conception who had partner support during their pregnancy and those who did not, and their birth outcomes. Even after controlling for potential confounding factors, women with a supportive partner were 63% less likely to experience LBW [aOR: 0.37, 95% CI: (0.26-0.54)] and nearly 2 times less likely to have pregnancy loss [aOR: 0.48, 95% CI: (0.32-0.72)] compared to those with no partner support. Having partner support or involvement during a teenager's pregnancy may reduce the likelihood of having a poor birth outcome. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gubrium, Aline C; Fiddian-Green, Alice; Jernigan, Kasey; Krause, Elizabeth L
Predominant approaches to teen pregnancy focus on decreasing numbers of teen mothers, babies born to them, and state dollars spent to support their families. This overshadows the structural violence interwoven into daily existence for these young parents. This paper argues for the increased use of participatory visual methods to compliment traditional research methods in shifting notions of what counts as evidence in response to teen pregnancy and parenting. We present the methods and results from a body mapping workshop as part of 'Hear Our Stories: Diasporic Youth for Sexual Rights and Justice', a project that examines structural barriers faced by young parenting Latinas and seeks to develop relevant messaging and programming to support and engage youth. Body mapping, as an engaging, innovative participatory visual methodology, involves young parenting women and other marginalised populations in drawing out a deeper understanding of sexual health inequities. Our findings highlight the ways body mapping elicits bodies as evidence to understand young motherhood and wellbeing.
Fidiniaina Mamy Randriantsarafara
Full Text Available Background: Teen pregnancy and abortion phenomena take an ever-growing magnitude in poor countries. Lack of knowledge about reproductive health could aggravate these problems. Methods: Across-sectional survey has been conducted in public, private and denominational high schools of the urban district of Antananarivo, Madagascar, on a sample of 248 students during schoolyear 2012-2013. Data was collected during the third quarter of the schoolyear. Results: Good knowledge about pregnancy and abortion was found in 14.5%, 95% CI [10.4% -19.5%] of students. The media represent almost 60% of the sources of information. Access to care is limited in 48% of cases by feeling shame. Nearly 11% would resort to abortion if an unplanned pregnancy happens. Nearly 6.5%, 95% CI [3.6% - 10.3%] had teen pregnancy problems: 9.6% of boys and 4.1% of girls came encountered these and all cases have ended in induced abortion among girls. The students from the denominational schools and the female gender have more knowledge of about sexuality. The level of knowledge does not significantly influence pregnancy. Female students (p = 0.07 are less prone to teen pregnancy, whereas dating a fixed boyfriend (p <10-4, a large sibship (p = 0.03 and parents in consensual union (p = 0.02 encourage its occurrence. Conclusions: Abortion does not actually represent a remedy in case of pregnancy. Nevertheless, prevention of teen pregnancy is suggested. The control strategy should be multidisciplinary and multisectoral, and focused on targeted information. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 240-246
Sámano, Reyna; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Robichaux, David; Rodríguez-Ventura, Ana Lilia; Sánchez-Jiménez, Bernarda; de la Luz Hoyuela, Maria; Godínez, Estela; Segovia, Selene
In the last 20 years, adolescent pregnancy has become one of the most critical problems affecting women in Latin America and the Caribbean. This qualitative study was based on in-depth interviews with 29 teen mothers. All of the pregnant teens were from low- to lower-middle-class social strata in the Mexico City metropolitan area. The family (living with the girl) and the individual context of pregnant teens were analysed on the basis of data from at least three interviews: during pregnancy and at approximately 6 and 24 months following delivery. Additionally, six mothers, four fathers, and four partners of the pregnant girls of the group were interviewed. The information on the individual and family situation before, during and after the pregnancy was recorded and transcribed, then analysed in three phases, comprising pre-analysis, exploration and interpretation. The pregnant teens had a family background of teen pregnancy. The girls disclosed feelings of repression, loneliness and indifference to their parents, leading them to unprotected sexual relations without fear of pregnancy. After the pregnancy, communication improved between the girls and their parents, but became worse with their partner. Consequently, these teens returned to feeling as they did before getting pregnant. They stated that they would make their situation work for the sake of their child, and regretted dropping out of school and getting pregnant so young. Almost all said they were seeking love outside the family, which revealed a scenario of limited communication and unsatisfactory relations within the family. Understanding how communication works between parents and children is necessary to avoid teenage pregnancy, as well as early marriage or cohabitation, resulting in dropping out of school and financial constraints, which lead to great frustrations between the couple and affects the child. In addition, it is vitally important that adolescents be motivated in the family setting in order
Waddell, Elizabeth Needham; Orr, Mark G; Sackoff, Judith; Santelli, John S
Disparities in teen pregnancy rates are explained by different rates of sexual activity and contraceptive use. Identifying other components of risk such as race/ethnicity and neighborhood can inform strategies for teen pregnancy prevention. Data from the 2005 and 2007 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were used to model demographic differences in odds of recent sexual activity and birth control use among black, white, and Hispanic public high school girls. Overall pregnancy risk was calculated using pregnancy risk index (PRI) methodology, which estimates probability of pregnancy based on current sexual activity and birth control method at last intercourse. Factors of race/ethnicity, grade level, age, borough, and school neighborhood were assessed. Whites reported lower rates of current sexual activity (23.4%) than blacks (35.4%) or Hispanics (32.7%), and had lower predicted pregnancy risk (PRI = 5.4% vs. 9.0% and 10.5%, respectively). Among sexually active females, hormonal contraception use rates were low in all groups (11.6% among whites, 7.8% among blacks, and 7.5% among Hispanics). Compared to white teens, much of the difference in PRI was attributable to poorer contraceptive use (19% among blacks and 50% among Hispanics). Significant differences in contraceptive use were also observed by school neighborhood after adjusting for age group and race/ethnicity. Interventions to reduce teen pregnancy among diverse populations should include messages promoting delayed sexual activity, condom use and use of highly effective birth control methods. Access to long-acting contraceptive methods must be expanded for all sexually active high school students.
Alford, Sue, Comp.
U.S. teen pregnancy and birth rates remain among the highest in the western world. And although Latina teens were the only group to experience a decline in birth rate between 2006 and 2007, they continue to experience the highest rates in most states and across the nation. About half of all Latina teens experience pregnancy before they reach their…
Teens encounter a barrage of messages about sexuality in popular culture--messages that shape their identities and schooling experiences in profound ways. Meanwhile, teen sexuality, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) increasingly arouse public panic. To date, however, schools do little to help teens make sense of their…
Boustani, Maya Mroué; Frazier, Stacy L; Hartley, Chelsey; Meinzer, Michael; Hedemann, Erin
The purpose of this article is to examine youth care workers' perceptions of the specific and unique sexual health needs of youth at risk for foster care. Semistructured interviews were conducted with youth care workers (N = 10) at a shelter for youth in or at risk for foster care. Youth care workers perceive that youth have unique experiences and needs related to sexual health programming and pregnancy prevention. Reflecting a great deal of family dysfunction, 3 themes emerged that revealed perceived benefits of teen pregnancy: youths' effort to prove themselves as adults, opportunity to secure their relationship with a partner, and desire to create an emotional connection with a baby. Lack of knowledge and accumulation of risk factors were viewed as most problematic. Current pregnancy prevention programs assume teen pregnancies are unwanted and emphasize the costs of sexual risk taking. Current findings suggest that sexual health programming for youth in or at risk for foster care should account for 3 perceived benefits of teen pregnancy. New opportunities for improving the reach and effectiveness of intervention for youth in or at risk for foster care are discussed.
Diaz, Christina J; Fiel, Jeremy E
Although teenage mothers have lower educational attainment and earnings than women who delay fertility, causal interpretations of this relationship remain controversial. Scholars argue that there are reasons to predict negative, trivial, or even positive effects, and different methodological approaches provide some support for each perspective. We reconcile this ongoing debate by drawing on two heuristics: (1) each methodological strategy emphasizes different women in estimation procedures, and (2) the effects of teenage fertility likely vary in the population. Analyses of the Child and Young Adult Cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,661) confirm that teen pregnancy has negative effects on most women's attainment and earnings. More striking, however, is that effects on college completion and early earnings vary considerably and are most pronounced among those least likely to experience an early pregnancy. Further analyses suggest that teen pregnancy is particularly harmful for those with the brightest socioeconomic prospects and who are least prepared for the transition to motherhood.
Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011
Nine percent of 13- to 15-year-old teens and 3% of teens 16 to 18 years old say they are "always" or "often" bullied to a point that makes them feel very sad, angry, sad, or upset. Over one-quarter of all teens say they are "sometimes" bullied to this point. This article presents some results of a "Harris Poll" of 776 teens surveyed online in…
Goldberg, Shoshana K; Reese, Bianka M; Halpern, Carolyn T
The purpose of this study was to explore the association between sexual orientation and teen pregnancy (before age 20 years) in a U.S. nationally representative cohort of young adult females aged 24-32 years. A total of 5,972 participants in Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were included. Self-reported sexual orientation identity was categorized as heterosexual, and three sexual minority (SM) groups: mostly heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian (combining "mostly homosexual" and "100% homosexual"). Stepwise multivariate regression models were fit to compare odds of teen pregnancy and relative risk ratios of timing of teen pregnancy, between heterosexual and SM groups, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, sexual victimization history, and sexual risk behaviors. After adjusting for sociodemographics and sexual victimization, bisexual women had significantly higher odds than heterosexual peers of teen pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-2.75); this association was marginally significant after adjusting for sexual risk behaviors. Bisexuals were also more likely to have an early (before age 18 years) teen pregnancy (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.17-3.56). In contrast, lesbian women were significantly less likely to have a teen pregnancy than heterosexual (OR = .47; 95% CI = .23-.97), mostly heterosexual (OR = .46; 95% CI = .21-.99), and bisexual (OR = .29; 95% CI = .12-.71) women in final models. Expanding on extant literature, we found opposing risk patterns for teen pregnancy between bisexual and lesbian women, likely due to distinct patterns of sexual risk taking. Findings suggest that SM-inclusive teen pregnancy prevention efforts tailored to meet the unique needs of SM young women, particularly bisexuals, are needed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lara, Gerassi; Melissa, Jonson-Reid; Katie, Plax; Brett, Drake
Purpose To compare risk for teen pregnancies between children living in poverty with no Child Protection Services (CPS) report history, and those in poverty with a history of CPS report. Methods Children selected from families in poverty, both with and without CPS report histories were prospectively followed from 1993–2009 using electronic administrative records from agencies including child protective services, emergency departments, Medicaid services and juvenile courts. A total of 3281 adolescent females were followed until age 18. Results For teens with history of poverty only, 16.8% had been pregnant at least once by age 17. In teens with history of both poverty and report of child abuse or neglect, 28.9% had been pregnant at least once by age 17. While multivariate survival analyses revealed several other significant factors at the family and youth services levels, a report of maltreatment remained significant (about a 66% higher risk). Conclusions Maltreatment is a significant risk factor for teen pregnancy among low income youth even after controlling for neighborhood disadvantage, other caregiver risks and indicators of individual emotional and behavioral problems. PMID:26206437
Garwood, Sarah K; Gerassi, Lara; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Plax, Katie; Drake, Brett
The purpose of the study was to compare risk for teen pregnancies between children living in poverty with no child protective services (CPS) report history and those in poverty with a history of CPS report. Children selected from families in poverty, both with and without CPS report histories were prospectively followed from 1993 to 2009 using electronic administrative records from agencies including CPS, emergency departments, Medicaid services, and juvenile courts. A total of 3,281 adolescent females were followed until the age of 18 years. For teens with history of poverty only, 16.8% had been pregnant at least once by the age of 17 years. In teens with history of both poverty and report of child abuse or neglect, 28.9% had been pregnant at least once by the age of 17 years. Although multivariate survival analyses revealed several other significant factors at the family and youth services levels, a report of maltreatment remained significant (about a 66% higher risk). Maltreatment is a significant risk factor for teen pregnancy among low income youth even after controlling for neighborhood disadvantage, other caregiver risks and indicators of individual emotional and behavioral problems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…
Finley, Cara; Suellentrop, Katherine; Griesse, Rebecca; House, Lawrence Duane; Brittain, Anna
Teen pregnancies and births continue to decline due in part to implementation of evidence-based interventions and clinical strategies. While local stakeholder education is also thought to be critical to this success, little is known about what types of strategies work best to engage stakeholders. With the goal of identifying and describing evidence-based or best practice strategies for stakeholder education in community-based public health initiatives, we conducted a systematic literature review of strategies used for effective stakeholder education. Over 400 articles were initially retrieved; 59 articles met inclusion criteria. Strategies were grouped into four steps that communities can use to support stakeholder education efforts: identify stakeholder needs and resources, develop a plan, develop tailored and compelling messaging, and use implementation strategies. These strategies lay a framework for high-quality stakeholder education. In future research, it is important to prioritize evaluating specific activities taken to raise awareness, educate, and engage a community in community-wide public health efforts.
Nystrom, Robert J; Duke, Jessica E A; Victor, Brad
Oregon's work on teen pregnancy prevention during the previous 20 years has shifted from a risk-focused paradigm to a youth development model that places young people at the center of their sexual health and well-being. During 2005, the Oregon Governor's Office requested that an ad hoc committee of state agency and private partners develop recommendations for the next phase of teen pregnancy prevention. As a result of that collaborative effort, engagement of young people, and community input, the Oregon Youth Sexual Health Plan was released in 2009. The plan focuses on development of young people and embraces sexuality as a natural part of adolescent development. The plan's five goals and eight objectives guide the work of state agencies and partners addressing youth sexual health. Oregon's development of a statewide plan can serve as a framework for other states and entities to address all aspects of youth sexual health.
Denny, T; Jahromi, Laudan B; Zeiders, Katharine H
The current longitudinal study examined whether differences between Mexican-origin adolescent mothers and their mother figures ( N = 204 dyads) in attitudes on the status attained through teen pregnancy were associated with conflict in their coparenting relationship and whether coparenting conflict was associated with adolescent mothers' perceptions of social support. Findings revealed that when adolescents held more positive attitudes than their mother figures about the status gained through teen pregnancy, they tended to report greater coparenting conflict with their mother figures. Furthermore, greater coparenting conflict was significantly associated with decreases in adolescents' perceptions of social support (i.e., emotional, instrumental, companion support) 1 year later. Findings underscore the importance of incongruent attitudes and the quality of coparenting relationships between adolescent mothers and their mother figures in relation to support processes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' social support in the context of family subsystem attitudes and interactions.
Tevendale, Heather D; Fuller, Taleria R; House, L Duane; Dee, Deborah L; Koumans, Emilia H
Seeking to reduce teen pregnancy and births in communities with rates above the national average, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in partnership with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Adolescent Health Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program, developed a joint funding opportunity through which grantees worked to implement and test an approach involving community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiatives. Once these projects had been in the field for 2.5 years, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff developed plans for a supplemental issue of the Journal of Adolescent Health to present findings from and lessons learned during implementation of the community-wide initiatives. When the articles included in the supplemental issue are considered together, common themes emerge, particularly those related to initiating, building, and maintaining strong partnerships. Themes seen across articles include the importance of (1) sharing local data with partners to advance initiative implementation, (2) defining partner roles from the beginning of the initiatives, (3) developing teams that include community partners to provide direction to the initiatives, and (4) addressing challenges to maintaining strong partnerships including partner staff turnover and delays in implementation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; Ugalde, Jenny; Todic, Jelena
Few, if any, studies have systematically examined the relationship between substance use and teen pregnancy using population-based samples. We aim to provide a comprehensive examination of substance use among pregnant adolescents in the United States. Employing data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health between 2002 and 2012 (n=97,850), we examine the prevalence of the past 12-month and the past 30-day substance use and substance use disorders among pregnant and non-pregnant adolescents (ages 12-17). We also examine psychosocial and pregnancy-related correlates of current substance use among the subsample of pregnant adolescents (n=810). Pregnant teens were significantly more likely to have experimented with a variety of substances and meet criteria for alcohol (AOR=1.65, 95% CI=1.26-2.17), cannabis (AOR=2.29, 95% CI=1.72-3.04), and other illicit drug use disorders (AOR=2.84, 95% CI=1.92-4.19). Pregnant early adolescents (ages 12-14; AOR=4.34, 95% CI=2.28-8.26) were significantly more likely and pregnant late adolescents (ages 15-17; AOR=0.71, 95% CI=0.56-0.90) significantly less likely than their non-pregnant counterparts to be current substance users. Study findings point not only to a relationship between pregnancy and prior substance use, but also suggest that substance use continues for many teens during pregnancy. We found that substance use is particularly problematic among early adolescents and that the prevalence of substance use attenuates dramatically as youth progress from the first to the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...
Kappeler, Evelyn M; Farb, Amy Feldman
In Fiscal Year 2010, Federal funds were dedicated to support evidence-based approaches to effectively target teen pregnancy prevention and resulted in the establishment of the Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) and the Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) Program. Through the tiered TPP Program, OAH supports replication and evaluation of programs using models whose effectiveness has been demonstrated through rigorous evaluation and the development and testing of promising or innovative pregnancy prevention strategies and approaches. This article documents the creation of OAH and the development of the TPP Program, the identification of a TPP evidence base, current program and evaluation efforts at OAH, and government coordination and partnerships related to reducing teen pregnancy. This article is of interest to those working to improve the health and wellbeing of adolescents. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Daley, Alison Moriarty
This article examines school-based health centers (SBHCs) as complex adaptive systems, the current gaps that exist in contraceptive access, and the potential to maximize this community resource in teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention efforts. Adolescent pregnancy is a major public health challenge for the United States. Existing community resources need to be considered for their potential to impact teen pregnancy and STI prevention efforts. SBHCs are one such community resource to be leveraged in these efforts. They offer adolescent-friendly primary care services and are responsive to the diverse needs of the adolescents utilizing them. However, current restrictions on contraceptive availability limit the ability of SBHCs to maximize opportunities for comprehensive reproductive care and create missed opportunities for pregnancy and STI prevention. A clinical case explores the current models of health care services related to contraceptive care provided in SBHCs and the ability to meet or miss the needs of an adolescent seeking reproductive care in a SBHC.
Beatriz Mercedes Cabañas Acosta
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of teenage pregnancy in the Regional Hospital of Coronel Oviedo, Paraguay. Material and Methods: Descriptive, observational cross-sectional study with consecutive non-probability sampling of cases, review of medical records of pregnant teenagers who attended the Regional Hospital of Coronel Oviedo, Paraguay between january and december 2011. Results: 167 medical records of pregnant adolescents were included, which accounted for 40.7% of all births attended in 2011. The age range was between 13 and 19 years, with an average age of 17.47 ± 1.42. 64.1% were of urban origin. 86.8% did not use contraception and 50.9% had a free union. The observed complications were: premature rupture of membrane at 10.2%, urinary tract infection at 8.4% and fetal death in 0.6% of cases. Conclusion: The prevalence of teenage pregnancy in this study was 40.7%; most women did not use any contraceptive method. The most common complication in this type of pregnancy was premature rupture of membrane.
Until recently, teen pregnancy and birth rates had declined steadily in the United States in recent years. Despite these declines, the United States has the highest teen birth rate and one of the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among all industrialized nations. To help young people reduce their risk for pregnancy and STIs,…
Mueller, Trisha; Tevendale, Heather D; Fuller, Taleria R; House, L Duane; Romero, Lisa M; Brittain, Anna; Varanasi, Bala
This article provides an overview and description of implementation activities of the multicomponent, community-wide initiatives of the Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Program initiated in 2010 by the Office of Adolescent Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The community-wide initiatives applied the Interactive Systems Framework for dissemination and implementation through training and technical assistance on the key elements of the initiative: implementation of evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) interventions; enhancing quality of and access to youth-friendly reproductive health services; educating stakeholders about TPP; working with youth in communities most at risk of teen pregnancy; and mobilizing the community to garner support. Of nearly 12,000 hours of training and technical assistance provided, the majority was for selecting, implementing, and evaluating an evidence-based TPP program. Real-world implementation of a community-wide approach to TPP takes time and effort. This report describes implementation within each of the components and shares lessons learned during planning and implementation phases of the initiative. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kelsey, Meredith; Layzer, Jean
This article describes some of the early implementation challenges faced by nine grantees participating in the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Replication Study and their response to them. The article draws on information collected as part of a comprehensive implementation study. Sources include site and program documents; program officer reports; notes from site investigation, selection and negotiation; ongoing communications with grantees as part of putting the study into place; and semi-structured interviews with program staff. The issues faced by grantees in implementing evidence-based programs designed to prevent teen pregnancy varied by program model. Grantees implementing a classroom-based curriculum faced challenges in delivering the curriculum within the constraints of school schedules and calendars (program length and size of class). Grantees implementing a culturally tailored curriculum faced a series of challenges, including implementing the intervention as part of the regular school curriculum in schools with diverse populations; low attendance when delivered as an after-school program; and resistance on the part of schools to specific curriculum content. The third set of grantees, implementing a program in clinics, faced challenges in identifying and recruiting young women into the program and in retaining young women once they were in the program. The experiences of these grantees reflect some of the complexities that should be carefully considered when choosing to replicate evidence-based programs. The Teen Pregnancy Prevention replication study will provide important context for assessing the effectiveness of some of the more widely replicated evidence-based programs. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Teen pregnancy is depicted around the world as an important cause of health disparities both for the child and the mother. Accordingly, much effort has been invested in its prevention and led to its decline in the northern hemisphere since the mid-1990s. Despite that, high rates are still observed in the circumpolar regions. As Inuit communities have granted better understanding of teenage pregnancy a priority for the coming years, this article comprehensively reviews this multidimensional issue. By depicting current prevalence, likely determinants and possible impacts documented among Inuit of Canada, Alaska and Greenland, and contrasting them to common knowledge that has emerged from other populations over the years, great gaps surface. In some regions, the number of pregnancies per number of Inuit women aged between 15 and 19 years has increased since the turn of the millennium, while statistics from others are either absent or difficult to compare. Only few likely determinants of teenage pregnancy such as low education and some household factors have actually been recognized among Inuit populations. Documented impacts of early pregnancy on Inuit women and their children are also limited compared to those from other populations. As a way to better address early pregnancy in the circumpolar context, the defence for additional scientific efforts and the provision of culturally adapted sexual health prevention programmes appear critical.
Moisan, Caroline; Baril, Chloé; Muckle, Gina; Belanger, Richard E.
Teen pregnancy is depicted around the world as an important cause of health disparities both for the child and the mother. Accordingly, much effort has been invested in its prevention and led to its decline in the northern hemisphere since the mid-1990s. Despite that, high rates are still observed in the circumpolar regions. As Inuit communities have granted better understanding of teenage pregnancy a priority for the coming years, this article comprehensively reviews this multidimensional issue. By depicting current prevalence, likely determinants and possible impacts documented among Inuit of Canada, Alaska and Greenland, and contrasting them to common knowledge that has emerged from other populations over the years, great gaps surface. In some regions, the number of pregnancies per number of Inuit women aged between 15 and 19 years has increased since the turn of the millennium, while statistics from others are either absent or difficult to compare. Only few likely determinants of teenage pregnancy such as low education and some household factors have actually been recognized among Inuit populations. Documented impacts of early pregnancy on Inuit women and their children are also limited compared to those from other populations. As a way to better address early pregnancy in the circumpolar context, the defence for additional scientific efforts and the provision of culturally adapted sexual health prevention programmes appear critical. PMID:27938638
Moisan, Caroline; Baril, Chloé; Muckle, Gina; Belanger, Richard E
Teen pregnancy is depicted around the world as an important cause of health disparities both for the child and the mother. Accordingly, much effort has been invested in its prevention and led to its decline in the northern hemisphere since the mid-1990s. Despite that, high rates are still observed in the circumpolar regions. As Inuit communities have granted better understanding of teenage pregnancy a priority for the coming years, this article comprehensively reviews this multidimensional issue. By depicting current prevalence, likely determinants and possible impacts documented among Inuit of Canada, Alaska and Greenland, and contrasting them to common knowledge that has emerged from other populations over the years, great gaps surface. In some regions, the number of pregnancies per number of Inuit women aged between 15 and 19 years has increased since the turn of the millennium, while statistics from others are either absent or difficult to compare. Only few likely determinants of teenage pregnancy such as low education and some household factors have actually been recognized among Inuit populations. Documented impacts of early pregnancy on Inuit women and their children are also limited compared to those from other populations. As a way to better address early pregnancy in the circumpolar context, the defence for additional scientific efforts and the provision of culturally adapted sexual health prevention programmes appear critical.
Farb, Amy Feldman; Burrus, Barri; Wallace, Ina F; Wilson, Ellen K; Peele, John E
The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) sought to create a comprehensive set of performance measures to capture the performance of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) program. This performance measurement system needed to provide measures that could be used internally (by both OAH and the TPP grantees) for management and program improvement as well as externally to communicate the program's progress to other interested stakeholders and Congress. This article describes the selected measures and outlines the considerations behind the TPP measurement development process. Issues faced, challenges encountered, and lessons learned have broad applicability for other federal agencies and, specifically, for TPP programs interested in assessing their own performance and progress. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hanson, Jessica D; McMahon, Tracey R; Griese, Emily R; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete
To examine the impact of gender norms on American Indian (AI) adolescents' sexual health behavior. The project collected qualitative data at a reservation site and an urban site through 24 focus groups and 20 key informant interviews. The reasons that AI youth choose to abstain or engage in sexual intercourse and utilize contraception vary based on gender ideologies defined by the adolescent's environment. These include social expectations from family and peers, defined roles within relationships, and gender empowerment gaps. Gender ideology plays a large role in decisions about contraception and sexual activity for AI adolescents, and it is vital to include redefinitions of gender norms within AI teen pregnancy prevention program.
Sorhaindo, Annik; Mitchell, Kirstin; Fletcher, Adam; Jessiman, Patricia; Keogh, Peter; Bonell, Chris
Purpose: Evaluation of the Teens & Toddlers (T&T) positive youth development (PYD) and teenage pregnancy prevention programme suggested that the intervention had minimal effectiveness partly due to its unclear theory of change. The purpose of this paper is to examine the lived experiences of young women participating in the programme to…
Saunders, Edward; Sabri, Bushra; Huberman, Barbara; Klaus, T. W.; Davis, Laura
The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify significant external and internal challenges that state organization leaders face in promoting science-based teen pregnancy prevention programs within their states. The state organization administrators were chosen because their organizations were funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control…
Trenholm, Christopher; Devaney, Barbara; Fortson, Kenneth; Clark, Melissa; Bridgespan, Lisa Quay; Wheeler, Justin
This paper examines the impacts of four abstinence-only education programs on adolescent sexual activity and risks of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Based on an experimental design, the impact analysis uses survey data collected in 2005 and early 2006 from more than 2,000 teens who had been randomly assigned to either a…
Silva, Andréa de Albuquerque Arruda; Coutinho, Isabela C; Katz, Leila; Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland
Repeat teen pregnancy is a frequent issue and is considered an aggravating factor for increased maternal and fetal morbidity and social problems. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with repeat teen pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted in 90 postpartum adolescents with more than one pregnancy (cases) and 90 adult women with a history of only one pregnancy during adolescence (controls). Statistical analysis used hierarchical logistic regression with 5% significance. Early sexual initiation (pregnancy (pregnancy, while partner change was inversely associated. Repeat teen pregnancy was mainly associated with reproductive and socioeconomic factors. Partner change appeared as a protective factor. Measures should be adopted during the postpartum period of teenage mothers in order to avoid repeat pregnancy.
Oman, Roy F; Vesely, Sara K; Green, Jennifer; Fluhr, Janene; Williams, Jean
Youth living in group home settings are at significantly greater risk for sexual risk behaviors; however, there are no sexual health programs designed specifically for these youth. The study's purpose was to assess the effectiveness of a teen pregnancy-prevention program for youth living in group home foster care settings and other out-of-home placements. The study design was a cluster randomized controlled trial involving youth (N = 1,037) recruited from 44 residential group homes located in California, Maryland, and Oklahoma. Within each state, youth (mean age = 16.2 years; 82% male; 37% Hispanic, 20% African-American, 20% white, and 17% multiracial) in half the group homes were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 40 clusters) and the other half were randomly assigned to a control group that offered "usual care" (n = 40 clusters). The intervention (i.e., Power Through Choices [PTC]) was a 10-session, age-appropriate, and medically accurate sexual health education program. Compared to the control group, youth in the PTC intervention showed significantly greater improvements (p attitude areas, all three self-efficacy areas, and two of three behavioral intention areas. This is the first published randomized controlled trial of a teen pregnancy-prevention program designed for youth living in foster care settings and other out-of-home placements. The numerous significant improvements in short-term outcomes are encouraging and provide preliminary evidence that the PTC program is an effective pregnancy-prevention program. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Fomby, Paula
This study examines the puzzle of disparities experienced by U.S. teen parents’ young children, whose health and development increasingly lag behind those of peers while their parents are simultaneously experiencing socioeconomic improvements. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001–2007; N ≈ 8,600), we assess four dynamic patterns in socioeconomic resources that might account for these growing developmental and health disparities throughout early childhood and then test them in multilevel growth curve models. Persistently low socioeconomic resources constituted the strongest explanation, given that consistently low income, maternal education, and assets fully or partially account for growth in cognitive, behavioral, and health disparities experienced by teen parents’ children from infancy through kindergarten. That is, although teen parents gained socioeconomic resources over time, those resources remained relatively low, and the duration of exposure to limited resources explains observed growing disparities. Results suggest that policy interventions addressing the time dynamics of low socioeconomic resources in a household, in terms of both duration and developmental timing, are promising for reducing disparities experienced by teen parents’ children. PMID:24802282
van Veen, Teelkien R.; Haeri, Sina; Baker, Arthur M.
Study Objective: The authors sought to determine whether pregnancies in adolescents following an abortion of pregnancy is associated with an elevated risk for adverse perinatal outcomes. Methods: In a cohort study of all adolescent (younger than 18 years) deliveries over a 4-year period at 1
Kathrin F Stanger-Hall
Full Text Available The United States ranks first among developed nations in rates of both teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In an effort to reduce these rates, the U.S. government has funded abstinence-only sex education programs for more than a decade. However, a public controversy remains over whether this investment has been successful and whether these programs should be continued. Using the most recent national data (2005 from all U.S. states with information on sex education laws or policies (N = 48, we show that increasing emphasis on abstinence education is positively correlated with teenage pregnancy and birth rates. This trend remains significant after accounting for socioeconomic status, teen educational attainment, ethnic composition of the teen population, and availability of Medicaid waivers for family planning services in each state. These data show clearly that abstinence-only education as a state policy is ineffective in preventing teenage pregnancy and may actually be contributing to the high teenage pregnancy rates in the U.S. In alignment with the new evidence-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative and the Precaution Adoption Process Model advocated by the National Institutes of Health, we propose the integration of comprehensive sex and STD education into the biology curriculum in middle and high school science classes and a parallel social studies curriculum that addresses risk-aversion behaviors and planning for the future.
Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.; Hall, David W.
The United States ranks first among developed nations in rates of both teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In an effort to reduce these rates, the U.S. government has funded abstinence-only sex education programs for more than a decade. However, a public controversy remains over whether this investment has been successful and whether these programs should be continued. Using the most recent national data (2005) from all U.S. states with information on sex education laws or policies (N = 48), we show that increasing emphasis on abstinence education is positively correlated with teenage pregnancy and birth rates. This trend remains significant after accounting for socioeconomic status, teen educational attainment, ethnic composition of the teen population, and availability of Medicaid waivers for family planning services in each state. These data show clearly that abstinence-only education as a state policy is ineffective in preventing teenage pregnancy and may actually be contributing to the high teenage pregnancy rates in the U.S. In alignment with the new evidence-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative and the Precaution Adoption Process Model advocated by the National Institutes of Health, we propose the integration of comprehensive sex and STD education into the biology curriculum in middle and high school science classes and a parallel social studies curriculum that addresses risk-aversion behaviors and planning for the future. PMID:22022362
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Teen pregnancy in the United States has declined significantly in the last two decades. Despite these declines, rates of teen birth, HIV, and STIs in the United States remain among the highest of any industrialized nation. Socio-economic, cultural and structural factors such as poverty, limited access to health care, racism and unemployment…
Goesling, Brian; Colman, Silvie; Trenholm, Christopher; Terzian, Mary; Moore, Kristin
This systematic review provides a comprehensive, updated assessment of programs with evidence of effectiveness in reducing teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), or associated sexual risk behaviors. The review was conducted in four steps. First, multiple literature search strategies were used to identify relevant studies released from 1989 through January 2011. Second, identified studies were screened against prespecified eligibility criteria. Third, studies were assessed by teams of two trained reviewers for the quality and execution of their research designs. Fourth, for studies that passed the quality assessment, the review team extracted and analyzed information on the research design, study sample, evaluation setting, and program impacts. A total of 88 studies met the review criteria for study quality and were included in the data extraction and analysis. The studies examined a range of programs delivered in diverse settings. Most studies had mixed-gender and predominately African-American research samples (70% and 51%, respectively). Randomized controlled trials accounted for the large majority (87%) of included studies. Most studies (76%) included multiple follow-ups, with sample sizes ranging from 62 to 5,244. Analysis of the study impact findings identified 31 programs with evidence of effectiveness. Research conducted since the late 1980s has identified more than two dozen teen pregnancy and STI prevention programs with evidence of effectiveness. Key strengths of this research are the large number of randomized controlled trials, the common use of multiple follow-up periods, and attention to a broad range of programs delivered in diverse settings. Two main gaps are a lack of replication studies and the need for more research on Latino youth and other high-risk populations. In addressing these gaps, researchers must overcome common limitations in study design, analysis, and reporting that have negatively affected prior research. Copyright
Duffy, Jennifer L; Prince, Mary Severson; Johnson, Erin E; Alton, Forrest L; Flynn, Shannon; Faye, Amy Mattison; Padgett, Polly Edwards; Rollison, Chris; Becker, Dana; Hinzey, Angela L
Getting To Outcomes (GTO), an innovative framework for planning, implementing, evaluating, and sustaining interventions has been shown to be effective in helping community-based organizations (CBOs) introduce science-based approaches into their prevention work. However, the Interactive Systems Framework (ISF) suggests that adopting innovations like GTO requires a significant amount of capacity building through training and technical assistance (T/TA). In this study, 11 CBOs and three schools in South Carolina entered into a 3 year program of intense and proactive T/TA based on the ISF to learn how to apply an adaptation of GTO (Promoting Science-Based Approaches-Getting To Outcomes, PSBA-GTO) to their teen pregnancy prevention programs. Using semi-structured interviews, the partnering organizations were assessed at three points in time, pre-T/TA, 12 months, and post T/TA (30 months) for their performance of the steps of GTO in their work. The seven organizations which participated in T/TA until the end of the project received an average of 76 h of TA and 112 h of training per organization. Interview results showed increased performance of all 10 steps of PSBA-GTO by these organizations when conducting their teen pregnancy programs. These results suggest targeted and proactive T/TA can successfully bridge the gap between research and practice by using a three part delivery system, as prescribed in the ISF, which relies on an intermediary prevention support system to ensure accurate and effective translation of research to the everyday work of community-based practitioners.
Dellinger, Ann M; West, Bethany A
Traffic crashes are the leading cause of death among teens. Health care providers have an opportunity to address what works to keep teens safe on the road during the patient visit. An online survey was conducted of 1088 health care providers who saw patients at or near driving age. The survey assessed which road safety topics were discussed and which types of educational products were used most often. Family and general practice physicians represented 44.3% of the sample, followed by pediatricians (22.5%), nurse practitioners (17.6%), and internists (15.5%). Nearly all respondents (92.9%) reported addressing one or more driving safety factors (seat belt use, nighttime driving, fatigue, teen passengers, alcohol/drug use, speeding/reckless driving, and cell phone use/texting) with adolescent patients and/or their parents. Seat belt use was reported more often (83.7%) than other topics. The use of parent-teen driving agreements, a known effective intervention, was reported by less than 10% of respondents. Since health care providers expressed interest in receiving written resource materials, distribution of parent-teen driving agreements to health care providers might encourage greater uptake and use of this effective intervention.
Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Adamson, Ashley
During the past 25 years, many pregnancy and birth cohorts have been established. Each cohort provides unique opportunities for examining associations of early-life exposures with child development and health. However, to fully exploit the large amount of available resources and to facilitate cross...
van Veen, Teelkien R; Haeri, Sina; Baker, Arthur M
The authors sought to determine whether pregnancies in adolescents following an abortion of pregnancy is associated with an elevated risk for adverse perinatal outcomes. In a cohort study of all adolescent (younger than 18 years) deliveries over a 4-year period at 1 institution, we compared nulliparous women with a history of a prior abortion (cases) to those without a spontaneous loss or abortion of pregnancy (referent) for adverse perinatal outcomes, including preterm birth and fetal growth restriction. Of the 654 included nulliparous adolescent deliveries, 102 (16%) had an abortion before the index pregnancy. Compared with the referent group, adolescents with a history of a abortion were older (17.8 ± 0.8 vs 16.7 ± 1.2 years, P = .0001), enrolled earlier for prenatal care (14.4 ± 5.6 vs 17.2 ± 7.6 weeks, P = .0004), along with a higher incidence of African American race (95% vs 88%, P = .05). The groups did not differ with respect to other maternal demographics. Perinatal outcomes, including spontaneous preterm birth, abnormal placentation, birth weight, and gestational age at delivery, did not differ between the 2 groups. Compared with adolescent women who had just delivered and did not have a prior abortion, women who had just delivered and had a previous abortion were more likely to be older at the age of their first pregnancy and more likely to initiate early prenatal care. Thus, having a prior abortion may improve the health of a pregnancy though adverse outcomes do not differ between the 2 groups. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Devine, Sharon; Bull, Sheana; Dreisbach, Susan; Shlay, Judith
To develop and pilot a theory-based, mobile phone texting component attractive to minority youth as a supplement to the Teen Outreach Program(®), a youth development program for reducing teen pregnancy and school dropout. We conducted iterative formative research with minority youth in multiple focus groups to explore interest in texting and reaction to text messages. We piloted a month-long version of TOP(®) Plus Text with 96 teens at four sites and conducted a computer-based survey immediately after enrollment and at the end of the pilot that collected information about teens' values, social support, self-efficacy, and behaviors relating to school performance, trouble with the law, and sexual activity. After each of the first three weekly sessions we collected satisfaction measures. Upon completion of the pilot we conducted exit interviews with twelve purposively selected pilot participants. We successfully recruited and enrolled minority youth into the pilot. Teens were enthusiastic about text messages complementing TOP(®). Results also revealed barriers: access to text-capable mobile phones, retention as measured by completion of the post-pilot survey, and a need to be attentive to teen literacy. Piloting helped identify improvements for implementation including offering text messages through multiple platforms so youth without access to a mobile phone could receive messages; rewording texts to allow youth to express opinions without feeling judged; and collecting multiple types of contact information to improve follow-up. Thoughtful attention to social and behavioral theory and investment in iterative formative research with extensive consultation with teens can lead to an engaging texting curriculum that enhances and complements TOP(®). Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bell, David L; Garbers, Samantha; Catallozzi, Marina; Hum, R Stanley; Nechitilo, Meredith; McKeague, Ian W; Koumans, Emilia H; House, L Duane; Rosenthal, Susan L; Gold, Melanie A
Despite recent declines, teen unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections in the United States remain at levels higher than comparable nations. Initiatives to prevent teen pregnancy have focused primarily on female adolescents; how to effectively engage young men to reduce their risk of fathering a teen pregnancy has not been well studied. We proposed to adapt an innovative computer-assisted motivational interviewing (CAMI) intervention, originally designed and tested with young women, for use with young men, aged 15-24 years, to reduce their risk of fathering a teen pregnancy. This manuscript describes the design of a CAMI intervention for young men aimed at preventing teen pregnancy and improving fitness. This randomized controlled trial will recruit 945 sexually active young men between the ages of 15 and 24 years from three health centers in New York City. Participants will be assigned by permuted block randomization to two study arms: one aimed at reducing involvement in unintended teen pregnancy (CAMI-teen pregnancy prevention) and the other at improving overall fitness (CAMI-Fitness). Except for topic, both intervention arms will provide four sessions of Motivational Interviewing coaching and use a mobile app to track behavior and set goals. We will assess young men's sexual and reproductive health behaviors and fitness at baseline, 12, 24, 36, and 64 weeks using a mobile device app created for the study. Pending ongoing study. Results from the study are expected to enhance our understanding of the efficacy of CAMI to enhance young men's reproductive health and fitness behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Flores, Janet E; Montgomery, Susanne; Lee, Jerry W
To evaluate parent involvement in a Southern California teen pregnancy prevention community partnership project. Researchers expected to find parent and family-related participation barriers similar to those described in the family support literature, which they could address with program modifications. Three phases of qualitative evaluation occurred: key informant interviews and focus groups with youth and parents; focus groups with service providers; and key informant interviews with service providers, their supervisor, and the collaborative coordinator. Theory-based, open-ended question guides directed the interviews and focus groups, and transcriptions were coded and themed using grounded theory methods. Parents and youth sought ways to improve connections and communication with each other, and parents welcomed parenting education from the project. Unexpectedly, the major obstacles to parent participation identified in this project were largely organizational, and included the assignment of parent involvement tasks to agencies lacking capacities to work effectively with parents, inadequate administrative support for staff, and the absence of an effective system for communicating concerns and resolving conflicts among collaborative partners. Youth serving agencies may not be the best partners to implement effective parent involvement or family support interventions. Collaborative leadership must identify appropriate partners, engender their cooperation, and support their staff to further the overall goals of the collaborative.
Broussard, Anne B; Broussard, Brenda S
The Resource Center for Young Parents-To-Be is a longstanding and successful grant-funded project that was initiated as a response to an identified community need. Senior-level baccalaureate nursing students and their maternity-nursing instructors are responsible for staffing the resource center's weekly sessions, which take place at a public school site for pregnant adolescents. Childbirth educators interested in working with this population could assist in replicating this exemplary clinical project in order to provide prenatal education to this vulnerable and hard-to-reach group. PMID:20190852
Jun 2, 2016 ... Cervical ectopic pregnancy is a rare, life threatening form of ectopic pregnancy ... cervical, resource deprived areas, difficult diagnosis, management ... drome, prior instrumentation or therapeutic abortion .... CONCLUSION.
... Teens Winnable Battles Social Media at CDC Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates among Teens Aged 15–19 ... Pregnancy Prevention Community-Wide Initiative. National Rates and Disparities Nationally, the teen birth rate (number of births ...
Kim, Theresa H M; Connolly, Jennifer A; Tamim, Hala
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a mood disorder that affects 10-20 percent of women, and can begin any time during first year after delivery lasting for months. Social support may decrease risk of depression during pregnancy for women. However, literature shows that the amount of social support received during and after pregnancy is different for teen mothers and adult mothers. This study examined the effects of social support received during and after pregnancy on PPD among Canadian women and identified if the relationship was different for teen mothers compared to adult mothers. The study was based on secondary analysis of the Maternity Experiences Survey. A total of 6,421 women with singleton live births, aged 15 years and older were analyzed. Teen mothers were identified as 15-19 years old and adult mothers were identified as 20 years and older. The main outcome of the study was PPD, which was evaluated using the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale. The main independent variable was social support received during pregnancy and after birth. Logistic regression was computed to assess the relationship between social support and PPD after adjusting for confounding variables and age as an interaction term. Adjusted Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals were reported. PPD was experienced by 14.0% among teen mothers and 7.2% among adult mothers (p teen mothers reported receiving more support during pregnancy and after birth than adult mothers (p teen compared to adult mothers. Both teen and adult mothers were approximately five times more likely to experience PPD if they received no support or minimal support after the birth of the baby (95% CI, 3.51-7.36). Receiving social support especially after birth is important for mothers of all ages to reduce the risk of PPD.
Nine Tips To Help Faith Leaders and Their Communities Address Teen Pregnancy = Nueve consejos para ayudar a lideres espirituales y sus comunidades a hacerle frente al problema del embarazo en la adolescencia.
National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.
To support faith communities in protecting teenage boys and girls from too-early sexual activity and teen pregnancy, the National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy's Task Force on Religion and Public Values has compiled these nine tips which summarize a wealth of experience and advice from faith leaders around the country. The members of the Task…
Goesling, Brian; Oberlander, Sarah; Trivits, Lisa
Systematic reviews help policy makers and practitioners make sense of research findings in a particular program, policy, or practice area by synthesizing evidence across multiple studies. However, the link between review findings and practical decision-making is rarely one-to-one. Policy makers and practitioners may use systematic review findings to help guide their decisions, but they may also rely on other information sources or personal judgment. To describe a recent effort by the U.S. federal government to narrow the gap between review findings and practical decision-making. The Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) Evidence Review was launched by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in 2009 as a systematic review of the TPP literature. HHS has used the review findings to determine eligibility for federal funding for TPP programs, marking one of the first attempts to directly link systematic review findings with federal funding decisions. The high stakes attached to the review findings required special considerations in designing and conducting the review. To provide a sound basis for federal funding decisions, the review had to meet accepted methodological standards. However, the review team also had to account for practical constraints of the funding legislation and needs of the federal agencies responsible for administering the grant programs. The review team also had to develop a transparent process for both releasing the review findings and updating them over time. Prospective review authors and sponsors must recognize both the strengths and limitations of this approach before applying it in other areas. © The Author(s) 2016.
Devine, Sharon; Leeds, Caroline; Shlay, Judith C; Leytem, Amber; Beum, Robert; Bull, Sheana
Youth are prolific users of cell phone minutes and text messaging. Numerous programs using short message service text messaging (SMS) have been employed to help improve health behaviors and health outcomes. However, we lack information on whether and what type of interaction or engagement with SMS program content is required to realize any benefit. We explored youth engagement with an automated SMS program designed to supplement a 25-session youth development program with demonstrated efficacy for reductions in teen pregnancy. Using two years of program data, we report on youth participation in design of message content and response frequency to messages among youth enrolled in the intervention arm of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) as one indicator of engagement. There were 221 youth between the ages of 14-18 enrolled over two years in the intervention arm of the RCT. Just over half (51%) were female; 56% were Hispanic; and 27% African American. Youth were sent 40,006 messages of which 16,501 were considered bi-directional where youth were asked to text a response. Four-fifths (82%) responded at least once to a text. We found variations in response frequency by gender, age, and ethnicity. The most popular types of messages youth responded to include questions and quizzes. The first two months of the program in each year had the highest response frequency. An important next step is to assess whether higher response to SMS results in greater efficacy. This future work can facilitate greater attention to message design and content to ensure messages are engaging for the intended audience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Demby, Hilary; Gregory, Alethia; Broussard, Marsha; Dickherber, Jennifer; Atkins, Shantice; Jenner, Lynne W
In recent years, the demand for evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs has increased, but practitioners often struggle to replicate and implement them as designed in real-world community settings. The purpose of this article is to describe the barriers and facilitators encountered during pilot year attempts to implement an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program within three types of organizations: (1) small community-based organizations; (2) a school-based organization; and (3) a large decentralized city-sponsored summer youth program. We frame our discussion of these experiences within the context of a systemic, multilevel framework for implementation consisting of (1) core implementation components; (2) organizational components; and (3) external factors. This article explores the organizational and external implementation factors we experienced during the implementation process, describes our lessons learned throughout this process, and offers strategies for other practitioners to proactively address these factors from the start of program planning. These findings may provide useful insight for other organizations looking to implement multi-session, group-level interventions with fidelity. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Stewart, Alison; Kaye, Kelleen
When it comes to making decisions about sex, teens today are doing far better than they were 20 years ago. Fewer teens are having sex, and among those who are, more teens are using contraception. The happy result is that teen pregnancy and birth rates have declined dramatically. Despite this extraordinary progress, teen pregnancy and childbearing…
Langley, Cheri; Barbee, Anita P.; Antle, Becky; Christensen, Dana; Archuleta, Adrian; Sar, Bibhuti K.; Karam, Eli; van Zyl, Riaan; Cunningham, Michael R.; Borders, Kevin
To ensure that "Reducing the Risk," a successful teen pregnancy prevention education curriculum, remains relevant for today's youth, covers all information youth need to know in order to make better choices, and is delivered in a standardized way, adaptations were made and enhancements were added. This article describes results of a…
In Benin, adolescents and youth aged 10 to 24 make up 33% of the total population, and the teen fertility rate is high. This results in lower education rates, loss of economic potential, and short and long-term health consequences. Stopgap ...
Barr, Ashley B; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg
Despite the declining rate of teen pregnancies in the United States, academic and public health experts have expressed concern over the still relatively high rate of rapid repeat pregnancies among adolescents, particularly among minority youth. Using a sample of over 300 African American female adolescents, the current study used insights from the prototype/willingness model of adolescent risk behavior to explore this risk. More specifically, it assessed the relationship between entry into unwed motherhood during mid-to-late adolescence and changes in prototypes of unmarried pregnant teens. Further, it explored the extent to which these changing prototypes accounted for young mothers' later contraceptive expectations. We tested the possibility that social images were affected not only by personal experience (the birth of a child) but also by the family and community context in which this experience took place. The findings show that the early entrance into teen motherhood was associated with a shift toward more favorable prototypes of unwed pregnant teens, but that this was only the case for young mothers in disadvantaged contexts. Given this, prototype changes helped to explain the link between teen motherhood and contraceptive expectations only for those in disadvantaged contexts. We discuss these findings in terms of their practical and theoretical implications.
... Tween and teen health Want to prevent teen smoking? Understand why teens smoke and how to talk ... teen about cigarettes. By Mayo Clinic Staff Teen smoking might begin innocently, but it can become a ...
Margolis, Amy Lynn; Roper, Allison Yvonne
After 3 years of experience overseeing the implementation and evaluation of evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs in a diversity of populations and settings across the country, the Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) has learned numerous lessons through practical application and new experiences. These lessons and experiences are applicable to those working to implement evidence-based programs on a large scale. The lessons described in this paper focus on what it means for a program to be implementation ready, the role of the program developer in replicating evidence-based programs, the importance of a planning period to ensure quality implementation, the need to define and measure fidelity, and the conditions necessary to support rigorous grantee-level evaluation. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Jensen, Jo Anne G; Moreno, Elizabeth L; Rice, Tara M
The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) developed a systematic approach to review for medical accuracy the educational materials proposed for use in Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) programs. This process is also used by the Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF) for review of materials used in the Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies (PREIS) Program. This article describes the review process, explaining the methodology, the team implementing the reviews, and the process for distributing review findings and implementing changes. Provided also is the definition of "medically accurate and complete" as used in the programs, and a description of what constitutes "complete" information when discussing sexually transmitted infections and birth control methods. The article is of interest to program providers, curriculum developers and purveyors, and those who are interested in providing medically accurate and complete information to adolescents. Published by Elsevier Inc.
A Case Study of Peer Educators in a Community-Based Program to Reduce Teen Pregnancy: Selected Characteristics Prior to Training, Perceptions of Training and Work, and Perceptions of How Participation in the Program Has Affected Them
Beshers, Sarah C.
This investigation is a case study of peer educators in a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program. Research questions focused on identifying ways in which peer educators differed from other teens and exploring the perceptions of the peer educators about their experience in the program and the ways in which it has affected them. Data were…
Management of aplastic anaemia in pregnancy in a resource poor centre. ... This is case of a 37 year old Nigerian woman G6P0+5managed with repeated blood ... aplastic anaemia following presentation with weakness and gingival bleeds.
Watson, Linnea Lynne; Vogel, Linda R.
While recent research has shown the long-term effects of teen pregnancy are not as devastating as once predicted, more than 40 years after the passage of Title IX legislation mandating equal educational opportunities for pregnant and parenting teens, only 50% of teen parents graduate high school, lagging far behind their non-parenting peers. This…
Eshbaugh, Elaine M.
Although teen pregnancy and parenthood are more visible in society than in the past, teen mothers are often stereotyped and stigmatized. The study examined positivity toward teen mothers among college students (N = 316) at a midwestern university. Although students responded positively to some items regarding teen mothers, other statements showed…
To combat the problem of teenage pregnancy, public health clinics have made birth control counseling and free contraceptives available to minors and many public schools have implemented sex education programs. Despite the development and implementation of these programs, teenage sexual activity and pregnancy have increased. The increase in…
Birckmayer, Jennifer; Mabb, Katherine; Westendorf, Bonnie-Jo; Wilson, Jerridith
Providing effective parent education for teen parents can be a challenge for educators. This guide for cooperative extension facilitators provides workshop outlines for teen parents regarding their social world, infant and toddler development, and health and safety. The guide's introduction discusses the challenges of parenting, the Eriksonian…
Stoll, Donald R., Ed.
Noting that many kids' and teens' magazines are not for sale at newsstands or bookstores, this book presents individual listings in alphabetical order for more than 200 magazines for children and teens from ages 2 to 18. Each entry contains: an annotation describing a journal's coverage; ordering information; cost; intended audience (age, sex);…
Fomby, Paula; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Mollborn, Stefanie
Overall, children born to teen parents experience disadvantaged cognitive achievement at school entry compared to children born to older parents. However, within this population there is variation, with a significant fraction of teen parents’ children acquiring adequate preparation for school entry during early childhood. We ask whether the family background of teen parents explains this variation. We use data on children born to teen mothers from three waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (N~700) to study the association of family background with children's standardized reading and mathematics achievement scores at kindergarten entry. When neither maternal grandparent has completed high school, children's scores on standardized assessments of math and reading achievement are one-quarter to one-third of a standard deviation lower compared to families where at least one grandparent finished high school. This association is net of teen mothers’ own socioeconomic status in the year prior to children's school entry. PMID:26806989
Shaw, Souradet Y; Metge, Colleen; Taylor, Carole; Chartier, Mariette; Charette, Catherine; Lix, Lisa; Santos, Rob; Sarkar, Joykrishna; Nickel, Nathan C; Burland, Elaine; Chateau, Dan; Katz, Alan; Brownell, Marni; Martens, Patricia J
In Manitoba, Canada, school-based clinics providing sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents have been implemented to address high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and pregnancies. The objectives of this population-based study were to compare pregnancy and STI rates between adolescents enrolled in schools with school-based clinics, those in schools without clinics, and those not enrolled in school. Data were from the PATHS Data Resource held in the Population Health Research Data Repository housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. Adolescents aged 14 to 19 between 2003 and 2009 were included in the study. Annualized rates of pregnancies and positive STI tests were estimated and Poisson regression models were used to test for differences in rates amongst the three groups. As a proportion, pregnancies among non-enrolled female adolescents accounted for 55 % of all pregnancies in this age group during the study period. Pregnancy rates were 2-3 times as high among non-enrolled female adolescents. Compared to adolescents enrolled in schools without school-based clinics, age-adjusted STI rates were 3.5 times (p pregnancies and STIs were observed among non-enrolled adolescents. Although provision of reproductive and health services to in-school adolescents should remain a priority, program planning and design should consider optimal strategies to engage out of school youth.
Villalobos-Hernández, Aremis; Campero, Lourdes; Suárez-López, Leticia; Atienzo, Erika E; Estrada, Fátima; De la Vara-Salazar, Elvia
To characterize female adolescents who have been pregnant, and to analyze the association between adolescent pregnancy and educational gaps. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data come from the Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (Ensanut 2012), a Mexican representative survey. The set of data used is related to sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics from 1 790 women from 12 to 19 years who had begun their sexual life and had a pregnancy record. Three statistical models were adjusted to observe the association between variables. The dependent variable of the first model was the condition of previous pregnancy, the second to be pregnant at the time of data collection, and the third, educational gap. A 74.9% of the adolescents with history of pregnancy has educational gap. To have the condition of previous pregnancy is associated with living with sexual partner (OR=8.4), educational gap (OR=2.4), low socioeconomical level (OR=2.0) and school assistance (OR=0.5). To be pregnant at the time of data collection has related only to living with sexual partner (OR=9.4). The educational gap shows an association with having more than one pregnancy (OR=2.4), live with sexual partner (OR=1.6), low socioeconomical level (OR=1.8), and school assistance as protective factor (OR=0.3). It is necessary to implement effective and efficient educational public politics in order to decrease educational gap. At the same time, to guarantee and improve sexual education in the school system to prevent adolescent pregnancy.
Full Text Available Objective. To characterize female adolescents who have been pregnant, and to analyze the association between adolescent pregnancy and educational gaps. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Data come from the Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (Ensanut 2012, a Mexican representative survey. The set of data used is related to sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics from 1 790 women from 12 to 19 years who had begun their sexual life and had a pregnancy record. Three statistical models were adjusted to observe the association between variables. The dependent variable of the first model was the condition of previous pregnancy, the second to be pregnant at the time of data collection, and the third, educational gap. Results. A 74.9% of the adolescents with history of pregnancy has educational gap. To have the condition of previous pregnancy is associated with living with sexual partner (OR=8.4, educational gap (OR=2.4, low socioeconomical level (OR=2.0 and school assistance (OR=0.5. To be pregnant at the time of data collection has related only to living with sexual partner (OR=9.4. The educational gap shows an association with having more than one pregnancy (OR=2.4, live with sexual partner (OR=1.6, low socioeconomical level (OR=1.8, and school assistance as protective factor (OR=0.3. Conclusion. It is necessary to implement effective and efficient educational public politics in order to decrease educational gap. At the same time, to guarantee and improve sexual education in the school system to prevent adolescent pregnancy.
Long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) are safe for use in adolescents and do not rely on compliance or adherence for effectiveness. Continuation rates are higher and pregnancy rates are lower for adolescent users of LARCs compared with short-acting methods such as oral contraceptives. Similarly, repeat pregnancy rates are lower when LARCs are used compared with other forms of contraception. Myths and misconceptions about LARCs and other contraceptives remain a barrier to their use. Health care providers are in a unique position to provide confidential care to adolescents, and should provide education to them about the various contraceptive options, especially LARCs. Copyright © 2015 Cleveland Clinic.
Our findings emphasise the necessity of creating regional-specific interventions and prevention campaigns to address multilevel factors such as family disruption as well as the need for governments to address issues of unemployment, poverty and inequality. Keywords: Teenage pregnancy, sub-Saharan Africa, multilevel ...
Boyce, Karen Stradford; Travers, Madeline; Rothbart, Betty; Santiago, Vivian; Bedell, Jane
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth show higher rates of sexual risk behaviors than heterosexual and cisgender youth; yet, most school-based sexual health education is largely heteronormative and cisnormative and does not recognize the spectrum of sexual and gender identity. New York City's Departments of Health and Education collaborated to create an LGBT-inclusive supplement to the Reducing the Risk curriculum and implement it in 21 South Bronx high schools. Teachers completed an electronic survey to report the number of students reached and an online log to measure curriculum adherence. Students were administered an anonymous 74-item pre- and posttest to measure demographics, sexual health knowledge, and student satisfaction with the curriculum. Chi-square and t tests were used to assess differences in student demographics and changes in knowledge scores. Reducing the Risk was implemented in 21 schools reaching 230 classes and 5,673 students; with 161 classes receiving the supplement. Teachers reported completing an average of 70% of LGBT supplement activities. Students who received the supplement reported higher satisfaction and greater knowledge scores than students who did not. New York City experience shows that being more inclusive of LGBT teens while implementing preexisting evidence-based sexual and reproductive health programs is possible and replicable.
Fischl, Andrea F Rodgers; Herman, William H; Sereika, Susan M; Hannan, Margaret; Becker, Dorothy; Mansfield, M Joan; Freytag, Linda L; Milaszewski, Kerry; Botscheller, Amanda N; Charron-Prochownik, Denise
To evaluate the impact of a preconception counseling program tailored for teens with type 1 diabetes on cognitive, psychosocial, and behavioral outcomes and to assess its cost-effectiveness. A total of 88 teens with type 1 diabetes from two sites were randomized into the READY-Girls (Reproductive-health Education and Awareness of Diabetes in Youth for Girls) intervention (IG) (n = 43) or standard care (SC) (n = 45) groups. During three diabetes clinic visits, IG subjects viewed a two-part CD-ROM, read a book, and met with a nurse. Program effectiveness was measured by knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and behaviors regarding diabetes, pregnancy, sexuality, and preconception counseling. Assessments occurred at baseline, before and after viewing program materials, and at 9 months. Economic analyses included an assessment of resource utilization, direct medical costs, and a break-even cost analysis. Age range was 13.2-19.7 years (mean +/- SD 16.7 +/- 1.7 years); 6% (n = 5) were African American, and 24% (n = 21) were sexually active. Compared with baseline and SC subjects, IG subjects demonstrated a significant group-by-time interaction for benefit and knowledge of preconception counseling and reproductive health: increasing immediately after the first visit (P intention and initiation of preconception counseling and reproductive health discussions increased (P < 0.001). Costs of adverse reproductive outcomes are high. Direct medical costs of READY-Girls were low. READY-Girls was beneficial and effects were sustained for at least 9 months. This low-cost self-instructional program can potentially empower young women with type 1 diabetes to make well-informed reproductive health choices, adding little time burden or cost to their diabetes management.
Full Text Available In 2010, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS received federal funding to test an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program. The grant required a major modification to an existing program and a randomized control trial (RCT to test its effectiveness. As the major modifications, Alaska used peer educators instead of adults to deliver the program to youth aged 14–19 instead of the original curriculum intended age range of 12–14. Cultural and approach adaptations were included as well. After 4 years of implementation and data collection, the sample was too small to provide statistically significant results. The lack of findings gave no information about the modification, nor any explanation of how the curriculum was received, or reasons for the small sample. This paper reports on a case study follow-up to the RCT to better understand outcome and implementation results. For this study, researchers reviewed project documents and interviewed peer educators, state and local staff, and evaluators. Three themes emerged from the data: (a the professional growth of peer educators and development of peer education, (b difficulties resulting from curriculum content, especially for subpopulations of sexually active youth, youth identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex and/or asexual, pregnant, and parenting youth and (c the appropriateness of an RCT with subpopulations of at-risk youth. Three recommendations emerged from the case study. First, including as many stakeholders as possible in the program and evaluation design phases is essential, and must be supported by appropriate funding streams and training. Second, there must be recognition of the multiple small subpopulations found in Alaska when adapting programs designed for a larger and more homogeneous population. Third, RCTs may not be appropriate for all population subgroups.
Hohman-Billmeier, Kathryn; Nye, Margaret; Martin, Stephanie
In 2010, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) received federal funding to test an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program. The grant required a major modification to an existing program and a randomized control trial (RCT) to test its effectiveness. As the major modifications, Alaska used peer educators instead of adults to deliver the program to youth aged 14-19 instead of the original curriculum intended age range of 12-14. Cultural and approach adaptations were included as well. After 4 years of implementation and data collection, the sample was too small to provide statistically significant results. The lack of findings gave no information about the modification, nor any explanation of how the curriculum was received, or reasons for the small sample. This paper reports on a case study follow-up to the RCT to better understand outcome and implementation results. For this study, researchers reviewed project documents and interviewed peer educators, state and local staff, and evaluators. Three themes emerged from the data: (a) the professional growth of peer educators and development of peer education, (b) difficulties resulting from curriculum content, especially for subpopulations of sexually active youth, youth identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex and/or asexual, pregnant, and parenting youth and (c) the appropriateness of an RCT with subpopulations of at-risk youth. Three recommendations emerged from the case study. First, including as many stakeholders as possible in the program and evaluation design phases is essential, and must be supported by appropriate funding streams and training. Second, there must be recognition of the multiple small subpopulations found in Alaska when adapting programs designed for a larger and more homogeneous population. Third, RCTs may not be appropriate for all population subgroups.
House, L Duane; Tevendale, Heather D; Martinez-Garcia, Genevieve
To describe efforts to implement evidence-based interventions (EBIs) within multicomponent, community-wide initiatives to reduce teen pregnancy. During 2011-2014, we collected information about the capacity (i.e., knowledge, confidence, training, and experience) of state and community-based organizations to support implementation of the following: EBIs, number and characteristics of youth served by EBIs, type of EBIs implemented, EBI settings, hours of training, and technical assistance provided. State and community-based organizations reported these data annually; however, training and technical assistance was reported monthly. We used aggregated data from these annual and monthly reports to describe the implementation of EBIs in the community-wide initiative project. From baseline in 2011-2014, state and community-based organizations increased their capacities to support program partners in delivering EBIs. They provided 5,015 hours of technical assistance and training on topics, including ensuring adequate capacity, process and outcome evaluation, program planning, and continuous quality improvement. Program partners increased the number of youth reached by an EBI in targeted communities by 349%, from 4,304 in the first year of implementation in 2012 to 19,344 in 2014. Most youth in 2014 received sexuality education programs (59%), whereas smaller percentages received abstinence-based, youth development, and clinic-based programs. Most youth were reached through schools (72%) and community-based organizations (16%), and smaller numbers were reached in other settings (e.g., faith-based organizations, health centers). Building and monitoring the capacity of program partners to deliver EBIs through technical assistance and training is important. In addition, partnering with schools leads to reaching more youth. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Galloway, Charlotte T.; Duffy, Jennifer L.; Dixon, Rena P.; Fuller, Taleria R.
Purpose Reducing disparities in teen pregnancy and birth rates among African American and Latina teens is a central focus of a community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative implemented by the South Carolina Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. Disparities in teen pregnancy and birth rates are driven, in part, by differential access to contraception and reproductive health care services. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand African American and Latino teens? 1) preferen...
Koleva, Hristina; Stuart, Scott
Depression in adolescent pregnancy is common but underrecognized and can be associated with negative medical outcomes. This brief report examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and various demographic and obstetrical risk factors, as well as the use of antidepressants in pregnant adolescents of late teenage years. Data were derived from a relatively large sample (506 women) recruited from university-based and community mental health centers in Iowa. A cross-sectional analysis did not reveal significant statistical associations between the risk factors and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory). Antidepressant use was very low (3.7 %), and adolescents with higher depression scores were more likely to take medications. In conclusion, screening for depression in pregnant adolescents should be universal, regardless of demographic and obstetrical risk factors, and promptly addressed.
Green, Jennifer; Oman, Roy F; Lu, Minggen; Clements-Nolle, Kristen D
Youth in out-of-home care have higher rates of sexual risk behaviors and pregnancy than youth nationally. This study aimed to determine if Power Through Choices (PTC), a teen pregnancy prevention program developed for youth in out-of-home care, significantly improves knowledge and psychosocial outcomes regarding HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), sexual activity and contraception methods, long term. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with 1,036 ethnically diverse youths (aged 13-18 years) recruited from 44 residential group homes in three states. Intervention participants received the 10-session PTC intervention; control participants received usual care. Participants were administered self-report surveys at baseline, after intervention, 6 and 12 months after the intervention. Survey items assessed knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions regarding HIV and STIs, sexual activity and contraception methods. Random intercept logistic regression analyses were used to assess differences between the intervention and control groups. Compared with youth in the control group, youth in the PTC intervention demonstrated significant improvements in knowledge about anatomy and fertility (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.11), HIV and STIs (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.002-1.07), and methods of protection (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.03-1.09), as well as self-efficacy regarding self-efficacy to communicate with a partner (AOR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.04-1.26), plan for protected sex and avoid unprotected sex (AOR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.04-1.28), and where to get methods of birth control (AOR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.01-1.26) 12 months after the intervention. Findings suggest that the PTC intervention can have positive long-term knowledge and psychosocial effects regarding contraception methods on youth in out-of-home care. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by
Okwumabua, T M; Okwumabua, J O; Elliott, V
Strategies must be developed to address the high rate of adolescent pregnancy among Blacks in the US and the adverse consequences of premature parenting. A number of programs and strategies have been developed and are being implemented in various sites across the US. The "Let the Circle Be Unbroken: Rites of Passage" program is an effort to incorporate an Afrocentric conceptual model into a prevention program. It involves adapting socialization processes often observed in African cultures, which openly acknowledge the need to formally help adolescents during their transition from childhood to adulthood. That socialization process tends to be a cultural experience which requires that ideology, education, training, and culture be taught before an activity or celebration marking the successful transition from one stage of development to another. The "Rites of Passage" approach follows these basic premises to teach adolescents the knowledge and skills needed to become responsible community members and spiritually mature adults. It is specifically designed to help young people build self-esteem; enhance self-image; develop leadership skills, cultural awareness, and appreciation; and make healthy, productive, and self-affirming life choices.
Manaseri, Holly; Uehara, Denise; Roberts, Kelly
The overall extent of evidence-based culturally responsive health education programs targeting ethnic minority groups in Hawai'i is limited. The few that do exist were adapted from models developed with other majority ethnic groups in mind and may not always be appropriate for Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander youth (Okamoto et al. in J Alcohol Drug Educ 54(1):56-75, 2010; Helm and Baker in J Ethn Cult Divers Soc Work 20(2):131-149, 2011; Po'a-Kekuawela et al. in J Ethn Cult Divers Soc Work 18(3):242-258, 2009). The need for a culturally responsive, evidence-based health curriculum is clear considering the large disparities reported among Hawaiian youth in health, academic achievement, and other identified risk factors. School-based health interventions are an opportunity not only to improve the physical well being of students, but also to increase their ability to learn and succeed in school. The University of Hawai'i at Manoa-Center on Disability Studies (UH-CDS) received a highly competitive grant from the US Office of Adolescent Health to develop a teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention curriculum for Hawai'i middle school youth. The authors will detail a collaborative process that led to a culturally responsive sexual health curriculum for middle school youth designed to meet the rigorous standards of an evidenced-based review and more importantly reduce teen pregnancies and STI transmission.
Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr.
The marital histories of 203 young women who became premaritally pregnant in their early teens and 90 of their classmates most of whom married before pregnancy show that disruption in the courtship process and limited economic resources are the most important factors in marital dissolution. (Author/AM)
National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.
This guide discusses the importance of parent influence in preventing teen pregnancy, offering insights from research regarding: closeness between parents and their children; parent-child communication; parental attitudes and values about abstinence and/or the dangers of unprotected sex; parents' reluctance to discuss the issue; parental…
Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Romero, Lisa; Spitz, Alison; Gavin, Lorrie; Barfield, Wanda
Teens who give birth at age 15-17 years are at increased risk for adverse medical and social outcomes of teen pregnancy. To examine trends in the rate and proportion of births to teens aged 15-19 years that were to teens aged 15-17 years, CDC analyzed 1991-2012 National Vital Statistics System data. National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) data from 2006-2010 were used to examine sexual experience, contraceptive use, and receipt of prevention opportunities among female teens aged 15-17 years. During 1991-2012, the rate of births per 1,000 teens declined from 17.9 to 5.4 for teens aged 15 years, 36.9 to 12.9 for those aged 16 years, and 60.6 to 23.7 for those aged 17 years. In 2012, the birth rate per 1,000 teens aged 15-17 years was higher for Hispanics (25.5), non-Hispanic blacks (21.9), and American Indians/Alaska Natives (17.0) compared with non-Hispanic whites (8.4) and Asians/Pacific Islanders (4.1). The rate also varied by state, ranging from 6.2 per 1,000 teens aged 15-17 years in New Hampshire to 29.0 in the District of Columbia. In 2012, there were 86,423 births to teens aged 15-17 years, accounting for 28% of all births to teens aged 15-19 years. This percentage declined from 36% in 1991 to 28% in 2012 (pteens aged 15-17 years received formal sex education on birth control or how to say no to sex, 24% had not spoken with parents about either topic; among sexually experienced female teens, 83% reported no formal sex education before first sex. Among currently sexually active female teens (those who had sex within 3 months of the survey) aged 15-17 years, 58% used clinical birth control services in the past 12 months, and 92% used contraception at last sex; however, only 1% used the most effective reversible contraceptive methods. Births to teens aged 15-17 years have declined but still account for approximately one quarter of births to teens aged 15-19 years. These data highlight opportunities to increase younger teens exposure to interventions that delay
... Turner Syndrome Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search PCOS for Teens September 2013 Download PDFs English Espanol ... PCOS Challenge womenshealth.gov Teens Health What is PCOS? PCOS, which stands for polycystic ovary syndrome, is ...
Gunaratne, Shauna; Masinter, Lisa; Kolak, Marynia; Feinglass, Joe
We analyzed community area differences in teen births in Chicago, Illinois, from 1999 to 2009. We analyzed the association between changes in teen birth rates and concurrent measures of community area socioeconomic and demographic change. Mean annual changes in teen birth rates in 77 Chicago community areas were correlated with concurrent census-based population changes during the decade. Census measures included changes in race/ethnicity, adult high school dropouts, poverty or higher-income households, crowded housing, unemployment, English proficiency, foreign-born residents, or residents who moved in the last five years. We included non-collinear census measures with a pbirths in a stepwise multiple linear regression model. Teen birth rates in Chicago fell faster than the overall birth rates, from 85 births per 1,000 teens in 1999 to 57 births per 1,000 teens in 2009. There were strong positive associations between increases in the percentage of residents who were black and Hispanic, poor, without a high school diploma, and living in crowded housing, and a negative association with an increase in higher-income households. Population changes in poverty, Hispanic population, and high school dropouts were the only significant measures in the final model, explaining almost half of the variance in teen birth rate changes. The study provides a model of census-based measures that can be used to evaluate predicted vs. observed rates of change in teen births across communities, offering the potential to more appropriately prioritize public health resources for preventing unintended teen pregnancy.
... episodes, or a mix of both types. Some teens will try to hide depression or thoughts of suicide. They might withdraw, or act out. This can ... teen depression? What should I do if my teen is depressed? Did I do ... antidepressants cause suicide? Once my teenager is treated for suicide or ...
Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Poon, Colleen S.; Homma, Yuko; Skay, Carol L.
Over the past decade, several large-scale school-based studies of adolescents in Canada and the U.S. have documented health disparities for lesbian, gay and bisexual teens compared to their heterosexual peers, such as higher rates of suicide attempts, homelessness, and substance use. Many of these disparities have been linked to “enacted stigma,” or the higher rates of harassment, discrimination, and sexual or physical violence that sexual minority youth experience at home, at school, and in ...
Canada, M J
The networking approach to providing needed services to pregnant and parenting teenagers has numerous merits. An historical overview of the formation of the Brooklyn Teen Pregnancy Network highlights service agency need for information and resource sharing, and improved client referral systems as key factors in the genesis of the Network. The borough-wide approach and its spread as an agency model throughout New York City's other boroughs and several other northeastern cities is also attributed to its positive client impact, including: improved family communication and cooperation; early prenatal care with its concomitant improved pregnancy outcomes; financial support for teens; continued teen education; and parenting skills development. Resource information is provided regarding networks operating in the Greater New York metropolitan area. A planned Eastern Regional network initiative is under development.
Mains, Tyler E; Wilcox, Mark V; Wright, Scott M
Less than 6% of U.S. medical school applicants are African-American. The lack of diversity among physicians, by race as well as other measures, confers a negative impact on the American healthcare system because underrepresented minority (URM) physicians are more likely to practice in underserved communities and deliver more equitable, culturally competent care. MERIT (Medical Education Resources Initiative for Teens) is a nonprofit organization based in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. MERIT prepares URM high school students for health careers by providing a holistic support system for seven consecutive years. The program model, which utilizes weekly Saturday sessions, summer internships, and longitudinal mentoring, is built on four foundational pillars: (1) Ignite the Fire, (2) Illuminate the Path, (3) Create the Toolkit, and (4) Sustain the Desire. Since 2011, MERIT has supported 51 students in the Baltimore City Public School System. For the past two years, 100% (n = 14) of MERIT seniors enrolled in universities, compared to only 20.2% of Baltimore City students overall. While it is too early to know whether MERIT alumni will realize their goals of becoming healthcare professionals, they are currently excelling in universities and over 75% (n = 17) are still planning to pursue graduate degrees in health-related fields. After piloting an effective program model, MERIT now has three key priorities moving forward: (1) Creating a sustainable and thriving organization, (2) increasing the number of scholars the program supports in Baltimore, and (3) expanding MERIT to other cities.
Brown, Emma; Hotham, Elizabeth; Hotham, Neil
Product information is a popular medicines information resource; however, there is some evidence that its pregnancy and lactation information is overconservative, which can lead to inadequate treatment of pregnant and lactating women. A thorough analysis of pregnancy and lactation information within Australian Product Information and Consumer Medicines Information was performed. The statements within these resources were compared with established clinical resources: Australian Medicines Handbook, Therapeutic Guidelines, South Australian Perinatal Practice Guidelines, Organization of Teratology Information Specialists, LactMed, Motherisk and the Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Medicines Guide published by the Royal Women's Hospital Melbourne. Product Information was found to be the most cautious resource, with 44.5% of pregnancy recommendations and 69% of lactation recommendations reviewed being more conservative than other resources. Product Information is an imperfect and often overconservative reference for pregnant and lactating women. Health professionals are urged to review established clinical resources to inform decision making.
Teen depression - helping; Teen depression - talk therapy; Teen depression - medicine ... teen the most. The most effective treatments for depression are: Talk therapy Antidepressant medicines If your teen ...
Odimegwu, Clifford; Mkwananzi, Sibusiso
This study aimed to assess the contextual factors associated with teenage pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa. Using DHS data we modelled females aged 15-19 with multilevel logistic regression to establish the independent influence of social disadvantage on teenage pregnancy in West, East and Southern Africa with aid of the MLwiN programme. Results showed teenage pregnancy decreased in East Africa, plateaued in West Africa and increased slightly in Southern Africa between 1992 and 2011. Multilevel multivariate regression revealed teenage pregnancy was associated with family disruption (0.39; 0.40: Ppoverty (1.01; 1.02: PAfrica, while only community poverty (1.01; PAfrica. Our findings emphasise the necessity of creating regional-specific interventions and prevention campaigns to address multilevel factors such as family disruption as well as the need for governments to address issues of unemployment, poverty and inequality.
Johnston Polacek, Georgia N. L.; Rojas, Viviana; Levitt, Steven; Mika, Virginia Seguin
Little is known about Hispanic teens' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors and their relationship to media influences. Information about this relationship could contribute to an understanding of the early onset of sexual behavior and early teen pregnancy. This paper reports preliminary findings from a pilot project conducted to determine…
What is depression in teens? Teen depression is a serious medical illness. It's more than just a feeling of being sad or "blue" for a few days. It is ... trouble focusing and have no motivation or energy. Depression can make you feel like it is hard ...
Marseille, Elliot; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Biggs, M Antonia; P Miller, Amanda; Horvath, Hacsi; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Malekinejad, Mohsen; Kahn, James G
School-based programs have been a mainstay of youth pregnancy prevention efforts in the USA. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess their effectiveness. Eligible studies evaluated the effect on pregnancy rates of programs delivered in elementary, middle, or high schools in the USA and Canada, published between January 1985 and September 2016. The primary outcome was pregnancy; secondary outcomes were delay in sexual initiation, condom use, and oral contraception use. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs with comparator groups were eligible. We developed a comprehensive search strategy, applied to major bibliographic databases, article bibliographies, gray literature, and contact with authors. We calculated risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each outcome and pooled data in random effects meta-analysis. We used Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) to assess evidence quality. Ten RCTs and 11 non-RCTs conducted from 1984 to 2016 yielded 30 unique pooled comparisons for pregnancy, of which 24 were not statistically significant. Six showed statistically significant changes in pregnancy rates: two with increased risk (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.65; and RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.10-1.75) and four with decreased risk ranging from RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.41-0.77, to RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58-0.96. All studies were at high risk of bias, and the quality of evidence was low or very low. Identified evidence indicated no consistent difference in rates of pregnancies between intervention recipients and controls.
This article examines the medical aspects of young, unmarried pregnancy in the early post-WWII period. It explores the roles played by physicians and nurses, their prescriptions for prenatal care, their psychologizing of girls' problems, and the nature of girls' hospital experiences. That these patients were indeed seen as "girls" and not women, is a central point; in fact, age, and the perception of what it meant to be "teenaged," significantly shaped the perception, treatment, and experience of unmarried pregnancy in these years.
Joshi, S.P.; Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.
Using Hofstede’s cultural dimension of masculinity/femininity, this quantitative content analysis investigated the coverage of virginity loss (i.e., occurrence, tone, and association with negative consequences) and pregnancy (i.e., occurrence, tone, and negative consequence of sex) in 2,496 feature
Joshi, Suchi P.; Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M.
Using Hofstede's cultural dimension of masculinity/femininity, this quantitative content analysis investigated the coverage of virginity loss (i.e., occurrence, tone, and association with negative consequences) and pregnancy (i.e., occurrence, tone, and negative consequence of sex) in 2,496 feature stories from all issues of three U.S. and three…
Rolleri, Lori A.; Fuller, Taleria R.; Firpo-Triplett, Regina; Lesesne, Catherine A.; Moore, Claire; Leeks, Kimberly D.
Evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are effective in preventing adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections; however, prevention practitioners are challenged when selecting and adapting the most appropriate programs. While there are existing adaptation frameworks, there is little practical guidance in applying research in the field.…
Killebrew, Alyssa E.; Smith, Michelle L.; Nevels, Robert M.; Weiss, Nicole H.; Gontkovsky, Samuel T.
This study examined the associations among three external variables (Peer Substance Use Before Sex, Peer Number of Children, and Parental Influence and Substance Use Before Sex and History of Pregnancy) identified on the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey and a demographic survey, using Bandura's Social Learning Theory as an interpretive…
AJRH Managing Editor
ultrasound guided approach with dilatation of uterine cervix and subsequent evacuation of uterine ... Keywords: caesarean scar pregnancy, transrectal ultrasound guided surgical approach. ... a viable embryo with a crown rump length (CRL).
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Teen violence refers to harmful behaviors that can start early and continue into young adulthood. The young person can ... victim, an offender, or a witness to the violence. Violent acts can include Bullying Fighting, including punching, ...
... time when they have been taught that showing emotion is something that girls do – but macho guys ... not caring about anything and a lack of motivation or interest. Help the teen understand that these ...
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Karina Ivonne Trinidad-Noguera
Full Text Available A qualitative study was conducted in the VIFAC house at Veracruz, Mexico; pregnant teenagers who attended this institution where interviewed. Based on the data obtained from the investigation, we observed risk factors that exponentially increased that teenage girls between 12 and 19 years of age get pregnant, viewed from the perspective of own teenager. This study was conducted on a sample of 16 participants divided in two groups, one of pregnant teenagers and one with parent and / or guardian of these, so get a broader situation of each scenario and to evaluate how each of the factors were influencing their environment so that pregnancy is arrived at such young age, for which we apply two types of semi-structured interview depending on the group to which they belonged.
Patel, Payal H; Sen, Bisakha
The objective of this article is to examine the association of teen motherhood and long-term physical and mental health outcomes. The physical and mental health components (PCS and MCS) of the SF-12 Healthy Survey in the NLSY79 health module were used to assess long-term health outcomes of women who experienced teenage motherhood. Various familial, demographic, and environmental characteristics were indentified and controlled for that may have predicted teen motherhood and long-term health outcomes. The two comparison groups for teen mothers were women who experienced teen-pregnancy only and women who were engaged in unprotected sexual activity as a teenage but did not experience pregnancy. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression was used for analysis. The average PCS and MCS for teen mothers was 49.91 and 50.89, respectively. Teen mothers exhibited poorer physical health later in life compared to all women as well as the comparison groups. When controlling for age, teen mothers had significantly lower PCS and MCS scores compared to all other women. Furthermore, when controlling for familial, demographic, and environmental characteristics, teen mothers exhibited significantly lower PCS and MCS scores. When comparing teen mothers to the two comparison groups, PCS was not statistically different although MCS was significantly lower in the teen-pregnancy group. Teen motherhood does lead to poorer physical health outcomes later in life. On the other hand, poorer mental health outcomes in later life may be attributed to the unmeasured factors leading to a teen pregnancy and not teen motherhood itself. Additional research needs to be conducted on the long-term consequences of teen motherhood.
Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Romero, Lisa; Spitz, Alison; Gavin, Lorrie; Barfield, Wanda
Background Teens who give birth at age 15–17 years are at increased risk for adverse medical and social outcomes of teen pregnancy. Methods To examine trends in the rate and proportion of births to teens aged 15–19 years that were to teens aged 15–17 years, CDC analyzed 1991–2012 National Vital Statistics System data. National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) data from 2006–2010 were used to examine sexual experience, contraceptive use, and receipt of prevention opportunities among female teens aged 15–17 years. Results During 1991–2012, the rate of births per 1,000 teens declined from 17.9 to 5.4 for teens aged 15 years, 36.9 to 12.9 for those aged 16 years, and 60.6 to 23.7 for those aged 17 years. In 2012, the birth rate per 1,000 teens aged 15–17 years was higher for Hispanics (25.5), non-Hispanic blacks (21.9), and American Indians/Alaska Natives (17.0) compared with non-Hispanic whites (8.4) and Asians/Pacific Islanders (4.1). The rate also varied by state, ranging from 6.2 per 1,000 teens aged 15–17 years in New Hampshire to 29.0 in the District of Columbia. In 2012, there were 86,423 births to teens aged 15–17 years, accounting for 28% of all births to teens aged 15–19 years. This percentage declined from 36% in 1991 to 28% in 2012 (pteens aged 15–17 years received formal sex education on birth control or how to say no to sex, 24% had not spoken with parents about either topic; among sexually experienced female teens, 83% reported no formal sex education before first sex. Among currently sexually active female teens (those who had sex within 3 months of the survey) aged 15–17 years, 58% used clinical birth control services in the past 12 months, and 92% used contraception at last sex; however, only 1% used the most effective reversible contraceptive methods. Conclusions Births to teens aged 15–17 years have declined but still account for approximately one quarter of births to teens aged 15–19 years. Implications for public health
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Tang, Jennifer; Nour, Nawal M
There are 33.4 million people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Globally, HIV/AIDS is the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age. In the United States and other developed countries, aggressive efforts to treat HIV-positive pregnant women with highly active antiretroviral therapy have decreased the maternal-to-child transmission (MTCT) from over 20% to less than 2%. However, in resource-poor settings, access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not readily available, and perinatal transmission rates remain as high as 45%. Women are at greater risk of heterosexual transmission of HIV, which is compounded by lack of condom use, imbalance of social power, and the high fertility rate. Prevention programs are needed to empower and educate women and engender community awareness for condom use. Prenatal screening and treatment, intrapartum ART, and postpartum prophylaxis must be made available to all women and children to prevent MTCT. PMID:20842284
Gravidez na adolescência: valores e reações dos membros da família Embarazo en la adolescencia: valores y reacciones de los miembors de la familia Teen pregnancy: values and reactions of family members
Luiza Akiko Komura Hoga
Full Text Available Objetivo: Descrever as experiências dos membros da família a respeito da gravidez na adolescência. Métodos: Na pesquisa, desenvolvida com a abordagem qualitativa, utilizou-se a análise da narrativa para sistematizar os dados. Resultados: Das narrativas de 19 entrevistados emergiram três categorias descritivas: Valores familiares e orientações fornecidas; O recebimento da notícia e as providências tomadas e O suporte fornecido. Conclusões: A gravidez ocorreu em um contexto de organização familiar sólida e as trajetórias das mulheres adolescentes após o nascimento da criança foram marcadas por alianças e suporte da rede social. A constituição do novo núcleo familiar foi caracterizada pela existência de apoio material e afetivo dos membros da família.Objetivo: describir las experiencias de los miembros de la familia respecto al embarazo en la adolescencia. Métodos: En la investigación, desarrollada con abordaje cualitativo, se utilizó el análisis de la narración para sistematizar los datos. Resultados: Entre las narraciones de 19 entrevistados emergieron tres categorías descriptivas: a Valores familiares y orientaciones ofrecidas; b La recepción de la noticia y las providencias tomadas y c El soporte ofrecido. Conclusiones: El embarazo ocurrió en un contexto de organización familiar sólida y las trayectorias de las mujeres adolescentes después del nacimiento del niño fueron marcadas por alianzas y soporte de la red social. La constitución del nuevo núcleo familiar fue caracterizada por la existencia de apoyo material y afectivo de los miembros de la familia.Objective: To describe the experience of 19 family members regarding teen pregnancy. Methods: This was a qualitative study using narrative analysis approach. Results: Three categories emerged: a family values and sexual orientations given; b receiving the pregnancy news and arrangements made; and, c providing support tot eh pregnant teen. Conclusions: Teen
Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde
Most pregnant women are exposed to some physical activity at work. This Concise Guidance is aimed at doctors advising healthy women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies about the risks arising from five common workplace exposures (prolonged working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and hea...... on pregnancy. Moreover, moderate physical exercise is thought to be healthy in pregnancy and most pregnant women undertake some physical work at home. The guidelines provide risk estimates and advice on counselling....
Full Text Available ... ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and ... on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & Governance ...
... risk of transmission to 2%. 11 Age Teen pregnancy. Pregnant teens are more likely to develop high blood pressure ... from https://www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/teen/dating-sex/Pages/Teenage-Pregnancy.aspx Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child ...
Annie E. Casey Foundation, Baltimore, MD.
In the 1990s, teen pregnancy and birth rates in the United States declined significantly. Researchers cite two main factors: fewer teens are having sex, and among those who are, more are using contraception. Despite these positive trends, there are still about one million pregnancies and about half a million births each year to young women aged 15…
... current.html ACOG Committee on Obstetric Practice and Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine. (2013; Reaffirmed 2015). Committee Opinion No. 579. Definition of term pregnancy. Retrieved May 20, 2016, from ...
John, Celestine Osita; Korubo, Kaladada; Ogu, Rosemary; Mmom, Chigozirim Faith; Mba, Alpheus Gogo; Chidiadi, Ezenwa-Ahanene; Akani, Chris
Aplastic anaemia occurring in pregnancy is a rare event with life threatening challenges for both mother and child. We present a successful fetomaternal outcome despite the challenges in the management of this rare condition in a tertiary but resource poor centre. This is case of a 37 year old Nigerian woman G6P0 +5 managed with repeated blood transfusions from 28 weeks of gestation for bone marrow biopsy confirmed aplastic anaemia following presentation with weakness and gingival bleeds. She had a cesarean section at 37 weeks for pre-eclampsia and oligohydraminous with good feto-maternal outcome. She was managed entirely with fresh whole blood and received 21 units. Aplastic Anaemia in Pregnancy is a rare event with poor feto maternal prognosis. Successful management is possible with good multi-disciplinary approach and availability of supportive comprehensive obstetric care.
Addressing a Critical Gap in U.S. National Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs: The Acceptability and Feasibility of Father-Based Sexual and Reproductive Health Interventions for Latino Adolescent Males.
Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bowman, Alex S; Santa Maria, Diane; Kabemba, Francesca; Geronimo, Yoyce
The purpose of the research was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a father-based sexual and reproductive health intervention designed to reduce sexual and reproductive (SRH) disparities and increase correct and consistent condom use among Latino adolescent males. The current study conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with Latino father-son dyads (N=30) designed to elicit perspectives on communication regarding sex and condom use. In addition, the interview protocol included father-son preferences regarding paternal involvement in condom instruction and perceived obstacles and advantages of father direct involvement in education efforts designed to increase correct and consistent condom use among their adolescent sons. Three independent coders conducted both vertical and horizontal analyses of the data to identify emergent themes and reach theoretical saturation. The main findings from this study suggest that Latino fathers can be impactful in shaping Latino adolescent male sexual decision-making and correct and consistent condom use. However, our data highlight that while both feasible and acceptable, Latino fathers identify needing additional support in how best to communicate and seek opportunities to master their own knowledge and skills regarding condom use and effective communication with their adolescent sons about sex. Latino father-based interventions represent an acceptable and feasible option for building upon the recent success of U.S. national efforts to reduce teen pregnancy rates and STI disparities among Latino youth. However, there exists a need for father-based programs that will support Latino fathers in best educating their sons about condom use and better addressing their SRH. Ongoing national efforts to reduce Latino teen SRH disparities warrant the consideration of father-son interventions for Latino adolescent males in the United States. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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A study from Safe Kids Worldwide, made possible by a grant from the General Motors Foundation, surveyed 1,000 teens to learn why more teens die in motor vehicle crashes than from any other cause of death. The report highlights why teens don’t always buckle up, explores their texting and distraction
Mollborn, Stefanie; Woo, Juhee; Rogers, Richard G.
BACKGROUND Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. OBJECTIVE This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. METHODS Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529). RESULTS The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. CONTRIBUTION This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship between teen childbearing and
Full Text Available Background: Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. Objective: This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. Methods: Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529. Results: The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. Conclusions: The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. Contribution: This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship
Mollborn, Stefanie; Woo, Juhee; Rogers, Richard G
Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529). The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking.
Williamson, Graham R; O'Connor, Anita; Chamberlain, Chervonne; Halpin, David
A discussion of methodological issues and social media recruitment to a feasibility study to investigate mHealth resources for asthma and pregnancy care. pregnant women with asthma are reported to be poorly supported according to international research. We sought to establish if a mHealth intervention might be feasible and acceptable to them. a Phase I or modelling study. A project team designed an intervention to address UK national guidelines for the management of asthma during pregnancy, using other resources already accessible on the web. This was made available on a project website optimized for mobile phone usage. Links were Tweeted and advertised on Facebook, asking participants to access the project website, which included links to the resources and before- and after-use questionnaires to establish baseline symptom data and participant views of the resources. Despite 55,700 Twitter impressions in a 76 day period over winter 2016-2017, this recruitment strategy garnered 402 engagements but only seven respondents for questionnaire 1 and zero respondents for questionnaire 2. We could not recruit to this study despite believing that social media recruitment would be effective, and we recommend that social media recruitment be used cautiously. Apparently, we did not sufficiently address theoretical aspects of communications theory and were not clear enough about our key messages. Publication bias may exist regarding the non-publication of other failed telemedicine studies using social media; this goes largely unreported in some systematic reviews and may influence researchers' decision-making regarding social media recruitment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Discusses teenage pregnancy and sexuality and suggests ways in which librarians can help provide access to appropriate and needed information. Highlights include developing policies and procedures for dealing with sexual issues, collection development, organizing information and making it accessible, and a brief teen pregnancy bibliography. (LRW)
Alstveit, Marit; Karlsen, Bjørg
The number of women in paid employment is increasing. However, when becoming a mother for the first time, many seem unprepared for the challenge of balancing motherhood and work as well as for the impact on their health. The aim of this study was to investigate the health resources and strategies of employed women in Norway during pregnancy and early motherhood by means of salutogenic theory. A hypothetical-deductive interpretive approach based on Antonovsky's salutogenic theory was applied in a secondary analysis. A total of six themes were identified; three were classified as health resources when experiencing tension and three as health strategies. Salutogenic theory seems to be a useful framework for illuminating the health resources and strategies adopted by employed women who become mothers. The identified health resources when experiencing tension and the health strategies applied may have implications for maternity care professionals and employers in promoting the health of such women and supporting them to combine work and family life. PMID:25945258
Grajewski, Barbara; Rocheleau, Carissa M; Lawson, Christina C; Johnson, Candice Y
Authoritative information on occupational reproductive hazards is scarce and complex because exposure levels vary, multiple exposures may be present, and the reproductive toxicity of many agents remains unknown. For these reasons, women's health providers may find it challenging to effectively address workplace reproductive health issues with their patients who are pregnant, breast-feeding, or considering pregnancy. Reproductive epidemiologists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health answered >200 public requests for occupational reproductive health information during 2009 through 2013. The most frequent occupations represented were health care (41%) and laboratory work (18%). The most common requests for exposure information concerned solvents (14%), anesthetic gases (10%), formaldehyde (7%), infectious agents in laboratories (7%) or health care settings (7%), and physical agents (14%), including ionizing radiation (6%). Information for developing workplace policies or guidelines was sought by 12% of the requestors. Occupational exposure effects on breast-feeding were an increasing concern among working women. Based on information developed in response to these requestors, information is provided for discussing workplace exposures with patients, assessing potential workplace reproductive hazards, and helping patients determine the best options for safe work in pregnancy. Appendices provide resources to address specific occupational exposures, employee groups, personal protective equipment, breast-feeding, and workplace regulations regarding work and pregnancy. These tools can help identify those most at risk of occupational reproductive hazards and improve workers' reproductive health. The information can also be used to inform research priorities and assist the development of workplace reproductive health policies. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Bonell, Chris; Maisey, Ruth; Speight, Svetlana; Purdon, Susan; Keogh, Peter; Wollny, Ivonne; Sorhaindo, Annik; Wellings, Kaye
We conducted an independent evaluation of the "Teens and Toddlers" intervention. Our randomized trial examined effects on self-reported last sex without contraception, >1 episode of sex without contraception in previous 3 months, expectation of teenage parenthood and youth development score, plus secondary outcomes among 449 at-risk girls age 13/14 in England. The intervention involves 18-20 weekly sessions in pre-school nurseries. Response rates were 95% post-intervention and 91% one year later. At follow-up two, there was no evidence of intervention benefits for primary outcomes and a positive impact for our secondary outcome, low self-esteem. At follow-up one, there was no evidence of benefits for our primary outcomes but evidence of benefits for our secondary outcomes: low self-esteem; low sexual health knowledge; and difficulty discussing the contraceptive pill. The intervention should be refined, with a clearer logic model and more emphasis on sex education, and re-evaluated. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
First-time pregnancy is a time of huge physical and emotional change and women often need support. One way of providing this is to provide wellbeing information. However, pregnant women are bombarded with information, much of it generic, conflicting or anecdotal. Large numbers of women look for information and advice online, increasingly engaging with alternative forms of ‘expert’ information, in the form of other people’s experiences. This context provides a unique opportunity for digital resources to act as preventative medicine: bringing women together in a safe online environment allows them to speak freely, develop practical skills and feel supported as they become parents. This in turn relieves healthcare burden by preventing negative maternal and neonatal outcomes. This project will determine the context-driven user needs and requirements of a unique group of people and demonstrates the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to the development of pragmatic digital health solutions.
Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy, unsafe abortion methods and the high incidence of HI V infections among young people are of great concern to the South African public. Due to the lack of accurate information and understanding, some adolescents are forced to succumb to early motherhood from unplanned pregnancies or opt for back-street abortion with at times fatal results. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted in 2003 to determine the adolescents’ perceptions towards factors on the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy (CTOP and the constraints in accessing TOP services. A purposive sampling technique that enabled experts such as health workers to identify suitable candidates for the investigation was employed. Twenty-four (24 adolescents residing in the predominantly rural area of Nkumpi-Lepelle in the Limpopo Province agreed to participate in the focus group interviews. The major findings indicated that most adolescents were uninformed about CTOP. This is attributed to the lack of coordination among health professionals and educators in the dissemination of information. The overwhelming majority of the respondents expressed discomfort at receiving termination of pregnancy services from the local public clinics and hospitals as they regarded such facilities as youth unfriendly. The adolescents also required provision of pre- and post-counselling services for adolescents who would like to terminate pregnancy.
... Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions ... en español Tipos de cáncer que padecen los adolescentes Cancer is rare in teens. Certain diseases like ...
Jennings, J. M.; Howard, S.; Perotte, C. L.
This study evaluated the impact of the Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), a peer-led sexuality education program designed to prevent unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV among high school students. The study design was a quasi-experimental, nonrandomized design conducted from May 2007 to May 2008. The sample consisted of 96 intervention (i.e. Teen PEP peer educators) and 61 comparison students from five high schools in New Jersey. Baseline a...
Fatores associados à recorrência da gravidez na adolescência em uma maternidade escola: estudo caso-controle Factores asociados con la recurrencia de embarazos de adolescentes en una maternidad escuela: estudio de casos y controles A case-control study of factors associated with repeat teen pregnancy based on a sample from a university maternity hospital
Full Text Available Recorrência da gravidez na adolescência é uma situação frequente, sendo considerada como um fator agravante tanto para o aumento da morbidade materna e fetal quanto para aumento de problemas sociais. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar fatores associados à recorrência de gravidez em adolescentes. Realizou-se estudo caso-controle com puérperas, incluindo 90 adolescentes com mais de uma gravidez (caso e 90 adultas, mulheres que tiveram uma gestação na adolescência, mas que não recorreram (controle. Para análise estatística, utilizou-se regressão logística hierarquizada, com nível de significância de 5%. Os fatores que permaneceram associados à recorrência da gravidez na adolescência foram: coitarca La recurrencia del embarazo en la adolescencia es una situación frecuente, siendo considerada como un factor agravante, tanto para el aumento de la morbilidad materna y fetal, como para el aumento de problemas sociales. El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar factores asociados a la recurrencia de embarazo en adolescentes. Se realizó un estudio de caso-control con puérperas, incluyendo 90 adolescentes con más de un embarazo (caso y 90 adultas, mujeres que tuvieron una gestación en la adolescencia, pero que no recurrieron (control. Para el análisis estadístico, se utilizó la regresión logística jerarquizada, con un nivel de significancia de un 5%. Los factores que permanecieron asociados a la recurrencia de embarazo en la adolescencia fueron: coitarca Repeat teen pregnancy is a frequent issue and is considered an aggravating factor for increased maternal and fetal morbidity and social problems. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with repeat teen pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted in 90 postpartum adolescents with more than one pregnancy (cases and 90 adult women with a history of only one pregnancy during adolescence (controls. Statistical analysis used hierarchical logistic
Herrman, Judith W; Nandakumar, Ratna
Initiatives designed to prevent teen pregnancy are often based on adult perceptions of the negative aspects of a teen birth. Qualitative research has revealed that teens may perceive positive rewards associated with teen parenting. These perceptions have not yet been examined through survey research. The theory of reasoned action proposes that individuals assess the costs and rewards prior to engaging in a behavior and provides a framework for the development of a survey instrument designed to measure adolescent thoughts about the costs and rewards of the teen parenting experience. This manuscript describes the development and testing of a quantitative survey instrument designed to measure adolescents' perceptions. Pretesting, piloting, exploratory factor analysis, and a variety of reliability and validity measures were used to determine the value of the measure. The thoughts on teen parenting survey (TTPS) demonstrates an alpha level of .90. The TTPS yields a cumulative score of teen perceptions about the impact of a teen birth during the adolescent years that may be used to assess youth beliefs, correlated with demographic data, used to identify teens at risk for pregnancy/parenting, or provide a pretest/posttest to assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to foster realistic attitudes toward teen parenting.
Hall, M.; Mayhew, M. A.
the significance of their own research and how best to communicate it. In addition to Members who offer Teen Cafés, we have Affiliate Organizations, including professional societies and research centers, which are actively helping us introduce the Teen Science Café model to their membership. Rather than being a collection of static, independent entities, Network Members and Affiliate Organizations are part of a dynamic network, a community of practice with active sharing of lessons learned, ideas for Café topics and formats, professional development in communicating with the public, expertise in social media, and many other resources. We want the Network as a whole to be much greater than the sum of its parts. To ensure the integrity of the Network, we are exploring strategies for effective growth, mechanisms for continual professional development for Café leaders, and collaborative approaches to sustainability. Any organization wishing to start a Teen Cafè can do so by registering on the Teen Science Café Network website and agreeing to adhere to five 'Core Design Principles.' We have resources to help others start a Teen Café, as it is part of the ethic of the Network that existing Members will actively help new Members start and successfully run a Teen Café program.
Lindner, A. Frances
This workbook is one component of the Career Survival Kit prepared for teenage parents in Wisconsin. The workbook is designed to help teen parents identify their choices in preventing another pregnancy. It presents some thoughts about sexual decisions and responsibility. Birth control methods are described to help teens decide the best method for…
Ikramullah, Erum; Manlove, Jennifer
Teens in the United States have high rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and recent data indicate that U.S. teens are engaging in riskier sexual behaviors. Male adolescents can help to lower these rates and risks by using condoms consistently with their sexual partners. Child Trends drew on national survey…
Holcombe, Emily; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer; Scarupa, Harriet J., Ed.
In 2002, Child Trends drew on statistics and research findings to produce a report called "Ten Reasons to Keep the Focus on Teen Childbearing." That report took note of the steady decline in the nation's teenage pregnancy and childbearing rates, beginning in 1991, while citing multiple reasons to continue to be concerned about teen childbearing.…
Ryan, Suzanne; Manlove, Jennifer; Franzetta, Kerry
Understanding characteristics of teens' sexual relationships may help us to better understand how to reduce teens' risk of early unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), as well as the psychological and emotional problems that may be associated with teenage romantic relationships and sexual activity. Using data from the…
Holcombe, Emily; Carrier, David; Manlove, Jennifer; Ryan, Suzanne
Teens typically fail to use contraceptives consistently, which contributes to high rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among this age group. Existing research has focused primarily on how teens' own characteristics are related to contraceptive use, but has paid less attention to how the characteristics of…
Jennings, J. M.; Howard, S.; Perotte, C. L.
This study evaluated the impact of the Teen Prevention Education Program (Teen PEP), a peer-led sexuality education program designed to prevent unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV among high school students. The study design was a quasi-experimental, nonrandomized design conducted from May 2007 to May…
Whelehan, Imelda, 1960-
online article - free to access This essay concerns itself with two examples of contemporary teen romance and examines the similarities with adult chick lit. These texts are compared with Judy Blume's classic 'Forever' written in 1975 to emphasis continuities between contemporary teen fiction and its more overty feminist forebears
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Goossens, Gwendoline; Kadji, Caroline; Delvenne, Veronique
Teen pregnancy remains a public health problem of varying importance in developing and developed countries. There are risks and consequences for teen parents and the child on the medical and socioeconomic level. We conducted a literature search on multiple databases, focusing on the risk and the consequences of teen pregnancy and childbearing. We used different combined keywords as teen pregnancy, teen mother, teenage parents, teenage childbearing, teenage mother depression. Our search included different type of journals to have access on different views (medical, psychological, epidemiologic). The teen mothers are more at risk for postnatal depression, school dropout and bad socioeconomic status. The babies and children are more at risk for prematurity and low birthweight and later for developmental delays and behavior disorders. Pregnancy in adolescence should be supported in an interdisciplinary way (gynecologist, psychologist, child psychiatrist, midwives, pediatrician). We need further studies that allow targeting patients most at risk and personalizing maximum support.
Teen childbearing has potential negative health, economic, and social consequences for mother and child. Repeat teen childbearing further constrains the mother's education and employment possibilities. Rates of preterm and low birth weight are higher in teens with a repeat birth, compared with first births. To assess patterns of repeat childbearing and postpartum contraceptive use among teens, CDC analyzed natality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) from 2007-2010. Based on 2010 NVSS data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia, of more than 367,000 births to teens aged 15-19 years, 18.3% were repeat births. The percentage of teen births that represented repeat births decreased by 6.2% between 2007 and 2010. Disparities in repeat teen births exist by race/ethnicity, with the highest percentages found among American Indian/Alaska Natives (21.6%), Hispanics (20.9%), and non-Hispanic blacks (20.4%) and lowest among non-Hispanic whites (14.8%). Wide geographic disparities in the percentage of teen births that were repeat births also exist, ranging from 22% in Texas to 10% in New Hampshire. PRAMS data from 16 reporting areas (15 states and New York City) indicate that 91.2% of teen mothers used a contraceptive method 2-6 months after giving birth, but only 22.4% of teen mothers used the most effective methods. Teens with a previous live birth were significantly more likely to use the most effective methods postpartum compared with those with no prior live birth (29.6% versus 20.9%, respectively). Non-Hispanic white and Hispanic teens were significantly more likely to use the most effective methods than non-Hispanic black teens (24.6% and 27.9% versus 14.3%, respectively). The percentage of teens reporting postpartum use of the most effective methods varied greatly geographically across the PRAMS reporting areas, ranging from 50.3% in Colorado to 7.2% in New York State. Although the
Alexander, Linda B., Ed.; Kwon, Nahyun, Ed.
"Multicultural Programs for Tweens and Teens" is a one-stop resource that encourages children and young adults to explore different cultures. Dozens of flexible programming ideas allow you to: (1) Choose a program specific to your scheduling, budget, or age group requirements; (2) Create an event that reflects a specific culture; and (3) Recommend…
Somers, Cheryl L.
This study evaluates the effectiveness of an experiential approach to teen pregnancy (TP) prevention called "Baby Think It Over," a computerized infant simulator, on adolescents' attitudes and behaviors regarding teen pregnancy and sexuality. Recently, a more realistic model called "Real Care Baby" was developed. The small amount of research on…
SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia
Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.
Donald, Sarah; Donoghue, Vicki; Dawley, Amy
Based on work with teen volunteers, teen advisory councils, teen reading buddy programs and anime and manga clubs, Sarah Donald, Vicki Donoghue and Amy Dawley discuss their successes with teenagers, and practical ways to serve teens in the community.
Martínez-García, Genevieve; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Atkinson, Nancy; Portnoy, Barry; Lee, Sunmin
Despite recent declines, Latinas bear a disproportionate burden of teen births. Understanding social, cultural, and demographic factors underlying pregnancy desire among Latino adolescents is needed to design effective teen pregnancy prevention interventions. A questionnaire was completed by 794 Latino youth including a "pregnancy wantedness…
Despite the number of teen pregnancy studies in the past, there is a dearth of empirical data relevant to the issue of psychosocial and/or developmental changes in adolescent mothers. Most previous studies have addressed the negative and devastating impact of teen pregnancy on adolescent development. The premise of these early studies was that adolescents have pathological reasons for becoming pregnant. Contrary to these studies, an underlying assumption of this study was that teen pregnancy ...
... That Can Go Wrong Print en español El sistema endocrino Ever dozed through chemistry class and wondered ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...
... More on this topic for: Teens What's a Healthy Alternative to Water? Compulsive Exercise IV (Video) Sports Center Caffeine Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea A Guide ...
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Meniscus Tears KidsHealth / For Teens / Meniscus Tears What's in this ... surgery to fix it. What Is a Meniscus Tear? Your knee is made up of three bones: ...
... genetic disorder called Marfan syndrome. What Is Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome is named after Antoine Marfan, the French ... immediately. What's Life Like for Teens With Marfan Syndrome? Marfan syndrome affects people differently, so life is not ...
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Delayed Puberty KidsHealth / For Teens / Delayed Puberty What's in this ... wonder if there's anything wrong. What Is Delayed Puberty? Puberty is the time when your body grows ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hemophilia KidsHealth / For Teens / Hemophilia What's in this article? ... bruises can be a big deal. What Is Hemophilia? Hemophilia is a disease that prevents blood from ...
... hospital or residential treatment center, in the juvenile justice system, abusing drugs, or committing suicide. Because children ... site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and ...
... the percentage of teens who misuse steroids. Swipe left or right to scroll. Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in ... Drugs of Abuse Discover what happens to the brain on drugs. ... vs. drug use. Read More » 92 Comments Dopers Downfall ...
... to help people figure out what's behind their stress — and then provide advice on how to fix problems or handle them better. What You Can Do The good news is belly pain isn't usually serious in teens. ...
Understanding Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet 2014 Dating violence is a type of intimate partner violence. It occurs between two people in a close relationship. The nature of dating violence can be physical, emotional, or sexual. • Physical— This ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Endometriosis KidsHealth / For Teens / Endometriosis What's in this article? ... doctor thought Anne might have endometriosis. What Is Endometriosis? When a woman has endometriosis, tissue that looks ...
... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Appendicitis in Teens Page Content Article Body Early adolescence ... it has no known function. Symptoms that Suggest Appendicitis may Include: Persistent abdominal pain that migrates from ...
Carroll, R M; Shepard, M P; Mahon, M M; Deatrick, J A; Orsi, A J; Moriarty, H J; Feetham, S L
A secondary data analysis of the National Commission on Children: 1990 Survey of Parents and Children was conducted with a subsample of 457 parent-teen pairs who responded to the "worry about AIDS" question. The teen's worry about contracting AIDS was associated with race, parent's education, the amount of discipline from the parent for engaging in sex, the teen's desire to talk to the parent about the problem of sex, the teen's rating of the neighborhood as a safe place to grow up, whether the parent listened to the teen's telephone interview, and the parent's response to whether his or her teen had a history of sexually transmitted disease. Of the parent-teen pairs in the subsample, 46% (N = 210) agreed in their responses about worry. Agreement was more frequent among the parent-teen pairs when compared to randomly constructed surrogate pairs. Dyadic analysis supported a family system view of perceived susceptibility.
Varcoe, Karen; Peterson, Shirley; Go, Charles; Johns, Margaret; René-Fitch, Paula; Powell, Carol; Costello, Connie
Teenagers have access to and spend a great deal of money each year, yet research indicates that their financial literacy is low. Many curricula for teaching money management exist, but we do not know if we are teaching teens what they want to know in a way that they want to learn. This study, conducted by the Money 2000+ for Teens Workgroup of the UC Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, sought to find out what teens want to know about financial management. Questionnaires were admini...
Rangmar, Jenny; Lilja, Maria; Köhler, Marie; Reuter, Antonia
This study examined medical and psychosocial risk factors in children born to women with addiction problems during pregnancy and the children's needs for extra medical and psychosocial resources. Swedish midwives routinely screen pregnant women for drugs and alcohol and refer women with addictions to the Maternity and Child Healthcare Resource Team. We investigated the medical records of 127 children (51% girls) whose mothers were referred to the Resource Team from 2009-2015. Additional data were obtained from local child healthcare services (CHS), which provide routine paediatric care. More than three-quarters (76%) of the children had prenatal exposure to alcohol and drugs and 17% were born with withdrawal symptoms. The mothers had a high rate of psychiatric diagnoses (38%) and were more likely to smoke after delivery and less likely to breastfeed than the general population. However, adherence to the CHS programme was generally high. Additional visits to the nurse, referrals to specialists, collaboration meetings and reports of concerns to social services decreased when the children began attending ordinary CHS centres. Children born to women with addictions during pregnancy faced a high risk of developmental problems and should be offered additional CHS resources to minimise negative long-term consequences. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Planning a pregnancy Lupus Foundation of America September 27, 2017 Resource ... History or presence of antiphospholipid antibodies Planning Your Pregnancy Although many lupus pregnancies will have no complications, ...
... for PTSD » Public » PTSD in Children and Teens PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here PTSD in Children and Teens Public This section is ...
Cota-Robles, Sonia; Pedersen, Laura; LeCroy, Craig Winston
The purpose of this study was to evaluate breastfeeding practices of teen mothers in a pre- and postnatal education and support program. We studied breastfeeding practices of primarily Hispanic and non-Hispanic White teen mothers who participated in the Teen Outreach Pregnancy Services (TOPS) program, which promoted breastfeeding through prenatal programming and postpartum support. Analyses identified the most common reasons participants had not breastfed and, for those who initiated breastfeeding, the most common reasons they stopped. Participants (g = 314) reported on whether and for how long they breastfed. Nearly all participants reported initiating breastfeeding but few breastfed to 6 months. For the most part, reasons they reported stopping breastfeeding paralleled those previously reported for adult mothers across the first several months of motherhood. We found that teen mothers can initiate breastfeeding at high rates. Results highlight areas in which teen mothers' knowledge and skills can be supported to promote breastfeeding duration, including pain management and better recognizing infant cues. Our findings expand limited previous research investigating reasons that teen mothers who initiate breastfeeding stop before 6 months.
Holcombe, Emily; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer
Despite media attention to teen sexual behavior and public concern about its consequences, the public is surprisingly ill-informed or misinformed on the subject. Yet without the facts, it is difficult to develop effective approaches to curb risky sexual behaviors and prevent teen pregnancy and STI transmission. This paper presents a true or false…
... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure Page Content Article Body Teens are more ... younger the first time they had intercourse. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure “The pressure on teenagers to have sex ...
Neuhaus, Carolyn Plunkett
On seeing promising results in a small number of patients, some researchers are conducting trials to determine whether deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN). This article asks whether we should open enrollment in trials of DBS for AN to adolescents. Despite concerns about informed consent, parental consent, and unforeseeable psychological sequelae, the article concludes that the risks to anorexic adolescents associated with participation in trials of DBS are reasonable considering the substantial risks of not enrolling teens with AN in research on DBS. The seriousness of AN, its high incidence in teens, and serious shortfalls in the AN treatment literature point to the need for improved, evidence-based treatments for teens with AN. This unmet need generates an obligation on the part of researchers and physicians to promote and conduct research on AN in adolescents.
Larsen, P. S.; Kamper-Jorgensen, M.; Adamson, A.; Barros, H.; Bonde, J. P.; Brescianini, S.; Brophy, S.; Cacas, M.; Devereux, G.; Eggesbø, M.; Fantini, M. P.; Frey, U.; Gehring, U.; Grazuleviciene, R.; Henriksen, T. B.; Hertz-Picciotto, I.; Heude, B.; Hryhorczuk, D.; Inskip, H.; Jaddoe, V. W. V.; Lawlor, D. A.; Ludvigsson, J.; Kelleher, C.; Kiess, W.; Koletzko, B.; Kuehni, C. E.; Kull, I.; Kyhl, H. B.; Magnus, P.; Momas, I.; Murray, D.; Pekkanen, J.; Polanska, K.; Porta, D.; Poulsen, G.; Richiardi, L.; Roeleveld, N.; Skovgaard, A. M.; Šrám, Radim; Strandberg-Larsen, K.; Thijs, C.; Van Eijsden, M.; Wright, J.; Vrijheid, M.; Andersen, A. M. N.
Roč. 27, č. 4 (2013), s. 393-414 ISSN 0269-5022 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : European pregnancy birth cohort * cohort characteristics * cross-cohort collaboration Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.811, year: 2013
... United States: the contribution of abstinence and improved contraceptive use. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(1):150-6. Lindberg LD, Santelli JS, Desai, S. Understanding the Decline in Adolescent Fertility in the United States, 2007–2012. J ...
Barczyk, Amanda N; Duzinski, Sarah V; Brown, Juliette M; Lawson, Karla A
Injury is a leading cause of death for infants and children. Teen mothering has been shown to put children at increased risk of injury. The mothers of teen parents often play a predominant role in the lives and caregiving of the children born to their children. This article presents the findings of three focus groups conducted with 21 mothers of teen parents. Grounded theory methodology was used to explore family dynamics and how they relate to injury prevention beliefs and practices regarding infants and children. Our findings revealed the difficulty mothers of teen parents and the teens themselves have in adjusting to the knowledge of the pregnancy. Unique barriers to injury prevention were also uncovered. Our findings provide evidence for the need of a multigenerational approach to programs aimed at improving the safety and well-being of children in this context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Lactose Intolerance KidsHealth / For Teens / Lactose Intolerance What's in this ... t really consider it a disease. Who Gets Lactose Intolerance? A person may be or may become lactose ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Bell's Palsy KidsHealth / For Teens / Bell's Palsy What's in this ... Print en español Parálisis de Bell What Is Bell's Palsy? Bell's palsy is a temporary weakness or paralysis ...
Hymowitz, Kay S.
The market and advertising media aimed at children has skyrocketed in recent years. Many new products targeting 8-12-year-olds appeal to their sense of teen fashion, image consciousness, and independence from adults. Describes the development of this market aimed at early adolescents and how it is changing childhood as Americans have known it. (SM)
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth / For Teens / Cerebral Palsy What's in this ... do just what everyone else does. What Is Cerebral Palsy? Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of the ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Transfusions KidsHealth / For Teens / Blood Transfusions What's in this ... in his or her body. What Is a Blood Transfusion? A transfusion is a simple medical procedure that ...
During your teens you go through puberty and become sexually mature. If you're a girl, you develop breasts and begin to get your period. If you're a boy, your penis and testicles become larger. If you have sex, you could get pregnant or get someone pregnant. Whether you choose to have sex ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Turner Syndrome KidsHealth / For Teens / Turner Syndrome What's in this ... en español El síndrome de Turner What Is Turner Syndrome? Turner syndrome (TS) is a genetic condition found ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Depression KidsHealth / For Teens / Depression What's in this article? ... Yourself Print en español Depresión Regular Sadness vs. Depression It's natural to feel sad, down, or discouraged ...
Prevenção da reincidência de gravidez em adolescentes: efeitos de um Programa de Planejamento Familiar Prevención de la reincidencia del embarazo en adolescentes The effectiveness of an educational family planning program in preventing the recurrence of teen pregnancy: efectos de un programa de planificación familiar
Luciana Mendes Berlofi
evaluate the effectiveness of an educational family planning program in preventing the recurrence of teen pregnancy. METHODS: this was a retrospective study conducted in the department of Family Planning of the Federal University of São Paulo. The sample consisted of 264 patients who had at least one pregnancy. RESULTS: participants reported an average age of menarche at 12.2 years old. Their first sexual intercourse occurred at 15 years old and their age at the first pregnancy was 16 years old. In addition, 73.5% of the participants reported more than one pregnancy. Following educational family planning program, use of condoms, and birth control pills were the most used contraceptives methods; 4.9% of teens had a recurrence of pregnancy. CONCLUSION: the findings of this study support the importance and effectiveness of an educational family planning program in preventing recurrence of teen pregnancy.
Edwards, Christine C; Elliott, Sean P; Conway, Terry L; Woodruff, Susan I
The objective of this study was to assess Web sites related to teen smoking cessation on the Internet. Seven Internet search engines were searched using the keywords teen quit smoking. The top 20 hits from each search engine were reviewed and categorized. The keywords teen quit smoking produced between 35 and 400,000 hits depending on the search engine. Of 140 potential hits, 62% were active, unique sites; 85% were listed by only one search engine; and 40% focused on cessation. Findings suggest that legitimate on-line smoking cessation help for teens is constrained by search engine choice and the amount of time teens spend looking through potential sites. Resource listings should be updated regularly. Smoking cessation Web sites need to be picked up on multiple search engine searches. Further evaluation of smoking cessation Web sites need to be conducted to identify the most effective help for teens.
Machira, Kennedy; Palamuleni, Martin E
The study seeks to examine factors associated with teen mothers' use of modern contraceptives after giving birth. The 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey data was used to test the study objective. A sample of 12, 911 teen mothers aged between 10 and 18 years were extracted from 23, 020 women and were asked of contraceptive usage after first birth experiences, in which, a logistic regression model was employed to estimate correlates of contraceptive usage. The study found that 54.8% of the teen mothers are still at a risk of having a repeat teenage pregnancy due to their non-use of contraceptives. This implies that less than 50% of teen mothers use contraceptives after experiencing teen birth. It is noted that health care factors such as use of antenatal care, awareness of pregnancy complications, attainment of primary education and exposure to media predict teen mothers' use of modern contraceptives. Despite endeavours made by government to improve access to family planning, health care challenges still exist affecting women's use of contraceptives in Malawi. Ameliorating these health encounters call for wide-range approaches aimed at addressing teen birth comprehensively in order to prevent early motherhood and subsequently high fertility. None declared.
Galloway, Charlotte T; Duffy, Jennifer L; Dixon, Rena P; Fuller, Taleria R
Reducing disparities in teen pregnancy and birth rates among African American and Latina teens is a central focus of a community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative implemented by the South Carolina Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. Disparities in teen pregnancy and birth rates are driven, in part, by differential access to contraception and reproductive health care services. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand African American and Latino teens' 1) preferences for finding health information, 2) perceptions of accessing reproductive health services, and 3) beliefs about contraception. As a part of this community-wide initiative, eight focus groups were conducted in the Fall of 2012 with African American and Latino male and female youth from two communities in South Carolina. Among eight focus groups of youth, teens most often reported parents, other trusted relatives, and the Internet as sources of health information. Participants discussed the value of social media and television advertisements for reaching young people and emphasized the importance of privacy, a desire for a teen-only clinic, and the need for friendly clinical staff. Participants' comments often reflected inaccurate beliefs about the reliability and correct usage of contraceptive methods. Female participants also reported side effects of birth control as a potential barrier to use. Ensuring that teens' beliefs and perceptions are taken into account when developing, marketing, and implementing culturally competent reproductive health care services is important to improve access to care for all teens in Horry and Spartanburg Counties. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Molina Cartes, Ramiro; González Araya, Electra
Teen pregnancy is a social problem not resolved in developing and some developed countries. Adolescent fecundity has become the most exact bio-demographic and health indicator of development. In developing countries that are expected to follow the sexual behaviour patterns of developed countries, without offering the levels of education and services for adolescents, the consequences will be adolescent fecundity and STI prevalence increase. The ignorance about sexuality and reproduction both in parents, teachers and adolescents increases the early initiation of coital relations and of unwanted pregnancies. Extreme poverty and being the son or daughter of an adolescent mother are risk factors of repeating the early pregnancy model. The application of predictive risk criteria in pregnant adolescents to facilitate the rational use of Health Services to diminish the maternal and perinatal mortality is discussed as well as the social factors associated with adolescent pregnancy as socioeconomic levels, structure - types and characteristics of the family, early leaving school, schooling after delivery, female employment, lack of sexual education, parental and family attitudes in different periods of adolescent pregnancy, adolescent decisions on pregnancy and children, unstable partner relationship and adoption as an option. Social consequences are analyzed as: incomplete education, more numerous families, difficulties in maternal role, abandonment by the partner, fewer possibilities of having a stable, qualified and well-paid job, greater difficulty in improving their socioeconomic level and less probability of social advancement, lack of protection of the recognition of the child. Finally, based on evidence, some measures that can reduce adverse consequences on adolescent mothers, fathers and their children are suggested. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Donna R. Gillespie
Full Text Available Teen Ambassador Leadership Kit, (TALK, is an annual weekend retreat designed for teens interested in promoting and marketing 4-H in their communities. TALK organizers felt teens would benefit from an intensive weekend retreat focused on communication. TALK produces a network of educated and excited 4-H teens that are available to help with 4-H promotion and marketing. Participants arrive on Friday evening for team building activities, on Saturday they participate in one of the workshops offered and on Sunday morning each workshop group has the opportunity to share their completed projects and what they learned. At the conclusion of the retreat, teens are designated "County 4-H Ambassadors" and certificates of completion, professional business cards and polo shirts are presented. The TALK teen participants return home to share what they learned with their local county 4-H staff and help promote and market 4-H in their communities.
Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee
In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.
Alexander, Ashley; O'Riordan, Mary Ann; Furman, Lydia
This study compared the breastfeeding intentions and attitudes of pregnant low-income inner-city teens (age ≤19 years) and non-teens (age ≥20) to determine if age is a significant determinant of intent to breastfeed in this population. We used structured interviews to examine the feeding intentions and attitudes of consecutive healthy pregnant women receiving obstetrical care at the Women's Health Center, MacDonald Women's Hospital, Cleveland, OH (June 1-July 31, 2007). The primary outcome measure was rate of intent to breastfeed among teen versus non-teen participants. Attitudes and self-assessed knowledge regarding breastfeeding were compared between teens and non-teens, and multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effect of age on breastfeeding intent. We interviewed 176 pregnant women (95% African-American, 94% single marital status, median age 22 years [range, 15-41 years], 46 [26%] teens) at a median of 27 weeks of pregnancy. There were no significant differences between teens and non-teens in race, marital status, or timing of first prenatal visit or interview. Rate of intent to breastfeed and planned duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding, as well as most measured attitudes about breastfeeding including "back to work" plans, were not significantly different between groups. Significant determinants of feeding intent included primiparity, good self-assessed knowledge about breastfeeding, and having support from the father of the baby. In a population at high risk for choosing not to breastfeed, we found no significant explanatory effect of age on breastfeeding intention, implying that an inclusive targeted breastfeeding intervention program may be effective for both teens and non-teens in a low-income inner-city population. We also found that the support of the father of the baby significantly influenced breastfeeding intent among our participants, suggesting that paternal involvement will be integral to the success of
Full Text Available Background. Timely and adequate treatment is important to limit complications of diabetes affecting pregnancy, but there is a lack of knowledge on how these women are managed in low resource settings. Objective. To identify modalities of gestational diabetes detection and management in low and lower middle income countries. Methods. We conducted a scoping review of published literature and searched the databases PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and African Index Medicus. We included all articles published until April 24, 2016, containing information on clinical practices of detection and management of gestational diabetes irrespective of publication date or language. Results. We identified 23 articles mainly from Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of studies were conducted in large tertiary care centers and hospital admission was reported in a third of publications. Ambulatory follow-up was generally done by weekly to fortnightly visits, whereas self-monitoring of blood glucose was not the norm. The cesarean section rate for pregnancies affected by diabetes ranged between 20% and 89%. Referral of newborns to special care units was common. Conclusion. The variety of reported provider practices underlines the importance of promoting latest consensus guidelines on GDM screening and management and the dissemination of information regarding their implementation.
Swartzendruber, Andrea; Newton-Levinson, Anna; Feuchs, Ashley E; Phillips, Ashley L; Hickey, Jennifer; Steiner, Riley J
Pregnancy resource centers (PRCs) are nonprofit organizations with a primary mission of promoting childbirth among pregnant women. Given a new state grant program to publicly fund PRCs, we analyzed Georgia PRC websites to describe advertised services and related health information. We systematically identified all accessible Georgia PRC websites available from April to June 2016. Entire websites were obtained and coded using defined protocols. Of 64 reviewed websites, pregnancy tests and testing (98%) and options counseling (84%) were most frequently advertised. However, 58% of sites did not provide notice that PRCs do not provide or refer for abortion, and 53% included false or misleading statements regarding the need to make a decision about abortion or links between abortion and mental health problems or breast cancer. Advertised contraceptive services were limited to counseling about natural family planning (3%) and emergency contraception (14%). Most sites (89%) did not provide notice that PRCs do not provide or refer for contraceptives. Two sites (3%) advertised unproven "abortion reversal" services. Approximately 63% advertised ultrasound examinations, 22% sexually transmitted infection testing, and 5% sexually transmitted infection treatment. None promoted consistent and correct condom use; 78% with content about condoms included statements that seemed to be designed to undermine confidence in condom effectiveness. Approximately 84% advertised educational programs, and 61% material resources. Georgia PRC websites contain high levels of false and misleading health information; the advertised services do not seem to align with prevailing medical guidelines. Public funding for PRCs, an increasing national trend, should be rigorously examined. Increased regulation may be warranted to ensure quality health information and services. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
American Home Economics Association, Washington, DC.
THE GROWING NUMBERS OF TEENAGERS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE ECONOMY BOTH AS EARNERS AND SPENDERS FORCE EDUCATORS AND OTHER PROFESSIONALS TO EXAMINE THEIR RESPONSIBILITIES TO THIS GROUP. HOME ECONOMISTS' CONCERN FOR PROBLEMS OF YOUNG PEOPLE IN MANAGING RESOURCES AND IN HUMAN RELATIONS LED TO PLANNING PROGRAMS IN THESE AREAS AT THEIR ANNUAL MEETING.…
Corcoran, Jacqueline; Pillai, Vijayan K.
Because subsequent pregnancy in teen parents often worsens the impact of adolescent parenting; therefore, a common goal of teenage parent programs has been to reduce repeat pregnancy. To examine the impact of this goal, a meta-analysis was conducted on 16 control-comparison group studies that evaluated the effect of teenage pregnancy and parenting…
Norris, Michael; Twill, Sarah; Kim, Chigon
Teen courts have grown rapidly in the United States despite little evidence of their effectiveness. A survival analysis of 635 teen court and 186 regular diversion participants showed no significant differences in recidivism, although program completers were half as likely to reoffend as noncompleters. Older offenders survived significantly better…
Knowledge of outcome of pregnancy and labour among rural pregnant ... and poverty for the teen mother and the child, and has serious consequences for society. ... little or no time for appropriate screening and management of risk factors.
O'Uhuru, Deborah J; Santiago, Vivian; Murray, Lauren E; Travers, Madeline; Bedell, Jane F
Teen pregnancy and birth rates in the Bronx have been higher than in New York City, representing a longstanding health disparity. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene implemented a community-wide, multicomponent intervention to reduce unintended teen pregnancy, the Bronx Teens Connection. The Bronx Teens Connection Clinic Linkage Model sought to increase teens' access to and use of sexual and reproductive health care by increasing community partner capacity to link neighborhood clinics to youth-serving organizations, including schools. The Bronx Teens Connection Clinic Linkage Model used needs assessments, delineated the criteria for linkages, clarified roles and responsibilities of partners and staff, established trainings to support the staff engaged in linkage activities, and developed and used process evaluation methods. Early results demonstrated the strength and feasibility of the model over a 4-year period, with 31 linkages developed and maintained, over 11,300 contacts between clinic health educators and teens completed, and increasing adherence to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-defined clinical best practices for adolescent reproductive health. For those eight clinics that were able to provide data, there was a 25% increase in the number of teen clients seen over 4 years. There are many factors that relate to an increase in clinic utilization; some of this increase may have been a result of the linkages between schools and clinics. The Bronx Teens Connection Clinic Linkage Model is an explicit framework for clinical and youth-serving organizations seeking to establish formal linkage relationships that may be useful for other municipalities or organizations. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Madden, Mary; Cortesi, Sandra; Gasser, Urs; Lenhart, Amanda; Duggan, Maeve
Most parents of teenagers are concerned about what their teenage children do online and how their behavior could be monitored by others. Some parents are taking steps to observe, discuss, and check up on their children's digital footprints. A new survey of 802 parents and their teens shows that: (1) 81% of parents of online teens say they are…
The Museum of Science and Industry, Chicago (MSI) is in the early stages of a NOAA supported Environmental Literacy Grant project that aims to engage high school age youth in the exploration of climate and Earth systems science. Participating youth are positioned as teen advocates for establishing resilient communities in the Midwest. The project utilizes a variety of resources, including NOAA Science On a Sphere® (SOS) technology and datasets, Great Lakes and local climate assets, and local municipal resiliency planning guides to develop museum-based youth programming. Teen participants in the project will share their learning through regular facilitated interactions with public visitors in the Museum and will bring learning experiences to Chicago Public Library sites throughout the city's neighborhoods. Project content will also be adapted for use in 100+ after-school science clubs to engage younger students from diverse communities across the Chicago area. Current strategies for supporting teen facilitation of public experiences, linkages to out of school time and summer learning programs, and connections to local resiliency planning agencies will be explored.
Wingo, Phyllis A; Smith, Ruben A; Tevendale, Heather D; Ferré, Cynthia
To explore trends in teen birth rates by selected demographics. We used birth certificate data and joinpoint regression to examine trends in teen birth rates by age (10-14, 15-17, and 18-19 years) and race during 1981-2006 and by age and Hispanic origin during 1990-2006. Joinpoint analysis describes changing trends over successive segments of time and uses annual percentage change (APC) to express the amount of increase or decrease within each segment. For teens younger than 18 years, the decline in birth rates began in 1994 and ended in 2003 (APC: -8.03% per year for ages 10-14 years; APC: -5.63% per year for ages 15-17 years). The downward trend for 18- and 19-year-old teens began earlier (1991) and ended 1 year later (2004) (APC: -2.37% per year). For each study population, the trend was approximately level during the most recent time segment, except for continuing declines for 18- and 19-year-old white and Asian/Pacific Islander teens. The only increasing trend in the most recent time segment was for 18- and 19-year-old Hispanic teens. During these declines, the age distribution of teens who gave birth shifted to slightly older ages, and the percentage whose current birth was at least their second birth decreased. Teen birth rates were generally level during 2003/2004-2006 after the long-term declines. Rates increased among older Hispanic teens. These results indicate a need for renewed attention to effective teen pregnancy prevention programs in specific populations. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Michalsky, Marc P; Inge, Thomas H; Teich, Steven; Eneli, Ihuoma; Miller, Rosemary; Brandt, Mary L; Helmrath, Michael; Harmon, Carroll M; Zeller, Meg H; Jenkins, Todd M; Courcoulas, Anita; Buncher, Ralph C
The number of adolescents undergoing weight loss surgery (WLS) has increased in response to the increasing prevalence of severe childhood obesity. Adolescents undergoing WLS require unique support, which may differ from adult programs. The aim of this study was to describe institutional and programmatic characteristics of centers participating in Teen Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS), a prospective study investigating safety and efficacy of adolescent WLS. Data were obtained from the Teen-LABS database, and site survey completed by Teen-LABS investigators. The survey queried (1) institutional characteristics, (2) multidisciplinary team composition, (3) clinical program characteristics, and (4) clinical research infrastructure. All centers had extensive multidisciplinary involvement in the assessment, pre-operative education, and post-operative management of adolescents undergoing WLS. Eligibility criteria and pre-operative clinical and diagnostic evaluations were similar between programs. All programs have well-developed clinical research infrastructure, use adolescent-specific educational resources, and maintain specialty equipment, including high weight capacity diagnostic imaging equipment. The composition of clinical team and institutional resources is consistent with current clinical practice guidelines. These characteristics, coupled with dedicated research staff, have facilitated enrollment of 242 participants into Teen-LABS. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.
... Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Use Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Mental Health and Teens: Watch for Danger Signs Ages & Stages ...
Fitton, Daniel; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Bell, Beth
UX is a widely explored topic within HCI and has a large practitioners' community. However, the users considered in research and practice, are most often adults -- since adults represent the largest technology market share. However teenagers represent a growing market of unique users, and more...... needs to be understood about this population, from a UX perspective. The theme of this workshop is Building a Bridge to the Future and the aim is to gather together academics and UX practitioners, interested in teen users specifically, in order to discuss experiences, understandings, insights...
Full Text Available Emmanuel O Ugwu,1 Godwin U Odoh,1 Cyril C Dim,1 Samuel N Obi,1 Euzebus C Ezugwu,1 Innocent I Okafor21Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Parklane, Enugu, NigeriaBackground: Expected date of delivery (EDD is estimated from the last menstrual period (LMP or ultrasound scan. Conflicts between these estimates especially on the part of the physician and his/her patient could pose a challenge to prevention of prolonged pregnancy. The objective of this study was to determine the perception and acceptability of menstrual dating (EDD derived from LMP with regard to timing of labor induction for postdatism by pregnant women who have a late pregnancy (≥23 weeks’ gestation ultrasound scan.Methods: This cross-sectional study included 443 consecutive pregnant women receiving antenatal care at two tertiary health institutions in Enugu, Nigeria, from January 1, 2013 to March 31, 2013.Results: The mean age of the women was 27.9±2.41 (range 17–45 years. Most ultrasound scans (90.8%, 357/389 were carried out in late pregnancy, and 41.9% (167/389 were self-referred. The majority of the respondents (51.7%, 229/443 did not accept induction of labor for postdatism at a certain menstrual dating-derived gestational age of 40 weeks plus 10 days if the late pregnancy ultrasound scan dating was less. Predictors of this poor attitude to timing of induction of labor for postdatism included low educational level, low social class, and poor knowledge of the limitations of ultrasound scan dating in late pregnancy (P<0.05.Conclusion: The worrisome confidence in ultrasound scan dating is a challenge to the prevention of prolonged pregnancy and its complications in our environment. Antenatal health education should discourage self-referral for ultrasound scan dating and emphasize its limitations in late pregnancy
Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Gilchrist, Lewayne D; Beadnell, Blair A; Lohr, Mary Jane; Yuan, Chaoyue; Hartigan, Lacey A; Morrison, Diane M
This study investigated potential heterogeneity in development among offspring (age 17) of teen mothers and maternal life course as correlates of variation. Using latent class analysis, subgroups of developmental outcomes were identified. Maternal standing in two life course realms (i.e., socioeconomic and domestic) was considered as a potential explanation for heterogeneity in offspring's development. Offspring reported on measures assessing their psychological, academic, and behavioral development. Teen mothers reported on measures of life course realms. Three subgroups of developmental outcomes were identified: on track (52%), at risk (37%), and troubled (11%). Findings suggest that economic hardship and number of pregnancies among teen mothers distinguish developmental patterns among teenage offspring, whereas teen mothers' educational attainment and marital status do not. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.
... A consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 2016;12:785. Teens, young adults and sleep. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. http://www.aasmnet.org/. Accessed June 29, 2017. ...
... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... which can lead to dandruff. People who get eczema may notice that their dandruff gets worse when ...
Hall, M.; Mayhew, M. A.
Teen Science Café programs (TeenScienceCafe.org) are a free and fun way for teens to explore science and technology affecting their lives. Through lively presentations, conversation, and activities to explore a topic deeply, Café programs open doors for teens to learn from experts about exciting and rewarding STEM career pathways. The programs are local and led by teens with the help of an adult mentor. The Teen Science Café Network (teensciencecafe.org) provides mentoring and resources, including small grants, to help organizations get started with and then maintain successful "teen café" programs. Through membership in the Network, more than 80 Teen Science Cafés have sprung up across the country, from rural towns to major cities. They serve a critical need for teens - meeting and engaging with STEM professionals, learning about their career paths, and seeing their passion for the work they do. Teen Science Café programs can offer geoscience departments a substantive, yet low cost, way to meet the challenges many of them face: finding ways to increase enrollment, helping faculty satisfy the broader impacts requirements of funding agencies, connecting with the surrounding communities, and providing opportunities for faculty and graduate students to learn how to communicate their science effectively to the public audience. The typical experience of scientists who have presented in teen cafés throughout the Network is that the communication skills learned spill over into their courses, proposals, and presentations to administrators and program officers. A department might partner with one or more organizations in their surrounding communities—libraries, for example—and engage its faculty and its graduate students—and even its undergraduates—in providing geoscience programming across multiple disciplines to local teens. Besides the internal benefits to the department's personnel and the value of establishing connections with community organizations
Herrman, Judith W; Waterhouse, Julie K
To determine the effectiveness of the adapted Safe Dates curriculum as an intervention for pregnant and/or parenting teens to prevent teen dating violence (TDV). This pre-/posttest, single-sample study provided a means to assess the effectiveness of an adapted Safe Dates curriculum for teen mothers. The adapted Safe Dates curriculum was implemented in three schools designed for the unique needs of teens who are pregnant and/or parenting. The final sample of 41 teen participants, with a mean age of 16.27, completed 80% of the curriculum and two of the three assessments. Most of the teens were pregnant during participation in the curriculum, and six had infants between age 1 and 3 months. The teen mothers completed the pretest, participated in the 10-session adapted Safe Dates curriculum, and completed the posttest at the end of the program and 1 month after program completion. The pre/posttest was adapted from the Safe Dates curriculum-specific evaluation instrument. Senior, undergraduate nursing students were trained in and implemented the curriculum. Participation in the adapted Safe Dates program yielded significant differences in the areas of responses to anger, gender stereotyping, awareness of resources for perpetrators and victims, and psychological violence perpetration. This adapted program may be effective in changing selected outcomes. The implementation of a larger scale, experimental/control group study may demonstrate the program's efficacy at reducing the incidence of TDV among teen mothers. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Robinson, R B; Frank, D I
This study examined self-esteem in relation to sexual behaviors which often result in teen pregnancy. A sample of 141 male and 172 female adolescents of racial diversity was surveyed to elicit levels of self-esteem, sexual activity, pregnancy and fatherhood status. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory was used as well to elicit qualitative data about self-esteem, demographics, and sexual activity. Analysis revealed no differences in the self-esteem of males vs. females. Further, sexual activity or virginity was not related to self-esteem in either males or females. Pregnant teens did not have different levels of self-esteem from the nonpregnant. However, males who had fathered a child had lower self-esteem than did nonfathers. The findings support a multifocused approach to sex education for pregnancy prevention and also emphasize a need to include males in both pregnancy prevention efforts as well as in further research on teen pregnancy.
From the outset, the team at the Longmont (CO) Teen Clinic faced a two-fold marketing dilemma. The first problem was a small budget. As a nonprofit with limited funds, the staff knew that they would have to get creative to effectively reach their target audience and fulfill the clinic's mission of battling unwanted teen pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among area women aged 19 and younger.
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Sleep Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Common Sleep Problems What's ... have emotional problems, like depression. What Happens During Sleep? You don't notice it, of course, but ...
This study was a randomized control intervention to measure the effectiveness of a cellular phone control device : that communicates with the vehicles of teen drivers to deny them access to their phone while driving for the : purpose of reducing dist...
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth / For Teens / Stem Cell Transplants What's ... Take to Recover? Coping Print What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...
... girl might notice an increased amount of clear vaginal discharge. This discharge is common. There's no need for ... topic for: Teens Why Are My Breasts Sore? Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not Tampons, Pads, and Other ...
... thoughts. Teens going through major life changes (parents' divorce, moving, a parent leaving home due to military service or parental separation, financial changes) and those who are victims of ...
Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.
Access to and availability of contraceptive methods in stores play an important role in the prevention of AIDS, unwanted pregnancies, and other sexually transmitted diseases. Although teens are generally knowledgable about birth control, many encounter barriers when attempting to obtain contraceptive. Forty-five drug stores and 15 convenience…
Pollack, Andrew M.
Describes a program to reduce the dropout rate for pregnant and parenting teens at York Vocational-Technical School (Pennsylvania) for the second semester of 1985-86. One successful feature was a "caring class" providing information about pregnancy, childcare, nutrition, and other subjects. The program retained most of its enrollees. Includes 1…
SmithBattle, Lee; Loman, Deborah G; Chantamit-O-Pas, Chutima; Schneider, Joanne Kraenzle
The purpose of this study was to perform an umbrella review of meta-analyses of intervention studies designed to improve outcomes of pregnant or parenting teenagers. An extensive search retrieved nine reports which provided 21 meta-analyses analyses. Data were extracted by two reviewers. Methodological quality was assessed using the AMSTAR Instrument. Most effect sizes were small but high quality studies showed significant outcomes for reduced low birth weight (RR = 0.60), repeat pregnancies/births (OR = 0.47-0.62), maternal education (OR = 1.21-1.83), and maternal employment (OR = 1.26). Several parenting outcomes (parent-child teaching interaction post-intervention [SMD = -0.91] and at follow-up [SMD = -1.07], and parent-child relationship post-intervention [SMD = -0.71] and at follow-up [SMD = -0.90]) were significant, but sample sizes were very small. Many reports did not include moderator analyses. Behavioral interventions offer limited resources and occur too late to mitigate the educational and social disparities that precede teen pregnancy. Future intervention research and policies that redress the social determinants of early childbearing are recommended. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Walz, Nicolay C.; Carey, JoAnne; McMullen, Kendra M.; Cass, Jennifer; Mark, Erin; Yeates, Keith Owen
PURPOSE: To report the results of a randomized clinical trial of teen online problem-solving (TOPS) meant to improve behavioral outcomes of adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: A randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of TOPS with access to Internet resources in teenagers with TBI in improving parent and self-reported behavior problems and parent-teen conflicts. Participants included 41 adolescents aged 11 to 18 years (range: 11.47–17.90 years) who had sustained a moderate-to-severe TBI between 3 and 19 months earlier. Teens in the TOPS group received 10 to 14 online sessions that provided training in problem-solving, communication skills, and self-regulation. Outcomes were assessed before treatment and at a follow-up assessment an average of 8 months later. Groups were compared on follow-up scores after we controlled for pretreatment levels. Injury severity and socioeconomic status were examined as potential moderators of treatment efficacy. RESULTS: Forty-one participants provided consent and completed baseline assessments, and follow-up assessments were completed for 35 participants (16 TOPS, 19 Internet resource comparison). The TOPS group reported significantly less parent-teen conflict at follow-up than did the Internet-resource-comparison group. Improvements in teen behavior after TOPS were moderated by injury severity; there were greater improvements in the teens' internalizing symptoms after TOPS among adolescents with severe TBI. Family socioeconomic status also moderated the efficacy of TOPS in improving behavior problems reported by both parents and teens, although the nature of the moderation effects varied. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that TOPS contributes to improvements in parent-teen conflict generally and parent and self-reported teen behavior problems for certain subsets of participants. PMID:21890828
Wade, Shari L; Walz, Nicolay C; Carey, Joanne; McMullen, Kendra M; Cass, Jennifer; Mark, Erin; Yeates, Keith Owen
To report the results of a randomized clinical trial of teen online problem-solving (TOPS) meant to improve behavioral outcomes of adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). A randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of TOPS with access to Internet resources in teenagers with TBI in improving parent and self-reported behavior problems and parent-teen conflicts. Participants included 41 adolescents aged 11 to 18 years (range: 11.47-17.90 years) who had sustained a moderate-to-severe TBI between 3 and 19 months earlier. Teens in the TOPS group received 10 to 14 online sessions that provided training in problem-solving, communication skills, and self-regulation. Outcomes were assessed before treatment and at a follow-up assessment an average of 8 months later. Groups were compared on follow-up scores after we controlled for pretreatment levels. Injury severity and socioeconomic status were examined as potential moderators of treatment efficacy. Forty-one participants provided consent and completed baseline assessments, and follow-up assessments were completed for 35 participants (16 TOPS, 19 Internet resource comparison). The TOPS group reported significantly less parent-teen conflict at follow-up than did the Internet-resource-comparison group. Improvements in teen behavior after TOPS were moderated by injury severity; there were greater improvements in the teens' internalizing symptoms after TOPS among adolescents with severe TBI. Family socioeconomic status also moderated the efficacy of TOPS in improving behavior problems reported by both parents and teens, although the nature of the moderation effects varied. Our findings suggest that TOPS contributes to improvements in parent-teen conflict generally and parent and self-reported teen behavior problems for certain subsets of participants.
C. Shannon Stokes
Full Text Available Previous studies in developed countries have found a micro-level association between teenage fertility and girls' educational attainment but researchers still debate the policy implications of these associations. First, are these associations causal? Second, are they substantively important enough, at the macro-level, to warrant policy attention? In other words, how much would policy efforts to reduce unintended pregnancy among teens pay off in terms of narrowing national gender gaps in educational attainment? Third, under what contexts are these payoffs likely to be important? This paper focuses on the latter two questions. We begin by proposing a contextual hypothesis to explain cross-national variation in the gender-equity payoffs from reducing unintended teen fertility. We then test this hypothesis, using DHS data from 38 countries.
Mullany, Britta; Barlow, Allison; Neault, Nicole; Billy, Trudy; Jones, Tanya; Tortice, Iralene; Lorenzo, Sherilynn; Powers, Julia; Lake, Kristin; Reid, Raymond; Walkup, John
The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale, design, methods and baseline results of the Family Spirit trial. The goal of the trial is to evaluate the impact of the paraprofessional-delivered "Family Spirit" home-visiting intervention to reduce health and behavioral risks for American Indian teen mothers and their children. A community based participatory research (CBPR) process shaped the design of the current randomized controlled trial of the Family Spirit intervention. Between 2006 and 2008, 322 pregnant teens were randomized to receive the Family Spirit intervention plus Optimized Standard Care, or Optimized Standard Care alone. The Family Spirit intervention is a 43-session home-visiting curriculum administered by American Indian paraprofessionals to teen mothers from 28 weeks gestation until the baby's third birthday. A mixed methods assessment administered at nine intervals measures intervention impact on parental competence, mother's and children's social, emotional and behavioral risks for drug use, and maladaptive functioning. Participants are young (mean age = 18.1 years), predominantly primiparous, unmarried, and challenged by poverty, residential instability and low educational attainment. Lifetime and pregnancy drug use were ~2-4 times higher and ~5-6 times higher, respectively, than US All Races. Baseline characteristics were evenly distributed between groups, except for higher lifetime cigarette use and depressive symptoms among intervention mothers. If study aims are achieved, the public health field will have new evidence supporting multi-generational prevention of behavioral health disparities affecting young American Indian families and the utility of indigenous paraprofessional interventionists in under-resourced communities.
Payne, Janet M; France, Kathryn E; Henley, Nadine; D'Antoine, Heather A; Bartu, Anne E; O'Leary, Colleen M; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Bower, Carol; Geelhoed, Elizabeth
The objective was to evaluate the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project that provided health professionals in Western Australia (WA) with educational resources to inform them about prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The authors developed, produced, and distributed educational resources to 3,348 health professionals in WA. Six months later, they surveyed 1,483 of these health professionals. The authors used the RE-AIM framework (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) to evaluate the project. The educational resources were effective in producing a 31% increase in the proportion of health professionals who routinely provided pregnant women with information about the consequences of drinking alcohol during pregnancy. One hundred percent of the settings adopted the project, it reached 96.3% of the target population, it was implemented as intended, and the resources were maintained (http://www.ichr.uwa.edu.au/alcoholandpregnancy). The educational resources for health professionals have potential to contribute to reducing prenatal alcohol exposure and FASD.
... adult is no small task. Understand the parenting skills you need to help guide your teen. By ... teen and encourage responsible behavior. Use these parenting skills to deal with the challenges of raising a ...
... control after they have given birth. Although teen birth rates have been falling for the last two decades, ... effective forms of birth control. SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, teens, ages 15–19, 2010 Larger image ...
Kleon, Scott; Rinehart, Susan
Teen participants in the Ohio 4-H Teen Community Leadership College (n=64) perceived their leadership skills to be much higher after the program. They appeared to need improvement in initiative, assertiveness, and objectivity. (SK)
... QUESTIONS FAQ042 ESPECIALLY FOR TEENS You and Your Sexuality (Especially for Teens) • What happens during puberty? • What ... feelings expressed? There are many ways to express sexuality. Sexual intercourse is one way. Others include masturbation , ...
This report summarizes what is known about the teen driver crash problem and reviews the research on the major contributing factors to the high teen crash rate. Dispositional factors, such as immaturity, inexperience, faulty judgment, and a higher pr...
... Text Size Email Print Share Health Concerns for Gay and Lesbian Teens Page Content Article Body Sexual activity Most teens, whether they are gay, lesbian, bisexual , or straight, are not sexually active. ...
... Topic En español Get Your Teen Screened for Depression Browse Sections The Basics Overview What Is Depression? ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: What Is Depression? What is depression? Teen depression can be a ...
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.
... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Page Content Article ... teen girls having the highest incidence. Types of Kidney Stones There are many different types of kidney ...
Hamann, Cara J; Ramirez, Marizen; Yang, Jingzhen; Chande, Vidya; Peek-Asa, Corinne
To examine pre-licensure agreement on driving expectations and predictors of teen driving expectations among parent-teen dyads. Cross-sectional survey of 163 parent-teen dyads. Descriptive statistics, weighted Kappa coefficients, and linear regression were used to examine expectations about post-licensure teen driving. Teens reported high pre-licensure unsupervised driving (N = 79, 48.5%) and regular access to a car (N = 130, 81.8%). Parents and teens had low agreement on teen driving expectations (eg, after dark, κw = 0.23). Each time teens currently drove to/from school, their expectation of driving in risky conditions post-licensure increased (β = 0.21, p = .02). Pre-licensure improvement of parent-teen agreement on driving expectations are needed to have the greatest impact on preventing teens from driving in high risk conditions.
Willoughby, Jessica Fitts
Text messaging services are becoming an increasingly popular way to provide sexual health information to teens, but little is known about who uses such services. This study assessed whether teens at a greater risk for negative sexual health outcomes use a sexual health text message service. A text message service that connects teens with sexual health educators was promoted in six public schools in one state in the Southeast. Students (n = 2,125) in four schools completed an online questionnaire assessing personal risk factors associated with negative sexual health outcomes and use of the text message service. Text message service users (n = 144) were more likely to have had sex, to have been in a relationship, and to come from a lower socioeconomic status background. Users also felt less connected to their schools and were slightly older than nonservice users. When all variables were entered into a logistic regression, only sexual experience was associated with service use. Sexual health text message services are designed to provide information to teens in an effort to prevent negative sexual outcomes. Such services seem to be reaching youth with increased risk of teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease acquisition. This study provides evidence that teens most likely to benefit are also those most likely to use a sexual health text message service. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Multisectoral approaches to early pregnancy prevention in colleges in Togo. The goal of this program is to generate knowledge about the early pregnancy phenomenon through operational research, and to develop multisectoral strategies focusing on teens, in conjunction with stakeholders in the education, health and legal ...
Pellowski, Jennifer A; Barnett, Whitney; Kuo, Caroline C; Koen, Nastassja; Zar, Heather J; Stein, Dan J
Food insecurity during pregnancy is concerning given the increased nutritional needs of the mother for proper fetal development. However, research is lacking within the South African context to investigate the association of economic and psychosocial factors and food insecurity among pregnant women, using comprehensive, conceptually driven models. This study applies the Network-Individual-Resource (NIR) Model to investigate individual, intimate dyadic, and family level predictors of perceived household food insecurity for pregnant women. 826 pregnant women enrolled in the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS), a birth cohort in two communities in a peri-urban area of South Africa. Hierarchical logistic regressions were used to investigate the impact of household/family, intimate dyads, and individual tangible and mental resources on perceived household food insecurity during the critical period of pregnancy. Perceived household food insecurity was assessed through an adapted version of the USDA Household Food Security Scale - Short Form. Among 826 pregnant women in South Africa, individual-level tangible resources (e.g. income, social assistance, HIV status) and mental resources (e. g. depression, childhood trauma) predicted perceived household food insecurity and these predictors differed by community. Intimate dyadic and family level resources did not predict household food insecurity. Our findings of the economic and psychosocial predictors of perceived household food insecurity among pregnant women in South Africa, mirror findings in general populations. This study provides support for the extension of the NIR model to perceived household food insecurity, particularly regarding individual-level mental and tangible resources, as well as the impact of community-level factors. Future research should investigate the extent to which resource sharing occurs within networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Noone, Joanne; Castillo, Nancy; Allen, Tiffany L; Esqueda, Teresa
Latina teen pregnancy rates continue to be a health disparity in the United States. This study evaluated a parenting intervention using interactive theater to facilitate Latino parent-adolescent communication about sexuality and pregnancy prevention. The intervention, conducted in Spanish and with teen actors, consisted of scenes involving the audience. Fifty-nine parents participated in this 3-month prospective study. Spanish measures of comfort with communication, general communication, and parent-child sexual communication were employed comparing paired t tests for each scale. Acceptability of the intervention was assessed and demonstrated. Eighty-six percent of parents used information from the performance to talk to their child. Improvements in general communication (p < .02), sexual communication (p < .001), and comfort (p < .001) occurred. Interactive theater is an innovative approach to facilitate Latino parent communication about sexuality and pregnancy prevention.
Heffron, Renee; Davies, Natasha; Cooke, Ian; Kaida, Angela; Mergler, Reid; van der Poel, Sheryl; Cohen, Craig R; Mmeje, Okeoma
HIV-affected women and couples often desire children and many accept HIV risk in order to attempt pregnancy and satisfy goals for a family. Risk reduction strategies to mitigate sexual and perinatal HIV transmission include biomedical and behavioural approaches. Current efforts to integrate HIV and reproductive health services offer prime opportunities to incorporate strategies for HIV risk reduction during pregnancy attempts. Key client and provider values about services to optimize pregnancy in the context of HIV risk provide insights for the design and implementation of large-scale "safer conception" programmes. Through our collective experience and discussions at a multi-disciplinary international World Health Organization-convened workshop to initiate the development of guidelines and an algorithm of care to support the delivery of services for HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy, we identified four values that are key to the implementation of these programmes: (1) understanding fertility care and an ability to identify potential fertility problems; (2) providing equity of access to resources enabling informed decision-making about reproductive choices; (3) creating enabling environments that reduce stigma associated with HIV and infertility; and (4) creating enabling environments that encourage disclosure of HIV status and fertility status to partners. Based on these values, recommendations for programmes serving HIV-affected women and couples attempting pregnancy include the following: incorporation of comprehensive reproductive health counselling; training to support the transfer and exchange of knowledge between providers and clients; care environments that reduce the stigma of childbearing among HIV-affected women and couples; support for safe and voluntary disclosure of HIV and fertility status; and increased efforts to engage men in reproductive decision-making at times that align with women's desires. Programmes, policies and guidelines
Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne
Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens’ attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228
Kelly, D M
This study uses a pragmatic model of discourse theory to analyze more than 700 articles about adolescent mothers published in the Canadian printed media in 1980-92. The introduction notes that feminist research has challenged the view that adolescent motherhood is caused by and perpetrates poverty and that a strong social stigma is still associated with teen pregnancy. After describing the methodology and theoretical framework used in this analysis, academic research on adolescent mothers, welfare, and poverty is criticized for using teen motherhood as a conventional scapegoat which allows the structural causes of poverty to be ignored. Discourses about teenage mothers are then described as a "stigma contest." Thus, discussion centers on 1) the bureaucratic notion that the "wrong" girls are keeping their babies, 2) the conservative framework which holds that an unwed teenager who relies on welfare and refuses to give her baby up for adoption (having properly rejected abortion) serves as the epitome of a "wrong family," and 3) oppositional discourse which provides a "wrong society" framework and is articulated in the alternative media. A "stigma-is-wrong" framework is then provided by the self-interpretation of the teen mothers who hold that the right to choose is essential and that it is inappropriate to stigmatize any choice. The bureaucratic viewpoint is the most common winner in this media contest and helps to frame the public debate and public policy about teenage motherhood and, thus, profoundly influences the daily lives of young mothers and their children by perpetuating negative stereotypes.
Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J; Waters, Damian; Hodgkinson, Stacy; Southammakosane, Cathy; Gilmore, Jasmine
The purpose of this study is to examine the role of father involvement on infant distress among children born to teen mothers, particularly those who are depressed. 119 teen mothers (questionnaires administered at baseline, before participation in the intervention or comparison conditions. 29 % of teen mothers screened positive for depression. Mothers reported that 78 % of fathers were engaged with their children, typically seeing them a few times per month, and 71 % took financial responsibility for their children. In a multiple linear regression, father responsibility predicted lower infant distress, maternal depression predicted higher infant distress, and there was a significant interaction in which father engagement buffered the effect of maternal depression on infant distress. Fathers may be a protective resource for children born to teen mothers, even as early as the first 6 months of life, potentially mitigating the heightened risk associated with maternal depression in the postpartum period.
... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy loss Pregnancy loss is a harsh reality faced ... have successful pregnancies. Expand all | Collapse all Why pregnancy loss happens As many as 10 to 15 ...
... of the Female Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor femenino Reproduction All living things reproduce. Reproduction — ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...
... Affecting the Male Reproductive System Print en español Sistema reproductor masculino All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...
... and calcium. Tofu, kidney and other beans, edamame (soy beans), quinoa, dark leafy greens, fortified soy milk and fortified orange juice are just a few of the many nutrient-rich plant-based options. Remind teens to replace animal-based ... 1 cup navy bean or lentil soup 1 ounce string cheese 1 ...
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sickle Cell Crisis (Pain Crisis) KidsHealth / For Teens / Sickle Cell ... drepanocíticas (Crisis de dolor) What Is a Sickle Cell Crisis? Sickle cell disease changes the shape of ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth / For Teens / Smoking and Asthma Print en español Fumar y el asma Does Smoking Make Asthma Worse? Yes. If you have asthma, ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Urinary Tract Infections KidsHealth / For Teens / Urinary Tract Infections What's ... especially girls — visit a doctor. What Is a Urinary Tract Infection? A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is ...
... TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Mind/Body Connection: How Your Emotions Affect Your HealthMental Health: Keeping Your Emotional HealthPersistent ... Not caring about people and things. Lack of motivation. Fatigue, loss of energy, and lack of interest ...
Oud, Lavi; Watkins, Phillip
Infections are a well-known complication of pregnancy. However, pregnancy-associated severe sepsis (PASS) has not been as well-characterized, with limited population-level data reported to date. We performed a population-based study of the evolving patterns of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, resource utilization, and outcomes of PASS in Texas over the past decade. The Texas Inpatient Public Use Data File was used to identify pregnancy-associated hospitalizations and PASS hospitalizations for the years 2001 - 2010. The Texas Center for Health Statistics reports of live births, abortions and fetal deaths, and a previously reported population-based, age-specific linkage study on miscarriage were used to derive the annual total estimated pregnancies (TEPs). The incidence, demographics, clinical characteristics, resource utilization and outcomes of PASS were examined. Logistic regression modeling was used to explore the predictors of PASS and its associated mortality. There were 4,060,201 pregnancy-associated hospitalizations and 1,007 PASS hospitalizations during study period. The incidence of PASS was increased by 236% over the past decade, rising from 11 to 26 hospitalizations per 100,000 TEPs. The key changes between 2001 - 2002 and 2009 - 2010 within PASS hospitalizations included: admission to ICU 78% vs. 90% (P = 0.002); development of ≥ 3 organ failures 9% vs. 35% (P < 0.0001); and inflation-adjusted median hospital charges (2,010 dollars) $64,034 vs. $89,895 (P = 0.0141). Hospital mortality (11%) remained unchanged during study period. Chronic liver disease (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 41.4) and congestive heart failure (CHF) (aOR 20.5) were associated with the highest risk of PASS, in addition to black race, poverty, drug abuse, and lack of health insurance. The highest risk of death was among women with HIV infection (aOR 45.5), need for mechanical ventilation (aOR 4.5), drug abuse (aOR 3.0), and lacking health insurance (aOR 2.9). The incidence
Samankasikorn, Wilaiporn; Pierce, Brittany; St Ivany, Amanda; Gwon, Seok Hyun; Schminkey, Donna; Bullock, Linda
Determine the extent that participation in Resource Mothers Program (RMP) home visiting improves maternal health at 3 months postpartum. A randomized controlled trial using RMPs in two urban and one rural location in a mid-Atlantic state. Community health workers from these RMPs enrolled teens into the study and the research team assigned participants to either the intervention group or telephone support control group using computerized randomization assignments. Data collection from baseline and 3 months postpartum using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Prenatal Psychosocial Profile (PPP) is reported. The sample included 150 pregnant teens with a mean age of 17 years. Mean self-esteem scores between groups were not significantly different at baseline, but the RMP group self-esteem scores improved significantly at the 3 months postpartum interview (36.40 ± 5.63 for RMP vs. 34.10 ± 4.29 telephone control group, p = 0.049). Neither group was at risk for depression at baseline or 3 months postpartum. Because 60% of the total sample identified as Hispanic, post hoc analysis revealed significantly different baseline stress mean scores between Hispanic and non-Hispanic teens (p = 0.038); however, these differences were no longer significant by 3 months postpartum (p = 0.073). The EPDS scores by ethnicity were not different at baseline (p = 0.875) but were significantly different at 3 months (p = 0.007). The RMP home-visiting intervention can lead to improved self-esteem scores in teens, particularly in Hispanic teens. Improved self-esteem has been shown to lead to better parenting.
East, P L; Jacobson, L J
This study followed 243 younger brothers and younger sisters of parenting teens and nonparenting teens across a 1.5-year period. The average age of siblings was 13.6 years at Time 1 and 15 years at Time 2. Relative to other youths, the sisters of parenting teens exhibited a sharp increase in drug and alcohol use and partying behavior across time and had the highest pregnancy rate at Time 2 (15%). The siblings of parenting teens spent 10 hr a week caring for their sisters' children, and, for girls, many hours of child care was associated with negative outcomes including permissive sexual behavior. Findings suggest that the younger sisters of parenting teens are at very high risk of early pregnancy and that this risk becomes increasingly pronounced across time.
Savio Beers, Lee A; Hollo, Ruth E
In the USA, as many as 1 in 6 women nationwide become adolescent mothers, making adolescent pregnancy and childbearing issues a frequently encountered occurrence by pediatricians and adolescent medicine health care providers. Both social and medical programs focus on prevention and management of adolescent pregnancies; however, caring for the adolescent-headed family is less well understood. For many teen parents, various environmental and behavioral risks contributed to early childbearing and parenting. Following delivery of the infant, many of these same psycho-social, environmental, and educational factors continue to play a role in the teen's ability to parent effectively. This review explores these factors in relation to teen parenting as well as describes the limited data available on outcomes of adolescent mothers and their infants. Despite negative social stereotypes regarding adolescent fathers, research suggesting that most fathers desire involvement with their infants and the impact of and factors influencing father involvement is explored. Understanding the dynamics of the coparenting relationship, an expanding field of study, will aid practitioners in strengthening and supporting teen parenting by both mothers and fathers. As most teen parents continue to reside with their families, teen parenting has an important impact on the multi-generational family structure. These relationships can serve both to support and at times to hinder the adolescent parents' development as an individual and as a parent. Successful interventions and programs to support the adolescent-headed family take on various forms but are usually comprehensive and multidisciplinary and consider the developmental status of both the parent and the child. To best care for adolescent-headed families, pediatricians and adolescent medicine providers should understand the psychosocial, developmental, educational, and relationship issues that influence adolescent parenting.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany
Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, factors associated with incongruence between parents' and adolescents' reports of teens' sexual experience were investigated, and the consequences of inaccurate parental knowledge for adolescents' subsequent sexual behaviors were explored. Most parents of virgins accurately reported teens' lack of experience, but most parents of teens who had had sex provided inaccurate reports. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that many adolescent-, parent-, and family-level factors predicted the accuracy of parents' reports. Parents' accurate knowledge of their teens' sexual experience was not found to be consistently beneficial for teens' subsequent sexual outcomes. Rather, parents' expectations about teens' sexual experience created a self-fulfilling prophecy, with teens' subsequent sexual outcomes conforming to parents' expectations. These findings suggest that research on parent-teen communication about sex needs to consider the expectations being expressed, as well as the information being exchanged.
Ngui, Emmanuel M; Greer, Danielle M; Bridgewater, Farrin D; Salm Ward, Trina C; Cisler, Ron A
We examined progress made by the Milwaukee community toward achieving the Milwaukee Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative's aggressive 2008 goal of reducing the teen birth rate to 30 live births/1000 females aged 15-17 years by 2015. We further examined differential teen birth rates in disparate racial and ethnic groups. We analyzed teen birth count data from the Wisconsin Interactive Statistics on Health system and demographic data from the US Census Bureau. We computed annual 2003-2014 teen birth rates for the city and four racial/ethnic groups within the city (white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, Hispanic/Latina, Asian non-Hispanic). To compare birth rates from before (2003-2008) and after (2009-2014) goal setting, we used a single-system design to employ two time series analysis approaches, celeration line, and three standard deviation (3SD) bands. Milwaukee's teen birth rate dropped 54 % from 54.3 in 2003 to 23.7 births/1000 females in 2014, surpassing the goal of 30 births/1000 females 3 years ahead of schedule. Rate reduction following goal setting was statistically significant, as five of the six post-goal data points were located below the celeration line and points for six consecutive years (2010-2014) fell below the 3SD band. All racial/ethnic groups demonstrated significant reductions through at least one of the two time series approaches. The gap between white and both black and Hispanic/Latina teens widened. Significant reduction has occurred in the overall teen birth rate of Milwaukee. Achieving an aggressive reduction in teen births highlights the importance of collaborative community partnerships in setting and tracking public health goals.
... Videos for Educators Search English Español How Much Sleep Do I Need? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Much ... enough sleep. Why Don't Teens Get Enough Sleep? Until recently, teens often got a bad rap ...
... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health ... Why Are My Breasts Different Sizes? KidsHealth / For Teens / Why Are My Breasts Different Sizes? Print Having ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent mothers in the U.S. are much less likely to initiate breastfeeding than older mothers, and teens who do initiate breastfeeding tend to breastfeed for shorter durations. The purpose of this mixed-methods study is to investigate breastfeeding practices, barriers and facilitators among adolescent mothers ages 17 and younger. Methods Quantitative descriptive analyses are conducted using data from the North Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS. The population-based sample comprises 389 teens ages 13-17 giving birth to a live born infant in North Carolina in 2000 - 2005 and in 2007. Qualitative analyses are based on in-depth interviews with 22 Black, White and Hispanic teen mothers residing in rural and urban areas of North Carolina conducted between November 2007 and February 2009. Results In quantitative analyses, 52% (196 of 389 of North Carolina teen mothers initiated breastfeeding, but half of those who initiated breastfeeding (92/196 stopped within the first month postpartum. Hispanic teens (44/52 or 89% were much more likely than Black (61/159 or 41% or White teens (87/164 or 52% to initiate breastfeeding and to continue for a longer duration. Nearly sixty two percent (29/52 of Hispanic respondents breastfed for greater than four weeks as compared to 16% (29/159 of Black respondents and 26% (39/164 of White respondents. Common barriers to breastfeeding initiation and continuation included not liking breastfeeding, returning to school, nipple pain, and insufficient milk. Qualitative data provided context for the quantitative findings, elucidating the barriers and facilitators to breastfeeding from the teens' perspective and insight into the ways in which breastfeeding support to teens could be enhanced. Conclusions The large number of adolescents ceasing breastfeeding within the first month points to the need for more individualized follow-up after hospital discharge in the first few days
Ersig, Anne L; Tsalikian, Eva; Coffey, Julie; Williams, Janet K
Teens with Type 1 diabetes and their parents experience every day and illness-related stress; however, understanding of how these stressors relate to the transition to adulthood is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify stressors of teens with Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and their parents related to the impending transition to adulthood. This study used open-ended questions to identify every day and illness-related stressors among 15 teens with T1DM and 25 parents seen in one pediatric diabetes clinic. Qualitative descriptive analysis identified themes in interview transcripts. The primary teen stressor related to impending transition centered on ineffective self-management, often when they were taking over responsibility for T1DM management. Parents' concerns included immediate and long-term negative outcomes of teen self-management as well as financial resources and health insurance for the teen. Teens and parents both expressed specific concerns about outcomes and prevention of nocturnal hypoglycemia, and identified uncertainties related to teen health and diabetes-focused health care when no longer living in the parent's home. Teens with Type 1 diabetes and their parents understand that independent teen self-management is a component of transition to adulthood, but worry about teen self-management outcomes. Concerns specific to health care transition included health insurance, T1DM resources, and teens' abilities to handle new situations. Identifying current and future self-management concerns of individuals and families can facilitate targeted education and interventions to support successful transition to adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Estrategias novedosas de prevención de embarazo e ITS/VIH/sida entre adolescentes escolarizados mexicanos A novel school-based strategy for the prevention of HIV/AIDS, Sexually Transmitted Disease (STDs, and teen pregnancies
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir el diseño de un estudio en escuelas preparatorias para evaluar una intervención de prevención de VIH/sida y embarazos no planeados, y presentar los resultados de su encuesta basal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se implementó una intervención sobre VIH/sida/ITS, dirigida a adolescentes, incluyendo anticoncepción de emergencia (AE, y se diseñó una evaluación prospectiva aleatorizada controlada para medir la efectividad de la misma. Se llevó a cabo una encuesta basal, de la que se deriva un diagnóstico de los conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos sexuales de la población objetivo. RESULTADOS: De las 40 escuelas participantes, 11 177 estudiantes de primero de preparatoria (52% mujeres; edad media de ambos sexos de 15.5 años participaron en la encuesta basal. De ellos, 10% de las mujeres y 24% de los hombres dijeron tener experiencia sexual, y únicamente 39% reportó haber usado condón en la primera relación. De los sexualmente activos, un tercio de los hombres y la quinta parte de las mujeres reportaron haber experimentado zafadura o rotura del condón. La mayor parte de los participantes había escuchado previamente sobre la AE. CONCLUSIONES: La baja proporción del uso de condón, aunado al hecho de que se reportan problemas para su uso efectivo, refuerza la idea del diseño de este estudio: proponer un método anticonceptivo de respaldo al condón, como la AE, razonablemente conocida y con disposición para su uso.OBJECTIVE: To introduce the study design of an HIV/AIDS and unplanned pregnancy prevention program targeting high school students, and to present the results from the baseline survey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A school curriculum was developed to inform adolescent students about HIV/AIDS/STD prevention, which included information on emergency contraception (EC for adolescent students. A randomized controlled study was conducted to simultaneously evaluate the effect of this intervention. The baseline survey
Kearney, Melissa S; Levine, Phillip B
Teens in the United States are far more likely to give birth than in any other industrialized country in the world. U.S. teens are two and a half times as likely to give birth as compared to teens in Canada, around four times as likely as teens in Germany or Norway, and almost 10 times as likely as teens in Switzerland. Among more developed countries, Russia has the next highest teen birth rate after the United States, but an American teenage girl is still around 25 percent more likely to give birth than her counterpart in Russia. Moreover, these statistics incorporate the almost 40 percent fall in the teen birth rate that the United States has experienced over the past two decades. Differences across U.S. states are quite dramatic as well. A teenage girl in Mississippi is four times more likely to give birth than a teenage girl in New Hampshire--and 15 times more likely to give birth as a teen compared to a teenage girl in Switzerland. This paper has two overarching goals: understanding why the teen birth rate is so high in the United States and understanding why it matters. Thus, we begin by examining multiple sources of data to put current rates of teen childbearing into the perspective of cross-country comparisons and recent historical context. We examine teen birth rates alongside pregnancy, abortion, and "shotgun" marriage rates as well as the antecedent behaviors of sexual activity and contraceptive use. We seek insights as to why the rate of teen childbearing is so unusually high in the United States as a whole, and in some U.S. states in particular. We argue that explanations that economists have tended to study are unable to account for any sizable share of the variation in teen childbearing rates across place. We describe some recent empirical work demonstrating that variation in income inequality across U.S. states and developed countries can explain a sizable share of the geographic variation in teen childbearing. To the extent that income inequality
Bergman, David A.; Brown, Nancy L.; Wilson, Sandra
We conducted a qualitative study of the attitudes of teens and parents toward the use of a patient portal. We conducted two teen and two parent focus groups, one teen electronic bulletin board, and one parent electronic bulletin board. Videotapes and transcripts from the groups were independently analyzed by two reviewers for significant themes, which were then validated by two other members ...
Gill, Simerpal K; Shults, Ruth A; Cope, Jennifer Rittenhouse; Cunningham, Timothy J; Freelon, Brandi
Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among teens in the United States. Graduated driver licensing (GDL) programs allow new drivers to gain driving experience while protecting them from high-risk situations. North Dakota was one of the last states to implement GDL, and the current program does not meet all of the best practice recommendations. This study used qualitative techniques to explore parents' perceptions of the role teen driving plays in the daily lives of rural North Dakota families, their understanding of the risks faced by their novice teen drivers, and their support for GDL. A total of 28 interviews with parents of teens aged 13-16 years were conducted in four separate rural areas of the state. During the face-to-face interviews, parents described their teens' daily lives as busy, filled with school, sports, and other activities that often required traveling considerable distances. Participation in school-sponsored sports and other school-related activities was highly valued. There was nearly unanimous support for licensing teens at age 14½, as was permitted by law at the time of the interviews. Parents expressed that they were comfortable supervising their teen's practice driving, and few reported using resources to assist them in this role. Although few parents expressed concerns over nighttime driving, most parents supported a nighttime driving restriction with exemptions for school, work or sports-related activities. Despite many parents expressing concern over distracted driving, there was less consistent support among parents for passenger restrictions, especially if there would be no exemptions for family members or school activities. These findings can assist in planning policies and programs to reduce crashes among novice, teen drivers, while taking into account the unique perspectives and lifestyles of families living in rural North Dakota. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Baltes, Jacky; Byagowi, Ahmad; Anderson, John; Kopacek, Peter
This paper describes our first teen sized humanoid robot Archie. This robot has been developed in conjunction with Prof. Kopacek’s lab from the Technical University of Vienna. Archie uses brushless motors and harmonic gears with a novel approach to position encoding. Based on our previous experience with small humanoid robots, we developed software to create, store, and play back motions as well as control methods which automatically balance the robot using feedback from an internal measurement unit (IMU).
... weeks of pregnancy Ovarian cysts Anemia Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) Causes A molar pregnancy is caused by an ... have this complication than a partial molar pregnancy. Prevention If you've had a molar pregnancy, talk ...
Pregnancy sonogram; Obstetric ultrasonography; Obstetric sonogram; Ultrasound - pregnancy; IUGR - ultrasound; Intrauterine growth - ultrasound; Polyhydramnios - ultrasound; Oligohydramnios - ultrasound; ...
Full Text Available ... The Prematurity Campaign About us Annual report Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently asked questions Contact us Tools & Resources Born Too Soon Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & ...
Bergman, David A; Brown, Nancy L; Wilson, Sandra
We conducted a qualitative study of the attitudes of teens and parents toward the use of a patient portal. We conducted two teen and two parent focus groups, one teen electronic bulletin board, and one parent electronic bulletin board. Videotapes and transcripts from the groups were independently analyzed by two reviewers for significant themes, which were then validated by two other members of the research team. Twenty-eight teens and 23 parents participated in the groups. Significant themes included issues about teens' control of their own healthcare; enthusiasm about the use of a patient portal to access their providers, seek health information, and make appointments; and concerns about confidentiality. In summary, there was considerable support among teens and parents for a patient portal as well as concerns about confidentiality. The teen portal affords an opportunity to negotiate issues of confidentiality.
Uengwongsapat, C; Kantaruksa, K; Klunklin, A; Sansiriphun, N
Becoming an adolescent father is a significant and critical life event. Expectant fathers are faced with a concurrent dual developmental crisis: being an adolescent and becoming a father. This transition has a tremendous impact on these adolescents, their families and society. The impact on these individuals and society does not, at this point, seem to be clearly understood. To explore the process of Thai adolescents becoming first-time fathers with an unplanned pregnancy during their girlfriend's pregnancy. A grounded theory approach was used, drawing upon semi-structured interviews with 16 expectant fathers in Chiang Mai, Thailand. 'Growing into teen fatherhood' was the basic social process that emerged as the core category. These fathers used this process for developing themselves to fatherhood. This process was further divided into three phases: enduring the conflict of future role, accepting impending fatherhood and developing a sense of being teen expectant father. Throughout this process, the participants encountered many conflicts and challenges. They employed various strategies to manage the emotional, financial and interpersonal challenges they faced during the transition to fatherhood. This study provides data as well as anecdotal evidence for healthcare professionals to better understand adolescent fathers and their unique challenges during their girlfriend's pregnancy. A better understanding of these rich findings will enable healthcare professionals to assist young men and boys in their struggle to transition to fatherhood. Our data may guide policymakers in developing support groups, effective mentoring programs and national follow-up services as standard services in hospitals' care for first-time adolescent fathers in Thailand. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.
Smith, Jennifer L; Skinner, S Rachel; Fenwick, Jennifer
The findings presented in this paper describe the beliefs and attitudes of three different groups of adolescent females about teen motherhood. These were elicited from a larger analysis that explored and theorized contraceptive pathways in a sample of young Australian women. A purposive sample of females aged 14 to 19 years was recruited from three distinct populations in the city of Perth, Western Australia: (1) never-pregnant; (2) pregnant-terminated; and (3) pregnant-continued. Grounded theory principles were used to analyze data generated from 69 semi-structured interviews conducted over a 21 month period (2006-2008). Two categories that described teenagers' attitudes to pregnancy and motherhood were elicited from the analysis. These explained the level of priority that teenagers placed on using contraception and postponing the transition to parenthood. The category labeled 'life derailment' represented how those who had never had a pregnancy or had terminated a pregnancy constructed teen motherhood as potentially restricting their personal, career and social transition to adulthood. The alternative category, 'life-line', reflected how those who continued with their pregnancy perceived teen motherhood as a positive and transformative experience that fostered personal growth. The findings from this study contribute further insight into the complex nature of adolescent contraceptive use and pregnancy risk. The analysis has strengthened evidence of the critical role of self-perceptions of pregnancy and childbearing on teenagers' fertility outcomes. It has also emphasized the broader life circumstances that shape these attitudes, intentions and related behavior. Strategies directed toward academic support and vocational skill development may broaden teenage girls' perceived future options and achievement capacity, thus influencing key reproductive health outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ... Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG ... Virus and Pregnancy Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal Clinical Updates Practice ...
Full Text Available ... Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ... pregnant. Related: Zika Virus and Pregnancy Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal ...
Full Text Available ... center my dashboard Our Cause Our mission Fighting premature birth: The Prematurity Campaign About us Annual report ... us Tools & Resources Born Too Soon Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy ...
Full Text Available ... premature birth: The Prematurity Campaign About us Annual report Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need ... Resources Born Too Soon Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or ...
Full Text Available ... my dashboard Our Cause Our mission Fighting premature birth: The Prematurity Campaign About us Annual report Our ... Tools & Resources Born Too Soon Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before ...
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Full Text Available ... resource to help stay current with the latest advances in the field Hematology 2017 A collection of articles ... Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ...
... short. Obey speed limits. Never use a cell phone or text while driving. Parents can Understand that most teens who drink ... number of teen passengers Never use a cell phone or text while driving Obey speed limits Get your copy of CDC's ...
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them. Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 4/2/2013.
... dairy products. The body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if your child or teen has high cholesterol (too much cholesterol in the blood), he or she has a higher risk of coronary artery disease and other heart diseases. What causes high cholesterol in children and teens? Three main ...
... have about bodies, such as the differences between boys and girls and where babies come from. But don't ... together, and we'll come out of it — together! Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: January ... Problems in Teens Helping Teens Learn to Drive Talking to Your Child About Puberty ...
Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.
This packet of instructional materials is designed to teach teenagers about the effects of overpopulation on the world and on the individual. Information is presented in three related booklets. The first of the three parts of the "Teen Population Awareness Campaign Kit," illustrates overpopulation through profiles of teens living in…
Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara
Life continues to hold considerable risk for adolescents in the United States. In 2006, the teen death rate stood at 64 deaths per 100,000 teens (13,739 teens) (KIDS COUNT Data Center, 2009). Although it has declined by 4 percent since 2000, the rate of teen death in this country remains substantially higher than in many peer nations, based…
Antonishak, Jill; Connolly, Chelsey
The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy published free online lessons that help students take action to prevent unplanned pregnancy and complete their education. From the fall of 2012 to the spring of 2014, approximately 2,800 students took the online lessons and participated in pre- and post-lesson evaluation surveys at four…
Navas-Iannini, Ana Maria; Pedretti, Erminia
In this article, we explore how visitors engage with a science museum exhibit that displays controversial topics. Through a case study methodology, we focus on the Brazilian exhibit "Preventing Youth Pregnancy" that delves into teen pregnancy, sexual practices, and sexually transmitted diseases. Using the lens of science communication…
Jiménez-González, Alberto; Granados-Cosme, José Arturo; Rosales-Flores, Roselia Arminda
To identify objective and subjective conditions in the lives of pregnant teens within a highly-marginalized community in the state of Puebla, Mexico. Objective and subjective conditions of pregnant teens were evaluated through a mixed methodology (surveys, observation guides and a structured interview guide). The main family characteristic is the absence of a father due to migration, no desire to study or work and the new meaning of pregnancy: the initial social stigma for engaging in a sexual activity and then, the stigma for being a young mother. Objective conditions show family disintegration, lack of access to education at the community, high school and college level as well as unemployment as processes linked to teen pregnancy; thus, making it practically impossible to develop life goals. Subjective conditions center around the reproduction of gender stereotypes related to maternity.
... as well as with other high-risk populations. Video Created with Sketch. #TalkingIsPower: Serena Serena, a mom of three and a midwife, shares why it's never too early to start talking about sex, love, and realtionships with the young person in ...
Lenhart, Amanda; Ling, Rich; Campbell, Scott; Purcell, Kristen
Daily text messaging among American teens has shot up in the past 18 months, from 38% of teens texting friends daily in February of 2008 to 54% of teens texting daily in September 2009. And it's not just frequency--teens are sending enormous quantities of text messages a day. Half of teens send 50 or more text messages a day, or 1,500 texts a…
Levenson, P M; Morrow, J R; Smith, P
One hundred forty-six teens attending an urban maternity hospital's prenatal clinic completed a questionnaire designed to assist in the development of educational programs utilizing computer-assisted television instruction or interactive video. Ninety-five percent of the teens agreed that additional information about desirable health behaviors during pregnancy would be helpful. Forty-six percent preferred obtaining information from a health professional at the hospital. Although 90% said that the race of the narrator for a film show was unimportant, responses regarding racial preference corresponded to the racial distribution of participants. Seventy-six percent of the teens preferred the narrator to be younger than 35 years of age, and 54% preferred a female narrator. Race was associated with video game experiences, preferences about the narrator's age and race, and favorite television shows. Age was not associated with responses to any of the questions. Although only 19% had ever used a computer, 98% stated they would like to try a computer with assistance. More than half (55%) knew how to type and 83% had played video games; of those who had played video games, 93% said they enjoyed doing so. Eighty-three percent of the respondents always or sometimes enjoyed cartoons. Favorite television shows and cartoon characters were identified. The design implications of the teens' preferences to the development of instruction using computers coupled with other emerging technologies are discussed.
This article explores the politics surrounding the education of pregnant/mothering students. Utilizing Title IX, which guarantees the rights of pregnant/mothering students to an education equal to her peers, as an analytical lens, the author specifically identifies how absences in knowledge, research, and practice about the education of…
Resumen Objetivos: Estudiar la percepción de las adolescentes embarazadas en el empleo de métodos anticonceptivos, para discutir la experiencia de los jóvenes relacionadas con la anticoncepción y las prácticas sexuales. Método: Estudio descriptivo con abordaje cualitativo, con el uso de la técnica de entrevista semi-estructurada y el análisis de contenido. Resultados: El estudio incluyó a 17 adolescentes embarazadas. En el análisis temático de las entrevistas revelaron cuatro categorías: Adolescentes y la adopción de métodos anticonceptivos; anticoncepción en la vista de las adolescentes embarazadas; actividades educativas y la participación de los jóvenes, los métodos anticonceptivos: las dudas y las incertidumbres de los adolescentes. Conclusión: El estudio pone de relieve la vulnerabilidad de los jóvenes a la ocurrencia de un embarazo no planificado y el riesgo de una recurrencia.Creemos que las prácticas educativas pueden contribuir a la comprensión de los jóvenes sobre su sexualidad y las prácticas sexuales, la prevención de lesiones de la salud sexual y reproductiva.
Diagnosis of pregnancy in dairy cows based on the progesterone content of milk. Part 1. ... best overall classification of dairy cows into pregnant and non-pregnant groups (confirmed by rectal palpation). Progesterone levels ... Teen 'n diskriminante progesteroonwaarde van 5 ng/ml melk het hierdie funksie 98,0% van alle ...
By age 16 one in three adolescents have experienced sexual intercourse. Because one-third of these sexually active teens never use contraception, they have a five-times greater risk of pregnancy than teenagers who take contraceptive measures. In 1982, one in 23 Canadian teenage girls became pregnant. Teenagers' reasons for not using contraceptives include fear of parents learning about their sexual activity, lack of knowledge about contraception, and lack of self-esteem. Parents, educators an...
... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... or seem to lack his or her usual motivation. Someone with SAD may notice that his or ...
... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... that you care is just the kind of motivation your friend needs. Staying Clean Recovering from a ...
... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... Help My Boyfriend Stop Smoking? Smokeless Tobacco Smoking Motivation and the Power of Not Giving Up How ...
Nathan, Hannah L; Boene, Helena; Munguambe, Khatia; Sevene, Esperança; Akeju, David; Adetoro, Olalekan O; Charanthimath, Umesh; Bellad, Mrutyunjaya B; de Greeff, Annemarie; Anthony, John; Hall, David R; Steyn, Wilhelm; Vidler, Marianne; von Dadelszen, Peter; Chappell, Lucy C; Sandall, Jane; Shennan, Andrew H
Vital signs measurement can identify pregnant and postpartum women who require urgent treatment or referral. In low-resource settings, healthcare workers have limited access to accurate vital signs measuring devices suitable for their environment and training. The CRADLE Vital Signs Alert (VSA) is a novel device measuring blood pressure and pulse that is accurate in pregnancy and designed for low-resource settings. Its traffic light early warning system alerts healthcare workers to the need for escalation of care for women with hypertension, haemorrhage or sepsis. This study evaluated the usability and acceptability of the CRADLE VSA device. Evaluation was conducted in community and primary care settings in India, Mozambique and Nigeria and tertiary hospitals in South Africa. Purposeful sampling was used to convene 155 interviews and six focus groups with healthcare workers using the device (n = 205) and pregnant women and their family members (n = 41). Interviews and focus groups were conducted in the local language and audio-recorded, transcribed and translated into English for analysis. Thematic analysis was undertaken using an a priori thematic framework, as well as an inductive approach. Most healthcare workers perceived the CRADLE device to be easy to use and accurate. The traffic lights early warning system was unanimously reported positively, giving healthcare workers confidence with decision-making and a sense of professionalism. However, a minority in South Africa described manual inflation as tiring, particularly when measuring vital signs in obese and hypertensive women (n = 4) and a few South African healthcare workers distrusted the device's accuracy (n = 7). Unanimously, pregnant women liked the CRADLE device. The traffic light early warning system gave women and their families a better understanding of the importance of vital signs in pregnancy and during the postpartum period. The CRADLE device was well accepted by healthcare workers
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Anesthesia - What to Expect KidsHealth / For Teens / Anesthesia - What ... Operating Room After Surgery Print Different Kinds of Anesthesia If you're having any kind of procedure ...
Adolescents - stress; Anxiety - cope with stress ... Common sources of stress in teens include: Worrying about schoolwork or grades Juggling responsibilities, such as school and work or sports Having problems ...
... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Teaching Teens To Use Condoms Faithfully Page Content Article ... this much-maligned form of contraception. Some young women, for example, say that using rubbers makes them ...
... Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Protecting Toddlers and Teens Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... virus that causes a rash, cough, runny nose, eye irritation, and fever Mumps, a virus causing fever, ...
Kroning, Maureen; Kroning, Kayla
Adolescent depression is a serious problem affecting 10.7% of all teens and 29.9% of high school students; 17% of high school students have contemplated suicide. Yet, depression in teens is often unrecognized. This article relays the tragic death of a 17-year-old, along with symptoms of depression and suicide in adolescents; DSM-5 criteria for depression; treatments including protective factors, psychotherapy, and medications; and imparts interventions for addressing this huge but silent crisis.
Ellen Wartella; Vicky Rideout; Heather Montague; Leanne Beaudoin-Ryan; Alexis Lauricella
In the age of digital technology, as teens seem to be constantly connected online, via social media, and through mobile applications, it is no surprise that they increasingly turn to digital media to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking sites, electronic gaming and wearable devices, to explore health...
Rushing, Stephanie Craig; Stephens, David
American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are disproportionally burdened by many common adolescent health issues, including drug and alcohol use, injury and violence, sexually transmitted infections, and teen pregnancy. Media technologies, including the Internet, cell phones, and video games, offer new avenues for reaching adolescents on a…
Full Text Available In the age of digital technology, as teens seem to be constantly connected online, via social media, and through mobile applications, it is no surprise that they increasingly turn to digital media to answer their health questions. This study is the first of its kind to survey a large, nationally-representative sample of teens to investigate how they use the newest digital technologies, including mobile apps, social networking sites, electronic gaming and wearable devices, to explore health topics. The survey covered the types of health topics teens most frequently search for, which technologies they are most likely to use and how they use them, and whether they report having changed their behaviors due to digital health information. In addition, this survey explores how the digital divide continues to impact adolescents. Results of this study indicate that teens are concerned about many health issues, ranging from fitness, sexual activity, drugs, hygiene as well as mental health and stress. As teens virtually always have a digital device at their fingertips, it is clear that public health interventions and informational campaigns must be tailored to reflect the ways that teens currently navigate digital health information and the health challenges that concern them most.
Driessnack, Martha; Williams, Janet K; Barnette, J Jackson; Sparbel, Kathleen J; Paulsen, Jane S
Adolescents, who have a parent with Huntington Disease (HD), not only are at genetic risk for HD but also are witness to its onset and devastating clinical progression as their parent declines. To date, no mechanism has been developed to direct health care providers to the atypical adolescent experiences of these teens. The purpose of this report is to describe the process of developing the HD-Teen Inventory clinical assessment tool. Forty-eight teens and young adults from 19 U.S. states participated in the evaluation of the HD-Teen Inventory tool. Following item analysis, the number of items was reduced and item frequency and reaction scales were combined, based on the strong correlation (r = .94). The resultant tool contains 15 inventory and 2 open-ended response items. The HD-Teen Inventory emerged as a more compact and efficient tool for identifying the most salient concerns of at-risk teens in HD families in research and/or clinical practice.
Most adults are challenged when it comes to understanding teens' motives. "What were they thinking of?" is an all-too-common response. Without a doubt, no developmental period in life is more confounding and baffling than adolescence. Until recently, erratic teen behavior was blamed on raging hormones, but scientific research in the last decade…
Adamson, David M.
Depression's effects on adolescent functioning and family burden are not well understood; there is also limited understanding of teens' and parents' attitudes and knowledge about depression, how these and other factors influence readiness for treatment, and the barriers to care that teens and their parents encounter. To address these knowledge…
Kusuma, Krista Dahl; Wyrick, Gabrielle
The teen behavior typically exhibited in school visit groups is often read by museum teachers as resistance or disengagement, when the opposite is more likely the case. This paper attempts to dispel some of the myths around teen behavior and serve as a practical guide to museum educators who desire a deeper, more successful engagement with teen…
Kim, Son Chae; Burke, Leanne; Sloan, Chris; Barnett, Shannon
To prepare future nurses who can deliver high quality nursing care to teen mothers, a better understanding of the nursing students' perception of teen mothers is needed. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 228 nursing students to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Positivity Toward Teen Mothers (PTTM) scale, to explore nursing students' general empathy and attitudes toward teen mothers, and to investigate the predictors of nursing students' attitudes toward teen mothers. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a 19-item PTTM-Revised scale with Non-judgmental and Supportive subscales. Cronbach's alphas for the subscales were 0.84 and 0.69, respectively, and 0.87 for the total scale. Simultaneous multiple regression models showed that general empathy and having a teen mother in the family or as an acquaintance were significant predictors of positive attitudes toward teen mothers, whereas age was a significant negative predictor. The PTTM-Revised scale is a promising instrument for assessing attitudes toward teen mothers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elliot, L M; Booth, M M; Patterson, G; Althoff, M; Bush, C K; Dery, M A
Abstinence-only sexuality education (AOSE); is required in the public school systems of many states, raising public health concerns and perpetuating health disparities through school systems. This study aimed to determine the correlations between state-mandated AOSE and the rates of adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy. Using publicly available data on all 50 United States' laws and policies on AOSE, states were ranked according to their level of abstinence emphasis on sexuality education (Level 0 - Level 3);. We calculated the relative proportion of Black students in public schools and the proportion of families below the federal poverty line then ranked them by state. We compared the states' ranks to the incidence of adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy in those states to identify associations between variables. The majority of states (~44 percent ); have legally mandated AOSE policies (Level 3); and adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates were highest in these Level 3 states. There were significant, positive correlations between HIV incidence rates of 13-19 year olds, HIV rates of 20-24 year olds, teen pregnancy rates, and AOSE level, with the proportion of the population that lives below the federal poverty level, and whether they attended schools that had a greater than 50 percent of an African American population. These data show a clear association between state sexuality education policies and adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates not previously demonstrated. Our data further show that states that have higher proportions of at-risk populations, with higher adolescent HIV and teen pregnancy rates, are more likely to also have restrictive AOSE policies. These populations may be more likely to attend public schools where AOSE is taught, increasing their risk for HIV and teen pregnancy. The World Health Organization considers fact-based Comprehensive Sexuality Education a human right, and the authors believe it is past time to end harmful, discriminatory sexuality
Weiss, Eve; Fisher Thiel, Megan; Sultana, Nahida; Hannan, Chloe; Seacrist, Thomas
From the advent of airbags to electronic stability control, technological advances introduced into automobile design have significantly reduced injury and death from motor vehicle crashes. These advances are especially pertinent among teen drivers, a population whose leading cause of death is motor vehicle crashes. Recently developed advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have the potential to compensate for skill deficits and reduce overall crash risk. Yet, ADAS is only effective if drivers are willing to use it. Limited research has been conducted on the suitability of ADAS for teen drivers. The goal of this study is to identify teen drivers' perceived need for ADAS, receptiveness to in-vehicle technology, and intervention preferences. The long-term goal is to understand public perceptions and barriers to ADAS use and to help determine how these systems must evolve to meet the needs of the riskiest driving populations. Three focus groups (N = 24) were conducted with licensed teen drivers aged 16-19 years and 2 focus groups with parents of teen drivers (N = 12). Discussion topics included views on how ADAS might influence driving skills and behaviors; trust in technology; and data privacy. Discussions were transcribed; the team used conventional content analysis and open coding methods to identify 12 coding domains and code transcripts with NVivo 10. Interrater reliability testing showed moderate to high kappa scores. Overall, participants recognized potential benefits of ADAS, including improved safety and crash reduction. Teens suggested that ADAS is still developing and therefore has potential to malfunction. Many teens reported a greater trust in their own driving ability over vehicle technology. They expressed that novice drivers should learn to drive on non-ADAS-equipped cars and that ADAS should be considered a supplemental aid. Many teens felt that overreliance on ADAS may increase distracted driving or risky behaviors among teens. Parents also
Jewett, Amy; Shults, Ruth A; Bhat, Geeta
Parents play a critical role in preventing crashes among teens. Research of parental perceptions and concerns regarding teen driving safety is limited. We examined results from the 2013 Summer ConsumerStyles survey that queried parents about restrictions placed on their teen drivers, their perceived level of "worry" about their teen driver's safety, and influence of parental restrictions regarding their teen's driving. We produced frequency distributions for the number of restrictions imposed, parental "worry," and influence of rules regarding their teen's driving, reported by teen's driving license status (learning to drive or obtained a driver's license). Response categories were dichotomized because of small cell sizes, and we ran separate log-linear regression models to explore whether imposing all four restrictions on teen drivers was associated with either worry intensity ("a lot" versus "somewhat, not very much or not at all") or perceived influence of parental rules ("a lot" versus "somewhat, not very much or not at all"). Among the 456 parent respondents, 80% reported having restrictions for their teen driver regarding use of safety belts, drinking and driving, cell phones, and text messaging while driving. However, among the 188 parents of licensed teens, only 9% reported having a written parent-teen driving agreement, either currently or in the past. Worrying "a lot" was reported less frequently by parents of newly licensed teens (36%) compared with parents of learning teens (61%). Parents report having rules and restrictions for their teen drivers, but only a small percentage formalize the rules and restrictions in a written parent-teen driving agreement. Parents worry less about their teen driver's safety during the newly licensed phase, when crash risk is high as compared to the learning phase. Further research is needed into how to effectively support parents in supervising and monitoring their teen driver. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Campbell, Brendan T; Borrup, Kevin; Saleheen, Hassan; Banco, Leonard; Lapidus, Garry
As part of a statewide campaign, we surveyed physician attitudes and practice regarding teen driving safety before and after a brief intervention designed to facilitate in office counseling. A 31-item self-administered survey was mailed to Connecticut physicians, and this was followed by a mailing of teen driving safety materials to physician practices in the state. A postintervention survey was mailed 8 months after the presurvey. A total of 102 physicians completed both the pre and postsurveys. Thirty-nine percent (39%) reported having had a teen in their practice die in a motor vehicle crash in the presurvey, compared with 49% in the postsurvey. Physician counseling increased significantly for a number of issues: driving while impaired from 86% to 94%; restrictions on teen driving from 53% to 64%; teen driving laws from 53% to 63%; safe vehicle from 32% to 42%; parents model safe driving from 29% to 44%; and teen-parent written contract from 15% to 37%. At baseline, the majority of physicians who provide care to teenagers in Connecticut report discussing and counseling teens on first wave teen driver safety issues (seat belts, alcohol use), but most do not discuss graduate driver licensing laws or related issues. After a brief intervention, there was a significant increase in physician counseling of teens on teen driving laws and on the use of teen-parent contracts. Additional interventions targeting physician practices can improve physician counseling to teens and their parents on issues of teen driving safety.
Huang, Patty; Kao, Trudy; Curry, Allison E; Durbin, Dennis R
To compare the characteristics of driving and nondriving teens and explore the driving outcomes for teens with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders. Parents of teens aged 15 to 18 years with a parent-reported diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder enrolled in Interactive Autism Network, an online research registry, were eligible for this cross-sectional study. An online survey was used for data collection. A total of 297 parents completed the survey. Sixty-three percent of teens currently drive or plan to drive. Twenty-nine percent of the teens who are age-eligible to drive currently drive. Compared with age-eligible but nondriving teens, a greater proportion of driving teens were in full-time regular education (p public transportation. Driving predictors included individualized education plans with driving goals, indicators of functional status (classroom placement, college aspiration, and job experience), and parent experience with teaching teens to drive. Twelve percent of teens received driving citations, and 12% of teens had been involved in a motor vehicle crash. Although a significant proportion of teens with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders were driving or learning to drive, the fact that most driving teens' individualized education plans did not include driving goals suggests an area of opportunity for improvement in transition planning. Driving teens were more frequently in regular education settings with college aspirations, which could help schools identify potential drivers.
Jeffrey M. Flesch
Full Text Available This review draws from published research related to the best practices for the utilization of teens as teachers to examine Choose Health Action Teens (CHAT, a teen’s as teachers (TAT training curriculum. Research shows that there are various components necessary to build a high quality TAT program. Most of these components fall under four areas in which training is necessary for teens and adults: Teaching strategies, youth/child development, subject matter to be taught, and youth-adult partnerships. These four areas provide a framework to review the Choose Health Action Teens (CHAT (Crosiar & Wolfe, 2013 teens as teachers training program curriculum.
Gill, Simerpal K.; Shults, Ruth A.; Cope, Jennifer Rittenhouse; Cunningham, Timothy J.; Freelon, Brandi
Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among teens in the United States. Graduated driver licensing (GDL) programs allow new drivers to gain driving experience while protecting them from high-risk situations. North Dakota was one of the last states to implement GDL, and the current program does not meet all of the best practice recommendations. This study used qualitative techniques to explore parents’ perceptions of the role teen driving plays in the daily lives of rural North Dakota families, their understanding of the risks faced by their novice teen drivers, and their support for GDL. A total of 28 interviews with parents of teens aged 13–16 years were conducted in four separate rural areas of the state. During the face-to-face interviews, parents described their teens’ daily lives as busy, filled with school, sports, and other activities that often required traveling considerable distances. Participation in school-sponsored sports and other school-related activities was highly valued. There was nearly unanimous support for licensing teens at age 14½, as was permitted by law at the time of the interviews. Parents expressed that they were comfortable supervising their teen’s practice driving, and few reported using resources to assist them in this role. Although few parents expressed concerns over nighttime driving, most parents supported a nighttime driving restriction with exemptions for school, work or sports-related activities. Despite many parents expressing concern over distracted driving, there was less consistent support among parents for passenger restrictions, especially if there would be no exemptions for family members or school activities. These findings can assist in planning policies and programs to reduce crashes among novice, teen drivers, while taking into account the unique perspectives and lifestyles of families living in rural North Dakota. PMID:23499983
Strunk, Julie A.
Teenage pregnancy outcomes have become an increasing concern in the United States. Education and support of pregnant teens are critical factors that may determine good or poor pregnancy outcomes. Poor outcomes may include low birth weight, developmental delays, and poor academic performance. Although the number of teenagers experiencing pregnancy…
... Healthy Weight Sample Link BMI Percentile Calculator for Child and Teen English Version Language: English Español (Spanish) ... and Weight Accurately At Home BMI Calculator for Child and Teen ( English | Metric ) 1. Birth Date : Month: ...
Campbell, Brendan T; Borrup, Kevin; Corsi, John M; Kelliher, Kristine M; Saleheen, Hassan; Banco, Leonard; Lapidus, Garry
Each year about 4,000 teens ages 16-19 die on U.S. roads. Injury prevention counseling is recommended as a valuable and cost-effective part of routine health supervision. This study describes pediatrician knowledge and practice regarding teen driving safety. A 31-item self-administered survey was mailed to pediatricians. 160 of 392 pediatricians (41%) completed the survey. During a health supervision visit 93% of pediatricians reported discussing seat belt use, 89% impaired driving, 54% teen licensing laws, and 16% parent teen contract. Half reported having a teen in their practice killed in a crash. A majority surveyed report discussing and counseling teens on first wave teen driver safety issues (seat belts, alcohol use), but most do not discuss graduated driver licensing laws or related issues. Broadly adopted, this inexpensive counseling approach, could lead to reductions in teen motorvehicle crash injuries.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adults KidsHealth / For Parents / Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adults What's in this article? ...
The Novice Teen Driver Education and Training Administrative Standards set forth in this document serve to guide all novice teen driver education and training programs in States striving to provide quality, consistent driver education and training. W...
Kane, Jennifer B.; Morgan, S. Philip; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Guilkey, David K.
A huge literature shows that teen mothers face a variety of detriments across the life course, including truncated educational attainment. To what extent is this association causal? The estimated effects of teen motherhood on schooling vary widely, ranging from no discernible difference to 2.6 fewer years among teen mothers. The magnitude of educational consequences is therefore uncertain, despite voluminous policy and prevention efforts that rest on the assumption of a negative and presumably causal effect. This study adjudicates between two potential sources of inconsistency in the literature—methodological differences or cohort differences—by using a single, high-quality data source: namely, The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We replicate analyses across four different statistical strategies: ordinary least squares regression; propensity score matching; and parametric and semiparametric maximum likelihood estimation. Results demonstrate educational consequences of teen childbearing, with estimated effects between 0.7 and 1.9 fewer years of schooling among teen mothers. We select our preferred estimate (0.7), derived from semiparametric maximum likelihood estimation, on the basis of weighing the strengths and limitations of each approach. Based on the range of estimated effects observed in our study, we speculate that variable statistical methods are the likely source of inconsistency in the past. We conclude by discussing implications for future research and policy, and recommend that future studies employ a similar multimethod approach to evaluate findings. PMID:24078155
Stonely, Heather M.; Klein, Shirley R.
Adolescent and parent focus groups were conducted to do a needs assessment and discover possible topics for a secondary school family class. Results included identifying teen and parent family-related needs and societal concerns; discovering where teens currently learn about family life; and receiving teen and parent feedback about a proposed…
Yang, Jingzhen; Campo, Shelly; Ramirez, Marizen; Krapfl, Julia Richards; Cheng, Gang; Peek-Asa, Corinne
Family communication patterns (FCPs) play an important role in reducing the risk-taking behaviors of teens, such as substance use and safer sex. However, little is known about the relationship between family communication and teen driving safety. We analyzed the baseline data from a randomized trial that included 163 parent-teen dyads, with teens who would be receiving their intermediate driver's license within 3 months. FCPs were divided into four types-pluralistic, protective, consensual, and laissez-faire-and were correlated with the frequency of parent-teen discussions and teens' driving safety attitudes. The ratings on four types of FCPs were distributed quite evenly among teens and parents. Parents and teens agreed on their FCP ratings (p = .64). In families with communication patterns that were laissez-faire, protective, and pluralistic, parents talked to their teens less about safe driving than did parents in families with a consensual communication pattern (p < .01). Moreover, the frequency of parent-teen communication about safe driving was positively associated with teen attitudes toward safe driving (adjusted β = 0.35, p = .03). Health care providers need to encourage parents, particularly those with non-consensual FCPs, to increase frequency of parent-teen interactions. Copyright © 2013 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Yang, Shu Ching; Lin, Chia-Ying; Chen, An-Sing
This study examined several types of teen behaviors, specifically bullying, being bullied, and witnessing bullying, and analyzed teens' judgments of the seriousness of the bullying. A Bullying Behaviors Scale (BBS) was designed to investigate both traditional bullying (TB) and cyberbullying (CB) behaviors among teens in grades 5 through 11. The…
King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.
Teen depression and suicidal behaviors are intricately intertwined, with untreated depression being a leading cause of adolescent suicide. Most depressed or suicidal teens tend to show warning signs and possess specific risk factors. A key component to preventing teen depression is for adults to remain aware of such warning signs and risk factors…
Bull, Sheana; Devine, Sharon; Schmiege, Sarah J; Pickard, Leslie; Campbell, Jon; Shlay, Judith C
To consider whether Youth All Engaged! (a text message intervention) intensified the effects of the adolescent pregnancy prevention Teen Outreach Program (control) for youths. In this trial performed in Denver, Colorado, from 2011 to 2014, we randomized 8 Boys & Girls Clubs each of 4 years into 32 clubs per year combinations to ensure each club would serve as a treatment site for 2 years and a control site for 2 years. Control intervention consisted of the Teen Outreach Program only. We enrolled 852 youths (aged 14-18 years), and 632 were retained at follow-up, with analytic samples ranging from 50 to 624 across outcomes. We examined program costs, and whether the intervention increased condom and contraceptive use, access to care, and pregnancy prevention. Control program costs were $1184 per participant, and intervention costs were an additional $126 per participant (+10.6%). There were no statistically significant differences in primary outcomes for the full sample. Hispanic participants in the intervention condition had fewer pregnancies at follow-up (1.79%) than did those in the control group (6.72%; P = .02). Youth All Engaged is feasible, low cost, and could have potential benefits for Hispanic youths.
Wade, Shari L; Narad, Megan E; Kingery, Kathleen M; Taylor, H Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Kirkwood, Michael W; Yeates, Keith O
To describe the Teen Online Problem Solving-Teen Only (TOPS-TO) intervention relative to the original Teen Online Problem Solving-Family (TOPS-F) intervention, to describe a randomized controlled trial to assess intervention efficacy, and to report feasibility and acceptability of the TOPS-TO intervention. Research method and design: This is a multisite randomized controlled trial, including 152 teens (49 TOPS-F, 51 TOPS-TO, 52 IRC) between the ages of 11-18 who were hospitalized for a moderate to severe traumatic brain injury in the previous 18 months. Assessments were completed at baseline, 6-months post baseline, and 12-months post baseline. Data discussed include adherence and satisfaction data collected at the 6-month assessment (treatment completion) for TOPS-F and TOPS-TO. Adherence measures (sessions completed, dropout rates, duration of treatment engagement, and rates of program completion) were similar across treatment groups. Overall, teen and parent reported satisfaction was high and similar across groups. Teens spent a similar amount of time on the TOPS website across groups, and parents in the TOPS-F spent more time on the TOPS website than those in the TOPS-TO group (p = .002). Parents in the TOPS-F group rated the TOPS website as more helpful than those in the TOPS-TO group (p = .05). TOPS-TO intervention is a feasible and acceptable intervention approach. Parents may perceive greater benefit from the family based intervention. Further examination is required to understand the comparative efficacy in improving child and family outcomes, and who is likely to benefit from each approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Barlow, Allison; Mullany, Britta; Neault, Nicole; Goklish, Novalene; Billy, Trudy; Hastings, Ranelda; Lorenzo, Sherilynn; Kee, Crystal; Lake, Kristin; Redmond, Cleve; Carter, Alice; Walkup, John T
The Affordable Care Act provides funding for home-visiting programs to reduce health care disparities, despite limited evidence that existing programs can overcome implementation and evaluation challenges with at-risk populations. The authors report 36-month outcomes of the paraprofessional-delivered Family Spirit home-visiting intervention for American Indian teen mothers and children. Expectant American Indian teens (N=322, mean age=18.1 years) from four southwestern reservation communities were randomly assigned to the Family Spirit intervention plus optimized standard care or optimized standard care alone. Maternal and child outcomes were evaluated at 28 and 36 weeks gestation and 2, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months postpartum. At baseline the mothers had high rates of substance use (>84%), depressive symptoms (>32%), dropping out of school (>57%), and residential instability (51%). Study retention was ≥83%. From pregnancy to 36 months postpartum, mothers in the intervention group had significantly greater parenting knowledge (effect size=0.42) and parental locus of control (effect size=0.17), fewer depressive symptoms (effect size=0.16) and externalizing problems (effect size=0.14), and lower past month use of marijuana (odds ratio=0.65) and illegal drugs (odds ratio=0.67). Children in the intervention group had fewer externalizing (effect size=0.23), internalizing (effect size=0.23), and dysregulation (effect size=0.27) problems. The paraprofessional home-visiting intervention promoted effective parenting, reduced maternal risks, and improved child developmental outcomes in the U.S. population subgroup with the fewest resources and highest behavioral health disparities. The methods and results can inform federal efforts to disseminate and sustain evidence-based home-visiting interventions in at-risk populations.
Lenhart, Amanda; Madden, Mary; Smith, Aaron; Purcell, Kristen; Zickuhr, Kathryn; Rainie, Lee
Social media use has become so pervasive in the lives of American teens that having a presence on a social network site is almost synonymous with being online. Fully 95% of all teens ages 12-17 are now online and 80% of those online teens are users of social media sites. The authors focused their attention in this research on social network sites…
Lipman, Ellen L.; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.
Objective: Children of teen mothers exhibit adverse outcomes through adolescence. It is unclear whether these adverse outcomes extend to adulthood and apply to all of her children, or only those born when she was a teen. We examine the associations between young adult functioning and being born to a teen mother aged less than or equal to 20 years…
... or family member, your partner, or your labor coach with you. Stay Healthy During Your Pregnancy You ... Pregnancy Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...
... woman is pregnant. If you have an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg grows in the wrong place, ... tubes. The result is usually a miscarriage. Ectopic pregnancy can be a medical emergency if it ruptures. ...
Teenage pregnancy is a signifi cant social issue in the United States, resulting in increased levels of poverty. Most public health family planning efforts have traditionally focused on teaching teens the how-to of contraception, with little focus on teaching the why-to. During my time as a nurse practitioner in a public health department family planning clinic, I developed a method to open discussions with patients about the possibilities of a future that includes delayed childbearing. My experience with this strategy taught me that hope may indeed be the most powerful contraceptive of all.
Teenage pregnancy is a significant social issue in the United States, resulting in increased levels of poverty. Most public health family planning efforts have traditionally focused on teaching teens the how-to of contraception, with little focus on teaching the why-to. During my time as a nurse practitioner in a public health department family planning clinic, I developed a method to open discussions with patients about the possibilities of a future that includes delayed childbearing. My experience with this strategy taught me that hope may indeed be the most powerful contraceptive of all.
... caused by blood loss) lower back pain What Causes an Ectopic Pregnancy? An ectopic pregnancy usually happens because a fertilized ... protect against sexually transmitted infections (STDs) that can cause PID. If ... about the pregnancy being ectopic, talk to your doctor — it's important ...
Smoking when pregnant; Pregnancy and smoking; Smoking during pregnancy; Pregnant women smoking; Smoking when pregnant effects; Pregnancy and smoking effects; Pregnant quit smoking; Pregnant stop smoking; How to quit smoking when pregnant; Smoking and fertility; Smoking and infertility; Mom smoking; Smoking around children; Second hand smoke and children
Wall-Wieler, Elizabeth; Roos, Leslie L; Nickel, Nathan C
Risk factors for teenage pregnancy are linked to many factors, including a family history of teenage pregnancy. This research examines whether a mother's teenage childbearing or an older sister's teenage pregnancy more strongly predicts teenage pregnancy. This study used linkable administrative databases housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP). The original cohort consisted of 17,115 women born in Manitoba between April 1, 1979 and March 31, 1994, who stayed in the province until at least their 20(th) birthday, had at least one older sister, and had no missing values on key variables. Propensity score matching (1:2) was used to create balanced cohorts for two conditional logistic regression models; one examining the impact of an older sister's teenage pregnancy and the other analyzing the effect of the mother's teenage childbearing. The adjusted odds of becoming pregnant between ages 14 and 19 for teens with at least one older sister having a teenage pregnancy were 3.38 (99 % CI 2.77-4.13) times higher than for women whose older sister(s) did not have a teenage pregnancy. Teenage daughters of mothers who had their first child before age 20 had 1.57 (99 % CI 1.30-1.89) times higher odds of pregnancy than those whose mothers had their first child after age 19. Educational achievement was adjusted for in a sub-population examining the odds of pregnancy between ages 16 and 19. After this adjustment, the odds of teenage pregnancy for teens with at least one older sister who had a teenage pregnancy were reduced to 2.48 (99 % CI 2.01-3.06) and the odds of pregnancy for teen daughters of teenage mothers were reduced to 1.39 (99 % CI 1.15-1.68). Although both were significant, the relationship between an older sister's teenage pregnancy and a younger sister's teenage pregnancy is much stronger than that between a mother's teenage childbearing and a younger daughter's teenage pregnancy. This study contributes to understanding of the broader topic "who is
Gulbas, Lauren E; Zayas, Luis H
In this article, we explore the relationships among culture, family, and attempted suicide by U.S. Latinas. We analyzed qualitative interviews conducted with Latina teen suicide attempters (n = 10) and their parents. We also incorporated data collected from adolescents with no reported history of self-harm (n = 10) and their parents to examine why some individuals turned to suicide under similar experiences of cultural conflict. Our results reveal that Latina teens who attempted suicide lacked the resources to forge meaningful social ties. Without the tools to bridge experiences of cultural contradiction, the girls in our study described feeling isolated and alone. Under such conditions, adolescents turned to behaviors aimed at self-destruction. Unlike their peers who attempted suicide, adolescent Latinas with no lifetime history of attempted suicide were able to mobilize resources in ways that balanced experiences of acculturative tension by creating supportive relationships with other individuals. © The Author(s) 2014.
Vigil, Pilar; Riquelme, Rosa; Rivadeneira, Rosario; Aranda, Waldo
Urgent measures are required to stop the increase in the frequency of pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases among teenagers. A means of facing this problem is promoting sexual abstinence among youngsters. There are studies that confirm the efficacy of this approach. To show the results of the application of a holistic sexuality program (TeenSTAR) among Chilean teenagers. Students attending basic or high school were divided into a control or study group. The control group (342 students) received the usual education on sexuality given by their schools and the study group (398 students) participated in twelve TeenSTAR sessions lasting 1.5 hours each, given by a trained professor. Assessment of achievements was made using an anonymous questionnaire answered at the start and end of the program. The rates of sexual initiation among control and study groups were 15 and 6.5%, respectively. Among sexually active students, 20% of those in the study group and 9% of those in the control group discontinued sexual activity. A higher proportion of students in the TeenSTAR program retarded their sexual initiation or discontinued sexual activity and found more reasons to maintain sexual abstinence than control students.
Reese, Bianka M; Haydon, Abigail A; Herring, Amy H; Halpern, Carolyn T
Few studies have examined the health and developmental consequences, including unintended pregnancy, of different sexual behavior initiation sequences. Some work suggests that engaging in oral-genital sex first may slow the transition to coital activity and lead to more consistent contraception among adolescents. Using logistic regression analysis, we investigated the association between sequences of sexual initiation (i.e., initiating oral-genital or vaginal sex first based on reported age of first experience) and the likelihood of subsequent teenage pregnancy among 6,069 female respondents who reported vaginal sex before age 20 years and participated in waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Among female respondents initiating vaginal sex first, 31.4% reported a teen pregnancy. Among female respondents initiating two behaviors at the same age, 20.5% reported a teen pregnancy. Among female respondents initiating oral-genital sex first, 7.9% reported a teen pregnancy. In multivariate models, initiating oral-genital sex first, with a delay of at least 1 year to vaginal sex, and initiating two behaviors within the same year were each associated with a lower likelihood of adolescent pregnancy relative to teens who initiated vaginal sex first (odds ratio = .23, 95% confidence interval: .15-.37; and odds ratio = .78, 95% confidence interval: .60-.92, respectively). How adolescents begin their sexual lives may be differentially related to positive and negative health outcomes. To develop effective pregnancy prevention efforts for teens and ensure programs are relevant to youths' needs, it is important to consider multiple facets of sexual initiation and their implications for adolescent sexual health and fertility. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Pennell, Hillary; Kim, Kyung Bo
Health communication strategies to decrease teen pregnancies include the employment of entertainment-education (E-E), which involves embedding health messages in an entertainment media vehicle that is relatable and attractive to the intended audience. MTV's 16 and Pregnant is an example of such an effort as an E-E documentary-style reality show that aimed to reduce the U.S. teen pregnancy rate. A pretest-posttest experiment was conducted with 147 adolescent girls (ages 14-18) to investigate the effectiveness of 16 and Pregnant on beliefs, attitudes, and intentions to avoid teen pregnancy. Among participants who reported the lowest levels of identification, parasocial relationship, and homophily, viewing 16 and Pregnant resulted in more negative attitudes toward teen pregnancy. Among participants who reported the highest level of homophily, viewing 16 and Pregnant resulted in more positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy. Levels of pregnancy risk and health literacy were examined but were not significant moderators. Results are discussed in light of E-E theory and research.
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Can Diabetes Be Prevented? KidsHealth / For Teens / Can Diabetes Be ... español ¿Es posible prevenir la diabetes? What Is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that affects how the ...
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Is My Penis Normal? KidsHealth / For Teens / Is My Penis Normal? Print en español ¿Es normal mi pene? ... any guy who's ever worried about whether his penis is a normal size. There's a fairly wide ...
As parents and caregivers, their job is to help their children become happy, healthy, and productive members of society. They try to balance the desire to protect their children with their need to become independent young adults. This can be a struggle for parents of teens with seizures, since there are so many challenges they may face. Teenagers…
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Dailey, René M; Thompson, Charee M; Romo, Lynsey Kluever
Although research shows family members can influence each other's diet and exercise behaviors, the specific strategies that most effectively motivate individuals to enact healthy behaviors have not been revealed. Toward this goal, this study employed confirmation theory to assess how the quality of weight management (WM) communication between 107 mother-teen dyads was related to their diet and exercise behaviors as well as their subjective perceptions of the productivity of WM conversations. Confirmation theory proposes two components of confirmation: acceptance and challenge. Analyses revealed that accepting and challenging communication were both positively related to the perceived productivity of WM conversations. However, more complex associations emerged for diet and exercise. Acceptance was more helpful in motivating better eating habits for mothers with low health motivation and teens with high health motivation. For exercise, challenge was helpful in motivating teens with higher sensitivity about communicating about weight issues; however, counter to predictions, challenge was negatively related to exercise for teens with low health motivation and low sensitivity. These interactions, however, explained less variance than analyses for perceived effectiveness and satisfaction.
Teenagers love video games and other multimedia tools. Sometimes they love them too much, leading to addictive use. A child psychiatry team in Nancy has developed a therapeutic multimedia workshop to contribute to treating teens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Wahlstrom, Kyla L.
Sleep studies have shown that teenagers' internal clocks are incompatible with most high schools' early hours. Research in two Minnesota districts indicates that later school starting times can benefit teens and everyone dealing with them. Student participation in sports and other afterschool activities remained high. (MLH)
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) KidsHealth / For Teens / Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) ... Print en español Sangrado uterino anormal What Is Abnormal Uterine Bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the name doctors ...
Toscano, Sharyl Eve
Adolescent participants in a study aimed at exploring the nature and characteristics of girls' dating relationships revealed the phenomenon of sex parties. These teens defined a "sex party" as an opportunity to engage in sexual contact outside of typical dating relationships. Sexual activity could involve actual intercourse, but usually involved…
... enter puberty earlier or later than others. How Deep Will My Voice Get? How deep a guy's voice gets depends on his genes: ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...
Marcotte, Dave E.
Understanding the relationship between high school dropout and teen childbearing is complicated because both are affected by a variety of difficult to control factors. In this paper, I use panel data on aggregate dropout and fertility rates by age for all fifty states to develop insight by instrumenting for dropout using information on state…
Lucas, Quincy Arrianna Rose
The American Psychological Association (APA) has identified the prevention of and intervention in relationship violence as a top priority (APA, n.d.). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2012 Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet, dating violence is a serious problem in the United States. In accordance with Foshee et al. (1998):…
This podcast provides information about vaccine recommendations to help prevent meningococcal disease in preteens and teens. Created: 8/11/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB). Date Released: 8/11/2015.
Goode, Marsha; Broesamle, Barbara
Describes nine-day residential camp for Michigan teenage mothers/babies to enhance personal growth and develop responsible social skills. Outlines goals, pre-camp planning, staff, activities, evaluation. Reports 31 teen moms (ages 13-21) and 35 babies attended in 1986. Indicates participants were in therapy, experienced abuse, had low self-esteem,…
An article to discuss the difficulties of designing educational multimedia for the teen target audience (13 - 16 year olds). The report will assess techniques used in existing online artefacts and reveal major trends in the attempt to appeal to this notoriously hard to reach user group.
Lipman, Ellen L; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H
Children of teen mothers exhibit adverse outcomes through adolescence. It is unclear whether these adverse outcomes extend to adulthood and apply to all of her children, or only those born when she was a teen. We examine the associations between young adult functioning and being born to a teen mother aged ≤20 years at the time of birth (current teen), and being born to a teen mother later in her life (>21 years, prior teen). The 1983 Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS) and 2001 follow-up are used, including 2,355 participants 4 to 16 years old in 1983 with 2001 data. Using multilevel modeling we assessed the association between being born to a current versus prior teen mother, relative to a nonteen mother, and 2001 outcomes, controlling for individual and family level characteristics assessed in childhood. Being born to a teen mother (versus a nonteen mother) is associated with poorer educational achievement, life satisfaction, and personal income. Accounting for time of sample children's birth in teen mothers' lives, individuals born to current and prior teen mothers showed a ~0.8-year educational deficit, relative to individuals born to nonteen mothers in fully adjusted models. Individuals born to current teen mothers reported lower life satisfaction and personal income (-$7,262). There were no significant group differences at follow-up in mental or physical health between individuals born to nonteen mothers and those born to current or prior teen mothers. Although being born to a teen mother exerts a pervasive adverse effect on educational attainment, the adverse effects on life satisfaction and personal income appear to be selective for individuals born to a current teen mother. Further research is required to understand these differential effects. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Manski, Ruth; Dennis, Amanda
We explored the contraceptive experiences of female teens with epilepsy, including their knowledge and perceptions of interactions between antiepileptic drugs and hormonal contraception and contraceptive decision-making processes. From November 2012 to May 2013, we conducted one online survey (n=114) and 12 online focus group discussions (n=26) with female teens with epilepsy about their contraceptive experiences and unmet needs. Survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and focus group transcripts were analyzed thematically using modified grounded theory methods. Both survey and focus group participants reported believing that interactions between epilepsy medications and hormonal contraceptives could lead to reductions in contraceptive efficacy and seizure control. However, their knowledge about these types of medication interactions was often incomplete. Many study participants viewed contraceptive decision making as a difficult process, and some participants reported avoiding hormonal contraceptives because of potential interactions with antiepileptic drugs. Study participants reported relying on health care providers and parents for contraceptive decision-making support. Focus group participants also reported they wanted health care providers to provide more in-depth and comprehensive counseling about contraception, and that they desired peer support with contraceptive decisions. The ability to make informed contraceptive decisions is important for teens with epilepsy as interactions between anti-epileptic drugs and hormonal contraceptives can impact seizure occurrence and lead to an increased risk of unplanned pregnancy. Guidance for providers offering contraceptive care to this population is needed, as well as a contraceptive support tool that empowers teens with epilepsy to advocate for desired health care. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wallace, Michael L.; Freitas, William M.
4-H clubs can build and program underwater robots from raw materials. An annotated resource list for engaging youth in building underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) is provided. This article is a companion piece to the Research in Brief article "Building Teen Futures with Underwater Robotics" in this issue of the "Journal of…
Hawaii Dietetic Association, Honolulu.
This is an annotated bibliography listing books, resources, and films and filmstrips on the subject of nutrition. Sections include: Food Sense; Controlling Your Weight; Feeding Your Family; Food for Teens; Learning and Teaching Nutrition; Other Sources; and Films and Filmstrips. The material is in pamphlet form. (LK)
Restrepo-Mesa, Sandra Lucia; Zapata López, Natalia; Parra Sosa, Beatriz Elena; Escudero Vásquez, Luz Estela; Betancur Arrovaye, Laura
in developing countries, including Colombia, teen pregnancy is a public health problem. It brings social, health and nutritional consequences for the mother/son binomial. to assess demographic, socioeconomic, food security, health and nutritional status characteristics in a group of pregnant teenagers and their newborns. a cross sectional analytical study was performed in 294 pregnant teenagers in their third trimester of pregnancy enrolled in the prenatal care programs of the public network of hospitals in Medellin-Colombia between 2011 and 2012. Association between the mother's body mass index, iron nutritional status and newborn's weight at birth using explicative variables was assessed. monthly incomes under a minimum salary were associated with low mother's weight and newborns small for gestational age. Low gestational weight was higher in pregnant women under 15 years of age and with a gynecological age under five years. The prevalence of anemia was low in the first trimester and increased at the end of pregnancy; 5.6% had adequate iron reserves. Low weight at birth was associated with infections and mother's low weight in the third trimester of pregnancy. teenage pregnancy is a complex problem associated with negative effects in the nutritional, health and social status of the girl and their newborn. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Wade, Shari L; Walz, Nicolay C; Carey, JoAnne; Williams, Kendra M; Cass, Jennifer; Herren, Luke; Mark, Erin; Yeates, Keith Owen
To examine the efficacy of teen online problem solving (TOPS) in improving executive function (EF) deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in adolescence. Families of adolescents (aged 11-18 years) with moderate to severe TBI were recruited from the trauma registry of 2 tertiary-care children's hospitals and then randomly assigned to receive TOPS (n = 20), a cognitive-behavioral, skill-building intervention, or access to online resources regarding TBI (Internet resource comparison; n = 21). Parent and teen reports of EF were assessed at baseline and a posttreatment follow-up (mean = 7.88 months later). Improvements in self-reported EF skills were moderated by TBI severity, with teens with severe TBI in the TOPS treatment reporting significantly greater improvements than did those with severe TBI in the Internet resource comparison. The treatment groups did not differ on parent ratings of EF at the follow up. Findings suggest that TOPS may be effective in improving EF skills among teens with severe TBI.
Mohd Azri, M S; Adibah, H I; Haliza, G
To summarise the published research on teenage pregnancy in Malaysia, discuss the impact of the findings on clinical practice, and identify gaps in teenage pregnancy research in Malaysia. There were 31 articles related to teen pregnancy found after searching a database dedicated to indexing all original clinical research data published in Malaysia from year 2000 to 2014. Twenty-seven articles (including reports from the National Obstetrics Registry) were selected and reviewed on the basis of clinical relevance and future research implications. This literature review has been divided into eight sections: epidemiology, age at first marriage, adolescent fertility rate, unmarried childbearing, risk factors, maternal risks and neonatal outcome, future plan after delivery, and contraceptive use. More than 19,000 births to teenage mothers were recorded each year between 2009 and 2011. Adolescent fertility rates were recorded at 6 births per 1000 women ages 15-19 years in 2013. Many of these births were from unwed pregnancies, which accounted for 1.99% of total deliveries. A majority of young mothers were willing to take care of their baby, although some of them planned to put their baby up for adoption. Risk factors for teenage pregnancy were found to be similar to those published in studies worldwide. More research is needed to better understand the issue of teen pregnancy. For the best results, collaborative studies among nationwide hospitals and institutions should be the way forward.
Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; Ugalde, Jenny
Previous research suggests that, in general, youth who become pregnant during their teenage years tend to report elevated levels of substance use prior to conception and substantial reductions in use during pregnancy. While such studies provide insight into aggregate patterns of adolescent substance use in relation to pregnancy, they may have the unintended effect of masking the behavioral heterogeneity of pregnant teens. The present study employs data from a large, population-based study of adolescents in the United States. We employ latent class analysis to identify subgroups of pregnant adolescents (ages 12-17; n = 810) on the basis of variables measuring the past 12-month and past 30-day use of an extensive array of substances. Results revealed a four class solution. Classes were identified as Class 1: Abstainers (n = 344, 42.47 %), Class 2: Drinkers (n = 303, 37.41 %), Class 3: Alcohol and Cannabis Users (n = 77, 9.51 %), and Class 4: Polydrug Users (n = 86, 10.62 %). The Abstainers class had the highest proportion of Hispanic youth (34.3 %) as well as the highest proportion of youth residing in households earning less than $20,000 per year (44.2 %). The Polydrug Users class had the highest proportion of youth who were in late adolescence (75.58 %), non-Hispanic white (54.65 %), high-income (13.95 %), and in their first trimester of pregnancy (58.33 %). Findings point to an important degree of heterogeneity among pregnant teens and may have implications for the development of interventions designed for youth exhibiting disconcerting patterns of substance use prior to pregnancy.
Hall, M.; Mayhew, M.
It is well-known to those pursuing the quest to connect scientists to the public that an exceedingly hard-to- reach demographic is people of high school age. Typically, kids may tag along with their parents to museums until they reach adolescence, and then don't again appear in museums until they themselves have children. We have addressed this demographic challenge for free-choice-learning by developing a Cafe Scientifique program specifically for high school students. The Cafe Scientifique model for adults was developed in England and France, and has now spread like wildfire across the U.S. Typically, people come to a informal setting like a cafe, socialize and have food and drink, and then hear a short presentation by a scientist on a hot science topic in the news. This is followed by a period of lively discussion. We have followed this model for high school age students in four towns in northern New Mexico--Los Alamos, Santa Fe, Espanola, and Albuquerque--which represent a highly diverse demographic. We started this novel project with some trepidation, i.e. what if we build it and they don't come. But the program has proven popular beyond our expectations in all four towns. A part of the secret of success is the social setting, and-especially for this age group-the food provided. But we have also found that the kids are genuinely interested in the science topics, directing their own program, and interacting with scientists. We have often heard statements like, "I think it is important to be well-informed citizens". One of the most important aspects of the Cafes for the kids is to be able to discuss and argue about issues related to the science topic with the presenter and each other. It is an important part of the popularity that the Cafes do not involve school or parents, but also that we have strived to give the kids ownership of the program. Each town has a Youth Leadership Team-open to any teen-that discusses and prioritizes potential topics, conducts
Ramirez, Marizen; Yang, Jingzhen; Young, Tracy; Roth, Lisa; Garinger, Anne; Snetselaar, Linda; Peek-Asa, Corinne
Parents play a fundamental role in teaching their children safe driving skills to reduce risk of motor vehicle crashes, the leading cause of death for teens. "Steering Teens Safe" is a new parent-based intervention that equips parents with communication skills to talk about, demonstrate, and practice safe driving behaviors and skills…
Use of Media Technologies by Native American Teens and Young Adults: Evaluating Their Utility for Designing Culturally-Appropriate Sexual Health Interventions Targeting Native Youth in the Pacific Northwest
Craig Rushing, Stephanie Nicole
American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are disproportionally burdened by high rates of sexually transmitted infections and teen pregnancy, heightening their need for sexual health interventions that are aligned to their unique culture and social context. Media technologies, including the Internet, cell phones, and video games, offer new…
Niurka Fleites Santana; Yosmel Álvarez González; Iván Arlé González Duque; Jayce Díaz Díaz
Background:The studies accomplished in the worldwide space on pregnancy in adolescence demonstrate the need of an integral attention that would help the family in young people's education.Objective: to implement a program of educational intervention that contribute to modify young people's knowledges on pregnancy in adolescence.Methods: Study of educational intervention in teens of San Francisco community, belonging to the Municipality of Agua Blanca, San Francisco clinic, Portuguesa State, d...
Senior, Kate A.; Chenhall, Richard D.
In Australia, Indigenous young women are more likely to become pregnant while in their teens than non-Indigenous young women. Factors such as poverty, educational outcomes and unemployment play a major role; however, there is little understanding of the attitudes of young women themselves with regards to pregnancy. This paper explores young…
Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Brook, Judith S.
This study examined predictability of inappropriate behavior in a random sample of 452 adolescents. Behaviors examined included dropping out, teen pregnancy, criminal activities and conviction, antisocial personality disorder, and alcohol abuse. Found that academic achievement and aspirations, and learning-focused school settings related to…
Creaser, Janet I; Edwards, Christopher J; Morris, Nichole L; Donath, Max
Distracted driving is a significant concern for novice teen drivers. Although cellular phone bans are applied in many jurisdictions to restrict cellular phone use, teen drivers often report making calls and texts while driving. The Minnesota Teen Driver Study incorporated cellular phone blocking functions via a software application for 182 novice teen drivers in two treatment conditions. The first condition included 92 teens who ran a driver support application on a smartphone that also blocked phone usage. The second condition included 90 teens who ran the same application with phone blocking but which also reported back to parents about monitored risky behaviors (e.g., speeding). A third control group consisting of 92 novice teen drivers had the application and phone-based software installed on the phones to record cellular phone (but not block it) use while driving. The two treatment groups made significantly fewer calls and texts per mile driven compared to the control group. The control group data also demonstrated a higher propensity to text while driving rather than making calls. Software that blocks cellular phone use (except 911) while driving can be effective at mitigating calling and texting for novice teen drivers. However, subjective data indicates that some teens were motivated to find ways around the software, as well as to use another teen's phone while driving when they were unable to use theirs. Cellular phone bans for calling and texting are the first step to changing behaviors associated with texting and driving, particularly among novice teen drivers. Blocking software has the additional potential to reduce impulsive calling and texting while driving among novice teen drivers who might logically know the risks, but for whom it is difficult to ignore calling or texting while driving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.
McClellan, Mary C.
Reviews the problems of teenage pregnancy, including the costs to society, the challenge to educators, and the types of preventive programs developing across the country. Programs dealing strictly with reproduction and contraception are the least effective deterrents to teenage pregnancy. (MD)
Sperling, Lene; Tabor, A
Determination of chorionicity is one of the most important issues in the management of twin pregnancy. Modern ultrasound equipment has made it possible to accurately assess placentation already in the first trimester with the lambda sign. With regard to prenatal diagnosis, it is important to know...... for clinicians caring for twin pregnancies....
Teen mothers often face a stigmatizing gaze based on the belief that early childbearing jeopardizes their life chances and the health and development of their children. Growing evidence suggests that the poor maternal-child outcomes associated with early childbearing have been overstated and may be explained by teen mothers' childhood disadvantage and adversities. After reviewing what is currently known about the relationships between early childbearing and maternal-child outcomes, as well as teen mothers' perspectives on mothering, clinical practices are suggested that address teen mothers' concerns, strengths, aspirations, and the long-term inequities that contribute to poor outcomes.
Full Text Available Background: Teen and young adult mothers have lower socioeconomic status than older mothers. Objective: This study analyzes the socioeconomic status (SES of teen, young adult, and older adult mothers across four five-year birth cohorts from 1956 to 1975 who were teens from 1971 to 1994. Methods: Data were pooled from the 1995, 2002, and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG. Mothers were categorized by age at first birth and by their birth cohorts. The SES (education, single motherhood, poverty, employment of teen, young adult, and older mothers was compared across cohorts and within cohorts. Results: Among teen mothers, the odds of fulltime employment improved across birth cohorts and the odds of educational attainment beyond high school did not vary. Their odds of single motherhood and living in poverty increased across cohorts. The odds of higher education and single motherhood increased across birth cohorts for young adult mothers as did the odds of living in poverty, even if working fulltime. Among older adult mothers, educational attainment and the odds of single motherhood rose for recent cohorts. Conclusions: Comparisons between teen mothers and both young adult and all adult mothers within cohorts suggest that gaps in single motherhood and poverty between teen and adult mothers have widened over time, to the detriment of teen mothers. Teen mothers have become more likely to be single and poor than in the past and compared to older mothers.
Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Partridge, Robert T.; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J.
Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n = 316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. PMID:20609384
Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E
Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized.
Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M; Hannigan, John H; Greenwald, Mark K; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A; Partridge, Robert T; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J
Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n=316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abma, Joyce C.
This study analyzed the roles of trends in sociodemographic factors known to be related to the risk of a teen birth. The goal was to analyze the roles of these trends in maternal education, family structure and mother’s age at first birth in the likelihood of adolescents becoming teen mothers across multiple birth cohorts of women covering the years since 1991. Data are from the 1995, 2002, 2006–2010 and 2011–2013 National Surveys of Family Growth (NSFG). Consecutive birth cohorts of female respondents were constructed and retrospectively followed to estimate the risk of a teen birth for each cohort. Logistic regression models estimate the odds of a teen birth across cohorts and within strata of the predictors across cohorts. Maternal education rose across cohorts; the proportion who were non-Hispanic white declined. In general, the likelihood of an adolescent birth did not change within categories of the predictors that are considered at higher risk for a teen birth across birth cohorts. Specifically, there was no change in the odds of a teen birth among women whose mothers did not finish high school, those born to teen mothers and those not from two-parent families. The odds of a birth declined across cohorts for black women. The findings suggest that much of the decline in teen birth rates is due to declines in the proportion of teens in higher risk categories, rather than to declines within those categories. PMID:25680702
Temple, Jeff R; Le, Vi Donna; van den Berg, Patricia; Ling, Yan; Paul, Jonathan A; Temple, Brian W
The current study examines whether adolescents who report sexting exhibit more psychosocial health problems, compared to their non-sexting counterparts. Participants included 937 ethnically diverse male and female adolescents recruited and assessed from multiple high schools in southeast Texas. Measures included self-report of sexting, impulsivity, alcohol and drug use, and depression and anxiety symptoms. Teen sexting was significantly associated with symptoms of depression, impulsivity, and substance use. When adjusted for prior sexual behavior, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and parent education, sexting was only related to impulsivity and substance use. While teen sexting appears to correlate with impulsive and high-risk behaviors (substance use), we did not find sexting to be a marker of mental health. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Temple, Jeff R.; Le, Vi Donna; van den Berg, Patricia; Ling, Yan; Paul, Jonathan A.; Temple, Brian W.
The current study examines whether adolescents who report sexting exhibit more psychosocial health problems, compared to their non-sexting counterparts. Participants included 937 ethnically diverse male and female adolescents recruited and assessed from multiple high schools in southeast Texas. Measures included self-report of sexting, impulsivity, alcohol and drug use, and depression and anxiety symptoms. Teen sexting was significantly associated with symptoms of depression, impulsivity, and substance use. When adjusted for prior sexual behavior, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and parent education, sexting was only related to impulsivity and substance use. While teen sexting appears to correlate with impulsive and high-risk behaviors (substance use), we did not find sexting to be a marker of mental health. PMID:24331302
Gershon, Pnina; Zhu, Chunming; Klauer, Sheila G; Dingus, Tom; Simons-Morton, Bruce
Teen drivers' over-involvement in crashes has been attributed to a variety of factors, including distracted driving. With the rapid development of in-vehicle systems and portable electronic devices, the burden associated with distracted driving is expected to increase. The current study identifies predictors of secondary task engagement among teenage drivers and provides basis for interventions to reduce distracted driving behavior. We described the prevalence of secondary tasks by type and driving conditions and evaluated the associations between the prevalence of secondary task engagement, driving conditions, and selected psychosocial factors. The private vehicles of 83 newly-licensed teenage drivers were equipped with Data Acquisition Systems (DAS), which documented driving performance measures, including secondary task engagement and driving environment characteristics. Surveys administered at licensure provided psychosocial measures. Overall, teens engaged in a potentially distracting secondary task in 58% of sampled road clips. The most prevalent types of secondary tasks were interaction with a passenger, talking/singing (no passenger), external distraction, and texting/dialing the cell phone. Secondary task engagement was more prevalent among those with primary vehicle access and when driving alone. Social norms, friends' risky driving behaviors, and parental limitations were significantly associated with secondary task prevalence. In contrast, environmental attributes, including lighting and road surface conditions, were not associated with teens' engagement in secondary tasks. Our findings indicated that teens engaged in secondary tasks frequently and poorly regulate their driving behavior relative to environmental conditions. Practical applications: Peer and parent influences on secondary task engagement provide valuable objectives for countermeasures to reduce distracted driving among teenage drivers. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and
Lauria de Gentile, Patricia; Leiguarda de Orue, Ana Maria
Working with teenagers is not an easy task. This seems to be a notion shared by language teachers all over the world. While some instructors are very keen on working with this special age group, others are not fond of the challenge. The truth is that teaching English as a Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL) to teens has never been easy. According to…
The United States has a teenage birth rate that is high relative to that of other developed countries, and falling more slowly. Children of teenagers may experience difficult childhoods and hence be more likely to commit crimes subsequently. I assess to what extent lagged teen birth rates can explain why the United States had the highest developed country crime rates in the 1980s, and why US rates subsequently fell so much. For this purpose, I use internationally comparable crime rates measur...
Peek-Asa, Corinne; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Yang, Jingzhen; Chande, Vidya; Young, Tracy; Ramirez, Marizen
Crashes are the leading cause of death for teens, and parent-based interventions are a promising approach. We assess the effectiveness of Steering Teens Safe, a parent-focused program to increase safe teen driving. Steering Teens Safe aimed to improve parental communication with teens about safe driving using motivational interviewing techniques in conjunction with 19 safe driving lessons. A randomized controlled trial involved 145 parent-teen dyads (70 intervention and 75 control). Intervention parents received a 45-minute session to learn the program with four follow-up phone sessions, a DVD, and a workbook. Control parents received a standard brochure about safe driving. Scores were developed to measure teen-reported quantity and quality of parental communication about safe driving. The main outcome measure was a previously validated Risky Driving Score reported by teens. Because the Score was highly skewed, a generalized linear model based on a gamma distribution was used for analysis. Intervention teens ranked their parent's success in talking about driving safety higher than control teens (p = 0.035) and reported that their parents talked about more topics (non-significant difference). The Risky Driving Score was 21% lower in intervention compared to control teens (85% CI = 0.60, 1.00). Interaction between communication quantity and the intervention was examined. Intervention teens who reported more successful communication had a 42% lower Risky Driving Score (95% CI = 0.37, 0.94) than control parents with less successful communication. This program had a positive although not strong effect, and it may hold the most promise in partnership with other programs, such as Driver's Education or Graduated Driver's License policies. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01014923. Registered Nov. 16, 2009.
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Musick, Kelly; Seltzer, Judith A.; Schwartz, Christine R.
This paper uses new data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS) to examine how neighborhood norms shape teenagers’ substance use. Specifically, it takes advantage of clustered data at the neighborhood level to relate adult neighbors’ attitudes and behavior with respect to smoking, drinking, and drugs, which we treat as norms, to teenagers’ own smoking, drinking, and drug use. We use hierarchical linear models to account for parents’ attitudes and behavior and other characteristics of individuals and families. We also investigate how the association between neighborhood norms and teen behavior depends on: (1) the strength of norms, as measured by consensus in neighbors’ attitudes and conformity in their behavior; (2) the willingness and ability of neighbors to enforce norms, for instance, by monitoring teens’ activities; and (3) the degree to which teens are exposed to their neighbors. We find little association between neighborhood norms and teen substance use, regardless of how we condition the relationship. We discuss possible theoretical and methodological explanations for this finding. PMID:18496598
Burkett, Katie M; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan
To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program. Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001). The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention. Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students.
Shults, Ruth A; Williams, Allan F
The Monitoring the Future (MTF) survey provides nationally-representative annual estimates of licensure and driving patterns among U.S. teens. A previous study using MTF data reported substantial declines in the proportion of high school seniors that were licensed to drive and increases in the proportion of nondrivers following the recent U.S. economic recession. To explore whether licensure and driving patterns among U.S. high school seniors have rebounded in the post-recession years, we analyzed MTF licensure and driving data for the decade of 2006-2015. We also examined trends in teen driver involvement in fatal and nonfatal injury crashes for that decade using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System, respectively. During 2006-2015, the proportion of high school seniors that reported having a driver's license declined by 9 percentage points (11%) from 81% to 72% and the proportion that did not drive during an average week increased by 8 percentage points (44%) from 18% to 26%. The annual proportion of black seniors that did not drive was consistently greater than twice the proportion of nondriving white seniors. Overall during the decade, 17- and 18-year-old drivers experienced large declines in fatal and nonfatal injury crashes, although crashes increased in both 2014 and 2015. The MTF data indicate that licensure and driving patterns among U.S. high school seniors have not rebounded since the economic recession. The recession had marked negative effects on teen employment opportunities, which likely influenced teen driving patterns. Possible explanations for the apparent discrepancies between the MTF data and the 2014 and 2015 increases in crashes are explored. MTF will continue to be an important resource for clarifying teen driving trends in relation to crash trends and informing strategies to improve teen driver safety. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Latino youth, particularly in rural settings, experience significant disparities in rates of teen pregnancy and violence. Few data are available regarding social and structural influences on Latino youth’s developmental trajectories, specifically on factors that promote wellbeing and protect them from engagement in high-risk sexual and violence-related behaviors. Methods Forty-two youth aged 13 to 19 years old were recruited from middle schools and youth leadership programs to participate in one of eight community-based focus groups in Salinas, a predominantly Latino, urban center in California’s rural central coast. Focus groups covered youths’ experiences with the risk and protective factors associated with exposure to violence and romantic relationships. Four researchers completed coding with a Grounded Theory approach, informed by the theoretical frameworks of the social ecological model and social capital. The study’s design and participant recruitment were informed by a community advisory board of local youth-serving organizations and health care providers. Results Participants described family lives rich in bonding social capital, with strong ties to parents and near-peer family members. They reported that while parents had a strong desire to promote healthful behaviors and social mobility, they often lacked the bridging or linking social capital required to help youth navigate structural systems, such as college applications and access to confidential health care. Youth also reported that some families link their children to negative social capital, such as exposure to gang affiliation. Conclusion Adolescents in this agricultural community identified robust sources of bonding social capital within their families. However, they identified limitations in their families’ capacities to link them to structural resources in education, employment, and health care that could support healthful behaviors and upward