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Sample records for resources policy subject

  1. Provincial resource development research policy

    Flock, D L

    1976-01-01

    In Alberta, there is an abundance of oil, natural gas, and coal. But only a small portion of the Alberta oil sands and coal resources are commercially accessible to surface-mining techniques. It is quite apparent that some in-situ technological breakthrough will be required, which will mean a concerted research effort at the provincial level. It is the purpose of this paper to present certain concepts and recommendations for a coordinated provincial resource development research policy for the Province of Alberta. Research as discussed in this paper covers basic and applied research and development. (MCW)

  2. Human Resource Subjects Allocation and Students' Academic ...

    This study investigated human resource subjects' allocation and students' academic performance in Secondary Schools in Obudu, Nigeria. The relevant variables of teachers subject was used as independent variable while the dependent variables were students' academic performance. Six hundred teachers from 20 ...

  3. Renewable resource policy when distributional impacts matter

    Horan, R.D.; Shortle, J.S.; Bulte, E.H.

    1999-01-01

    The standard assumption in bioeconomic resource models is that optimal policies maximize the present value of economic surplus to society. This assumption implies that regulatory agencies should not be concerned with the distributional consequences of management strategies. Both contemporary welfare-theoretic and rent-seeking approaches suggests distributional issues are important in designing resource management policies. This paper explores resource management when the managing agency has preferences defined over the economic welfare of various groups with a direct economic interest in the use of resources. Policy schemes consistent with this approach are derived and compared with standard results. 42 refs

  4. Australia modifies resource rent, uranium mining policies

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Current Australian government business and economic policies as they affect the mining industry are discussed. The distribution of constitutional and taxing powers in Australia between state and commonwealth governments and possible inappropriate taxes and other policies can have an adverse effect on resource development. The effects of these policies on both coal and uranium mining are discussed

  5. Human resource policy and Danish multinational companies

    Fleming, Daniel; Søborg, Henrik

    A study of Danish multinational companies' human resource policy in their subsidiaries in Malaysia and Singapore.The sample of companies consists of 8 Danish multinational companies with activities in both Malaysia and Singapore.......A study of Danish multinational companies' human resource policy in their subsidiaries in Malaysia and Singapore.The sample of companies consists of 8 Danish multinational companies with activities in both Malaysia and Singapore....

  6. Leasing policies for the extractive resources

    Attanasi, E.D.; Johnson, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    Much of the available analysis of policies for the disposal of publicly held resources is based on comparatively straightforward extensions of the neoclassical pricing and allocation theory. As such, these analyses have to a large extent not fully incorporated the fact that firms normally acquire rights to these resources in sealed tender markets. In this paper, a simple bidding model is used to show that the choice of disposal policies can influence the firm's bid and also the public revenues obtained from the sale of the resource. It is additionally shown that the implications of such policy choices are conditioned by the firm's attitudes towards risk. Finally, it is argued that a modification of existing prescriptions may be necessary if a more realistic specification of the disposal problem taking account of the sealed tender market in which rights are obtained, is considered. ?? 1976 Annals of Regional Science.

  7. Perceived Social Policy Fairness and Subjective Wellbeing: Evidence from China

    Sun, Feng; Xiao, Jing Jian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived fairness of social policies and subjective well-being. Two types of policies examined were related to income distribution and social security. Subjective well-being was measured by work and life satisfaction. In addition, subjective well-beings between different income, age, and education…

  8. Canadian uranium policy and resource appraisal

    Merlin, H.B.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of uranium production in Canada, leading up to the turn-around from a buyer's to a seller's market in early 1974. The specific objectives of Canada's new uranium policy, announced in that year, are then spelled out and explained. The paper also describes the producing uranium deposits in Canada, the definition of uranium resources and projected production capacity. Finally, there is a section on the proposed laws governing non-resident ownership provisions in the industry. (author)

  9. Topical subjects in nuclear energy policy

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    In making peaceful use of nuclear energy it remains the paramount duty of the federal government to see to it that safety is given absolute priority over any economic aspects. Nuclear energy does agree with ethics as long as we will not slacken in our efforts to achieve a maximum of safety. - Fuel reprocessing serves the purpose of closing the nuclear fuel cycle: It increases safety, permits safe disposal and saves raw material resources. - A new bill for the prevention of radiation damage to the population was drawn up and presented. (HSCH) [de

  10. Resource price turbulence and macroeconomic adjustment for a resource exporter. A conceptual framework for policy analysis

    Cox, Grant M.; Harvie, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Increased global demand for energy and other resources, particularly from the rapidly developing economies of China and India and the opening up of global resource markets to global investors and speculative activity, has resulted in considerable recent turbulence in resource prices. The recent magnitude of change in resource prices, both positive and negative, and their macroeconomic implications is of considerable contemporary importance to both resource importing and exporting economies. For a resource exporting economy, such as that of Australia, the recent resource price boom has resulted in: increased government taxation revenue, increased employment and wages in the resource and resource related sectors, increased spending in the domestic economy that contributed to buoyant economic growth, increased resource exports to the booming economies of China and India and contributed to a stronger domestic currency with beneficial effects upon inflation. On the other hand these developments have had adverse effects on the non-resource sector by: subjecting it to more intense competition for limited resources, contributing to a loss of international competitiveness and reduced exports arising from a stronger exchange rate, reducing employment in the relatively more labour intensive non-resource sector, and contributing to an eventual slow down in the overall economy. These positive and negative effects, and the overall impact of a resource price boom, require a fundamentally closer analysis of the structure of the economy under scrutiny. In this context the policy response by government is likely to be pivotal in determining the overall macroeconomic outcomes from a resource price boom. The aim of this paper is to develop a generic analytical framework to appraise economic outcomes in the wake of a resource price boom for a resource producing and exporting economy. To this end a dynamic long run macroeconomic model is developed, emphasising the important role and

  11. Trade policies, institutions and the natural resource curse

    Arezki, R.; van der Ploeg, F.

    2010-01-01

    We offer new cross-country evidence on the natural resource curse. We investigate the impact of the interaction of natural resource abundance and policies on growth. We find that the resource curse is less severe in countries with less restrictive trade policies and good institutions. However, we

  12. Material resources availability, parent subject perception and school ...

    Students' poor performance in the Yoruba language is being considered a serious problem by researchers and education stakeholders. Despite their efforts, no appreciable improvement is noticeable for hardly are enough researches on the extent to which school material resources availability, parental subject perception ...

  13. Theoretical, methodological and methodical bases of structural policy of territorial subjects of the russian federation

    Valentina Sergeevna Antonyuk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the maintenance of the various points of view on a category «the structural policy» is revealed. The sight of authors of the article is reflected: the structural policy is understood as a subsystem of a social and economic policy of the state, called to carry out function managing by development of branches of the economy together with private business, distributions of financial resources between sectors, control over use of the given money resources with a view of, actual for a certain historical stage, by use of administrative, standard and financial tools of regulation. The methodological basis of a structural policy is defined, functions with that end in view reveal, the target system, subjects and objects, and also are specified principles and classification of tools of a structural policy. By sight authors, regional branch shifts which promote progressivechanges of branch structure of a region in directions of formation V and VI technological ways, increase of a diversification of manufacture by stimulation of innovative changes should become a target reference point of a structural policy. The most sensitiveto tactical both technological fluctuations and vulnerablein the economic plan are monospecialized regions. In this connection, the technique of carrying out of a structural policy in monospecialized subjects of the Russian Federation taking into account shifts in branches of their industrial specializations is offered.

  14. Resource acquisition policy: Multiple account evaluation of electricity resource alternatives [and] resource acquisition strategy

    1994-06-01

    British Columbia Hydro has been directed by the provincial government to develop evaluation procedures to rank electricity resource alternatives in terms of their social benefits and costs, and to acquire resources on the basis of need. The current state of development of social costing at BC Hydro is detailed along with its application to the multiple account evaluation of resources. In this evaluation, BC Hydro's corporate costs, customer cost, transfer payments to the province, direct costs incurred by provincial or regional governments or other Crown agences, direct environmental impact costs from air emissions and land/water use, community and social impact costs, and economic development impacts are taken into account. The BC Hydro resource acquisition strategy is also described as it was developed in response to provincial policy on electricity supply from independent power producers. This strategy includes a determination of need, a decision to acquire need-determined resources either by itself or from a private sector developer, and decisions to acquire resources in advance of need for reasons such as economic opportunity, long-term strategies, or load displacement. Background information is included on calculation of air emissions costs. An illustrative example is provided of the multiple account evaluation of several types of resource projects. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  15. Challenges for sustainable resource use : Uncertainty, trade and climate policies

    Bretschger, L.; Smulders, Sjak A.

    2012-01-01

    We integrate new challenges to thinking about resource markets and sustainable resource use policies in a general framework. The challenges, emerging from six papers that JEEM publishes in a special issue, are (i) demand uncertainty and stockpiling, (ii) international trade and resource dependence,

  16. Practicing natural resource management with a policy orientation

    Clark, Tim W.

    1992-07-01

    All natural resource managers want to contribute to successful conservation programs. Having and applying an explicit policy orientation is indispensable. The policy sciences are described and a case is made that, if natural resource managers utilize this set of conceptual and applied tools in their natural resource work, their effectiveness could be enhanced. The policy sciences offer a contextual, problem-oriented, and multimethod approach to meeting complex problems. Two kinds of knowledge are needed to solve problems—substantive knowledge about the resource and process knowledge about the decision and policy processes used to derive courses of management action. The interplay of science, analysis, and politics are examined. The wildlife management community is used to illustrate many points, including the important role implementation plays in the overall policy process.

  17. Information resources management for policy formulation ...

    This article discusses the findings of a study conducted on the state of information resources management (IRM) in government ministries in Tanzania. The purpose of the study was to investigate and establish the extent to which the information resources management in the ministries reflect and support the process of ...

  18. Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources: Management, Policy ...

    2007-10-31

    Oct 31, 2007 ... Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources is a unique collection of case studies from Nepal. ... and students of social and political sciences and natural resource management. ... Nepal and founding Editor of the Journal of Forest and Livelihood. ... Ideas from the global climate change hotspot research.

  19. Coordinating Policies for Human Resources Development

    G.A. Meagher

    1996-01-01

    In its recent White Paper on Employment and Growth, the Australian Government announced a comprehensive new agenda to supplement its existing employment policies. It includes the following major elements * reforms to labour market assistance; * training and education reforms; * a reconstructed social security system; * a regional strategy; * workplace agreements; and * microeconomic reforms. An important consideration in the implementation of such a multi-faceted policy program is that its va...

  20. Forest resource economics and policy research

    Ellefson, P.V.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains chapters relating to forest economics. Included are the following chapters: Forecasting demand and supply of forest resources, products, and services; Wood fiber production; Forestry sector environmental effects

  1. Substitute energy resource policy in Japan

    Umehara, Katsuhiko

    1980-01-01

    Japan depends 88% of energy resources and 99.8% of petroleum on imports. The solution of energy problems is now made internationally. As the means for Japan, there are the substitution of other resources for petroleum and its promotion. However, this involves the considerable funds for the development and utilization, which must be borne by the people in the form of tax. For governmental financing, a special account must be set up for the particular purpose. In the research and development of new energy resources, new institution is required. The following matters are described: petroleum shortage coming even in 1980s, the international need of substitute energy development, the need for establishing measures for substitute energy resources, acquisition of the funds, special-account governmental financing, and an institute of new energy development. (author)

  2. Energy Policy Case Study - California: Renewables and Distributed Energy Resources

    Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bender, Sadie R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    The purpose of this document is to present a case study of energy policies in California related to power system transformation and renewable and distributed energy resources (DERs). Distributed energy resources represent a broad range of technologies that can significantly impact how much, and when, electricity is demanded from the grid. Key policies and proceedings related to power system transformation and DERs are grouped into the following categories: 1.Policies that support achieving environmental and climate goals 2.Policies that promote deployment of DERs 3.Policies that support reliability and integration of DERs 4.Policies that promote market animation and support customer choice. Major challenges going forward are forecasting and modeling DERs, regulatory and utility business model issues, reliability, valuation and pricing, and data management and sharing.

  3. Situating School District Resource Decision Making in Policy Context

    Spain, Angeline K.

    2016-01-01

    Decentralization and deregulation policies assume that local educational leaders make better resource decisions than state policy makers do. Conceptual models drawn from organizational theory, however, offer competing predictions about how district central office administrators are likely to leverage their professional expertise in devolved…

  4. Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources : Management, Policy ...

    31 oct. 2007 ... Depuis quelques années, les chercheurs, les responsables des politiques et les militants du développement s'intéressent fortement aux systèmes de connaissances. Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources est un recueil unique d'études de cas réalisées au Népal. Cet ouvrage apporte un éclairage ...

  5. Norwegian resource policy: The production rate for Norwegian petroleum resources

    Schreiner, P.

    1995-01-01

    Petroleum activities have become a large industry in Norway. This has led to extensive changes in Norwegian economy and society. In the public debate on this activity there has been little discussion of what would be the most profitable production rate. However, it is generally agreed that the great wealth implied by the petroleum resources must be managed in ways suitable to both present and coming generations. This report discusses the production rate based on the following questions: (1) How high can the production rate be before the petroleum activities and the expenditure of the income from them influence the remaining Norwegian economy too strongly? (2) How much of this wealth should reasonably be used by present generations and how much should be left for future generations? There is much to gain from a high tempo and from relocating some of the petroleum wealth. The possibilities of influencing the production rate are mainly connected with the allotments of production licences. The consequences of uncertainties in the petroleum activities for the choice of exploitation tempo are unclear. The environment is not much affected by the production rate. The contractor activity has become Norway's largest industry. 42 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  6. BOOK REVIEW OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES: Policy, Costs and Transformation

    Can GULER

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This book presents 15 case studies contributed by researchers and policy makers. The Open Educational Resources (OER implementations are expressed through different point of views. This book focused on three themes: policy, costs and transformation. Policy theme is related to the establishment of priorities for supporting the decisions made by an institution or organization. Costs theme explores the funding of OER, particularly in the sense of cost effectiveness. Transformation theme provides examples that demonstrate how OER can be used in ways that go beyond replication of current teaching and learning models. The editors in the Introduction elaborately describe these three themes.

  7. Impact of socially responsible human resources policies on intellectual capital

    Jesus Barrena-Martínez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research focuses on the benefits that social responsibility can report on the area of human resources, examined the impact of a socially responsible configuration of human resource policies and practices in the generation value process for the company, and more specifically in its intellectual capital. Design/methodology/approach: The study performed a regression analysis, testing the individual effects of socially responsible human resource policies on intellectual capital, broken down into three main variables such as human, social and organizational capital. Findings: The results shed light on how the introduction of socially responsible aspects in the management of human resources can facilitate the exchange of knowledge, skills and attitudes human--capital; lead to improvements in communication, trust, cooperation among employees social-capital and, in turn, generates an institutionalized knowledge encoded in the own organizational culture –organizational capital–. Research limitations/implications: The study only provides information from large companies with over 250 employees. Practical implications: There are important implications in the measure of corporate social responsibility concerns in the area of human resources. Social implications: Also important intangible effects on non-economic variables are confirmed, such as intellectual capital. Originality/value: The value of the study lies in its novelty, testing socially responsible configurations of human resources as well as the direct effects of different policies on intellectual capital.

  8. Integrating policy, disintegrating practice: water resources management in Botswana

    Swatuk, Larry A.; Rahm, Dianne

    Botswana is generally regarded as an African ‘success story’. Nearly four decades of unabated economic growth, multi-party democracy, conservative decision-making and low-levels of corruption have made Botswana the darling of the international donor community. One consequence of rapid and sustained economic development is that water resources use and demands have risen dramatically in a primarily arid/semi-arid environment. Policy makers recognize that supply is limited and that deliberate steps must be taken to manage demand. To this end, and in line with other members of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), Botswana devised a National Water Master Plan (NWMP) and undertook a series of institutional and legal reforms throughout the 1990s so as to make water resources use more equitable, efficient and sustainable. In other words, the stated goal is to work toward Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in both policy and practice. However, policy measures have had limited impact on de facto practice. This paper reflects our efforts to understand the disjuncture between policy and practice. The information presented here combines a review of primary and secondary literatures with key informant interviews. It is our view that a number of constraints-cultural, power political, managerial-combine to hinder efforts toward sustainable forms of water resources use. If IWRM is to be realized in the country, these constraints must be overcome. This, however, is no small task.

  9. Science, Technology and Natural Resources Policy: Overcoming Congressional Gridlock

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    The current status of Science, Technology and Natural Resources (STNR) policy in the United States provides an ideal context to examine the influence of committee seniority within the public policy process. Exemplars of the Policy Entrepreneur have been individuals in leadership positions, whether executive or legislative. The role of junior committee members in shaping policy innovation is less well understood, and is frequently masked either in cross-sectional research designs or in case studies. The House Natural Resources committee seniority patterns are compared to the House of Representatives Chamber data from 1975 to 2015. This expanse of congressional time captures both the policy innovation of the Class of 1974 who helped transform the public lands by pursuing a preservation agenda, along with the contemporaneous gridlock caused by disagreements about reducing the size of the federal government, a policy agenda championed and sustained by the Class of 1994. Several types of political actors have served as policy entrepreneurs, President Kennedy and Secretary of Interior Udall shepherding the Wilderness Act of 1964 from the Executive branch, or in the 111th Congress Committee chairmen Senator Christopher Dodd and Representative Barney Frank, having announced their retirements, spent their final Congress shaping the consensus that produced the Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010. A less studied policy phenomenon relies on "packing the committee" to outvote the leadership. This tactic can be used by the party leadership to overcome recalcitrant senior committee members, as was the case for Democrats in the House Interior and Insular Affairs Committee shift to preservation in the 1970s, or the tactic can be employed from the grassroots, as may be happening in the case of the House Natural Resources Committee in the 114th Congress. A policy making process analog to rivers is more appropriate than a mechanistic model. As there are multiple

  10. Human resources for health policies: a critical component in health policies

    Dussault Gilles

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the last few years, increasing attention has been paid to the development of health policies. But side by side with the presumed benefits of policy, many analysts share the opinion that a major drawback of health policies is their failure to make room for issues of human resources. Current approaches in human resources suggest a number of weaknesses: a reactive, ad hoc attitude towards problems of human resources; dispersal of accountability within human resources management (HRM; a limited notion of personnel administration that fails to encompass all aspects of HRM; and finally the short-term perspective of HRM. There are three broad arguments for modernizing the ways in which human resources for health are managed: • the central role of the workforce in the health sector; • the various challenges thrown up by health system reforms; • the need to anticipate the effect on the health workforce (and consequently on service provision arising from various macroscopic social trends impinging on health systems. The absence of appropriate human resources policies is responsible, in many countries, for a chronic imbalance with multifaceted effects on the health workforce: quantitative mismatch, qualitative disparity, unequal distribution and a lack of coordination between HRM actions and health policy needs. Four proposals have been put forward to modernize how the policy process is conducted in the development of human resources for health (HRH: • to move beyond the traditional approach of personnel administration to a more global concept of HRM; • to give more weight to the integrated, interdependent and systemic nature of the different components of HRM when preparing and implementing policy; • to foster a more proactive attitude among human resources (HR policy-makers and managers; • to promote the full commitment of all professionals and sectors in all phases of the process. The development of explicit human resources

  11. When Environmental Policy is Superfluous: Growth and Polluting Resources

    Schou, Poul

    2002-01-01

    In a research-driven endogenous growth model, a non-renewable resource gives rise to pollution. Consumption may either grow or decline along the optimal balanced growth path, hut the (flow) pollution level necessarily diminishes continuously. Any positive balanced growth path is sustainable. Utility may improve, even though consumption declines. Although positive growth is optimal, the market economy may nevertheless result in permanently declining consumption possibilities. At the same time, a growth-enhancing government policy may improve long-run environmental conditions. The pollution externality does not distort the decisions of the market economy, so that a specific environmental policy is superfluous

  12. State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources: Distributed Resources and Electric System Reliability

    Cowart, R.; Harrington, C.; Moskovitz, D.; Shirley, W.; Weston, F.; Sedano, R.

    2002-10-01

    Designing and implementing credit-based pilot programs for distributed resources distribution is a low-cost, low-risk opportunity to find out how these resources can help defer or avoid costly electric power system (utility grid) distribution upgrades. This report describes implementation options for deaveraged distribution credits and distributed resource development zones. Developing workable programs implementing these policies can dramatically increase the deployment of distributed resources in ways that benefit distributed resource vendors, users, and distribution utilities. This report is one in the State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources series developed under contract to NREL (see Annual Technical Status Report of the Regulatory Assistance Project: September 2000-September 2001, NREL/SR-560-32733). Other titles in this series are: (1) Accommodating Distributed Resources in Wholesale Markets, NREL/SR-560-32497; (2) Distributed Resources and Electric System Re liability, NREL/SR-560-32498; (3) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation, NREL/SR-560-32500; (4) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation Appendices, NREL/SR-560-32501.

  13. State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources: Accommodating Distributed Resources in Wholesale Markets

    Weston, F.; Harrington, C.; Moskovitz, D.; Shirley, W.; Cowart, R.; Sedano, R.

    2002-10-01

    Distributed resources can provide cost-effective reliability and energy services - in many cases, obviating the need for more expensive investments in wires and central station electricity generating facilities. Given the unique features of distributed resources, the challenge facing policymakers today is how to restructure wholesale markets for electricity and related services so as to reveal the full value that distributed resources can provide to the electric power system (utility grid). This report looks at the functions that distributed resources can perform and examines the barriers to them. It then identifies a series of policy and operational approaches to promoting DR in wholesale markets. This report is one in the State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources series developed under contract to NREL (see Annual Technical Status Report of the Regulatory Assistance Project: September 2000-September 2001, NREL/SR-560-32733). Other titles in this series are: (1) Distributed Resource Distribution Credit Pilot Programs - Revealing the Value to Consumers and Vendors, NREL/SR-560-32499; (2) Distributed Resources and Electric System Reliability, NREL/SR-560-32498; (3) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation, NREL/SR-560-32500; (4) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation Appendices, NREL/SR-560-32501

  14. Investments in technology subject to uncertainty. Analysis and policy

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    1997-01-01

    Investments in technology are today of such a magnitude that it matters. In the paper there are three important questions. First on the question in which sense technological uncertainty can be said to be a problem. Second on strategies for diminishing technological uncertainties. Three on policy...

  15. Policies for Resource Efficient and Effective Solutions : A review of concepts, current policy landscape and future policy considerations for the transition to a Circular Economy

    Milios, Leonidas

    2016-01-01

    This report presents basic concepts around resources, resource efficiency and the Circular Economy. The limitations and the opportunities within the Circular Economy are identified and clearly presented. The current policy landscape in the EU as well as in Sweden is thoroughly analysed and a set of policy areas with a significant untapped potential for resource efficiency is identified. The policy areas which have been underutilised so far include policies for re-use, repair and remanufacturi...

  16. Climate policy and the intertemporal supply of fossil resources

    Beermann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was written by Christian Beermann while he was a research assistant at the Center for Economic Studies (CES) at the University of Munich. It was completed in December 2014 and accepted as a doctoral thesis by the Department of Economics at the University of Munich in May 2015. The thesis analyses the intertemporal supply reaction of the fossil resource supply side to demand-reducing climate policies while explicitly taking into account the global warming problem. The interaction between a climate coalition that can either be global or incomplete, comprising only a subset of the world's countries in the latter case, and a representative competitive resource supplier is analysed in a Stackelberg differential game in which the coalition leads.

  17. Climate policy and the intertemporal supply of fossil resources

    Beermann, Christian

    2015-05-13

    This thesis was written by Christian Beermann while he was a research assistant at the Center for Economic Studies (CES) at the University of Munich. It was completed in December 2014 and accepted as a doctoral thesis by the Department of Economics at the University of Munich in May 2015. The thesis analyses the intertemporal supply reaction of the fossil resource supply side to demand-reducing climate policies while explicitly taking into account the global warming problem. The interaction between a climate coalition that can either be global or incomplete, comprising only a subset of the world's countries in the latter case, and a representative competitive resource supplier is analysed in a Stackelberg differential game in which the coalition leads.

  18. Data Resources for Conducting Health Services and Policy Research.

    Blewett, Lynn A; Call, Kathleen Thiede; Turner, Joanna; Hest, Robert

    2018-04-01

    Rich federal data resources provide essential data inputs for monitoring the health and health care of the US population and are essential for conducting health services policy research. The six household surveys we document in this article cover a broad array of health topics, including health insurance coverage (American Community Survey, Current Population Survey), health conditions and behaviors (National Health Interview Survey, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System), health care utilization and spending (Medical Expenditure Panel Survey), and longitudinal data on public program participation (SIPP). New federal activities are linking federal surveys with administrative data to reduce duplication and response burden. In the private sector, vendors are aggregating data from medical records and claims to enhance our understanding of treatment, quality, and outcomes of medical care. Federal agencies must continue to innovate to meet the continuous challenges of scarce resources, pressures for more granular data, and new multimode data collection methodologies.

  19. Western Water Resources: Coming Problems and the Policy Alternatives

    Wahl, Richard

    This quote from the book leads one to speculate as to what will happen to water policy in these times of increased concern for reducing federal spending, for more reliance on state and local governments as opposed to the federal government, and for more reliance on the private sector as opposed to any level of governmental control. Remembering that a wrenching debate preceded deregulation of oil and other energy prices, what are the opportunities for deregulation in the water resources field?Western Water Resources consists of the proceedings of a symposium held in Denver in September 1979 and Hosted by the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City. As in any conference, there is, in addition to the organized substantive content of the papers, a mixture of the clever and the banal, peppered with some humor and chit-chat. Among the contributors are economists, including Charles Howe, Allen Kneese, Emery Castle, and Kenneth Boulding; legal scholars, such as George Radosevich and Frank Trelease; and political figures, such as Scott Matheson, Governor of Utah, Guy Martin, former Assistant Secretary for Land and Water Resources of the Department of the Interior, and Leo Eisel, former Director of the Water Resources Council. Some papers are followed by a discussion from commentors.

  20. Quantifying exhaustible resource theory: an application to mineral taxation policy

    Ward, F.A.; Kerkvliet, J.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a dynamic nonlinear programming model of a mineral resource market with several features of heterogeneous quality in the mineral, links with related product markets, incorporation of institutional constraints, resource allocations for each year in the planning period, and analysis of outcomes under various severance tax rates. The model computes privately efficient competitive use paths to perform cost-benefit analysis of public mineral policies. Policy variables are evaluated for their impact on both private behaviour and public benefits. The application is to New Mexico's linked coal and electric power markets. Findings reveal that scarcity rents are currently 4% of coal's price, and peak at 27% in 43 years. Increasing the present 1 dollar/ton New Mexico severance tax to 11 dollars reduces current annual coal output by 25%, prolongs the life of the state's coal industry by three years, and increases discounted severance tax revenues by 850% or 4.2 billion dollars. 38 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Czech Rural Development Policies for Human Resources, post-2004: A Story of Muddled Definitions Preventing Strategic Visions?"

    Vobecká, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2009), s. 44-65 ISSN 1802-4866 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2D06006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : rural development * human resources * policy formulation Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences

  2. Integrating science, policy and stakeholder perspectives for water resource management

    Barbour, Emily; Allan, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Lazzar, Attila; Lim, Michelle; Munsur Rahman, Md.

    2015-04-01

    Successful management of water resources requires an integrated approach considering the complex relationships between different biophysical processes, governance frameworks and socio-economic factors. The Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) Deltas project has developed a range of socio-economic scenarios using a participatory approach, and applied these across different biophysical models as well as an integrated environmental, socio-economic model of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Delta. This work demonstrates a novel approach through the consideration of multiple ecosystem services and related socio-economic factors in the development of scenarios; the application of these to multiple models at multiple scales; and the participatory approach to improve project outcomes and engage national level stakeholders and policy makers. Scenarios can assist in planning for an uncertain future through exploring plausible alternatives. To adequately assess the potential impacts of future changes and management strategies on water resources, the wider biophysical, socio-economic and governance context needs to be considered. A series of stakeholder workshops have been held in Bangladesh to identify issues of main concern relating to the GBM Delta; to iteratively develop scenario narratives for business as usual, less sustainable, and more sustainable development pathways; and to translate these qualitative scenarios into a quantitative form suitable for analysis. The combined impact of these scenarios and climate change on water quantity and quality within the GBM Basin are demonstrated. Results suggest that climate change is likely to impact on both peak and low flows to a greater extent than most socio-economic changes. However, the diversion of water from the Ganges and Brahmaputra has the potential to significantly impact on water availability in Bangladesh depending on the timing and quantity of diversions. Both climate change and socio

  3. A microeconomic perspective on the role of efficiency and equity criteria in designing natural resource policy

    Geoff Kaine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Deliberating on policy design to manage natural resources with clarity and precision is a difficult task, even for professional and highly experienced policy practitioners. These difficulties are exacerbated by confounding the crafting of policy instruments to change resource use (a behavioral matter related to resource management with the consequential issue of who bears the cost of changing resource use (an equity matter. The confounding of behavioral and equity issues is not surprising because equity is commonly suggested as a criterion in the literature on policy instrument choice, and inequity in access to resources may also be one of the initial drivers of policy intervention. Here, we restate the microeconomic analysis of "open access" resources and highlight the fundamental difference between efficiency (including allocative inefficiency and equity that emerges from that analysis. We then discuss the implications of this difference for the choice of policy instruments to resolve problems in natural resource management, at least for instruments that entail changing the behavior of primary producers. This discussion is centered on three key decisions for formulating policy: (1 choosing the preferred portfolio of uses for a natural resource, (2 choosing a policy instrument to change that portfolio, and (3 choosing a mechanism to distribute the costs of change fairly. To illustrate how these decisions may play out in a real-world example, we apply the decisions to a freshwater policy process in New Zealand. By articulating the distinction, microeconomics draws distinctions between efficiency and equity as policy objectives. Linking that distinction with the Tinbergen's principle regarding the matching of instruments to objectives, we aim to reduce the conflation of the decision-making criteria employed in policy formulation decisions. In doing so, we hope to assist policy makers to avoid policy failure by reducing the potential for the

  4. 48 CFR 1552.211-79 - Compliance with EPA Policies for Information Resources Management.

    2010-10-01

    ... Policies for Information Resources Management. 1552.211-79 Section 1552.211-79 Federal Acquisition... Information Resources Management (OCT 2000) (a) Definition. Information Resources Management (IRM) is defined... includes both information itself, and the management of information and related resources such as personnel...

  5. Resource Efficiency. What does it mean and why is it relevant? Policy Brief

    Jansen, J.C. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    The European Commission has launched a Resource-Efficient Europe as one of its seven flagship initiatives under the Europe 2020 Strategy and has published the document 'Roadmap to a Resource-Efficient Europe'. The Roadmap specifies a proposed pathway to action for a resource efficient Europe. This document sets out to describe the essence of the resource efficiency concept and to sketch the relevance of EU resource efficiency policy for application at EU member state level with special reference to the Netherlands. The following questions will be addressed: What is resource efficiency?; How does it relate to sustainability and environmental footprint?; What is the relevance of EU resource efficiency policy for the member states?; Which aspects of resource efficiency are relevant for the Netherlands?; and To what extent is resource efficiency reflected in current Dutch policies?.

  6. Teaching Social Policy: Integration of Current Legislation and Media Resources

    DeRigne, LeaAnne

    2011-01-01

    Social work students enter the field of social work for many reasons--from wanting to become clinicians to wanting to advocate for a more socially just world. Social policy classes can be the ideal courses to provide instruction on conducting research on current policy issues. Teaching students about policy advocacy can lead to a class rich with…

  7. The AIR's policy on research involving the irradiation of human subjects

    Smith, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    The policy of the Australian Institute of Radiography with regards to the human subject irradiation is outlined. It is stated that members will not irradiate another individual, nor themselves, solely for the purposes of experimentation or research without gaining the prior approval of an institutional ethics committee. Where possible, researchers should consider the use of patient equivalent or human tissue equivalent phantoms. A short list of references has been compiled to assist members in designing research protocols which comply with the stated policy

  8. Modeling and Recognizing Policy Conflicts with Resource Access Requests on Protected Health Information

    Raik Kuhlisch

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses potential clashes between different types of security policies that regulate resource access requests on clinical patient data in hospitals by employees. Attribute-based Access Control (ABAC is proposed as a proper means for such regulation. A proper representation of ABAC policies must include a handling of policy attributes among different policy types. In this article, we propose a semantic policy model with predefined policy conflict categories. A conformance verification function detects erroneous, clashing or mutually susceptible rules early during the policy planning phase. The model and conflicts are used in a conceptual application environment and evaluated in a technical experiment during an interoperability test event.

  9. Is subjective well-being a useful parameter for allocating resources among public interventions?

    Gandjour, A

    2001-01-01

    Scarce public resources require trade-offs between competing programs in different sectors, and the careful allocation of fixed resources within a single sector. This paper argues that a general quality of life instrument encompassing health-related and non-health-related components is suitable for determining the best trade-offs between sectors. Further, this paper suggests that subjective well-being shows the properties crucial to a general quality of life measure and has additional advantages that makes it particularly useful for the allocation of public and health care resources. The paper argues that Western societies are in an unusually prosperous situation today which allows to concentrate efforts not only on reducing harm but also on improving positive states of health. Further, subjective well-being can be evaluated from the patient's perspective and incorporates a valuation of life expectancy. Criteria required for an appropriate questionnaire that measures subjective well-being are presented.

  10. Predictive maintenance policy for a gradually deteriorating system subject to stress

    Deloux, E. [IRCCyN/Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France); Castanier, B. [IRCCyN/Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France)], E-mail: bruno.castanier@emn.fr; Berenguer, C. [Universite de Technologie de Troyes/CNRS, Troyes (France)

    2009-02-15

    This paper deals with a predictive maintenance policy for a continuously deteriorating system subject to stress. We consider a system with two failure mechanisms which are, respectively, due to an excessive deterioration level and a shock. To optimize the maintenance policy of the system, an approach combining statistical process control (SPC) and condition-based maintenance (CBM) is proposed. CBM policy is used to inspect and replace the system according to the observed deterioration level. SPC is used to monitor the stress covariate. In order to assess the performance of the proposed maintenance policy and to minimize the long-run expected maintenance cost per unit of time, a mathematical model for the maintained system cost is derived. Analysis based on numerical results are conducted to highlight the properties of the proposed maintenance policy in respect to the different maintenance parameters.

  11. Predictive maintenance policy for a gradually deteriorating system subject to stress

    Deloux, E.; Castanier, B.; Berenguer, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with a predictive maintenance policy for a continuously deteriorating system subject to stress. We consider a system with two failure mechanisms which are, respectively, due to an excessive deterioration level and a shock. To optimize the maintenance policy of the system, an approach combining statistical process control (SPC) and condition-based maintenance (CBM) is proposed. CBM policy is used to inspect and replace the system according to the observed deterioration level. SPC is used to monitor the stress covariate. In order to assess the performance of the proposed maintenance policy and to minimize the long-run expected maintenance cost per unit of time, a mathematical model for the maintained system cost is derived. Analysis based on numerical results are conducted to highlight the properties of the proposed maintenance policy in respect to the different maintenance parameters

  12. The Study of Human Resource Competency Development Policy in Tourism Sector of Bureaucracy Reformation Era

    Wiryanto, Wisber

    2018-01-01

    The development of the tourism sector ought to be supported by the competent Human Resources (SDM). Human resources of tourism that include human resources apparatus, industrial human resources, and the tourism community until now still facing difficulties of competency gaps and capability certification. Concerning this issue, there will be conducted a research of human resource competency development policy in tourism sector of bureaucratic reformation era. The goal of this research is to ex...

  13. From Waste Management to Resource Efficiency—The Need for Policy Mixes

    Henning Wilts

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Treating waste as a resource and the design of a circular economy have been identified as key approaches for resource efficiency. Despite ambitious targets, policies and instruments that would enable a transition from a conventional waste management to an integrated and comprehensive resource management are still missing. Moreover, this will require innovative policy mixes which do not only address different end-of-pipe approaches but integrate various resource efficiency aspects from product design to patterns of production and consumption. Based on the results of a project funded by the Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development named “POLFREE—Policy Options for a resource efficient economy”, this paper addresses several aspects of the conceptualization of policy mixes with regard to waste as a specific resource efficiency challenge. The guiding research interest of this paper is the combination of policies necessary to create a full circular economy. In a first step, the present waste policy frameworks, institutions and existing incentives at national level are examined in order to disclose regulatory and policy gaps. Based on this, the second part of the paper describes and analyses specific waste-related resource efficiency instruments with regard to their potential impacts under the constraints of various barriers. Based on the assessment of the country analyses and the innovative instruments, the paper draws conclusions on waste policy mixes and political needs.

  14. Urban school leadership for elementary science instruction: Identifying and activating resources in an undervalued school subject

    Spillane, James P.; Diamond, John B.; Walker, Lisa J.; Halverson, Rich; Jita, Loyiso

    2001-10-01

    This article explores school leadership for elementary school science teaching in an urban setting. We examine how school leaders bring resources together to enhance science instruction when there appear to be relatively few resources available for it. From our study of 13 Chicago elementary (K-8) schools' efforts to lead instructional change in mathematics, language arts, and science education, we show how resources for leading instruction are unequally distributed across subject areas. We also explore how over time leaders in one school successfully identified and activated resources for leading change in science education. The result has been a steady, although not always certain, development of science as an instructional area in the school. We argue that leading change in science education involves the identification and activation of material resources, the development of teachers' and school leaders' human capital, and the development and use of social capital.

  15. Climate policy and nonrenewable resources : The green paradox and beyond

    Pittel, Karen; van der Ploeg, Rick; Withagen, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments suggest that well-intended climate policies–including carbon taxes and subsidies for renewable energy – might not accomplish what policy makers intend. Hans-Werner Sinn has described a "green paradox," arguing that these policies could hasten global warming by encouraging owners

  16. Green roofs : a resource manual for municipal policy makers

    Lawlor, G.; Currie, B.A.; Doshi, H.; Wieditz, I. [Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-05-15

    As knowledge of the environmental benefits of green roofs and technology improves, green roofs are quickly gaining acceptance in North America. European jurisdictions have been using green roof technology for stormwater management, to reduce energy use in buildings and to increase amenity space. By reviewing the reasons that municipalities throughout the world have set green roof policies and programs, policy makers can more easily determine which policies suit their needs. This manual provided an overview of international and Canadian green roof policies and programs. It presented information on 12 jurisdictions that demonstrated leadership in green roof policy development. The manual also presented information on an additional 13 jurisdictions with less-developed green roof policies. Activities that were discussed for each of these jurisdictions included: description of jurisdiction; key motivators; green roof policy; process to establish policy; effectiveness; lessons learned; future predictions; and applicability to Canada of international jurisdictions. The manual also provided general information on green roofs such as a definition of green roofs and green roof terminology. Key motivators for green roofs include stormwater runoff control; reduction in urban heat-island effect; reduction in building energy consumption; and air pollution control. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Behaviour Change Policy Agendas for "Vulnerable" Subjectivities: The Dangers of Therapeutic Governance and Its New Entrepreneurs

    Ecclestone, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Apocalyptic crisis discourses of mental health problems and psycho-emotional dysfunction are integral to behaviour change agendas across seemingly different policy arenas. Bringing these agendas together opens up new theoretical and empirical lines of enquiry about the symbioses and contradictions surrounding the human subjects they target. The…

  18. Open Distribution of Virtual Containers as a Key Framework for Open Educational Resources and STEAM Subjects

    Corbi, Alberto; Burgos, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents how virtual containers enhance the implementation of STEAM (science, technology, engineering, arts, and math) subjects as Open Educational Resources (OER). The publication initially summarizes the limitations of delivering open rich learning contents and corresponding assignments to students in college level STEAM areas. The…

  19. Harvesting and replenishment policies for renewable natural resources

    Douglas, Aaron J.; Johnson, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    The current paper links the optimal intertemporal use of renewable natural resources to the harvesting activities of various economic agents. Previous contributions cite market forces as a causative factor inducing the extirpation of renewable natural resources. The analysis given here discusses investment in the stock of renewable resources and cites important examples of this activity. By introducing joint harvesting and replenishment strategies into a model of renewable resource use, the analysis adds descriptive reality and relevance to positive and normative discussions of renewable natural resource use. A high price for the yield or a high discount rate tend to diminish the size of the optimum stationary stock of the resource with a non-replenishment harvesting strategy. Optimal non-replenishment harvesting strategies for renewable natural resources will exhaustion or extirpation of the resource if the price of the yield or the discount rate are sufficiently large. However, the availability of a replenishment technology and the use of replenishment activities tends to buffer the resource against exhaustion or extirpation.

  20. The Role of Paradigm Analysis in the Development of Policies for a Resource Efficient Economy

    Robin Vanner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Policy makers are often called upon to navigate between scientists’ urgent calls for long-term concerted action to reduce the environmental impacts due to resource use, and the public’s concerns over policies that threaten lifestyles or jobs. Against these political challenges, resource efficiency policy making is often a changeable and even chaotic process, which has fallen short of the political ambitions set by democratically elected governments. This article examines the importance of paradigms in understanding how the public collectively responds to new policy proposals, such as those developed within the project DYNAmic policy MiXes for absolute decoupling of environmental impact of EU resource use from economic growth (DYNAMIX. The resulting proposed approach provides a framework to understand how different concerns and worldviews converge within public discourse, potentially resulting in paradigm change. Thus an alternative perspective on how resource efficiency policy can be development is proposed, which envisages early policies to lay the ground for future far-reaching policies, by altering the underlying paradigm context in which the public receive and respond to policy. The article concludes by arguing that paradigm change is more likely if the policy is conceived, framed, designed, analyzed, presented, and evaluated from the worldview or paradigm pathway that it seeks to create (i.e., the destination paradigm.

  1. Motivation and policies of human resources management in the organization

    Jovanović Goca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations today operate in an uncertain environment, accompanied by constant change and technological innovation. The greatest impact on performance as the key feature of human resources business. Motivation and employee satisfaction becoming the basis of a modern organization. Motivated employees today represent a strategic resource which confer a competitive advantage of the organization.

  2. Definition of Earth Resource Policy and Management Problems in California

    Churchman, C. W.; Clark, I.

    1971-01-01

    Management planning for the California water survey considers the use of satellite and airplane remote sensing information on water-source, -center, and -sink geographies. A model is developed for estimating the social benefit of water resource information and to identify the most important types of resource information relevant to regulatory agencies and the private sector.

  3. Sustainable natural resource use in rural China: Trends and policies

    Qu, F.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Shi, X.; Heerink, N.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of recent trends in the availability and quality of land and water resources in rural China, and examine the common presumption that rural resources are rapidly degrading in China. Data based on consistent definitions and measurement methods that have recently

  4. Resource Allocation and Public Policy in Alberta's Postsecondary System.

    Barneston, Bob; Boberg, Alice

    2000-01-01

    Resource allocation in Alberta's postsecondary system has changed substantially since 1994, designed to reapportion financial responsibility for higher education, increase vocational outcomes of postsecondary education, and increase transfer of knowledge and technology to the private sector. This paper outlines how resource allocation has been…

  5. Economic transition policies in Chinese resource-based cities: An overview of government efforts

    Li, Huijuan; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Resource-based cities in China have made momentous contributions to the development of the national economy for decades. However, with the depletion of natural resources, their sustainable development is challenging and transition is important. The Chinese government has made great efforts to help resource-based cities. The purpose of this study is to investigate transition policies and their implementation. Firstly, we reviewed previous studies and summarized the essential elements of some successful resource-based cities, which are useful experiences for Chinese resource-based cities. Secondly, we studied the development of resource-based cities over the past 10 years with a focus on economic development, industrial structure, government revenue and environmental conditions. We found that resource-based cities were less developed compared to other cities. The main reasons are the after-effects of a planned economy, an unreasonable tax system, planning mistakes and misguided resources exploitation policies. Thirdly, we analyzed several aspects of the policy responses after the introduction of transition policies, including designating 69 resource-exhausted cities, supporting cities with funds and projects, formulating transition plans and evaluating transition performance. However, there are some deficiencies in the process of policy implementation. Finally, some recommendations were provided to improve transition performance and sustainable development for resource-based cities. - Highlights: ► Analyze the development of Chinese resource-based cities from four aspects. ► Analyze the causes of less development in resource-based cities. ► Investigate policies and their responses to transformation. ► Provide recommendations to improve transformation performance and sustainable development

  6. Second best pricing policies for an exhaustible resource

    Hanson, D.A.

    1977-02-01

    In the theory of exhaustible resources, the classical result, originally derived by Harold Hotelling (J. Polit. Econ., 39: 137-75 (1931)) is that the scarcity rent of the resource must increase at the rate of interest. The scarcity rent is the market price of the resource less extraction costs. At the depletion time, the market price must be equal either to the zero demand price or the cost of a perfect substitute, assuming no adjustment costs in switching to the substitute. The substitute may be either a natural resource with a higher extraction cost or a backstop technology. The Hotelling result is a price equilibrium condition in a competitive asset market (Solow, Amer. Econ. Rev. Proc., 64: 1-14 (1974)). It is also an efficiency condition for allocating the resource over time in a first best world. However, Solow raises the possibility that constraints creating a wedge between interest rates may be important considerations in the resource allocation problem. In a second-best world it is not at all clear how fast the scarcity rent of the resource should increase from a social viewpoint. However, for one simple case the analysis of this problem is straightforward. Suppose consumption is determined by a Keynesian consumption function with marginal propensity to consume (1 - s); s is marginal propensity to save. With consumption determined in this behavioral manner, savings may be inadequate to reduce the market interest rate to the point where it is equal to the social rate of time preference. It is argued here that for this case the scarcity rent of the resource should increase at a rate equal to a weighted combination of these two interest rates.

  7. Exploring Resource Security Policy and Green Science and Technology in Asia

    2014-04-01

    consumption patterns, diets and resource use of its population that will only increase 1...Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand and Malaysia - have started to put, if not ramped up existing, green policies in place. 9 In India, the government’s

  8. 33 CFR 157.415 - Bridge resource management policy and procedures.

    2010-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK... Petroleum Oils § 157.415 Bridge resource management policy and procedures. (a) Not later than February 1...

  9. Soils, people and policy: land resource management conundrum in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Oluwatoyin Dare Kolawole

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The multi-faceted aspects of natural resource governance underscore the complex nature of the subject. The intricacies associated with the skewed power relations between those who allocate these resources (land, in this case and those who access and use them vis à vis environmental conservation make the subject a daunting one. Based on preliminary field observations and farmers’ opinions on soil health conditions in the Okavango Delta, the paper assesses the nutrient status of selected farmers’ fields and how the smallholders and government respond to this peculiar ecological environment. It specifically analyses small farmers’ perceptions on the political ecology of soil management in the area. We used a multi-stage sampling procedure to sample 228 smallholder farmers. The smallholders were interviewed using interview schedules. Key informant interviews were used to collect qualitative data from farmers as well. Thirty-three (33 composite soil samples were collected from 30 farmers’ plots in three farming communities (Makalamabedi, Nokaneng and Mohembo. Laboratory analysis shows that most soils in the wetland and its dryland surroundings are generally acidic, low in essential nutients as well as in cation-exchange-capacity (CEC. However, the results of a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA conducted shows significant differences in soil nutrient levels in different locations within the Delta. While farming remains an important livelihood of rural communities, policies on natural resource governance particularly along the river channels delimit local farmers’ ability to engage in meaningful soil fertility management. The low CEC of the soils is an indication that holistic cultural practices, which are beyond mere chemical fertilizations are critical and more desirable for improved soil health and sustainable rural livelihoods in the Delta.

  10. ROLE OF INTERNET - RESOURCES IN FORMING OF ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AT THE STUDY OF NATURAL SCIENCES SUBJECTS

    Olga M. Naumenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of internet resources application for forming of pupils ecological knowledge at the study of natural sciences subjects is considered. It is noticed, that distribution of ecological knowledge and development of ecological education became the near-term tasks of school education, taking into account a global ecological crisis. It is therefore important to use in school preparation all possibilities that allow to promote the level of ecological knowledge of students and to influence the same on forming of modern views in relation to environmental preservation. Considerable attention is given to advices for the teachers of natural sciences subjects in relation to methodology of the internet resources use at preparation and realization of practical and laboratory works and other forms of educational-searching activity of students.

  11. Biomass for biorefining: Resources, allocation, utilization, and policies

    The importance of biomass in the development of renewable energy, the availability and allocation of biomass, its preparation for use in biorefineries, and the policies affecting biomass are discussed in this chapter. Bioenergy development will depend on maximizing the amount of biomass obtained fro...

  12. Economic Subjectivities in Higher Education: Self, Policy and Practice in the Knowledge Economy

    Sue Saltmarsh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article considers higher education in the context of global knowledge economy policies as a site for the production of economic subjectivities. Drawing insights from poststructuralist theory and feminist economics, it explores how the incorporation of economic discourse and market metaphors into education policy and practice functions as a disciplinary technique of governmentality. The article argues that while economic discourse displaces, disciplines and disrupts educational discourse, there is a need for greater acknowledgement of the productive potential of the intersection of education and economy as a means through which agency is in part accomplished. Implications for university learning and labour are considered, with a view to contributing to dialogues about new ways of undisciplining economic subjectivities, through which new ways of doing and being might enact alternative educational economies.

  13. Subjectivity

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  14. Integrating science and policy in natural resource management: lessons and opportunities from North America.

    Roger N. Clark; Errol E. Meidinger

    1998-01-01

    Relations between science and policy concerning many issues (e.g., health, energy, natural resources) have been changing worldwide. Public pressure to resolve such complex and often controversial issues has resulted in policymakers and policy implementers seeking better knowledge on which to base their decisions. As a result, scientists have become more actively...

  15. Language policies and communication in multinational companies : Alignment with strategic orientation and human resource management practices

    van den Born, Floor; Peltokorpi, Vesa

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the degree of alignment among multinational company (MNC) strategic orientation, human resource management (HRM) practices, and language policies. On the one hand, the authors propose that the coherent, tight alignment among the HRM practices, language policies, and MNC

  16. In the Arid Zone: Drying out Educational Resources for English Language Learners through Policy and Practice

    DaSilva Iddings, Ana Christina; Combs, Mary Carol; Moll, Luis

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a variety of issues related to the effects of restrictive language and educational policies that ultimately limits important resources for English language learners (i.e., services, funding, time, and information). The authors spotlight the state of Arizona as an unfortunate case of language control through policies, which…

  17. Definition of Earth Resources Policy and Management Problems in California

    Churchman, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    The activities of the Social Sciences Group in solving earth resources management problems as related to social factors, are reported. Major efforts of the Group revolved around identifying potential users of ERTS data, ascertain the user's needs, and assay the organizational impacts of new and technologically advanced sources of information. Attempts were also made to develop a linear programming model to be used in decision making with respect to resources being observed by ERTS and other remote sensing vehicles. The cost effectiveness of solving these management problems is discussed.

  18. Public health human resources: a comparative analysis of policy documents in two Canadian provinces.

    Regan, Sandra; MacDonald, Marjorie; Allan, Diane E; Martin, Cheryl; Peroff-Johnston, Nancy

    2014-02-24

    Amidst concerns regarding the capacity of the public health system to respond rapidly and appropriately to threats such as pandemics and terrorism, along with changing population health needs, governments have focused on strengthening public health systems. A key factor in a robust public health system is its workforce. As part of a nationally funded study of public health renewal in Canada, a policy analysis was conducted to compare public health human resources-relevant documents in two Canadian provinces, British Columbia (BC) and Ontario (ON), as they each implement public health renewal activities. A content analysis of policy and planning documents from government and public health-related organizations was conducted by a research team comprised of academics and government decision-makers. Documents published between 2003 and 2011 were accessed (BC = 27; ON = 20); documents were either publicly available or internal to government and excerpted with permission. Documentary texts were deductively coded using a coding template developed by the researchers based on key health human resources concepts derived from two national policy documents. Documents in both provinces highlighted the importance of public health human resources planning and policies; this was particularly evident in early post-SARS documents. Key thematic areas of public health human resources identified were: education, training, and competencies; capacity; supply; intersectoral collaboration; leadership; public health planning context; and priority populations. Policy documents in both provinces discussed the importance of an educated, competent public health workforce with the appropriate skills and competencies for the effective and efficient delivery of public health services. This policy analysis identified progressive work on public health human resources policy and planning with early documents providing an inventory of issues to be addressed and later documents providing

  19. Public health human resources: a comparative analysis of policy documents in two Canadian provinces

    2014-01-01

    Background Amidst concerns regarding the capacity of the public health system to respond rapidly and appropriately to threats such as pandemics and terrorism, along with changing population health needs, governments have focused on strengthening public health systems. A key factor in a robust public health system is its workforce. As part of a nationally funded study of public health renewal in Canada, a policy analysis was conducted to compare public health human resources-relevant documents in two Canadian provinces, British Columbia (BC) and Ontario (ON), as they each implement public health renewal activities. Methods A content analysis of policy and planning documents from government and public health-related organizations was conducted by a research team comprised of academics and government decision-makers. Documents published between 2003 and 2011 were accessed (BC = 27; ON = 20); documents were either publicly available or internal to government and excerpted with permission. Documentary texts were deductively coded using a coding template developed by the researchers based on key health human resources concepts derived from two national policy documents. Results Documents in both provinces highlighted the importance of public health human resources planning and policies; this was particularly evident in early post-SARS documents. Key thematic areas of public health human resources identified were: education, training, and competencies; capacity; supply; intersectoral collaboration; leadership; public health planning context; and priority populations. Policy documents in both provinces discussed the importance of an educated, competent public health workforce with the appropriate skills and competencies for the effective and efficient delivery of public health services. Conclusion This policy analysis identified progressive work on public health human resources policy and planning with early documents providing an inventory of issues to be

  20. Challenges and contradictions in Nigeria's water resources policy ...

    But considering the underdeveloped status of Nigeria, there are three critical sectors whose effective functionalities are synergistic for accomplishing the RBDAs ... Work should continue on the comprehensive Water Resources Bill through the process of consultation that promote inclusion, accountability, transparency, and ...

  1. Funds from non-renewable energy resources: Policy lessons from Alaska and Alberta

    Baena, César; Sévi, Benoît; Warrack, Allan

    2012-01-01

    We document the use of energy natural resource funds in Alaska and Alberta and analyze theirs characteristics for further implementation in resource-rich countries. Such funds allow dealing theoretically with intergenerational equity issues, corruption, and more general institutional problems. The performance of both funds is very different, depending on the management and composition choices but some policy lessons can be drawn from these two examples. Importantly, the role of a public dividend policy is highlighted as a way to bypass corrupted institutions and to enhance quality of life for poorest people. We also emphasize the need to deal with inflation to make the fund sustainable. - Highlights: ► We document the optimal intergenerational energy resource management using funds. ► We use Alaskan and Albertan experiences to provide policy lessons for future implementation of such funds. ► We emphasize the role of a public dividend policy

  2. Preserving Subjective Wellbeing in the Face of Psychopathology: Buffering Effects of Personal Strengths and Resources.

    Elisabeth H Bos

    Full Text Available Many studies on resilience have shown that people can succeed in preserving mental health after a traumatic event. Less is known about whether and how people can preserve subjective wellbeing in the presence of psychopathology. We examined to what extent psychopathology can co-exist with acceptable levels of subjective wellbeing and which personal strengths and resources moderate the association between psychopathology and wellbeing.Questionnaire data on wellbeing (Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life/Happiness Index, psychological symptoms (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, and personal strengths and resources (humor, Humor Style questionnaire; empathy, Empathy Quotient questionnaire; social company; religion; daytime activities, Living situation questionnaire were collected in a population-based internet study (HowNutsAreTheDutch; N = 12,503. Data of the subset of participants who completed the above questionnaires (n = 2411 were used for the present study. Regression analyses were performed to predict wellbeing from symptoms, resources, and their interactions.Satisfactory levels of wellbeing (happiness score 6 or higher were found in a substantial proportion of the participants with psychological symptoms (58% and 30% of those with moderate and severe symptom levels, respectively. The association between symptoms and wellbeing was large and negative (-0.67, P < .001, but less so in persons with high levels of self-defeating humor and in those with a partner and/or pet. Several of the personal strengths and resources had a positive main effect on wellbeing, especially self-enhancing humor, having a partner, and daytime activities.Cultivating personal strengths and resources, like humor, social/animal company, and daily occupations, may help people preserve acceptable levels of wellbeing despite the presence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress.

  3. Combining Ecosystem Service and Critical Load Concepts for Resource Management and Public Policy

    Timothy J. Sullivan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Land management and natural resource public policy decision-making in the United States can benefit from two resource damage/recovery concepts: ecosystem service (ES and critical load (CL. The purpose of this paper is to suggest an integrated approach to the application of ES and CL principles for public land management and natural resource policy decision-making. One well known example that is appropriate for ES and CL evaluation is examined here: the acidification of soil and drainage water by atmospheric deposition of acidifying sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A conceptual framework illustrates how the ES and CL approaches can be combined in a way that enhances the strengths of each. This framework will aid in the process of translating ES and CL principles into land management and natural resource policy decision-making by documenting the impacts of pollution on environmental goods and services that benefit humans.

  4. Bridging Water Resources Policy and Environmental Engineering in the Classroom at Cornell University

    Walter, M. T.; Shaw, S. B.; Seifert, S.; Schwarz, T.

    2006-12-01

    Current university undergraduate students in environmental sciences and engineering are the next generation of environmental protection practitioners. Recognizing this, Cornell's Biological and Environmental Engineering department has developed a popular class, Watershed Engineering (BEE 473), specifically designed to bridge the too-common gap between water resources policy and state-of-art science and technology. Weekly homework assignments are to design real-life solutions to actual water resources problems, often with the objective of applying storm water policies to local situations. Where appropriate, usually in conjunction with recent amendments to the Federal Clean Water Act, this course introduces water resource protection tools and concepts developed in the Cornell Soil and Water Lab. Here we present several examples of how we build bridges between university classrooms and the complex world of water resources policy.

  5. Integrated assessment, water resources, and science-policy communication

    Davies, E.G.R.; Akhtar, M.K.; McBean, G.A.; Simonovic, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional climate change modeling neglects the role of feedbacks between different components of society-biosphere-climate system. Yet, such interconnections are critical. This paper describes an alternative, Integrated Assessment (IA) model that focuses on feedbacks not only within individual elements of the society-biosphere-climate system, but also on their interconnections. The model replicates the relevant dynamics of nine components of the society-biosphere- climate system at the sectoral, or single-component, level: climate, carbon cycle, hydrological cycle, water demand, water quality, population, land use, energy and economy. The paper discusses the role of the model in science-policy dialogue. (author)

  6. Longitudinal trajectories of subjective care stressors: the role of personal, dyadic, and family resources.

    Bangerter, Lauren R; Liu, Yin; Zarit, Steven H

    2017-11-24

    Stressors are critical to the caregiver stress process, yet little work has examined resources that contribute to longitudinal changes in subjective stressors. The present study examines a variety of factors that contribute to changes in subjective stressors across time. Dementia caregivers (N = 153) completed an in-person interview and eight daily telephone interviews at baseline, and follow up interviews at 6 and 12 months. Growth curve analyses examine how care- and non-care stressors, respite, dyadic relationship quality, family support/conflict and care transitions (e.g. nursing home placement) are associated with changes in role overload and role captivity across 12 months. Caregivers who transitioned out of their role had higher overload and captivity at baseline. Among caregivers who transitioned out of caregiving, higher captivity at baseline was associated with declines in captivity and overload; more non-care stressors at baseline was linked to increased captivity and greater overload across time. Adult day service use and family support were associated with lesser captivity over time; taking more breaks from caregiving was linked to lower overload. Higher dyadic relationship quality was associated with lower captivity and overload. Findings contribute to caregiver intervention efforts by highlighting important resources associated with subjective stressors across time.

  7. SHRIMP MARICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN ECUADOR: SOME RESOURCE POLICY ISSUES

    Southgate, Douglas

    1992-01-01

    During the past 15 years, Ecuador has become the Western Hemisphere's leading producer and exporter of shrimp. Growth has come about largely through mariculture development. About 8,000 metric tons (MT) of shrimp have been captured off the Ecuadorian coast each year since the late 1970s. Meanwhile, pond output has increased several-fold, from less than 5,000 MT in 1979 to over 100,000 MT 12 years later (Table 1). Mariculture has expanded largely at the expense of renewable natural resources. ...

  8. Using Scenarios to Assess Policy Mixes for Resource Efficiency and Eco-Innovation in Different Fiscal Policy Frameworks

    Laurent Bontoux

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is no longer any doubt that the European Union needs to manage a transition towards a sustainable economy and society. The complexity of such an enterprise is creating major challenges that require a future oriented systemic approach, looking at the EU economy and society as a whole, and going beyond current agendas and policies. The purpose of the JRC foresight study “2035: Paths towards a sustainable EU economy” was to explore how this could be possible. Resource efficiency was at the core of the reflection. This created a context where the fiscal framework was perceived by the experts involved as essential in driving (or hindering the evolution towards a more sustainable future. Societal values (individualistic or collaborative were selected as the other axis around which to construct four scenarios. A large number of other drivers of change were taken into account to construct scenarios of a sufficient depth and detail to generate a systemic understanding. The scenarios were used in an original way to help experts identify which policy mixes would be best adapted to push each scenario towards a more sustainable future, while respecting its own logic and constraints. For each scenario, 6 policy domains considered the most relevant were selected among more than 50. Research and innovation, new business models and education were considered important for all four scenarios. The other domains were natural resources management, regulation, ethics, employment, transparency, governance, social protection, and systems integration. The study illustrates how powerful a policy framework which is fiscally supportive of environmental sustainability can be in supporting resource efficiency and that this can be achieved in very different ways depending on the prevailing social values. It also shows how a combination of actions in other policy areas can be used to drive sustainability further. In sum, this work illustrates how the creative use of

  9. Citizen science and natural resource governance: program design for vernal pool policy innovation

    Bridie McGreavy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective natural resource policy depends on knowing what is needed to sustain a resource and building the capacity to identify, develop, and implement flexible policies. This retrospective case study applies resilience concepts to a 16-year citizen science program and vernal pool regulatory development process in Maine, USA. We describe how citizen science improved adaptive capacities for innovative and effective policies to regulate vernal pools. We identified two core program elements that allowed people to act within narrow windows of opportunity for policy transformation, including (1 the simultaneous generation of useful, credible scientific knowledge and construction of networks among diverse institutions, and (2 the formation of diverse leadership that promoted individual and collective abilities to identify problems and propose policy solutions. If citizen science program leaders want to promote social-ecological systems resilience and natural resource policies as outcomes, we recommend they create a system for internal project evaluation, publish scientific studies using citizen science data, pursue resources for program sustainability, and plan for leadership diversity and informal networks to foster adaptive governance.

  10. National forecast for geothermal resource exploration and development with techniques for policy analysis and resource assessment

    Cassel, T.A.V.; Shimamoto, G.T.; Amundsen, C.B.; Blair, P.D.; Finan, W.F.; Smith, M.R.; Edeistein, R.H.

    1982-03-31

    The backgrund, structure and use of modern forecasting methods for estimating the future development of geothermal energy in the United States are documented. The forecasting instrument may be divided into two sequential submodels. The first predicts the timing and quality of future geothermal resource discoveries from an underlying resource base. This resource base represents an expansion of the widely-publicized USGS Circular 790. The second submodel forecasts the rate and extent of utilization of geothermal resource discoveries. It is based on the joint investment behavior of resource developers and potential users as statistically determined from extensive industry interviews. It is concluded that geothermal resource development, especially for electric power development, will play an increasingly significant role in meeting US energy demands over the next 2 decades. Depending on the extent of R and D achievements in related areas of geosciences and technology, expected geothermal power development will reach between 7700 and 17300 Mwe by the year 2000. This represents between 8 and 18% of the expected electric energy demand (GWh) in western and northwestern states.

  11. Advocacy coalitions involved in California's menu labeling policy debate: Exploring coalition structure, policy beliefs, resources, and strategies.

    Payán, Denise D; Lewis, LaVonna B; Cousineau, Michael R; Nichol, Michael B

    2017-03-01

    Advocacy coalitions often play an important role in the state health policymaking process, yet little is known about their structure, composition, and behavior. In 2008, California became the first state to enact a menu labeling law. Using the advocacy coalition framework, we examine different facets of the coalitions involved in California's menu labeling policy debate. We use a qualitative research approach to identify coalition members and explore their expressed beliefs and policy arguments, resources, and strategies by analyzing legislative documents (n = 87) and newspaper articles (n = 78) produced between 1999 and 2009. Between 2003 and 2008, six menu labeling bills were introduced in the state's legislature. We found the issue received increasing media attention during this period. We identified two advocacy coalitions involved in the debate-a public health (PH) coalition and an industry coalition. State organizations acted as coalition leaders and participated for a longer duration than elected officials. The structure and composition of each coalition varied. PH coalition leadership and membership notably increased compared to the industry coalition. The PH coalition, led by nonprofit PH and health organizations, promoted a clear and consistent message around informed decision making. The industry coalition, led by a state restaurant association, responded with cost and implementation arguments. Each coalition used various resources and strategies to advance desired outcomes. PH coalition leaders were particularly effective at using resources and employing advocacy strategies, which included engaging state legislators as coalition members, using public opinion polls and information, and leveraging media resources to garner support. Policy precedence and a local policy push emerged as important policymaking strategies. Areas for future research on the state health policymaking process are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Advocacy Coalitions involved in California’s Menu Labeling Policy Debate: Exploring Coalition Structure, Policy Beliefs, Resources, and Strategies

    Payán, Denise D.; Lewis, LaVonna B.; Cousineau, Michael R.; Nichol, Michael B.

    2017-01-01

    Advocacy coalitions often play an important role in the state health policymaking process, yet little is known about their structure, composition, and behavior. In 2008, California became the first state to enact a menu labeling law. Using the advocacy coalition framework, we examine different facets of the coalitions involved in California’s menu labeling policy debate. We use a qualitative research approach to identify coalition members and explore their expressed beliefs and policy arguments, resources, and strategies by analyzing legislative documents (n=87) and newspaper articles (n=78) produced between 1999 and 2009. Between 2003 and 2008, six menu labeling bills were introduced in the state’s legislature. We found the issue received increasing media attention during this period. We identified two advocacy coalitions involved in the debate—a public health (PH) coalition and an industry coalition. State organizations acted as coalition leaders and participated for a longer duration than elected officials. The structure and composition of each coalition varied. PH coalition leadership and membership notably increased compared to the industry coalition. The PH coalition, led by nonprofit PH and health organizations, promoted a clear and consistent message around informed decision making. The industry coalition, led by a state restaurant association, responded with cost and implementation arguments. Each coalition used various resources and strategies to advance desired outcomes. PH coalition leaders were particularly effective at using resources and employing advocacy strategies, which included engaging state legislators as coalition members, using public opinion polls and information, and leveraging media resources to garner support. Policy precedence and a local policy push emerged as important policymaking strategies. Areas for future research on the state health policymaking process are discussed. PMID:28161674

  13. Environmental cost-effectiveness analysis in intertemporal natural resource policy: evaluation of selective fishing gear.

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Vestergaard, Niels

    2013-12-15

    In most decision-making involving natural resources, the achievements of a given policy (e.g., improved ecosystem or biodiversity) are rather difficult to measure in monetary units. To address this problem, the current paper develops an environmental cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) to include intangible benefits in intertemporal natural resource problems. This approach can assist managers in prioritizing management actions as least cost solutions to achieve quantitative policy targets. The ECEA framework is applied to a selective gear policy case in Danish mixed trawl fisheries in Kattegat and Skagerrak. The empirical analysis demonstrates how a policy with large negative net benefits might be justified if the intangible benefits are included. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Policies of natural Resources Management and Environmental Economic Advantages - Attractions in Kosovo

    Afrim Selimaj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem management is a recent alternative policy proposed by the Kosovo government to address a new generation of environmental issues. All Kosovo agency managements are currently exploring the concept of ecosystem management and their implications. Their activities are focused in the management of land and natural resources, by developing policy guidelines regarding the management of the ecosystem and the efforts undertaken that are only one layer of a larger phenomenon nationwide. Similar activities occur at the state and local levels, as well as within the NGO sector. In this sense, this paper addresses two questions: What is the policy of ecosystem management? Would Ecosystem management remain only a land management policy and resource?

  15. Discharge Fee Policy Analysis: A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model of Water Resources and Water Environments

    Guohua Fang; Ting Wang; Xinyi Si; Xin Wen; Yu Liu

    2016-01-01

    To alleviate increasingly serious water pollution and shortages in developing countries, various kinds of policies have been implemented by local governments. It is vital to quantify and evaluate the performance and potential economic impacts of these policies. This study develops a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to simulate the regional economic and environmental effects of discharge fees. Firstly, water resources and water environment factors are separated from the input and out...

  16. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Minnesota. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Bhatt, Monica; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen; Wraight, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  17. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Wisconsin. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Cushing, Ellen; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Meyer, Cassandra

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  18. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Indiana. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Meyer, Cassandra; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  19. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Iowa. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Behrstock, Ellen; Bhatt, Monica; Cushing, Ellen; Wraight, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  20. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Michigan. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Meyer, Cassandra; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  1. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Illinois. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Meyers, Coby; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  2. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Ohio. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  3. Evaluation of the Waste Tire Resources Recovery Program and Environmental Health Policy in Taiwan

    Chia-Ching Chen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effectiveness of Taiwanese environmental health policies, whose aim is to improve environmental quality by reducing tire waste via the Tire Resource Recovery Program. The results confirm that implemented environmental health policies improve the overall health of the population (i.e. a decrease in death caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases. Current policy expenditures are far below the optimal level, as it is estimated that a ten percent increase in the subsidy would decrease the number of deaths caused by bronchitis and other respiratory diseases by 0.58% per county/city per year on average.

  4. Constructing Web subject gateways using Dublin Core, the Resource Description Framework and Topic Maps

    Jesús Tramullas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Specialised subject gateways have become an essential tool for locating and accessing digital information resources, with the added value of organisation and previous evaluation catering for the needs of the varying communities using these. Within the framework of a research project on the subject, a software tool has been developed that enables subject gateways to be developed and managed. Method. General guidelines for the work were established which set out the main principles for the technical aspects of the application, on one hand, and on aspects of the treatment and management of information, on the other. All this has been integrated into a prototype model for developing software tools. Analysis. The needs analysis established the conditions to be fulfilled by the application. A detailed study of the available options for the treatment of information on metadata proved that the best option was to use the Dublin Core, and that the metadata set should be included, in turn, in RDF tags, or in tags based on XML. Results. The project has resulted in the development of two versions of an application called Potnia (versions 1 and 2, which fulfil the requirements set out in the main principles, and which have been tested by users in real application environments. Conclusion. The tagging layout found to be the best, and the one used by the writers, is based on integrating the Dublin Core metadata set within the Topic Maps paradigm, formatted in XTM.

  5. An Integrated Systems Approach to Designing Climate Change Adaptation Policy in Water Resources

    Ryu, D.; Malano, H. M.; Davidson, B.; George, B.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change projections are characterised by large uncertainties with rainfall variability being the key challenge in designing adaptation policies. Climate change adaptation in water resources shows all the typical characteristics of 'wicked' problems typified by cognitive uncertainty as new scientific knowledge becomes available, problem instability, knowledge imperfection and strategic uncertainty due to institutional changes that inevitably occur over time. Planning that is characterised by uncertainties and instability requires an approach that can accommodate flexibility and adaptive capacity for decision-making. An ability to take corrective measures in the event that scenarios and responses envisaged initially derive into forms at some future stage. We present an integrated-multidisciplinary and comprehensive framework designed to interface and inform science and decision making in the formulation of water resource management strategies to deal with climate change in the Musi Catchment of Andhra Pradesh, India. At the core of this framework is a dialogue between stakeholders, decision makers and scientists to define a set of plausible responses to an ensemble of climate change scenarios derived from global climate modelling. The modelling framework used to evaluate the resulting combination of climate scenarios and adaptation responses includes the surface and groundwater assessment models (SWAT & MODFLOW) and the water allocation modelling (REALM) to determine the water security of each adaptation strategy. Three climate scenarios extracted from downscaled climate models were selected for evaluation together with four agreed responses—changing cropping patterns, increasing watershed development, changing the volume of groundwater extraction and improving irrigation efficiency. Water security in this context is represented by the combination of level of water availability and its associated security of supply for three economic activities (agriculture

  6. Does the EU meet its policy objective of 'promoting sustainable use of arctic resources'? An analysis from the viewpoint of arctic energy resources

    Neumann, A.; Hossain, Kamrul

    2014-01-01

    The EU started to develop its own Arctic policy in 2008. One of the three main objectives of this policy is the promotion of sustainable use of Arctic resources. "Sustainability" was also a focus of the 2011 resolution of the European Parliament as a guiding principle in developing European policies

  7. Maximising available resources: Equality and human rights proofing Irish fiscal policy

    Murphy Mary P.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines various rationales for applying equality and human rights proofing mechanisms to fiscal policy. The principle of using available resources to the maximum to progressively realise human rights, and not to erode the revenue capacity of developing nations to do likewise, is at the heart of emerging human rights norms. To date, Irish budgetary processes and major policy statements such as the Commission on Taxation or the draft outline National Plan on Business and Human Rights Strategy have not engaged with the principles of maximising available resources or extraterritoriality. Proofing fiscal policy is also relevant from the perspective of fiscal welfare where taxation instruments, traditionally used as a revenue-gathering mechanism, are increasingly used as distributional mechanisms to achieve policy outcomes in pensions, health, housing and employment, with important equality and distributive dimensions, particularly from gender, age and socioeconomic perspectives. A number of practical institutional mechanisms and evaluative questions can guide equality and human rights proofing of fiscal policy, but commitments to maximise resources to realise rights also need to be promoted through a public discourse which sees taxation as potential investment in society rather than a burden or cost on the economy.

  8. The role of natural resource amenities in attracting retirees: implications for economic growth policy

    Neelam C. Poudyal; Donald G. Hodges; H. Ken Cordell

    2008-01-01

    Increasing criticism of resource-extractive and polluting heavy duty industries in urbanareas, as well as continuing declines in timbering, farming and mining in rural areas, havecreated challenges for planners and policy makers seeking sustainable rural economies.Earlier studies have concluded that a...

  9. Integrated Water Resources Management: contrasting principles, policy, and practice, Awash River Basin, Ethiopia

    Mersha, A.; Fraiture, de C.M.S.; Mehari, Alem; Masih, I.; Alamirew, T.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) has been a dominant paradigm for water sector reform worldwide over the past two decades. Ethiopia, among early adopters, has developed a water policy, legislations, and strategy per IWRM core principles. However, considerable constraints are still in its

  10. Selecting, Evaluating and Creating Policies for Computer-Based Resources in the Behavioral Sciences and Education.

    Richardson, Linda B., Comp.; And Others

    This collection includes four handouts: (1) "Selection Critria Considerations for Computer-Based Resources" (Linda B. Richardson); (2) "Software Collection Policies in Academic Libraries" (a 24-item bibliography, Jane W. Johnson); (3) "Circulation and Security of Software" (a 19-item bibliography, Sara Elizabeth Williams); and (4) "Bibliography of…

  11. The Timber Resource Inventory Model (TRIM): a projection model for timber supply and policy analysis.

    P.L. Tedder; R.N. La Mont; J.C. Kincaid

    1987-01-01

    TRIM (Timber Resource Inventory Model) is a yield table projection system developed for timber supply projections and policy analysis. TRIM simulates timber growth, inventories, management and area changes, and removals over the projection period. Programs in the TRIM system, card-by-card descriptions of required inputs, table formats, and sample results are presented...

  12. Policy Change and Its Effect on Australian Community-Based Natural Resource Management Practices

    Cooke, Penelope R.; Hemmings, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    The authors of this article report on a qualitative study of Australian community-based natural resource management groups known as Landcare groups. They discuss how four Landcare groups contributed to sustainability practices and how a policy change implemented in 2003 influenced the efforts of the groups to remain active in their activities.…

  13. Workshop: Towards an integrative European perspective on health human resources policy: how and why?

    Batenburg, R.; Kuhlmann, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Across many countries, shortages and inefficient use of qualified healthcare staff – together with changes in the composition of the health professional workforce by age, gender and citizenship – have created an urgent call for health human resources policy, planning and management. In

  14. A resource for developing an evidence synthesis report for policy-making

    Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Takahashi, Ryoko

    to public health questions by summarizing the best available global and local findings from peer-reviewed and grey literature, as well as policy options, and proposes general directions, strategies and actions for consideration. This resource has been developed to outline key approaches, methods...

  15. Factors that explain how policy makers distribute resources to mental health services.

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Watson, Amy C

    2003-04-01

    Advocates hope to influence the resource allocation decisions of legislators and other policy makers to capture more resources for mental health programs. Findings from social psychological research suggest factors that, if pursued, may improve advocacy efforts. In particular, allocation decisions are affected by policy makers' perceptions of the scarcity of resources, effectiveness of specific programs, needs of people who have problems that are served by these programs, and extent of personal responsibility for these problems. These perceptions are further influenced by political ideology. Conservatives are motivated by a tendency to punish persons who are perceived as having personal responsibility for their problems by withholding resources, whereas liberals are likely to avoid tough allocation decisions. Moreover, these perceptions are affected by political accountability, that is, whether politicians perceive that their constituents will closely monitor their decisions. Just as the quality of clinical interventions improves when informed by basic research on human behavior, the efforts of mental health advocates will be advanced when they understand the psychological forces that affect policy makers' decisions about resources.

  16. The Public Health Service guidelines. Governing research involving human subjects: An analysis of the policy-making process

    Frankel, M. S.

    1972-01-01

    The policy making process which led to development of the Public Health Service Guidelines governing research involving human subjects is outlined. Part 1 examines the evolution of PHS Guidelines, tracing (1) evolution of thought and legal interpretation regarding research using human subjects; (2) initial involvement of the Federal government; (3) development of the government's research program; (4) the social-political environment in which formal government policy was developed; and (5) various policy statements issued by the government. Part 2 analyzes the process by which PHS Guidelines were developed and examines the values and other underlying factors which contributed to their development. It was concluded that the evolution of the Guidelines is best understood within the context of a mixed-scanning strategy. In such a strategy, policy makers make fundamental decisions regarding the basic direction of policy and subsequent decisions are made incrementally and within the contexts set by the original fundamental decisions.

  17. Climate change and mountain water resources: overview and recommendations for research, management and policy

    D. Viviroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mountains are essential sources of freshwater for our world, but their role in global water resources could well be significantly altered by climate change. How well do we understand these potential changes today, and what are implications for water resources management, climate change adaptation, and evolving water policy? To answer above questions, we have examined 11 case study regions with the goal of providing a global overview, identifying research gaps and formulating recommendations for research, management and policy.

    After setting the scene regarding water stress, water management capacity and scientific capacity in our case study regions, we examine the state of knowledge in water resources from a highland-lowland viewpoint, focusing on mountain areas on the one hand and the adjacent lowland areas on the other hand. Based on this review, research priorities are identified, including precipitation, snow water equivalent, soil parameters, evapotranspiration and sublimation, groundwater as well as enhanced warming and feedback mechanisms. In addition, the importance of environmental monitoring at high altitudes is highlighted. We then make recommendations how advancements in the management of mountain water resources under climate change could be achieved in the fields of research, water resources management and policy as well as through better interaction between these fields.

    We conclude that effective management of mountain water resources urgently requires more detailed regional studies and more reliable scenario projections, and that research on mountain water resources must become more integrative by linking relevant disciplines. In addition, the knowledge exchange between managers and researchers must be improved and oriented towards long-term continuous interaction.

  18. Biorepository regulatory frameworks: building parallel resources that both promote scientific investigation and protect human subjects.

    Marko-Varga, György; Baker, Mark S; Boja, Emily S; Rodriguez, Henry; Fehniger, Thomas E

    2014-12-05

    Clinical samples contained in biorepositories represent an important resource for investigating the many factors that drive human biology. The biological and chemical markers contained in clinical samples provide important measures of health and disease that when combined with such medical evaluation data can aid in decision making by physicians. Nearly all disciplines in medicine and every "omic" depend upon the readouts obtained from such samples, whether the measured analyte is a gene, a protein, a lipid, or a metabolite. There are many steps in sample processing, storage, and management that need to understood by the researchers who utilize biorepositories in their own work. These include not only the preservation of the desired analytes in the sample but also good understanding of the moral and legal framework required for subject protection irrespective of where the samples have been collected. Today there is a great deal of effort in the community to align and standardize both the methodology of sample collection and storage performed in different locations and the necessary frameworks of subject protection including informed consent and institutional review of the studies being performed. There is a growing trend in developing biorepositories around the focus of large population-based studies that address both active and silent nonsymptomatic disease. Logistically these studies generate large numbers of clinical samples and practically place increasing demand upon health care systems to provide uniform sample handling, processing, storage, and documentation of both the sample and the subject as well to ensure that safeguards exist to protect the rights of the study subjects for deciding upon the fates of their samples. Currently the authority to regulate the entire scope of biorepository usage exists as national practice in law in only a few countries. Such legal protection is a necessary component within the framework of biorepositories, both now and in

  19. Control-limit preventive maintenance policies for components subject to imperfect preventive maintenance and variable operational conditions

    You Mingyi; Li Hongguang; Meng Guang

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops two component-level control-limit preventive maintenance (PM) policies for systems subject to the joint effect of partial recovery PM acts (imperfect PM acts) and variable operational conditions, and investigates the properties of the proposed policies. The extended proportional hazards model (EPHM) is used to model the system failure likelihood influenced by both factors. Several numerical experiments are conducted for policy property analysis, using real lifetime and operational condition data and typical characterization of imperfect PM acts and maintenance durations. The experimental results demonstrate the necessity of considering both factors when they do exist, characterize the joint effect of the two factors on the performance of an optimized PM policy, and explore the influence of the loading sequence of time-varying operational conditions on the performance of an optimized PM policy. The proposed policies extend the applicability of PM optimization techniques.

  20. Subjective probability appraisal of uranium resources in the state of New Mexico

    Ellis, J.R.; Harris, D.P.; VanWie, N.H.

    1975-12-01

    This report presents an estimate of undiscovered uranium resources in New Mexico of 226,681,000 tons of material containing 455,480 tons U 3 O 8 . The basis for this estimate was a survey of expectations of 36 geologists, in terms of subjective probabilities of number of deposits, ore tonnage, and grade. Weighting of the geologists' estimates to derive a mean value used a self-appraisal index of their knowledge within the field. Detailed estimates are presented for the state, for each of 62 subdivisions (cells), and for an aggregation of eight cells encompassing the San Juan Basin, which is estimated to contain 92 percent of the undiscovered uranium resources in New Mexico. Ore-body attributes stated as probability distributions enabled the application of Monte Carlo methods to the analysis of the data. Sampling of estimates of material and contained U 3 O 8 which are provided as probability distributions indicates a 10 percent probability of there being at least 600,000 tons U 3 O 8 remaining undiscovered in deposits virtually certain to number between 500 and 565. An indicated probability of 99.5 percent that the ore grade is greater than 0.12 percent U 3 O 8 suggests that this survey may not provide reliable estimates of the abundance of material in very low-grade categories. Extrapolation to examine the potential for such deposits indicates more than 1,000,000 tons U 3 O 8 may be available down to a grade of 0.05 percent U 3 O 8 . Supplemental point estimates of ore depth and thickness allowed derivative estimates of cost of development, extraction, and milling. 80 percent of the U 3 O 8 is estimated to be available at a cost less than dollars 15/lb (1974) and about 98 percent at less than dollars 30/lb

  1. Resource management and scheduling policy based on grid for AIoT

    Zou, Yiqin; Quan, Li

    2017-07-01

    This paper has a research on resource management and scheduling policy based on grid technology for Agricultural Internet of Things (AIoT). Facing the situation of a variety of complex and heterogeneous agricultural resources in AIoT, it is difficult to represent them in a unified way. But from an abstract perspective, there are some common models which can express their characteristics and features. Based on this, we proposed a high-level model called Agricultural Resource Hierarchy Model (ARHM), which can be used for modeling various resources. It introduces the agricultural resource modeling method based on this model. Compared with traditional application-oriented three-layer model, ARHM can hide the differences of different applications and make all applications have a unified interface layer and be implemented without distinction. Furthermore, it proposes a Web Service Resource Framework (WSRF)-based resource management method and the encapsulation structure for it. Finally, it focuses on the discussion of multi-agent-based AG resource scheduler, which is a collaborative service provider pattern in multiple agricultural production domains.

  2. Norwegian resource policy: The production rate for Norwegian petroleum resources; Norsk ressurspolitikk: Utvinningstempoet for norske petroleumsressurser

    Schreiner, P.

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum activities have become a large industry in Norway. This has led to extensive changes in Norwegian economy and society. In the public debate on this activity there has been little discussion of what would be the most profitable production rate. However, it is generally agreed that the great wealth implied by the petroleum resources must be managed in ways suitable to both present and coming generations. This report discusses the production rate based on the following questions: (1) How high can the production rate be before the petroleum activities and the expenditure of the income from them influence the remaining Norwegian economy too strongly? (2) How much of this wealth should reasonably be used by present generations and how much should be left for future generations? There is much to gain from a high tempo and from relocating some of the petroleum wealth. The possibilities of influencing the production rate are mainly connected with the allotments of production licences. The consequences of uncertainties in the petroleum activities for the choice of exploitation tempo are unclear. The environment is not much affected by the production rate. The contractor activity has become Norway`s largest industry. 42 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Subjectivity Policies for Educational Equality Opportunities. A Conversation Between Juan Carlos Tedesco and Luis Porter

    Luis Porter Galetar

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to answer a basic question: Is it possible to include the excluded? We understand the excluded as new social sectors, which are different from those we describe as marginal or exploited.  Rather, these sectors are formed by the large and growing groups of people that contemporary society seems able to ignore. The article starts by analyzing what this new social condition implies to decision makers, and raises new questions.  Do we want to live in a society that excludes 25 or 30% of its more needy population?  Are we capable of learning to live together, as Jacques Delors asks in his UNESCO report?  The ethical dilemma implied by these questions leads to a reflection on the technical-political dimension of inequality in regards to education.  Tedesco and Porter open a dialogue that departs from a macro vision (including the use of new technology and the opening of new fields in educational policies and goes into the micro dimension of specific contexts, from those where people have some educational autonomy and project capacity, to those where people find themselves in situations of anonymity and social dissolution.  Learning to live together implies taking on responsibility for the other, and of knowing the other. In order to break with the social determinism that can lead to fatalist scenarios, it is important to understand that educational success or failure is a systemic phenomenon that depends on a multiple of variables.  Governments have responded to the complexity of the problem with ‘objective’ measures that principally affect the material. In this article we support the idea that an attempt to bring about a greater recognition of the subjective dimension is missing in current educational policy.  To achieve this we identify certain characteristics that various studies have shown as basic requirements to confront the problem: project capacity, narrative capacity and enhanced self-confidence.

  4. Two year psychosocial and mental health outcomes for refugees subjected to restrictive or supportive immigration policies.

    Steel, Zachary; Momartin, Shakeh; Silove, Derrick; Coello, Marianio; Aroche, Jorge; Tay, Kuo Wei

    2011-04-01

    acculturation process amongst refugees subject to restrictive immigration policies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improved Management of Water and Natural Resources Requires Open, Cognizant, Adaptive Science and Policy

    Glynn, P. D.; Voinov, A. A.; Shapiro, C. D.; Jenni, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    Water issues impact the availability and use of other natural resources as well as environmental conditions. In an increasingly populated hyper-connected world, water issues are increasingly "wicked problems": complex problems with high uncertainties and no independent observers. Water is essential to life, and life affects water quality and availability. Scientists, managers, decision-makers, and the greater public all have a stake in improving the management of water resources. In turn, they are part of the systems that they are studying, deciding on, affecting, or trying to improve. Governance of water issues requires greater accessibility, traceability, and accountability (ATA) in science and policy. Water-related studies and decision-making need transdisciplinary science, inclusive participatory processes, and consideration and acceptance of multiple perspectives. Biases, Beliefs, Heuristics, and Values (BBHV) shape much of our perceptions and knowledge, and inevitably, affect both science and policy. Understanding the role of BBHV is critical to (1) understanding individual and group judgments and choices, (2) recognizing potential differences between societal "wants" and societal "needs", and (3) identifying "winners" and "losers" of policy decisions. Societal acceptance of proposed policies and actions can be fostered by enhancing participatory processes and by providing greater ATA in science, in policy, and in development of the laws, rules, and traditions that constrain decision-making. An adaptive science-infused governance framework is proposed that seeks greater cognizance of the role of BBHV in shaping science and policy choices and decisions, and that also seeks "Open Traceable Accountable Policy" to complement "Open Science". We discuss the limitations of the governance that we suggest, as well as tools and approaches to help implementation.

  6. Deadlock Avoidance Policy in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks with Free Choice Resource Routing

    Prasanna Ballal

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficient control schemes are required for effective cooperation of robot teams in a mobile wireless sensor network. If the robots (resources are also in charge of executing multiple simultaneous missions, then risks of deadlocks due to the presence of shared resources among different missions increase and have to be tackled. Discrete event control with deadlock avoidance has been used in the past for robot team coordination for the case of multi reentrant flowline models with shared resources. In this paper we present an analysis of deadlock avoidance for a generalized case of multi reentrant flow line systems (MRF called the Free Choice Multi Reentrant Flow Line systems (FMRF. In FMRF, some tasks have multiple resource choices; hence routing decisions have to be made and current results in deadlock avoidance for MRF do not hold. This analysis is based on the so-called Circular Waits (CW of the resources in the system. For FMRF, the well known notions of Critical Siphons and Critical Subsystems must be generalized and we redefine these objects for such systems. Our second contribution provides a matrix formulation that efficiently computes the objects required for deadlock avoidance in FMRF systems. A MAXWIP dispatching policy is formulated for deadlock avoidance in FMRF systems. According to this policy, deadlock in FMRF is avoided by limiting the work in progress (WIP in the critical subsystems of each CW. Implemented results of the proposed scheme in a WSN test-bed is presented in the paper.

  7. A Systemic and Systematic Approach to the Development of a Policy Mix for Material Resource Efficiency

    Tomas Ekvall

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing material use efficiency is important to mitigate future supply risks and minimize environmental impacts associated with the production of the materials. The policy mix presented in this paper aims to contribute to reducing the use of virgin metals in the EU by 80% by 2050 without significant shifting of burdens to other material resources, environmental impacts, or parts of the world. We used a heuristic framework and a systems perspective for designing the policy mix that combines primary instruments designed to increase material efficiency, recycling and substitution of materials (a materials tax, the extended producer responsibility, technical regulations, and environmental taxes and supportive instruments aimed to reduce barriers to implementing the primary instruments and to contribute towards the policy objectives (e.g., research and development support, and advanced recycling centers. Furthermore, instruments were designed so as to increase political feasibility: e.g., taxes were gradually increased as part of a green fiscal reform, and border-tax adjustments were introduced to reduce impacts on competitiveness. However, even in such a policy mix design ongoing ex-ante assessments indicate that the policy mix will be politically difficult to implement—and also fall short of achieving the 80% reduction target. Nonetheless, we suggest combining primary and supportive instruments into coherent and dynamic policy mixes as a promising step towards system reconfigurations for sustainability.

  8. Comparative study of water resource management policies between China and Denmark

    Su, Liya; Christensen, Per; Liu, Jingling

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares water resource policies and management practices in China and Denmark. It takes two vulnerable water ecosystems as case studies: Baiyangdian wetland in China and Mariager fjord in Denmark. Based on the theories of the commons, this article explores the similarities...... due to the complicated administrative structure in China and clearer goals and better resources in Denmark. Denmark has also accomplished a large degree of environmental policy integration (EPI), which is not the case in China. But China has recently put environmental concerns high on the agenda...... and differences between the two ecosystems in terms of ecosystem characteristics, historical and cultural backgrounds of these societies, the technologies affecting the ecosystems and also how the ecosystems have been seen at different times as well as the existence of property rights through time. Both water...

  9. Catchment scale water resource constraints on UK policies for low-carbon energy system transition

    Konadu, D. D.; Fenner, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term low-carbon energy transition policy of the UK presents national scale propositions of different low-carbon energy system options that lead to meeting GHG emissions reduction target of 80% on 1990 levels by 2050. Whilst national-scale assessments suggests that water availability may not be a significant constrain on future thermal power generation systems in this pursuit, these analysis fail to capture the appropriate spatial scale where water resource decisions are made, i.e. at the catchment scale. Water is a local resource, which also has significant spatio-temporal regional and national variability, thus any policy-relevant water-energy nexus analysis must be reflective of these characteristics. This presents a critical challenge for policy relevant water-energy nexus analysis. This study seeks to overcome the above challenge by using a linear spatial-downscaling model to allocate nationally projected water-intensive energy system infrastructure/technologies to the catchment level, and estimating the water requirements for the deployment of these technologies. The model is applied to the UK Committee on Climate Change Carbon Budgets to 2030 as a case study. The paper concludes that whilst national-scale analyses show minimal long-term water related impacts, catchment level appraisal of water resource requirements reveal significant constraints in some locations. The approach and results presented in this study thus, highlights the importance of bringing together scientific understanding, data and analysis tools to provide better insights for water-energy nexus decisions at the appropriate spatial scale. This is particularly important for water stressed regions where the water-energy nexus must be analysed at appropriate spatial resolution to capture the full water resource impact of national energy policy.

  10. Policy in management based on corruption growth of resources agropolitan in the Gorontalo Province

    Wantu, S. M.; Moonti, U.; Wantu, A.

    2018-02-01

    Gorontalo was formed as a new province in Indonesia as a producer of national maize, but until now the agropolitan-based agricultural development condition is still inadequate and needs to be developed well. Thus, it is necessary to conduct a governance-related study on empowering farmers in order to increase their capacity in exploring the agricultural sector. This study aims to see the need for local government policies in managing human resources in the agricultural sector in this case the potential and contribution of farmers in creating new jobs in rural areas. This study uses a qualitative approach to the use of secondary data and primary data as a basis for tracing or researching local government management policies in empowering farmers to improve their welfare and also how this policy is expected to organize effective market mechanisms for farmers.

  11. American Polonia’s Resources Of Ifluence And Us Foreign Policy

    I. D. Loshkariov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes resources of political influence on the foreign policy of the country of residence that Polish diaspora in the United States possesses. This analysis is useful for two reasons. Firstly, it will expand the focus of research in the study of pressure groups and their influence on the American foreign policy. Secondly, the Polish diaspora in the United States is rarely the object of research in migrant and ethnic lobbying, despite its the significant share of the country’s population. Analysis of the given resources that the Polish diaspora (American Polonia has leads to the following. Firstly, the foreign policy agenda of the Polish diaspora in the United States faces no strong opponents. This fact means the diaspora has sufficiently developed structural resource. In addition, the Polish diaspora possesses an organizational resource: its institutions are in close cooperation and are coordinated by the Polish American Congress. Secondly, the Polish diaspora in the US is a significant group of the population, especially in the states of Wisconsin, Michigan, Connecticut, New York and Illinois. However, its electoral and financial capacities are not used to the fullest extent. Finally, there are certain difficulties with the discursive political resource of Polish diaspora. The social and political perception provides of Polonia in the USA two opposing narratives. The first one stresses that it is important for the Americans of Polish descent to share such values as democracy, defending his position, including by military means. The second narrative is a reproduction of widespread stereotypes about Poles, including in the popular culture. Thus, institutions of the American Polonia face several tasks. The most important tasks are the search for new ways of political mobilization of the diaspora and the formation of a balanced image of Polish Americans in the social and political perception in the United States.

  12. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  13. [Priorities for health policy and systems research focused on human resources in health].

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Chapman, Evelina; Flórez, Carlos E Pinzón; Torres, Rubén

    2013-11-01

    Identify priorities for health policy and systems research related to human resources in Latin America and Caribbean countries. An online survey was designed based on a search in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and LILACS that contributed previously prioritized research questions. Respondents, mainly researchers and decision-makers, were identified through various sources. The first round, directed at researchers, aimed at refining and adding research questions and prioritizing questions that researchers regarded as relevant or very relevant. The second round was directed at researchers and decision-makers. A question was considered a priority when 50% (or more) of respondents described it as "relevant" or "very relevant." The first round included 20 questions on human resources and 33/66 researchers responded. Questions suggested by the researchers were added, resulting in 26 questions for the second round, which were sent to 121 researchers and decision-makers. Respondent representation by country was uniform in both rounds. In the second round, 14/26 (54%) questions were described as very relevant. Priority issues related to regulation of the market, integration of education and health care needs, and distribution of human resources. The response rate was 50% in the first round (33/66), and 34% in the second round (41/121). The results of this exercise provide a starting point for mobilization of resources for health policy and systems research. Identification of health systems research priorities is an effective and efficient strategy for reorienting political, financial, management, and social organization efforts for attaining universal health coverage.

  14. STRUCTURING DEFENSE POLICIES FOR THE DEFENSE AND CONTROL OF STRATEGIC NATURAL RESOURCES

    GABRIEL DE PAULA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, there has been a reconfiguration of a new geopolitical scenario. This new scenario focus on the assessment about strategic natural resources (oil, gas and water, and less important, biodiversity, food and fertile land and its spatial condition (the resources are in a territory which is politically defined by boundaries or zone of influence. The scenario in South America is not far from that international dynamic, which affects in different levels the strategic lines of national defense policies in Brazil, Venezuela and (in less degree Argentina. In that way, competence and confluence scenarios are defined, which may have variability in the conflict level, such as a military confrontation or cooperation mechanisms (as the South America Defense Council. These scenarios are geographically located in: oil and gas basins, Amazonas, water resources, Antarctica, Atlantic Ocean and fertile land. The defense strategies set parameters for the design of the armed forces, as far as the hypothesis of conflicts above-mentioned applied. Thus, the defense administration reconfigured the capabilities of the Armed Forces (logistic, personnel, doctrine, resources, surveillance, in order to achieve the mission of control the regions where availability of natural resources exists.

  15. A periodic inspection and replacement policy for systems subject to competing failure modes due to degradation and traumatic events

    Huynh, K.T., E-mail: tuan.huynh@utt.f [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279-12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Barros, A., E-mail: anne.barros@utt.f [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279-12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Berenguer, C., E-mail: christophe.berenguer@utt.f [Universite de technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279-12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Castro, I.T., E-mail: inmatorres@unex.e [Departamento de Matematicas, Escuela Politecnica, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    This paper deals with the condition-based maintenance of single-unit systems which are subject to the competing and dependent failures due deterioration and traumatic shock events. The main aim is to provide a model to assess the value of condition monitoring information for the maintenance decision-making. A condition-based periodic inspection/replacement policy is developed and compared with a benchmark time-based block replacement policy. Numerical results show that it is indeed useful to follow closely the actual evolution of the system to adapt the maintenance decisions to the true system state to improve the performance of maintenance policies. The analysis of the maintenance costs savings can be used to justify or not the choice to implement a policy based on condition monitoring information and to invest in condition monitoring devices.

  16. A periodic inspection and replacement policy for systems subject to competing failure modes due to degradation and traumatic events

    Huynh, K.T.; Barros, A.; Berenguer, C.; Castro, I.T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the condition-based maintenance of single-unit systems which are subject to the competing and dependent failures due deterioration and traumatic shock events. The main aim is to provide a model to assess the value of condition monitoring information for the maintenance decision-making. A condition-based periodic inspection/replacement policy is developed and compared with a benchmark time-based block replacement policy. Numerical results show that it is indeed useful to follow closely the actual evolution of the system to adapt the maintenance decisions to the true system state to improve the performance of maintenance policies. The analysis of the maintenance costs savings can be used to justify or not the choice to implement a policy based on condition monitoring information and to invest in condition monitoring devices.

  17. The Seduction of the Subject/Citizen: Governmentality and School Governance Policy.

    Spencer, Brenda L.

    Traditional educational policy analysis is typically evaluative, focusing on degrees of success or failure, often obscuring how particular forms of knowledge and power reproduce social inequity. A Foucauldian, postmodern framework is particularly appropriate for analyzing educational policy because, in part, the Foucauldian concepts of…

  18. Human Resources Management Policies and Practices Scale (HRMPPS: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Gisela Demo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the strategic relevance of Human Resources Management (HRM in organizations and the lack of scientific instruments to measure employees’ perceptions about policies and practices of HRM, this study aimed to validate the Human Resources Management Policies and Practices Scale (HRMPPS through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis using the maximum likelihood method. The study has a quantitative design, but also included qualitative analysis required for the development of a scale. Employees from various organizations composed a sample of 632 people. Scale reliability was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha and Jöreskog’s rho. A sixfactor model was generated showing high-reliability and good fit. Construct validity was provided through convergent and discriminant analyses. The factors were consistent with the literature review and explained about 58% of the construct’s total variance. This study contributes to the scientific production in the area of Human Resources Management since HRMPPS can be used not only in relational studies but also as an evaluation instrument by managers who wish to improve their employees’ well-being as well as organizational outcomes.

  19. Is Theory Applied in Practice?A Stady of Linkage between Swedish MNC's Strategies and Húman Resource Staffing Policies

    Ivinger, Linnea; Lindvetter, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Theory suggests that there is a linkage between strategies and human resource staffing policies. Our aim with the dissertation was to test if such a linkage could be proven in Swedish MNCs. Also, indications spoke for ethnocentric tendencies in MNCs. We wanted to test if this was the reality for Swedish companies. In order to test the linkage we had to categorise the companies’ strategies and human resource staffing policies. By a survey we concluded that there was not full consistency in the...

  20. Taking Legislators to the Field: Communicating with Policy Makers about Natural Resource Issues

    Sawin, R. S.; Buchanan, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    Policy makers are among the most important audiences for scientific information. In particular, legislators, legislative staff, governmental agency staff, business leaders, environmental leaders, and others need accurate, objective natural-resource information to make policy decisions. This audience is busy and difficult to reach with technical information. As part of its public outreach program, the Kansas Geological Survey (a division of the University of Kansas) communicates directly with policy makers through an annual field conference. Operated since 1995, the conference presents information by combining field experiences, presentations by experts, and participant interaction. The primary objective is to give policy makers first-hand, unbiased information about the state's natural resource issues. The field conference takes policy makers to locations where natural resources are produced or used, or where there are important environmental issues, introducing them to experts and others who carry out (or are affected by) their decisions. The conference consists of three days of site visits, presentations, hands-on activities, and panel discussions. Participation is by invitation. Participants pay a small fee, but most costs are covered by co-sponsors, usually other state or local agencies, that are recruited to help defray expenses. Participants receive a guidebook before the trip. Travel is by chartered bus; lodging and meals are provided. Conferences have focused on topics (such as energy or water) or regions of the state. The most recent conference focused on cross-boundary issues and included stops in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. Written, post-conference evaluations are extremely positive. Legislators report that they regularly use conference information and contacts during the law-making process; conference information played a direct role in decisions related to underground natural-gas storage rules, water-rights by-back legislation, and sand and gravel

  1. Policy Development for Grey Literature Resources. An Assessment of the Pisa Declaration

    Savić, Dobrica (IAEA-NIS); Farace, Dominic J. (GreyNet); Frantzen, Jerry (GreyNet); Biagioni, Stefania (ISTI-CNR); Carlesi, Carlo (ISTI-CNR); Gruttemeier, Herbert (Inist-CNRS); Stock, Christiane (Inist-CNRS); Puccinelli, Roberto (CNR); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2017-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, a workshop took place at the Italian National Council of Research in Pisa. The topic of this event dealt with policy development for grey literature resources. Some seventy participants from nine countries took an active part in the workshop – the outcome of which produced what is today known as the Pisa Declaration. This fifteen point document arising from the input of those who attended the workshop sought to provide a roadmap that would help to serve diverse communit...

  2. Policy Development for Grey Literature Resources: An Assessment of the Pisa Declaration

    Savic, Dobrica; Farace, Dominic; Frantzen, Jerry; Biagioni, Stefania; Carlesi, Carlo; Gruttemeier, Herbert; Stock, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, a workshop took place at the Italian National Council of Research in Pisa1. The topic of this event dealt with policy development for grey literature resources. Some seventy participants from nine countries took an active part in the workshop - the outcome of which produced what is today known as the Pisa Declaration2. This fifteen point document arising from the input of those who attended the workshop sought to provide a roadmap that would help to serve diverse commun...

  3. POLICY DEVELOPMENT TRAINING AND EDUCATION RESOURCES TO REFORM THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT DISTRICT OF MAKASSAR SIDENRENG RAPPANG

    Syamsuddin Maldun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know and study the strategy of resource development policy reform of local government district of Makassar Sidenreng Rappang. The research method used is descriptive qualitative study type, while the phenomenological approach is used. This is intended to give description in a systematic, factual and actual response object is examined. Results of the research implementation of education and training is not conducted in a planned and timely to get quality apparatus of the abilities, knowledge, skills, expertise, and job skills, as well as a good mental attitude, and optimal performance. Whereas in the era of regional autonomy, it takes the resources of local government apparatus that is intelligent and responsive to the needs of an increasingly complex society services. 

  4. [Food and nutrition security policy in Brazil: an analysis of resource allocation].

    Custódio, Marta Battaglia; Yuba, Tânia Yuka; Cyrillo, Denise Cavallini

    2013-02-01

    To describe the progression and distribution of federal funds for programs and activities that fall within the scope of the guidelines of the Brazilian National Policy on Food and Nutrition Security (PNSAN) in the period from 2004 to 2010. This descriptive study used data from the Transparency Website maintained by the Brazilian Public Sector Internal Control Office. Search results were exported to Excel spreadsheets. To determine the resources allocated to food security initiatives, a database was set up containing all actions developed by the federal government between 2004 and 2010. This database was reviewed and the actions that were not related to PNSAN were discarded. The annual amounts obtained were corrected by the Consumer Price Index and updated for the year 2010. Since actions are part of specific programs, the sum of the resources allocated for all the actions of a program amounted to the resources invested in the program as a whole. The programs were then prioritized according to the amount of resources received in 2010. Of the 5 014 actions receiving federal funds in the study period, 814 were related to PNSAN (229 programs). There was growth in resources allocated for PNSAN programs, reaching US$ 15 billion in 2010 (an 82% increase over the previous year). The largest amount was invested in Bolsa Família, a cash transfer program. Ten programs received 90% of the funds, of which five were linked to food production processes. The amount of resources invested in the PNSAN and in actions and programs that promote food and nutrition security is increasing in Brazil.

  5. Energy efficiency as a resource in state portfolio standards: Lessons for more expansive policies

    Thoyre, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, state electricity portfolio standards in the U.S. are analyzed to examine how energy efficiency is being created as a particular kind of resource through this type of climate change governance. Such policies can incentivize energy efficiency by requiring or encouraging electricity providers to meet a certain percentage of their demand through energy efficiency measures. North Carolina’s portfolio standard is used as an in-depth case study to identify factors that are then compared across all 36 states that include energy efficiency as part of a portfolio requirement or goal. The main finding of this study is that state portfolio standards tend to emphasize demand-side energy efficiency, or energy efficiency on the customer’s side of the electricity meter, and only rarely incentivize a full range of both demand-side and supply-side efficiency changes. As a result, the amount of energy efficiency and climate change mitigation benefits that are likely to result from this type of portfolio standard policy tool are limited. From this analysis, lessons are drawn out for crafting stronger portfolio standards that incentivize a wider range of efficiency changes across electricity networks. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency in 36 U.S. state portfolio standard policies was analyzed. • Such standards were found to incentivize mainly demand-side energy efficiency. • Supply-side energy efficiency was rarely incentivized by portfolio standards. • Such framings likely limit the carbon mitigation potential of these policies. • Recommendations are made for more expansive portfolio standard policies.

  6. Multimode Preemptive Resource Investment Problem Subject to Due Dates for Activities: Formulation and Solution Procedure

    Behrouz Afshar-Nadjafi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The preemptive Multimode resource investment problem is investigated. The Objective is to minimize the total renewable/nonrenewable resource costs and earliness-tardiness costs by a given project deadline and due dates for activities. In this problem setting preemption is allowed with no setup cost or time. The project contains activities interrelated by finish-start type precedence relations with a time lag of zero, which require a set of renewable and nonrenewable resources. The problem formed in this way is an NP-hard. A mixed integer programming formulation is proposed for the problem and parameters tuned genetic algorithm (GA is proposed to solve it. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, 120 test problems are used. Comparative statistical results reveal that the proposed GA is efficient and effective in terms of the objective function and computational times.

  7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL SUBJECTIVE POSITION OF MANAGEMENT HUMAN RESOURCES FOR HEALTH

    Ol'ga L. Zadvornaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of development of professional-subjective position of managerial staff of health care in the system of continuous professional education in the conditions of optimization of activities of the health system. Professional and subject position reflects the position of individual managers in a professional environment, its relationship to the quality of professional activity, to himself, to patients and colleagues to level their skills.Purpose/objectives: analysis of core competencies, forming the professional and subject position of heads of medical organizations; identify possible ways of development of professional-subjective position of managerial staff of the public health based on the use of modern technologies and active methods of training in system of continuous professional education. Methodology. In conducting the present study used data from official sources, literature review, scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, comparative analysis and modeling. The results of the study indicate the necessity of actualization of the subject position of heads of medical organizations. Conclusions /Significance. The necessity of formation and development of professional subjective position of the heads due to the needs of society and the health care system with modern requirements for quality management training of health. Professional and subject position is a characteristic feature of a highly qualified specialist in the area of governance, reflecting its active attitude toward self and professional activity, factor of efficiency of activity of medical organizations. The real practice of activity of medical organizations requires improved approaches in the preparation of healthcare managers. Most of the leaders are having difficulties, associated not only with necessity of development of universal and professional competences, but also the necessity of development of professional-subjective position

  8. On preventive maintenance policy of a critical reliability level for system subject to degradation

    Zhao, Y.X.

    2003-01-01

    Conventional preventive maintenance (PM) policies generally hold same time interval for PM actions and are often applied with known failure modes. The same time interval will give unavoidably decreasing reliabilities at the PM actions for degradation system with imperfect PM effect and the known failure modes may be inaccurate in practice. Therefore, field managers would prefer policy with an acceptable reliability level to keep system often at a good state. A PM policy with the critical reliability level is presented to address the preference of field managers. Through assuming that system after a PM action starts a new failure process, a parameter so-called degradation ratio is introduced to represent the imperfect effect. The policy holds a law that there is same number of failures in the time intervals of various PM cycles, and same degradation ratio for the system reliability or benefit parameters such as the optimal time intervals and the hazard rates between the neighboring PM cycles. This law is valid to any of the failure modes that could be appropriately referred as a 'general isodegrading model', and the degradation ratio as a 'general isodegrading ratio'. In addition, life cycle availability and cost functions are derived for system with the policy. An analysis of the field data of a loading and unloading machine indicates that the reliability, availability and cost in life cycle might be well modeled by the present theory and approach

  9. Energy policy, aid, and the development of renewable energy resources in Small Island Developing States

    Dornan, Matthew; Shah, Kalim U.

    2016-01-01

    Small Island Developing States (SIDS) have established ambitious renewable energy targets. The promotion of renewable energy has been motivated by several factors: a desire to lessen dependence on fossil fuels, to attract development assistance in the energy sector, and to strengthen the position of SIDS in climate change negotiations. Here we explore the interplay between the role of aid and energy policy in the development of renewable energy resources in SIDS. We find that the importance of development assistance has implications for the sustainability of renewable energy development, given that funding is not always accompanied by necessary energy policy reforms. We also identify energy efficiency and access to modern energy services as having received insufficient attention in the establishment and structure of renewable energy targets in SIDS, and argue that this is problematic due to the strong economic case for such investments. - Highlights: • SIDS have established the world's most ambitious renewable energy targets. • These are motivated by fossil fuel dependence and climate change vulnerability. • Aid dependence has influenced the ambition of renewable energy targets. • Energy efficiency and energy access have received insufficient attention. • Domestic policy reforms necessary for the achievement of targets has been limited.

  10. Policy Gradient SMDP for Resource Allocation and Routing in Integrated Services Networks

    Vien, Ngo Anh; Viet, Nguyen Hoang; Lee, Seunggwan; Chung, Taechoong

    In this paper, we solve the call admission control (CAC) and routing problem in an integrated network that handles several classes of calls of different values and with different resource requirements. The problem of maximizing the average reward (or cost) of admitted calls per unit time is naturally formulated as a semi-Markov Decision Process (SMDP) problem, but is too complex to allow for an exact solution. Thus in this paper, a policy gradient algorithm, together with a decomposition approach, is proposed to find the dynamic (state-dependent) optimal CAC and routing policy among a parameterized policy space. To implement that gradient algorithm, we approximate the gradient of the average reward. Then, we present a simulation-based algorithm to estimate the approximate gradient of the average reward (called GSMDP algorithm), using only a single sample path of the underlying Markov chain for the SMDP of CAC and routing problem. The algorithm enhances performance in terms of convergence speed, rejection probability, robustness to the changing arrival statistics and an overall received average revenue. The experimental simulations will compare our method's performance with other existing methods and show the robustness of our method.

  11. Subjects and social order in the educational policy in the XX century’s early decades

    Alexis Vladimir Pinilla Díaz

    2015-01-01

    The interest of this paper is to show some defining features of training strategies and control of subjectivity launched national governments, in schools, in the early decades of the twentieth century. The reflection will show how the political-pedagogical strategies tried to define social order favorable to the interests of national elites and a model of subjectivity according to this social order.

  12. State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources: Distributed Resource Distribution Credit Pilot Programs--Revealing the Value to Consumers and Vendors

    Moskovitz, D.; Harrington, C.; Shirley, W.; Cowart, R.; Sedano, R.; Weston, F.

    2002-10-01

    Designing and implementing credit-based pilot programs for distributed resources distribution is a low-cost, low-risk opportunity to find out how these resources can help defer or avoid costly electric power system (utility grid) distribution upgrades. This report describes implementation options for deaveraged distribution credits and distributed resource development zones. Developing workable programs implementing these policies can dramatically increase the deployment of distributed resources in ways that benefit distributed resource vendors, users, and distribution utilities. This report is one in the State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources series developed under contract to NREL (see Annual Technical Status Report of the Regulatory Assistance Project: September 2000-September 2001, NREL/SR-560-32733). Other titles in this series are: (1) Accommodating Distributed Resources in Wholesale Markets, NREL/SR-560-32497; (2) Distributed Resources and Electric System Re liability, NREL/SR-560-32498; (3) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation, NREL/SR-560-32500; (4) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation Appendices, NREL/SR-560-32501.

  13. Coherence between health policy and human resource strategy: lessons from maternal health in Vietnam, India and China.

    Martineau, Tim; Mirzoev, Tolib; Pearson, Stephen; Ha, Bui Thi Thu; Xu, Qian; Ramani, K V; Liu, Xiaoyun

    2015-02-01

    The failure to meet health goals such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) is partly due to the lack of appropriate resources for the effective implementation of health policies. The lack of coherence between the health policies and human resource (HR) strategy is one of the major causes. This article explores the relationship and the degree of coherence between health policy--in this case maternal health policy--processes and HR strategy in Vietnam, China and India in the period 2005-09. Four maternal health policy case studies were explored [skilled birth attendance (SBA), adolescent and sexual reproductive health, domestic violence and medical termination of pregnancy] across three countries through interviews with key respondents, document analysis and stakeholder meetings. Analysis for coherence between health policy and HR strategy was informed by a typology covering 'separation', 'fit' and 'dialogue'. Regarding coherence we found examples of complete separation between health policy and HR strategy, a good fit with the SBA policy though modified through 'dialogue' in Vietnam, and in one case a good fit between policy and strategy was developed through successive evaluations. Three key influences on coherence between health policy and HR strategy emerge from our findings: (1) health as the lead sector, (2) the nature of the policy instrument and (3) the presence of 'HR champions'. Finally, we present a simple algorithm to ensure that appropriate HR related actors are involved; HR is considered at the policy development stage with the option of modifying the policy if it cannot be adequately supported by the available health workforce; and ensuring that HR strategies are monitored to ensure continued coherence with the health policy. This approach will ensure that the health workforce contributes more effectively to meeting the MDGs and future health goals. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical

  14. Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Subject to Due Dates: Preemption Permitted with Penalty

    Behrouz Afshar-Nadjafi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research works have been carried out in resource constrained project scheduling problem. However, scarce researches have studied the problems in which a setup cost must be incurred if activities are preempted. In this research, we investigate the resource constrained project scheduling problem to minimize the total project cost, considering earliness-tardiness and preemption penalties. A mixed integer programming formulation is proposed for the problem. The resulting problem is NP-hard. So, we try to obtain a satisfying solution using simulated annealing (SA algorithm. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is tested based on 150 randomly produced examples. Statistical comparison in terms of the computational times and objective function indicates that the proposed algorithm is efficient and effective.

  15. Constituting Neoliberal Subjects? "Aspiration" as Technology of Government in UK Policy Discourse

    Spohrer, Konstanze; Stahl, Garth; Bowers-Brown, Tamsin

    2018-01-01

    Since the 2000s, successive governments in the United Kingdom and elsewhere have embraced the idea of "raising aspiration" among young people as a solution to persisting educational and socio-economic inequalities. Previous analyses have argued that these policies tend to individualise structural disadvantage and promote a…

  16. Do Climate Change Policies Promote or Conflict with Subjective Wellbeing: A Case Study of Suzhou, China

    Miaomiao Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As public expectations for health rise, health measurements broaden from a focus on death, disease, and disability to wellbeing. However, wellbeing hasn’t been incorporated into the framework of climate change policy decision-making in Chinese cities. Based on survey data (n = 763 from Suzhou, this study used Generalized Estimation Equation approach to model external conditions associated with wellbeing. Then, semi-quantitative analyses were conducted to provide a first indication to whether local climate change policies promote or conflict with wellbeing through altering these conditions. Our findings suggested: (i Socio-demographic (age, job satisfaction, health, psychosocial (satisfaction with social life, ontological security/resilience and environmental conditions (distance to busy road, noise annoyance and range hoods in the kitchen were significantly associated with wellbeing; (ii None of existing climate change strategies in Suzhou conflict with wellbeing. Three mitigation policies (promotion of tertiary and high–tech industry, increased renewable energy in buildings, and restrictions on car use and one adaption policy (increasing resilience brought positive co–benefits for wellbeing, through the availability of high-satisfied jobs, reduced dependence on range hoods, noise reduction, and valuing citizens, respectively. This study also provided implications for other similar Chinese cities that potential consequences of climate change interventions for wellbeing should be considered.

  17. Do Climate Change Policies Promote or Conflict with Subjective Wellbeing: A Case Study of Suzhou, China.

    Liu, Miaomiao; Huang, Yining; Hiscock, Rosemary; Li, Qin; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L; Sabel, Clive E

    2016-03-21

    As public expectations for health rise, health measurements broaden from a focus on death, disease, and disability to wellbeing. However, wellbeing hasn't been incorporated into the framework of climate change policy decision-making in Chinese cities. Based on survey data (n = 763) from Suzhou, this study used Generalized Estimation Equation approach to model external conditions associated with wellbeing. Then, semi-quantitative analyses were conducted to provide a first indication to whether local climate change policies promote or conflict with wellbeing through altering these conditions. Our findings suggested: (i) Socio-demographic (age, job satisfaction, health), psychosocial (satisfaction with social life, ontological security/resilience) and environmental conditions (distance to busy road, noise annoyance and range hoods in the kitchen) were significantly associated with wellbeing; (ii) None of existing climate change strategies in Suzhou conflict with wellbeing. Three mitigation policies (promotion of tertiary and high-tech industry, increased renewable energy in buildings, and restrictions on car use) and one adaption policy (increasing resilience) brought positive co-benefits for wellbeing, through the availability of high-satisfied jobs, reduced dependence on range hoods, noise reduction, and valuing citizens, respectively. This study also provided implications for other similar Chinese cities that potential consequences of climate change interventions for wellbeing should be considered.

  18. How stakeholder roles, power, and negotiation impact natural resource policy: A political economy view

    Caughlan, L.

    2002-01-01

    Natural resource management decisions are complicated by multiple property rights, management objectives, and stakeholders with varying degrees of influence over the decision making process. In order to make efficient decisions, managers must incorporate the opinions and values of the involved stakeholders as well as understand the complex institutional constraints and opportunities that influence the decision-making process. Often this type of information is not understood until after a decision has been made, which can result in wasted time and effort.The purpose of my dissertation was to show how institutional frameworks and stakeholder involvement influence the various phases of the resource management decision-making process in a public choice framework. The intent was to assist decision makers and stakeholders by developing a methodology for formally incorporating stakeholders'' objectives and influence into the resource management planning process and to predict the potential success of rent-seeking activity based on stakeholder preferences and level of influence. Concepts from decision analysis, institutional analysis, and public choice economics were used in designing this interdisciplinary framework. The framework was then applied to an actual case study concerning elk and bison management on the National Elk Refuge and Grand Teton National Park near Jackson, Wyoming. The framework allowed for the prediction of the level of support and conflict for all relevant policy decisions, and the identification of each stakeholder''s level of support or opposition for each management decision.

  19. Data and information requirements for resources managers and policy planners in Colombia

    Marino, L.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Land use and natural resources management in a country like Colombia are interrelated and affect the possibilities of sustainable resources development, as well as contributing to global changes; because of this, decision makers' needs for information are related to the planning of land uses. This information can help them to formulate development policies that will contribute to global changes in particular ways. The lack, of land use planning in Colombia is directly related to intensive deforestation anti processes of soil and forest degradation, principally in areas like the Pacific Coast and the Amazon Basin. However, the process of soil and water resources degradation is even greater in the Andean region, where the greater part of the population lives and where most of the country's food is grown. The problems of forest management and conservation can be summed up as follows: underdevelopment of industrial forestry; disequilibrium between real and potential land use; loss of wetlands; degradation and pollution of the ecosystem; natural hazards (flooding, etc.); low management capacity in the public sector

  20. Subjects and social order in the educational policy in the XX century’s early decades

    Alexis Vladimir Pinilla Díaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest of this paper is to show some defining features of training strategies and control of subjectivity launched national governments, in schools, in the early decades of the twentieth century. The reflection will show how the political-pedagogical strategies tried to define social order favorable to the interests of national elites and a model of subjectivity according to this social order.

  1. Competitive debate classroom as a cooperative learning technique for the human resources subject

    Guillermo A. SANCHEZ PRIETO

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows an academic debate model as a cooperative learning technique for teaching human resources at University. The general objective of this paper is to conclude if academic debate can be included in the category of cooperative learning. The Specific objective it is presenting a model to implement this technique. Thus the first part of the paper shows the concept of cooperative learning and its main characteristics. The second part presents the debate model believed to be labelled as cooperative learning. Last part concludes with the characteristics of the model that match different aspects or not of the cooperative learning.

  2. Optimal maintenance policy for a system subject to damage in a discrete time process

    Chien, Yu-Hung; Sheu, Shey-Huei; Zhang, Zhe George

    2012-01-01

    Consider a system operating over n discrete time periods (n=1, 2, …). Each operation period causes a random amount of damage to the system which accumulates over time periods. The system fails when the cumulative damage exceeds a failure level ζ and a corrective maintenance (CM) action is immediately taken. To prevent such a failure, a preventive maintenance (PM) may be performed. In an operation period without a CM or PM, a regular maintenance (RM) is conducted at the end of that period to maintain the operation of the system. We propose a maintenance policy which prescribes a PM when the accumulated damage exceeds a pre-specified level δ ( ⁎ and N ⁎ and discuss some useful properties about them. It has been shown that a δ-based PM outperforms a N-based PM in terms of cost minimization. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the optimization of this class of maintenance policies.

  3. Joint cost of energy under an optimal economic policy of hybrid power systems subject to uncertainty

    Díaz, Guzmán; Planas, Estefanía; Andreu, Jon; Kortabarria, Iñigo

    2015-01-01

    Economical optimization of hybrid systems is usually performed by means of LCoE (levelized cost of energy) calculation. Previous works deal with the LCoE calculation of the whole hybrid system disregarding an important issue: the stochastic component of the system units must be jointly considered. This paper deals with this issue and proposes a new fast optimal policy that properly calculates the LCoE of a hybrid system and finds the lowest LCoE. This proposed policy also considers the implied competition among power sources when variability of gas and electricity prices are taken into account. Additionally, it presents a comparative between the LCoE of the hybrid system and its individual technologies of generation by means of a fast and robust algorithm based on vector logical computation. Numerical case analyses based on realistic data are presented that valuate the contribution of technologies in a hybrid power system to the joint LCoE. - Highlights: • We perform the LCoE calculation with the stochastic component jointly considered. • We propose a fast an optimal policy that minimizes the LCoE. • We compare the obtained LCoEs by means of a fast and robust algorithm. • We take into account the competition among gas prices and electricity prices

  4. State planning policy 2/07: protection of extractive resources results in certainty of materials supply

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    Extractive resources are primary source materials used for building infrastructure such as roads, ports, airports, bridges, railways, factories, hospitals, schools and homes. The Policy seeks to protect those essential and finite construction materials for future and existing extraction purposes. Population increases in south-east Queensland the upgrading of rail and port facilities to export coal and other minerals will form a major part in the expansion of extractive industry. Over $4 billion has been committed by the Government and industry to coal infrastructure developments such as upgrades at RG Tanna, Barney Point and the proposed Wiggins Island coal terminals at Gladstone, the Dalryample Bay and Hay Point terminals near Mackay and the Abbot Point coal terminal near Bower. The new Bauhinia regional railway will service the Rolleston coal mines.

  5. Local and Regional Authorities as Resources for Implementing Universal Design Policy in Norway.

    Lund, Einar

    2016-01-01

    The municipalities and regional authorities are in general resources for achieving national goals. Their management and works are crucial to the development and implementation of Universal Design. Through several programmes, national authorities have worked for activating the local and regional levels. The results are visible. We can see a long-term national strategy to help make society accessible to everyone and prevent discrimination. Participating municipalities and regional authorities are now able to create their own policy and strategies and implement solutions. The national programs have involved interested and motivated municipalities. All the 18 counties in Norway have been involved more or less in different periods and the same with up to a third of the about good 400 municipalities.

  6. Exile and insile: split subject policies and representations in chilean poetry of the seventies

    Naín Nómez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is an inventory and analysis of Chilean Poetry in the seventies, written in Chileand abroad, emphasizing the "exilio" and "insilio" concept. Apart from focusing on the "exilio-insilio" problem, its development and subsequent integration, this work analyzes the relationships between poets and their enviroment by means of subjective representations in different situations and places (especially urban. The cities of Chile, as well as foreign cities in the countries of exile, acquire repressive connotations, which influence the problems of the divided subject in this poetry.

  7. Forest economics and policy in a changing environment: how market, policy, and climate transformations affect forests -- Proceedings of the 2016 Meeting of the International Society of Forest Resource Economics

    Gregory E. Frey; Prakash Nepal

    2016-01-01

    Economics can affect decisions about forest resource management and utilization, and in turn, the ecosystem benefits received. In a time of market, policy, and climate transformations, economic analyses are critical to help policy-makers and resource managers make appropriate decisions. At the 2016 Meeting of the International Society of Forest Resource Economics (...

  8. Policy Design for Competitive Retail Electric Institutions: Artificial Intelligence Representations for a Common Property Resource Approach

    Pandit, Nitin S.

    The U.S. electricity industry is being restructured to increase competition. Although existing policies may lead to efficient wholesale institutions, designing policies for the retail level is more complex because of intricate interactions between individuals and quasi-monopolistic institutions. It is argued that Hirshman's ideas of "exit" and "voice" (Hirshman, 1970) provide powerful abstractions for design of retail institutions. While competition is a known mechanism of "exit," a novel design of the "voice" mechanism is demonstrated through an artificial intelligence (AI) based software process model. The process model of "voice" in retail institutions is designed within the economic context of electricity distribution -- a common property resource (CPR), characterized by technological uncertainty and path-dependency. First, it is argued that participant feedback (voice) has to be used effectively to manage the CPR. Further, it is noted that the decision process, of using participant feedback (voice) to incrementally manage uncertainty and path-dependencies, is non-monotonic because it requires the decision makers to often retract previously made assumptions and decisions. An AI based process model of "voice" is developed using an assumption-based truth maintenance system. The model can emulate the non-monotonic decision making process and therefore assist in decision support. Such a systematic framework is flexible, consistent, and easily reorganized as assumptions change. It can provide an effective, formal "voice" mechanism to the retail customers and improve institutional performance.

  9. The International Database of Efficient Appliances (IDEA): A New Resource for Global Efficiency Policy

    Gerke, Brian F; McNeil, Michael A; Tu, Thomas; Xu, Feiyang

    2017-09-06

    A major barrier to effective appliance efficiency program design and evaluation is a lack of data for determination of market baselines and cost-effective energy savings potential. The data gap is particularly acute in developing countries, which may have the greatest savings potential per unit GDP. To address this need, we are developing the International Database of Efficient Appliances (IDEA), which automatically compiles data from a wide variety of online sources to create a unified repository of information on efficiency, price, and features for a wide range of energy-consuming products across global markets. This paper summarizes the database framework and demonstrates the power of IDEA as a resource for appliance efficiency research and policy development. Using IDEA data for refrigerators in China and India, we develop robust cost-effectiveness indicators that allow rapid determination of savings potential within each market, as well as comparison of that potential across markets and appliance types. We discuss implications for future energy efficiency policy development.

  10. Integrated resource planning for local gas distribution companies: A critical review of regulatory policy issues

    Harunuzzaman, M.; Islam, M.

    1994-08-01

    According to the report, public utility commissions (PUCs) are increasingly adopting, or considering the adoption of integrated resource planning (IRP) for local gas distribution companies (LDCs). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) requires PUCs to consider IRP for gas LDCs. This study has two major objectives: (1) to help PUCs develop appropriate regulatory approaches with regard to IRP for gas LDCs; and (2) to help PUCs respond to the EPAct directive. The study finds that it is appropriate for PUCs to pursue energy efficiency within the traditional regulatory framework of minimizing private costs of energy production and delivery; and PUCs should play a limited role in addressing environmental externalities. The study also finds that in promoting energy efficiency, PUCs should pursue policies that are incentive-based, procompetitive, and sensitive to rate impacts. The study evaluates a number of traditional and nontraditional ratemaking mechanisms on the basis of cost minimization, energy efficiency, competitiveness, and other criteria. The mechanisms evaluated include direct recovery of DSM expenses, lost revenue adjustments for DSM options, revenue decoupling mechanisms, sharing of DSM cost savings, performance-based rate of return for DSM, provision of DSM as a separate service, deregulation of DSM service, price caps, and deregulation of the noncore gas market. The study concludes with general recommendations for regulatory approaches and ratemaking mechanisms that PUCs may wish to consider in advancing IRP objectives

  11. Discharge Fee Policy Analysis: A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE Model of Water Resources and Water Environments

    Guohua Fang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate increasingly serious water pollution and shortages in developing countries, various kinds of policies have been implemented by local governments. It is vital to quantify and evaluate the performance and potential economic impacts of these policies. This study develops a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model to simulate the regional economic and environmental effects of discharge fees. Firstly, water resources and water environment factors are separated from the input and output sources of the National Economic Production Department. Secondly, an extended Social Accounting Matrix (SAM of Jiangsu province is developed to simulate various scenarios. By changing values of the discharge fees (increased by 50%, 100% and 150%, three scenarios are simulated to examine their influence on the overall economy and each industry. The simulation results show that an increased fee will have a negative impact on Gross Domestic Product (GDP. However, waste water may be effectively controlled. Also, this study demonstrates that along with the economic costs, the increase of the discharge fee will lead to the upgrading of industrial structures from a situation of heavy pollution to one of light pollution which is beneficial to the sustainable development of the economy and the protection of the environment.

  12. Wind deployment in the United States: states, resources, policy, and discourse.

    Wilson, Elizabeth J; Stephens, Jennie C

    2009-12-15

    A transformation in the way the United States produces and uses energy is needed to achieve greenhouse gas reduction targets for climate change mitigation. Wind power is an important low-carbon technology and the most rapidly growing renewable energy technology in the U.S. Despite recent advances in wind deployment, significant state-by-state variation in wind power distribution cannot be explained solely by wind resource patterns nor by state policy. Other factors embedded within the state-level socio-political context also contribute to wind deployment patterns. We explore this socio-political context in four U.S. states by integrating multiple research methods. Through comparative state-level analysis of the energy system, energy policy, and public discourse as represented in the media, we examine variation in the context for wind deployment in Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, and Texas. Our results demonstrate that these states have different patterns of wind deployment, are engaged in different debates about wind power, and appear to frame the risks and benefits of wind power in different ways. This comparative assessment highlights the complex variation of the state-level socio-political context and contributes depth to our understanding of energy technology deployment processes, decision-making, and outcomes.

  13. [Empowerment of children and adolescents--the role of personal and social resources and personal autonomy for subjective health].

    Erhart, M; Wille, N; Ravens-Sieberer, U

    2008-12-01

    Scientific research on empowerment so far is nearly exclusively focused on the adult population. Nevertheless, it is possible to show a link between empowerment and a) the developmental psychology concepts of resilience, b) autogenetic concepts and c) concepts of risks and resources. This paper aims to study the role of personal, familial and other social resources as well as personal autonomy for subjective health-ratings. A secondary analysis of the health data of 7,000 children and adolescents aged 10-17 years of the German health behaviour in school-aged children (HBSC) study as well as 1,700 children aged 11-17 years of the mental health module (BELLA Study) within the German health interview and examination survey for children and adolescents (KiGGS) was performed. Statistical analyses encompassed analyses of variance and linear regression. Analyses of the HBSC study showed a protective effect for school-class climate as well as parental support, whereby school was associated with fewer self-reported health complaints. Analyses of the BELLA/KiGGS study showed personal, familial and other social resources as well as personal autonomy as unique predictors for a better health-related quality of life (KINDL-R). This was true even if psychological problems were observed. The results confirm the importance of strengthening personal, familial and other social resources as well as the principal importance of personal autonomy for coping with health risks and health impairments. Future research explicitly focussed on empowerment could relate to the role of personal resources within children's and adolescents' contact with the medical and health care system. It can be expected that strengthening personal resources benefits and improves the communication and active participation of children and adolescents within treatment-decision and -evaluation.

  14. Optimal Ordering Policy of a Risk-Averse Retailer Subject to Inventory Inaccuracy

    Lijing Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inventory inaccuracy refers to the discrepancy between the actual inventory and the recorded inventory information. Inventory inaccuracy is prevalent in retail stores. It may result in a higher inventory level or poor customer service. Earlier studies of inventory inaccuracy have traditionally assumed risk-neutral retailers whose objective is to maximize expected profits. We investigate a risk-averse retailer within a newsvendor framework. The risk aversion attitude is measured by conditional-value-at-risk (CVaR. We consider inventory inaccuracy stemming both from permanent shrinkage and temporary shrinkage. Two scenarios of reducing inventory shrinkage are presented. In the first scenario, the retailer conducts physical inventory audits to identify the discrepancy. In the second scenario, the retailer deploys an automatic tracking technology, radiofrequency identification (RFID, to reduce inventory shrinkage. With the CVaR criterion, we propose optimal policies for the two scenarios. We show monotonicity between the retailer’s ordering policy and his risk aversion degree. A numerical analysis provides managerial insights for risk-averse retailers considering investing in RFID technology.

  15. The effect of natural resources on a sustainable development policy: The approach of non-sustainable externalities

    Schilling, Markus; Chiang Lichun

    2011-01-01

    The debate about the importance of non-renewable resources for economic development between optimists and pessimists shows that the extensive depletion of non-renewable resources, particularly oil, along with a higher level of consumption could have a significant impact on the economic development of future generations. Based on this debate, this paper proposes criteria under which the depletion of non-renewable resources would create excess costs for future generations. Therefore, this paper aims to answer the question 'What will be the impact of the depletion of non-renewable resources on sustainable economic development?' Accordingly, a sustainable development policy appears feasible by minimizing non-sustainable externalities which derive from future externalities that weigh the benefits from a previous employment of natural resources. The research based on qualitative analysis clarifies the reasons for and the extents of taking sustainability into account as well as points to difficulties of implementing policies to time the transition towards a sustainable economic development. Finally, the research shows the implications of this approach for environmental degradation, the depletion of non-renewable resources and energy production. - Research Highlights: →Economic development will more or less smoothly switch to the use of renewable substitutes. →The transition towards a sustainable use of resources may inherit costs for future generations. →Non-sustainable externalities show the future costs of excessive resource depletion. →The approach aims to take the long-term global effects of resource substitution into account.

  16. Human resources for health and decentralization policy in the Brazilian health system

    Pierantoni Celia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian health reform process, following the establishment of the Unified Health System (SUS, has had a strong emphasis on decentralization, with a special focus on financing, management and inter-managerial agreements. Brazil is a federal country and the Ministry of Health (MoH, through the Secretary of Labour Management and Health Education, is responsible for establishing national policy guidelines for health labour management, and also for implementing strategies for the decentralization of management of labour and education in the federal states. This paper assesses whether the process of decentralizing human resources for health (HRH management and organization to the level of the state and municipal health departments has involved investments in technical, political and financial resources at the national level. Methods The research methods used comprise a survey of HRH managers of states and major municipalities (including capitals and focus groups with these HRH managers - all by geographic region. The results were obtained by combining survey and focus group data, and also through triangulation with the results of previous research. Results The results of this evaluation showed the evolution policy, previously restricted to the field of 'personnel administration', now expanded to a conceptual model for health labour management and education-- identifying progress, setbacks, critical issues and challenges for the consolidation of the decentralized model for HRH management. The results showed that 76.3% of the health departments have an HRH unit. It was observed that 63.2% have an HRH information system. However, in most health departments, the HRH unit uses only the payroll and administrative records as data sources. Concerning education in health, 67.6% of the HRH managers mentioned existing cooperation with educational and teaching institutions for training and/or specialization of health workers. Among them

  17. REGULATORY POLICY AND OPTIMIZATION OF INVESTMENT RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN THE MODEL OF FUNCTIONING OF RECREATION INDUSTRY

    Hanna Shevchenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is the rationale of the theoretical and methodical approach concerning the improvement of regulatory policy as well as the process of distribution of financial investments using the model of the functioning of a recreational sector of the national economy. The methodology of the study includes the use of optimal control theory for the model formation of the functioning of the recreational industry as well as determining the behaviour of regulatory authorities and capabilities to optimize the allocation of investment resources in the recreational sector of the national economy. Results. The issue of equilibration of regulatory policy in the recreational sector of the national economy is actualized, including the question of targeted distribution of state and external financial investments. Also, it is proved that regulatory policy should establish the frameworks that on the one hand, do not allow public authorities to exercise extra influence on the economy of recreation, on the other hand, to keep the behaviour of the recreational business entities within the limits of normal socio-economic activity – on the basis of analysis of the continuum “recreation – work” by means of modified Brennan-Buchanan model. It is revealed that even with the condition of the tax reduction, the situation when the population resting less and works more than in the background of a developed economy is observed. However, according to the optimistic forecast, eventually on condition when the economy is emerging from the shade, we will obtain an official mode of the work in which, while maintaining taxes on proposed more advantageous for the population level, ultimately the ratio leisure and work will be established which is corresponding to the principles of sustainable development. Practical value. On the basis of methodical principles of the theory of optimal control, the model of the functioning of the recreational industry under the

  18. Human resources for health and decentralization policy in the Brazilian health system.

    Pierantoni, Celia Regina; Garcia, Ana Claudia P

    2011-05-17

    The Brazilian health reform process, following the establishment of the Unified Health System (SUS), has had a strong emphasis on decentralization, with a special focus on financing, management and inter-managerial agreements. Brazil is a federal country and the Ministry of Health (MoH), through the Secretary of Labour Management and Health Education, is responsible for establishing national policy guidelines for health labour management, and also for implementing strategies for the decentralization of management of labour and education in the federal states. This paper assesses whether the process of decentralizing human resources for health (HRH) management and organization to the level of the state and municipal health departments has involved investments in technical, political and financial resources at the national level. The research methods used comprise a survey of HRH managers of states and major municipalities (including capitals) and focus groups with these HRH managers - all by geographic region. The results were obtained by combining survey and focus group data, and also through triangulation with the results of previous research. The results of this evaluation showed the evolution policy, previously restricted to the field of 'personnel administration', now expanded to a conceptual model for health labour management and education-- identifying progress, setbacks, critical issues and challenges for the consolidation of the decentralized model for HRH management. The results showed that 76.3% of the health departments have an HRH unit. It was observed that 63.2% have an HRH information system. However, in most health departments, the HRH unit uses only the payroll and administrative records as data sources. Concerning education in health, 67.6% of the HRH managers mentioned existing cooperation with educational and teaching institutions for training and/or specialization of health workers. Among them, specialization courses account for 61.4% and short

  19. Correlates of Persistent Smoking in Bars Subject to Smokefree Workplace Policy

    Bong Chul Chu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study’s goal was to characterize physical and social environments of stand-alone bars associated with indoor smoking despite California’s smokefree workplace law. In a random sample of 121 stand-alone bars in San Francisco, trained observers collected data on patrons, staff, neighborhood, indoor settings and smoking behaviors. Using bivariate (chi-square and hierarchical linear modeling analyses, we identified four correlates of patrons’ indoor smoking: 1 bars serving predominantly Asian or Irish patrons, 2 ashtrays, 3 bartender smoking, and 4 female bartenders. Public health officials charged with enforcement of smokefree bar policies may need to attend to social practices within bars, and heighten perceptions of consistent enforcement of smokefree workplace laws.

  20. Development of a spatial planning support system for agricultural policy formulation related to land and water resources in Borkhar & Meymeh district, Iran

    Farhadi Bansouleh, B.F.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a system was developed to support agricultural planners and
    policy makers in land resource analysis, policy formulation, identification of
    possible policy measures and policy impact analysis. The research is part of a
    larger programme, aiming at development of a

  1. Designing evaluation studies to optimally inform policy: what factors do policy-makers in China consider when making resource allocation decisions on healthcare worker training programmes?

    Wu, Shishi; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Spencer, Julia; Coker, Richard James; Khan, Mishal Sameer

    2018-02-23

    In light of the gap in evidence to inform future resource allocation decisions about healthcare provider (HCP) training in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and the considerable donor investments being made towards training interventions, evaluation studies that are optimally designed to inform local policy-makers are needed. The aim of our study is to understand what features of HCP training evaluation studies are important for decision-making by policy-makers in LMICs. We investigate the extent to which evaluations based on the widely used Kirkpatrick model - focusing on direct outcomes of training, namely reaction of trainees, learning, behaviour change and improvements in programmatic health indicators - align with policy-makers' evidence needs for resource allocation decisions. We use China as a case study where resource allocation decisions about potential scale-up (using domestic funding) are being made about an externally funded pilot HCP training programme. Qualitative data were collected from high-level officials involved in resource allocation at the national and provincial level in China through ten face-to-face, in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions consisting of ten participants each. Data were analysed manually using an interpretive thematic analysis approach. Our study indicates that Chinese officials not only consider information about the direct outcomes of a training programme, as captured in the Kirkpatrick model, but also need information on the resources required to implement the training, the wider or indirect impacts of training, and the sustainability and scalability to other settings within the country. In addition to considering findings presented in evaluation studies, we found that Chinese policy-makers pay close attention to whether the evaluations were robust and to the composition of the evaluation team. Our qualitative study indicates that training programme evaluations that focus narrowly on direct training

  2. The Heritage of Earth Science Applications in Policy, Business, and Management of Natural Resources

    Macauley, M.

    2012-12-01

    From the first hand-held cameras on the Gemini space missions to present day satellite instruments, Earth observations have enhanced the management of natural resources including water, land, and air. Applications include the development of new methodology (for example, developing and testing algorithms or demonstrating how data can be used) and the direct use of data in decisionmaking and policy implementation. Using well-defined bibliographic search indices to systematically survey a broad social science literature, this project enables identification of a host of well-documented, practical and direct applications of Earth science data in resource management. This literature has not previously been well surveyed, aggregated, or analyzed for the heritage of lessons learned in practical application of Earth science data. In the absence of such a survey, the usefulness of Earth science data is underestimated and the factors that make people want to use -- and able to use -- the data are poorly understood. The project extends and updates previous analysis of social science applications of Landsat data to show their contemporary, direct use in new policy, business, and management activities and decisionmaking. The previous surveys (for example, Blumberg and Jacobson 1997; National Research Council 1998) find that the earliest attempts to use data are almost exclusively testing of methodology rather than direct use in resource management. Examples of methodology prototyping include Green et al. (1997) who demonstrate use of remote sensing to detect and monitor changes in land cover and use, Cowen et al. (1995) who demonstrate design and integration of GIS for environmental applications, Hutchinson (1991) who shows uses of data for famine early warning, and Brondizio et al. (1996) who show the link of thematic mapper data with botanical data. Blumberg and Jacobson (in Acevedo et al. 1996) show use of data in a study of urban development in the San Francisco Bay and the

  3. Strategies to enhance the impact of research on human resources for health on policy making

    Taghreed Adam

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite global recognition of the importance of human resources for health (HRH in achieving health system goals, very little is known about what works, for whom and under what circumstances, especially for low-income and middleincome countries. Several important events and reports have called for increased funding and capacity for HRH research in recent years and several initiatives have started as a result. Progress has been slow, however. The following strategies can be most valuable in ensuring the relevance of the generated evidence for decision making and its contribution to stronger health systems. The first is to promote national processes to set priorities for HRH research with active participation from decision makers. The second is to make conscious efforts to scale up primary research to address priority questions and to develop sustainable mechanisms to evaluate the impact of current or new HRH strategies to feed into the policy making process. The third is to invest in the development of systematic reviews to synthesize available evidence and in the adaptation of the underlying methods to make them more responsive to the type of questions and the nature of research involving HRH issues. The fourth and most important is to consistently use a systems approach in framing and addressing research questions. While a narrow approach may be more attractive and simple, health systems and the problems facing them are not. Increasing the body of evidence that takes into account the complexity of health systems, and particularly human resources for health, will advance knowledge in this area and will make big strides in the quality and usefulness of the generated evidence.

  4. Collective action for multi-scale environmental management: Achieving landscape policy objectives through cooperation of local resource managers

    Carmona-Torres, C.; Parra-López, C.; Groot, J.C.J.; Rossing, W.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    The design of efficient public policies that aim to improve the provision of ecosystem services faces the problem that many ecosystem services are only apparent at spatial levels beyond the level at which they are managed. This makes it impossible to measure the contribution of individual resource

  5. Post-approval monitoring and oversight of U.S.-initiated human subjects research in resource-constrained countries.

    Brown, Brandon; Kinsler, Janni; Folayan, Morenike O; Allen, Karen; Cáceres, Carlos F

    2014-06-01

    The history of human subjects research and controversial procedures in relation to it has helped form the field of bioethics. Ethically questionable elements may be identified during research design, research implementation, management at the study site, or actions by a study's investigator or other staff. Post-approval monitoring (PAM) may prevent violations from occurring or enable their identification at an early stage. In U.S.-initiated human subjects research taking place in resource-constrained countries with limited development of research regulatory structures, arranging a site visit from a U.S. research ethics committee (REC) becomes difficult, thus creating a potential barrier to regulatory oversight by the parent REC. However, this barrier may be overcome through the use of digital technologies, since much of the world has at least remote access to the Internet. Empirical research is needed to pilot test the use of these technologies for research oversight to ensure the protection of human subjects taking part in research worldwide.

  6. Kenya's health workforce information system: a model of impact on strategic human resources policy, planning and management.

    Waters, Keith P; Zuber, Alexandra; Willy, Rankesh M; Kiriinya, Rose N; Waudo, Agnes N; Oluoch, Tom; Kimani, Francis M; Riley, Patricia L

    2013-09-01

    Countries worldwide are challenged by health worker shortages, skill mix imbalances, and maldistribution. Human resources information systems (HRIS) are used to monitor and address these health workforce issues, but global understanding of such systems is minimal and baseline information regarding their scope and capability is practically non-existent. The Kenya Health Workforce Information System (KHWIS) has been identified as a promising example of a functioning HRIS. The objective of this paper is to document the impact of KHWIS data on human resources policy, planning and management. Sources for this study included semi-structured interviews with senior officials at Kenya's Ministry of Medical Services (MOMS), Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation (MOPHS), the Department of Nursing within MOMS, the Nursing Council of Kenya, Kenya Medical Practitioners and Dentists Board, Kenya's Clinical Officers Council, and Kenya Medical Laboratory Technicians and Technologists Board. Additionally, quantitative data were extracted from KHWIS databases to supplement the interviews. Health sector policy documents were retrieved from MOMS and MOPHS websites, and reviewed to assess whether they documented any changes to policy and practice as having been impacted by KHWIS data. Interviews with Kenyan government and regulatory officials cited health workforce data provided by KHWIS influenced policy, regulation, and management. Policy changes include extension of Kenya's age of mandatory civil service retirement from 55 to 60 years. Data retrieved from KHWIS document increased relicensing of professional nurses, midwives, medical practitioners and dentists, and interviewees reported this improved compliance raised professional regulatory body revenues. The review of Government records revealed few references to KHWIS; however, documentation specifically cited the KHWIS as having improved the availability of human resources for health information regarding workforce planning

  7. Methodology for Participatory Policy Analysis

    Geurts, J.L.A.; Joldersma, F.

    2001-01-01

    In the course of time it has become clear that policy analysts who use traditional formal modeling techniques have limited impact on policy making regarding complex policy problems. These kinds of problems require the analyst to combine scientific insights with subjective knowledge resources and to

  8. Italy-Japan international project-based learning for developing human resources using design of welfare equipment as a subject.

    Hanafusa, A; Komeda, T; Ito, K; Zobel, P Beomonte

    2015-08-01

    Project-based learning (PBL) is effective for developing human resources of young students. The design of welfare equipment, such as wheelchairs and gait assistive devices, is taken as the subject in this study because these devices must be fit to their environment, users, and method of use; students must consider the circumstances of each country concerned. The program commenced in 2012 at L'Aquila, Italy, and the Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan and has been continuing for three years. Students were divided into four groups and discussions were held on how to adapt the equipment to the user and environment. After discussion, they designed and simulated a model of the equipment using CAD. Finally, they presented their designs to each other. Through the program, students had fruitful discussions, exchanged ideas from different cultures, and learned from each other. Furthermore, friendships among the students were nurtured. It is believed that the objective of the program was satisfactorily accomplished.

  9. Gender Instruments, Laws, Policies and Guidelines: A Tool for Human Resource Managers in Kenya

    Catherine Kathure Kaimenyi; Anne Ngeretha

    2014-01-01

    The need for effective workplace policies and procedures has never been more important in today’s changing workplace. This is driven by changes to legislation, regulation and codes. Organizations policies must be in line with the national laws, procedures and policies, and since nations subscribe to various international laws and guidelines, these should accordingly be integrated in organization policies. Through a review of existing literature, this study examines important legislations that...

  10. Cohabiting Couple, Filing Jointly? Resource Pooling and U.S. Poverty Policies

    Kenney, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Social policy in the United States is inconsistent in its treatment of cohabiting-parent households. For example, although welfare policy generally assumes that marital status should not affect the extent to which children benefit from each adult's income, tax policy and the poverty classification assume income pooling among married but not…

  11. Struggling between resources-based and sustainable development schemes-An analysis of Egypt's recent energy policy

    Suding, Paul H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Egypt's recent energy sector and policy developments against objectives and issues of the energy policy strategy adopted in 2007. It reviews energy supply and demand, pricing and subsidies as well as institutional arrangements and respective reform projects from the perspective of assessing achievements. It identifies the consequences of the policy and the long-term outlook and reports on the internal policy struggle. The policy strategy of 2007 is directed at energy security, social and industrial development. Environmental or climate objectives play no role. Energy efficiency is at best considered an instrument. The implementation of the strategy has been successful on the supply side, but not on the demand side. Price reform, refocusing subsidies and sector reform were not achieved. This has negatively affected energy efficiency and diversification, energy availability and supply security, the State budget and the sector's financial capacity. It causes rising energy import requirements and increasing risks to the current account balance. In spite of that, 'old guard' and industrial establishment favour the resource-based development based on cheap energy and protract price reform, whereas another group of businessmen wants a sustainable development concept and monetize the oil and gas production to invest in Egypt's competitiveness. - Research Highlights: → Egyptian energy policy has not delivered demand side results and institutional reform. → The consequences are disparities in supply, external balance, financing and subsidies. →The prevailing interest groups succeed in protracting the implementation of the policy.

  12. Water Resource Vulnerability Characteristics by District’s Population Size in a Changing Climate Using Subjective and Objective Weights

    Eun-Sung Chung

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to derive water resource vulnerability characteristics for South Korea according to individual district populations in a changing climate. The definition of water resource vulnerability in this study consists of potential flood damage and potential water scarcity. To quantify these vulnerabilities, key factors, or indicators affecting vulnerability, are integrated with a technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS, which is a multi-criteria decision-making approach to determine the optimal alternative by considering both the best and worst solutions. The weight for each indicator is determined based on both the Delphi technique and Shannon’s entropy, which are employed to reduce the uncertainty in the process of determining the weights. The Delphi technique reflects expert opinions, and Shannon’s entropy reflects the uncertainty of the performance data. Under A1B climate change scenarios, medium-sized districts (200,000–300,000 inhabitants are the most vulnerable regarding potential flood damage; the largest districts (exceeding 500,000 inhabitants are found to be the most vulnerable with respect to potential water scarcity. This result indicates that the local governments of cities or districts with more than 200,000 inhabitants should implement better preventative measures for water resources. In addition, the Delphi and entropy methods show the same rankings for flood vulnerability; however, these approaches produce slightly different rankings regarding water scarcity vulnerability. Therefore, it is suggested that rankings from not only subjective but also objective weights should be considered in making a final decision to implement specific adaptive measures to climate change.

  13. Implications of current educational policies in the Physical Education teachers’ training: a study on the teacher’s subjectivity

    Matheus Bernardo Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to problematize the ontology that underlies the official documents related to the physical education teachers’ training. The theoretical and methodological framework for such questioning is dialectical materialism. The reasoning of the official documents cited is confined to training “Competence”, linked to “reflective practice”. Explicitly or implicitly, such training policy seeks to meet the guidelines and requirements of flexible accumulation, in turn, based on productive restructuring, and its political expression, the neoliberalism. The teleologically oriented training towards such relations of production, although it seems avant-garde, is seeded by a conservatism that is evident in not facing social contradictions. The results revealed that the teachers’ subjectivity is limited in favor of an adaptive training to the alienation process.

  14. Mental health research in Brazil: policies, infrastructure, financing and human resources

    Mari Jair de Jesus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this descriptive study was to map mental health research in Brazil, providing an overview of infrastructure, financing and policies mental health research. As part of the Atlas-Research Project, a WHO initiative to map mental health research in selected low and middle-income countries, this study was carried out between 1998 and 2002. Data collection strategies included evaluation of governmental documents and sites and questionnaires sent to key professionals for providing information about the Brazilian mental health research infrastructure. In the year 2002, the total budget for Health Research was US$101 million, of which US$3.4 million (3.4 was available for Mental Health Research. The main funding sources for mental health research were found to be the São Paulo State Funding Agency (Fapesp, 53.2% and the Ministry of Education (CAPES, 30.2%. The rate of doctors is 1.7 per 1,000 inhabitants, and the rate of psychiatrists is 2.7 per 100,000 inhabitants estimated 2000 census. In 2002, there were 53 postgraduate courses directed to mental health training in Brazil (43 in psychology, six in psychiatry, three in psychobiology and one in psychiatric nursing, with 1,775 students being trained in Brazil and 67 overseas. There were nine programs including psychiatry, neuropsychiatry, psychobiology and mental health, seven of them implemented in Southern states. During the five-year period, 186 students got a doctoral degree (37 per year and 637 articles were published in Institute for Scientic Information (ISI-indexed journals. The investment channeled towards postgraduate and human resource education programs, by means of grants and other forms of research support, has secured the country a modest but continuous insertion in the international knowledge production in the mental health area.

  15. Scarcity in a Sea of Plenty? Global Resource Scarcities and Policies in the European Union and the Netherlands

    Prins, A.G.; Slingerland, S.; Manders, A.J.G.; Lucas, P.L.; Hilderink, H.B.M.; Kok, M.T.J.

    2011-03-01

    Current high prices of food, oil and many other resources are indications of increasing scarcity. This scarcity, however, has little to do with stock depletion. Badly functioning markets and wrong policy reactions play a particularly important role. For most resources, global stocks will be sufficient to meet increasing demand, over the coming decades. However, these stocks are not equally distributed over the world; they tend to be located in a limited number of countries. This causes an increasing European dependency on imports, which, in turn, feeds the fear of a decrease in security of supply.

  16. Examining Charter School Policy and Public School District Resource Allocation in Ohio

    Linick, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    This project focuses on the competitive pressure, or the threat of competitive pressure, generated by charter school policy. This paper uses longitudinal district-level data and multiple quasi-experimental designs to examine the relationship between two Ohio charter school policies and changes in public school district instructional resource…

  17. Policies and practices of countries experiencing a crisis in Human Resources for Health : A tracking survey

    van den Broek, Ankie; Gedik, Gulin; dal Poz, Mario; Dieleman, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand and monitor the progress in developing and implementing HRH policies in the 57 countries experiencing a critical deficit in the health workforce, this tracking survey provides an overview of the current situation in terms of HRH policies, plans, capacities and processes. The

  18. Flexible Subjects: Educational Policy Neoliberal Rationalities Sujetos flexibles: racionalidades Neoliberales y políticas educativas. Vol. 13 No. 44

    Lucia Gomez Sanchez

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Flexible Subjects: Neo-liberal Rationalities and Education Policy. This article aims to examine training and employment programmes for the young (more specifically, the Spanish Social Guarantee Schemes—Programas de Garantía Social in relation to neoliberal political rationalities. We believe the introduction of neoliberal policies to have been greater and faster precisely in the periphery of the educational system. To that end, we intend to make teachers' participation in the operation of the policies conceptually visible. The professionals’ discourse about the socio-labour integration of the young –a discourse that legitimises their daily work – will be analysed on the basis of qualitative materials from in-depth interviews. This analysis allows us to: 1 show the new ways of defining and valuing the teaching activity required and generated by these practical and institutional changes; 2 the analysis evidences some of the effects of the emerging discourses as well as the strategic roles they play in connection with neoliberal governance styles. En este texto nos proponemos examinar los programas de formación e inserción sociolaboral para jóvenes (concretamente, los llamados Programas de Garantía Social desarrollados por el estado español en relación con las racionalidades políticas neoliberales. Consideramos que es, precisamente, en los ámbitos periféricos del sistema educativo, donde la introducción de estas políticas neoliberales ha sido mayor y más acelerada. Para ello, pretendemos hacer visible la participación de los docentes en el funcionamiento de esas mismas políticas. Así, analizaremos los discursos que los profesionales de la inserción sociolaboral para jóvenes emplean para legitimar su actividad laboral cotidiana a partir de material cualitativo extraído de entrevistas en profundidad. El análisis nos permitirá, en primer lugar, mostrar las nuevas formas de definir y valorar la actividad docente

  19. Stimulating fuelwood consumption through public policies: An assessment of economic and resource impacts based on the French Forest Sector Model

    Caurla, Sylvain; Delacote, Philippe; Lecocq, Franck; Barkaoui, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Stimulating renewable energy is a crucial objective in view of tackling climate change and coping with future fossil fuel scarcity. In France, fuelwood appears to be an important source for the renewable energy mix. Using the French Forest Sector Model, our paper aims to assess the impacts of three policy options to stimulate fuelwood consumption: a consumer subsidy, a producer subsidy and a fixed-demand contract policy. We explored their impacts in terms of five groups of criteria: (1) forest resource dynamics; (2) variations in wood products prices and quantities consumed and produced; (3) trade balance; (4) budgetary costs; and (5) variations in agent surpluses. We show that no policy option is more desirable than another on the basis of all of these criteria and that trade-offs will determine which is the best policy option to be implemented. - Highlights: • We compare the bio-economic impacts of policies to boost fuelwood consumption in France. • We simulate a producer subsidy, a consumer subsidy and fixed public demand contracts. • We explore their impacts until 2020 with a dynamic model of the forest sector. • Producer subsidy reduces the trade balance deficit and decreases forest stock. • Consumer subsidy increases consumer welfare and public contracts reduce budgetary costs

  20. Optimal selective renewal policy for systems subject to propagated failures with global effect and failure isolation phenomena

    Maaroufi, Ghofrane; Chelbi, Anis; Rezg, Nidhal

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers a selective maintenance policy for multi-component systems for which a minimum level of reliability is required for each mission. Such systems need to be maintained between consecutive missions. The proposed strategy aims at selecting the components to be maintained (renewed) after the completion of each mission such that a required reliability level is warranted up to the next stop with the minimum cost, taking into account the time period allotted for maintenance between missions and the possibility to extend it while paying a penalty cost. This strategy is applied to binary-state systems subject to propagated failures with global effect, and failure isolation phenomena. A set of rules to reduce the solutions space for such complex systems is developed. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the modeling approach and the use of the reduction rules. Finally, the Monte-Carlo simulation is used in combination with the selective maintenance optimization model to deal with a number of successive missions

  1. Relevance of national and local government policy to sustainable community natural resource management in South Africa

    Musvoto, Constansia D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development in South Africa is guided by the principle of sustainability, and this is underpinned by integration, which is the consideration of social, economic and environmental factors in decision making. Policies are in place at national...

  2. Allocation Anatomy: How District Policies That Deploy Resources Can Support (or Undermine) District Reform Strategies

    Roza, Marguerite

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the effects of micro-budgeting decisions and show how they might support or hamper district reform strategies. The study draws on public and private sector resource allocation literature to identify key elements of resource allocation decisions. These elements are used to highlight different allocation…

  3. Managing (Fiscally) Resource Windfalls : Exploring Policy Options for the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Pinto-Moreira, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    How should resource-dependent countries respond (fiscally) to resource price volatility? This note studies what determines revenue allocation between a "spend today" strategy and a "save now-spend tomorrow" approach in the context of the Democratic Republic of Congo. It uses a three-sector model in which public infrastructure investment has tangible benefits for private production and inve...

  4. A case study exploring the ethical and policy dimensions of allocating acute care resources to a dying patient.

    Cooke, Mary; Hurley, Ciarán

    2008-05-01

    We aimed to identify policy, process and ethical issues related to allocation of National Health Service resources when patients with end-of-life illness are referred to acute care services. Sharing healthcare decisions denotes a different partnership between professionals and patients when patients are empowered to define their needs. Implementation of a transition from professional to patient decision-making appears to be dependent upon its interpretation by personnel delivering care using the local trust policy. The outcome of this is a reformation of responsibility for budget allocation, choice of acute care provider and selecting services, currently in the realm of primary care; be it the general practitioner, community practitioners, or the patient. We used a 'lens' approach to case study analysis in which the lens is constructed of a model of policy analysis and four principles of biomedical ethics. A patient's decision to decline care proposed by an Accident and Emergency department nurse and the nurse's response to that decision expose a policy that restricts the use of ambulance transport and with that, flexibility in responses to patients' decisions. End-of-life care partnership decisions require sensitivity and flexibility from all healthcare practitioners. We found that policy-based systems currently used to deliver care across the primary care - hospital care border are far from seamless and can lead to foreseeable problems. Health professionals responsible for the care of a patient at the end of life should consider the holistic outcomes of resource allocation decisions for patients. Government and health professional agenda suggest that patients should be given a greater element of control over their healthcare than has historically been the case. When patients take responsibility for their decisions, healthcare personnel should recognize that this signals a shift in the nature of the professional-patient relationship to one of partnership.

  5. The Analysis of Human Resources Policies and Regional Financial Accounting System on Regional Government Financial Statements’ Quality

    Aida Nahar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Accountability of local governments in the implementation of policies should be carried out with the financial statements present the quality. Qualitative characteristics of financial statements described in PP 24/ 2005 that the qualitative characteristics of financial statements is a normative measurement that needs to be realized in the accounting information that can be fulfil its purpose. To be able to raise the normative requirements, this characteristics is absolutely necessary in order to meet the government 's financial statements desired qualities are: relevant, reliable, comparable, and understandable.The population of this research is PPK-SKPD in Karesidenan Pati. Consisting of: Regency Jepara, Kudus, Pati , Rembang, Blora, and Grobogan, totally 113 SKPD with 73 respondents with a random sampling technique . Data analysis technique used is multiple regression analysis. The results mentioned that human resource policies affect the quality of financial reporting by 4.167. Implementation of the system accounting effect on the quality of financial reporting by 3.309 % . Human resources policies and implementation of accounting systems affect the quality of financial statements. This study did not succeed accept hypothesis 5 proved that the value of t = -1.021 and p = 0.311, which means that the BPK audit does not affect the relationship between the Application System Accounting for the Quality of Regional Financial Statements.

  6. A Policy study on cooperation for the development of underground resources in North Korea

    Hwang, Jung Nam [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    For the smooth promotion of joint development program of underground resources in North Korea, it requires a domestic legal authority applicable when a private company begins the development program of underground resources in North Korea. It is recommended that the supply of initial fund of resources development program in North Korea will utilize the supply method of existing resources development subsidizing fund instead of establishing new fund. In the case of enlarging its program by minerals, it is desirable to support it by creating the South-North resources development cooperation fund for a certain period to attract voluntary participation of the private sector. In this study, minerals able to develop among natural minerals in North Korea were classified and presented by grouping according to the higher order. Also, a plan for institutionalizing this was sought by connecting a development program by types of minerals for the smooth operation of South-North resources development cooperation program. Considering types of minerals, area, and the size and cost of development, it should be operated step by step, but for programs realizable at once, it should be started in its early stage. It is recommended to review a step by step plan for mineral resources development in North Korea continuously in connection with other economic cooperation sector such as the manufacturing industry. (author). 30 refs., 40 tabs.

  7. U.S. Air Force Information Resources Management: An Exploratory Study of Policy

    Munoz, Brian

    1998-01-01

    .... Information Resources Management (IRM) was established within the Department of Defense (DoD) in 1983 as a tool for better managing its information in the wake of automated information processing and sharing...

  8. Environment, energy, and world food resources. New challenges to research and technology policy

    Stever, H G [National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. (USA)

    1976-07-01

    If one tried to decide upon one single urgent task, a challenge for the natural sciences and technology alike, one probably would have to name the following: promotion of sound and appropriate economic growth by means of more effective and efficient utilization of resources; i.e., energy and natural resources of all kinds (whether these may be renewable or not), the process to be carried out by means that show as much concern for the environment as possible.

  9. The role of the University in the context of Inclusive Education Policy: reflections about human resources formation and knowledge production

    Rosana Glat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present text aims to discuss and present, briefly action lines about the role of University in the promotion of psicossocial and educational development of people with handicap and other special needs. Taking the framework of specialized literature, it brings different questions dealing with human resources formation, specially, teacher formation, and the production of knowledge in the area of Special Education, obtained through research and extension projects, done, preferentially, in partnership with the educational agents that work in the field. It also analyses how these actions may influence the implementation of policies regarding school, labor, and social inclusion of people with handicap and other developmental disorders.

  10. Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Individual Education and Extensiveness of Social Security Policies Matter for Maximization of Subjective Well-Being?

    Valeeva, Rania F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine whether generalized trust and education, as well as social security policies of welfare state institutions matter for cross-national differences in subjective well-being (SWB), because knowledge on this issue is still lacking. For this purpose I integrated the insights of two sociological theories: Social Function…

  11. Employer Child Care Resources: A Guide to Developing Effective Child Care Programs and Policies.

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Increasing numbers of employers are responding to employee child care needs by revising their benefit packages, work schedules, and recruitment plans to include child care options. This guide details ways to develop effective child care programs and policies. Section 1 of the guide describes employees' growing child care needs and employers'…

  12. Guidelines to the Development of Human Resources in Libraries: Rationale, Policies, Programs and Recommendations

    Library Trends, 1971

    1971-01-01

    It is apparent that there are many roadblocks preventing the release of the human potential in our libraries. These guidelines take the position that a great deal can be done toward diagnosing and removing these roadblocks by establishing and developing meaningful policies and programs. (49 references) (Author/NH)

  13. Inclusion of Students with Special Education Needs in French as a Second Language Programs: A Review of Canadian Policy and Resource Documents

    Muhling, Stefanie; Mady, Callie

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a document analysis of policy and resource documents pertaining to inclusion of students with special education needs (SSEN) in Canadian French as a Second Language (FSL) programs. By recognizing gaps and acknowledging advancements, we aim to inform current implementation and future development of inclusive policy. Document…

  14. Resource-saving policy in the context of technological updating of ferroalloy production

    Yelena Anatolyevna Pozdnyakova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper substantiates the need for technological modernization of ferroalloy production which should be based on energy- and resource-saving technologies. Lean-technology is considered as a tool for effective management of material costs organization. A search algorithm for ways to improve the manufacturing process of a company, with which usage the author suggests a number of areas that require optimization, was developed. Measures aimed at solving the problems of resource-saving at JSC "Klyuchevsky Ferroalloy Plant" were proposed: introduction of resource saving technologies, suggesting involvement in the production of non-liquid products and the use of process waste and upgrading of individual processes. As a result of the proposed activities, tangible results have been achieved: reducing production costs, saving raw materials, reducing storage costs and release of additional areas, decrease of production losses.

  15. Policy for securing human resources in the nuclear industry of Japan

    Takeuchi, S.

    1993-01-01

    The shortage of human resources in the field of nuclear industry in Japan is due to: structural difficulty resulting from the prevailing labor shortage in Japan, difficulties from the ever-intensifying adverse wind against nuclear power, and difficulties specific to R and D organizations. A practical plan is proposed for securing qualified personnel: approach to be directly made on campuses; effective/advanced management of human resources; better treatment and fringe benefit; promoting the nuclear industry attractiveness; expanding the scope of basic and fundamental researches; regaining the public confidence; closer cooperation between the government and the nuclear power groups. 6 figs

  16. Environmental impacts assessment: Instruments for environmental policy making and resource management

    Cavelli, C.M.; Sartori, S.

    1993-06-01

    This review of evaluation criteria for environmental impacts assessments in Italy covers the following aspects: the efficacy of current Italian normatives governing assessment methods, the current approach of regional public administrations, the necessity for the creation of a national regulating board, environmental impacts assessment for complex environmental systems, the application of impacts assessment recommendations to resource development modelling in the planning of integrated environmental-economic systems, the involvement of the general public in decision making, techniques to determine the monetary worth of environmental resources, the use of multi-criteria analysis techniques

  17. A new public policy to ensure access to scientific information resources: the case of Chile

    María Soledad Bravo-Marchant

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of public policies to grant access to scientific information is now a marked trend among numerous countries of Latin America. The creation of specific instruments, the allocation of an ongoing budget and the accumulation of experience in negotiation and contracting of national licences have all been clear signs of the achievements resulting from recent initiatives in these countries. This article reviews the experience of the Consorcio para el Acceso a la Información Cientifíca Electrónica (CINCEL Corporation, a Chilean consortium created in 2002, the public policy that made it possible and the evaluation experience of its main programme, the Electronic Library of Scientific Information (BEIC.

  18. World Bank Education Policy and Human Resource Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Mutamba, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the intersection of education and training through societal development in the developing world, a concept linked to national human resource development (NHRD). In addition, education and training is known to correlate strongly with employment outcomes that are connected to economic success, health and family…

  19. Planning for the Digital Classroom and Distributed Learning: Policies and Planning for Online Instructional Resources

    McGee, Patricia; Diaz, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    In an era of state budget cuts and a tight economy, distributed learning is often seen as a way to address the needs of colleges and universities looking for additional revenue sources. Likewise, budding virtual universities, consortia, and corporate partnerships are now providing new ways for institutions to share resources across campuses. The…

  20. Quality Improvement in Home-Based Child Care Settings: Research Resources to Inform Policy

    Lawrence, Sharmila; Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    This "Topic of Interest" provides a comprehensive list of research in the Research Connections collection that was published in 2005 or later addressing issues related to quality improvement specifically in home-based child care. The resources are grouped under the following headings: Overviews, Summaries, and Reviews of Quality…

  1. Students' Multilingual Resources and Policy-in-Action: An Australian Case Study

    French, Mei

    2016-01-01

    In the context of increasing linguistic and cultural diversity in Australian schools, it is important to consider the value of students' multilingual resources for learning. This paper reports on an ethnographic case study conducted in an Australian metropolitan secondary school where the student body represented more than 40 cultures and…

  2. Windmills or deepwater drills?: Normative Roles of Technology in Norwegian Resource Extraction Policy

    Goins , Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    International audience; After discovering oil in the North and Norwegian Seas in the late 1960s, Norway is now one of the largest oil exporters and wealthiest nations in the world. Norwegians are some of the healthiest and happiest people on the planet, enjoying cradle-to-grave welfare and a national savings fund well into the billions. Yet despite its transformational power in this society, oil is a complex and highly debated topic among Norwegian policy makers and everyday citizens. In the ...

  3. Information Seeking Behavior & Information Resources Management:Mental Process Selecting Subjects & Identifying Information Needs Case study: Graduate Students in Women seminaries of Shiraz of Academic year 1393- 1394(

    Zohre Eftekhar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is Information Resources Management: Mental Process Selecting Subjects &  Identifying Information Needs. The research method used in this study is a Quantitative method. Sampling is purposeful. This means that it includes graduate Students in Women seminaries of Shiraz who have information-seeking experience and are able to express their views and information needs. The sample was selected according to the random sampling method with Cochran formula from 710 students. According to this sampling method there is 241 Graduate Students included in 1392-1393 seminaries year of  Women seminaries of Shiraz. This is a survey research Which has been carried out by employing a questionnaire and SPSS for windows to analyze data. The results showed that students for selecting subjects,  identifying information needs used methods and media such as Prying Mind, reviewing of information resources, Consulting with subject specialists.

  4. The framing of unconventional natural gas resources in the foreign energy policy discourse of the Russian Federation

    Ocelík, Petr; Osička, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The advent of unconventional resources of natural gas has altered the order on global as well as continental gas markets. With rising liquidity, the position of established dominant suppliers is eroding. We focus on the initial response of Russia, the leading supplier of natural gas to Europe, to the new situation, building the research on unit-level constructivism and discourse analysis. We use frame analysis to reveal what image of unconventional resources was constructed in Russian foreign energy policy discourse (FEPD) in the period between 2009 and 2011, when the “unconventional revolution” did not yet have any sharp contours. We conclude that in Russian FEPD the unconventionals are considered as a distinctive and inferior source of energy compared to conventional natural gas. Emphasis is put on their economic irrationality and environmental hazards. The bottom line of the discourse is the idea that there is a choice between conventional and unconventional sources, with this choice being framed as one between good and bad, or right and wrong. - Highlights: • We examine the image of “unconventional gas” in Russian foreign energy policy discourse. • Two main frames (reliable supplier and triumphant natural gas) were identified. • Two main argumentation schemes (economic and environmental) were identified. • The “unconventional gas” is defined as a mistaken and inferior source of energy

  5. Sustainability Policy and Environmental Policy

    John C. V. Pezzey

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical, representative agent economy with a depletable resource stock, polluting emissions and productive capital is used to contrast environmental policy, which internalises externalised environmental values, with sustainability policy, which achieves some form of intergenerational equity. The obvious environmental policy comprises an emissions tax and a resource stock subsidy, each equal to the respective external cost or benefit. Sustainability policy comprises an incentive affectin...

  6. Does evidence influence policy? Resource allocation and the Indigenous Burden of Disease study.

    Doran, Christopher M; Ling, Rod; Searles, Andrew; Hill, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Indigenous Burden of Disease (IBoD) report is the most comprehensive assessment of Indigenous disease burden in Australia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effect of the IBoD report on Australian Indigenous health policy, service expenditure and research funding. Findings have significance for understanding factors that may influence Indigenous health policy. Methods The potential effect of the IBoD report was considered by: (1) conducting a text search of pertinent documents published by the federal government, Council of Australian Governments and the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC) and observing the quantity and quality of references to IBoD; (2) examining data on government Indigenous healthcare expenditure for trends consistent with the findings and policy implications of the IBoD report; and (3) examining NHMRC Indigenous grant allocation trends consistent with the findings and policy implications of the IBoD report. Results Of 110 government and NHMRC documents found, IBoD was cited in 27. Immediately after publication of the IBoD report, federal and state governments increased Indigenous health spending (relative to non-Indigenous), notably for community health and public health at the state level. Expenditure on Indigenous hospital separations for chronic diseases also increased. These changes are broadly consistent with the findings of the IBoD report on the significance of chronic disease and the need to address certain risk factors. However, there is no evidence that such changes had a causal connection with the IBoD study. After publication of the IBoD report, changes in NHMRC Indigenous research funding showed little consistency with the findings of the IBoD report. Conclusions The present study found only indirect and inconsistent correlational evidence of the potential influence of the IBoD report on Indigenous health expenditure and research funding. Further assessment of

  7. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic

    Fidel C.T. Budy, MPH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia.

  8. The impact of the financial crisis on human resources for health policies in three southern-Europe countries.

    Correia, Tiago; Dussault, Gilles; Pontes, Carla

    2015-12-01

    The public health sector has been the target of austerity measures since the global financial crisis started in 2008, while health workforce costs have been a source of rapid savings in most European Union countries. This article aims to explore how health workforce policies have evolved in three southern European countries under external constraints imposed by emergency financial programmes agreed with the International Monetary Fund, Central European Bank and European Commission. The selected countries, Greece, Portugal and Cyprus, show similarities with regard to corporatist systems of social protection and comprehensive welfare mechanisms only recently institutionalized. Based on document analysis of the Memoranda of Understanding agreed with the Troika, our results reveal broadly similar policy responses to the crisis but also important differences. In Cyprus, General Practitioners have a key position in reducing public expenditure through gatekeeping and control of users' access, while Portugal and Greece seeks to achieve cost containment by constraining the decision-making powers of professionals. All three countries lack innovation as well as monitoring and assessment of the effects of the financial crisis in relation to the health workforce. Consequently, there is a need for health policy development to use human resources more efficiently in healthcare. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic

    Budy, Fidel C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia. PMID:27622002

  10. Future directions for nuclear energy policy according to the changing circumstances surrounding energy resources

    Lee, Chang Ki

    2007-01-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the consumption of energy resources throughout the world has increased in geometrical progression, depleting the reserves of the fossil fuels including petroleum. It is predicted that the known reserves of the petroleum and the natural gas will be exhausted within 40 and 60 years, respectively. Massive consumption of energy resources has aggravated the quality of air and water, with the result that environmental pollution of the world has reached a critical stage Emission of green house gases such as carbon dioxide has caused global warming and climate change, endangering the sustainability of the life. Mainland China and East Asian countries pursuing rapid economic growth are expected to confront a shortage of energy in the near future, leading them to face difficulties in achieving expected economic growth

  11. The resource-based relative value scale and physician reimbursement policy.

    Laugesen, Miriam J

    2014-11-01

    Most physicians are unfamiliar with the details of the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS) and how changes in the RBRVS influence Medicare and private reimbursement rates. Physicians in a wide variety of settings may benefit from understanding the RBRVS, including physicians who are employees, because many organizations use relative value units as productivity measures. Despite the complexity of the RBRVS, its logic and ideal are simple: In theory, the resource usage (comprising physician work, practice expense, and liability insurance premium costs) for one service is relative to the resource usage of all others. Ensuring relativity when new services are introduced or existing services are changed is, therefore, critical. Since the inception of the RBRVS, the American Medical Association's Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) has made recommendations to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services on changes to relative value units. The RUC's core focus is to develop estimates of physician work, but work estimates also partly determine practice expense payments. Critics have attributed various health-care system problems, including declining and growing gaps between primary care and specialist incomes, to the RUC's role in the RBRVS update process. There are persistent concerns regarding the quality of data used in the process and the potential for services to be overvalued. The Affordable Care Act addresses some of these concerns by increasing payments to primary care physicians, requiring reevaluation of the data underlying work relative value units, and reviewing misvalued codes.

  12. Are resources a curse? Rentierism and energy policy in post-Soviet States

    Gawrich, Andrea; Franke, Anja; Windwehr, Jana (eds.) [Kiel Univ. (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The analysis of rentierism in post-Soviet states, which this book presents, underscores the need for further research as rentier state concepts have mainly been applied on ''older'' rentier states like Arab, African and Latin American countries. An important contribution to a topical discussion. During the last 30 years, many resource-rich countries have experienced economic and political stagnation (''resource curse''). They have developed deficient political systems in which the process of modern state formation is being undercut (''rentier state'') as well as economic structures in which sectors that provide strong incentives for the accumulation of physical and human capital are under-represented (''Dutch disease''). These political and economic challenges can be observed in many of the post-Soviet states with high resource incomes since the mid 1990s. Such incomes present opportunities for reducing poverty and promoting economic growth. But instead of taking advantage of these opportunities, many of them present authoritarian regimes with high levels of corruption, low political freedom and rent-seeking elites. The book gives an detailed analysis of rentierism in post-Soviet states. (orig.)

  13. Are government policies effective in promoting deployment of renewable electricity resources?

    Shrimali, Gireesh; Kniefel, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Using a panel data over 50 US states and years 1991-2007, this paper uses a state fixed-effects model with state-specific time-trends to estimate the effects of state policies on the penetration of various emerging renewable electricity sources, including wind, biomass, geothermal, and solar photovoltaic. Renewable portfolio standards with either capacity or sales requirements have a significant impact on the penetration of all types of renewables-however, this impact is variable depending on the type of renewable source: it is negative for combined renewables, wind, and biomass; and positive for geothermal and solar. Further, clean energy funds and required green power options mostly result in increasing the penetration of all types of renewables. On the other hand, voluntary renewable portfolio standards as well as state green power purchasing programs are found to be ineffective in increasing the penetration of any type of renewable source. Finally, economic variables, such as electricity price, natural gas price, and per capita GDP as well as structural variables, such as league of conservation voters rating and the share of coal-generated electricity are found to be generally insignificant, suggesting the crucial role of policy in increasing the penetration of renewables. - Highlights: → Ascertains the impact of state policies on increasing the renewable capacity. → Renewable portfolio requirements have an (sometimes unexpected) impact. → Clean energy funds and required green power options have a positive impact. → Voluntary renewable standards as well as state green power purchasing requirements are ineffective. → Economics as well as political and structural variables are ineffective.

  14. Essays on globalization. Policies in trade, development, resources and climate change

    Kerkelae, L.

    2009-07-01

    This research study on globalization consists of an introduction on the methodology applied, a summary and four independent essays focussing on applied policy research in international trade. The study follows the CGE (Computable General Equilibrium) research tradition. The simulation environment is the publicly available GTAP model. The essays examine the specific topics of trade and aid policies, price liberalization of the Russian energy markets, trade preferences in the sugar sector of the EU and the role of carbon sinks in mitigating climate change. The first essay examines trade and aid policies in Mozambique. The essay analyses the impact of alternative options like trade agreements, aid and trade facilitation. The results suggest that Mozambique has very little to gain from trade agreements or the Doha Round, although some agreements with the EU do yield some benefit. Trade facilitation and aid-for-trade programs on the other hand have the potential for larger benefits. The second essay examines the impact of liberalising RussiaAEs energy sector. The analysis is based on the implicit subsidies in regulated prices of electricity and gas and focuses on the effect of the different taxes and subsidies with respect to welfare and GDP in Russia and abroad. Increases in the price of electricity and gas improve efficiency and shift output from domestic markets to exports. The third essay investigates the impact of liberalising the EUAEs sugar sector by taking into account the complex structure of the EU sugar market and preferences in imports for developing countries. The fourth essay focuses on the effects of including carbon sinks into the analysis of the impacts of the Kyoto agreement. (orig.)

  15. Changing U.S. Ocean Policy Can Set a New Direction for Marine Resource Management

    Andrew A. Rosenberg

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A central concept in a new direction for ocean policy in the United States is ecosystem-based management, that is, implementation of management integrated across sectors of human activity to achieve the common goal of conserving the structure and function of marine ecosystems to provide a full suite of ecosystem services. Fisheries are a critical sector of ocean activity that impacts these ecosystems, and fishery management is in urgent need of reform to perform better from a conservation perspective. Here, I suggest some specific changes in perspective for fishery management as part of an overall ecosystem-based approach.

  16. Pricing policies for a two-part exhaustible resource cartel: the case of OPEC (world oil project). Working paper

    Hnyilicza, E.; Pindyck, R.S.

    1976-04-01

    This paper examines pricing policies for OPEC under the assumption that the cartel is composed of a block of spender countries with large cash needs and a block of saver countries with little immediate need for cash and a lower rate of discount. The decision problem for the two-part cartel is embodied in a game-theoretic framework and the optimal bargaining solution is computed using results from the theory of cooperative games developed by Nash. The set of feasible bargaining points--and the corresponding Nash solution--is computed under two assumptions on the behavior of output shares: that they are subject to choice and that they are fixed at historical values. The results suggest that for fixed output shares, there is little room for bargaining and the price path approximates the optimal monopoly price path. If the shares are subject to control, optimal paths depend significantly on the relative bargaining power of each block.

  17. Analyzing public health policy: three approaches.

    Coveney, John

    2010-07-01

    Policy is an important feature of public and private organizations. Within the field of health as a policy arena, public health has emerged in which policy is vital to decision making and the deployment of resources. Public health practitioners and students need to be able to analyze public health policy, yet many feel daunted by the subject's complexity. This article discusses three approaches that simplify policy analysis: Bacchi's "What's the problem?" approach examines the way that policy represents problems. Colebatch's governmentality approach provides a way of analyzing the implementation of policy. Bridgman and Davis's policy cycle allows for an appraisal of public policy development. Each approach provides an analytical framework from which to rigorously study policy. Practitioners and students of public health gain much in engaging with the politicized nature of policy, and a simple approach to policy analysis can greatly assist one's understanding and involvement in policy work.

  18. Translating science into policy: Using ecosystem thresholds to protect resources in Rocky Mountain National Park

    Porter, Ellen; Johnson, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Concern over impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to ecosystems in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, has prompted the National Park Service, the State of Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, the Environmental Protection Agency, and interested stakeholders to collaborate in the Rocky Mountain National Park Initiative, a process to address these impacts. The development of a nitrogen critical load for park aquatic resources has provided the basis for a deposition goal to achieve resource protection, and parties to the Initiative are now discussing strategies to meet that goal by reducing air pollutant emissions that contribute to nitrogen deposition in the Park. Issues being considered include the types and locations of emissions to be reduced, the timeline for emission reductions, and the impact of emission reductions from programs already in place. These strategies may serve as templates for addressing ecosystem impacts from deposition in other national parks. - A collaborative approach between scientists and policymakers is described for addressing nitrogen deposition effects to Rocky Mountain National Park, USA

  19. Community nurse resource implications for a change in heparin prophylaxis policy

    Parker Martyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A review was undertaken for a consecutive series of hip fracture patients for the year before and then after a change in low dose heparin prophylaxis policy. Patients and methods: For the first year heparin was administered in hospital for a maximum of 14 days only. Patients sent home before this time were not discharged taking heparin. For the second year heparin was administered as recommended by NICE guidelines for 28 days from admission regardless of whether the patient was discharged. Results: For the first year 486 patients were treated with a mean of 10.4 doses of heparin per patient. For the second year 465 patients were treated with a mean of 24.3 doses per patient. In total an extra 6,464 doses of heparin were administered. 33.8% of patients were unable to administer their heparin at home therefore a district nurse administered 2,284 of these doses of subcutaneous heparin at the patient’s home. The increased cost associated with the change in policy was estimated to be £161 per patient, with over 90% of this increase being incurred by the district nurse expense. If applied nationally for the England, using extended heparin prophylaxis for hip fracture patients would cost in excess of 12 million pounds each year. Conclusion: Whilst the necessity for and duration of thromboembolic prophylaxis for these patients remains undetermined, there is a need to re-evaluate the cost effectiveness of the current recommendations for hip fracture patients.

  20. Exploring interactions between payment for hydrologic service policies, landowner decisions, and ecohydrology in a Mexican cloud forest watershed: Is there a disconnect between the policy and the resource?

    Asbjornsen, H.; Geissert, D.; Gomez-Tagle, A.; Holwerda, F.; Manson, R.; Perez-Maqueo, O.; Munoz-Villers, L.; Scullion, J.

    2013-05-01

    Payment for hydrologic service (PHS) programs are increasingly being used as a means to incentivize watershed protection by compensating upstream 'water producers' with payments made by downstream 'water consumers'. However, the effectiveness of PHS programs in achieving their target goals is often poorly understood. Here, we draw from insights obtained from socioeconomic and ecohydrological research in Veracruz, Mexico to explore interactions between PHS policies, landowner decisions, and hydrologic services. GIS analysis of land-cover changes during 2003-2009 combined with interviews of PHS participants indicated that despite lower deforestation rates on properties receiving PES payments, other factors were likely to have a greater influence on land use decisions than PHS payments per se, including opportunity costs and personal conservation ethic. The interviews also highlighted a general lack of trust and cooperation between the citizen participants and government administrators, which was reflected in the relatively low level of knowledge of the PHS programs' regulations and goals, the role of forests in protecting water resources, and a low level of co-financing by the private sector. An important premise of PHS programs is that protecting existing forest cover (and planting trees) will enhance water supply, especially in upland cloud forests that are due to their perceived role as water producers. Measurements of climate, steamflow, canopy fog interception, plant transpiration, soil water dynamics, and hydrologic flow paths were collected over a 3-year period to assess stand water balance and streamflow response under four different land covers: mature cloud forest, pasture, regenerating cloud forest, pine reforestation. Results suggested relatively minor additional inputs of fog to increasing streamflow in cloud forest watersheds, while conversion of forest to pasture did not markedly decrease dry season flows, but did increase annual flows due to lower

  1. From science to policy; A road map for a sustainable resource management in Turkey's marine EEZs

    Gazihan, A.; Salihoglu, B.; Akoglu, E.; Oguz, T.

    2016-02-01

    This study provides a scientific base for Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management (EBFM) decisions for Turkey's exclusive economic zones in the Black Sea, the Marmara Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. For this aim, an interdisciplinary holistic approach is employed to explore the linkages and feedbacks between changing national societal and economic needs, managerial decisions, environmental pressures and the health of regional marine ecosystems through derived socioeconomic and ecological indicators from statistical and field data as well as Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) model results. Results quantified the level of human induced pressures driven by increasing societal and economic demands due to human population increase, national economic crises and corresponded governmental subsidies. Cumulative effects of these pressures together with changing climatic conditions deteriorated the marine resources and, as a consequence, limited the socio-economic services provided by ecosystems (e.g. nation-wide decreases in weight (-47%) and value (-37%) of landings, economic profitability (-61%) and per capita fish consumption (-29%) over the last decade). Even though the pressures increased correspondingly in all the marine regions, their consequences in the regional marine ecosystems realized differently. Observed trends in socioeconomic and ecologic indicators and past and future model scenario simulations done by Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) model provided region-specific optimum EBFM options. Research results were synthesized specific to each responsible stakeholder groups and communicated by means of regional stakeholder meetings, project web-side, social and national media and scientific platforms. Present study is expected to increase the stakeholders' awareness for sustainable, responsible resource co-management and will be integrated into decision-making processes and serve as a model case study. This is a contribution funded by TUBITAK (113Y040 DEKOYON Project).

  2. A Policy Based Approach for the Management of Web Browser Resources to Prevent Anonymity Attacks in Tor

    Navarro-Arribas, Guillermo; Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin

    Web browsers are becoming the universal interface to reach applications and services related with these systems. Different browsing contexts may be required in order to reach them, e.g., use of VPN tunnels, corporate proxies, anonymisers, etc. By browsing context we mean how the user browsers the Web, including mainly the concrete configuration of its browser. When the context of the browser changes, its security requirements also change. In this work, we present the use of authorisation policies to automatise the process of controlling the resources of a Web browser when its context changes. The objective of our proposal is oriented towards easing the adaptation to the security requirements of the new context and enforce them in the browser without the need for user intervention. We present a concrete application of our work as a plug-in for the adaption of security requirements in Mozilla/Firefox browser when a context of anonymous navigation through the Tor network is enabled.

  3. Policy

    A paper presented at the Economic Commission for Africa. Second Meeting of ... solutions to their own challenges. However, the age ..... is highly complementary to improved varieties of fertilizer [26]. ... still the subject of debate on ethical, legal, bio- diversity and .... The dimensions of sustainable agriculture are multiple [30] ...

  4. Overseas oil-development policy of resource-poor countries: A case study from Japan

    Koike, Masanari; Mogi, Gento; Albedaiwi, Waleed H.

    2008-01-01

    Japan, currently the world's third largest oil consumer, depends on imports for almost all of its oil needs. Owing to this high level of dependence, Japanese citizens as well as the economy have historically been vulnerable. In the past, certain incidents caused by the interruption of oil imports have resulted in fatal damages to the country. In order to reduce these risks, the Japanese government has supported overseas exploration and development activities of the domestic upstream oil industry, which has not proven as successful as expected. This paper presents the experiences, policies, and the structure of Japan's attempts to increase the share of domestic oil needs met by development activities. While conducting this study, both internal and external constraints were encountered. In addition to the lack of domestic oil reserves, factors including the institutional design of cooperation between government and private industries, the early history of the upstream industry, the target area of overseas development, and the changing environment have created impediments toward achieving the targets. In 2006, Japan again set a new target for doubling the ratio of self-developed oil in its total imports by 2030, and will face challenges in clearing the above-mentioned hurdles

  5. Pricing Policies in Managing Water Resources in Agriculture: An Application of Contract Theory to Unmetered Water

    Davide Viaggi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores how agricultural water pricing could contribute to lowering water demand when uses are unobserved (asymmetric information. The topic of the paper is justified by the fact that most water authorities worldwide do not control water uses at the farm scale. The study draws inspiration from the pricing policies of a Reclamation and Irrigation Board in Northern Italy. It analyses the optimal design of current tariff strategies with respect both to the actual regulator’s goals and the cost recovery objective of an ideal regulator driven by European Water Framework Directive principles and having full information. The analysis is based on the logic of a Principal-Agent model implemented as a mathematical non-linear programming model. Given the current pricing structure and assuming zero transaction costs, the results show a relevant increase in net benefits for the ideal scenario with respect to the actual one as water use costs increase. Benefits differences between the two scenarios mark a limit in value below which mechanisms able to solve the existing asymmetries between the principal and the agents are economically desirable. The study concludes by showing that the current regulator’s discriminatory strategy (pricing structure would be better justified with higher levels of cost for water use. However, the existence of non-zero transaction costs related to the control of water uses points to the need for further research in order to analyze incentive mechanisms in the absence of water metering.

  6. Factors associated with job satisfaction among commune health workers: implications for human resource policies

    Bach Xuan Tran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Job satisfaction among health workers is an important indicator in assessing the performance and efficiency of health services. Objective: This study measured job satisfaction and determined associated factors among health workers in 38 commune health stations in an urban district and a rural district of Hanoi, Vietnam. A total of 252 health workers (36 medical doctors and 216 nurses and technicians; 74% female were interviewed. A job satisfaction measure was developed using factor analysis, from which four dimensions emerged, namely ‘benefits and prospects,’ ‘facility and equipment,’ ‘performance,’ and ‘professionals.’ Results: The results demonstrate that respondents were least satisfied with the following categories: salary and incentives (24.0%, benefit packages (25.1%, equipment (35.7%, and environment (41.8%. The average satisfaction score was moderate across four domains; it was the highest for ‘performance’ (66.6/100 and lowest for ‘facility and equipment’ (50.4/100. Tobit-censored regression models, constructed using stepwise selection, determined significant predictors of job satisfaction including age, areas of work and expertise, professional education, urban versus rural setting, and sufficient number of staff. Conclusion: The findings highlight the need to implement health policies that focus on incentives, working conditions, workloads, and personnel management at grassroots level.

  7. Factors associated with job satisfaction among commune health workers: implications for human resource policies.

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Van Hoang, Minh; Nguyen, Hinh Duc

    2013-01-30

    Job satisfaction among health workers is an important indicator in assessing the performance and efficiency of health services. This study measured job satisfaction and determined associated factors among health workers in 38 commune health stations in an urban district and a rural district of Hanoi, Vietnam. A total of 252 health workers (36 medical doctors and 216 nurses and technicians; 74% female) were interviewed. A job satisfaction measure was developed using factor analysis, from which four dimensions emerged, namely 'benefits and prospects,' 'facility and equipment,' 'performance,' and 'professionals.' The results demonstrate that respondents were least satisfied with the following categories: salary and incentives (24.0%), benefit packages (25.1%), equipment (35.7%), and environment (41.8%). The average satisfaction score was moderate across four domains; it was the highest for 'performance' (66.6/100) and lowest for 'facility and equipment' (50.4/100). Tobit-censored regression models, constructed using stepwise selection, determined significant predictors of job satisfaction including age, areas of work and expertise, professional education, urban versus rural setting, and sufficient number of staff. The findings highlight the need to implement health policies that focus on incentives, working conditions, workloads, and personnel management at grassroots level.

  8. A Fluid Model for a Relay Node in an Ad Hoc Network: Evaluation of Resource Sharing Policies

    Michel Mandjes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid queues offer a natural framework for analyzing waiting times in a relay node of an ad hoc network. Because of the resource sharing policy applied, the input and output of these queues are coupled. More specifically, when there are users who wish to transmit data through a specific node, each of them obtains a share 1/(+ of the service capacity to feed traffic into the queue of the node, whereas the remaining fraction /(+ is used to serve the queue; here >0 is a free design parameter. Assume now that jobs arrive at the relay node according to a Poisson process, and that they bring along exponentially distributed amounts of data. The case =1 has been addressed before; the present paper focuses on the intrinsically harder case >1, that is, policies that give more weight to serving the queue. Four performance metrics are considered: (i the stationary workload of the queue, (ii the queueing delay, that is, the delay of a “packet” (a fluid particle that arrives at an arbitrary point in time, (iii the flow transfer delay, (iv the sojourn time, that is, the flow transfer time increased by the time it takes before the last fluid particle of the flow is served. We explicitly compute the Laplace transforms of these random variables.

  9. Participatory Water Management Strategies: Contributions for Canada from Brazil’s National Water Resources Policy

    Sanderson Alberto Medeiros Leitao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Canadian decision-makers are encountering escalating socio-ecological pressures to introduce a national water strategy. Canada lags behind other countries such as Brazil which has had a comprehensive, participatory, watershed-based national strategy for over a decade. Similar to Canada, Brazil is a complex, federal, resource-based economy. These two states are world leaders in terms of possessing the vast quantities of the world’s fresh water supplies and in hydro-electric power production. In both cases, however, water abundance is predominantly concentrated in their northern territories with low population density, whereas in other geographical regions, the water demand associated with high population density lead to drought, shortages and social and economic inequalities. Despite these similarities, there are a number of differences particularly with respect to socio-economic and political structures. An examination ofthe Brazilian national water strategy offers some explanations as to why that federation has been able to develop innovative legislation as an important first step towards water security – a step that Canadahas yet to take. It also offers some very useful examples and lessons about how a federal state such as Canada might introduce and implement its own integrative national water strategy.

  10. Do people with intellectual disability require special human subjects research protections? The interplay of history, ethics, and policy.

    Feudtner, Chris; Brosco, Jeffrey P

    2011-01-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) have a long history of discrimination and stigmatization, and a more recent history of pride and self-advocacy. The early history suggests that people with ID are a vulnerable population and deserve special research protections as do some other groups; the disability rights movement of the late 20th century aligns people with ID more closely with the principle of autonomy that has guided clinical and research ethics for the last 40 years. In examining the history of people with ID and the prevailing framework of human subjects research protections in the United States, we conclude that people with ID do not require special protection in human subjects research. The protections that have already been put in place for all individuals, if conscientiously and effectively implemented, achieve the right balance between safeguarding the interest of human research subjects and empowering individuals who choose to do so to participate in research. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Social Process of Analyzing Real Water Resource Systems Plans and Management Policies

    Loucks, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Developing and applying systems analysis methods for improving the development and management of real world water resource systems, I have learned, is primarily a social process. This talk is a call for more recognition of this reality in the modeling approaches we propose in the papers and books we publish. The mathematical models designed to inform planners and managers of water systems that we see in many of our journals often seem more complex than they need be. They also often seem not as connected to reality as they could be. While it may be easier to publish descriptions of complex models than simpler ones, and while adding complexity to models might make them better able to mimic or resemble the actual complexity of the real physical and/or social systems or processes being analyzed, the usefulness of such models often can be an illusion. Sometimes the important features of reality that are of concern or interest to those who make decisions can be adequately captured using relatively simple models. Finding the right balance for the particular issues being addressed or the particular decisions that need to be made is an art. When applied to real world problems or issues in specific basins or regions, systems modeling projects often involve more attention to the social aspects than the mathematical ones. Mathematical models addressing connected interacting interdependent components of complex water systems are in fact some of the most useful methods we have to study and better understand the systems we manage around us. They can help us identify and evaluate possible alternative solutions to problems facing humanity today. The study of real world systems of interacting components using mathematical models is commonly called applied systems analyses. Performing such analyses with decision makers rather than of decision makers is critical if the needed trust between project personnel and their clients is to be developed. Using examples from recent and ongoing

  12. A multi-reservoir based water-hydroenergy management model for identifying the risk horizon of regional resources-energy policy under uncertainties

    Zeng, X.T.; Zhang, S.J.; Feng, J.; Huang, G.H.; Li, Y.P.; Zhang, P.; Chen, J.P.; Li, K.L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-reservoir system can handle water/energy deficit, flood and sediment damage. • A MWH model is developed for planning a water allocation and energy generation issue. • A mixed fuzzy-stochastic risk analysis method (MFSR) can handle uncertainties in MWH. • A hybrid MWH model can plan human-recourse-energy with a robust and effective manner. • Results can support adjusting water-energy policy to satisfy increasing demands. - Abstract: In this study, a multi-reservoir based water-hydroenergy management (MWH) model is developed for planning water allocation and hydroenergy generation (WAHG) under uncertainties. A mixed fuzzy-stochastic risk analysis method (MFSR) is introduced to handle objective and subjective uncertainties in MWH model, which can couple fuzzy credibility programming and risk management within a general two-stage context, with aim to reflect the infeasibility risks between expected targets and random second-stage recourse costs. The developed MWH model (embedded by MFSR method) can be applied to a practical study of WAHG issue in Jing River Basin (China), which encounters conflicts between human activity and resource/energy crisis. The construction of water-energy nexus (WEN) is built to reflect integrity of economic development and resource/energy conservation, as well as confronting natural and artificial damages such as water deficit, electricity insufficient, floodwater, high sedimentation deposition contemporarily. Meanwhile, the obtained results with various credibility levels and target-violated risk levels can support generating a robust plan associated with risk control for identification of the optimized water-allocation and hydroenergy-generation alternatives, as well as flood controls. Moreover, results can be beneficial for policymakers to discern the optimal water/sediment release routes, reservoirs’ storage variations (impacted by sediment deposition), electricity supply schedules and system benefit

  13. Modeling the Land Use/Cover Change in an Arid Region Oasis City Constrained by Water Resource and Environmental Policy Change using Cellular Automata Model

    Hu, X.; Li, X.; Lu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Land use/cover change (LUCC) is an important subject in the research of global environmental change and sustainable development, while spatial simulation on land use/cover change is one of the key content of LUCC and is also difficult due to the complexity of the system. The cellular automata (CA) model had an irreplaceable role in simulating of land use/cover change process due to the powerful spatial computing power. However, the majority of current CA land use/cover models were binary-state model that could not provide more general information about the overall spatial pattern of land use/cover change. Here, a multi-state logistic-regression-based Markov cellular automata (MLRMCA) model and a multi-state artificial-neural-network-based Markov cellular automata (MANNMCA) model were developed and were used to simulate complex land use/cover evolutionary process in an arid region oasis city constrained by water resource and environmental policy change, the Zhangye city during the period of 1990-2010. The results indicated that the MANNMCA model was superior to MLRMCA model in simulated accuracy. These indicated that by combining the artificial neural network with CA could more effectively capture the complex relationships between the land use/cover change and a set of spatial variables. Although the MLRMCA model were also some advantages, the MANNMCA model was more appropriate for simulating complex land use/cover dynamics. The two proposed models were effective and reliable, and could reflect the spatial evolution of regional land use/cover changes. These have also potential implications for the impact assessment of water resources, ecological restoration, and the sustainable urban development in arid areas.

  14. Travel Mode Use, Travel Mode Shift and Subjective Well-Being: Overview of Theories, Empirical Findings and Policy Implications

    Ettema, D.F.; Friman, M.; Gärling, Tommy; Olsson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses how travel by different travel modes is related to primarily subjective well-being but also to health or physical well-being. Studies carried out in different geographic contexts consistently show that satisfaction with active travel modes is higher than travel by car and

  15. A Comparison of National Policies on Research Involving Human Subjects to Facilitate Review and Approval of Collaborative Research

    2008-11-26

    torture Prohibition on slavery and forced labour Right to liberty and security Right to a fair trial No punishment without law Right to respect...NOT BE TOLERATED. IT IS BOTH A BREACH OF REGULATIONS AND UNETHICAL . UNAUTHORIZED RESEARCH MAY THEREFORE BE SUBJECT TO INVESTIGATION AND

  16. Removing financial barriers to access reproductive, maternal and newborn health services: the challenges and policy implications for human resources for health.

    McPake, Barbara; Witter, Sophie; Ensor, Tim; Fustukian, Suzanne; Newlands, David; Martineau, Tim; Chirwa, Yotamu

    2013-09-22

    The last decade has seen widespread retreat from user fees with the intention to reduce financial constraints to users in accessing health care and in particular improving access to reproductive, maternal and newborn health services. This has had important benefits in reducing financial barriers to access in a number of settings. If the policies work as intended, service utilization rates increase. However this increases workloads for health staff and at the same time, the loss of user fee revenues can imply that health workers lose bonuses or allowances, or that it becomes more difficult to ensure uninterrupted supplies of health care inputs.This research aimed to assess how policies reducing demand-side barriers to access to health care have affected service delivery with a particular focus on human resources for health. We undertook case studies in five countries (Ghana, Nepal, Sierra Leone, Zambia and Zimbabwe). In each we reviewed financing and HRH policies, considered the impact financing policy change had made on health service utilization rates, analysed the distribution of health staff and their actual and potential workloads, and compared remuneration terms in the public sectors. We question a number of common assumptions about the financing and human resource inter-relationships. The impact of fee removal on utilization levels is mostly not sustained or supported by all the evidence. Shortages of human resources for health at the national level are not universal; maldistribution within countries is the greater problem. Low salaries are not universal; most of the countries pay health workers well by national benchmarks. The interconnectedness between user fee policy and HRH situations proves difficult to assess. Many policies have been changing over the relevant period, some clearly and others possibly in response to problems identified associated with financing policy change. Other relevant variables have also changed.However, as is now well

  17. Traditional Knowledge and Access to Genetic Resources Critical Elements towards a National Policy and Legislation for Chile

    Jorge Rojas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge, hereinafter TK, is a broad concept that is deeply rooted in the life of billions of people, especially within the indigenous communities that have developed it either in the North or in the South. TK has multiple manifestations in several fields, from medicinal uses of plants and herbs, to artistic creations. Bio-prospective activities during the 90 have brought the TK problematic to the international fora: the indigenous communities, South Governments, NGO’s and some other groups have complained against the everlasting misappropriation of TK. Since genetic resources are scarce in the North, TK has been reaching increasing value for transnational companies and Universities research groups who have turned their interest to it as a critical source of their R+D projects to advance their business and academic agendas. This work addresses the problematic of TK as well as the Access to Genetic Resources and the benefit Sharing derived from it (hereinafter ABS. It intends to contribute to clarify some still obscure issues for Chile and to show some valuable international experiences to advance in the process of drafting a national strategy, policy and legislation to regulate the issues surrounding TK and AGR. The work calls for a collaborative approach between the main stakeholders to better achieve huge humanity challenges as fighting hunger and catastrophic diseases. The first part addresses the main concerns about TK from an international legal perspective, explaining different views and issues, some of them quite controversial. The second part brings up an interesting new approach to align conflicting interest in the international world, the so-called public-private partnership. The third part is an attempt to provide guidance to decision makers in Chile and eventually some other developing countries on how to face such a process having in mind the fulfillment of the principles and objectives surrounding TK and ABS. The

  18. An alternative policy evaluation of the British Columbia carbon tax: broadening the application of Elinor Ostrom's design principles for managing common-pool resources

    Karine Lacroix

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is putting infrastructure, food supply, water resources, ecosystems, and human health at risk. These risks will be exacerbated depending on the degree of additional greenhouse gas emissions. Urgent action is needed to limit the severity of impacts associated with further warming. British Columbia (BC has taken action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from carbon-based fuels by introducing a carbon tax in 2008. As an innovative approach to climate change mitigation, especially in North America, studies evaluating its effectiveness are valuable. We assessed the long-term viability potential of the BC carbon tax using common pool resource design principles, a novel application of the design principles to environmental policy. We found that the design principles can be applied productively to environmental policy and larger scale air pollution problems. With regard to the BC carbon tax, our findings suggest that closer monitoring of user behavior, further increases of the tax over time, and pursuing efforts for a more elaborate system of nested enterprises and interjurisdictional cooperation could increase the long-term success of the BC carbon tax. We also found that the design principles allowed us to more comprehensively reach conclusions regarding the broader effectiveness of the tax when compared to existing policy analysis. Traditionally, climate policy evaluation has focused on the end goal without considering broader constraints and issues of resource allocation. We suggest that common pool resource theory, which is based on strong theoretical principles and encourages reflexivity, will be able to address those limitations.

  19. A scoping review of training and deployment policies for human resources for health for maternal, newborn, and child health in rural Africa.

    Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Goma, Fastone; MacKenzie, Adrian; Bradish, Stephanie; Price, Sheri; Nzala, Selestine; Rose, Annette Elliott; Rigby, Janet; Muzongwe, Chilweza; Chizuni, Nellisiwe; Carey, Amanda; Hamavhwa, Derrick

    2014-12-16

    Most African countries are facing a human resources for health (HRH) crisis, lacking the required workforce to deliver basic health care, including care for mothers and children. This is especially acute in rural areas and has limited countries' abilities to meet maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) targets outlined by Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. To address the HRH challenges, evidence-based deployment and training policies are required. However, the resources available to country-level policy makers to create such policies are limited. To inform future HRH planning, a scoping review was conducted to identify the type, extent, and quality of evidence that exists on HRH policies for rural MNCH in Africa. Fourteen electronic health and health education databases were searched for peer-reviewed papers specific to training and deployment policies for doctors, nurses, and midwives for rural MNCH in African countries with English, Portuguese, or French as official languages. Non-peer reviewed literature and policy documents were also identified through systematic searches of selected international organizations and government websites. Documents were included based on pre-determined criteria. There was an overall paucity of information on training and deployment policies for HRH for MNCH in rural Africa; 37 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, the majority of primary research studies employed a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods. Doctors, nurses, and midwives were equally represented in the selected policy literature. Policies focusing exclusively on training or deployment were limited; most documents focused on both training and deployment or were broader with embedded implications for the management of HRH or MNCH. Relevant government websites varied in functionality and in the availability of policy documents. The lack of available documentation and an apparent bias towards HRH research in developed areas suggest a need for

  20. Cinema Seminar as a guidance resource in the election of undergraduate dissertation in the subject of physiology

    Germán DOMÍNGUEZ VÍAS

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiology, in the medical and other health sciences or experimental degrees, is one of the subjects with morevariety of themes that a student can choose for the development of his undergraduate dissertation. The complexityof the syllabus, together with the disorientation to the lack of ideas, incapacitates the students to choose theirproject. As a main objective, the development of a seminar using the Cinema as an auxiliary tool would help to guidein the choice of an initial idea of the whole physiology syllabus. The review of each theme, or specific thematic block, would be linked to the visualization of short film fragments (30 seconds ? 3 minutes that would reflect a crucial moment of different physiological states of an individual. The transition of topics should be paused to opt to comment or reflect on aspects and ideas. A template with different options per unit helps to mark the most valued aspects. From the conclusions obtained, a final summary of the assimilated allows to obtain a previous idea of a possible chosen theme. We can assure that the Cinema offers the students a useful experience for the resolution ofconflicts after acquiring knowledge, thinking skills, attitudes and values.

  1. An Analysis of Current Energy Policy Initiatives in New Mexico. What are the Potential Impacts to the State's Water Resources?

    Klise, G. T.; Hart, W. E.; Kobos, P. H.; Malczynski, L. A.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2008-12-01

    Population in New Mexico is increasing rapidly with recent projections showing that the state will add more than 1 million people by 2035. This growth will create a demand for additional energy and water supplies that have yet to be developed. New Mexico currently exports about 50% of the energy generated within the state to neighboring states, and existing power plants predominately utilize traditional fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Because traditional electric generation technologies utilize large quantities of water, New Mexico can also be seen as exporting water for the benefit of electricity consumed in neighboring states. As it is, both surface water and groundwater supplies are stretched thin and these internal and external stresses stemming from population growth will have a substantial impact on the state's water resources. In 2004, the Governor laid out a plan to make New Mexico a "Clean Energy State" by implementing renewable portfolio standards, developing renewable energy transmission infrastructure, creating an alternative energy innovation fund and creating state specific tax credits for renewable energy production and manufacturing. Recent work in the National Energy-Water Roadmap has pointed out that certain renewable sources of energy utilize less water than traditional power plants, and technological fixes to existing power plants will result in less water consumption. If New Mexico carries out its energy initiative, what will be the impacts to the state's water resources? Will it be possible to meet competing demands for this water? These questions and others will be analyzed in a decision-support tool that can look at the connection between both the physical and economic systems to see what the tradeoffs might be as a result of specific policy decisions. The ability to plan for future energy needs and understanding potential impacts to the state's limited water resources will be an invaluable tool for decision-makers in New

  2. A Comparison of Subjective and Objective Job Demands and Fit with Personal Resources as Predictors of Retirement Timing in a National U.S. Sample.

    Sonnega, Amanda; Helppie-McFall, Brooke; Hudomiet, Peter; Willis, Robert J; Fisher, Gwenith G

    2017-12-19

    Population aging and attendant pressures on public budgets have spurred considerable interest in understanding factors that influence retirement timing. A range of sociodemographic and economic characteristics predict both earlier and later retirement. Less is known about the role of job characteristics on the work choices of older workers. Researchers are increasingly using the subjective ratings of job characteristics available in the Health and Retirement Study in conjunction with more objective measures of job characteristics from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) database. Employing a theoretically-informed model of job demands-personal resources fit, we constructed mismatch measures between resources and job demands (both subjectively and objectively assessed) in physical, emotional, and cognitive domains. When we matched comparable measures across the two data sources in the domains of physical, emotional, and cognitive job demands, we found that both sources of information held predictive power in relation to retirement timing. Physical and emotional but not cognitive mismatch were associated with earlier retirement. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of these findings and directions for future research.

  3. Finding Common Ground: A Critical Review of Land Use and Resource Management Policies in Ontario, Canada and their Intersection with First Nations

    Fraser McLeod

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an in-depth analysis of selective land use and resource management policies in the Province of Ontario, Canada. It examines their relative capacity to recognize the rights of First Nations and Aboriginal peoples and their treaty rights, as well as their embodiment of past Crown–First Nations relationships. An analytical framework was developed to evaluate the manifest and latent content of 337 provincial texts, including 32 provincial acts, 269 regulatory documents, 16 policy statements, and 5 provincial plans. This comprehensive document analysis classified and assessed how current provincial policies address First Nation issues and identified common trends and areas of improvement. The authors conclude that there is an immediate need for guidance on how provincial authorities can improve policy to make relationship-building a priority to enhance and sustain relationships between First Nations and other jurisdictions.

  4. Innovation subject to sustainability: the European policy on biofuels and its effects on innovation in the Brazilian bioethanol industry

    Henrique Pacini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are a suitable complement for fossil energy in the transport sector and bioethanol is the main biofuel traded worldwide. Based on the assumption that innovation can be influenced by regulation, the Brazilian bioethanol industry is facing new requirements from external actors while reaching for international markets. Until 2010, national environmental laws were the main sustainability instrument that the biofuel industry faced. With the introduction of sustainability criteria for biofuels in the European Fuels Quality Directive (FQD and Renewable Energy Directive (RED of 2009, bioethanol producers have been pressured to innovate in respect of the requirements of future markets. Here, the aim is to analyse the case of Brazil, given the potential exports of sugarcane-based ethanol from this country to the EU. Brazil provides an interesting overview of how a bioethanol industry innovated while facing sustainability requirements in the past. A comparison between the European requirements and the industry´s status quo is then explored. The EU criteria are likely to have effects on the Brazilian bioethanol industry and incremental improvements in sustainability levels might take place based on the sustainability requirements. In addition, the industry could follow two other paths, namely risk diversification by engaging in multi-output models; and market leakage towards less-regulated markets. At the same time, an environmental overregulation of the biofuel market may make it more difficult for emerging biofuel industries in other countries, especially in Africa, by creating a barrier rather than contributing to its expansion. The results of this analysis show the main challenges to be addressed and the potential positive and negative impacts of the European Union biofuels policy on the Brazilian bioethanol industry.

  5. SD simulation study on degraded farmland policy on farming-pastoral area under the constrains of water resources-Taking Tongliao City of Inner Mongolia as example

    Xu, D. P.; Zhao, B.; Li, T. S.; Zhu, J. W.; Yu, M. M.

    2017-08-01

    Water resources are the primary factor in restricting the sustainable development of farming-pastoral regions. To support the sustainable development of water resources, whether or not the land uses patterns of farming-pastoral areas is a reasonably important issue. This paper takes Tongliao city as example for the purpose of sustainably developing the farming-pastoral area in the north. Several scientific preductions and evaluations were conducted to study the farming-pastoral landuse pattern, which is the key problem that effects sustainable development of farming-pastoral areas. The paper then proposes that 1:7 landuse pattern is suitable for the sustainable development of farming-pastotal area. Based on the analysis of the research findings on sustainable development of farming-pastoral area, the paper established a suitability evaluation indicators system of degraded farmland policies in Tongliao city, and used an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method to determine the weight to run system dynamic (SD) model. The simulation results were then obtained on social economic ecological development in Tongliao city under different degraded farmland policies, and used the comprehensive evaluation model to optimize the results. It is concluded that stabilizing the policy of degraded farmland policy is the preferential policy in Tongliao, which provides useful theoretical research for the sustainable development of farming-pastoral area.

  6. Protecting the Geyser Basins of Yellowstone National Park: Toward a New National Policy for a Vulnerable Environmental Resource

    Barrick, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    Geyser basins provide high value recreation, scientific, economic and national heritage benefits. Geysers are globally rare, in part, because development activities have quenched about 260 of the natural endowment. Today, more than half of the world’s remaining geysers are located in Yellowstone National Park, northwest Wyoming, USA. However, the hydrothermal reservoirs that supply Yellowstone’s geysers extend well beyond the Park borders, and onto two “Known Geothermal Resource Areas”—Island Park to the west and Corwin Springs on the north. Geysers are sensitive geologic features that are easily quenched by nearby geothermal wells. Therefore, the potential for geothermal energy development adjacent to Yellowstone poses a threat to the sustainability of about 500 geysers and 10,000 hydrothermal features. The purpose here is to propose that Yellowstone be protected by a “Geyser Protection Area” (GPA) extending in a 120-km radius from Old Faithful Geyser. The GPA concept would prohibit geothermal and large-scale groundwater wells, and thereby protect the water and heat supply of the hydrothermal reservoirs that support Yellowstone’s geyser basins and important hot springs. Proactive federal leadership, including buyouts of private groundwater development rights, can assist in navigating the GPA through the greater Yellowstone area’s “wicked” public policy environment. Moreover, the potential impacts on geyser basins from intrusive research sampling techniques are considered in order to facilitate the updating of national park research regulations to a precautionary standard. The GPA model can provide the basis for protecting the world’s few remaining geyser basins.

  7. Human resources for health planning and management in the Eastern Mediterranean region: facts, gaps and forward thinking for research and policy

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Jamal, Diana; Abdallah, Ahmad; Kassak, Kassem

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The early decades of the 21st century are considered to be the era of human resources for health (HRH). The World Health Report (WHR) 2006 launched the Health Workforce Decade (2006–2015), with high priority given for countries to develop effective workforce policies and strategies. In many countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), particularly those classified as Low and Low-Middle Income Countries (LMICs), the limited knowledge about the nature, scope, composi...

  8. Trade union policy and nuclear power

    Elliot, D.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; energy policy; the beginning of doubt; SERA's role [SERA = Socialist Environment and Resources Association]; the 1980 nuclear debate [within the trade union movement]; the 1981 nuclear debate [within the trade union movement]; the issues reviewed (supply and demand; safety and employment; security); review of policy trends; conclusions. Appendix: a review of union policy statements. (U.K.)

  9. Meeting human resources for health staffing goals by 2018: a quantitative analysis of policy options in Zambia

    Schroder Kate

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MOH in Zambia is currently operating with fewer than half of the health workers required to deliver basic health services. The MOH has developed a human resources for health (HRH strategic plan to address the crisis through improved training, hiring, and retention. However, the projected success of each strategy or combination of strategies is unclear. Methods We developed a model to forecast the size of the public sector health workforce in Zambia over the next ten years to identify a combination of interventions that would expand the workforce to meet staffing targets. The key forecasting variables are training enrolment, graduation rates, public sector entry rates for graduates, and attrition of workforce staff. We model, using Excel (Office, Microsoft; 2007, the effects of changes in these variables on the projected number of doctors, clinical officers, nurses and midwives in the public sector workforce in 2018. Results With no changes to current training, hiring, and attrition conditions, the total number of doctors, clinical officers, nurses, and midwives will increase from 44% to 59% of the minimum necessary staff by 2018. No combination of changes in staff retention, graduation rates, and public sector entry rates of graduates by 2010, without including training expansion, is sufficient to meet staffing targets by 2018 for any cadre except midwives. Training enrolment needs to increase by a factor of between three and thirteen for doctors, three and four for clinical officers, two and three for nurses, and one and two for midwives by 2010 to reach staffing targets by 2018. Necessary enrolment increases can be held to a minimum if the rates of retention, graduation, and public sector entry increase to 100% by 2010, but will need to increase if these rates remain at 2008 levels. Conclusions Meeting the minimum need for health workers in Zambia this decade will require an increase in health

  10. Bioenergy: Resource efficiency and contributions to energy- and climate policy objectives; Bioenergi: Resurseffektivitet och bidrag till energi- och klimatpolitiska maal

    Berndes, Goeran; Karlsson, Sten [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Physical Resource Theory; Boerjesson, Paal; Rosenqvist, Haakan [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden). Environmental and Energy Systems Studies

    2008-09-15

    Increasing the use of bioenergy in place of fossil fuels is motivated by a number of energy policy goals. Individual bioenergy systems must be evaluated relative to a particular goal or set of goals. Depending on which specific political goal that is in focus, the attractiveness of different bioenergy systems can vary in relation to even broad objectives such as the resource-efficient use of agricultural and forest land. Furthermore, the outcome of a specific evaluation is sensitive to explicit as well as implicit assumptions and choices regarding, e.g., definition of system boundaries, economic conditions, implementation of policies, byproduct markets, and establishment of new technologies. Several biofuels production chains generate byproducts of value. Energy balance calculations are greatly influenced by how such byproducts are taken into account. Often, the most important factor underlying different results from different energy balance studies is a difference in analytic assumptions, for instance in allocation methods and system borders. Different studies can only be accurately compared if they are based on comparable analytic assumptions. Which methods are justified in a given energy balance study is determined by the current conditions for the specific bioenergy system under analysis. In the future, bioenergy systems may increasingly consist of various generation combinations wherein liquid biofuels may for instance be co-generated with power, heat, and solid biofuels, etc. from a mix of raw biomass. The driving factors are the synergies available with the higher total energy efficiency and resources efficiency obtained by combined approaches, compared to when the energy carriers are produced on their own. These solutions imply that if there is a market for the other energy carriers, and the total net system exchange is high, a lower net value for liquid fuels may be acceptable. The climate efficiency of a bioenergy system also depends on its impact on

  11. Exploration of an Optimal Policy for Water Resources Management Including the Introduction of Advanced Sewage Treatment Technologies in Zaozhuang City, China

    Gengyu He

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage and water pollution are important factors restricting sustainable social and economic development. As a typical coal resource-exhausted city and a node city of the South-to-North Water Transfer East Route Project in China, Zaozhuang City’s water resources management faces multiple constraints such as transformation of economic development, restriction of groundwater exploitation, and improvement of water environment. In this paper, we develop a linear optimization model by input–output analysis to study water resources management with the introduction of three advanced sewage treatment technologies for pollutant treatment and reclaimed water production. The simulation results showed that from 2014 to 2020, Zaozhuang City will realize an annual GDP growth rate of 7.1% with an annual chemical oxygen demand (COD emissions reduction rate of 5.5%. The proportion of primary industry, secondary industry, and tertiary industry would be adjusted to 5.6%, 40.8%, and 53.6%, respectively. The amount of reclaimed water supply could be increased by 91% and groundwater supply could be decreased by 6%. Based on the simulation, this model proposes a scientific reference on water resources management policies, including water environment control, water supply plan, and financial subsidy, to realize the sustainable development of economy and water resources usage.

  12. Effectiveness of policy instruments for supporting the use of waste wood as a renewable energy resource in the Czech Republic

    Jehlickova, Bohumira; Morris, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on an examination of the government's strategy for encouraging the use of wood as a renewable fuel in Czech households. It examines the development of modern combustion technology and its impact on the environment. It describes the estimated requirement for wood by an average household and examines the overall availability of wood as a renewable fuel in the Czech Republic. The paper analyses in detail the policy instruments used by the Czech government to promote the use of this technology. It evaluates the impact of this policy on the users of the technology and practical achievements of the policy measures with respect to the overall objective that is the promotion of generation of renewable energy

  13. Using game theory approach to interpret stable policies for Iran's oil and gas common resources conflicts with Iraq and Qatar

    Esmaeili, Maryam; Bahrini, Aram; Shayanrad, Sepideh

    2015-12-01

    Oil and gas as the non-renewable resources are considered very valuable for the countries with petroleum economics. These resources are not only diffused equally around the world, but also they are common in some places which their neighbors often come into conflicts. Consequently, it is vital for those countries to manage their resource utilization. Lately, game theory was applied in conflict resolution of common resources, such as water, which is a proof of its efficacy and capability. This paper models the conflicts between Iran and its neighbors namely Qatar and Iraq between their oil and gas common resources using game theory approach. In other words, the future of these countries will be introduced and analyzed by some well-known 2 × 2 games to achieve a better perspective of their conflicts. Because of information inadequacy of the players, in addition to Nash Stability, various solution concepts are used based on the foresight, disimprovements, and knowledge of preferences. The results of mathematical models show how the countries could take a reasonable strategy to exploit their common resources.

  14. Further Democratizing Latin America: Broadening Access to Higher Education and Promoting Science Policies Focused on the Advanced Training of Human Resources

    Manuel Heitor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We focus this paper on the conditions to build reliable science, technology and higher education systems in Latin America, based on international comparative studies, fieldwork and interviews conducted over the last three years. The analysis shows that science can have a major role in furthering the democratization of society through public policies that foster opportunities to access knowledge and the advanced training of human resources. Broadening the social basis for higher education promotes the qualification of the labour force and contributes to social and economic development. The need to guarantee higher education diversity, strengthening scientific institutions and investing in a strong science base, is deemed as critical, but goes far beyond policies centred on innovation and industry-science relationships. It requires adequate training and attraction of skilled people, as well as the social promotion of a scientific and technological culture.

  15. IMPROVING DEPOSIT POLICY BANK ON THE BASIS OF ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF DEPOSIT PORTFOLIO STRUCTURE ON FORMATION OF INVESTMENT RESOURCE

    Viadrova I.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The banking system as a part of the national economy contributes to the development of various branches of economy and trade, enabling the realization of economic interests of economic entities. One of the important tasks of the monetary system is the accumulation of financial resources necessary for the implementation of credit and investment projects and their further distribution. This task is performed by banking institutions by attracting funds from individuals and legal entities. The size of the bank’s resource base and the scale of its operations depend on the operations of attraction of funds. The priority task of the banking institution is the predominance of attracting long-term investments over short-term ones. That is why the problem that exists in the disproportion of the maturity of borrowed funds, the prevalence of short-term deposits over long-term and the minimum amount of long-term resources in the bank’s deposit portfolio is particularly relevant. Purpose. The purpose of the work is to generalize the theoretical aspects of bank deposit activity and to determine the optimal structure of the deposit portfolio for carrying out of credit and investment activity. Results. The article summarizes the essence of the concept of “deposit policy”, identifies the peculiarities of its formation and analyzes the main external and internal factors that have an impact on the deposit policy of domestic banks. The analysis of the dynamics and structure of deposit operations of banks at the state level was carried out and the analysis of deposit policy of a bank of foreign bank groups – PJSC “Ukrsotsbank” for 2010-2017 was provided. In this work, the factors of influence are investigated: external and internal, which determine the ways of formation of deposit policy by banks of Ukraine. The influence of the structure of the deposit portfolio of Ukrainian banks on the formation of the investment resource is analyzed

  16. The implementation of vessel-sinking policy as an effort to protect indonesian fishery resources and territorial waters

    Nurdin; Ikaningtyas; Kurniaty, Rika

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to analysis the effectiveness of foreign ship sinking policies to eradicate illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing. There are many foreign fishing vessels were detained due to IUU fishing in Indonesia`s exclusive economic zone (EEZ) waters, particularly in the Natuna and Anambas region. In combating illegal fishing, the government of the Republic of Indonesia take concrete actions in protecting marine potentials by sinking foreign vessel policies. In the last three years more than 300 foreign ships are drowned by Indonesian government. This study revealed that regulations concerning the act of sinking the vessel have been in existence since 2009 but lack of socialization. The Indonesian government’s policy regarding foreign-flagged vessel carrying out IUU fishing is regulated under Law Number 45 of 2009 on Fisheries, and internationally permitted with certain restrictions on conditions set forth in article 73 paragraph (3) of UNCLOS 1982. These policy is part of an effort to improve the deterrence effect of regional offenses that could harm and threaten the sovereignty of the state.

  17. Laboratories of Reform? Human Resource Management Strategies in Illinois Charter Schools. Policy Research: IERC 2016-1

    White, Bradford R.

    2016-01-01

    Charter schools are publicly-funded educational entities that operate independently from local school districts and are exempt from certain state and local requirements, particularly with regard to teacher personnel policy. In exchange for this flexibility, charter schools are held more accountable for results and may be shut down if they fail to…

  18. Scenic Vistas and the Changing Policy Landscape: Visualizing and Testing the Role of Visual Resources in Ecosystem Management

    Robert G. Ribe; Edward T. Armstrong; Paul H. Gobster

    2002-01-01

    The Northwest Forest Plan applies a shift in policy to national forests in the Pacific Northwest, with implications for other public landscapes. This shift offers potentially strong scenic implications for areas that have historically emphasized clearcutting with little visual impact mitigation. These areas will now emphasize biocentric concerns and harvests formed...

  19. Tackling the Phenomenon of Elder Abuse in Italy: A Review of Existing Legislation and Policies as a Learning Resource

    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    In Italy, data and information on prevalence and characteristics of elder abuse are very limited, and a specific legal and policy framework is lacking. Some articles of the Penal Code refer to the larger context of violence against disadvantaged groups, and some general support services not specifically dedicated to this issue are managed by local…

  20. 'Als het getij verloopt, verzet men de bakens'. Sustainable employability policy as being part of Strategic Human Resource Management

    van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    Ageing and dejuvenization of the working population urge us to pay directed attention to sustainable employability policy as being part of Strategic HRM. In this shortened version of my inaugural lecture, a positive psychological approach is used to deal with the possibilities both employees and

  1. INCORPORATING RESILIENCE INTO LAW AND POLICY: A case for preserving a natural resource legacy and promoting a sustainable future

    The concept of sustainability has been widely embraced by society and in environmental law and policy as a measure to ensure a heritage of economic viability, social equity, and environmental stewardship. In a large number of statutes, Congress and many state legislatures have be...

  2. What impact do Global Health Initiatives have on human resources for antiretroviral treatment roll-out? A qualitative policy analysis of implementation processes in Zambia

    Hanefeld Johanna

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the beginning of the 21st century, development assistance for HIV/AIDS has increasingly been provided through Global Health Initiatives, specifically the United States Presidential Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the Global Fund to Fight HIV, TB and Malaria and the World Bank Multi-country AIDS Programme. Zambia, like many of the countries heavily affected by HIV/AIDS in southern Africa, also faces a shortage of human resources for health. The country receives significant amounts of funding from GHIs for the large-scale provision of antiretroviral treatment through the public and private sector. This paper examines the impact of GHIs on human resources for ART roll-out in Zambia, at national level, in one province and two districts. Methods It is a qualitative policy analysis relying on in-depth interviews with more than 90 policy-makers and implementers at all levels. Results Findings show that while GHIs do not provide significant funding for additional human resources, their interventions have significant impact on human resources for health at all levels. While GHIs successfully retrain a large number of health workers, evidence suggests that GHIs actively deplete the pool of skilled human resources for health by recruiting public sector staff to work for GHI-funded nongovernmental implementing agencies. The secondment of GHI staff into public sector facilities may help alleviate immediate staff shortages, but this practice risks undermining sustainability of programmes. GHI-supported programmes and initiatives add significantly to the workload of existing public sector staff at all levels, while incentives including salary top-ups and overtime payments mean that ART programmes are more popular among staff than services for non-focal diseases. Conclusion Research findings suggest that GHIs need to actively mediate against the potentially negative consequences of their funding on human resources for health. Evidence

  3. A risk-based framework to assess long-term effects of policy and water supply changes on water resources systems

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard; Gober, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    Climate uncertainty can affect water resources availability and management decisions. Sustainable water resources management therefore requires evaluation of policy and management decisions under a wide range of possible future water supply conditions. This study proposes a risk-based framework to integrate water supply uncertainty into a forward-looking decision making context. To apply this framework, a stochastic reconstruction scheme is used to generate a large ensemble of flow series. For the Rocky Mountain basins considered here, two key characteristics of the annual hydrograph are its annual flow volume and the timing of the seasonal flood peak. These are perturbed to represent natural randomness and potential changes due to future climate. 30-year series of perturbed flows are used as input to the SWAMP model - an integrated water resources model that simulates regional water supply-demand system and estimates economic productivity of water and other sustainability indicators, including system vulnerability and resilience. The simulation results are used to construct 2D-maps of net revenue of a particular water sector; e.g., hydropower, or for all sectors combined. Each map cell represents a risk scenario of net revenue based on a particular annual flow volume, timing of the peak flow, and 200 stochastic realizations of flow series. This framework is demonstrated for a water resources system in the Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Saskatchewan, Canada. Critical historical drought sequences, derived from tree-ring reconstructions of several hundred years of annual river flows, are used to evaluate the system's performance (net revenue risk) under extremely low flow conditions and also to locate them on the previously produced 2D risk maps. This simulation and analysis framework is repeated under various reservoir operation strategies (e.g., maximizing flood protection or maximizing water supply security); development proposals, such as irrigation

  4. The Political Consequences of Resource Dependence - How Natural Gas Export Can Affect Policy Outcomes: A Quantitative Analysis

    Øistein Breiland Harsem

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the use of a liberal/rational framework as a baseline, this article examines whether economic asymmetric interdependence can yield political influence. More specifically, it examines exogenous gas supply to the EU and develops a theory that provides testable hypotheses aiming to answer whether the export of gas provides political advantages for the sender state. The outlined hypotheses, and more, are tested in a cross sectional time series dataset, where votes in the United Nations (UN Assembly are used as the dependent variable, as a measurement for the policy preferences of states. The empirical findings support the prediction made in the theory section. Gas dependence has a conditional effect on policy behaviour. The sender government has to be a sizeable international power, whilst the recipient government should have low military capabilities and be dependent on foreign support.

  5. Can free open access resources strengthen knowledge-based emerging public health priorities, policies and programs in Africa?

    Tambo, Ernest; Madjou, Ghislaine; Khayeka-Wandabwa, Christopher; Tekwu, Emmanuel N; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A; Midzi, Nicolas; Bengyella, Louis; Adedeji, Ahmed A; Ngogang, Jeanne Y

    2016-01-01

    Tackling emerging epidemics and infectious diseases burden in Africa requires increasing unrestricted open access and free use or reuse of regional and global policies reforms as well as timely communication capabilities and strategies. Promoting, scaling up data and information sharing between African researchers and international partners are of vital importance in accelerating open access at no cost. Free Open Access (FOA) health data and information acceptability, uptake tactics and sustainable mechanisms are urgently needed. These are critical in establishing real time and effective knowledge or evidence-based translation, proven and validated approaches, strategies and tools to strengthen and revamp health systems.  As such, early and timely access to needed emerging public health information is meant to be instrumental and valuable for policy-makers, implementers, care providers, researchers, health-related institutions and stakeholders including populations when guiding health financing, and planning contextual programs.

  6. Environmental Flows in Water Resources Policies, Plans, and Projects - Part 1: Findings and Recommendations and Part 2: Case Studies

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Environmental flows are central to equitable distribution of and access to water and services provided by aquatic ecosystems. They refer to the quality, quantity, and timing of water flows required maintaining the components, functions, processes and resilience of aquatic ecosystems that provide goods and services to people. They are fundamental for sustainable water resources development, ...

  7. Productive diversification in natural resource abundant countries : limitations, policies and the experience of Argentina in the 2000s

    L.A. Serino (Leandro)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe debate on the pattern of specialization in natural resource abundant countries has re-emerged as demand for raw materials and food products from the rapidly growing East Asian countries, speculation in financial markets, and changes in production techniques augmented the

  8. http://www.revistadestatistica.ro/index.php/effective-management-of-resources-for-environmental-protection-using-taxes-in-the-environmental-policy/

    Claudia CĂPĂŢÎNĂ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of environmental taxes, called green taxes or eco-taxes, are ways to internalize the environmental costs in the prices of goods or services, causing producers and consumers to use resources more efficiently and sustainably. Green taxes or Pigovian taxes, named after their inventor, Arthur Pigou are known as sin taxes and when are applied to the “sin” of pollution they may be called environmental taxes or eco-taxes. Sustainable development can not be sustained without the existence of adequate measures and effective for protection of the environment. The polluter pays principle is a principle embraced by all countries from the desire do not deplete environmental resources, some of which being non-renewable resources, to be used by future generations. Polluters are both individuals and legal entities who must to respond in one way or another for their irresponsible actions, compensating damages, protecting the environment and paying damages for any casualties. Green taxes can generate a tax reform. Any responsible person will try to manage in another way the resources when has to bear consequences. In this regard, the environment can be protected more effectively and more cost effective for citizens. The effects of irresponsible actions of some of us not only affect the environment but also all animals and vegetable bodies inclusive people.

  9. Water resource quality policy: the approach adopted by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry under the Water Law principles

    Harris, J

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available . More discussion in this paper is, therefore, centred on ecological integrity than on individual water users under the assumption that the resource will only be able to provide for long term water uses if ecological integrity is assured. A water Reserve...

  10. The Analysis of Human Resources Policies and Regional Financial Accounting System on Regional Government Financial Statements’ Quality

    Aida Nahar; Subadriyah Subadriyah; Ali Sofwan

    2018-01-01

    Accountability of local governments in the implementation of policies should be carried out with the financial statements present the quality. Qualitative characteristics of financial statements described in PP 24/ 2005 that the qualitative characteristics of financial statements is a normative measurement that needs to be realized in the accounting information that can be fulfil its purpose. To be able to raise the normative requirements, this characteristics is absolutely necessary in order...

  11. Using the World Health Organization's 4S-Framework to Strengthen National Strategies, Policies and Services to Address Mental Health Problems in Adolescents in Resource-Constrained Settings

    Cabral de Mello Meena

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most adolescents live in resource-constrained countries and their mental health has been less well recognised than other aspects of their health. The World Health Organization's 4-S Framework provides a structure for national initiatives to improve adolescent health through: gathering and using strategic information; developing evidence-informed policies; scaling up provision and use of health services; and strengthening linkages with other government sectors. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the findings of a recent systematic review of mental health problems in adolescents in resource-constrained settings might be applied using the 4-S Framework. Method Analysis of the implications of the findings of a systematic search of the English-language literature for national strategies, policies, services and cross-sectoral linkages to improve the mental health of adolescents in resource-constrained settings. Results Data are available for only 33/112 [29%] resource-constrained countries, but in all where data are available, non-psychotic mental health problems in adolescents are identifiable, prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life, impaired participation and compromised development. In the absence of evidence about effective interventions in these settings expert opinion is that a broad public policy response which addresses direct strategies for prevention, early intervention and treatment; health service and health workforce requirements; social inclusion of marginalised groups of adolescents; and specific education is required. Specific endorsed strategies include public education, parent education, training for teachers and primary healthcare workers, psycho-educational curricula, identification through periodic screening of the most vulnerable and referral for care, and the availability of counsellors or other identified trained staff members in schools from whom adolescents can seek assistance for

  12. Politics of water resources and environmental problem. US-Japan comparative policy history on the public district; Mizushigen kaihatsu to kankyo mondai. Public district no Nichibei hikaku seisakushi kenkyu

    Mikuriya, T [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1994-12-15

    With an objective to give some suggestion to the water resources policies for the future Japan, a comparative study was made on the water resources development policies in Japan and the water resources policies in the state of California, U.S.A. The study on Japan has been proceeded empirically based on specific data with regard to the development of electric power policies from the prewar to postwar times when the governmental electric power control was changed to incorporation of the nine electric power companies. The change may be identified from viewpoints of both profit and ideology. Noticing the `public corporations` established one after another for social capitals before and after the establishment of the Liberal Democratic Party, their relation with the water resources development policies was pursued in terms of actual proof and political science. The identity of the public corporations established in and after 1955 stands on the premise of free economy, rather than the controlled economy. This paper positions the water resources development policies in a broader context as the national land plan, and considers the problems that are expanding from flood damages, dam construction, industrial complex construction to environmental problems around the water. Comparative discussions on the Tone river system and the Colorado river system were left as the future assignment.

  13. The impact of austerity on the health workforce and the achievement of human resources for health policies in Ireland (2008-2014).

    Williams, Des; Thomas, Steve

    2017-09-11

    The global economic crisis saw recessionary conditions in most EU countries. Ireland's severe recession produced pro-cyclical health spending cuts. Yet, human resources for health (HRH) are the most critical of inputs into a health system and an important economic driver. The aim of this article is to evaluate how the Irish health system coped with austerity in relation to HRH and whether austerity allowed and/or facilitated the implementation of HRH policy. The authors employed a quantitative longitudinal trend analysis over the period 2008 to 2014 with Health Service Executive (HSE) staff database as the principal source. For the purpose of this study, heath service employment is defined as directly employed whole-time equivalent public service staffing in the HSE and other government agencies. The authors also examined the heath sector pay bill and sought to establish linkages between the main staff database and pay expenditure, as given in the HSE Annual Accounts and Financial Statements (AFS), and key HRH policies. The actual cut in total whole-time equivalent (WTE) of directly employed health services human resources over the period 2008 to 2014 was 8027 WTE, a reduction of 7.2% but substantially less than government claims. There was a degree of relative protection for frontline staffing decreasing by 2.9% between 2008 and 2014 and far less than the 18.5% reduction in other staff. Staff exempted from the general moratorium also increased by a combined 12.6%. Counter to stated policy, the decline in staffing of non-acute care was over double than in acute care. Further, the reduction in directly employed staff was to a great extent matched by a marked increase in agency spending. The cuts forced substantial HRH reductions and yet there was some success in pursuing policy goals, such as increasing the frontline workforce while reducing support staff and protection of some cadres. Nevertheless, other policies failed such as moving staff away from acute settings

  14. Availability and Quantity of Human and Material Resources of Nigerian Universities' HIV Youth Friendly Centres: Implication for Policy Implementation

    A.G. Akintomide

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the availability and quality of human and material resources at the Campus-based Youth Friendly Centres in Southwestern Nigeria. The survey research design was adopted and the study was carried out among ten counsellors and centre coordinators of Youth Friendly Centres in four higher institutions of learning in Southwest Nigeria using interview guide and observation checklist to collect data. The result revealed that there were no enough counsellors at the YFCs and some of the counsellors available at the centres did not have enough qualification to render HIV counselling. It was also revealed that material resources were moderately available at most of the centres but not up to the require standard stipulated by the World Health Organization.

  15. SOGC–GOC–SCC Joint Policy Statement. No. 255, March 2011. Cervical cancer prevention in low-resource settings.

    Elit, Laurie; Jimenez, Waldo; McAlpine, Jessica; Ghatage, Prafull; Miller, Dianne; Plante, Marie

    2011-03-01

    To help care providers understand the current status of cervical cancer in low-resource countries. The most effective and practical options for cervical screening and treatment in low-resource countries are evaluated. Improvement in rates of prevention and early detection of cervical cancer in low-resource countries. PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library were searched for studies published in English between January 2006 and December 2009. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Recommendations for practice were ranked according to the method described in that report (Table). RECOMMENDATIONS 1. All girls 9 years old or over should have access to the cervical cancer vaccine before they become sexually active. (I-A) 2. Cervical cancer screening by visual inspection with acetic acid is suggested for low-resource settings acceptable. Cervical cytology or human papillomavirus testing may also be used when practical. (II-2B) 3. Cryotherapy is a safe, effective, and low-cost therapy that should be included in pre-invasive cervical cancer treatment. (III-B) 4. All countries should have a documented cervical cancer prevention strategy that includes public education built on existing outreach programs. (III-C) 5. Countries should define a centre or centres of excellence for the management of cervical cancer. (III-C) Because these units would serve a larger population, they would be able to identify leaders and develop their skills, and would be able to invest in

  16. Some issues regarding regulatory policy, political participation, and social implications of geothermal resource development in the Imperial Valley

    Green, P.S.; Steinberger, M.F.

    1976-02-01

    The early stages of geothermal resource development in the Imperial Valley have been characterized by an emphasis on the technological expertise of private developers and government officials. Government officials have created a complex array of Federal, state and county regulations to monitor the development. Local control is under the jurisdiction of the Imperial County government. The County has as its responsibility the protection of the general welfare of its residents, including any potentially adverse social, economic, or environmental impacts caused by geothermal resource development. Private developers and government officials are interested in the resources as a source of water desalination and electric power generation. An assessment of the interests and concerns of the public was made early in the development stage. In view of all these interests, it is essential in a democratic society that the various interests be identified so government can be representative of, and responsive to, those interests. Therefore, the four issues discussed in the paper are: (1) regulatory problems faced by local government officials in determining the course of development; (2) the social and political context in which the development is taking place; (3) the potential of geothermal development as perceived by community leaders and local government officials; and (4) the desirability of expanding citizen participation in geothermal decision-makingduring a period in which, as public opinion polls indicated, many citizens feel separated from government actions which may significantly affect their lives. Recommendations for regulations of geothermal resources and recommendations for improving public input into geothermal regulation are summarized in depth. (MCW)

  17. How to do (or not to do) … translation of national health accounts data to evidence for policy making in a low resourced setting.

    Price, Jennifer A; Guinness, Lorna; Irava, Wayne; Khan, Idrish; Asante, Augustine; Wiseman, Virginia

    2016-05-01

    For more than a decade, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank have promoted the international standardization of National Health Accounts (NHA) for reporting global statistics on public, private and donor health expenditure and improve the quality of evidence-based decision-making at country level. A 2010-2012 World Bank review of NHA activity in 50 countries found structural and technical constraints (rather than cost) were key impediments to institutionalizing NHA in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Pilot projects focused resources on data production, neglecting longer-term capacity building for analysing the data, developing ownership among local stakeholders and establishing routine production, utilization and dissemination of NHA data. Hence, genuine institutionalization of NHA in most LMICs has been slow to materialize. International manuals focus on the production of NHA data and do not include practical, incremental and low-cost strategies to guide countries in translating the data into evidence for policy-making. The main aim of this article is to recommend strategies for bridging this divide between production and utilization of NHA data in low-resource settings. The article begins by discussing the origins and purpose of NHA, including factors currently undermining their uptake. The focus then turns to the development and application of strategies to assist LMICs in 'unlocking' the hidden value of their NHA. The article draws on the example of Fiji, a country currently attempting to integrate their NHA data into policy formulation, despite minimal resources, training and familiarity with economic analysis of health systems. Simple, low cost recommendations such as embedding health finance indicators in planning documents, a user-friendly NHA guide for evaluating local health priorities, and sharing NHA data for collaborative research have helped translate

  18. The Use of Social Ecological Hotspots Mapping: Co-Developing Adaptation Strategies for Resource Management by Communities and Policy Makers

    Alessa, L.

    2014-12-01

    Ultimately, adaptation is based on a set of trade-offs rather than optimal conditions, something that is rarely seen in messy social ecological systems (SES). In this talk, we discuss the role of spatial hot-spot mapping using social and biophysical data to understand the feedbacks in SES. We review the types of data needed, their means of acquisition and the analytic methods involved. In addition, we outline the challenges faced in co-developing this type of inquiry based on lessons learned from several long-term programs. Finally, we present the utility of SES hotspots in developing adaptation strategies on the ground by communities and policy makers.

  19. The advantages, disadvantages, and policies for part-time radiologists: report of the ACR Commission on Human Resources.

    Harolds, Jay A; Coleman, Beverly G; Recht, Michael P; Bluth, Edward I

    2014-07-01

    The employment of part-time radiologists (PTRs) has both advantages and disadvantages in various practice settings. The authors examine the pros and cons of PTRs and review the literature regarding PTRs both within and outside the specialty of radiology. The complexity of this issue is manifested in our inability to reach consensus on many policy issues for PTRs. Nevertheless, this article should be helpful in offering an objective, nonbiased background to initiating a discussion on employing PTRs in various radiology practices. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Resource management and nonmarket valuation research

    Douglas, A.J.; Taylor, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Survey based nonmarket valuation research is often regarded as economics research. However, resource economists need to be aware of and acknowledge the manifold information sources that they employ in order to enhance the policy credibility of their studies. Communication between resource economists and practitioners of allied disciplines including chemistry, civil engineering, sociology, and anthropology are often neglected. Recent resource allocation policy debates have given rise to an extensive discussion of methodological issues that narrow the scope of the subject. The present paper provides a format for the presentation of nonmarket valuation research results that emphasizes the manifold links between economics studies that employ different methodologies to estimate nonmarket resource values. A more robust emphasis on the interlocking features of the different approaches for estimating nonmarket benefits should foster appreciation of the transdisciplinary aspects of the subject.

  1. Association between competitive food and beverage policies in elementary schools and childhood overweight/obesity trends: differences by neighborhood socioeconomic resources.

    Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N; Crawford, Patricia B; Egerter, Susan

    2015-05-01

    To our knowledge, few published studies have examined the influence of competitive food and beverage (CF&B) policies on student weight outcomes; none have investigated disparities in the influence of CF&B policies on children's body weight by school neighborhood socioeconomic resources. To investigate whether the association between CF&B policies and population-level trends in childhood overweight/obesity differed by school neighborhood income and education levels. This cross-sectional study, from July 2013 to October 2014, compared overweight/obesity prevalence trends before (2001-2005) and after (2006-2010) implementation of CF&B policies in public elementary schools in California. The study included 2 700 880 fifth-grade students in 5362 public schools from 2001 to 2010. California CF&B policies (effective July 1, 2004, and July 1, 2007) and school neighborhood income and education levels. Overweight/obesity defined as a body mass index at or greater than the 85th percentile for age and sex. Overall rates of overweight/obesity ranged from 43.5% in 2001 to 45.8% in 2010. Compared with the period before the introduction of CF&B policies, overweight/obesity trends changed in a favorable direction after the policies took effect (2005-2010); these changes occurred for all children across all school neighborhood socioeconomic levels. In the postpolicy period, these trends differed by school neighborhood socioeconomic advantage. From 2005-2010, trends in overweight/obesity prevalence leveled off among students at schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods but declined in socioeconomically advantaged neighborhoods. Students in the lowest-income neighborhoods experienced zero or near zero change in the odds of overweight/obesity over time: the annual percentage change in overweight/obesity odds was 0.1% for females (95% CI, -0.7 to 0.9) and -0.3% for males (95% CI, -1.1 to 0.5). In contrast, in the highest-income neighborhoods, the annual percentage

  2. Canada's resources and the national interest: summary

    1977-01-01

    This booklet is a summary of a report prepared by an Independent Task Force on the critical policy choices facing Canada with respect to the development of its mining and petroleum resources. The main report of the Task Force (NP-22249) is accompanied by four major research studies, published as Appendices to the main report, and covering the broad subjects of the taxation of non-renewable resources, a survey of our oil and gas resources, a survey of our other mineral resources, and a possible plan for the development of our oil and gas reserves in the coming decade.

  3. Human resource for health reform in peri-urban areas: a cross-sectional study of the impact of policy interventions on healthcare workers in Epworth, Zimbabwe.

    Taderera, Bernard Hope; Hendricks, Stephen James Heinrich; Pillay, Yogan

    2017-12-16

    The need to understand how healthcare worker reform policy interventions impact health personnel in peri-urban areas is important as it also contributes towards setting of priorities in pursuing the universal health coverage goal of health sector reform. This study explored the impact of post 2008 human resource for health reform policy interventions on healthcare workers in Epworth, a peri-urban community in Harare, Zimbabwe, and the implications towards health sector reform policy in peri-urban areas. The study design was exploratory and cross-sectional and involved the use of qualitative and quantitative methods in data collection, presentation, and analysis. A qualitative study in which data were collected through a documentary search, five key informant interviews, seven in-depth interviews, and five focus group discussions was carried out first. This was followed by a quantitative study in which data were collected through a documentary search and 87 semi-structured sample interviews with healthcare workers. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically whilst descriptive statistics were used to examine quantitative data. All data were integrated during analysis to ensure comprehensive, reliable, and valid analysis of the dataset. Three main factors were identified to help interpret findings. The first main factor consisted policy result areas that impacted most successfully on healthcare workers. These included the deployment of community health workers with the highest correlation of 0.83. Policy result areas in the second main factor included financial incentives with a correlation of 0.79, training and development (0.77), deployment (0.77), and non-financial incentives (0.75). The third factor consisted policy result areas that had the lowest satisfaction amongst healthcare workers in Epworth. These included safety (0.72), equipment and tools of trade (0.72), health welfare (0.65), and salaries (0.55). The deployment of community health volunteers impacted

  4. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Policy and research recommendations (report 5); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Forschungs- und Handlungsempfehlungen (Teilbericht 5)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Raw material conflict occurs in various forms: in the form of supply bottlenecks and crises, violent disputes, or even war; as well as due to the effects of environmental destruction, whereby the sources of people's livelihood are lost. Raw material conflict is a reality in many instances, but in others is merely postulated. On the one hand, the nature, strategic importance and price of raw materials influence potential conflict constellations. On the other hand, much depends on the management and governance of raw material resources and production, material flows, value creation chains and sources of financing, across a variety of levels. Existing research into raw material conflict in the field of oil, gas and valuable minerals reveals the multi-layered complexity of the issue as well as the necessity and possibilities of avoiding such conflict in a sustainable manner over the long term. This research landscape was the starting point for the study by adelphi and the Wuppertal Institute titled ''Sustainable Prevention of Resource Conflicts: Identifying and reducing international conflict risk relating to access to and use of raw materials''. The project has added to existing research and delivered new perspectives in relation to lithium and rare earths - resources which are of special relevance for future energy supply and planning - with a view to developing renewable energy sources and meeting ambitious climate protection goals. This report summarises the results of the research project and sets out recommendations. The project was sponsored by the German Federal Environmental Agency, and was conducted in the period between July 2008 and September 2010. The results are published in a total of eight reports which are briefly summarised here. (orig.)

  5. Policy analysis: palliative care in Ireland.

    Larkin, P

    2014-03-01

    Palliative care for patients with advanced illness is a subject of growing importance in health services, policy and research. In 2001 Ireland became one of the first nations to publish a dedicated national palliative care policy. This paper uses the \\'policy analysis triangle\\' as a framework to examine what the policy entailed, where the key ideas originated, why the policy process was activated, who were the key actors, and what were the main consequences. Although palliative care provision expanded following publication, priorities that were unaddressed or not fully embraced on the national policy agenda are identified. The factors underlying areas of non-fulfilment of policy are then discussed. In particular, the analysis highlights that policy initiatives in a relatively new field of healthcare face a trade-off between ambition and feasibility. Key policy goals could not be realised given the large resource commitments required; the competition for resources from other, better-established healthcare sectors; and challenges in expanding workforce and capacity. Additionally, the inherently cross-sectoral nature of palliative care complicated the co-ordination of support for the policy. Policy initiatives in emerging fields such as palliative care should address carefully feasibility and support in their conception and implementation.

  6. Linking material flow analysis and resource policy via future scenarios of in-use stock: an example for copper.

    Gerst, Michael D

    2009-08-15

    A key aspect to achieving long-term resource sustainability is the development of methodologies that explore future material cycles and their environmental impact. Using a novel dynamic in-use stock model and scenario analysis, I analyzed the multilevel global copper cycle over the next 100 years. In 1990, the industrialized world had an in-use copper stock about twice as large as the developing world and a per capita in-use stock of about six times as large. By 2100, the developing world will have an in-use copper stock about three times as large as the industrialized world, but the industrialized world will maintain a per capita stock twice that of the developing world. Under a scenario of no material substitution or technological change in copper products, global in-use stock in 2100 will be about as large as currently known copper resources. However, current scrap recycling trends and exploration will alleviate absolute supply pressure but not environmental impacts from decreasing copper are grades. Additionally, unexpected emergent properties of dematerialization are observed from the in-use stock model that arise solely from the properties of stock dynamics, an infrequently discussed cause of dematerialization in the literature.

  7. Deconstructing domestic violence policy

    Branney, PE

    2006-01-01

    The primary objectives of this thesis are to, circularly, deconstruct contemporary domestic violence policy while developing and evaluating methods for deconstructing policy. Policy is theorised as a discursive practice, which allows a variety of policies to be compared and critiqued by how they position the people they affect. These are known as subject positions, or subjectivities, and throughout this thesis I attempt to critique policy by examining the (re)construction of subjectivity. In ...

  8. Relationship Between Subjectively Evaluated Health and Fear of Death Among Elderly in Three Cultural Contexts: Effects of Internal and External Resources

    Hofer, J.; Busch, H.; Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Tavel, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 4 (2017), s. 343-365 ISSN 0091-4150 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-02634S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : fear of death * subjective health * social support * optimism * old age * culture Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Cognitive sciences Impact factor: 0.662, year: 2016

  9. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Test Beam Policy

    Stefanski, R.; Anderson, D.; Childress, S.

    1989-01-01

    This document was developed at the request of the Physics Advisory Committee of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory to review the general subject of test beams with the purpose of establishing general policy and guidelines for consideration of future test beam requests. The recommendations stated here should be subject to periodic review, since the Laboratory position must change as needs and available resources change

  10. Translating vaccine policy into action: a report from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Consultation on the prevention of maternal and early infant influenza in resource-limited settings.

    Ortiz, Justin R; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Ahonkhai, Vincent I; Gellin, Bruce G; Salisbury, David M; Read, Jennifer S; Adegbola, Richard A; Abramson, Jon S

    2012-11-26

    Immunization of pregnant women against influenza is a promising strategy to protect the mother, fetus, and young infant from influenza-related diseases. The burden of influenza during pregnancy, the vaccine immunogenicity during this period, and the robust influenza vaccine safety database underpin recommendations that all pregnant women receive the vaccine to decrease complications of influenza disease during their pregnancies. Recent data also support maternal immunization for the additional purpose of preventing disease in the infant during the first six months of life. In April 2012, the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization recommended revisions to the WHO position paper on influenza vaccines. For the first time, SAGE recommended pregnant women should be made the highest priority for inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination. However, the variable maternal influenza vaccination coverage in countries with pre-existing maternal influenza vaccine recommendations underscores the need to understand and to address the discrepancy between recommendations and implementation success. We present the outcome of a multi-stakeholder expert consultation on inactivated influenza vaccination in pregnancy. The creation and implementation of vaccine policies and regulations require substantial resources and capacity. As with all public health interventions, the existence of perceived and real risks of vaccination will necessitate effective and transparent risk communication. Potential risk allocation and sharing mechanisms should be addressed by governments, vaccine manufacturers, and other stakeholders. In resource-limited settings, vaccine-related issues concerning supply, formulation, regulation, evidence evaluation, distribution, cost-utility, and post-marketing safety surveillance need to be addressed. Lessons can be learned from the Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Initiative as well as efforts to increase vaccine coverage among pregnant

  11. Constructing a Strategic, National Resource: European Policies and the Up-Scaling of Water Services in the Algarve, Portugal

    Thiel, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Water management has been significantly reshaped throughout recent decades in Europe and worldwide. Vivid examples of this restructuring include Southern European coastal zones which have been transformed into the European “pleasure periphery” over the last 40 years, requiring significant changes in water service provision. Taking it as an illustrative case of the Southern European coastal freshwater crisis and the way different European Member States have dealt with it, the article provides an account of the Algarve, indicative of typical Portuguese dynamics, and compares it with developments in other European countries. Expanding demands on water services in this region led to a crisis situation throughout the nineties, which was resolved by shifting physical infrastructures and competencies to the supra-local level. The re-scaling of water management was instrumental to expanding national control over the sector at the expense of local authorities and privatization. The national level used European funds and regulations to re-configure the institutional and infrastructure set-up in order to provide for tourism and agricultural expansion. Quality tourism was constructed as a decentral, hegemonic state spatial project, with the Algarvian’s entire water resource base being put at its disposal. The solution found illustrates a modified version of the supply side and surface water oriented “hydraulic paradigm” in Portugal: geared towards tourism and urban areas and the maintenance of irrigation agriculture. Delays in infrastructures, ideological preferences, maintaining national control over strategic water services and territoriality contributed towards the construction of water services as part of this hegemonic state spatial strategy for tourism expansion.

  12. The impact of disaster work on community volunteers: The role of peri-traumatic distress, level of personal affectedness, sleep quality and resource loss, on post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and subjective health.

    Thormar, Sigridur B; Gersons, Berthold P R; Juen, Barbara; Djakababa, Maria Nelden; Karlsson, Thorlakur; Olff, Miranda

    2014-12-01

    Disaster work has shown to cause PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints in professional emergency personnel. However, very little is known about how disaster work affects community volunteers. This first time longitudinal study examined factors contributing to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD) and subjective health complaints in volunteers working in an earthquake setting. At six and eighteen months post disaster, a sample of 506 Indonesian Red Cross volunteers were assessed using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the Subjective Health Complaints Inventory. Factors analyzed in relation to the outcomes included: peri-traumatic distress, level of personal affectedness by the disaster, sleep quality and loss of resources as a consequence of the disaster. At 18 months post-disaster the findings showed high levels of PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints. Quality of sleep was related to both outcomes but resource loss only to PTSD symptoms. Neither peri-traumatic distress nor level of affectedness by the disaster (external versus directly affected volunteers), were predictive of symptoms. This study indicates that characteristics of disaster work e.g. low quality of sleep, may be an important contributor to PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints in volunteers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. "…a proper subject of reproach to the Empire". Reflections on British Education Policy in the Seychelles 1938-1948

    Whitehead, Clive

    2008-01-01

    The Seychelles, one of Britain's more remote Indian Ocean colonies, long suffered a totally inadequate system of schooling based mainly on the Roman Catholic mission. This article traces how education policy was challenged in the 1930s and changed in the 1940s. Emphasis is placed on the decisive role of the colonial governor in initiating and…

  14. Using a Multi-Method Approach to Examine Social-Ecological Vulnerability to Climate Change and Natural Resource Policies on the Tibetan Plateau

    Klein, J.; Hopping, K. A.; Yeh, E.; Nyima, Y.; Galvin, K.; Boone, R.; Dorje, T.; Ojima, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Pastoralists and ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau are facing a suite of novel stresses. Temperatures are increasing several times more than the global average. The frequency and severity of severe snowstorms, which lead to critical losses of livestock, are also increasing. Pastoralists are also experiencing changes to their livelihood activities, including reduced mobility and severe grazing restrictions. We are using interdisciplinary frameworks and methods that integrate results from a multifactor ecological experiment, household interviews, remote sensing, and a coupled ecosystem and household decision-making model to examine herder and ecosystem vulnerability to climate change and extreme weather events (snow disasters) within the context of changing natural resource management policies in China. The fully factorial ecological experiment includes two climate changes (warming and spring snow additions) and two types of grazing (yak and pika) that are being affected by current policy. We established the experiment in 2008 within the Tibet Autonomous Region. We are monitoring microclimate, vegetation, nutrient availability, ecosystem carbon fluxes and stable isotope signatures of select plant species. Through this experiment, we are investigating the sensitivity of the system, whether it can cross critical thresholds, and how resilient this system may be to predicted future climate and land use changes. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews on indigenous knowledge and vulnerability complement the ecological experimental work. We are asking herders about climate and ecological change and their drivers and are also conducting interviews on vulnerability to snow disasters across a three site, 300-500mm precipitation gradient. We are using remote sensing to identify biophysical landscape change over time. To integrate our ecological and social findings, we are coupling the Savanna ecosystem model to the DECUMA agent-based pastoral household model. Our results to date

  15. Analysis of policy implications and challenges of the Cuban health assistance program related to human resources for health in the Pacific

    Asante Augustine D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cuba has extended its medical cooperation to Pacific Island Countries (PICs by supplying doctors to boost service delivery and offering scholarships for Pacific Islanders to study medicine in Cuba. Given the small populations of PICs, the Cuban engagement could prove particularly significant for health systems development in the region. This paper reviews the magnitude and form of Cuban medical cooperation in the Pacific and analyses its implications for health policy, human resource capacity and overall development assistance for health in the region. Methods We reviewed both published and grey literature on health workforce in the Pacific including health workforce plans and human resource policy documents. Further information was gathered through discussions with key stakeholders involved in health workforce development in the region. Results Cuba formalised its relationship with PICs in September 2008 following the first Cuba-Pacific Islands ministerial meeting. Some 33 Cuban health personnel work in Pacific Island Countries and 177 Pacific island students are studying medicine in Cuba in 2010 with the most extensive engagement in Kiribati, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. The cost of the Cuban medical cooperation to PICs comes in the form of countries providing benefits and paying allowances to in-country Cuban health workers and return airfares for their students in Cuba. This has been seen by some PICs as a cheaper alternative to training doctors in other countries. Conclusions The Cuban engagement with PICs, while smaller than engagement with other countries, presents several opportunities and challenges for health system strengthening in the region. In particular, it allows PICs to increase their health workforce numbers at relatively low cost and extends delivery of health services to remote areas. A key challenge is that with the potential increase in the number of medical doctors, once the local students

  16. Analysis of human resources for health strategies and policies in 5 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, in response to GFATM and PEPFAR-funded HIV-activities.

    Cailhol, Johann; Craveiro, Isabel; Madede, Tavares; Makoa, Elsie; Mathole, Thubelihle; Parsons, Ann Neo; Van Leemput, Luc; Biesma, Regien; Brugha, Ruairi; Chilundo, Baltazar; Lehmann, Uta; Dussault, Gilles; Van Damme, Wim; Sanders, David

    2013-10-25

    Global Health Initiatives (GHIs), aiming at reducing the impact of specific diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), have flourished since 2000. Amongst these, PEPFAR and GFATM have provided a substantial amount of funding to countries affected by HIV, predominantly for delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ARV) and prevention strategies. Since the need for additional human resources for health (HRH) was not initially considered by GHIs, countries, to allow ARV scale-up, implemented short-term HRH strategies, adapted to GHI-funding conditionality. Such strategies differed from one country to another and slowly evolved to long-term HRH policies. The processes and content of HRH policy shifts in 5 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa were examined. A multi-country study was conducted from 2007 to 2011 in 5 countries (Angola, Burundi, Lesotho, Mozambique and South Africa), to assess the impact of GHIs on the health system, using a mixed methods design. This paper focuses on the impact of GFATM and PEPFAR on HRH policies. Qualitative data consisted of semi-structured interviews undertaken at national and sub-national levels and analysis of secondary data from national reports. Data were analysed in order to extract countries' responses to HRH challenges posed by implementation of HIV-related activities. Common themes across the 5 countries were selected and compared in light of each country context. In all countries successful ARV roll-out was observed, despite HRH shortages. This was a result of mostly short-term emergency response by GHI-funded Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and to a lesser extent by governments, consisting of using and increasing available HRH for HIV tasks. As challenges and limits of short-term HRH strategies were revealed and HIV became a chronic disease, the 5 countries slowly implemented mid to long-term HRH strategies, such as formalisation of pilot initiatives, increase in HRH production and mitigation of internal migration of HRH

  17. Dynamic Communication Resource Negotiations

    Chow, Edward; Vatan, Farrokh; Paloulian, George; Frisbie, Steve; Srostlik, Zuzana; Kalomiris, Vasilios; Apgar, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Today's advanced network management systems can automate many aspects of the tactical networking operations within a military domain. However, automation of joint and coalition tactical networking across multiple domains remains challenging. Due to potentially conflicting goals and priorities, human agreement is often required before implementation into the network operations. This is further complicated by incompatible network management systems and security policies, rendering it difficult to implement automatic network management, thus requiring manual human intervention to the communication protocols used at various network routers and endpoints. This process of manual human intervention is tedious, error-prone, and slow. In order to facilitate a better solution, we are pursuing a technology which makes network management automated, reliable, and fast. Automating the negotiation of the common network communication parameters between different parties is the subject of this paper. We present the technology that enables inter-force dynamic communication resource negotiations to enable ad-hoc inter-operation in the field between force domains, without pre-planning. It also will enable a dynamic response to changing conditions within the area of operations. Our solution enables the rapid blending of intra-domain policies so that the forces involved are able to inter-operate effectively without overwhelming each other's networks with in-appropriate or un-warranted traffic. It will evaluate the policy rules and configuration data for each of the domains, then generate a compatible inter-domain policy and configuration that will update the gateway systems between the two domains.

  18. Human resources for health planning and management in the Eastern Mediterranean region: facts, gaps and forward thinking for research and policy

    Abdallah Ahmad

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The early decades of the 21st century are considered to be the era of human resources for health (HRH. The World Health Report (WHR 2006 launched the Health Workforce Decade (2006–2015, with high priority given for countries to develop effective workforce policies and strategies. In many countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR, particularly those classified as Low and Low-Middle Income Countries (LMICs, the limited knowledge about the nature, scope, composition and needs of HRH is hindering health sector reform. This highlights an urgent need to understand the current reality of HRH in several EMR countries. The objectives of this paper are to: (1 lay out the facts on what we know about the HRH for EMR countries; (2 generate and interpret evidence on the relationship between HRH and health status indicators for LMICs and middle and high income countries (MHICs in the context of EMR; (3 identify and analyze the information gaps (i.e. what we do not know and (4 provide forward thinking by identifying priorities for research and policy. Methods The variables used in the analysis were: nurse and physician density, gross national income, poverty, female literacy, health expenditure, Infant Mortality Rate (IMR, Under 5 Mortality Rate (U5MR, Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR and Life Expectancy (LE. Univariate (charts, bivariate (Pearson correlation and multivariate analysis (linear regression was conducted using SPSS 14.0, besides a synthesis of HRH literature. Results Results demonstrate the significant disparities in physician and nurse densities within the EMR, particularly between LMICs and MHICs. Besides this, significant differences exist in health status indicators within the EMR. Results of the Pearson correlation revealed that physician and nurse density, as well as female literacy in EMR countries were significantly correlated with lower mortality rates and higher life expectancy. Results of the regression

  19. Canada's uranium policies

    Smith, K.L.; Williams, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the Canadian Government policies which affect the uranium industry and, where appropriate, to provide some background on the development of these policies. This review is timely because of two recent announcements by the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources - one concerning the Canadian Government's renewed commitment to maintain the nuclear power option for Canada, and the other concerning some adjustments to Canada's uranium export policy. The future of Canada's nuclear industry was subject to a thorough review by the Canadian Government during 1989. This review occurred at a time when environmental issues were attracting increasing attention around the world, and the environmental advantages of nuclear power were becoming increasingly recognised. The strong support for the nuclear industry in Canada is consistent with the government's long-standing efforts to maintain Canada's position as a reliable and competitive supplier of uranium. This paper is particularly devoted to an outline of the results of the uranium export policy review. (author)

  20. The complex remuneration of human resources for health in low-income settings: policy implications and a research agenda for designing effective financial incentives.

    Bertone, Maria Paola; Witter, Sophie

    2015-07-28

    Human resources for health represent an essential component of health systems and play a key role to accelerate progress towards universal health coverage. Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa face challenges regarding the availability, distribution and performance of health workers, which could be in part addressed by providing effective financial incentives. Based on an overview of the existing literature, the paper highlights the gaps in the existing research in low-income countries exploring the different components of health workers' incomes. It then proposes a novel approach to the analysis of financial incentives and delineates a research agenda, which could contribute to shed light on this topic. The article finds that, while there is ample research that investigates separately each of the incomes health workers may earn (for example, salary, fee-for-service payments, informal incomes, "top-ups" and per diems, dual practice and non-health activities), there is a dearth of studies which look at the health workers' "complex remuneration", that is, the whole of the financial incentives available. Little research exists which analyses simultaneously all revenues of health workers, quantifies the overall remuneration and explores its complexity, its multiple components and their features, as well as the possible interaction between income components. However, such a comprehensive approach is essential to fully comprehend health workers' incentives, by investigating the causes (at individual and system level) of the fragmentation in the income structure and the variability in income levels, as well as the consequences of the "complex remuneration" on motivation and performance. This proposition has important policy implications in terms of devising effective incentive packages as it calls for an active consideration of the role that "complex remuneration" plays in determining recruitment, retention and motivation patterns, as well as, more broadly, the

  1. Expanding subjectivities

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  2. Impact of policies designed to enhance efficiency of water and nutrients on farm households varying in resource endowments in south India

    Senthilkumar, K.; Bindraban, P.S.; Ridder, de N.; Thiyagarajan, T.M.; Giller, K.E.

    2012-01-01

    Livelihoods of rice farmers depend on the efficient use of scarcely available agricultural resources. Farmers tend to maximize economic output of farming activities that may not necessarily coincide with the optimal use of resources from an ecological perspective. However, improving resource use

  3. Italian energy policy

    1988-01-01

    This document discusses problems associated with Italian energy policy; economic and industrial development as it relates to that policy is covered. Specific areas covered are: (1) the basis of Italy's new energy policy; (2) energy demand; (3) five objectives; (4) the electrical power system; (5) proposed action; and (6) energy resources

  4. THE CONCEPT OF THE SUBJECT IN THE ADMINISTRATION: A LOOK FROM THE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT. LA CONCEPCIÓN DEL SUJETO EN LA ADMINISTRACIÓN: UNA MIRADA DESDE LA GESTIÓN HUMANA.

    Juan Guillermo Saldarriaga Ríos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses an essential issue in the current administration, insofar as it aims to reveal the concept of subject that underlies the tenets and in the practice of Administration, a conception which is evidenced to be dissimilar in both scenarios. Therefore, the approach is done through the human resources management, which is understood as an essential, integral, and inclusive process within the organizations and whose function is (theoretically to rescue the subject both in the Administration and the labor scenario. Then, a critical analysis of the concept of management is carried out, making a tour of its evolution over time and the evolution that the subject has historically had within it, hence it is resorted to the development of the human resources management as a concept and as an administrative practice. RESUMEN: Este artículo aborda una problemática esencial en la administración actual, en cuanto pretende develar la concepción de sujeto que subyace en los postulados y en la práctica de la Administración, concepción que se evidencia disímil en ambos escenarios. Por ello, el abordaje se realiza a través de gestión humana, entendida como un proceso esencial, integral e integrador en las organizaciones y cuya función (teóricamente es rescatar al sujeto tanto en la administración como en el escenario laboral. Se realiza entonces un análisis crítico del concepto de administración, haciendo un recorrido de su evolución a lo largo del tiempo y de la evolución que el sujeto ha tenido históricamente dentro de ella, para lo cual se recurre al desarrollo de la gestión humana como concepto y como práctica administrativa.

  5. Energy policy, strategies for uncertainty

    Cook, P.L.; Surrey, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in chapters, entitled: energy policy-objectives, strategies and policies; the 1967 fuel policy; problems of the optimising approach; the uncertain outlook; oil; coal; gas; electricity; the interdependence of the four fuel industries; energy policy for the future - the need for a long-term strategy; medium-term strategies and short-term policies; the organisational decisions of energy policy. Nuclear power is included in the subject matter. (U.K.)

  6. Subject (of documents)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  7. Role of targeted policies in mainstreaming renewable energy in a resource constrained electricity system: A case study of Karnataka electricity system in India

    Amrutha, A.A.; Balachandra, P.; Mathirajan, M.

    2017-01-01

    India is aggressively pursuing its renewable energy capacity expansion goals. Targeted policies such as Feed-in Tariff (FIT), Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) and Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) are introduced to stimulate renewable energy capacity expansion as well as generation. Currently, Indian power utilities treat RPO targets as a cost-burden, and therefore there is prevalence of non-compliance. Even other policies, such as FIT and RECs, in their present form, have failed to influence increase in renewable electricity supply. This has lead us to raise an important question whether these policies are adequate for building a cost-effective renewable energy-based low carbon electricity system for India. In this paper, we discuss the impact of above targeted policies in increasing the share of renewable electricity generation in the case of Karnataka State Electricity System. Various scenarios are developed and analysed using mixed-integer programming model to study the impacts. The results suggest that optimally managed FIT and REC schemes can provide opportunities for utilities to benefit from reduced costs. Overall, the above policies are inadequate, and introduction of market-based incentives, which expand the scope of trading in renewable energy certificates, are essential to achieve the desired objectives. - Highlights: • Analysing impacts of targeted energy policies in increasing renewable electricity share. • Scenario analyses are used to study impact on costs, targets, shortages and compliance. • Current policies are inadequate to ensure renewable energy utilization beyond targets. • Policies are necessary to incentivise compliance and penalise non-compliance.

  8. Material Resources Availability, Parent Subject Perception and ...

    Prof

    Introduction. Education is the cornerstone of economic growth and social development. It is a ... how to learn, thus there is an emphasis on the development of cognitive, affective and psychomotor ..... clinical and conselling psychology, Vol. 12.

  9. A policy system for Grid Management and Monitoring

    Stagni, Federico; Santinelli, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Organizations using a Grid computing model are faced with non-traditional administrative challenges: the heterogeneous nature of the underlying resources requires professionals acting as Grid Administrators. Members of a Virtual Organization (VO) can use a subset of available resources and services in the grid infrastructure and in an ideal world, the more resources are exploited the better. In the real world, the less faulty services, the better: experienced Grid administrators apply procedures for adding and removing services, based on their status, as it is reported by an ever-growing set of monitoring tools. When a procedure is agreed and well-exercised, a formal policy could be derived. For this reason, using the DIRAC framework in the LHCb collaboration, we developed a policy system that can enforce management and operational policies, in a VO-specific fashion. A single policy makes an assessment on the status of a subject, relative to one or more monitoring information. Subjects of the policies are monitored entities of an established Grid ontology. The status of a same entity is evaluated against a number of policies, whose results are then combined by a Policy Decision Point. Such results are enforced in a Policy Enforcing Point, which provides plug-ins for actions, like raising alarms, sending notifications, automatic addition and removal of services and resources from the Grid mask. Policy results are shown in the web portal, and site-specific views are provided also. This innovative system provides advantages in terms of procedures automation, information aggregation and problem solving.

  10. Other Resources for Researchers

    The AfricaPortal is an online resource of policy research on African issues. ... Over 3000 Open Access books, journals and digital documents relating to African ... guides. http://www.lib.monash.edu.au/tutorials/citing/harvard.html Harvard Style.

  11. Rangeland and water resources

    Session B3 Management for sustainable use — Rangeland and water resources. ... The theme of optimsing integrated catchment management will be treated ... land system, catchment, basin), with a focus on law, policy and implementation.

  12. Equity and globalisation. On the necessity of equitable, sustainable global energy and resource policies; Gerechtigkeit und Globalisierung. Zur Notwendigkeit einer gerechten und nachhaltigen globalen Energie- und Ressourcenpolitik

    Metzler, Anja

    2009-01-15

    The trend towards globalisation is steadily increasing and, whether directly or indirectly, gaining an influence on more and more areas of our lives. At the same time, more and more negative effects of human activities attending the globalisation process are becoming apparent, especially for poor populations, but also for future generations. One essential trait of globalisation is that no-one can flee from it - or, to be more precise, from the negative impact of the deeds done in its name. Globalisation therefore poses a global-scale equity problem. This can be demonstrated with particular clarity by reference to current global energy and resource policies. The foremost intent of this thesis therefore is to search for a more equitable and sustainable kind of globalisation than the one being practised at present. As we can learn from the political philosophy of international relations, this primarily requires an internationally binding code of behaviour or regulatory framework. Otherwise, as our present reality teaches us, whatever efforts are made, the outcome will be extremely meagre. This kind of commitment has been demanded on many occasions in the past. However, where it has been codified to date, this has largely only been in the form of inter-country peace orders. The most prominent writings to this end are those of John Rawls. However, theories such as his are no longer commensurate with the complexity of today's globalisation process. The author of the present dissertation therefore addresses the better known of the few approaches that go beyond Rawl's thinking, some of which evolved directly from a critical study of his writings. She deliberately also reviews some of the lesser known works. Based on a critical examination of the practicality of these approaches the author presents a draft for a binding global regulatory framework for the environment, economy and peace. [German] Globalisierungstendenzen nehmen immer staerker zu und beeinflussen

  13. MDESRAP: a model for understanding the dynamics of electricity supply, resources and pollution

    Qudrat-Ullah, H.

    2005-01-01

    The inherent dynamic complexity of the energy policy design problem makes the conventional 'closed-form' solution impossible. This paper contributes a dynamic simulation model as a possible solution. The model captures the dynamics of underlying sectors of electricity demand, investment, capital, resource, production, environment and costs and pricing. The existing feedback loops, nonlinearity and time-lag characteristics present in the real world electricity systems are incorporated in the model. The model is calibrated to Pakistan's case data. How the model has been used in policy assessments and the design of the alternative energy policies subject to various environmental and resource constraints is also discussed. (author)

  14. Beyond Wage Bill Ceilings : The Impact of Government Fiscal and Human Resource Management Policies on the Health Workforce in Developing Countries, Background Country Study for Rwanda

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    One of the main explanations put forth on why access to health workers is so low in developing countries is that there are insufficient resources within the public sector to pay the wage bill - the salary and allowance payments - of an expanded health workforce. In turn, the lack of wage bill resources for the health sector is thought to be a direct result of restrictive macroeconomic poli...

  15. Sustainable and resource efficient intensivation of crop production - Perspectives of agro-ecosystem research Policy paper of the DFG Senate Commission on Agroecosystem Research

    Wolters, V.; Isselstein, J.; Stützel, H.; Ordon, F.; Haaren, von C.; Schlecht, E.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Birner, R.; Lützow, von M.; Brüggemann, N.; Diekkrüger, B.; Fangmeier, A.; Flessa, H.; Kage, H.; Kaupenhohann, M.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Mosandl, R.; Seppelt, R.

    2014-01-01

    With its policy paper the Senate Commission on Agro-ecosystemResearch of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DFG) summarizes potential benefits of basic researchfor the sustainable intensification of crop production. Agro-ecosystems critically contribute to fulfilling the need forincreasing food and

  16. Greenland and Natural Resources

    Lyck, Lise

    Greenland policy can delay and maybe change the future of the forecasted development of the use of natural resources. This book is relevant for anyone interested in Greenland in general and the development of Greenland both politically and economically and in relation natural resources....

  17. Conflict between Water Policy and Sustainability

    Barros, A. F.

    2001-05-01

    Recent developments in the area of water policy have focussed around the concepts of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). The goal of this activity has been to improve the efficiency of the potential worldwide investment of \\$80 billion per year into the water sector, and to lobby for more expenditure to meet the rapidly expanding demands placed upon water resources worldwide. Unfortunately, there is no definitive and widely accepted definition of IWRM and this fuels the long-standing feeling amongst the scientific community that water policy studies and institutions shortchange sustainability considerations, including those dealing scientific understanding of hydrology and aquatic ecosystems. This is made more difficult because the concepts used in describing sustainability are themselves diffuse and can be contradictory. The nature of understanding of the essential elements of sustainable development and those of the policy community are basically different. Policy has to be general, descriptive, and immediate-sustainability is just the opposite; it must be specific, analytical, and take a long perspective. No one on either side of the divide would claim that the other activities are not important, but bridging the divide is extremely difficult and rare. Typically, policy studies try to incorporate the bureaucratic concepts of water management and institutional reforms without considering the analytical work associated with long-term sustainability of water resources. Furthermore, water resource problems are characterized by high levels of complexity and require a strong interdisciplinary mix of approaches. Unfortunately, what is known and what is likely in the near future are subject to wide interpretation by different observers. This paper examines the conflict between the demands of water policy, which is essentially short-term and narrowly focused with the demands of sustainability, which are long-term and broadly based.

  18. A study on the role of nuclear energy in overcoming environment and resource crisis -For the establishment of sustainable energy policy-

    Han, Pil Soon; Choi, Yung Myung; Ham, Chul Hoon; Cho, Il Hoon; Jung, Heum Soo; Lee, Tae Joon; Lee, Duk Sun

    1995-04-01

    This study is mainly composed of the analyses of the current circumstances and the future views on the global warming and the exhaustion of energy resources related to the use of energy, and the suggestion on the role of nuclear energy as the most prospective countermeasure on energy crisis. The effects of the problems of global warming and energy crisis on the 21st century are look upon and the strategies of each countries to their crises are analyzed in this study. In energy source and the characteristics of nuclear energy resource, and the necessity of the sustainable development of nuclear energy was emphasized. We suggested the enlargement of the development of nuclear energy in the aspects of the international trends, the national economic options and the deficiency of energy resources, and proposed the detail of the short - and long - term strategies on these matters. 22 figs, 39 tabs, 45 refs. (Author)

  19. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policy Act of 1977. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Fifth Congress, First Session on S. 897 and S. 1432

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    On April 7, 1977, President Carter announced his nuclear power policy. The policy statement set forth seven specific objectives for the future use of nuclear energy in this country and the rest of the world. The two proposed instruments for implementing this policy are the revised fiscal year 1978 ERDA authorization draft bill and S. 1432, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1977. These legislative proposals are linked in that S. 1432 is designed to establish a non-proliferation framework with specific objectives established for the ERDA nuclear energy programs. The ERDA authorization bill is the budgetary vehicle to implement those objectives. The Committee on Energy and Natural Resources obtained joint referral of certain portions of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act to insure that non-proliferation policy is implemented in a manner consistent with the policy of having sufficient energy for this country and foreign countries in the future. The Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development must examine the costs and the consequences of various initiatives before they are implemented. F or example, the proposal to guarantee uranium enrichment services for foreign nations poses specific requirements on ERDA to expand considerably our enrichment capacity by the year 2000. Without reprocessing, it is expected that spent fuel rods from abroad will be returned to this country for storage with attendant costs and siting decisions. Also, international fuel-cycle evaluation programs must be carefully examined to insure that all options, including regional fuel cycle centers with international controls and inspection, are considered in seeking international approaches to the non-proliferation objectives. At the June 10 hearing, the subcommittee received testimony on S. 1432, the bill prepared by the administration. The hearings on September 13 and 14 focused on S. 897. Statements by many witnesses are included

  20. A policy system for Grid Management and Monitoring

    Stagni, Federico; Santinelli, Roberto; LHCb Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    Organizations using a Grid computing model are faced with non-traditional administrative challenges: the heterogeneous nature of the underlying resources requires professionals acting as Grid Administrators. Members of a Virtual Organization (VO) can use a subset of available resources and services in the grid infrastructure and in an ideal world, the more resoures are exploited the better. In the real world, the less faulty services, the better: experienced Grid administrators apply procedures for adding and removing services, based on their status, as it is reported by an ever-growing set of monitoring tools. When a procedure is agreed and well-exercised, a formal policy could be derived. For this reason, using the DIRAC framework in the LHCb collaboration, we developed a policy system that can enforce management and operational policies, in a VO-specific fashion. A single policy makes an assessment on the status of a subject, relative to one or more monitoring information. Subjects of the policies are monitored entities of an established Grid ontology. The status of a same entity is evaluated against a number of policies, whose results are then combined by a Policy Decision Point. Such results are enforced in a Policy Enforcing Point, which provides plug-ins for actions, like raising alarms, sending notifications, automatic addition and removal of services and resources from the Grid mask. Policy results are shown in the web portal, and site-specific views are provided also. This innovative system provides advantages in terms of procedures automation, information aggregation and problem solving.

  1. Energy Resource Planning. Optimal utilization of energy resources

    Miclescu, T.; Domschke, W.; Bazacliu, G.; Dumbrava, V.

    1996-01-01

    For a thermal power plants system, the primary energy resources cost constitutes a significant percentage of the total system operational cost. Therefore a small percentage saving in primary energy resource allocation cost for a long term, often turns out to be a significant monetary value. In recent years, with a rapidly changing fuel supply situation, including the impact of energy policies changing, this area has become extremely sensitive. Natural gas availability has been restricted in many areas, coal production and transportation cost have risen while productivity has decreased, oil imports have increased and refinery capacity failed to meet demand. The paper presents a mathematical model and a practical procedure to solve the primary energy resource allocation. The objectives is to minimise the total energy cost over the planning period subject to constraints with regards to primary energy resource, transportation and energy consumption. Various aspects of the proposed approach are discussed, and its application to a power system is illustrated.(author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs

  2. Policies to support economic and environmental goals at farm and regional scales: Outcomes for rice farmers in Southern India depend on their resource endowment

    Senthilkumar, K.; Lubbers, M.T.M.H.; Ridder, de N.; Bindraban, P.S.; Thiyagarajan, T.M.; Giller, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Improving water use and nitrogen efficiencies is of overall importance to society at large - to conserve scarce water resources and prevent environmental pollution. Efficient cultivation practices for rice which had no yield penalty were not adopted by farmers because of the open access to water

  3. Barriers and bottlenecks : a case study of the implementation of extension policy for enabling sustainable natural resource management in Queensland, Australia

    Leach, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Internationally, extension has been a support instrument used by governments and commercial interests for improving agricultural production for hundreds, if not thousands of years. The application of extension theory and practice for natural resource management (NRM) is a more recent undertaking.

  4. Population policy.

    1987-03-01

    decrease fertility, control international migration, and modify the spatial distribution of the population. To reduce its population growth rate, Pakistan has adopted a multi-sectoral, multidimensional approach to family planning. The policy of the government of the Philippines is to bring the population growth rate in line with the availability of natural resources and employment opportunities. In its 5-year plan covering 1982-86, the government of the Republic of Korea emphasized social development, attempting to more fully integrate population and development policies and programs within relevant sectors. To reduce its population growth rate to 1.3% by 1992, the government of Thailand is expanding the reach of its family planning program.

  5. Online Resources

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  6. Legal bases of resource policy in the Federal Republic of Germany. A contribution towards law-related geography. Die rechtlichen Grundlagen der Ressourcenpolitik in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Ein Beitrag zur Rechtsgeographie

    Graafen, R

    1983-01-01

    This work from the field of law-related geography deals with the legal regulations issued in the framework of resource policy and with their territorial effects. One of the purpose of law-related geography is to present those legal regulations which bear on territory in a manner easy to survey. The different legal forms to be considered (law, legal regulation, administrative regulation, statutes, law of the (European Community etc.) provide a means of approach. From the peculiarities of the individual legal forms it is possible to tell for instance in how far they possess validity as against citizens or only as against authorities, in how far they are cogent or only constitute recommendations, or whether citizens are allowed to participate in the precise definition of regulations, what standard of European Community law are immediately applied in the Federal Republic of Germany, or what the order of priority of legal regulations is. The study investigates above all the territory-related consequences of regional and land use planning, the federal mining law, energy policy with regard to black coal, brown coal, petroleum and naturel gas, of the planning of power plans sites, local supply concepts, transport infra-structure policy, the federal immission protection law and of regulations for the protection of nature or governing forest and water management. (orig./HSCH).

  7. IMPROVING DEPOSIT POLICY BANK ON THE BASIS OF ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF DEPOSIT PORTFOLIO STRUCTURE ON FORMATION OF INVESTMENT RESOURCE

    Viadrova I.; Gertsl I.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction. The banking system as a part of the national economy contributes to the development of various branches of economy and trade, enabling the realization of economic interests of economic entities. One of the important tasks of the monetary system is the accumulation of financial resources necessary for the implementation of credit and investment projects and their further distribution. This task is performed by banking institutions by attracting funds from individuals and legal en...

  8. Health resources in a 200,000 urban Indian population argues the need for a policy on private sector health services.

    Furtado, Kheya Melo; Kar, Anita

    2014-04-01

    There are limited primary data on the number of urban health care providers in private practice in developing countries like India. These data are needed to construct and test models that measure the efficacy of public stewardship of private sector health services. This study reports the number and characteristics of health resources in a 200 000 urban population in Pune. Data on health providers were collected by walking through the 15.46 sq km study area. Enumerated data were compared with existing data sources. Mapping was carried out using a Global Positioning System device. Metrics and characteristics of health resources were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.0 and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, Version 16.0 software. Private sector health facilities constituted the majority (424/426, 99.5%) of health care services. Official data sources were only 39% complete. Doctor to population ratios were 2.8 and 0.03 per 1000 persons respectively in the private and public sector, and the nurse to doctor ratio was 0.24 and 0.71, respectively. There was an uneven distribution of private sector health services across the area (2-118 clinics per square kilometre). Bed strength was forty-fold higher in the private sector. Mandatory registration of private sector health services needs to be implemented which will provide an opportunity for public health planners to utilize these health resources to achieve urban health goals.

  9. Analysis of the nexus between population, water resources and Global Food Security highlights significance of governance and research investments and policy priorities.

    Yunusa, Isa A M; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Gibberd, Mark R

    2018-05-10

    Analyses of sensitivity of Global Food Security (GFS) score to a key set of supply or demand factors often suggest population and water supply as being the most critical and on which policies tend to focus. To explore other policy options, we characterised the nexus between GFS and a set of supply or demand factors including defining including population, agricultural and industrial water-use, agricultural publications (as a surrogate for investment in agricultural research and development [R&D]), and corruption perception index (CPI), to reveal opportunities for attaining enduring GFS. We found that despite being the primary driver of demand for food, population showed no significant correlation with GFS scores. Similarly agricultural water-use was poorly correlated with GFS scores, except in countries where evaporation exceeds precipitation and irrigation is significant. However, GFS had a strong positive association with industrial water-use as a surrogate for overall industrialisation. Recent expansions in cultivated land area failed to yield concomitant improvements in GFS score since such expansions have been mostly into marginal lands with low productivity and also barely compensated for lands retired from cropping in several developed economies. However, GFS was positively associated with agricultural R&D investments, as it was with the CPI scores. The apparent and relative strengths of these drivers on GFS outcome amongst countries were in the order: industrial water-use ≈ publication rate ≈ corruption perception > agricultural water-use > population. We concluded by suggesting that to enshrine enduring food security, policies should prioritise (1) increased R&D investments that address farmer needs, and (2) governance mechanisms that promote accountability in both research and production value chains. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policy Act of 1977. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Fifth Congress, First Session, June 10, September 13, 14, 1977

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Senator Frank Church presented the opening statement on the June 10, 1977 hearing concerning the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policy Act of 1977, S.1432. S.1432 is designed to establish a nonproliferation framework with specific objectives established for the ERDA nuclear energy programs. The ERDA authorization bill is the budgetary vehicle to implement these objectives. The Committee on Energy and Natural Resources obtained joint referral of certain portions of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act to insure that nonproliferation policy is implemented in a manner consistent with the policy of having sufficent energy for this country and foreign countries in the future. Additionally, the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development must examine the cost and the consequences of various initiatives before they are implemented. For example, the proposal to guarantee uranium enrichment services for foreign nations poses specific requirements on ERDA to expand considerably our enrichment capacity by the year 2000. Without reprocessing, it is expected that spent fuel rods from abroad will be returned to this country for storage with attendant costs and siting decisions. Also, international fuel cycle evaluation programs must be carefully examined to insure that all options, including regional fuel cycle centers with international controls and inspection, are considered in seeking international approaches to the nonproliferation objectives. It is these and related questions to which the subcommittee seeks answers. The hearings on September 13 and 14 focused on S.897, a bill to strengthen U.S. policies on nonproliferation and to reorganize certain export functions of the Federal government to promote more efficient administration of such functions. Statements were presented by experts in government, private firms, and industrial sectors

  11. Natural resource dependence, human capital accumulation, and economic growth: A combined explanation for the resource curse and the resource blessing

    Shao, Shuai; Yang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    In existing studies, no consensus has been reached on the relationship between natural resource dependence and human capital accumulation. To narrow the divergence, this paper carries out a normative research to explain the co-existence of the phenomena of the resource curse and the resource blessing based on an organic combination of conceptual and mathematical models. It first establishes a conceptual model to analyse the potential effects of the government's policy preference and natural resource development activities on human capital accumulation and economic growth. Furthermore, it develops an endogenous growth model to normatively illuminate the effects in the conceptual model and to explore the condition for the occurrence of the resource curse. The conceptual model analysis indicates that the rate of return on education investment and government behaviours play the crucial role in promoting the formation of the economic virtuous circle at the micro-level and macro-level, respectively, while resource development activities exert dual impacts on the circle. The main mechanisms in the conceptual model can be validated in the mathematical model. The rise in the subjective discount rate, the elasticity of intertemporal substitution, and resource goods price are adverse to the economic virtuous circle, while high-quality education and the institutional environment giving priority to manufacturing can become the necessary condition and sufficient condition for forming the circle, respectively. The allocation efficiency of production factors plays a decisive role in whether the blessing occurs, whereas sufficient human capital is an essential guarantee for evading the curse. - Highlights: • We conduct normative research combining a conceptual model and a mathematical model. • We discuss the potential impact of resource dependence on human capital and growth. • We explain the co-existence of the resource blessing and resource curse phenomena.

  12. Herpes - resources

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...

  13. OECD Reviews of School Resources : Austria 2016

    Theisens, Henno

    2016-01-01

    The effective use of school resources is a policy priority across OECD countries. The OECD Reviews of School Resources explore how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. The series considers four types of resources: financial resources, such as public funding of individual schools; human resources, such as teachers, school leaders and education administrators; physical resources, such as location, buildin...

  14. Governance, resource curse and donor

    Wiig, Arne

    2008-01-01

    Plan Part 1. Governance What is good governance? Why is it important? How can we measure good governance? Part 2. The resource curse and the importance of governance in resource rich countries Focus on political economy (PE) models of the resource curse Policy implications Some donor initiatives Transparency and the EITI Petroleum related aid - Window dressing initiatives or research based? Conclusion Governance, resource curse and donor

  15. Questionnaire used and responses obtained by sub-group 1C on the subject of the impact of national policies and constraints on nuclear fuel exploration, marketing and assurance of supply

    Information on existing national policies and incentives for uranium and thorium exploration, mining, export, import and stockpiling of nuclear fuel and measures which are being adopted to promote nuclear industries is presented

  16. Subjective or objective? What matters?

    Sunega, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2014), s. 35-43 ISSN 2336-2839 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/12/1446 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : comparative housing policy * globalisation Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  17. LHCb: A Policy System for Grid Management and Monitoring

    Stagni, F; Sapunov, M

    2010-01-01

    Organizations using a Grid computing model are faced with non-traditional administrative challenges: the heterogeneous nature of the underlying resources requires professionals acting as Grid Administrators. Members of a Virtual Organization (VO) can use a mask composed by services exposed b y local resources. In an ideal world, the more services in a mask, the better. In the real world, the less faulty services, the better: experienced Grid administrators apply procedures for adding and removing services, based on their status, as it is reported by an ever-growing set of monitoring tools. When a procedure is agreed and well-exercised, a formal policy could be derived. For this reason, using the DIRAC framework in the LHCb collaboration, we developed a policy system that can enforce management and operational policies, in a VO-specific fashion. A single policy makes an assessment on the status of a subject, relative to one or more monitoring information. Subjects of the policies are monitored entities of an e...

  18. Sex Education as a Transversal Subject

    Rabelo, Amanda Oliveira; Pereira, Graziela Raupp; Reis, Maria Amélia; Ferreira, António G.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, sex education is in many countries a transversal subject, in which the school becomes a privileged place for the implementation of policies that aim at promoting "public health." Its design as a cross-cutting subject envisages fostering the dissemination of these subjects in all pedagogical and curricular fields; however, we…

  19. Cartographic Communication and Information Policy.

    van de Waal, E. Hans

    Trends in information policy are discussed as they impact on cartographic information, stressing particularly the relationships between cartographic communication, documentation, and policy making. Distinction is made between cartographic communication as a subject for information policy and cartographic communication as an expedient in public…

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANISATIONAL RESOURCES, CAPABILITIES, SYSTEMS AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Raduan Che Rose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective that business organisations in particular should strive to attain is achieving a competitive advantage position relative to their competitors.. This research empirically examined the importance of and emphasis placed on organisational resources, capabilities and systems in their relationships with competitive advantage. The overall findings indicated significant, positive effects of organisational resources, capabilities and systems collectively on competitive advantage, providing support and corroboration to the resource-based view (RBV. The total variance in competitive advantage accounted for by the multiple linear regression (MLR model was 56.2%. In short, the findings from this study have not only contributed to the literature on the issue of the relationship between organisational resources, capabilities, systems and competitive advantage, but also provided vital information to both practitioners and policy makers on the subject matter.

  1. Revisiting Maine’s lobster commons: rescaling political subjects

    Jennifer F. Brewer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Calls for cross-scalar theoretical and methodological approaches are not new to commons scholarship. Such efforts might be hastened by channelling poststructuralist and critical theory perspectives through the geographic subfield of political ecology, including attention to political scales and subjects. Toward this end, this paper reconsiders Maine’s lobster fishery. This case has provided rich material for watershed commons scholarship, demonstrating the ability of social groups to conserve resources independent of government or markets, and it continues to offer new findings. Recent fieldwork shows that as lobster boat captains advance collective interests through state-supported co-management governance arrangements, concerns of crew and non-fishing community members may be marginalized. Regulatory exclusion prevents broader distribution of resource benefits at a time when employment alternatives are scarce. More pluralistic approaches to commons theory and its policy application have utility well beyond the lobster case.

  2. Green industrial policy

    Dani Rodrik

    2014-01-01

    Green growth requires green technologies: production techniques that economize on exhaustible resources and emit fewer greenhouse gases. The availability of green technologies both lowers social costs in the transition to a green growth path and helps achieve a satisfactory rate of material progress under that path. The theoretical case in favour of using industrial policy to facilitate green growth is quite strong. Economists’ traditional scepticism on industrial policy is grounded instead o...

  3. Resources | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    Through IDRC's resource library, we share our results, provide support to ... Our Research Support team provides the resources and tools researchers need to ... It also includes information on how to structure and design your policy brief to ...

  4. Towards Improved Human Resource Development In Nigeria ...

    Towards Improved Human Resource Development In Nigeria: Challenges And Prospects. ... Journal of Research in National Development ... Consequently, the paper recommended; improved investment in education, implementable policies on human resource development, involvement of private organization in human ...

  5. Collection Development Policies in Community College Libraries.

    Mesling, Chris Fowler

    2003-01-01

    Emphasizes the need for collection development policy in community college academic libraries. Highlights areas of resource sharing, community analysis, and collection assessment. Also provides an overview of how to create a collection for development policy, and recommends books on writing such policy. Includes model policy statements. (NB)

  6. Mineral resources in Afghanistan. Final report

    1992-02-01

    Despite Afghanistan's wide variety of mineral resources and long history of small-scale mining of gems, gold, copper, and coal, it was not until the 1950's that the country's mineral resources were subject to systematic exploration. The report documents the past and present status of these resources and examines alternative strategies for their exploitation. Chapter 2 provides a brief history of minerals exploration, exploitation, and planning in Afghanistan, including the roles of Great Britain, France, Germany, the Soviet bloc, and the United States in Afghanistan's mineral sector; mineral policy in the five national plans during the years 1962-83; and sector assessments conducted by the World Bank (1978) and the US Department of Energy (1989). Chapter 3 discusses three strategies for developing the country's mineral and hydrocarbon resources. (1) a national orientation focusing on domestic needs; (2) a regional strategy that would consider markets in countries close to Afghanistan; and (3) an international strategy that would place Afghan resources on the international market

  7. ECONOMICS OF HUMAN RESOURCES

    IOANA - JULIETA JOSAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze human resources in terms of quantitative and qualitative side with special focus on the human capital accumulation influence. The paper examines the human resources trough human capital accumulation in terms of modern theory of human resources, educational capital, health, unemployment and migration. The findings presented in this work are based on theoretical economy publications and data collected from research materials. Sources of information include: documents from organizations - the EUROSTAT, INSSE - studies from publications, books, periodicals, and the Internet. The paper describes and analyzes human resources characteristics, human resource capacities, social and economic benefits of human capital accumulation based on economy, and the government plans and policies on health, education and labor market.

  8. Conservation Genetic Resources for Effective Species Survival (ConGRESS): Bridging the divide between conservation research and practice

    Hoban, S. M.; Arntzen, J. W.; Bertorelle, G.; Bryja, Josef; Fernandes, M.; Frith, K.; Gaggiotti, O. E.; Galbusera, P.; Godoy, J. A.; Hauffe, H. C.; Hoelzel, A. R.; Nichols, R. A.; Pérez-Espona, S.; Primmer, C. R.; Russo, I.-R.; Segelbacher, G.; Siegismund, H. R.; Sihvonen, M.; Sjögren-Gulve, P.; Vernesi, C.; Vila, C.; Bruford, M. W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2013), s. 433-437 ISSN 1617-1381 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Capacity-building * Conservation planning * Data * Decision-making * Management * Online resource * Policy Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.833, year: 2013

  9. Greening of Nordic electricity industry: policy convergence and diversity

    Midttun, Atle; Gundersen, Mari Hegg; Koefoed, Anne Louise

    2004-01-01

    With a comparative focus on policy similarity and diversity, this article gives an overview of the main elements of electricity-related environmental policy in the Nordic countries, following the launching of a common electricity market in the 1990s. The article points out that the electricity related environmental policy positions of the Nordic countries showed a noticeable lack of coordination in the 1990s. Nordic divergence is observed both in terms of general policy orientations and at the instrument and incentive levels, in spite of the pioneering development of a common integrated electricity market and ambitious environmental policy goals. The article then highlights how the recent Swedish 'green' certificate market model has created a new momentum for market-based 'greening' with a potential for stronger convergence in Nordic renewable energy policy. In spite of signs of convergence, the article shows how the development of Nordic electricity-related environmental policy still contains considerable ambiguity: Unequal resource endowments, subject to simple resource-based interest formation, should indicate that there is little room for convergence in Nordic renewable energy policy. Shifting the environmental policy focus from existing technologies and resources to potential innovations, however provides a more open arena where the Nordic countries may see themselves served by the dynamic scope of a broader Nordic market based on a common policy approach, such as a green certificate market. In explaining why the Nordic arena may be an interesting locus for common renewable energy policy, the article points out that small countries may need an 'intermediary' arena to aggregate size and scope in order to generate a European momentum in regulatory competition with larger European states. Similarly, Nordic companies may consider the opportunity to gain first mover advantages by partnering with government as local experimentation may be seen as useful pilot

  10. Agricultural policy, food policy, and communicable disease policy.

    Grant, Wyn

    2012-12-01

    Food and agricultural policy is an essential element of a communicable disease policy. The European Union has developed a more systematic and broadly based interest in questions of food safety and animal health and welfare linked to modernization of the Common Agricultural Policy, reflected in a new treaty obligation on animal welfare. Following the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis, moves were made to create a European competency, but implementation and enforcement resources reside with the member states. The European Animal Health Strategy is meant to lead to an EU animal health law, but this has already been constrained by fiscal austerity. The development of such a law may lead to a lowest common denominator formula that does little to enhance consumer protection or improve animal welfare. This is an inherent risk with top-down forms of Europeanization; more attention should be paid to lessons to be learned from bottom-up initiatives of the type used to counteract the bovine diarrhea virus. There will always be a tension among what is good policy for reducing the incidence of communicable disease, policy that is popular with EU citizens, and policy that is acceptable to member states.

  11. Energy crisis: policy response

    Nemetz, P N [ed.

    1981-01-01

    Resource-management techniques must be applied to assess the risks, benefits, priorities, and potentials of the different energy options as prospective slowdowns in the flow of crude oil threaten recurring energy crises. The 23 contributors to this book use various managerial approaches in the formulation of energy policies. There is little agreement among the remedies put forth as to which policies will best achieve a balanced energy system. While some experts argue that Canadian energy policy should emphasize intensive development of coal, others claim that it ought to strive for greater reliance on electricity, and still others contend that the transition to soft energy paths is a preferable policy approach. The essays offer a broad range of policy responses, examining not only technical and economic possibilities, but political and institutional alternatives as well. 147 references, 18 figures, 30 tables.

  12. Política de segurança alimentar e nutricional no Brasil: uma análise da alocação de recursos Food and nutrition security policy in Brazil: an analysis of resource allocation

    Marta Battaglia Custódio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a evolução e a distribuição dos recursos da União para programas e ações que se inserem nas diretrizes brasileiras da Política Nacional de Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional (PNSAN no período de 2004 a 2010. MÉTODOS: Este estudo descritivo utilizou dados do Portal da Transparência mantido pela Controladoria Geral da União, que gera planilhas de Excel para cada pesquisa realizada. Para o levantamento dos recursos alocados, foi organizada uma base de dados contendo todas as ações executadas pelo governo federal entre 2004 e 2010. Essa base foi revisada e as ações que não eram relativas à PNSAN foram descartadas. Os montantes anuais obtidos tiveram os valores corrigidos pelo Índice de Preços ao Consumidor e atualizados para o ano de 2010. Como as ações são parte de programas específicos, a soma dos recursos destinados a todas as ações de um programa equivaleu aos recursos destinados ao programa como um todo. Os programas foram então hierarquizados de acordo com o volume de recursos recebidos em 2010. RESULTADOS: Das 5 014 ações que receberam recursos da União no período, 814 foram relacionadas à PNSAN (229 programas. Houve crescimento dos recursos alocados para os programas da PNSAN, alcançando, em 2010, US$ 15 bilhões (82% superior ao gasto no ano de 2004. A maior proporção dos recursos foi absorvida pelo Programa Bolsa Família. Dez programas receberam 90% dos recursos, sendo cinco ligados aos processos de produção alimentar. CONCLUSÕES: A PNSAN vem recebendo aporte crescente de recursos concentrados em ações e programas que favorecem a segurança alimentar e nutricional.OBJECTIVE: To describe the progression and distribution of federal funds for programs and activities that fall within the scope of the guidelines of the Brazilian National Policy on Food and Nutrition Security (PNSAN in the period from 2004 to 2010. METHODS: This descriptive study used data from the Transparency Website

  13. Ecuador's energy policy mix: Development versus conservation and nationalism with Chinese loans

    Escribano, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador's energy policy faces a complex variety of political and economic objectives that are difficult to reconcile in a consistent manner. Ecuador is a small oil producer and exporter with significant renewable (mainly hydropower) resources, hosting some of the richest biodiversity areas in the world, part of which are inhabited by so far indigenous un-contacted people. Being a developing country, tensions arise between conservation aims and development imperatives, as well as between resource nationalism and much-needed foreign financing. However, the really limiting factor for the country's energy development seems to be its constraints in financing the government's development and redistributive policies. Resorting to Chinese loans-for-oil may be part of the solution in the short term, but it does not substitute for a more consistent energy policy. Ecuador's case illustrates the dilemmas of energy policy in natural resource-rich developing countries when confronted with diverging political economy, social, environmental and macro-financial goals. - Highlights: ► Ecuador's energy policy lacks coherence and is plagued with inconsistencies. ► Its three main drivers are development, conservation and resource nationalism. ► Fulfilling President Correa's social agenda requires increasing oil production. ► Conservation demands have been subjected to developmental imperatives. ► Chinese loans and investments limit resource nationalism and favour pragmatism

  14. Endogenous growth and environmental policy

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Vellinga, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between environmental policy and growth, from the perspective of endogenous growth theory. In particular three standard endogenous growth models are supplemented with environmental issues, such as pollution and exhaustibility of natural resources. It is found

  15. Exhaustible resources and economic growth

    Campbell, H.F.

    1984-09-01

    This study examines the effect of a booming natural resource sector on regional economic growth, with particular attention to the impact of regional government policy on mineral rent taxation and the allocation of resource revenues. The author's approach is first to document the relevant theory and then apply it to the case of the uranium industry in Saskatchewan

  16. Additional Resources on Asian Americans.

    Kodama, Corinne Maekawa; Lee, Sunny; Liang, Christopher T. H.; Alvarez, Alvin N.; McEwen, Marylu K.

    2002-01-01

    The authors identify Asian American associations and organizations, academic journals, periodicals, and media resources. Selected annotated resources on Asian American activism and politics, counseling and psychology, educational issues, gender and sexual orientation, history, policy reports, and racial and ethnic identity are also included.…

  17. Mineral resources

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review

  18. Oil Trade and Climate Policy

    Malik Curuk; Suphi Sen

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that a depletable resource owner might optimally increase near-term supply in response to environmental policies promoting the development of alternative resources, which might render climate policy ineffective or even counterproductive. This paper empirically confirms this prediction using data on crude oil exports from OPEC to OECD countries between 2001-2010 in a gravity framework. It documents that oil exporters decrease prices and increase quantity of oil exports in re...

  19. Sustainability Statement and Policy

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nine resources that focus on environmental education and sustainability. These include: (1) "Sustainability Statement and Policy," Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2009, which is available at http://office.sustainability.dal.ca/Governance; (2) "Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate…

  20. The impact of disaster work on community volunteers: The role of peri-traumatic distress, level of personal affectedness, sleep quality and resource loss, on post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and subjective health

    Thormar, Sigridur B.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Juen, Barbara; Djakababa, Maria Nelden; Karlsson, Thorlakur; Olff, Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Disaster work has shown to cause PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints in professional emergency personnel. However, very little is known about how disaster work affects community volunteers. This first time longitudinal study examined factors contributing to post-traumatic stress disorder

  1. Why Social Policy Needs Objective Indicators

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThere are many qualms about subjective indicators, and some believe that social policy would be better for not using them. This paper consists of a review of these objections. It is argued that policy makers need subjective indicators. The main reasons being: 1. Social policy is never

  2. Environment based innovation: policy questions

    Mario Rui Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources and physical cultural resources, referred to in this paper as “Environmental Resources”, can be important assets for regional competitiveness and innovation. In recent years, these types of assets have been increasingly taken into consideration in the design and implementation of regional development strategies, as a consequence of their potential role as a source of differentiation and of new competitive advantages. However, in contrast to environmental policies, which usually focus on the protection of the environment, innovation policies and their instruments are largely shaped by, and geared towards, knowledge-based innovation.In this paper, we discuss the role played by environmental resources in the context of regional innovation policies. We begin by discussing the relationship between environmental resources and regional development, and by emphasizing some contrasting views with regard to the function of environmental resources in regional development. Then, we address the relationship between regional competitive advantages and innovation strategies. The specific issues and problems that arise whenever the aim is to attain competitive advantages through the valorisation of environmental resources constitute the core of section III. In that section, we highlight the specific characteristics of environmental resources and we discuss the applicability of the “natural resource curse” argument to the dynamics based on the valorisation of environmental resources. The reasons that justify public interventionas well as the difficulties concerning the adequate level of intervention (local / regional / national are also examined. The paper ends with some conclusions and policy implications.

  3. Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources : Action Research ...

    Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources : Action Research and Policy Change in Asia. Couverture du livre Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources: Action Research and Policy Change in. Directeur(s) : Stephen R. Tyler. Maison(s) d'édition : Practical Action Publishing, CRDI. 1 janvier 2006. ISBN :.

  4. Random maintenance policies

    Nakagawa, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Exploring random maintenance models, this book provides an introduction to the implementation of random maintenance, and it is one of the first books to be written on this subject.  It aims to help readers learn new techniques for applying random policies to actual reliability models, and it provides new theoretical analyses of various models including classical replacement, preventive maintenance and inspection policies. These policies are applied to scheduling problems, backup policies of database systems, maintenance policies of cumulative damage models, and reliability of random redundant systems. Reliability theory is a major concern for engineers and managers, and in light of Japan’s recent earthquake, the reliability of large-scale systems has increased in importance. This also highlights the need for a new notion of maintenance and reliability theory, and how this can practically be applied to systems. Providing an essential guide for engineers and managers specializing in reliability maintenance a...

  5. Water Policies of Turkey

    Hakan Istanbulluoglu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of our most critical resources. Civilization has historically flourished around major waterways. The most important uses of water are; agricultural, industrial and domestic use. This critical resource is under threat around the world. In the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. In 2000 more than 2.2 million people died from waterborne diseases. Water politics is politics affected by water and water resources. There are connections between water resources, water systems, and international security and conflict. Today, water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. Turkey can be faced severe water-stress in the near future. Therefore Turkey has to develop realistic and feasible water policy for future generations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 327-338

  6. Forest policy reform in Brazil

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage

    2009-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  7. 32 CFR 151.3 - Policy.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 151.3 Section 151.3 National Defense... FORCES POLICIES AND INFORMATION § 151.3 Policy. It is the policy of the Department of Defense to protect, to the maximum extent possible, the rights of U.S. personnel who may be subject to criminal trial by...

  8. School Board Policies on Leaves and Absences. Educational Policies Development Kit.

    National School Boards Association, Waterford, CT. Educational Policies Service.

    This report provides board policy samples and other policy resources on leaves and absences. The intent in providing policy samples is to encourage thinking in policy terms and to provide working papers that can be edited, modified, or adapted to meet local requirements. Topics covered in the samples include (1) sick leave, (2) maternity leave,…

  9. Uranium resources and requirements

    Silver, J.M.; Wright, W.J.

    1975-08-01

    Australia has about 19% of the reasonably assured resources of uranium in the Western World recoverable at costs of less than $A20 per kilogram, or about 9% of the resources (reasonably assured and estimated additional) recoverable at costs of less than $A30 per kilogram. Australia's potential for further discoveries of uranium is good. Nevertheless, if Australia did not export any of these resources it would probably have only a marginal effect on the development of nuclear power; other resources would be exploited earlier and prices would rise, but not sufficiently to make the costs of nuclear power unattractive. On the other hand, this policy could deny to Australia real benefits in foreign currency earnings, employment and national development. (author)

  10. Policy options

    Miller, A.

    1990-01-01

    The obstacles to bringing about consumer response to environmental dangers are particularly challenging for global problems like ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect. In this situation, there is the danger of what is commonly termed the tragedy of the commons, the ecological destruction that can occur from uncontrolled use of shared resources like the atmosphere. There is probably no country for which reductions in global warming provide an adequate economic incentive to reduce greenhouse gas emissions unilaterally, even though such action could yield substantial global benefits. From any one country's viewpoint, the costs of controlling emissions may exceed the benefits since, without international agreement, reductions achieved by one nation may be offset by another. Therefore, even though the entire world may be better off as a result of efforts to lower emissions, new economic incentives are necessary to lead the market to a socially efficient outcome. This paper describes the range of domestic and international policies that could be adopted to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, and also discusses the results of modeling analyses of government actions that could reduce or increase such emissions

  11. SUBJECTIVE RESOURCESTHE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND ACMEOLOGICAL PHENOMENON

    Marina Ivanovna Ilyushina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the moment the subjectresources of a person. Be caused, “loss” possible resources: lack of personal self-realization, the maladjustment of the individual in a social environment, obstructed line of identity, which in some cases is accompanied by incomplete personal self-actualization and self-sufficiency. The article emphasizes the importance of the subjective component in understanding, identifying, understanding, mobilization, conservation and accumulation of resources of the individual. Man is an active Converter to your reality, where he and reality are the result of the conversion and source conversion. The author proposed the concept of “subjective resource” as a necessary factor for quality of life of the individual, achievement of tops of her self-improvement and self-development, both professionally and personally. Subjective component emphasizes the role of the individual in the conservation, transformation, accumulation, the reallocation of resources. Purpose. The subject of analysis is the awareness, understanding person own resources – the subjective resourcest. The author aims to describe the subjective resourcest as psychological and acmeological phenomenon to reveal its essence and to suggest the methodology of the study of this phenomenon, showing the importance of verbalization resources through associative image without relying on the visibility and relying on her. Methodology. The basis of the study form a General theoretical methods (theoretical analysis, including psychological analysis, generalization, systematization, system description. Results. The results of the work lies in the fact that the author has defined the concept of “subjective resourcesthe” and proposed methodology of the study. The obtained results may be of interest to improve the efficiency of the work to define the resources of the individual. The results and method of determining a subjective resource

  12. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out some of the possible dangers of embarking in electronic resources without a proper focus at hand. Thus, it calls for today's librarians and policy makers to brainstorm and come up with working policies suitable to ...

  13. Federal research policy 1988

    1988-01-01

    The report covers several separate parts dealing with the following: Orientation and perspectives of the Federal Government's research policy; resources available for science, research and development; fields of main interest in R and D work sponsored by the Government; research and technology policy of the Lands; international and national research and technology policy; organisations promoting and establishment doing research work in the FRG; statistics. The guidelines and principles of research policy are given: freedom of science and research; restraint from governmental influence within the meaning of the subsidiarity principle; positive attitude to scientific and technical progress; investigation of long-term perspectives and options; fostering joint responsibility of the Federal Government and the Lands; development of international cooperation. (orig./HSCH) [de

  14. PUBLIC POLICY AND TAXATION

    IOSIF MOLDOVAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The state administration process and hence also the economy coordination effort requires the promotion of robust, consistent and transparent public policy, which must be accepted by all stakeholders of economic development. Public policy is a set of measures taken by the authorities legally constituted as public power. Under normal conditions these policy aims at improving living conditions of citizens by developing grounded strategies which are applied by measures implemented to stimulate economic development in all its complexity by harmonizing the efforts of the institutional and non-institutional bodies responsible for ensuring the overall public interest. In Romania, public policies, especially fiscal ones on which we dwell, not reached in many cases the expected effects primarily because of their superficial grounding, lack of transparency, unpredictability, poor communication and secondly as an effect of ineffective management of public financial resources.

  15. Merge of terminological resources

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  16. One Health in food safety and security education: Subject matter outline for a curricular framework.

    Angelos, John A; Arens, Amanda L; Johnson, Heather A; Cadriel, Jessica L; Osburn, Bennie I

    2017-06-01

    Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.

  17. One Health in food safety and security education: Subject matter outline for a curricular framework

    John A. Angelos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.

  18. EL PATRIMONIO ARQUEOLÓGICO COMO RECURSO: POLÍTICAS ESTATALES DE GESTIÓN EN TUCUMÁN Y TAFÍ DEL VALLE / The archaeological heritage as a resource: State policies and management in Tucuman and Tafi del Valle

    Barbara Manasse

    2010-12-01

    and, ultimately, the construction of the province of Tucuman’s archeological heritage, with regard to the collection of cultural material resources. These represent a distinctive element of local history and therefore deserve special attention in terms of guaranteeing their secure curation and future preservation.The specific focus of our study is the pre-Hispanic indigenous material culture of western Tucuman. We discuss the different processes that have taken place during the last one hundred years, taking into account the various entities involved in establishing heritage status and the associated historical, political and social contexts. We believe this is a case that may become paradigmatic in coming years, in regard to both the present-day uses of pre-Hispanic cultural resources and their long-term future.Keywords: heritage; state policies; archeology; indigenous materials; Tafí del Valle.

  19. Competing For industry Resources

    Arnstad, Marit

    1998-01-01

    This presentation by Norway's Minister of Petroleum and Energy describes (1) Norway in the energy picture, (2) oil market developments, (3) the establishment of an energy policy and (4) the investment level of the Norwegian petroleum activities. Value creation from Norwegian petroleum resources is directly connected with the commercial companies' participation in the activities. Thus, it has been a main challenge for Norway to establish a balanced petroleum policy and a legal framework. Presumably Norway will remain a prospective and attractive petroleum province for a long time. Over the years, Norway has developed three very competent and competitive national oil companies and a significant national supply industry. This industry is highly competitive internationally. Many new petroleum provinces are opening up for foreign investors and energy consumption of the world is expected to increase significantly the next 20 - 30 years. This implies increased demand for the products, but also strong competition for industry resources

  20. Privacy Policy

    ... Home → NLM Privacy Policy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/privacy.html NLM Privacy Policy To ... out of cookies in the most popular browsers, http://www.usa.gov/optout_instructions.shtml. Please note ...

  1. Assessment of rural energy resources

    Rijal, K.; Bansal, N.K.; Grover, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    This article presents the methodological guidelines used to assess rural energy resources with an example of its application in three villages each from different physiographic zones of Nepal. Existing energy demand patterns of villages are compared with estimated resource availability, and rural energy planning issues are discussed. Economics and financial supply price of primary energy resources are compared, which provides insight into defective energy planning and policy formulation and implication in the context of rural areas of Nepal. Though aware of the formidable consequences, the rural populace continues to exhaust the forest as they are unable to find financially cheaper alternatives. Appropriate policy measures need to be devised by the government to promote the use of economically cost-effective renewable energy resources so as to change the present energy usage pattern to diminish the environmental impact caused by over exploitation of forest resources beyond their regenerative capacity

  2. The policies

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  3. Trade Policy

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  4. 76 FR 27649 - HIV/AIDS Bureau Policy Notice 11-01 (Replaces Policy Notice 99-02)

    2011-05-12

    ... Bureau Policy Notice 11-01 (Replaces Policy Notice 99- 02) AGENCY: Health Resources and Services.../AIDS Bureau (HAB) Policy Notice 99-02 established policies for the use of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program... and short-term or emergency housing needs. Amendment 1 to Policy Notice 99-02, effective March 27...

  5. United States mineral resources

    Brobst, Donald A.; Pratt, Walden P.

    1973-01-01

    The work on this volume began in January 1972, but in a broader sense its production began many years ago. The chapters were written by geologists most of whom have had many years of experience studying the geology of mineral deposits, and more particularly the commodities about which they have written here. A total of nearly 2,300 man-years of professional experience in the geology of mineral resources is represented by the authors of the volume, and about 30 man-years went directly into its preparation. Each chapter contains not only a synthesis of the state of knowledge of the geology of the commodity, but also an appraisal of the known resources, and an examination of the geologic possibilities for finding additional deposits. In January 1972, responsibility for the preparation of the volume was assigned to us as co-editors, and we were given a tentative list of commodities and authors. We provided each author with a suggested outline of general topics to be covered, and some guidelines as to scope and philosophy of approach, but beyond that we avoided any attempt to fit each chapter into a stereotype. Moreover, the types of commodities range from the major metals and industrial minerals such as copper, silver, and fluorspar, which have been the subject of geologic research for years, to other commodities that are of such varied geologic nature (such as pigments or gemstones) or of such minor present importance (such as scandium or thallium) that they cannot be treated from the same viewpoint as the major minerals. The chapters range, therefore, from comprehensive summary reports to general essays that reflect the individuality of the authors as well as the variation among commodities. Throughout the book the emphasis is on geology, but each chapter contains some summary information on uses, technology, and economics. These summaries are not meant to be exhaustive, however, and additional details are in the 1970 edition of "Mineral Facts and Problems" (Bulletin

  6. Negar la política, negar sus sujetos y derechos (Las políticas migratorias y de asilo como emblemas de la necropolitica | Deny the Politics, their Subjects and Rights (Migration and Asylum Policies as Emblems of Necropolitics

    Javier De Lucas Martín

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Las políticas europeas de inmigración y refugio han sido criticadas por quienes las consideran emblemas de una concepción que pone en grave riesgo elementos básicos del Estado de Derecho y aun de la democracia. El epítome es la aparición de mercados de esclavos en Libia, a las puertas de la UE, un Estado fallido que la UE y sus Estados miembros se empeñan en elevar a la condición de partner privilegiado de sus políticas de externalización. Tomando como base los análisis de Lochak, Agambem y Bauman y la concepción de la propuesta por el filósofo camerunés Mbembé, desarrollando tesis de Foucault (biopolítica, se proponen algunas alternativas que vienen presididas por la exigencia de reconocimiento y garantía de derechos básicos de inmigrantes y refugiados. Abstract: European immigration and refuge policies have been criticized by those who see them as emblems of a conception that puts in serious risk basic elements of the Rule of Law and even of democracy. The epitome is the emergence of slave markets in Libya (at the gates of the EU, a failed state that, nevertheless, the EU and its Member States are determined to raise to the status of privileged partner of their outsourcing policies. Based on the analysis of Lochak, Agambem and Bauman and the conception of the proposed by the Cameroonian philosopher Mbembé who develops Foucault's thesis about biopolitics, this text will propose some alternatives that are leaded by the requirement of recognition and guarantee of rights of immigrants and refugees.

  7. Energy data base: subject thesaurus

    Redford, J.S.

    1981-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, and various update journals and bulletins in specialized areas. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE Energy Data Base on the DOE/RECON on-line retrieval system and on other commercial retrieval systems. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a commitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included

  8. China's power policy

    Mayer, M.

    2006-01-01

    Whether the People's Republic of China may develop to an economical super-government in future depends on the amount of power and resources of this land. The security of power supply is in an extremely prominent position in the Agenda of the Chinese government. Under this aspect the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the power policy of China. The main aspects of this contribution are: (a) Trends of power consumption, productions and imports of power; (b) Power political targets, measures and instruments of China; (c) Characteristics, national and international impacts of the power policy of China. Due to the economical activities of the chinese oil industry worldwide as well as due to the increasing dependence from imports of petroleum and natural oil, China becomes a global player. Thus, one may expect an intensification of Beijing's economical activities with an increased military component. Nevertheless, the power policy of China is an important factor in the global competition according to fossil resources. In order to understand the future behaviour of China's power policy, one may have to take notice of the strategies relating the power policy and relating to foreign affairs. Furthermore, trends and problematic areas concerning the securitization of the power supply in the national area have to be observed

  9. Immigration policy index

    Vikhrov, Dmytro

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2017), s. 3-46 ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : immigration policy * visa * differences-in-differences estimation Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics , Econometrics Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2016

  10. Resource linkages and sustainable development

    Anouti, Yahya

    Historically, fossil fuel consumers in most developing hydrocarbon-rich countries have enjoyed retail prices at a discount from international benchmarks. Governments of these countries consider the subsidy transfer to be a means for sharing the wealth from their resource endowment. These subsidies create negative economic, environmental, and social distortions, which can only increase over time with a fast growing, young, and rich population. The pressure to phase out these subsidies has been mounting over the last years. At the same time, policy makers in resource-rich developing countries are keen to obtain the greatest benefits for their economies from the extraction of their exhaustible resources. To this end, they are deploying local content policies with the aim of increasing the economic linkages from extracting their resources. Against this background, this dissertation's three essays evaluate (1) the global impact of rationalizing transport fuel prices, (2) how resource-rich countries can achieve the objectives behind fuel subsidies more efficiently through direct cash transfers, and (3) the economic tradeoffs from deploying local content policies and the presence of an optimal path. We begin by reviewing the literature and building the case for rationalizing transport fuel prices to reflect their direct costs (production), indirect costs (road maintenance) and negative externalities (climate change, local pollutants, traffic accidents and congestion). To do so, we increase the scope of the economic literature by presenting an algorithm to evaluate the rationalized prices in different countries. Then, we apply this algorithm to quantify the rationalized prices across 123 countries in a partial equilibrium setting. Finally, we present the first comprehensive measure of the impact of rationalizing fuel prices on the global demand for gasoline and diesel, environmental emissions, government revenues, and consumers' welfare. By rationalizing transport fuel

  11. Giving Birth to a Good Policy

    Untener, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the need for sound policies to help faculty members balance family life with career issues. Many human-resource policies--for example, those governing conflicts of interest--can be developed almost independently of other policies and have a high degree of transferability from one campus to the next. A…

  12. The role of policy for documentary systems

    Maria Mata Caravaca

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the role that policies have in guaranteeing the quality of creation, management and maintenance of digital resources, and offers an overview of national and international policies and standards that refer to records management and digital preservation. Finally, the article illustrates ICCROM’s records management manual and its digital preservation policy and strategy.

  13. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Kazakhstan

    Pons, Anna; Amoroso, Jeremie; Herczynski, Jan; Kheyfets, Igor; Lockheed, Marlaine; Santiago, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This joint OECD-World Bank report for Kazakhstan forms part of the OECD Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the Review is to explore how resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school education. School resources are…

  14. Case studies of natural resource access in Jharkhand, India

    Sareen, Siddharth

    This policy brief illustrates that decentralisation can only effectively support residents’ access to natural resources if it both resolves policy overlaps at multiple levels to bring about inclusive and equitable access and aligns policies with ground realities for specific natural resources....

  15. Water Resources

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  16. 49 theses on energy policy

    Michaelis, H.

    1977-01-01

    The theses presented refer to the following subjects: 1) economic growth and energy consumption, 2) energy policy and primary energies, 3) nuclear energy, 4) licensing procedures, 5) administrative problems, 6) international integration of energy policy, and 7) long-term forecasts. (GG) [de

  17. Modeling environmental policy

    Martin, W.E.; McDonald, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The eight book chapters demonstrate the link between the physical models of the environment and the policy analysis in support of policy making. Each chapter addresses an environmental policy issue using a quantitative modeling approach. The volume addresses three general areas of environmental policy - non-point source pollution in the agricultural sector, pollution generated in the extractive industries, and transboundary pollutants from burning fossil fuels. The book concludes by discussing the modeling efforts and the use of mathematical models in general. Chapters are entitled: modeling environmental policy: an introduction; modeling nonpoint source pollution in an integrated system (agri-ecological); modeling environmental and trade policy linkages: the case of EU and US agriculture; modeling ecosystem constraints in the Clean Water Act: a case study in Clearwater National Forest (subject to discharge from metal mining waste); costs and benefits of coke oven emission controls; modeling equilibria and risk under global environmental constraints (discussing energy and environmental interrelations); relative contribution of the enhanced greenhouse effect on the coastal changes in Louisiana; and the use of mathematical models in policy evaluations: comments. The paper on coke area emission controls has been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM

  18. Resource allocation decision modeling for a Louisiana Public Benefit Fund program

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G.

    2003-01-01

    A simulation model is developed to value energy efficiency improvement programs in Louisiana proposed to be delivered through a Public Benefits Fund. A uniform 1 mill/kW h non-bypassable surcharge on the electric rates of all electricity users is proposed to be distributed for low-income bill assistance, low-income weatherization, and energy efficiency programs across the residential and commercial sector of Louisiana. The economic and environmental impact of the energy improvement programs is coupled to a stochastic linear program to specify the resource allocation subject to policy and system constraints. The model is illustrated through a realistic policy scenario. (Author)

  19. 10 CFR 1.39 - Office of Human Resources.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Human Resources. 1.39 Section 1.39 Energy... § 1.39 Office of Human Resources. The Office of Human Resources— (a) Plans and implements NRC policies... agency's human resources; (b) Provides labor relations and personnel policy guidance and supporting...

  20. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  1. Labour Market Motivation and Undergraduates' Choice of Degree Subject

    Davies, Peter; Mangan, Jean; Hughes, Amanda; Slack, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Labour market outcomes of undergraduates' choice of subject are important for public policy and for students. Policy interest is indicated by the prominence of "employability" in public discourse and in proposals to concentrate government funding in England in supporting STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and mathematics).…

  2. Generic policy in Bulgaria: a policy of failure or success?

    Assena Stoimenova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Generic medicines play a key role in managing the financial resources for pharmaceuticals in every country. This study analysed the generic policy legislative framework in Bulgaria with the aim to identify whether the policy implementation can be considered successful in the light of an international review of such policies introduced in other countries, or on the contrary, it has failed to deliver the main benefits. Legislative analysis, desktop study and macroeconomic overview of the Bulgarian pharmaceutical market were included. The study showed that only 3 out of 11 important policy elements are implemented in the country. Bulgaria has one of the highest shares of generics, an average of 81.39% (volume, for the studied period (2006–2014. However, further research is needed to evaluate the success of the existing generic policy in Bulgaria, as the market share of generic drugs is not the only measure of the policy efficiency.

  3. Por uma política de acesso aos direitos das mulheres: sujeitos feministas em disputa no contexto brasileiro For a policy of access to women's rights: feminist subjects in dispute on the brazilian context

    Karla Galvão Adrião

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pretendemos discutir sobre o tema dos "sujeitos feministas no campo político", levando em consideração as transformações discursivas pelas quais o campo do movimento feminista vem passando nas ultimas décadas. Esses discursos mostravam-se consoantes com os contextos de embates políticos atuais, indicando: a novas ações no mundo político, b disputas pelo reconhecimento de novas identidades dentro do feminismo, e c a evidência da problemática do(s sujeito(s do feminismo como uma questão central para o movimento feminista brasileiro na atualidade. Nosso objetivo com este artigo é discutir essas mudanças no interior do feminismo brasileiro a partir da análise comparativa de dois momentos distintos: o 3º e o 10º 'Encontro Feminista Latino-Americano e do Caribe', ambos ocorridos no Brasil, respectivamente, em 1985 e em 2005.We intend to discuss the theme "feminist subjects on the political field", considering the discursive changes for which the field of the feminist movement has been going in the last decades. These discourses showed consonance with the contexts of the late political struggles, indicating: a new actions in the political environment, b disputes on recognizing new identities within the feminism, and c the evidence of the problematic of feminist subjects as a central theme for the Brazilian feminist movement nowadays. Our goal with this article is to discuss these changes within Brazilian feminism through the comparative analysis of two distinct moments: the third and the tenth 'Latin-American and Caribbean Feminist Meeting' both happened in Brazil, in 1985 and 2005, respectively.

  4. The financial reward for the utilization of hydric resources, the Itaipu royalties and the new water Brazilian policy; A compensacao financeira pela utilizacao de recursos hidricos, os 'royalties' de Itaipu e a nova politica nacional de aguas

    Vieira Filho, Xisto; Sales, Paulo Roberto de Holanda [Ministerio das Minas e Energia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Ventura Filho, Altino; Barbosa, Claudio Simoes [Itaipu Binacional, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil); Spagnol, Marcos [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (brazil)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the chronology of the legislation referring the financial compensation and the royalties paid by the Itaipu Bi nacional, from the origin to the important moment defined by the law introducing the new Water National Policy. Besides the aspects related to the legislation and the new Water National Policy, the ELETROBRAS participation in the process dynamic of the financial compensation is reported.

  5. Natural resource revenues: a test of federalism. [18 papers

    Scott, A [ed.

    1976-01-01

    This volume centers on the concept of an economic rent; particularly rent yielded by mineral resources. The editor, in the Introduction, divides the 18 conference papers into three groups. The first group was concerned with the taxation of the mining and energy industries and its connection with natural resource policy. The introductory chapter attempts to indicate ways of linking the choice of tax collector with the likely effects of the alternative collector's chosen system of taxation. The linkage depends on whether the taxes are on resource ''rent'' and so are ''neutral,'' or on whether they are on costs or prices and so likely to distort or affect private output and timing decisions. A second group of revenue-oriented papers started at an earlier stage: instead of assuming that certain methods of raising revenue tended to be neutral, they showed their recognition that the general literature says little or nothing that is authoritative on this subject. This recognition impelled them to make careful case studies of the effect of certain taxes and agnostic conclusions about their general tendency (that is, their tendency to distort the plans and production programs that would exist without taxation). While maintaining an interest in the neutrality distortion problem, a third group reserved their force for the problem of entitlement to resource revenues. Mr. Scott senses that the authors split their verdicts: pointing to their support for a particular compromise policy. (MCW)

  6. Políticas públicas de recursos hídricos para o semi-árido Public water resources policy for the semi-arid region

    José Almir Cirilo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As características climáticas e socioeconômicas do semi-árido brasileiro requerem tecnologias específicas de utilização e conservação dos recursos hídricos. É preciso analisar as alternativas de obtenção de água para usos diversos. Em contraposição às formas tradicionais de acumular água em pequenos reservatórios de superfície (açudes e perfuração de poços no cristalino, têm-se buscado alternativas como poços de grande profundidade nas áreas sedimentares, metodologias para redução da evaporação e controle da salinização, destinação e uso de efluentes. Por fim, obras de integração de bacias hidrográficas e transporte de água a grande distância começam a ser construídas na região. A abordagem dessas diferentes políticas hídricas para o semi-árido é o objetivo deste trabalho.The climatic, social and economic characteristics in the Brazilian semi-arid region require specific technologies of water resources uses and conservation. So, many alternatives for clean water acquisition must be analyzed. In opposition to the traditional way of accumulating water in small surface reservoirs and perforation of wells in crystalline terrains, alternatives have been looking like great depth wells in sedimentary areas, methodologies for evaporation reduction and salinization control, destination and use of effluents. Finally, works for river basins integration and water transport over long distances are starting to be built in Northeast region. The approach in those water policies for the Brazilian semi-arid region is the purpose of this paper.

  7. Solving the Policy Implementation Problem

    Gregg A. Garn

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available When Republican legislators in Arizona failed to approve educational vouchers in four consecutive legislative sessions, a charter school program was approved as a compromise. The charter school policy was written during a special summer session and within three years, over 30,000 students were enrolled in 260 charter schools across the state. Republican policy makers, who failed to enact voucher legislation, proclaimed the charter school program to be an overwhelming success and protected it from amendments by Democrats and potential actions of bureaucrats that could have altered the policy intent. Research on the implementation of policy indicates that state and local implementors frequently undermine or alter legislative intentions. However, when Arizona policy makers approved the charter school policy, they overcame this persistent implementation phenomenon and, in fact, succeeded in preserving the legislative intentions in the working program. This policy study analyzes how they were able to achieve this elusive result. Key policy makers attended to four significant features of policy implementation in creating the charter school policy: communication, financial resources, implementor attitudes, and bureaucratic structure. Manipulating these key variables allowed policy makers to reduce implementation slippage.

  8. Innovation, resources and economic growth

    Curzio, A.Q.; Fortis, M.; Zoboli, R.

    1994-01-01

    The book is concerned with the following items: 1. Technological Creativity and Institutions, 2. Innovation at Work in an Historical-Economic Perspective: Energy and Industrial Materials, 3. Scientific Revolutions and Strategies of Economic Supremacy: Advanced Materials and Biotechnologies, 4. Economic Growth and Agro-Food Policies in Key Problem Regions: Former USSR and LDCs, 5. Economic Growth and Natural Resources at Risk: Climate Change, Forests and Water and in Conclusion: Innovation and Resources in a Global Policy Perspective. Only one chapter have regard to energy problems: Energie efficient technologies: past and future perspectives. (UA)

  9. Balance, Diversity and Ethics in Public Policy Education.

    Thompson, Paul B.

    Public policy for agriculture and natural resources must change as farming and the use of resources change, but policy also changes to reflect new understandings. The new understandings that will shape future agricultural policy may not come from food producers or agricultural scientists, and may not assume that expanding production is the primary…

  10. Natural resources, innovation and development

    Andersen, Allan Dahl; Johnson, Bjørn Harold; Marín, Anabel

    be supported politically? The Globelics review considers a range of contemporary and historical studies and diverse theoretical positions concerning resource intensive development paths. The intention is to make it easier for analysts and policy makers to learn both from countries that in the past have......In this Globelics Thematic Review, the author team presents and discusses recent research on the relationships between natural resources, innovation and development, and suggests some implications of this body of knowledge for policy makers. The Review sets out to explore three interlinked...... questions with a particular focus on innovation and industry dynamics. First, to what extent is it currently possible for a country to develop on the basis of natural resources? Second, what are the main underlying mechanisms of resource intensive development paths? Third, how can such mechanisms...

  11. Gaps in EU Foreign Policy

    Larsen, Henrik

    of Capability-Expectations Gap in the study of European foreign policy. Through examples from relevant literature, Larsen not only demonstrates how this concept sets up standards for the EU as a foreign policy actor (that are not met by most other international actors) but also shows how this curtails analysis...... of EU foreign policy. The author goes on to discuss how the widespread use of the concept of ‘gap' affects the way in which EU foreign policy has been studied; and that it always produces the same result: the EU is an unfulfilled actor outside the realm of “normal” actors in IR. This volume offers new...... perspectives on European foreign policy research and advice and serves as an invaluable resource for students of EU foreign policy and, more broadly, European Studies....

  12. CERN anti-fraud policy

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a working group on improved fraud prevention and management was established. The group was composed of the Director of Administration and General Infrastructure, the Head of the Human Resources Department, and the Heads of the Legal Service and Internal Audit. It recommended the adoption of a global fraud prevention and management policy.   The global fraud prevention and management policy was implemented through the CERN Anti-Fraud Policy, which was endorsed by the Enlarged Directorate in May 2012 and approved by the Director-General for entry into force on 1 January 2013. The CERN Anti-Fraud Policy defines the Organization’s policy in matters of fraud.  CERN has a zero tolerance approach towards fraud, as it would compromise the accomplishment of its objectives and undermine its functioning, credibility and reputation. The policy also states CERN’s commitment to the prevention, identification and investigation of fraud. All CERN contributors have a key rol...

  13. French nuclear energy policy

    Ferrari, A.; Bertel, E.

    1980-11-01

    The French energy policy is supported by a lucid view of the situation of our country and the constraints linked to the international context. This statement implies, the definition of a French policy or energy production essentially based on national resources, uranium, and especially for long term, technical know how which allows using plutonium in breeder reactors. This policy implies an effort in R and D, and industrial development of nuclear field, both in reactor construction and at all levels of fuel cycle. This coherent scientific and financial effort has been pursued since the beginning of years 60, and has placed France among the first nuclear countries in the world. Now this effort enables the mastership of a strong nuclear industry capable to assure the energy future of the country [fr

  14. SUSTAINABILITY OF FISCAL POLICY. CASE OF ROMANIA*

    Ionuţ-Cătălin Croitoru

    2012-01-01

    The Sustainability of fiscal policy is one of the key concerns of each state, especially in periods of macroeconomic imbalance. This study aims to explore the concept of sustainability of Romanian’s fiscal policy. The analysis starts from the definition of sustainability of fiscal policy and its assessment methods. The work is based on the idea that a sustainable fiscal policy ensure sufficient financial resources for long-term to reduce public debt to GDP weighting and provide permits for gr...

  15. THE IMPORTANCE OF TAX AMNESTY POLICY IN EFFORTS TO OVERCOME TAX EVASION IN INDONESIA

    Imas Sholihah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental problems of taxation in Indonesia is a low tax ratio and management of the tax systemhas not been well ordered, especially the handling of the tax evaders. Tax amnesty policy is presentas one of the solutions of the problems of taxation and is part of the tax reform. There are pros andcons to this policy as it pertains to the settings in the Tax Forgiveness Act is considered less sense offairness and legal certainty and are vulnerable to abuse of authority. This policy became importantalthough it is less sense of fairness if the review facilities subject to tax amnesty even though thestate would get the revenue the state in large numbers in a short period of short-term benefits, butif managed by the management and human resources professionals, socialization, and optimizedcontrol, a long-term positive impact to minimize state income tax evasion. Keywords: tax amnesty, policy, tax evation (avoidance

  16. Information visualisation for science and policy: engaging users and avoiding bias.

    McInerny, Greg J; Chen, Min; Freeman, Robin; Gavaghan, David; Meyer, Miriah; Rowland, Francis; Spiegelhalter, David J; Stefaner, Moritz; Tessarolo, Geizi; Hortal, Joaquin

    2014-03-01

    Visualisations and graphics are fundamental to studying complex subject matter. However, beyond acknowledging this value, scientists and science-policy programmes rarely consider how visualisations can enable discovery, create engaging and robust reporting, or support online resources. Producing accessible and unbiased visualisations from complicated, uncertain data requires expertise and knowledge from science, policy, computing, and design. However, visualisation is rarely found in our scientific training, organisations, or collaborations. As new policy programmes develop [e.g., the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)], we need information visualisation to permeate increasingly both the work of scientists and science policy. The alternative is increased potential for missed discoveries, miscommunications, and, at worst, creating a bias towards the research that is easiest to display. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Uranium resources

    Gangloff, A.

    1978-01-01

    It is first indicated how to evaluate the mining resources as a function of the cost of production and the degree of certainty in the knowledge of the deposit. A table is given of the world resources (at the beginning 1977) and resources and reserves are compared. There is a concordance between requirements and possible production until 1990. The case of France is examined: known reserves, present and future prospection, present production (In 1978 2200 T of U metal will be produced from 3 French processing plants), production coming from Cogema. A total production of 2000 T in 1980 and 10.000 in 1985 is expected [fr

  18. Debates actuales en torno a las políticas del reconocimiento: constitución de los sujetos y cambio social Current discussions about the policies of recognition: constitution of the subjects and social change

    Dante Ramaglia

    2010-12-01

    proposals which depart from the consideration of the anthropological sense of recognition, and its reinterpretation from the definition that it has in modern culture, in philosophers like Rousseau and Hegel, in order to give different keys of interpreting those social change processes which have been taking place till the present. One of the analyzed options is associated with the frankfurtian philosopher Axel Honneth, who has developed a set of thesis about the importance of mutual recognition in relation to the dynamics that mobilize social conflicts. Besides the need to contrast this with other contemporary approaches, they are also reviewed some assumptions and scopes of the theory of recognition from a critical perspective that is contextualized within the framework of the transformations produced by globalization and the ongoing crisis of capitalist societies. From this point of view, it is interesting to inquire into the significance of alternative manifestations of social movements in their new forms of protest and claim of justice. In this respect, some guidelines concerning the policies of recognition are tested, as this discussion involves an evaluation of equality and difference as normative and guiding principles of the material and cultural changes occurring in today's world.

  19. Natural Resource Management Plan

    Green, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Schwager, K. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This comprehensive Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP) for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was built on the successful foundation of the Wildlife Management Plan for BNL, which it replaces. This update to the 2003 plan continues to build on successes and efforts to better understand the ecosystems and natural resources found on the BNL site. The plan establishes the basis for managing the varied natural resources located on the 5,265-acre BNL site, setting goals and actions to achieve those goals. The planning of this document is based on the knowledge and expertise gained over the past 15 years by the Natural Resources management staff at BNL in concert with local natural resource agencies including the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Long Island Pine Barrens Joint Planning and Policy Commission, The Nature Conservancy, and others. The development of this plan works toward sound ecological management that not only benefits BNL’s ecosystems but also benefits the greater Pine Barrens habitats in which BNL is situated. This plan applies equally to the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve). Any difference in management between the larger BNL area and the Upton Reserve are noted in the text.

  20. ENERGY POLICY

    Avrupa Topluluğu Enstitüsü, Marmara Üniversitesi

    2015-01-01

    John Mitchell considers EU policies on energy supply security; Tera Allas on energy security of supply in the UK: the way forward; Peter Odell assesses public/private partnerships on the UKCS; Olivier Appert provides an overview of French energy policy.

  1. Energy policy

    Forrester, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The author places the energy problem in the context of world economy. The various obstacles encountered in the United States to spell out a viable national energy policy are cited. A certain number of practical proposals is given to lead to an 'effective policy' which would allow energy economy at the same time as energy development, that is, including nuclear energy [fr

  2. Inaugural AGU Science Policy Conference

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2012-01-01

    AGU will present its inaugural Science Policy Conference, 30 April to 3 May 2012, at the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center, located in downtown Washington, D. C. This conference will bring together leading scientists, policy makers, industry professionals, press, and other stakeholders to discuss natural hazards, natural resources, oceans, and Arctic science and the role these sciences play in serving communities. To bridge the science and policy fields, AGU plans to host this conference every 2 years and focus on the applications of Earth and space sciences to serve local and national communities. "Our nation faces a myriad of challenges such as the sustainability of our natural resources, current and future energy needs, and the ability to mitigate and adapt to natural and manmade hazards," said Michael McPhaden, president of AGU. "It is essential that policies to address these challenges be built on a solid foundation of credible scientific knowledge."

  3. Commodities and Switzerland: Development Policy Challenges and Policy Options

    Werner Thut

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EDITOR’S NOTEThis paper, written in December 2012, is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of the International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy makers and practitioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, an initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from different stakeholders. This paper by Werner Thut is followed by reactions and analysis from a non-profit policy institute (Alexandra Gillies, Revenue Watch Institute, New York, ‘Crafting a Strategic Response to the Commodity-Development Conundrum’, a Southern scholar (Prof. Humberto Campodonico, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima ‘Going Beyond Transparency and Good Governance’ | ‘Más allá de la transparencia y una buena gobernanza’ and a representative of the trading sector (Stéphane Graber, Secretary General of Geneva Trading & Shipping Association – ‘Reassessing the Merchants’ Role in a Globalized Economy’.PAPER’S ABSTRACTSwitzerland is one of the world’s largest commodity trading hub. The author, senior policy adviser at the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC, reviews experiences and policy options related to commodity trading from a development policy perspective. While this sector has become of strategic importance to Switzerland’s economy, it also entails a number of risks. On the other hand, Swiss development cooperation efforts focus on several resource-rich countries, whose mineral and agricultural commodities are traded via Switzerland. How can Switzerland assist these countries to reap the benefits of their natural resource wealth? This paper looks at development policy aspects of commodity trading in relation to Swiss foreign and domestic policy. It examines ongoing policy debates in Switzerland and discusses development policy options.

  4. Seaweed resources

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  5. Arthritis - resources

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  6. Mineral resources

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  7. Depression - resources

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...

  8. Hemophilia - resources

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  9. Diabetes - resources

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  10. Values in Health Policy – A Concept Analysis

    Lida Shams

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite the significant role “values” play in decision-making no definition or attributes regarding the concept have been provided in health policy-making. This study aimed to clarify the defining attributes of a concept of value and its irrelevant structures in health policy-making. We anticipate our findings will help reduce the semantic ambiguities associated with the use of “values” and other concepts such as principles, criteria, attitudes, and beliefs. Methods An extensive search of literature was carried out using electronic data base and library. The overall search strategy yielded about 1540 articles and 450 additional records. Based on traditional qualitative research, studies were purposefully selected and the coding of articles continued until data saturation was reached. Accordingly, 31 articles, 2 books, and 5 other documents were selected for the review. We applied Walker and Avant’s method of concept analysis in studying the phenomenon. Definitions, applications, attributes, antecedents, and consequences of the concept of “value in health policy-making” were extracted. We also identified similarities and differences that exist between and within them. Results We identified eight major attributes of “value in health policy-making”: ideological origin, affect one’s choices, more resistant to change over time, source of motivation, ability to sacrifice one’s interest, goal-oriented nature for community, trans-situational and subjectivity. Other features pinpointed include alternatives, antecedents, and consequences. Alternative, antecedents and consequences case may have more or fewer attributes or may lack one of these attributes and at the same time have other distinctive ones. Conclusion Despite the use of the value framework, ambiguities still persist in providing definition of the concept value in health policy-making. Understanding the concept of value in health policy-making may provide extra

  11. Forest Resources

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  12. Education Policy: Explaining, Framing and Forming

    Adams, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new heuristic device for the analysis of educational policy. Through an examination of the Evaluative State and the work of Brian Fay, the paper considers the way in which educational policy is subject to rational and linear forms of policy action and implementation. To counter this, positioning theory is deployed to consider…

  13. Orchestrating Policy Ideas: Philanthropies and Think Tanks in US Education Policy Advocacy Networks

    Lubienski, Christopher; Brewer, T. Jameson; La Londe, Priya Goel

    2016-01-01

    While think tanks are a global phenomenon, their role in shaping US policy offers an instructive example of think tank influence on policymaking due to the immensity of resources directed towards those ends, with education policy serving as a prime example. Focusing on a distinct set of "incentivist" education policies, this analysis…

  14. Petroleum and mineral resources of Antarctica

    Kovar, Karel; Behrendt, John Charles

    1983-01-01

    No known petroleum or mineral resources occur in Antarctica. The data on these subjects have been collected, mainly since the IGY (International Geophysical Year), 1957-58, as a part of other research carried out by geologists and geophysicists from a number of countries. Specific resource-related studies have not been made. Wright and Williams (1974) summarized what was known of Antarctic mineral resources a decade ago.The U.S. Geological Survey has been actively pursuing various investigations in Antarctica since 194 7. In the course of this work and that of our colleagues elsewhere in the United States and in other countries, much information relevant to petroleum and mineral resources has been obtained. Since 1976, modern state-of-the-art multichannel seismic reflection and aeromagnetic surveys by several countries over the continental margin of Antarctica have indicated thick sedimentary basins. However, no offshore drilling beneath the continental shelf has taken place since the DSDP (Deep Sea Drilling Project) holes in the Ross Sea in 1973. Geologic field investigations begun at the turn of the twentieth century have been intensified in the past two decades; most rock outcrops have been visited and samples collected. Technology to exploit resources, particularly in the Arctic, has been developing at a rapid rate, and much of it could be applied to Antarctica. As a result of the petroleum price increases of the past decade, the attention of a number of countries has turned to Antarctica, but under the policy of "voluntary restraint" adopted by the Antarctic Treaty nations, no active petroleum or mineral exploration is taking place. The Antarctic treaty countries are in the process of negotiating an Antarctic mineral resources regime that is anticipated to be completed within the next several years. Therefore it seemed timely to us to readdress the question of petroleum and mineral resources. These reports review and summarize the available information. The

  15. Energy policy of France

    Revol, H.

    2001-01-01

    In November 1997, the French senate decided the creation of an inquiry commission in order to start up a study about the future of the French energy policy. The commission has interviewed the overall actors of the energy policy: ministers, heads of energy companies, higher officials, syndicates, consumer and environment protection associations, scientists and economists. The inquiry has been extended to other countries of the European community, and also to China, Japan, the USA and Canada. Despite various economical contexts and resources, all these countries have developed energy policies which aim at ensuring an energy independence and at supplying energy at the best price for a better economic competitiveness. This report presents first the French experience and the evolution of the French energy policy during the last 50 years with respect to the economical and political constraints encountered. The second part is a reflection about the principles that will guide the French energy policy in the context of deregulation of the European energy market and of the environmental constraints imposed by the Kyoto summit. Detailed proposals for the increase of the French energy independence are presented in conclusion of the report. (J.S.)

  16. Policy evaluation in terms of relative industrial performance and competitiveness

    Stigson, P.; Dotzauer, E. [Malardalen Univ., Vasteras (Sweden); Yan, J. [Malardalen Univ., Vasteras (Sweden); KTH, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a tool that can improve energy and climate policymaking processes through a stronger inclusion of industry expertise while safeguarding industrial competitiveness. The authors suggested that in order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the processes, policymakers should recognize the role that industry plays as emission abatement investors. The tool is designed to promote policy design and management processes, facilitating transparency of methodology and subjectivity, consensus of results, rapid simulations of policy processes, and high inter-usability by key decision makers. The authors analyzed how climate and energy policy framework design and management processes can be improved through evaluation processes that focus on carbon dioxide emissions, energy efficiency, and utilization of renewable energy resources. The tool was used in a Swedish case study where industries are known to be relatively energy efficient with low emissions. The study showed that a more diversified and individual policy approach could be favorable, but this would result in increased administrative work for the government and public entities that administer the policy regime. Although this is a negative effect, the authors argued that the challenge of combating climate change will incur additional costs and labor in one way or the other. The authors emphasized that early-action can mitigate the costs. 40 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  17. Data Policy

    Mark A Parsons

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of data policy should be to serve the objectives of the organization or project sponsoring the collection of the data. With research data, data policy should also serve the broader goals of advancing scientific and scholarly inquiry and society at large. This is especially true with government-funded data, which likely comprise the vast majority of research data. Data policy should address multiple issues, depending on the nature and objectives of the data. These issues include data access requirements, data preservation and stewardship requirements, standards and compliance mechanisms, data security issues, privacy and ethical concerns, and potentially even specific collection protocols and defined data flows. The specifics of different policies can vary dramatically, but all data policies need to address data access and preservation. Research data gain value with use and must therefore be accessible and preserved for future access. This article focuses on data access. While policy might address multiple issues, at a first level it must address where the data stand on what Lyon (2009 calls the continuum of openness. Making data as openly accessible as possible provides the greatest societal benefit, and a central purpose of data policy is to work toward ethically open data access. An open data regime not only maximizes the benefit of the data, it also simplifies most of the other issues around effective research data stewardship and infrastructure development.

  18. Water Resources Management in Tanzania: Identifying Research ...

    many factors affecting water resources decision making, it is ubiquitous in that it permeates the planning, policy-making .... estimated that in many farming systems, more than 70% of the rain ..... Using correlation techniques, the relationship ...

  19. Africa: Mineral resources, environment, and governance | IDRC ...

    2011-01-25

    Jan 25, 2011 ... Africa: Mineral resources, environment, and governance ... benefits the poor, more effective social and environmental policies, and respect for human ... Who should claim responsibility for local crime prevention and security?

  20. Managing Climate Risk to Agriculture and Water Resources in South ...

    Managing Climate Risk to Agriculture and Water Resources in South Africa ... to better integrate information on climate change and climate variability into water resources policy, planning and management. ... University of the Free State.

  1. 34 CFR 97.118 - Applications and proposals lacking definite plans for involvement of human subjects.

    2010-07-01

    ... Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.118 Applications and proposals lacking definite plans..., or contracts are submitted to departments or agencies with the knowledge that subjects may be...

  2. State policies for geothermal development

    Sacarto, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    The most prominent geothermal resources in the USA occur in fifteen Gulf and Western states including Alaska and Hawaii. In each state, authority and guidelines have been established for administration of geothermal leasing and for regulation of development. Important matters addressed by these policies include resource definition, leasing provisions, development regulations, water appropriation, and environmental standards. Some other policies that need attention include taxation, securities regulations, and utility regulations. It is concluded that conditions needed for the geothermal industry to pursue large-scale development are consumer (utility) confidence in the resource; equitable tax treatment; prompt exploration of extensive land areas; long and secure tenure for productive properties; prompt facility siting and development; and competitive access to various consumers. With these conditions, the industry should be competitive with other energy sectors and win its share of investment capital. This publication reviews for the states various technical, economic, and institutional aspects of geothermal development. The report summarizes research results from numerous specialists and outlines present state and Federal policies. The report concludes generally that if public policies are made favorable to their development, geothermal resources offer an important energy resource that could supply all new electric capacity for the fifteen states for the next two decades. This energy--100,000 MW--could be generated at prices competitive with electricity from fossil and nuclear power plants. An extensive bibliography is included. (MCW)

  3. Curriculum Resources.

    Thompson, Norma H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses an article which presents a concise discussion of secular humanism. Reviews additional materials on censorship from the perspective of the new religious right, the fundamentalists, and public policy and the law. The sources provide background to enhance teaching about secular humanism and textbook censorship. (SLM)

  4. Discussion the exploitation of nuclear power archival resources

    Fan Fei

    2012-01-01

    In recent years with the development of government policy on nuclear power by the 'proper development' to 'positive rapid development', the nuclear power stations have mushroomed. As an important part of nuclear power plant the archives plays an important role in ensuring the safe and stable operation. With the increasing nuclear power archival resources, its how the rational and efficient development and utilization of nuclear power as an important corporate archivists subject. Nuclear power archives is no longer a static file 'archive' but a steady steam of out knowledge and wisdom of the 'think tank', 'treasure', our archives staff also no longer simply a medium used to provide lending, but to provide reference 'experts' and 'think tank'. Based on the analysis of nuclear features of archival resources, the use of a new perspective on nuclear power development and utilization of enterprise file made bold attempts and innovation. (author)

  5. Uranium resource assessments

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to examine what is generally known about uranium resources, what is subject to conjecture, how well do the explorers themselves understand the occurrence of uranium, and who are the various participants in the exploration process. From this we hope to reach a better understanding of the quality of uranium resource estimates as well as the nature of the exploration process. The underlying questions will remain unanswered. But given an inability to estimate precisely our uranium resources, how much do we really need to know. To answer this latter question, the various Department of Energy needs for uranium resource estimates are examined. This allows consideration of whether or not given the absence of more complete long-term supply data and the associated problems of uranium deliverability for the electric utility industry, we are now threatened with nuclear power plants eventually standing idle due to an unanticipated lack of fuel for their reactors. Obviously this is of some consequence to the government and energy consuming public. The report is organized into four parts. Section I evaluates the uranium resource data base and the various methodologies of resource assessment. Part II describes the manner in which a private company goes about exploring for uranium and the nature of its internal need for resource information. Part III examines the structure of the industry for the purpose of determining the character of the industry with respect to resource development. Part IV arrives at conclusions about the emerging pattern of industrial behavior with respect to uranium supply and the implications this has for coping with national energy issues

  6. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  7. The policies of supplier nations

    Moher, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with the nuclear non-proliferation element of the policies of supplier nations. These policies include economic, commercial, resource management, financial and technological aspects. The evolution of the nuclear export policies of supplier nations is considered. The challenges facing the non-proliferation regime are looked at. Finally, the progress made is reviewed. Although this has been considerable, further work is necessary and this is mentioned. The postscript assesses the situation following the successful Third NPT Review Conference held in 1985. (U.K.)

  8. Psychological career resources and subjective work experiences of ...

    Southern African Business Review Volume 13 Number 2 2009. Psychological .... results from certain perceptions about one's work and has behavioural consequences such as tenure ... Overall, the black (67%) and female (58%) participants.

  9. Water, Society and the future of water resources research (Invited)

    Brown, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The subject of water and society is broad, but at heart is the study of water as a resource, essential to human activities, a vital input to food and energy production, the sustaining medium for ecosystems and yet also a destructive hazard. Society demands, withdraws, competes, uses and wastes the resource in dynamic counterpart. The science of water management emerges from this interface, a field at the nexus of engineering and geoscience, with substantial influence from economics and other social sciences. Within this purview are some of the most pressing environmental questions of our time, such as adaptation to climate change, direct and indirect connections between water and energy policy, the continuing dependence of agriculture on depletion of the world's aquifers, the conservation or preservation of ecosystems within increasingly human-influenced river systems, and food security and poverty reduction for the earth's poorest inhabitants. This presentation will present and support the hypothesis that water resources research is a scientific enterprise separate from, yet closely interrelated to, hydrologic science. We will explore the scientific basis of water resources research, review pressing research questions and opportunities, and propose an action plan for the advancement of the science of water management. Finally, the presentation will propose a Chapman Conference on Water and Society: The Future of Water Resources Research in the spring of 2015.

  10. Homeownership and subjective well-being

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    Favouring homeownership is an important part of housing policies in many countries. Although this may be explained by the preferences of the majority of voters, it may also be because homeownership is believed to have positive effects on individuals’ behaviour and welfare. Previous research seems...... and subjective well-being....

  11. Towards a more conservative energy policy

    Forman, N.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is treated under the following headings: the meaning of energy policy; previous attempts to formulate United Kingdom energy policy; patterns of energy supply and demand (in the UK) (current and future); towards a more conservative energy policy (the use of energy in the various sectors, the conversion and distribution of energy (coal, nuclear power, electricity, oil and gas, renewable sources)); energy policy in broader perspective (international context, cost benefit assessments, contrasting patterns of energy use, ethical issues). (U.K.)

  12. Mineral Taxation Policies in Developing Countries: An Application of Resource Rent Tax (L'imposition des ressources dans les pays en développement: application du concept de taxe sur la rente minière) (Políticas de impuestos a los minerales en los países en desarrollo: Aplicación del impuesto a la renta de recursos)

    Keith F. Palmer

    1980-01-01

    The central problem of mineral taxation policy in developing countries is to establish a stable fiscal framework that, under conditions of uncertainty, both obtains a high share of mineral rent for the resource-owning country and ensures for the investor the prospect of a return on his investment commensurate with his risk. The main concern of the paper is to propose a practical fiscal framework, based on the resource rent tax concept, that meets these objectives. The resource rent tax is a p...

  13. NAPAP: A lesson in science, policy

    Russell, M.

    1993-01-01

    Perplexing environmental questions, such as acid rain and global warming, cry out for policy solutions based upon solid scientific evidence. Scientists and politicians agree on this but have trouble finding an effective way to do it. Milton Russell of the University of Tennessee and Oak Ridge National Laboratory describes a major, but only partially successful, effort that he believes contains valuable lessons for scientists and policy makers in the future. It is the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), launched in 1980 to generate the latest scientific evidence to guide national debate on clean-air legislation. The program open-quotes created an unprecedented body of scientific research on an environmental issue of the first order,close quotes Russell says. Yet, he admits, its influence was virtually nil on the legislation that ultimately emerged on the subject. Russell blames this lack of influence on NAPAP's failure to provide adequate assessment of its research findings, its failure to communicate the results on a timely and effective basis, and on open-quotes political forces that sought legislation rather than a full explication of issues.close quotes Out of the experience, Russell finds lessons for the future: open-quotes First, if the scientific finding are to have an impact on policy, assessment must become a priority as important as scientific research. Second, for projects designed to help decision makers, scientific research must be considered a resource, not an end product. Third, timely, lucid communication must be an essential element of the project, not a marginal activity.close quotes NAPAP, Russell concludes, open-quotes proved a long-term scientific success and a short-term policy disappointment.close quotes Then he warns, open-quotes Future science programs ignore the NAPAP experience at their own risk.close quotes

  14. How to spend it: Resource wealth and the distribution of resource rents

    Segal, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Natural resource revenues differ from other government revenues both in their time profile, and in their political and legal status: they are volatile and exhaustible, and belong to all citizens of the country in which they are located. This paper discusses the theory of natural resource revenues and examines expenditure practices in a range of resource-rich countries. It considers both the distributional impact and the efficiency of expenditure policies, focusing on the extent to which they succeed in providing all citizens with their share of the benefits due to natural resources. - Highlights: ► We examine the relationship between resource rents and government resource revenues. ► We discuss the intertemporal management of resource revenues in theory and in practice. ► We critically examine existing policies for distributing resource revenues to populations.

  15. Policy relevance of various proposals for greening GDP

    De Wit, G.

    1996-02-01

    From the study on the title subject it appears that the use of a number of separate physical indicators is valuable for policy making but that it would be helpful for policy to develop (alongside the conventional Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and these environmental indicators) an extra 'green' GDP. The analysis of the various surveyed proposals of greening GDP results into the conclusion that adjustments should be made as follows: (1) adjustment for the net depletion of natural resources according to the net price method, (2) adjustment for the degradation of nature by polluting emissions with the aid of shadow prices derived from politics, and (3) adjustment for certain categories of environmental defensive expenditures. The major reasons for this recommendation are: (1) such a GDP can facilitate government in decisions where trade-offs between production and a clean environment are at stake, (2) the recommended way of valuation minimizes the inherent subjectiveness of valuing nature, (3) the way of valuation of nature is not likely to lead to an overestimation, and (4) at least for the Netherlands the proposal is operational in the near future. In Chapter 2 a set of evaluation criteria is designed. One evaluation criterion is the potential policy relevance of a proposed indicator, i.e. its relevance when the indicator measures exactly what it is intended to measure. In Chapter 3 the potential policy relevance of an adjusted GDP is elaborated. Another evaluation criterion is the scientific validity of a proposed indicator: is the indicator really measuring what it is intended to measure? To judge whether this is the case for the various proposals for adjusting GDP, a theoretical framework that facilitates such a judgement is discussed in Chapter 4. In Chapters 5, 6 and 7 actual evaluation of the various proposals for environmental indicators is carried out. In Chapter 5 proposals regarding the depletion of natural resources are evaluated. (Abstract Truncated)

  16. Teaching Resources

    Physics?" Poster Pamphlets/Books/SPIN-UP Resources Making and Sustaining Changes in Undergraduate AAPT.org - American Association of Physics Teachers Skip to content Skip to navigation Skip to local navigation AAPT - American Association of Physics Teachers Go Sign In / Online Services Join

  17. Resource Mobilization

    constitute endorsement of the product and is given only for information. ..... point where they could significantly impact an organization's financial viability. This alternative ... putting in place internal systems and processes that enable the resource .... control over the incorporation of non-profit organizations. ..... Accounting.

  18. Resource Mobilization

    Annex 1: The Scoping Study on Donor Funding for. Development Research in ... publication of the Resource Mobilization: A Practical Guide for Research .... applied the concept or technique, which validates the practical application of ... some other staff member would write up a grant application addressed to one, two, or a ...

  19. A resource management architecture for metacomputing systems.

    Czajkowski, K.; Foster, I.; Karonis, N.; Kesselman, C.; Martin, S.; Smith, W.; Tuecke, S.

    1999-08-24

    Metacomputing systems are intended to support remote and/or concurrent use of geographically distributed computational resources. Resource management in such systems is complicated by five concerns that do not typically arise in other situations: site autonomy and heterogeneous substrates at the resources, and application requirements for policy extensibility, co-allocation, and online control. We describe a resource management architecture that addresses these concerns. This architecture distributes the resource management problem among distinct local manager, resource broker, and resource co-allocator components and defines an extensible resource specification language to exchange information about requirements. We describe how these techniques have been implemented in the context of the Globus metacomputing toolkit and used to implement a variety of different resource management strategies. We report on our experiences applying our techniques in a large testbed, GUSTO, incorporating 15 sites, 330 computers, and 3600 processors.

  20. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    Borras, Susana

    During the past two decades Europe has experienced important changes and transformations in the way in which governments approach the issue of science, technology and innovation, and their relation to economic growth and competitiveness. This has to do with the European Union level as well...... as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  1. 48 CFR 237.7502 - Policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Acquisition and Management of Industrial Resources 237.7502 Policy. (a) Comply with DoD Directive 4275.5, Acquisition and Management of Industrial...

  2. KCA Journal of Business Management: Editorial Policies

    KCA Journal of Business Management: Editorial Policies ... Finance, Management, Human, Resources management, Business research methods, ... The papers should take into account the diversity of the targeted readership as reflected in ...

  3. DoD International Armaments Cooperation Policy

    Cohen, William

    1997-01-01

    .... In the evolving environment of coalition warfare, limited resources, and a global industrial and technology base, it is DoD policy that we utilize International Armaments Cooperation to the maximum...

  4. The International System in the 21st Century: Considering the U.S. Role. Third Edition. Teacher Resource Book [and Student Text]. Public Policy Debate in the Classroom. Choices for the 21st Century.

    Fox, Sarah Cleveland

    Although the attacks of September 11, 2001, present new challenges and priorities for U.S. policy, it is uncertain what direction international relations will take. China's growth and power, Russia's political and economic problems, resentment and corruption in Russia, and global warming effect policymaking. While the war on terrorism may be a…

  5. Navigating the science-policy spectrum: Opportunities to work on policies related to your research

    Licker, R.; Ekwurzel, B.; Goldman, G. T.; DeLonge, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Many scientists conduct research with direct policy relevance, whether it be producing sea-level projections that are taken-up by local decision-makers, or developing new agricultural technologies. All scientists are affected by policies made by their respective local, regional, and federal governments. For example, budgets affect the grant resources available to conduct research and policies on visas influence the accessibility of new positions for foreign scientists. As a result, many scientists would like to engage with the policy domain, and either bring their science to bear on new policies that are in the works (science-for-policy) or inform policies on the scientific research enterprise (policy-for-science). Some scientists prefer to engage and be neutral to the policy outcome, serving primarily as an information resource. Many may choose to also advocate for a particular outcome based on their expertise and experience. Research shows that policy decisions benefit greatly from the input of scientific experts. We explore the spectrum between informing policies in a "non-prescriptive" manner to working on policies in an advocacy space. We highlight tips for successful engagement along this spectrum. Finally, we review current science-for-policy and policy-for-science issues of relevance to the geophysical sciences.

  6. Optimal exploitation of a renewable resource with stochastic nonconvex technology: An analysis of extinction and survival

    Mitra, Tapan; Roy, Santanu

    1992-11-01

    This paper analyzes the possibilities of extinction and survival of a renewable resource whose technology of reproduction is both stochastic and nonconvex. In particular, the production function is subject to random shocks over time and is allowed to be nonconcave, though it eventually exhibits bounded growth. The existence of a minimum biomass below which the resource can only decrease, is allowed for. Society harvests a part of the current stock every time period over an infinite horizon so as to maximize the expected discounted sum of one period social utilities from the harvested resource. The social utility function is strictly concave. The stochastic process of optimal stocks generated by the optimal stationary policy is analyzed. The nonconvexity in the optimization problem implies that the optimal policy functions are not 'well behaved'. The behaviour of the probability of extinction (and the expected time to extinction), as a function of initial stock, is characterized for various possible configurations of the optimal policy and the technology. Sufficient conditions on the utility and production functions and the rate of impatience, are specified in order to ensure survival of the resource with probability one from some stock level (the minimum safe standard of conservation). Sufficient conditions for almost sure extinction and almost sure survival from all stock levels are also specified. These conditions are related to the corresponding conditions derived in models with deterministic and/or convex technology. 4 figs., 29 refs

  7. Optimal exploitation of a renewable resource with stochastic nonconvex technology: An analysis of extinction and survival

    Mitra, Tapan [Department of Economics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Roy, Santanu [Econometric Institute, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1992-11-01

    This paper analyzes the possibilities of extinction and survival of a renewable resource whose technology of reproduction is both stochastic and nonconvex. In particular, the production function is subject to random shocks over time and is allowed to be nonconcave, though it eventually exhibits bounded growth. The existence of a minimum biomass below which the resource can only decrease, is allowed for. Society harvests a part of the current stock every time period over an infinite horizon so as to maximize the expected discounted sum of one period social utilities from the harvested resource. The social utility function is strictly concave. The stochastic process of optimal stocks generated by the optimal stationary policy is analyzed. The nonconvexity in the optimization problem implies that the optimal policy functions are not `well behaved`. The behaviour of the probability of extinction (and the expected time to extinction), as a function of initial stock, is characterized for various possible configurations of the optimal policy and the technology. Sufficient conditions on the utility and production functions and the rate of impatience, are specified in order to ensure survival of the resource with probability one from some stock level (the minimum safe standard of conservation). Sufficient conditions for almost sure extinction and almost sure survival from all stock levels are also specified. These conditions are related to the corresponding conditions derived in models with deterministic and/or convex technology. 4 figs., 29 refs.

  8. Reliability-oriented multi-resource allocation in a stochastic-flow network

    Hsieh, C.-C.; Lin, M.-H.

    2003-01-01

    A stochastic-flow network consists of a set of nodes, including source nodes which supply various resources and sink nodes at which resource demands take place, and a collection of arcs whose capacities have multiple operational states. The network reliability of such a stochastic-flow network is the probability that resources can be successfully transmitted from source nodes through multi-capacitated arcs to sink nodes. Although the evaluation schemes of network reliability in stochastic-flow networks have been extensively studied in the literature, how to allocate various resources at source nodes in a reliable means remains unanswered. In this study, a resource allocation problem in a stochastic-flow network is formulated that aims to determine the optimal resource allocation policy at source nodes subject to given resource demands at sink nodes such that the network reliability of the stochastic-flow network is maximized, and an algorithm for computing the optimal resource allocation is proposed that incorporates the principle of minimal path vectors. A numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed algorithm

  9. NWS Water Resource Services Branch Division

    the NWS homepage NWS Water Resources Program OS Home News Organization Search Search Home About Us Water Resources Policy Flood Loss Data AHPS Program Office (OHD) AHPS Software Development Hydrology Lab AHPS Toolbox Flood Safety Service Hydrology Program Turn Around Don't Drown! High Water Mark Signs

  10. OECD Reviews of School Resources: Austria 2016

    Nusche, Deborah; Radinger, Thomas; Busemeyer, Marius R.; Theisens, Henno

    2016-01-01

    This report for Austria forms part of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Review of Policies to Improve the Effectiveness of Resource Use in Schools. The purpose of the review is to explore how school resources can be governed, distributed, utilised and managed to improve the quality, equity and efficiency of school…

  11. US energy policy

    Katz, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    After three years in power, the Reagan Administration has been able to reverse much of the US federal government's energy policy measures that had occurred since 1973, particularly the build-up that took place during the Carter presidency. Another change is a repudiation of social equity concerns, which were an important part of the energy policies of the Nixon, Ford and Carter presidencies. Instead of using government to direct energy policy, the Reagan Administration has stressed the pre-eminence of the private sector. One exception is nuclear energy, which the Administration strongly supports. While the Reagan policies implemented have increased economic efficiency and reduced federal-related budgets and staffs, they have caused environmental degradation and hardship on the poor. Yet their greatest implication is that of a nation less well prepared to handle a severe energy shortage. The Administration believes this is not a problem, based on its optimistic expectations of the extent of untapped resources worldwide and the resilience of the free market. (author)

  12. Optimal utilization of energy resources

    Hudson, E. A.

    1977-10-15

    General principles that should guide the extraction of New Zealand's energy resources are presented. These principles are based on the objective of promoting the general economic and social benefit obtained from the use of the extracted fuel. For a single resource, the central question to be answered is, simply, what quantity of energy should be extracted in each year of the resource's lifetime. For the energy system as a whole the additional question must be answered of what mix of fuels should be used in any year. The analysis of optimal management of a single energy resource is specifically discussed. The general principles for optimal resource extraction are derived, and then applied to the examination of the characteristics of the optimal time paths of energy quantity and price; to the appraisal of the efficiency, in resource management, of various market structures; to the evaluation of various energy pricing policies; and to the examination of circumstances in which market organization is inefficient and the guidelines for corrective government policy in such cases.

  13. Optimal utilization of energy resources

    Hudson, E.A.

    1977-10-15

    General principles that should guide the extraction of New Zealand's energy resources are presented. These principles are based on the objective of promoting the general economic and social benefit obtained from the use of the extracted fuel. For a single resource, the central question to be answered is, simply, what quantity of energy should be extracted in each year of the resource's lifetime. For the energy system as a whole the additional question must be answered of what mix of fuels should be used in any year. The analysis of optimal management of a single energy resource is specifically discussed. The general principles for optimal resource extraction are derived, and then applied to the examination of the characteristics of the optimal time paths of energy quantity and price; to the appraisal of the efficiency, in resource management, of various market structures; to the evaluation of various energy pricing policies; and to the examination of circumstances in which market organization is inefficient and the guidelines for corrective government policy in such cases.

  14. Energy issues and policies in Brazil

    Goldemberg, J.

    1981-10-01

    Initiative taken in Brazil to achieve 'energy autonomy' in vien of the petroleum crisis is analyzed. The dynamics of the movement away from oil and the desire to base the development of the country on locally available resources such as hydroelectricity and biomass derived fuels are emphasized. Energy resources, energy comsumption, issues and policies, energy projections and social issues are discussed, as well as the relevance and applicability to other countries of policies followed in Brazil. (I.C.R.) [pt

  15. Manual for subject analysis

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)

  16. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    either construct elicitation mechanisms that control for risk aversion, or construct elicitation mechanisms which undertake 'calibrating adjustments' to elicited reports. We illustrate how the joint estimation of risk attitudes and subjective probabilities can provide the calibration adjustments...... that theory calls for. We illustrate this approach using data from a controlled experiment with real monetary consequences to the subjects. This allows the observer to make inferences about the latent subjective probability, under virtually any well-specified model of choice under subjective risk, while still...

  17. Chemical dependence - resources

    Substance use - resources, Drug abuse - resources; Resources - chemical dependence ... are a good resource for information on drug dependence: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence -- ncadd. ...

  18. Policy stories

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    This article uses Arctic Winter 2016 as an exploration site of values and futures in Greenland. By taking a valuation approach where the creation and interpretation of event values are seen as an ongoing and taxing accomplishment, we firstly expand the understanding of events beyond their actual...... present three central policy stories from the field. The stories tell of how the event was first interested, then activated and finally evaluated. Besides adding a new understanding to policy-driven events as a locus of value creation, we also argue that the AWG 2016 offer speculative bets for new...... planning and execution and of event outcomes beyond the narrow confines of bed nights and legacies. Second, we introduce policies as an entry point to unlock discussions and manifestations of value and futures which connect to AWG. In order to exemplify the workings of the AWG event in these domains, we...

  19. Extending the scope of interprofessional education: Integrating insights from policy, management and economics for improved health outcomes

    Shafqat Shehzad, PhD Health Economics

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the potential of bringing innovations in public health education by drawing insights from the specialised disciplines of Economics, Policy and Management for their applications in the health sector. Working with subject experts from these disciplines can enhance the understanding of a working health care system and the necessary improvements for better health outcomes. Sole reliance on one field or skewed allocation of resources in certain areas may not result in achieving...

  20. Key policy choices in groundwater quality management

    Batie, S.S.; Diebel, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    The fundamental policy choice of who has the right to do what to whom is a pivotal issue of governance. Over the last few decades, the answer to that question has become more restrictive to those who own and use natural resources as inputs into production processes. Increasingly, the beneficiaries of new policy initiatives are those who desire higher protection of groundwater quality. With respect to groundwater management, policy design increasingly reflects such diverse interests as agriculturists, industrialists, homeowners, local government officials and state officials. Policy design is becoming complex, in part because of this diversity and in part because scientific uncertainty hampers informed policy design. No umbrella federal legislation exists for managing groundwater resources. EPA's role has been mainly an advisory one on groundwater issues. The difficulties and responsibilities of protecting groundwater thus remain with the states. For the near future, it is the states that will address key policy choices with respect to groundwater quality management issues