Sample records for resonance-plasma enchanced metalorganic

  1. Model for resonant plasma probe.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Hebner, Gregory Albert; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Coats, Rebecca Sue


    This report constructs simple circuit models for a hairpin shaped resonant plasma probe. Effects of the plasma sheath region surrounding the wires making up the probe are determined. Electromagnetic simulations of the probe are compared to the circuit model results. The perturbing effects of the disc cavity in which the probe operates are also found.

  2. Ultrasonic-enchanced compound-enzymes-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Qinghong


    Full Text Available Process of ultrasonic-enchanced compound-enzymes-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from the fruit of Cornus officinalis was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM. The influence of three different factors on the yield of Cornus officinalis polysaccharides (COP was studied. Results showed that the optimal conditions were extraction temperature 49.6°C, ultrasound time 40.41 min, and ultrasound power 308.07 W. The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis and were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA. The 3-D response surface plot and the contour plot derived from the mathematical models were applied to determine the optimal conditions. Under modificated conditions, the experimental yield of polysaccharides was 11.02 ± 0.41%, which was well in agreement with the value predicted by the model. A good 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of COP extracted by ultrasonic-enchanced compound-enzymes-assisted extraction was observed.

  3. Lanthanide metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Peng (ed.) [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Dept. of Chemistry


    This book contains the following nine chapters: lanthanide metal-organic frameworks: syntheses, properties, and potential applications (Stephen Fordham, Xuan Wang, Mathieu Bosch, Hong-Cai Zhou); 2. chiral lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Weisheng Liu, Xiaoliang Tang); 3. Porous lanthanide metal-organic frameworks for gas storage and separation (Bin Li, Banglin Chen); 4. Luminescent lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Xue-Zhi Song, Shu-Yan Song, Hong-Jie Zhang); 5. Metal-organic frameworks based on lanthanide clusters (Lian Chen, Feilong Jiang, Kang Zhou, Mingyan Wu, Maochun Hong); 6. metal-organic frameworks with d-f cyanide bridges: structural diversity, bonding regime, and magnetism (Marilena Ferbinteanu, Fanica Cimpoesu, Stefania Tanase); 7. transition-lanthanide heterometal-organic frameworks: synthesis, structures, and properties (Wei Shi, Ke Liu, Peng Cheng); 8: MOFs of uranium and the actinides (Juan Su, Jiesheng Chen); 9. Nanostructured and/or nanoscale lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Zhonghao Zhang, Zhiping Zheng).

  4. Preparation of Bismuth Titanate Films by Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Sputtering-Chemical Vapor Deposition


    Masumoto, H.; Hirai, T.


    Bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12 : BIT) thin films were prepared on the Pt courted MgO(100) substrate by electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering-chemical vapor deposition (ECR plasma sputtering-CVD). Bi2O3 was used as a sputtering target and tetra-isopropoxy-titanium [Ti(i-C3H7O)4] as a CVD source. The composition of films was controlled by changing RF power (PRF) of Bi2O3 target and Ti source temperature (TTi). The stoichiometric BIT film was prepared under the condition of PRF=500W, TTi=6...

  5. Development of a miniature microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma ion thruster for exospheric micro-propulsion. (United States)

    Dey, Indranuj; Toyoda, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoji; Nakashima, Hideki


    A miniature microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma source [(discharge diameter)/(microwave cutoff diameter) micro-propulsion applications in the exosphere. The discharge source uses both radial and axial magnetostatic field confinement to facilitate electron cyclotron resonance and increase the electron dwell time in the volume, thereby enhancing plasma production efficiency. Performance of the ion thruster is studied at 3 microwave frequencies (1.2 GHz, 1.6 GHz, and 2.45 GHz), for low input powers (<15 W) and small xenon mass flow rates (<40 μg/s), by experimentally measuring the extracted ion beam current through a potential difference of ≅1200 V. The discharge geometry is found to operate most efficiently at an input microwave frequency of 1.6 GHz. At this frequency, for an input power of 8 W, and propellant (xenon) mass flow rate of 21 μg/s, 13.7 mA of ion beam current is obtained, equivalent to an calculated thrust of 0.74 mN.

  6. Metallated metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bury, Wojciech; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Mondloch, Joseph E.


    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metallated porous MOFs are provided. Also provided are methods of metallating porous MOFs using atomic layer deposition and methods of using the metallated MOFs as catalysts and in remediation applications.

  7. Metallated metal-organic frameworks (United States)

    Bury, Wojciech; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Mondloch, Joseph E.


    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metallated porous MOFs are provided. Also provided are methods of metallating porous MOFs using atomic layer deposition and methods of using the metallated MOFs as catalysts and in remediation applications.

  8. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) (United States)

    Su, Cheng-Yong; Dong, Yu-Bin


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), also known as porous coordination polymers, are emerging as an extensive class of promising porous materials constructed from metal-containing nodes (metal ions or clusters) and organic linkers. The unique structural features, such as ultrahigh porosity (up to 90% free volume), tunable pore size (up to several nanometers), enormous internal surface areas (extending beyond 6000 m2/g), as well as adjustable surface property (e.g. polarity, hydrophilicity, activity), make MOFs of interest for versatile potentials of applications in adsorption, separation, drug delivery, biomedical applications, sensing, catalysis, etc.

  9. Magnetism in metal-organic capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, Jerry L.; Brechin, Euan K; Dalgarno, Scott J.; Inglis, Ross; Jones, Leigh F.; Mossine, Andrew; Paterson, Martin J.; Power, Nicholas P.; Teat, Simon J.


    Nickel and cobalt seamed metal-organic capsules have been isolated and studied using structural, magnetic and computational approaches. Antiferromagnetic exchange in the Ni capsule results from coordination environments enforced by the capsule framework.

  10. Self-Exfoliated Metal-Organic Nanosheets through Hydrolytic Unfolding of Metal-Organic Polyhedra. (United States)

    Garai, Bikash; Mallick, Arijit; Das, Anuja; Mukherjee, Rabibrata; Banerjee, Rahul


    Few-layers thick metal-organic nanosheets have been synthesized using water-assisted solid-state transformation through a combined top-down and bottom-up approach. The metal-organic polyhedra (MOPs) convert into metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) which subsequently self-exfoliate into few-layered metal-organic nanosheets. These MOP crystals experience a hydrophobicity gradient with the inner surface during contact with water because of the existence of hydrophobic spikes on their outer surface. When the amount of water available for interaction is higher, the resultant layers are not stacked to form bulk materials; instead few-layered nanosheets with high uniformity were obtained in high yield. The phenomenon has resulted high yield production of uniformly distributed layered metal-organic nanosheets from three different MOPs, showing its general adaptability. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Liquid metal-organic frameworks (United States)

    Gaillac, Romain; Pullumbi, Pluton; Beyer, Kevin A.; Chapman, Karena W.; Keen, David A.; Bennett, Thomas D.; Coudert, François-Xavier


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a family of chemically diverse materials, with applications in a wide range of fields, covering engineering, physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. Until recently, research has focused almost entirely on crystalline structures, yet now a clear trend is emerging, shifting the emphasis onto disordered states, including `defective by design’ crystals, as well as amorphous phases such as glasses and gels. Here we introduce a strongly associated MOF liquid, obtained by melting a zeolitic imidazolate framework. We combine in situ variable temperature X-ray, ex situ neutron pair distribution function experiments, and first-principles molecular dynamics simulations to study the melting phenomenon and the nature of the liquid obtained. We demonstrate from structural, dynamical, and thermodynamical information that the chemical configuration, coordinative bonding, and porosity of the parent crystalline framework survive upon formation of the MOF liquid.

  12. Luminescent metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Allendorf, M D; Bauer, C A; Bhakta, R K; Houk, R J T


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) display a wide range of luminescent behaviors resulting from the multifaceted nature of their structure. In this critical review we discuss the origins of MOF luminosity, which include the linker, the coordinated metal ions, antenna effects, excimer and exciplex formation, and guest molecules. The literature describing these effects is comprehensively surveyed, including a categorization of each report according to the type of luminescence observed. Finally, we discuss potential applications of luminescent MOFs. This review will be of interest to researchers and synthetic chemists attempting to design luminescent MOFs, and those engaged in the extension of MOFs to applications such as chemical, biological, and radiation detection, medical imaging, and electro-optical devices (141 references).

  13. Amorphous metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Bennett, Thomas D; Cheetham, Anthony K


    Crystalline metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous frameworks comprising an infinite array of metal nodes connected by organic linkers. The number of novel MOF structures reported per year is now in excess of 6000, despite significant increases in the complexity of both component units and molecular networks. Their regularly repeating structures give rise to chemically variable porous architectures, which have been studied extensively due to their sorption and separation potential. More recently, catalytic applications have been proposed that make use of their chemical tunability, while reports of negative linear compressibility and negative thermal expansion have further expanded interest in the field. Amorphous metal-organic frameworks (aMOFs) retain the basic building blocks and connectivity of their crystalline counterparts, though they lack any long-range periodic order. Aperiodic arrangements of atoms result in their X-ray diffraction patterns being dominated by broad "humps" caused by diffuse scattering and thus they are largely indistinguishable from one another. Amorphous MOFs offer many exciting opportunities for practical application, either as novel functional materials themselves or facilitating other processes, though the domain is largely unexplored (total aMOF reported structures amounting to under 30). Specifically, the use of crystalline MOFs to detect harmful guest species before subsequent stress-induced collapse and guest immobilization is of considerable interest, while functional luminescent and optically active glass-like materials may also be prepared in this manner. The ion transporting capacity of crystalline MOFs might be improved during partial structural collapse, while there are possibilities of preparing superstrong glasses and hybrid liquids during thermal amorphization. The tuning of release times of MOF drug delivery vehicles by partial structural collapse may be possible, and aMOFs are often more mechanically robust than

  14. Recent applications of metal-organic frameworks in sample pretreatment. (United States)

    Wang, Yonghua; Rui, Min; Lu, Guanghua


    Metal-organic frameworks are promising materials in diverse analytical applications especially in sample pretreatment by virtue of their diverse structure topology, tunable pore size, permanent nanoscale porosity, high surface area, and good thermostability. According to hydrostability, metal-organic frameworks are divided into moisture-sensitive and water-stable types. In the actual applications, both kinds of metal-organic frameworks are usually engineered into hybrid composites containing magnetite, silicon dioxide, graphene, or directly carbonized to metal-organic frameworks derived carbon. These metal-organic frameworks based materials show good extraction performance to environmental pollutants. This review provides a critical overview of the applications of metal-organic frameworks and their composites in sample pretreatment modes, that is, solid-phase extraction, magnetic solid-phase extraction, micro-solid-phase extraction, solid-phase microextraction, and stir bar solid extraction. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Purification of metal-organic framework materials (United States)

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.


    A method of purification of a solid mixture of a metal-organic framework (MOF) material and an unwanted second material by disposing the solid mixture in a liquid separation medium having a density that lies between those of the wanted MOF material and the unwanted material, whereby the solid mixture separates by density differences into a fraction of wanted MOF material and another fraction of unwanted material.

  16. Presentation of the Multimédia Game "Geolover" Concept, to Educational Enchancement of the Geolocical Heritage of the Following Regions: "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal (Portugal) and Açores (Portugal) (United States)

    Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana; Alfama, Vera; Oliveira, Sirlene; Pinharandas, Carlos; Fonseca, Pedro; Campos, José; Nobre, José


    "Geolover" - Presentation of the multimédia game concept, to educational enchancement of the geolocical heritage of the following regions: : "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal and Açores (Portugal). "Geolover" is a multitouch game, played by four players simultaneously, identified by 4 mascots and using as sceneries, the four regions landscapes, aimed to the young people with ages between 8 and 12 years old. The main objective is value the geological heritage of the Ilha do Fogo (Cabo Verde), Seridó in State of Rio Grande do Norte (Brasil) , Sabugal in Beira Alta province (Portugal) and Arquipélago dos Açores (Portuguese autonomous region). These regions have a great geological heritage like volcanology, plutonic rocks, sedimentar formations, metamorphic, paleontologic, mineralogic, geomorphologic, hydric and mining resources. Such heritage is being used in the different regions has base of studies to senior scientists and were used to great scientific researches. The diversified and distinguished cultural heritage of these four regions is referenced and it's a value to the union of the students from these three continents, with the Portuguese language as communication tool. The variety of the geological wealth and cultural of these regions, results in the common objective of their valuing like Geoparks. His creation on these three regions is a strategy with a great relevance to the socio-economic development. With the creation of this game, we promote the union of these 3 countries from these three continents, the universal values of the heritage richness that are offered by our planet.

  17. Biomimicry in metal-organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, MW; Gu, ZY; Bosch, M; Perry, Z; Zhou, HC


    Nature has evolved a great number of biological molecules which serve as excellent constructional or functional units for metal-organic materials (MOMs). Even though the study of biomimetic MOMs is still at its embryonic stage, considerable progress has been made in the past few years. In this critical review, we will highlight the recent advances in the design, development and application of biomimetic MOMs, and illustrate how the incorporation of biological components into MOMs could further enrich their structural and functional diversity. More importantly, this review will provide a systematic overview of different methods for rational design of MOMs with biomimetic features. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Metal-organic frameworks for luminescence thermometry. (United States)

    Cui, Yuanjing; Zhu, Fengliang; Chen, Banglin; Qian, Guodong


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) hold great promise for developing various types of luminescent sensors due to their remarkable structural diversity and tunable luminescence properties. In the last few years, utilizing luminescent MOFs to explore temperature sensing has gained intense attention. In this feature article, after the general description of luminescence thermometry, we have summarized the recent progress made in luminescent MOF thermometers, with particular emphasis on the dual-emitting MOFs that effectively illustrate the self-referencing temperature measurement based on the intensity ratios of two separate transitions.

  19. Metal-organic frameworks in chromatography. (United States)

    Yusuf, Kareem; Aqel, Ahmad; ALOthman, Zeid


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) emerged approximately two decades ago and are the youngest class of porous materials. Despite their short existence, MOFs are finding applications in a variety of fields because of their outstanding chemical and physical properties. This review article focuses on the applications of MOFs in chromatography, including high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), and other chromatographic techniques. The use of MOFs in chromatography has already had a significant impact; however, the utilisation of MOFs in chromatography is still less common than other applications, and the number of MOF materials explored in chromatography applications is limited. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Zeolite-like metal-organic frameworks with ana topology

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed


    Embodiments of the present disclosure describe a zeolite-like metal-organic framework composition comprising a metal-organic framework composition with ana topology characterized by the formula [MIII(4, 5-imidazole dicarboxylic acid)2X(solvent)a]n wherein MIII comprises a trivalent cation of a rare earth element, X comprises an alkali metal element or alkaline earth metal element, and solvent comprises a guest molecule occupying pores. Embodiments of the present disclosure describe a method of separating paraffins comprising contacting a zeolite-like metal-organic framework with ana topology with a flow of paraffins, and separating the paraffins by size.

  1. Biomimetic mineralization of metal-organic frameworks as protective coatings for biomacromolecules

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liang, Kang; Ricco, Raffaele; Doherty, Cara M; Styles, Mark J; Bell, Stephen; Kirby, Nigel; Mudie, Stephen; Haylock, David; Hill, Anita J; Doonan, Christian J; Falcaro, Paolo


    ... termed metal-organic frameworks. We show that proteins, enzymes and DNA rapidly induce the formation of protective metal-organic framework coatings under physiological conditions by concentrating the framework building blocks...

  2. Computational modeling of Metal-Organic Frameworks (United States)

    Sung, Jeffrey Chuen-Fai

    In this work, the metal-organic frameworks MIL-53(Cr), DMOF-2,3-NH 2Cl, DMOF-2,5-NH2Cl, and HKUST-1 were modeled using molecular mechanics and electronic structure. The effect of electronic polarization on the adsorption of water in MIL-53(Cr) was studied using molecular dynamics simulations of water-loaded MIL-53 systems with both polarizable and non-polarizable force fields. Molecular dynamics simulations of the full systems and DFT calculations on representative framework clusters were utilized to study the difference in nitrogen adsorption between DMOF-2,3-NH2Cl and DMOF-2,5-NH 2Cl. Finally, the control of proton conduction in HKUST-1 by complexation of molecules to the Cu open metal site was investigated using the MS-EVB methodology.

  3. [Progress in metal-organic frameworks]. (United States)

    Zhai, Rui; Jiao, Fenglong; Lin, Hongjun; Hao, Feiran; Li, Jiabin; Yan, Hui; Li, Nannan; Wang, Huanhuan; Jin, Zuyao; Zhang, Yangjun; Qian, Xiaohong


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of crystalline materials built from organic binding ligands and metal ions through self-assembly. Currently, MOFs have drawn a growing interest among the scientific teams of various fields. Compared with conventional inorganic porous materials, MOFs possess larger specific surface areas, higher porosity and diversity of structures and functions, thus many potential applications have been proposed in the domains of gas adsorption and separation, sensors, drug delivery, catalysis or others. The combinations of MOFs and other materials such as graphene oxide, magnetic nanoparticles have obvious advantages in adsorption and separation. The appearance of novel materials greatly promotes interdisciplinary developments such as organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, coordination chemistry, materials chemistry, life science and computer science. This article reviews the progress of MOFs in recent years, including the characteristics of MOFs, advances at home and abroad, applications, central issues of compound MOFs and the prospects in the future.

  4. Transition metal complexes supported on metal-organic frameworks for heterogeneous catalysts (United States)

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Delferro, Massimiliano; Klet, Rachel C.


    A robust mesoporous metal-organic framework comprising a hafnium-based metal-organic framework and a single-site zirconium-benzyl species is provided. The hafnium, zirconium-benzyl metal-organic framework is useful as a catalyst for the polymerization of an alkene.

  5. Evaluating Permeability Enchancement Using Electrical Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John W. Pritchett


    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) development projects involve the artificial stimulation of relatively impermeable high-temperature underground regions (at depths of 2-4 kilometers or more) to create sufficient permeability to permit underground fluid circulation, so that hot water can be withdrawn from production wells and used to generate electric power. Several major research projects of this general type have been undertaken in the past in New Mexico (Fenton Hill), Europe, Japan and Australia. Recent U.S. activities along these lines focus mainly on stimulating peripheral areas of existing operating hydrothermal fields rather than on fresh 'greenfield' sites, but the long-term objective of the Department of Energy's EGS program is the development of large-scale power projects based on EGS technology (MIT, 2006; NREL, 2008). Usually, stimulation is accomplished by injecting water into a well at high pressure, enhancing permeability by the creation and propagation of fractures in the surrounding rock (a process known as 'hydrofracturing'). Beyond just a motivation, low initial system permeability is also an essential prerequisite to hydrofracturing. If the formation permeability is too high, excessive fluid losses will preclude the buildup of sufficient pressure to fracture rock. In practical situations, the actual result of injection is frequently to re-open pre-existing hydrothermally-mineralized fractures, rather than to create completely new fractures by rupturing intact rock. Pre-existing fractures can often be opened using injection pressures in the range 5-20 MPa. Creation of completely new fractures will usually require pressures that are several times higher. It is preferable to undertake development projects of this type in regions where tectonic conditions are conducive to shear failure, so that when pre-existing fractures are pressurized they will fail by shearing laterally. If this happens, the fracture will often stay open afterwards even if injection subsequently ceases. The principal barrier to EGS utilization for electricity generation is project economics. Costs for geothermal electricity obtained from conventional hydrothermal systems are just marginally competitive. Unless and until the costs of routinely and reliably creating and exploiting artificial subterranean fracture networks that can deliver useful quantities of hot fluid to production wells for long periods of time (years) are reduced to levels comparable to those of a conventional geothermal development project, EGS will be of little interest to the electrical power industry. A significant obstacle to progress in projects of this general type is the difficulty of appraising the properties (geometry, fluid transmissivity, etc.) of the fracture(s) created/re-opened by injection. Sustainability of power production is critically dependent upon reservoir thermal sweep efficiency, which depends in turn on the geometry of the fracture network and its interconnections with the various production and injection wells used to circulate fluid underground. If no permeable connections are created between the wells, fluid flow will be too slow for practical utility. If the connections are too good, however (such as a production/injection well pair connected by a single very permeable fracture), production wellhead temperatures will decline rapidly. Unless the permeable fractures created by hydrofracturing can be accurately mapped, the cost of subsequent trial-and-error drilling to try to establish a suitable fluid circulation system is likely to dominate project economics and render EGS impractical.

  6. Hydrogen Storage in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Jeffrey R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The design and characterization of new materials for hydrogen storage is an important area of research, as the ability to store hydrogen at lower pressures and higher temperatures than currently feasible would lower operating costs for small hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. In particular, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent promising materials for use in storing hydrogen in this capacity. MOFs are highly porous, three-dimensional crystalline solids that are formed via linkages between metal ions (e.g., iron, nickel, and zinc) and organic molecules. MOFs can store hydrogen via strong adsorptive interactions between the gas molecules and the pores of the framework, providing a high surface area for gas adsorption and thus the opportunity to store hydrogen at significantly lower pressures than with current technologies. By lowering the energy required for hydrogen storage, these materials hold promise in rendering hydrogen a more viable fuel for motor vehicles, which is a highly desirable outcome given the clean nature of hydrogen fuel cells (water is the only byproduct of combustion) and the current state of global climate change resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels. The work presented in this report is the result of collaborative efforts between researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and General Motors Corporation (GM) to discover novel MOFs promising for H2 storage and characterize their properties. Described herein are several new framework systems with improved gravimetric and volumetric capacity to strongly bind H2 at temperatures relevant for vehicle storage. These materials were rigorously characterized using neutron diffraction, to determine the precise binding locations of hydrogen within the frameworks, and high-pressure H2 adsorption measurements, to provide a comprehensive picture of H2 adsorption at all relevant pressures. A

  7. Quantification of Stereochemical Communication in Metal-Organic Assemblies. (United States)

    Castilla, Ana M; Miller, Mark A; Nitschke, Jonathan R; Smulders, Maarten M J


    The derivation and application of a statistical mechanical model to quantify stereochemical communication in metal-organic assemblies is reported. The factors affecting the stereochemical communication within and between the metal stereocenters of the assemblies were experimentally studied by optical spectroscopy and analyzed in terms of a free energy penalty per "incorrect" amine enantiomer incorporated, and a free energy of coupling between stereocenters. These intra- and inter-vertex coupling constants are used to track the degree of stereochemical communication across a range of metal-organic assemblies (employing different ligands, peripheral amines, and metals); temperature-dependent equilibria between diastereomeric cages are also quantified. The model thus provides a unified understanding of the factors that shape the chirotopic void spaces enclosed by metal-organic container molecules.

  8. Text Mining Metal-Organic Framework Papers. (United States)

    Park, Sanghoon; Kim, Baekjun; Choi, Sihoon; Boyd, Peter G; Smit, Berend; Kim, Jihan


    We have developed a simple text mining algorithm that allows us to identify surface area and pore volumes of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) using manuscript html files as inputs. The algorithm searches for common units (e.g., m 2 /g, cm 3 /g) associated with these two quantities to facilitate the search. From the sample set data of over 200 MOFs, the algorithm managed to identify 90% and 88.8% of the correct surface area and pore volume values. Further application to a test set of randomly chosen MOF html files yielded 73.2% and 85.1% accuracies for the two respective quantities. Most of the errors stem from unorthodox sentence structures that made it difficult to identify the correct data as well as bolded notations of MOFs (e.g., 1a) that made it difficult identify its real name. These types of tools will become useful when it comes to discovering structure-property relationships among MOFs as well as collecting a large set of data for references.

  9. Nanomaterials derived from metal-organic frameworks (United States)

    Dang, Song; Zhu, Qi-Long; Xu, Qiang


    The thermal transformation of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) generates a variety of nanostructured materials, including carbon-based materials, metal oxides, metal chalcogenides, metal phosphides and metal carbides. These derivatives of MOFs have characteristics such as high surface areas, permanent porosities and controllable functionalities that enable their good performance in sensing, gas storage, catalysis and energy-related applications. Although progress has been made to tune the morphologies of MOF-derived structures at the nanometre scale, it remains crucial to further our knowledge of the relationship between morphology and performance. In this Review, we summarize the synthetic strategies and optimized methods that enable control over the size, morphology, composition and structure of the derived nanomaterials. In addition, we compare the performance of materials prepared by the MOF-templated strategy and other synthetic methods. Our aim is to reveal the relationship between the morphology and the physico-chemical properties of MOF-derived nanostructures to optimize their performance for applications such as sensing, catalysis, and energy storage and conversion.

  10. Multifunctional Metal-Organic Frameworks for Photocatalysis. (United States)

    Wang, Sibo; Wang, Xinchen


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted significant research attention in diverse areas due to their unique physical and chemical characteristics that allow their innovative application in various research fields. Recently, the application of MOFs in heterogeneous photocatalysis for water splitting, CO2 reduction, and organic transformation have emerged, aiming at providing alternative solutions to address the world-wide energy and environmental problems by taking advantage of the unique porous structure together with ample physicochemical properties of the metal centers and organic ligands in MOFs. In this review, the latest progress in MOF-involved solar-to-chemical energy conversion reactions are summarized according to their different roles in the photoredox chemical systems, e.g., photocatalysts, co-catalysts, and hosts. The achieved progress and existing problems are evaluated and proposed, and the opportunities and challenges of MOFs and their related materials for their advanced development in photocatalysis are discussed and anticipated. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Recent Advances as Materials of Functional Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lan Tong


    Full Text Available Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, also known as hybrid inorganic-organic materials, represent an emerging class of materials that have attracted the imagination of solid-state chemists because MOFs combine unprecedented levels of porosity with a range of other functional properties that occur through the metal moiety and/or the organic ligand. The purpose of this critical review is to give a representative and comprehensive overview of the arising developments in the field of functional metal-organic frameworks, including luminescence, magnetism, and porosity through presenting examples. This review will be of interest to researchers and synthetic chemists attempting to design multifunctional MOFs.

  12. Stepwise Synthesis of Metal-Organic Frameworks. (United States)

    Bosch, Mathieu; Yuan, Shuai; Rutledge, William; Zhou, Hong-Cai


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a category of porous materials that offer unparalleled control over their surface areas (demonstrated as higher than for any other material), pore characteristics, and functionalization. This allows them to be customized for exceptional performance in a wide variety of applications, most commonly including gas storage and separation, drug delivery, luminescence, or heterogeneous catalysis. In order to optimize biomimicry, controlled separations and storage of small molecules, and detailed testing of structure-property relationships, one major goal of MOF research is "rational design" or "pore engineering", or precise control of the placement of multiple functional groups in pores of chosen sizes and shapes. MOF crystal growth can be controlled through judicious design of stepwise synthetic routes, which can also allow functionalization of MOFs in ways that were previously synthetically inaccessible. Organic chemists have developed a library of powerful techniques over the last century, allowing the total synthesis and detailed customization of complex molecules. Our hypothesis is that total synthesis is also possible for customized porous materials, through the development of similar multistep techniques. This will enable the rational design of MOFs, which is a major goal of many researchers in the field. We have begun developing a library of stepwise synthetic techniques for MOFs, allowing the synthesis of ultrastable MOFs with multiple crystallographically ordered and customizable functional groups at controlled locations within the pores. In order to design MOFs with precise control over pore size and shape, stability, and the placement of multiple different functional groups within the pores at tunable distances from one another, we have concentrated on methods which allow us to circumvent the lack of control inherent to one-pot MOF crystallization. Kinetically tuned dimensional augmentation (KTDA) is an approach using

  13. Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thin films based on two very different metal-organic systems are developed and some nonlinear optical applications are explored. A family of zinc complexes which form perfectly polar assemblies in their crystalline state are found to organize as uniaxially oriented crystallites in vapor deposited thin films on glass substrate.

  14. Towards multifunctional lanthanide-based metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Tobin, Gerard; Comby, Steve; Zhu, Nianyong; Clérac, Rodolphe; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur; Schmitt, Wolfgang


    We report the synthesis, structure and physicochemical attributes of a new holmium(III)-based metal-organic framework whose 3D network structure gives rise to porosity; the reported structure-type can be varied using a range of different lanthanide ions to tune the photophysical properties and produce ligand-sensitised near-infrared (NIR) and visible light emitters.

  15. based 2D dynamic metal-organic framework showing selective ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The selective water uptake over alcohols along with visible colour change demonstrates the potential of the present compound in bio-alcohol purification. Keywords. Metal-organic frameworks; coordination polymers; selective uptake; dynamic framework. 1. Introduction. The limited natural resources like gas and oil have.

  16. Hydrogen storage in metal-organic frameworks: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W


    Full Text Available Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for hydrogen storage have continued to receive intense interest over the past decade. MOFs are a class of organic-inorganic hybrid crystalline materials consisting of metallic moieties that are linked by strong...

  17. Neutron powder diffraction of metal-organic frameworks for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review recent structural studies that we have undertaken aimed at eluci- dating the fundamental properties of metal-organic framework materials and their inter- actions with hydrogen. We have shown that exposing coordinatively unsaturated metal centers can greatly enhance the hydrogen binding energy and ...

  18. Magnetic behaviour in metal-organic frameworks—Some recent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The article describes the synthesis, structure and magnetic investigations of a series of metal-organic framework compounds formed with Mn+2 and Ni+2 ions. The structures, determined using the single crystal X-ray diffraction, indicated that the structures possess two- and three-dimensional structures with magnetically ...

  19. Reversible luminescence switch in a photochromic metal-organic framework. (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Ke; Cai, Li-Xuan; Chen, Yong-Juan; Li, Zhao-Hui; Zhang, Jie


    Eu(III) ions have been introduced into a photoactive viologen system to yield a polyrotaxane-like metal-organic framework, which exhibits reversible photochromism and luminescence modulation with a non-destructive readout capability in the solid state. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  20. Hydrogen Storage in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omar M. Yaghi


    Conventional storage of large amounts of hydrogen in its molecular form is difficult and expensive because it requires employing either extremely high pressure gas or very low temperature liquid. Because of the importance of hydrogen as a fuel, the DOE has set system targets for hydrogen storage of gravimetric (5.5 wt%) and volumetric (40 g L-1) densities to be achieved by 2015. Given that these are system goals, a practical material will need to have higher capacity when the weight of the tank and associated cooling or regeneration system is considered. The size and weight of these components will vary substantially depending on whether the material operates by a chemisorption or physisorption mechanism. In the latter case, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently been identified as promising adsorbents for hydrogen storage, although little data is available for their sorption behavior. This grant was focused on the study of MOFs with these specific objectives. (1) To examine the effects of functionalization, catenation, and variation of the metal oxide and organic linkers on the low-pressure hydrogen adsorption properties of MOFs. (2) To develop a strategy for producing MOFs with high surface area and porosity to reduce the dead space and increase the hydrogen storage capacity per unit volume. (3) To functionalize MOFs by post synthetic functionalization with metals to improve the adsorption enthalpy of hydrogen for the room temperature hydrogen storage. This effort demonstrated the importance of open metal sites to improve the adsorption enthalpy by the systematic study, and this is also the origin of the new strategy, which termed isoreticular functionalization and metalation. However, a large pore volume is still a prerequisite feature. Based on our principle to design highly porous MOFs, guest-free MOFs with ultrahigh porosity have been experimentally synthesized. MOF-210, whose BET surface area is 6240 m2 g-1 (the highest among porous solids), takes up

  1. Applications of metal-organic frameworks in heterogeneous supramolecular catalysis. (United States)

    Liu, Jiewei; Chen, Lianfen; Cui, Hao; Zhang, Jianyong; Zhang, Li; Su, Cheng-Yong


    This review summarizes the use of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as a versatile supramolecular platform to develop heterogeneous catalysts for a variety of organic reactions, especially for liquid-phase reactions. Following a background introduction about catalytic relevance to various metal-organic materials, crystal engineering of MOFs, characterization and evaluation methods of MOF catalysis, we categorize catalytic MOFs based on the types of active sites, including coordinatively unsaturated metal sites (CUMs), metalloligands, functional organic sites (FOS), as well as metal nanoparticles (MNPs) embedded in the cavities. Throughout the review, we emphasize the incidental or deliberate formation of active sites, the stability, heterogeneity and shape/size selectivity for MOF catalysis. Finally, we briefly introduce their relevance into photo- and biomimetic catalysis, and compare MOFs with other typical porous solids such as zeolites and mesoporous silica with regard to their different attributes, and provide our view on future trends and developments in MOF-based catalysis.

  2. Hydrogen storage in Li-doped metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himsl, D.; Hartmann, M. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Erlangen Catalysis Resource Center


    Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks have been considered as potential materials for solid state hydrogen storage in recent times. In this context their properties like high permanent porosity, large surface area and the ease of chemical modification due their modular assembly are highly attractive. Unfortunately these materials suffer from low physisorption interaction energies with hydrogen and consequently the need for low adsorption temperatures (77 K) to achieve sufficient hydrogen loadings. One possible approach to overcome the outlined problem is the introduction of unsaturated metal sites within the interior MOF surface to strengthen the adsorbate-adsorbent interaction. We established the functionalization with lithiumalkoxide groups via a post-synthetic transformation of pendant hydroxyl groups with a suitable lithium base. Our results show a significant increase of the isosteric heat of adsorption for hydrogen within the lithium-containing material, thus showing that our approach is a promising strategy to make hydrogen storage in Metal-Organic Frameworks more efficient. (orig.)

  3. An Ising model for metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Höft, Nicolas; Horbach, Jürgen; Martín-Mayor, Victor; Seoane, Beatriz


    We present a three-dimensional Ising model where lines of equal spins are frozen such that they form an ordered framework structure. The frame spins impose an external field on the rest of the spins (active spins). We demonstrate that this "porous Ising model" can be seen as a minimal model for condensation transitions of gas molecules in metal-organic frameworks. Using Monte Carlo simulation techniques, we compare the phase behavior of a porous Ising model with that of a particle-based model for the condensation of methane (CH4) in the isoreticular metal-organic framework IRMOF-16. For both models, we find a line of first-order phase transitions that end in a critical point. We show that the critical behavior in both cases belongs to the 3D Ising universality class, in contrast to other phase transitions in confinement such as capillary condensation.

  4. An Ising model for metal-organic frameworks (United States)

    Höft, Nicolas; Horbach, Jürgen; Martín-Mayor, Victor; Seoane, Beatriz


    We present a three-dimensional Ising model where lines of equal spins are frozen such that they form an ordered framework structure. The frame spins impose an external field on the rest of the spins (active spins). We demonstrate that this "porous Ising model" can be seen as a minimal model for condensation transitions of gas molecules in metal-organic frameworks. Using Monte Carlo simulation techniques, we compare the phase behavior of a porous Ising model with that of a particle-based model for the condensation of methane (CH4) in the isoreticular metal-organic framework IRMOF-16. For both models, we find a line of first-order phase transitions that end in a critical point. We show that the critical behavior in both cases belongs to the 3D Ising universality class, in contrast to other phase transitions in confinement such as capillary condensation.

  5. Grand Challenges and Future Opportunities for Metal?Organic Frameworks


    Hendon, Christopher H.; Rieth, Adam J.; Maciej D. Korzyński; Dinc?, Mircea


    Metal?organic frameworks (MOFs) allow compositional and structural diversity beyond conventional solid-state materials. Continued interest in the field is justified by potential applications of exceptional breadth, ranging from gas storage and separation, which takes advantage of the inherent pores and their volume, to electronic applications, which requires precise control of electronic structure. In this Outlook we present some of the pertinent challenges that MOFs face in their conventiona...

  6. Increasing the Stability of Metal-Organic Frameworks


    Bosch, Mathieu; Zhang, Muwei; Zhou, Hong-Cai


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new category of advanced porous materials undergoing study by many researchers for their vast variety of both novel structures and potentially useful properties arising from them. Their high porosities, tunable structures, and convenient process of introducing both customizable functional groups and unsaturated metal centers have afforded excellent gas sorption and separation ability, catalytic activity, luminescent properties, and more. However, the robu...

  7. Photoluminescent Metal?Organic Frameworks for Gas Sensing


    Lin, Rui?Biao; Liu, Si?Yang; Ye, Jia?Wen; Li, Xu?Yu; Zhang, Jie?Peng


    Luminescence of porous coordination polymers (PCPs) or metal?organic frameworks (MOFs) is sensitive to the type and concentration of chemical species in the surrounding environment, because these materials combine the advantages of the highly regular porous structures and various luminescence mechanisms, as well as diversified host?guest interactions. In the past few years, luminescent MOFs have attracted more and more attention for chemical sensing of gas?phase analytes, including common gas...

  8. Nano-architecture of metal-organic frameworks (United States)

    Milichko, Valentin A.; Zalogina, Anastasiia; Mingabudinova, Leila R.; Vinogradov, Alexander V.; Ubyivovk, Evgeniy; Krasilin, Andrei A.; Mukhin, Ivan; Zuev, Dmitry A.; Makarov, Sergey V.; Pidko, Evgeny A.


    Change the shape and size of materials supports new functionalities never found in the sources. This strategy has been recently applied for porous crystalline materials - metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to create hollow nanoscale structures or mesostructures with improved functional properties. However, such structures are characterized by amorphous state or polycrystallinity which limits their applicability. Here we follow this strategy to create such nano- and mesostructures with perfect crystallinity and new photonics functionalities by laser or focused ion beam fabrication.

  9. Breaking Down Chemical Weapons by Metal-Organic Frameworks. (United States)

    Mondal, Suvendu Sekhar; Holdt, Hans-Jürgen


    Seek and destroy: Filtration schemes and self-detoxifying protective fabrics based on the Zr(IV)-containing metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) MOF-808 and UiO-66 doped with LiOtBu have been developed that capture and hydrolytically detoxify simulants of nerve agents and mustard gas. Both MOFs function as highly catalytic elements in these applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Selective gas sorption studies in metal-organic frameworks


    Brown, Martyn Stewart


    This thesis describes the synthesis and characterisation of several new metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). These frameworks have subsequently been used in gas sorption experiments to determine the selective adsorption of various guests.\\ud \\ud Chapter 1\\ud \\ud An introduction to MOFs and the current research, including a description of the synthesis and characterisation process, various applications and some known MOFs from the literature. A general experimental techniques section is included d...

  11. Transformation of metal-organic frameworks for molecular sieving membranes


    Li, Wanbin; Zhang, Yufan; Zhang, Congyang; Meng, Qin; Xu, Zehai; Su, Pengcheng; Li, Qingbiao; Chong SHEN; Fan, Zheng; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Guoliang


    The development of simple, versatile strategies for the synthesis of metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived membranes are of increasing scientific interest, but challenges exist in understanding suitable fabrication mechanisms. Here we report a route for the complete transformation of a series of MOF membranes and particles, based on multivalent cation substitution. Through our approach, the effective pore size can be reduced through the immobilization of metal salt residues in the cavities, a...

  12. Effect of pressure on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)


    Graham, Alexander John


    A growing field of research has evolved around the design and synthesis of a variety of porous metal-organic framework (MOF) materials. Some of the most promising areas for which these materials are potentially useful candidates include gas-separation, heterogeneous catalysis, and gas-storage, and all of these applications involve placing the MOF under pressure. There is clearly a need to understand the structural response of MOFs to applied pressure. Nevertheless, hitherto there are very few...

  13. Porous Particles: Controlling Molecular Diffusion within Metal-Organic Frameworks (United States)

    Jee, Ah-Young; Sindoro, Melinda; Granick, Steve


    Systematic investigation of molecular diffusion under nanoconfinement is carried out utilizing pore tunability of ionic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The translational and rotational diffusion of specially-selected guest dyes is evaluated by fluorescence correlation microscopy (FCS). A curious novel technique is demonstrated of controlling diffusion by switching counterions. Systematically, this study provides generalizable examples of how pore size, guest size, and host-guest interaction affect diffusion within nanopores.

  14. Metal-organic framework for the separation of alkane isomers (United States)

    Long, Jeffrey R.; Herm, Zoey R.; Wiers, Brian M.; Krishna, Rajamani


    A metal organic framework Fe.sub.2(bdp).sub.3 (BDP.sup.2-=1,4-benzenedipyrazolate) with triangular channels is particularly suited for C5-C7 separations of alkanes according to the number of branches in the molecule rather than by carbon number. The metal-organic framework can offer pore geometries that is unavailable in zeolites or other porous media, facilitating distinct types of shape-based molecular separations.

  15. Alkylamine functionalized metal-organic frameworks for composite gas separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Jeffrey R.; McDonald, Thomas M.; D' Alessandro, Deanna M.


    Functionalized metal-organic framework adsorbents with ligands containing basic nitrogen groups such as alkylamines and alkyldiamines appended to the metal centers and method of isolating carbon dioxide from a stream of combined gases and carbon dioxide partial pressures below approximately 1 and 1000 mbar. The adsorption material has an isosteric heat of carbon dioxide adsorption of greater than -60 kJ/mol at zero coverage using a dual-site Langmuir model.

  16. Thermal Improvement and Stability of Si3N4/GeNx/p- and n-Ge Structures Prepared by Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Plasma Nitridation and Sputtering at Room Temperature (United States)

    Fukuda, Yukio; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Takuro; Izumi, Kohei; Otani, Yohei; Ishizaki, Hiroki; Ono, Toshiro


    This paper reports on the thermal improvement of Si3N4/GeNx/Ge structures. After the Si3N4 (5 nm)/GeNx (2 nm) stacks were prepared on Ge substrates by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma nitridation and sputtering at room temperature, they were thermally annealed in atmospheric N2 + 10% H2 ambient at temperatures from 400 to 600 °C. It was demonstrated that the electronic properties of the GeNx/Ge interfaces were thermally improved at temperatures of up to 500 °C with a minimum interface trap density (Dit) of ˜1×1011 cm-2 eV-1 near the Ge midgap, whereas the interface properties were slightly degraded after annealing at 600 °C with a minimum Dit value of ˜4×1011 cm-2 eV-1.

  17. Fabrication of Ta2O5/GeNx gate insulator stack for Ge metal-insulator-semiconductor structures by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma nitridation and sputtering deposition techniques (United States)

    Otani, Yohei; Itayama, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Takuo; Fukuda, Yukio; Toyota, Hiroshi; Ono, Toshiro; Mitsui, Minoru; Nakagawa, Kiyokazu


    The authors have fabricated germanium (Ge) metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures with a 7-nm-thick tantalum pentaoxide (Ta2O5)/2-nm-thick germanium nitride (GeNx) gate insulator stack by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma nitridation and sputtering deposition. They found that pure GeNx ultrathin layers can be formed by the direct plasma nitridation of the Ge surface without substrate heating. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed no oxidation of the GeNx layer after the Ta2O5 sputtering deposition. The fabricated MIS capacitor with a capacitance equivalent thickness of 4.3nm showed excellent leakage current characteristics. The interface trap density obtained by the modified conductance method was 4×1011cm-2eV-1 at the midgap.

  18. A reagentless thermal post-synthetic rearrangement of an allyloxy-tagged metal-organic framework. (United States)

    Burrows, Andrew D; Hunter, Sally O; Mahon, Mary F; Richardson, Christopher


    Direct heating of a metal-organic framework provides a simple, controllable way of effecting a covalent post-synthetic modification. Herein we report that an allyloxy-tagged zinc metal-organic framework undergoes a thermally-promoted aromatic Claisen rearrangement through which the framework connectivity and porosity are maintained.

  19. Redox-Active Metal-Organic Composites for Highly Selective Oxygen Separation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wen [Physical & Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Banerjee, Debasis [Physical & Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Liu, Jian [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Schaef, Herbert T. [Physical & Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Crum, Jarrod V. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Fernandez, Carlos A. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Kukkadapu, Ravi K. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Nie, Zimin [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Nune, Satish K. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Motkuri, Radha K. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Chapman, Karena W. [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Engelhard, Mark H. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Hayes, James C. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Silvers, Kurt L. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Krishna, Rajamani [Van' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904 1098 XH Amsterdam The Netherlands; McGrail, B. Peter [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Liu, Jun [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Thallapally, Praveen K. [Physical & Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA


    A redox-active metal-organic composite material shows improved and selective O-2 adsorption over N-2 with respect to individual components (MIL-101 and ferrocene). The O-2 sensitivity of the composite material arises due to the formation of maghemite nanoparticles with the pore of the metal-organic framework material.

  20. Metal-adeninate vertices for the construction of an exceptionally porous metal-organic framework. (United States)

    An, Jihyun; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T; Pohl, Ehmke; Yeh, Joanne I; Rosi, Nathaniel L


    Metal-organic frameworks comprising metal-carboxylate cluster vertices and long, branched organic linkers are the most porous materials known, and therefore have attracted tremendous attention for many applications, including gas storage, separations, catalysis and drug delivery. To increase metal-organic framework porosity, the size and complexity of linkers has increased. Here we present a promising alternative strategy for constructing mesoporous metal-organic frameworks that addresses the size of the vertex rather than the length of the organic linker. This approach uses large metal-biomolecule clusters, in particular zinc-adeninate building units, as vertices to construct bio-MOF-100, an exclusively mesoporous metal-organic framework. Bio-MOF-100 exhibits a high surface area (4,300 m(2) g(-1)), one of the lowest crystal densities (0.302 g cm(-3)) and the largest metal-organic framework pore volume reported to date (4.3 cm(3) g(-1)).

  1. Ionic liquid accelerates the crystallization of Zr-based metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Sang, Xinxin; Zhang, Jianling; Xiang, Junfeng; Cui, Jie; Zheng, Lirong; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Zhonghua; Li, Zhihong; Mo, Guang; Xu, Yuan; Song, Jinliang; Liu, Chengcheng; Tan, Xiuniang; Luo, Tian; Zhang, Bingxing; Han, Buxing


    The Zr-based metal-organic frameworks are generally prepared by solvothermal procedure. To overcome the slow kinetics of nucleation and crystallization of Zr-based metal-organic frameworks is of great interest and challenging. Here, we find that an ionic liquid as solvent can significantly accelerate the formation of Zr-based metal-organic frameworks at room temperature. For example, the reaction time is shortened to 0.5 h in 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride for Zr-based metal-organic framework formation, while that in the conventional solvent N,N-dimethylformamide needs at least 120 h. The reaction mechanism was investigated in situ by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance, spectroscopy synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption fine structure. This rapid, low-energy, and facile route produces Zr-based metal-organic framework nanoparticles with small particle size, missing-linker defects and large surface area, which can be used as heterogeneous catalysts for Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reaction.Crystallization kinetics of metal-organic frameworks in conventional organic solvents are usually very slow. Here, the authors show that an ionic liquid medium accelerates considerably the formation of Zr-based metal-organic frameworks that are active catalysts in the Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reaction.

  2. Metal-Organic Frameworks as Platforms for Functional Materials. (United States)

    Cui, Yuanjing; Li, Bin; He, Huajun; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Banglin; Qian, Guodong


    Discoveries of novel functional materials have played very important roles to the development of science and technologies and thus to benefit our daily life. Among the diverse materials, metal-organic framework (MOF) materials are rapidly emerging as a unique type of porous and organic/inorganic hybrid materials which can be simply self-assembled from their corresponding inorganic metal ions/clusters with organic linkers, and can be straightforwardly characterized by various analytical methods. In terms of porosity, they are superior to other well-known porous materials such as zeolites and carbon materials; exhibiting extremely high porosity with surface area up to 7000 m(2)/g, tunable pore sizes, and metrics through the interplay of both organic and inorganic components with the pore sizes ranging from 3 to 100 Å, and lowest framework density down to 0.13 g/cm(3). Such unique features have enabled metal-organic frameworks to exhibit great potentials for a broad range of applications in gas storage, gas separations, enantioselective separations, heterogeneous catalysis, chemical sensing and drug delivery. On the other hand, metal-organic frameworks can be also considered as organic/inorganic self-assembled hybrid materials, we can take advantages of the physical and chemical properties of both organic and inorganic components to develop their functional optical, photonic, and magnetic materials. Furthermore, the pores within MOFs can also be utilized to encapsulate a large number of different species of diverse functions, so a variety of functional MOF/composite materials can be readily synthesized. In this Account, we describe our recent research progress on pore and function engineering to develop functional MOF materials. We have been able to tune and optimize pore spaces, immobilize specific functional groups, and introduce chiral pore environments to target MOF materials for methane storage, light hydrocarbon separations, enantioselective recognitions

  3. Crystalline metal-organic frameworks (MOFs): synthesis, structure and function. (United States)

    Dey, Chandan; Kundu, Tanay; Biswal, Bishnu P; Mallick, Arijit; Banerjee, Rahul


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of hybrid network supramolecular solid materials comprised of organized organic linkers and metal cations. They can display enormously high surface areas with tunable pore size and functionality, and can be used as hosts for a range of guest molecules. Since their discovery, MOFs have experienced widespread exploration for their applications in gas storage, drug delivery and sensing. This article covers general and modern synthetic strategies to prepare MOFs, and discusses their structural diversity and properties with respect to application perspectives.

  4. Microporous metal-organic frameworks for gas separation. (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Hailong; Chen, Banglin


    Microporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are comparatively new porous materials. Because the pores within such MOFs can be readily tuned through the interplay of both metal-containing clusters and organic linkers to induce their size-selective sieving effects, while the pore surfaces can be straightforwardly functionalized to enforce their different interactions with gas molecules, MOF materials are very promising for gas separation. Furthermore, the high porosities of such materials can enable microporous MOFs with optimized gas separation selectivity and capacity to be targeted. This Focus Review highlights recent significant advances in microporous MOFs for gas separation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Luminescent triarylboron-functionalized zinc carboxylate metal-organic framework. (United States)

    Blight, Barry A; Guillet-Nicolas, Rémy; Kleitz, Freddy; Wang, Rui-Yao; Wang, Suning


    A luminescent triarylboron ligand functionalized with three carboxylic groups has been synthesized and fully characterized. Its use in boron-containing metal-organic frameworks (B-MOFs) has been demonstrated by the synthesis and isolation of a Zn(II)B-MOF compound (B-MOF-1). The crystals of B-MOF-1 belong to the cubic space group F432 with 8-fold interpenetrated networks and ∼21% void space. B-MOF-1 exhibits blue fluorescence and is capable of modest gas sorption of N(2), argon, and CO(2).

  6. Tuning the topological states in metal-organic bilayers (United States)

    de Lima, F. Crasto; Ferreira, Gerson J.; Miwa, R. H.


    We have investigated the energetic stability and the electronic properties of metal-organic topological insulator bilayers (BLs), (MC4S4)3BL , with M = Ni and Pt, using first-principles calculations and tight-binding model. Our findings show that (MC4S4)3BL is an appealing platform to perform electronic band structure engineering, based on the topologically protected chiral edge states. The energetic stability of the BLs is ruled by van der Waals interactions, the AA stacking being the energetically most stable one. The electronic band structure is characterized by a combination of bonding and antibonding kagome band sets, revealing that (NiC4S4)3BL presents a Z2-metallic phase, whereas (PtC4S4)3BL may present Z2-metallic phase or quantum spin Hall phase. Those nontrivial topological states were confirmed by the formation of chiral edge states in (MC4S4)3BL nanoribbons. We show that the localization of the edge states can be controlled with a normal external electric field, breaking the mirror symmetry. Hence, the sign of electric field selects in which layer each set of edge states are located. Such a control on the (layer) localization of the topological edge states brings us an additional and interesting degree of freedom to control the transport properties in layered metal-organic topological insulators.

  7. Highly emissive Zn-Ln metal-organic frameworks with an unusual 3D inorganic subnetwork. (United States)

    Liu, C B; Ferreira, R A S; Almeida Paz, F A; Cadiau, A; Carlos, L D; Fu, L S; Rocha, J; Shi, F-N


    Mixed zinc-lanthanide (Zn-Ln) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) based on the 3,5-pyrazoledicarboxylate ligand exhibit an unusual three-dimensional (3D) inorganic subnetwork and display highly efficient photoluminescence.

  8. Metal-organic materials (MOMs) for adsorption of polarizable gases and methods of using MOMs (United States)

    Zaworotko, Michael; Mohamed, Mona H.; Elsaidi, Sameh


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for multi-component metal-organic materials (MOMs), systems including the MOM, systems for separating components in a gas, methods of separating polarizable gases from a gas mixture, and the like.

  9. Metal-organic Materials (moms) For Co2 Adsorption And Methods Of Using Moms

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for metal-organic materials (MOMs), systems that exhibit permanent porosity and using hydrophobic MOMs to separate components in a gas, methods of separating CO.sub.2 from a gas, and the like.

  10. Tetratopic phenyl compounds, related metal-organic framework materials and post-assembly elaboration (United States)

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.


    Disclosed are tetratopic carboxylic acid phenyl for use in metal-organic framework compounds. These compounds are useful in catalysis, gas storage, sensing, biological imaging, drug delivery and gas adsorption separation.

  11. Metal-Organic Nanosheets Formed via Defect-Mediated Transformation of a Hafnium Metal-Organic Framework. (United States)

    Cliffe, Matthew J; Castillo-Martínez, Elizabeth; Wu, Yue; Lee, Jeongjae; Forse, Alexander C; Firth, Francesca C N; Moghadam, Peyman Z; Fairen-Jimenez, David; Gaultois, Michael W; Hill, Joshua A; Magdysyuk, Oxana V; Slater, Ben; Goodwin, Andrew L; Grey, Clare P


    We report a hafnium-containing MOF, hcp UiO-67(Hf), which is a ligand-deficient layered analogue of the face-centered cubic fcu UiO-67(Hf). hcp UiO-67 accommodates its lower ligand:metal ratio compared to fcu UiO-67 through a new structural mechanism: the formation of a condensed "double cluster" (Hf12O8(OH)14), analogous to the condensation of coordination polyhedra in oxide frameworks. In oxide frameworks, variable stoichiometry can lead to more complex defect structures, e.g., crystallographic shear planes or modules with differing compositions, which can be the source of further chemical reactivity; likewise, the layered hcp UiO-67 can react further to reversibly form a two-dimensional metal-organic framework, hxl UiO-67. Both three-dimensional hcp UiO-67 and two-dimensional hxl UiO-67 can be delaminated to form metal-organic nanosheets. Delamination of hcp UiO-67 occurs through the cleavage of strong hafnium-carboxylate bonds and is effected under mild conditions, suggesting that defect-ordered MOFs could be a productive route to porous two-dimensional materials.

  12. Chemical principles underpinning the performance of the metal?organic framework HKUST-1


    Hendon, CH; Walsh, A.


    A common feature of multi-functional metal?organic frameworks is a metal dimer in the form of a paddlewheel, as found in the structure of Cu3(btc)2 (HKUST-1). The HKUST-1 framework demonstrates exceptional gas storage, sensing and separation, catalytic activity and, in recent studies, unprecedented ionic and electrical conductivity. These results are a promising step towards the real-world application of metal?organic materials. In this perspective, we discuss progress in the understanding of...

  13. Stimuli-Responsive DNA-Functionalized Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs). (United States)

    Kahn, Jason S; Freage, Lina; Enkin, Natalie; Garcia, Miguel Angel Aleman; Willner, Itamar


    The synthesis of nucleic acid-functionalized metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is described. The metal-organic frameworks are loaded with a dye being locked in the structures by means of stimuli-responsive nucleic acid caps. The pH and K(+) -ion-triggered release, and switchable release, are demonstrated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Highly mesoporous metal-organic framework assembled in a switchable solvent (United States)

    Peng, Li; Zhang, Jianling; Xue, Zhimin; Han, Buxing; Sang, Xinxin; Liu, Chengcheng; Yang, Guanying


    The mesoporous metal-organic frameworks are a family of materials that have pore sizes ranging from 2 to 50 nm, which have shown promising applications in catalysis, adsorption, chemical sensing and so on. The preparation of mesoporous metal-organic frameworks usually needs the supramolecular or cooperative template strategy. Here we report the template-free assembly of mesoporous metal-organic frameworks by using CO2-expanded liquids as switchable solvents. The mesocellular metal-organic frameworks with large mesopores (13-23 nm) are formed, and their porosity properties can be easily adjusted by controlling CO2 pressure. Moreover, the use of CO2 can accelerate the reaction for metal-organic framework formation from metal salt and organic linker due to the viscosity-lowering effect of CO2, and the product can be recovered through CO2 extraction. The as-synthesized mesocellular metal-organic frameworks are highly active in catalysing the aerobic oxidation of benzylic alcohols under mild temperature at atmospheric pressure.

  15. Ligand design for functional metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Paz, Filipe A Almeida; Klinowski, Jacek; Vilela, Sérgio M F; Tomé, João P C; Cavaleiro, José A S; Rocha, João


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), also known as coordination polymers, are formed by the self-assembly of metallic centres and bridging organic linkers. In this critical review, we review the key advances in the field and discuss the relationship between the nature and structure of specifically designed organic linkers and the properties of the products. Practical examples demonstrate that the physical and chemical properties of the linkers play a decisive role in the properties of novel functional MOFs. We focus on target materials suitable for the storage of hydrogen and methane, sequestration of carbon dioxide, gas separation, heterogeneous catalysis and as magnetic and photoluminescent materials capable of both metal- and ligand-centred emission, ion exchangers and molecular sieves. The advantages of highly active discrete complexes as metal-bearing ligands in the construction of MOFs are also briefly reviewed (128 references). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  16. Transformation of metal-organic frameworks for molecular sieving membranes (United States)

    Li, Wanbin; Zhang, Yufan; Zhang, Congyang; Meng, Qin; Xu, Zehai; Su, Pengcheng; Li, Qingbiao; Shen, Chong; Fan, Zheng; Qin, Lei; Zhang, Guoliang


    The development of simple, versatile strategies for the synthesis of metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived membranes are of increasing scientific interest, but challenges exist in understanding suitable fabrication mechanisms. Here we report a route for the complete transformation of a series of MOF membranes and particles, based on multivalent cation substitution. Through our approach, the effective pore size can be reduced through the immobilization of metal salt residues in the cavities, and appropriate MOF crystal facets can be exposed, to achieve competitive molecular sieving capabilities. The method can also be used more generally for the synthesis of a variety of MOF membranes and particles. Importantly, we design and synthesize promising MOF membranes candidates that are hard to achieve through conventional methods. For example, our CuBTC/MIL-100 membrane exhibits 89, 171, 241 and 336 times higher H2 permeance than that of CO2, O2, N2 and CH4, respectively.

  17. Ordered macro-microporous metal-organic framework single crystals (United States)

    Shen, Kui; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Lingmei; Zhang, Daliang; Han, Yu; Chen, Junying; Long, Jilan; Luque, Rafael; Li, Yingwei; Chen, Banglin


    We constructed highly oriented and ordered macropores within metal-organic framework (MOF) single crystals, opening up the area of three-dimensional–ordered macro-microporous materials (that is, materials containing both macro- and micropores) in single-crystalline form. Our methodology relies on the strong shaping effects of a polystyrene nanosphere monolith template and a double-solvent–induced heterogeneous nucleation approach. This process synergistically enabled the in situ growth of MOFs within ordered voids, rendering a single crystal with oriented and ordered macro-microporous structure. The improved mass diffusion properties of such hierarchical frameworks, together with their robust single-crystalline nature, endow them with superior catalytic activity and recyclability for bulky-molecule reactions, as compared with conventional, polycrystalline hollow, and disordered macroporous ZIF-8.

  18. Metal-organic frameworks with dynamic interlocked components. (United States)

    Vukotic, V Nicholas; Harris, Kristopher J; Zhu, Kelong; Schurko, Robert W; Loeb, Stephen J


    The dynamics of mechanically interlocked molecules such as rotaxanes and catenanes have been studied in solution as examples of rudimentary molecular switches and machines, but in this medium, the molecules are randomly dispersed and their motion incoherent. As a strategy for achieving a higher level of molecular organization, we have constructed a metal-organic framework material using a [2]rotaxane as the organic linker and binuclear Cu(II) units as the nodes. Activation of the as-synthesized material creates a void space inside the rigid framework that allows the soft macrocyclic ring of the [2]rotaxane to rotate rapidly, unimpeded by neighbouring molecular components. Variable-temperature (13)C and (2)H solid-state NMR experiments are used to characterize the nature and rate of the dynamic processes occurring inside this unique material. These results provide a blueprint for the future creation of solid-state molecular switches and molecular machines based on mechanically interlocked molecules.

  19. Ordered macro-microporous metal-organic framework single crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Kui


    We constructed highly oriented and ordered macropores within metal-organic framework (MOF) single crystals, opening up the area of three-dimensional-ordered macro-microporous materials (that is, materials containing both macro- and micropores) in single-crystalline form. Our methodology relies on the strong shaping effects of a polystyrene nanosphere monolith template and a double-solvent-induced heterogeneous nucleation approach. This process synergistically enabled the in situ growth of MOFs within ordered voids, rendering a single crystal with oriented and ordered macro-microporous structure. The improved mass diffusion properties of such hierarchical frameworks, together with their robust single-crystalline nature, endow them with superior catalytic activity and recyclability for bulky-molecule reactions, as compared with conventional, polycrystalline hollow, and disordered macroporous ZIF-8.

  20. Metal-organic frameworks for Xe/Kr separation (United States)

    Ryan, Patrick J.; Farha, Omar K.; Broadbelt, Linda J.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Bae, Youn-Sang


    Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials are provided and are selectively adsorbent to xenon (Xe) over another noble gas such as krypton (Kr) and/or argon (Ar) as a result of having framework voids (pores) sized to this end. MOF materials having pores that are capable of accommodating a Xe atom but have a small enough pore size to receive no more than one Xe atom are desired to preferentially adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component (Xe--Kr mixture) adsorption method. The MOF material has 20% or more, preferably 40% or more, of the total pore volume in a pore size range of 0.45-0.75 nm which can selectively adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component Xe--Kr mixture over a pressure range of 0.01 to 1.0 MPa.

  1. Lanthanide-based metal-organic frameworks as luminescent probes. (United States)

    Xu, Hang; Cao, Chun-Shuai; Kang, Xiao-Min; Zhao, Bin


    Lanthanide-based metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs), as notable materials, are constructed by Ln 3+ ions and organic ligands, or Ln 3+ ions functionalizing non-Ln-MOFs, and exhibit promising applications in various fields. Over the past decades, quite a lot of investigations of Ln-MOFs have been carried out, and many good results have been obtained. Among these results, Ln-MOFs as luminescent probes for unique detection are gradually becoming a hot topic due to their fast and effective luminescent response for the targeted substance. In this perspective article, we discuss the construction of luminescent Ln-MOFs, their applications in possible detection mechanisms, and summarize some examples of Ln-MOFs as luminescent probes for sensing cations, anions and small molecules.

  2. Metal-organic frameworks for artificial photosynthesis and photocatalysis. (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Lin, Wenbin


    Solar energy is an alternative, sustainable energy source for mankind. Finding a convenient way to convert sunlight energy into chemical energy is a key step towards realizing large-scale solar energy utilization. Owing to their structural regularity and synthetic tunability, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) provide an interesting platform to hierarchically organize light-harvesting antennae and catalytic centers to achieve solar energy conversion. Such photo-driven catalytic processes not only play a critical role in the solar to chemical energy conversion scheme, but also provide a novel methodology for the synthesis of fine chemicals. In this review, we summarize the fundamental principles of energy transfer and photocatalysis and provide an overview of the latest progress in energy transfer, light-harvesting, photocatalytic proton and CO2 reduction, and water oxidation using MOFs. The applications of MOFs in organic photocatalysis and degradation of model organic pollutants are also discussed.

  3. Melt-Quenched Hybrid Glasses from Metal-Organic Frameworks. (United States)

    Tao, Haizheng; Bennett, Thomas D; Yue, Yuanzheng


    While glasses formed by quenching the molten states of inorganic non-metallic, organic, and metallic species are known, those containing both inorganic and organic moieties are far less prevalent. Network materials consisting of inorganic nodes linked by organic ligands do however exist in the crystalline or amorphous domain. This large family of open framework compounds, called metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) or coordination polymers, has been investigated intensively in the past two decades for a variety of applications, almost all of which stem from their high internal surface areas and chemical versatility. Recently, a selection of MOFs has been demonstrated to undergo melting and vitrification upon cooling. Here, these recent discoveries and the connections between the fields of MOF chemistry and glass science are summarized. Possible advantages and applications for MOF glasses produced by utilizing the tunable chemistry of the crystalline state are also highlighted. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Designing Kitaev Spin Liquids in Metal-Organic Frameworks (United States)

    Yamada, Masahiko G.; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Oshikawa, Masaki


    Kitaev's honeycomb lattice spin model is a remarkable exactly solvable model, which has a particular type of spin liquid (Kitaev spin liquid) as the ground state. Although its possible realization in iridates and α -RuCl3 has been vigorously discussed recently, these materials have substantial non-Kitaev direct exchange interactions and do not have a spin liquid ground state. We propose metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with Ru3 + (or Os3 + ), forming the honeycomb lattice as promising candidates for a more ideal realization of Kitaev-type spin models, where the direct exchange interaction is strongly suppressed. The great flexibility of MOFs allows generalization to other three-dimensional lattices for the potential realization of a variety of spin liquids, such as a Weyl spin liquid.

  5. Chemical, thermal and mechanical stabilities of metal-organic frameworks (United States)

    Howarth, Ashlee J.; Liu, Yangyang; Li, Peng; Li, Zhanyong; Wang, Timothy C.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.


    The construction of thousands of well-defined, porous, metal-organic framework (MOF) structures, spanning a broad range of topologies and an even broader range of pore sizes and chemical functionalities, has fuelled the exploration of many applications. Accompanying this applied focus has been a recognition of the need to engender MOFs with mechanical, thermal and/or chemical stability. Chemical stability in acidic, basic and neutral aqueous solutions is important. Advances over recent years have made it possible to design MOFs that possess different combinations of mechanical, thermal and chemical stability. Here, we review these advances and the associated design principles and synthesis strategies. We focus on how these advances may render MOFs effective as heterogeneous catalysts, both in chemically harsh condensed phases and in thermally challenging conditions relevant to gas-phase reactions. Finally, we briefly discuss future directions of study for the production of highly stable MOFs.

  6. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors (United States)

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang


    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100-1000 m2 g-1) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m2 g-1), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs.

  7. Polymerization Within Confined Nanochannels of Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks (United States)

    Hu, Zhigang; Zhao, Dan


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been increasingly investigated as templates for precise control of polymerization. Polymerizations within confined nanochannels of porous MOFs have shown unique confinement and alignment effect on polymer chain structures and thus are promising ways to achieve well-defined polymers. Herein, this review will focus on illustrating the recent progress of polymerization within confined nanochannels of MOFs, including radical polymerization, coordination polymerization, ring-opening polymerization, catalytic polymerization, etc. It will demonstrate how the heterogeneous MOF structures (pore size, pore shapes, flexible structures, and versatile functional groups) affect the polymeric products' molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, tacticity, reaction sites, copolymer sequence, etc. Meanwhile, we will highlight some challenges and foreseeable prospects on these novel polymerization methods.

  8. Ordered vacancies and their chemistry in metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Tu, Binbin; Pang, Qingqing; Wu, Doufeng; Song, Yuna; Weng, Linhong; Li, Qiaowei


    Vacancies are common in solid materials, but it remains a challenge to introduce them at specific locations with controlled distributions. Here we report the creation of ordered metal vacancies and linker vacancies in a cubic metal-organic framework (MOF) based on Zn(II) and pyrazolecarboxylic acid by removing a quarter of the metal ions and half of the linkers. The MOF with ordered vacancies shows increased pore size, thus allowing large dye molecules to fit in the pores. Furthermore, by filling the vacancies with new metals and new linkers, eight new single-crystalline MOFs with multicomponents in absolute order are introduced. The capability of performing stepwise elimination and addition reactions systematically in extended solids without destroying the structural integrity has generated complex MOF structures which otherwise cannot be made.

  9. Metal-organic frameworks for membrane-based separations (United States)

    Denny, Michael S.; Moreton, Jessica C.; Benz, Lauren; Cohen, Seth M.


    As research into metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) enters its third decade, efforts are naturally shifting from fundamental studies to applications, utilizing the unique features of these materials. Engineered forms of MOFs, such as membranes and films, are being investigated to transform laboratory-synthesized MOF powders to industrially viable products for separations, chemical sensors and catalysts. Following encouraging demonstrations of gas separations using MOF-based membranes, liquid-phase separations are now being explored in an effort to build effective membranes for these settings. In this Review, we highlight MOF applications that are in their nascent stages, specifically liquid-phase separations using MOF-based mixed-matrix membranes. We also highlight the analytical techniques that provide important insights into these materials, particularly at surfaces and interfaces, to better understand MOFs and their interactions with other materials, which will ultimately lead to their use in advanced technologies.

  10. Highly luminescent metal-organic frameworks through quantum dot doping. (United States)

    Buso, Dario; Jasieniak, Jacek; Lay, Matthew D H; Schiavuta, Piero; Scopece, Paolo; Laird, Jamie; Amenitsch, Heinz; Hill, Anita J; Falcaro, Paolo


    The incorporation of highly luminescent core-shell quantum dots (QDs) within a metal-organic framework (MOF) is achieved through a one-pot method. Through appropriate surface functionalization, the QDs are solubilized within MOF-5 growth media. This permits the incorporation of the QDs within the evolving framework during the reaction. The resulting QD@MOF-5 composites are characterized using X-ray fluorescence, cross-sectional confocal microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering. The synergistic combination of luminescent QDs and the controlled porosity of MOF-5 in the QD@MOF-5 composites is harnessed within a prototype molecular sensor that can discriminate on the basis of molecular size. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Insight into the construction of metal-organic polyhedra: Metal-organic cubes as a case study

    KAUST Repository

    Al Kordi, Mohamed


    Systematic studies were conducted to gain a better understanding of the metal-organic cubes (MOCs) directed assembly and their crystallization under predetermined reaction conditions, i.e. charge and size of metal ions, solvent type, counter anions, pH, and temperature. Four novel metal-organic materials are constructed via solvothermal reactions of different metal ions and 2,2′-(1H-imidazole-4,5-diyl)di-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine, namely [Co8(C11N6H15)12]Cl 12·4H2O (1), [Ni4(C11N 6H15)4](NO3)4· 4DMF (2), {Cd(C11N6H15)(NO3) ·DMF}n (3), and [In8(C11N 6H15)12](NO3)12· 4H2O (4). In addition, syntheses and crystal structures for compounds 1(a-f), constructed under deliberately modified reaction conditions of 1, are reported. In compounds 1(a-f), the CoIII-based cationic MOCs crystallize in various packing arrangements in the presence of different counter-ions. Discrete MOCs retain their structural integrity, when crystalline solid was dissolved in water, under various pH (2.03-8.07) and temperatures (298-333 K), as confirmed by solution NMR studies. The assembly of the discrete MOC, from its basic molecular building blocks under mild reaction conditions, is demonstrated and monitored through solution NMR and UV-vis studies. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

  12. Porous metal-organic frameworks for heterogeneous biomimetic catalysis. (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Ou, Sha; Wu, Chuan-De


    Metalloporphyrins are the active sites in monooxygenases that oxidize a variety of substrates efficiently and under mild conditions. Researchers have developed artificial metalloporphyrins, but these structures have had limited catalytic applications. Homogeneous artificial metalloporphyrins can undergo catalytic deactivation via suicidal self-oxidation, which lowers their catalytic activity and sustainability relative to their counterparts in Nature. Heme molecules in protein scaffolds can maintain high efficiency over numerous catalytic cycles. Therefore, we wondered if immobilizing metalloporphyrin moieties within porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) could stabilize these structures and facilitate the molecular recognition of substrates and produce highly efficient biomimetic catalysis. In this Account, we describe our research to develop multifunctional porphyrinic frameworks as highly efficient heterogeneous biomimetic catalysts. Our studies indicate that porous porphyrinic frameworks provide an excellent platform for mimicking the activity of biocatalysts and developing new heterogeneous catalysts that effect new chemical transformations under mild conditions. The porous structures and framework topologies of the porphyrinic frameworks depend on the configurations, coordination donors, and porphyrin metal ions of the metalloporphyrin moieties. To improve the activity of porous porphyrinic frameworks, we have developed a two-step synthesis that introduces the functional polyoxometalates (POMs) into POM-porphyrin hybrid materials. To tune the pore structures and the catalytic properties of porphyrinic frameworks, we have designed metalloporphyrin M-H8OCPP ligands with four m-benzenedicarboxylate moieties, and introduced the secondary auxiliary ligands. The porphyrin metal ions and the secondary functional moieties that are incorporated into porous metal-organic frameworks greatly influence the catalytic properties and activities of porphyrinic frameworks in

  13. Colloidal-sized metal-organic frameworks: synthesis and applications. (United States)

    Sindoro, Melinda; Yanai, Nobuhiro; Jee, Ah-Young; Granick, Steve


    Colloidal metal-organic frameworks (CMOFs), nanoporous colloidal-sized crystals that are uniform in both size and polyhedral shape, are crystals composed of metal ions and organic bridging ligands, which can be used as building blocks for self-assembly in organic and aqueous liquids. They stand in contrast to conventional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which scientists normally study in the form of bulk crystalline powders. However, powder MOFs generally have random crystal size and shape and therefore do not possess either a definite mutual arrangement with adjacent particles or uniformity. CMOFs do have this quality, which can be important in vital uptake and release kinetics. In this Account, we present the diverse methods of synthesis, pore chemistry control, surface modification, and assembly techniques of CMOFs. In addition, we survey recent achievements and future applications in this emerging field. There is potential for a paradigm shift, away from using just bulk crystalline powders, towards using particles whose size and shape are regulated. The concept of colloidal MOFs takes into account that nanoporous MOFs, conventionally prepared in the form of bulk crystalline powders with random crystal size, shape, and orientation, may also form colloidal-sized objects with uniform size and morphology. Furthermore, the traditional MOF functions that depend on porosity present additional control over those MOF functions that depend on pore interactions. They also can enable controlled spatial arrangements between neighboring particles. To begin, we discuss progress regarding synthesis of MOF nano- and microcrystals whose crystal size and shape are well regulated. Next, we review the methods to modify the surfaces with dye molecules and polymers. Dyes are useful when seeking to observe nonluminescent CMOFs in situ by optical microscopy, while polymers are useful to tune their interparticle interactions. Third, we discuss criteria to assess the stability of CMOFs

  14. Selective anion exchange with nanogated isoreticular positive metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Zhao, Xiang; Bu, Xianhui; Wu, Tao; Zheng, Shou-Tian; Wang, Le; Feng, Pingyun


    Crystalline porous materials, especially inorganic porous solids such as zeolites, usually have negative frameworks with extra-framework mobile cations and are widely used for cation exchange. It is highly desirable to develop new materials with positive frameworks for selective anion exchange and separation or storage and delivery. Recent advances in metal-organic framework synthesis have created new opportunities in this direction. Here we report the synthesis of a series of positive indium metal-organic frameworks and their utilization as a platform for the anion exchange-based separation process. This process is capable of size- or charge-selective ion-exchange of organic dyes and may form the basis for size-selective ion chromatography. Ion-exchange dynamics of a series of organic dyes and their selective encapsulation and release are also studied, highlighting the advantages of metal-organic framework compositions for designing host materials tailored for applications in anion separation and purification.

  15. Foldable interpenetrated metal-organic frameworks/carbon nanotubes thin film for lithium-sulfur batteries (United States)

    Mao, Yiyin; Li, Gaoran; Guo, Yi; Li, Zhoupeng; Liang, Chengdu; Peng, Xinsheng; Lin, Zhan


    Lithium-sulfur batteries are promising technologies for powering flexible devices due to their high energy density, low cost and environmental friendliness, when the insulating nature, shuttle effect and volume expansion of sulfur electrodes are well addressed. Here, we report a strategy of using foldable interpenetrated metal-organic frameworks/carbon nanotubes thin film for binder-free advanced lithium-sulfur batteries through a facile confinement conversion. The carbon nanotubes interpenetrate through the metal-organic frameworks crystal and interweave the electrode into a stratified structure to provide both conductivity and structural integrity, while the highly porous metal-organic frameworks endow the electrode with strong sulfur confinement to achieve good cyclability. These hierarchical porous interpenetrated three-dimensional conductive networks with well confined S8 lead to high sulfur loading and utilization, as well as high volumetric energy density.

  16. Foldable interpenetrated metal-organic frameworks/carbon nanotubes thin film for lithium–sulfur batteries (United States)

    Mao, Yiyin; Li, Gaoran; Guo, Yi; Li, Zhoupeng; Liang, Chengdu; Peng, Xinsheng; Lin, Zhan


    Lithium–sulfur batteries are promising technologies for powering flexible devices due to their high energy density, low cost and environmental friendliness, when the insulating nature, shuttle effect and volume expansion of sulfur electrodes are well addressed. Here, we report a strategy of using foldable interpenetrated metal-organic frameworks/carbon nanotubes thin film for binder-free advanced lithium–sulfur batteries through a facile confinement conversion. The carbon nanotubes interpenetrate through the metal-organic frameworks crystal and interweave the electrode into a stratified structure to provide both conductivity and structural integrity, while the highly porous metal-organic frameworks endow the electrode with strong sulfur confinement to achieve good cyclability. These hierarchical porous interpenetrated three-dimensional conductive networks with well confined S8 lead to high sulfur loading and utilization, as well as high volumetric energy density. PMID:28262801

  17. Chemical principles underpinning the performance of the metal-organic framework HKUST-1. (United States)

    Hendon, Christopher H; Walsh, Aron


    A common feature of multi-functional metal-organic frameworks is a metal dimer in the form of a paddlewheel, as found in the structure of Cu3(btc)2 (HKUST-1). The HKUST-1 framework demonstrates exceptional gas storage, sensing and separation, catalytic activity and, in recent studies, unprecedented ionic and electrical conductivity. These results are a promising step towards the real-world application of metal-organic materials. In this perspective, we discuss progress in the understanding of the electronic, magnetic and physical properties of HKUST-1, representative of the larger family of Cu···Cu containing metal-organic frameworks. We highlight the chemical interactions that give rise to its favourable properties, and which make this material well suited to a range of technological applications. From this analysis, we postulate key design principles for tailoring novel high-performance hybrid frameworks.

  18. Increasing the Stability of Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Bosch


    Full Text Available Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs are a new category of advanced porous materials undergoing study by many researchers for their vast variety of both novel structures and potentially useful properties arising from them. Their high porosities, tunable structures, and convenient process of introducing both customizable functional groups and unsaturated metal centers have afforded excellent gas sorption and separation ability, catalytic activity, luminescent properties, and more. However, the robustness and reactivity of a given framework are largely dependent on its metal-ligand interactions, where the metal-containing clusters are often vulnerable to ligand substitution by water or other nucleophiles, meaning that the frameworks may collapse upon exposure even to moist air. Other frameworks may collapse upon thermal or vacuum treatment or simply over time. This instability limits the practical uses of many MOFs. In order to further enhance the stability of the framework, many different approaches, such as the utilization of high-valence metal ions or nitrogen-donor ligands, were recently investigated. This review details the efforts of both our research group and others to synthesize MOFs possessing drastically increased chemical and thermal stability, in addition to exemplary performance for catalysis, gas sorption, and separation.

  19. Controlling Thermal Expansion: A Metal-Organic Frameworks Route. (United States)

    Balestra, Salvador R G; Bueno-Perez, Rocio; Hamad, Said; Dubbeldam, David; Ruiz-Salvador, A Rabdel; Calero, Sofia


    Controlling thermal expansion is an important, not yet resolved, and challenging problem in materials research. A conceptual design is introduced here, for the first time, for the use of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as platforms for controlling thermal expansion devices that can operate in the negative, zero, and positive expansion regimes. A detailed computer simulation study, based on molecular dynamics, is presented to support the targeted application. MOF-5 has been selected as model material, along with three molecules of similar size and known differences in terms of the nature of host-guest interactions. It has been shown that adsorbate molecules can control, in a colligative way, the thermal expansion of the solid, so that changing the adsorbate molecules induces the solid to display positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion. We analyze in depth the distortion mechanisms, beyond the ligand metal junction, to cover the ligand distortions, and the energetic and entropic effect on the thermo-structural behavior. We provide an unprecedented atomistic insight on the effect of adsorbates on the thermal expansion of MOFs as a basic tool toward controlling the thermal expansion.

  20. Structural versatility of Metal-organic frameworks: Synthesis and Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Alsadun, Norah S.


    Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs), an emerging class of porous crystalline materials, have shown promising properties for diverse applications such as catalysis, gas storage and separation. The high degree of tunability of MOFs vs other solid materials enable the assembly of advanced materials with fascinating properties for specific applications. Nevertheless, the precise control in the construction of MOFs at the molecular level remains challenging. Particularly, the formation of pre-targeted multi-nuclear Molecular Building Block (MBB) precursors to unveil materials with targeted structural characteristics is captivating. The aim of my master project in the continuous quest of the group of Prof. Eddaoudi in exploring different synthetic pathways to control the assembly of Rare Earth (RE) based MOF. After giving a general overview about MOFs, I will discuss in this thesis the results of my work on the use of tri-topic oriented organic carboxylate building units with the aim to explore the assembly/construction of new porous RE based MOFs. In chapter 2 will discuss the assembly of 3-c linkers with RE metals was then evaluated based on symmetry and angularity of the three connected linkers. The focus of chapter 3 is cerium based MOFs and heterometallic system, based on 3-c ligands with different length and symmetry. Overall, the incompatibility of 3-c ligands with the 12-c cuo MBB did not allow to any formation of higher neuclearity (˃6), but it has resulted in affecting the connectivity of the cluster.

  1. Shock Wave Energy Dissipation by Metal-Organic Framework (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan; Miao, Yurun; Banlusan, Kiettipong; Shaw, William; Strachan, Alejandro; Suslick, Kenneth; Dlott, Dana


    Metal-organic framework (MOF) such as ZIF-8 and UiO-66 show promising shock energy dissipation abilities through mechano-chemical reactions including bond breaking and pore collapse. In this work, we performed quantitative measurements on the shock wave energy attenuated by MOF films using a laser-driven flyer-plate apparatus. Aluminum flyer plates of 75-um thick were accelerated to speeds up to 2.0 km/s by a flat-top pulsed laser to impact the MOF film. The MOF layer was coated on a 200-nm thick gold mirror, which was deposited previously on glass substrate. Photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) was used to track the motions of the gold mirror, which can be converted to the energy flux and fluence of the shock wave that transmitted through the MOF layer. We deduced the shock energy that was attenuated by the MOF film by comparing the transmitted energy flux/fluence obtained with and without the presence of the MOF layer. A two-wave-shaped flux-time curve was obtained with the MOF layer because of its nanoporous structure. Studies on the shock wave energy attenuation by ZIF-8 and UiO-66 were carried out under various flyer speeds and sample thicknesses. We used in situ emission spectroscopy to verify that pore collapse was accompanied by chemical bond breakage. Corresponding

  2. Photoluminescent Metal-Organic Frameworks for Gas Sensing. (United States)

    Lin, Rui-Biao; Liu, Si-Yang; Ye, Jia-Wen; Li, Xu-Yu; Zhang, Jie-Peng


    Luminescence of porous coordination polymers (PCPs) or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is sensitive to the type and concentration of chemical species in the surrounding environment, because these materials combine the advantages of the highly regular porous structures and various luminescence mechanisms, as well as diversified host-guest interactions. In the past few years, luminescent MOFs have attracted more and more attention for chemical sensing of gas-phase analytes, including common gases and vapors of solids/liquids. While liquid-phase and gas-phase luminescence sensing by MOFs share similar mechanisms such as host-guest electron and/or energy transfer, exiplex formation, and guest-perturbing of excited-state energy level and radiation pathways, via various types of host-guest interactions, gas-phase sensing has its unique advantages and challenges, such as easy utilization of encapsulated guest luminophores and difficulty for accurate measurement of the intensity change. This review summarizes recent progresses by using luminescent MOFs as reusable sensing materials for detection of gases and vapors of solids/liquids especially for O 2 , highlighting various strategies for improving the sensitivity, selectivity, stability, and accuracy, reducing the materials cost, and developing related devices.

  3. Luminescent multifunctional lanthanides-based metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Rocha, João; Carlos, Luís D; Paz, Filipe A Almeida; Ananias, Duarte


    Metal-organic frameworks based on trivalent lanthanides (LnMOFs) are a very promising class of materials for addressing the challenges in engineering of luminescent centres. Lanthanide-bearing phosphors find numerous applications in lighting, optical communications, photonics and biomedical devices. In this critical review we discuss the potential of LnMOFs as multifunctional systems, which combine light emission with properties such as microporosity, magnetism, chirality, molecule and ion sensing, catalysis and activity as multimodal imaging contrast agents. We argue that these materials present a unique chance of observing synergy between several of these properties, such as the coupling between photoluminescence and magnetism. Moreover, an integrated approach towards the design of efficient, stable, cheap, environmentally-friendly and multifunctional luminescent LnMOFs is still missing. Although research into LnMOFs is at its early stage and much basic knowledge is still needed, the field is ripe for new ideas, which will enable sensor devices and photonic prototypes to become a commercial reality (81 references).

  4. Surface nano-architecture of a metal-organic framework. (United States)

    Makiura, Rie; Motoyama, Soichiro; Umemura, Yasushi; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Sakata, Osami; Kitagawa, Hiroshi


    The rational assembly of ultrathin films of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)--highly ordered microporous materials--with well-controlled growth direction and film thickness is a critical and as yet unrealized issue for enabling the use of MOFs in nanotechnological devices, such as sensors, catalysts and electrodes for fuel cells. Here we report the facile bottom-up fabrication at ambient temperature of such a perfect preferentially oriented MOF nanofilm on a solid surface (NAFS-1), consisting of metalloporphyrin building units. The construction of NAFS-1 was achieved by the unconventional integration in a modular fashion of a layer-by-layer growth technique coupled with the Langmuir-Blodgett method. NAFS-1 is endowed with highly crystalline order both in the out-of-plane and in-plane orientations to the substrate, as demonstrated by synchrotron X-ray surface crystallography. The proposed structural model incorporates metal-coordinated pyridine molecules projected from the two-dimensional sheets that allow each further layer to dock in a highly ordered interdigitated manner in the growth of NAFS-1. We expect that the versatility of the solution-based growth strategy presented here will allow the fabrication of various well-ordered MOF nanofilms, opening the way for their use in a range of important applications.

  5. Metal-organic frameworks as sensory materials and imaging agents. (United States)

    Liu, Demin; Lu, Kuangda; Poon, Christopher; Lin, Wenbin


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of hybrid materials self-assembled from organic bridging ligands and metal ion/cluster connecting points. The combination of a variety of organic linkers, metal ions/clusters, and structural motifs can lead to an infinite array of new materials with interesting properties for many applications. In this Forum Article, we discuss the design and applications of MOFs in chemical sensing and biological imaging. The first half of this article focuses on the development of MOFs as chemical sensors by highlighting how unique attributes of MOFs can be utilized to enhance sensitivity and selectivity. We also discuss some of the issues that need to be addressed in order to develop practically useful MOF sensors. The second half of this article focuses on the design and applications of nanoscale MOFs (NMOFs) as imaging contrast agents. NMOFs possess several interesting attributes, such as high cargo loading capacity, ease of postmodification, tunable size and shape, and intrinsic biodegradability, to make them excellent candidates as imaging contrast agents. We discuss the use of representative NMOFs in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), X-ray computed tomography (CT), and optical imaging. Although still in their infancy, we believe that the compositional tunability and mild synthetic conditions of NMOF imaging agents should greatly facilitate their further development for clinical translation.

  6. Separation of chemical reaction intermediates by metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Centrone, Andrea; Santiso, Erik E; Hatton, T Alan


    HPLC columns custom-packed with metal-organic framework (MOF) materials are used for the separation of four small intermediates and byproducts found in the commercial synthesis of an important active pharmaceutical ingredient in methanol. In particular, two closely related amines can be separated in the methanol reaction medium using MOFs, but not with traditional C18 columns using an optimized aqueous mobile phase. Infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis are used in combination with molecular dynamic simulations to study the separation mechanism for the best-performing MOF materials. It is found that separation with ZIF-8 is the result of an interplay between the thermodynamic driving force for solute adsorption within the framework pores and the kinetics of solute diffusion into the material pores, while the separation with Basolite F300 is achieved because of the specific interactions between the solutes and Fe(3+) sites. This work, and the exceptional ability to tailor the porous properties of MOF materials, points to prospects for using MOF materials for the continuous separation and synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Metal-organic frameworks for electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide. (United States)

    Kornienko, Nikolay; Zhao, Yingbo; Kley, Christopher S; Zhu, Chenhui; Kim, Dohyung; Lin, Song; Chang, Christopher J; Yaghi, Omar M; Yang, Peidong


    A key challenge in the field of electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction is the design of catalytic materials featuring high product selectivity, stability, and a composition of earth-abundant elements. In this work, we introduce thin films of nanosized metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as atomically defined and nanoscopic materials that function as catalysts for the efficient and selective reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide in aqueous electrolytes. Detailed examination of a cobalt-porphyrin MOF, Al2(OH)2TCPP-Co (TCPP-H2 = 4,4',4″,4‴-(porphyrin-5,10,15,20-tetrayl)tetrabenzoate) revealed a selectivity for CO production in excess of 76% and stability over 7 h with a per-site turnover number (TON) of 1400. In situ spectroelectrochemical measurements provided insights into the cobalt oxidation state during the course of reaction and showed that the majority of catalytic centers in this MOF are redox-accessible where Co(II) is reduced to Co(I) during catalysis.

  8. Functionalization of silicon nanowire surfaces with metal-organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Nian


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been extensively studied due to their unique properties; MOFs have high porosity and specific surface area with well-defined nanoporous structure, while SiNWs have valuable one-dimensional electronic properties. Integration of the two materials into one composite could synergistically combine the advantages of both materials and lead to new applications. We report the first example of a MOF synthesized on surface-modified SiNWs. The synthesis of polycrystalline MOF-199 (also known as HKUST-1) on SiNWs was performed at room temperature using a step-by-step (SBS) approach, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy elemental mapping were used to characterize the material. Matching of the SiNW surface functional groups with the MOF organic linker coordinating groups was found to be critical for the growth. Additionally, the MOF morphology can by tuned by changing the soaking time, synthesis temperature and precursor solution concentration. This SiNW/MOF hybrid structure opens new avenues for rational design of materials with novel functionalities. © 2011 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  9. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang, E-mail:


    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study.

  10. Metal-organic framework composites: from fundamentals to applications (United States)

    Li, Shaozhou; Huo, Fengwei


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of crystallized porous polymeric materials consisting of metal ions or clusters linked together by organic bridging ligands. Due to their permanent porosity, rich surface chemistry and tuneable pore sizes, MOFs have emerged as one type of important porous solid and have attracted intensive interests in catalysis, gas adsorption, separation and storage over the past two decades. When compared with pure MOFs, the combination of MOFs with functional species or matrix materials not only shows enhanced properties, but also broadens the applications of MOFs in new fields, such as bio-imaging, drug delivery and electrical catalysis, owing to the interactions of the functional species/matrix with the MOF structures. Although the synthesis, chemical modification and potential applications of MOFs have been reviewed previously, there is an increasing awareness on the synthesis and applications of their composites, which have rarely been reviewed. This review aims to fill this gap and discuss the fabrication, properties, and applications of MOF composites. The remaining challenges and future opportunities in this field, in terms of processing techniques, maximizing composite properties, and prospects for applications, have also been indicated.

  11. Large-scale screening of hypothetical metal-organic frameworks (United States)

    Wilmer, Christopher E.; Leaf, Michael; Lee, Chang Yeon; Farha, Omar K.; Hauser, Brad G.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Snurr, Randall Q.


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous materials constructed from modular molecular building blocks, typically metal clusters and organic linkers. These can, in principle, be assembled to form an almost unlimited number of MOFs, yet materials reported to date represent only a tiny fraction of the possible combinations. Here, we demonstrate a computational approach to generate all conceivable MOFs from a given chemical library of building blocks (based on the structures of known MOFs) and rapidly screen them to find the best candidates for a specific application. From a library of 102 building blocks we generated 137,953 hypothetical MOFs and for each one calculated the pore-size distribution, surface area and methane-storage capacity. We identified over 300 MOFs with a predicted methane-storage capacity better than that of any known material, and this approach also revealed structure-property relationships. Methyl-functionalized MOFs were frequently top performers, so we selected one such promising MOF and experimentally confirmed its predicted capacity.

  12. Atomistic Simulation of Protein Encapsulation in Metal-Organic Frameworks. (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyang; Lv, Yongqin; Tan, Tianwei; van der Spoel, David


    Fabrication of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with large apertures triggers a brand-new research area for selective encapsulation of biomolecules within MOF nanopores. The underlying inclusion mechanism is yet to be clarified however. Here we report a molecular dynamics study on the mechanism of protein encapsulation in MOFs. Evaluation for the binding of amino acid side chain analogues reveals that van der Waals interaction is the main driving force for the binding and that guest size acts as a key factor predicting protein binding with MOFs. Analysis on the conformation and thermodynamic stability of the miniprotein Trp-cage encapsulated in a series of MOFs with varying pore apertures and surface chemistries indicates that protein encapsulation can be achieved via maintaining a polar/nonpolar balance in the MOF surface through tunable modification of organic linkers and Mg-O chelating moieties. Such modifications endow MOFs with a more biocompatible confinement. This work provides guidelines for selective inclusion of biomolecules within MOFs and facilitates MOF functions as a new class of host materials and molecular chaperones.

  13. Metal-organic frameworks as potential drug delivery systems. (United States)

    Sun, Chun-Yi; Qin, Chao; Wang, Xin-Long; Su, Zhong-Min


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a unique class of hybrid porous solids based on metals and organic linkers. Compared to traditional porous materials, they possess predominance of large surface areas, tunable pore size and shape, adjustable composition and functionalized pore surface, which enable them unique advantages and promises for applications in adsorption and release of therapeutic agents. This review addresses MOFs as a new avenue for drug delivery and exhibits their ability to efficiently deliver various kinds of therapeutic agents. It also details the requirements that MOFs need to satisfy for biomedical application, such as toxicological compatibility, stability, particle size, and surface modification. In addition, several approaches used to enhance encapsulation efficiency are summarized and parameters influencing delivery efficiency are also discussed. Benefiting from the unique advantages of MOFs materials, efficient delivery of various kinds of drugs has been achieved in some MOF materials. However, it is only the outset of MOFs in drug delivery system, and numerous work need to be done before clinical applications, for example, studying their in vivo toxicity, exploring degradation mechanisms so as to establish real stability of MOFs in body's liquid, providing appropriated surface modification avenue for MOFs, and researching in vivo efficiency and pharmacokinetics of drug-loaded MOFs.

  14. Diffusion-controlled luminescence quenching in metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Lin, Wenbin


    Diffusion-controlled luminescence quenching of a phosphorescent metal-organic framework built from the Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-derived bridging ligand (MOF-1) was studied using a series of amines of different sizes as quenchers. The dynamics of amine diffusion into solvent-filled MOF-1 channels was probed by modeling time-dependent luminescence quenching data, which provide quantitative diffusion coefficients for the amine quenchers. Triethylamine, tripropylamine, and tributylamine were found to follow Fickian diffusion with a diffusivity of (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10(-13), (4.8 ± 1.2) × 10(-14), and (4.0 ± 0.4) × 10(-14) m(2)/s, respectively. Diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA), on the other hand, was found to be too large to enter the MOF channels. Despite its size, 4-MeOPhNPh(2) can enter the MOF channels via a slow, complicated framework/guest intercalation process to result in extensive framework distortion as revealed by powder X-ray diffraction. This work represents the first quantitative study of the dynamics of molecular diffusion into solvent-filled MOF channels. Such quantitative information on molecular diffusion in MOFs is of fundamental importance to many of their potential applications (e.g., heterogeneous catalysis).

  15. A mixed molecular building block strategy for the design of nested polyhedron metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Tian, Dan; Chen, Qiang; Li, Yue; Zhang, Ying-Hui; Chang, Ze; Bu, Xian-He


    A mixed molecular building block (MBB) strategy for the synthesis of double-walled cage-based porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is presented. By means of this method, two isostructural porous MOFs built from unprecedented double-walled metal-organic octahedron were obtained by introducing two size-matching C3 -symmetric molecular building blocks with different rigidities. With their unique framework structures, these MOFs provide, to the best of our knowledge, the first examples of double-walled octahedron-based MOFs. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Multirate delivery of multiple therapeutic agents from metal-organic frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair C. McKinlay


    Full Text Available The highly porous nature of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs offers great potential for the delivery of therapeutic agents. Here, we show that highly porous metal-organic frameworks can be used to deliver multiple therapeutic agents—a biologically active gas, an antibiotic drug molecule, and an active metal ion—simultaneously but at different rates. The possibilities offered by delivery of multiple agents with different mechanisms of action and, in particular, variable timescales may allow new therapy approaches. Here, we show that the loaded MOFs are highly active against various strains of bacteria.

  17. Preparation and applications of monolithic structures containing metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Lv, Yongqin; Tan, Xinyi; Svec, Frantisek


    Metal-organic frameworks are a new category of advanced porous materials with large surface areas and porosities, uniform pore sizes, tunable surface chemistry, and structural diversity. In combination with monoliths, they allow the fine tuning of desired interactions required in a variety of applications. This review article summarizes results of recent studies focused on synthetic strategies enabling incorporation of metal-organic frameworks in monolithic structures. A diverse array of applications including chromatographic separation, solid-phase microextraction, sample enrichment, heterogeneous catalysis, and enzymatic catalysis are also described. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Targeted manipulation of metal-organic frameworks to direct sorption properties. (United States)

    Schneemann, Andreas; Henke, Sebastian; Schwedler, Inke; Fischer, Roland A


    Metal-organic frameworks are promising materials for manifold applications. This Minireview highlights approaches for the fine-tuning of specific sorption properties (e.g. capacity, selectivity, and breathing behavior) of this interesting class of materials. Central aspects covered are the control over the crystal morphology, the targeted tuning of sorption properties by judicious choice of metal centers and linkers, and the preparation of host-guest systems. We want to introduce the reader to these topics on the basis of the manipulation of a handful of outstanding prototypical metal-organic frameworks. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Metal-organic frameworks as host materials of confined supercooled liquids (United States)

    Fischer, J. K. H.; Sippel, P.; Denysenko, D.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Volkmer, D.; Loidl, A.


    In this work, we examine the use of metal-organic framework (MOF) systems as host materials for the investigation of glassy dynamics in confined geometry. We investigate the confinement of the molecular glass former glycerol in three MFU-type MOFs with different pore sizes (MFU stands for "Metal-Organic Framework Ulm-University") and study the dynamics of the confined liquid via dielectric spectroscopy. In accord with previous reports on confined glass formers, we find different degrees of deviations from bulk behavior depending on pore size, demonstrating that MOFs are well-suited host systems for confinement investigations.

  20. Metal-organic frameworks as selectivity regulators for hydrogenation reactions (United States)

    Zhao, Meiting; Yuan, Kuo; Wang, Yun; Li, Guodong; Guo, Jun; Gu, Lin; Hu, Wenping; Zhao, Huijun; Tang, Zhiyong


    Owing to the limited availability of natural sources, the widespread demand of the flavouring, perfume and pharmaceutical industries for unsaturated alcohols is met by producing them from α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, through the selective hydrogenation of the carbon-oxygen group (in preference to the carbon-carbon group). However, developing effective catalysts for this transformation is challenging, because hydrogenation of the carbon-carbon group is thermodynamically favoured. This difficulty is particularly relevant for one major category of heterogeneous catalyst: metal nanoparticles supported on metal oxides. These systems are generally incapable of significantly enhancing the selectivity towards thermodynamically unfavoured reactions, because only the edges of nanoparticles that are in direct contact with the metal-oxide support possess selective catalytic properties; most of the exposed nanoparticle surfaces do not. This has inspired the use of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to encapsulate metal nanoparticles within their layers or inside their channels, to influence the activity of the entire nanoparticle surface while maintaining efficient reactant and product transport owing to the porous nature of the material. Here we show that MOFs can also serve as effective selectivity regulators for the hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. Sandwiching platinum nanoparticles between an inner core and an outer shell composed of an MOF with metal nodes of Fe3+, Cr3+ or both (known as MIL-101; refs 19, 20, 21) results in stable catalysts that convert a range of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes with high efficiency and with significantly enhanced selectivity towards unsaturated alcohols. Calculations reveal that preferential interaction of MOF metal sites with the carbon-oxygen rather than the carbon-carbon group renders hydrogenation of the former by the embedded platinum nanoparticles a thermodynamically favoured reaction. We anticipate that our basic design

  1. Adsorptive desulfurization and denitrogenation using metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Ahmed, Imteaz; Jhung, Sung Hwa


    With the increasing worldwide demand for energy, utilization of fossil fuels is increasing proportionally. Additionally, new and unconventional energy sources are also being utilized at an increasing rate day-by-day. These sources, along with some industrial processes, result in the exposal of several sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds (SCCs and NCCs, respectively) to the environment, and the exposure is one of the greatest environmental threats in the recent years. Although, several methods were established for the removal of these pollutants during the last few decades, recent advancements in adsorptive desulfurization and denitrogenation (ADS and ADN, respectively) with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) make this the most promising and remarkable method. Therefore, many research groups are currently involved with ADS and ADN with MOFs, and the results are improving gradually by modifying the MOF adsorbents according to several specific adsorption mechanisms. In this review, ADS and ADN studies are thoroughly discussed for both liquid-phase and gas-phase adsorption. The MOF modification procedures, which are important for improved adsorption, are also described. To improve the knowledge among the scientific community, it is very important to understand the detailed chemistry and mechanism involved in a chemical process, which also creates the possibility and pathway for further developments in research and applications. Therefore, the mechanisms related to the adsorption procedures are also discussed in detail. From this review, it can be expected that the scientific community will obtain an understanding of the current state of ADS and ADN, their importance, and some encouragement and insight to take the research knowledge base to a higher level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrogen storage for fuel cell applications: Challenges, opportunities and prospects for metal-organic frameworks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Langmi, Henrietta W


    Full Text Available CELL APPLICATIONS: CHALLENGES, OPPORTUNITIES AND PROSPECTS FOR METAL-ORGANIC FRAMEWORKS Korea-South Africa H2 Fuel Cell Collaboration Workshop,15-18 July 2013, Hyundai Hotel, Gyeongju, Rep. of Korea Dr. Henrietta Langmi, Hy...% Russia 12% North America 5% Others 4% PGM Supply by region Slide 6 Strategic Goals  Establish a base for hydrogen production, storage technologies...

  3. Capturing neon - the first experimental structure of neon trapped within a metal-organic environment. (United States)

    Wood, Peter A; Sarjeant, Amy A; Yakovenko, Andrey A; Ward, Suzanna C; Groom, Colin R


    Despite being the fifth most abundant element in the atmosphere, neon has never been observed in an organic or metal-organic environment. This study shows the adsorption of this highly unreactive element within such an environment and reveals the first crystallographic observation of an interaction between neon and a transition metal.

  4. Metal-organic scintillator crystals for X-ray, gamma ray, and neutron detection (United States)

    Boatner, Lynn A [Oak Ridge, TN; Kolopus, James A [Clinton, TN; Neal, John S [Knoxville, TN; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [Knoxville, TN; Wisniewski, Dariusz J [Torun, PL


    New metal-organic materials are useful as scintillators and have the chemical formula LX.sub.3(CH.sub.3OH).sub.4 where L is Y, Sc, or a lanthanide element, and X is a halogen element. An example of the scintillator materials is CeCl.sub.3(CH.sub.3OH).sub.4.

  5. Methodologies for evaluation of metal-organic frameworks in separation applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishna, R.


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) offer considerable potential for separating a wide variety of mixtures. For any given separation, there are several MOFs that could be employed. Therefore, there is a need for reliable procedures for screening and ranking MOFs with regard to their anticipated

  6. Lipase-supported metal-organic framework bioreactor catalyzes warfarin synthesis. (United States)

    Liu, Wan-Ling; Yang, Ni-Shin; Chen, Ya-Ting; Lirio, Stephen; Wu, Cheng-You; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya


    A green and sustainable strategy synthesizes clinical medicine warfarin anticoagulant by using lipase-supported metal-organic framework (MOF) bioreactors (see scheme). These findings may be beneficial for future studies in the industrial production of chemical, pharmaceutical, and agrochemical precursors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Metal-Organic Frameworks For Adsorption Driven Energy Transformation : From Fundamentals To Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lange, M.F.


    A novel class of materials, i.e. Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs), has successfully been developed that is extremely suited for application in heat pumps and chillers. They have a superior performance over commercial sorbents and may potentially contribute to considerable energy savings worldwide.

  8. Metal-organic framework catalysts for selective cleavage of aryl-ether bonds (United States)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Stavila, Vitalie


    The present invention relates to methods of employing a metal-organic framework (MOF) as a catalyst for cleaving chemical bonds. In particular instances, the MOF results in selective bond cleavage that results in hydrogenolyzis. Furthermore, the MOF catalyst can be reused in multiple cycles. Such MOF-based catalysts can be useful, e.g., to convert biomass components.

  9. Elucidating steric effects on enantioselective epoxidation catalyzed by (salen)Mn in metal-organic frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oxford, G.A.E.; Dubbeldam, D.; Broadbelt, L.J.; Snurr, R.Q.


    The steric effects of a metal-organic framework (MOF) on the enantioselectivity of a (salen)Mn were studied using classical atomistic modeling. Rotational energy profiles for the approach of 2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene to the active site of (salen)Mn were mapped for the homogeneous catalyst and the

  10. Properties of alumina films by atmospheric pressure metal-organic chemical vapour deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Haanappel, V.A.C.; van Corbach, H.D.; Fransen, T.; Gellings, P.J.


    Thin alumina films were deposited at low temperatures (290–420°C) on stainless steel, type AISI 304. The deposition process was carried out in nitrogen by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition using aluminum tri-sec-butoxide. The film properties including the protection of the underlying

  11. Channeling and electromagnetic radiation of relativistic charged particles in metal-organic frameworks (United States)

    Zhevago, N. K.; Glebov, V. I.


    We have developed the theory of electromagnetic interaction of relativistic charged particles with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The electrostatic potential and electron number density distribution in MOFs were calculated using the most accurate data for the atomic form factors. Peculiarities of axial channeling of fast charged particles and various types of electromagnetic radiation from relativistic particles has been discussed.

  12. Anthraquinone with Tailored Structure for Nonaqueous Metal-Organic Redox Flow Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Wu; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo


    A nonaqueous, hybrid metal-organic redox flow battery based on tailored anthraquinone structure is demonstrated to have an energy efficiency of {approx}82% and a specific discharge energy density similar to aqueous redox flow batteries, which is due to the significantly improved solubility of anthraquinone in supporting electrolytes.

  13. Innovative application of metal-organic frameworks for encapsulation and controlled release of allyl isothiocyanate (United States)

    This research investigated the technical feasibility of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as novel delivery systems for encapsulation and controlled release of volatile allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) molecules. We hypothesized that water vapor molecules could act as an external stimulus to trigger the re...

  14. Cation sensing by a luminescent metal-organic framework with multiple Lewis basic sites. (United States)

    Tang, Qun; Liu, Shuxia; Liu, Yiwei; Miao, Jun; Li, Shujun; Zhang, Li; Shi, Zhan; Zheng, Zhiping


    A series of novel lanthanide metal-organic frameworks were synthesized using a ligand featuring three carboxylate groups stationed on a triazinyl central motif. The readily accessible multiple Lewis basic triazinyl N atoms allow for complexation of incoming metal ions. Such interactions have been established quantitatively.

  15. Microporous metal-organic framework with potential for carbon dioxide capture at ambient conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiang, S.C.; He, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Wu, H.; Zhou, W.; Krishna, R.; Chen, B.


    Carbon dioxide capture and separation are important industrial processes that allow the use of carbon dioxide for the production of a range of chemical products and materials, and to minimize the effects of carbon dioxide emission. Porous metal-organic frameworks are promising materials to achieve

  16. Expanded Organic Building Units for the Construction of Highly Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kong, G.Q.; Han, Z.D.; He, Y.; Qu, S.; Zhou, W.; Yildirim, T.; Krishna, R.; Zou, C.; Chen, B.; Wu, C.D.


    wo new organic building units that contain dicarboxylate sites for their self-assembly with paddlewheel [Cu2(CO2)4] units have been successfully developed to construct two isoreticular porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), ZJU-35 and ZJU-36, which have the same tbo topologies (Reticular Chemistry

  17. Evaluating metal-organic frameworks for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture via temperature swing adsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, J.A.; Sumida, K.; Herm, Z.R.; Krishna, R.; Long, J.R.


    Two representative metal-organic frameworks, Zn4O(BTB)2 (BTB3− = 1,3,5-benzenetribenzoate; MOF-177) and Mg2(dobdc) (dobdc4− = 1,4-dioxido-2,5-benzenedicarboxylate; Mg-MOF-74, CPO-27-Mg), are evaluated in detail for their potential use in post-combustion CO2 capture via temperature swing adsorption

  18. Metal-Organic Frameworks with d-f Cyanide Bridges: Structural Diversity, Bonding Regime, and Magnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferbinteanu, M.; Cimpoesu, F.; Tanase, S.; Cheng, P.


    We present a selection of metal-organic frameworks based on d-f and f-f linkages, discussing their structural features and properties from experimental and theoretical viewpoints. We give an overview of our own synthetic and modeling methodologies, highlighting the complexity of the

  19. Exploiting large-pore metal-organic frameworks for separations through entropic molecular mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres-Knoop, A.; Dubbeldam, D.


    We review the molecular mechanisms behind adsorption and the separations of mixtures in metal-organic frameworks and zeolites. Separation mechanisms can be based on differences in the affinity of the adsorbate with the framework and on entropic effects. To develop next-generation adsorbents, the

  20. Porphyrin-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks as Heterogeneous Catalysts in Oxidation Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla F. Pereira


    Full Text Available Porphyrin-based Metal-Organic Frameworks (Por-MOFs constitute a special branch of the wide MOF family that has proven its own value and high potential in different applications. In this mini-review the application of these materials as catalysts in oxidation reactions is highlighted.

  1. Removal of chlorine gas by an amine functionalized metal-organic framework via electrophilic aromatic substitution. (United States)

    DeCoste, Jared B; Browe, Matthew A; Wagner, George W; Rossin, Joseph A; Peterson, Gregory W


    Here we report the removal of chlorine gas from air via a reaction with an amine functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF). It is found that UiO-66-NH2 has the ability to remove 1.24 g of Cl2 per g of MOF via an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction producing HCl, which is subsequently neutralized by the MOF.

  2. Large-pore mesoporous Mn3O4 crystals derived from metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Peng, Li; Zhang, Jianling; Xue, Zhimin; Han, Buxing; Li, Jianshen; Yang, Guanying


    The large-pore mesoporous Mn3O4 crystals with tunable morphologies, size and porosities were synthesized via the conversion of metal-organic frameworks, which were fabricated by utilizing the nanostructural organizations of ionic liquid-water mixtures as templates. Mn3O4 showed high catalytic activity for the degradation of methyl blue in the wastewater treatment.

  3. Catalytic chromium reduction using formic acid and metal nanoparticles immobilized in a metal-organic framework. (United States)

    Yadav, Mahendra; Xu, Qiang


    Highly dispersed metal nanoparticles were immobilized in the pores of a metal-organic framework (MOF), MIL-101, using a double solvents method. The resulting composites were investigated in the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) using formic acid, showing that the Pt and Pd catalysts were active with the Pt nanoparticles immobilized in MOF exhibiting the best performance.

  4. From metal-organic squares to porous zeolite-like supramolecular assemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Shuang


    We report the synthesis, structure, and characterization of two novel porous zeolite-like supramolecular assemblies, ZSA-1 and ZSA-2, having zeolite gis and rho topologies, respectively. The two compounds were assembled from functional metal-organic squares (MOSs) via directional hydrogen-bonding interactions and exhibited permanent microporosity and thermal stability up to 300 °C. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. A near infrared luminescent metal-organic framework for temperature sensing in the physiological range. (United States)

    Lian, Xiusheng; Zhao, Dian; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong


    A near infrared pumped luminescent metal-organic framework thermometer Nd(0.577)Yb(0.423)BDC-F4, with near infrared fluorescence and excellent sensitivity in the physiological temperature range (293-313 K), has been first realized, and might be potentially applied for biomedical systems.

  6. A multifunctional lanthanide metal-organic framework supported by Keggin type polyoxometalates. (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Hua; Zeng, Min; Wang, Juan; Li, Chen-Yang; Tian, Li-Hong; Yin, Jia-Cheng; Liu, Yu-Kun


    A neodymium metal-organic framework with 1D nanotubular channels incorporating Keggin type [SiWWO38](3-) has been synthesized by utilizing pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylic acid as an organic ligand. It represents an unusual polyoxometalate-templated framework with the multifunctionality of magnetism, near-infrared luminescence and the selective adsorption of Rhodamine B dye molecules.

  7. Hybrid Glasses from Strong and Fragile Metal-Organic Framework Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, T.D.; Tan, J.C.; Yue, Yuanzheng


    Hybrid glasses connect the emerging field of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with the glass formation, amorphization and melting processes of these chemically versatile systems. Though inorganic zeolites collapse around the glass transition and melt at higher temperatures, the relationship betwee...

  8. Mechanical grinding of a single-crystalline metal-organic framework triggered emission with tunable violet-to-orange luminescence. (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Ke; Chen, Cheng; Cai, Li-Xuan; Ren, Cai-Xia; Tan, Bin; Zhang, Jie


    A metal-organic framework (MOF) featuring intriguing Borromean entanglement exhibits a unique mechanochromic luminescence with on-off switching. The concomitant excitation wavelength-dependent emission behavior can be utilized to tune the emission color from violet to orange.

  9. Metal-organic extended 2D structures: Fe-PTCDA on Au(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Lucia; Caillard, Renaud; MartIn-Gago, Jose A; Mendez, Javier [Grupo ESISNA, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), c/ Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Pelaez, Samuel; Serena, Pedro A, E-mail: [Grupo de Teoria y Simulacion de Materiales, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), c/ Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)


    In this work we combine organic molecules of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) with iron atoms on an Au (111) substrate in ultra-high vacuum conditions at different temperatures. By means of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) we study the formation of stable 2D metal-organic structures. We show that at certain growth conditions (temperature, time and coverage) stable 'ladder-like' nanostructures are obtained. These are the result of connecting together two metal-organic chains through PTCDA molecules placed perpendicularly, as rungs of a ladder. These structures, stable up to 450 K, can be extended in a 2D layer covering the entire surface and presenting different rotation domains. STM images at both polarities show a contrast reversal between the two molecules at the unit cell. By means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we confirm the stability of these structures and that their molecular orbitals are placed separately at the different molecules.

  10. Chromophore-Based Luminescent Metal-Organic Frameworks as Lighting Phosphors. (United States)

    Lustig, William P; Wang, Fangming; Teat, Simon J; Hu, Zhichao; Gong, Qihan; Li, Jing


    Energy-efficient solid-state-lighting (SSL) technologies are rapidly developing, but the lack of stable, high-performance rare-earth free phosphors may impede the growth of the SSL market. One possible alternative is organic phosphor materials, but these can suffer from lower quantum yields and thermal instability compared to rare-earth phosphors. However, if luminescent organic chromophores can be built into a rigid metal-organic framework, their quantum yields and thermal stability can be greatly improved. This Forum Article discusses the design of a group of such chromophore-based luminescent metal-organic frameworks with exceptionally high performance and rational control of the important parameters that influence their emission properties, including electronic structures of chromophore, coligands, metal ions, and guest molecules.

  11. Nanoscale luminescent lanthanide-based metal-organic frameworks: properties, synthesis, and applications (United States)

    Hu, Dongqin; Song, Yonghai; Wang, Li


    Nanoscale luminescent lanthanide-based metal-organic frameworks (NLLn-MOFs) possess superior optical and physical properties such as higher luminescent lifetime, quantum yield, high stability, high surface area, high agent loading, and intrinsic biodegradability, and therefore are regarded as a novel generation of luminescent material compared with bulk lanthanide-based metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs). Traditional luminescent Ln-MOFs have been well studied; however, NLLn-MOFs taking the advantages of nanomaterials have attracted extensive investigations for applications in optical imaging in living cells, light-harvesting, and sensing. In this review, we provide a survey of the latest progresses made in developing NLLn-MOFs, which contains the fundamental optical features, synthesis, and their potential applications. Finally, the future prospects and challenges of the rapidly growing field are summarized.

  12. Template-Directed Approach Towards the Realization of Ordered Heterogeneity in Bimetallic Metal-Organic Frameworks. (United States)

    Kim, Daeok; Coskun, Ali


    Controlling the arrangement of different metal ions to achieve ordered heterogeneity in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been a great challenge. Herein, we introduce a template-directed approach, in which a 1D metal-organic polymer incorporating well-defined binding pockets for the secondary metal ions used as a structural template and starting material for the preparation of well-ordered bimetallic MOF-74s under heterogeneous-phase hydrothermal reaction conditions in the presence of secondary metal ions such as Ni(2+) and Mg(2+) in 3 h. The resulting bimetallic MOF-74s were found to possess a nearly 1:1 metal ratio regardless of their initial stoichiometry in the reaction mixture, thus demonstrating the possibility of controlling the arrangement of metal ions within the secondary building blocks in MOFs to tune their intrinsic properties such as gas affinity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Metal-organic frameworks: structure, properties, methods of synthesis and characterization (United States)

    Butova, V. V.; Soldatov, M. A.; Guda, A. A.; Lomachenko, K. A.; Lamberti, C.


    This review deals with key methods of synthesis and characterization of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The modular structure affords a wide variety of MOFs with different active metal sites and organic linkers. These compounds represent a new stage of development of porous materials in which the pore size and the active site structure can be modified within wide limits. The set of experimental methods considered in this review is sufficient for studying the short-range and long-range order of the MOF crystal structure, determining the morphology of samples and elucidating the processes that occur at the active metal site in the course of chemical reactions. The interest in metal-organic frameworks results, first of all, from their numerous possible applications, ranging from gas separation and storage to chemical reactions within the pores. The bibliography includes 362 references.

  14. Metal-Organic Framework-Based Nanomedicine Platforms for Drug Delivery and Molecular Imaging. (United States)

    Cai, Wen; Chu, Cheng-Chao; Liu, Gang; Wáng, Yì-Xiáng J


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which are a unique class of hybrid porous materials built from metal ions and organic linkers, have attracted significant research interest in recent years. Compared with conventional porous materials, MOFs exhibit a variety of advantages, including a large surface area, a tunable pore size and shape, an adjustable composition and structure, biodegradability, and versatile functionalities, which enable MOFs to perform as promising platforms for drug delivery, molecular imaging, and theranostic applications. In this article, the recent research progress related to nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) is summarized with a focus on synthesis strategies and drug delivery, molecular imaging, and theranostic applications. The future challenges and opportunities of NMOFs are also discussed in the context of translational medical research. More effort is warranted to develop clinically translatable NMOFs for various applications in nanomedicine. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Pore Space Partition in Metal-Organic Frameworks. (United States)

    Zhai, Quan-Guo; Bu, Xianhui; Zhao, Xiang; Li, Dong-Sheng; Feng, Pingyun


    Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials have emerged as one of the favorite crystalline porous materials (CPM) because of their compositional and geometric tunability and many possible applications. In efforts to develop better MOFs for gas storage and separation, a number of strategies including creation of open metal sites and implantation of Lewis base sites have been used to tune host-guest interactions. In addition to these chemical factors, the geometric features such as pore size and shape, surface area, and pore volume also play important roles in sorption energetics and uptake capacity. For efficient capture of small gas molecules such as carbon dioxide under ambient conditions, large surface area or high pore volume are often not needed. Instead, maximizing host-guest interactions or the density of binding sites by encaging gas molecules in snug pockets of pore space can be a fruitful approach. To put this concept into practice, the pore space partition (PSP) concept has been proposed and has achieved a great experimental success. In this account, we will highlight many efforts to implement PSP in MOFs and impact of PSP on gas uptake performance. In the synthetic design of PSP, it is helpful to distinguish between factors that contribute to the framework formation and factors that serve the purpose of PSP. Because of the need for complementary structural roles, the synthesis of MOFs with PSP often involves multicomponent systems including mixed ligands, mixed inorganic nodes, or both. It is possible to accomplish both framework formation and PSP with a single type of polyfunctional ligands that use some functional groups (called framework-forming group) for framework formation and the remaining functional groups (called pore-partition group) for PSP. Alternatively, framework formation and PSP can be shouldered by different chemical species. For example, in a mixed-ligand system, one ligand (called framework-forming agent) can play the role of the

  16. Homochiral helical metal-organic frameworks of group 1 metals. (United States)

    Reger, Daniel L; Leitner, Andrew; Smith, Mark D; Tran, T Thao; Halasyamani, P Shiv


    The reactions of (S)-2-(1,8-naphthalimido)propanoic acid (HL(ala)) and (S)-2-(1,8-naphthalimido)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid (HL(ser)), protonated forms of ligands that contain a carboxylate donor group, an enantiopure chiral center, and a 1,8-naphthalimide π···π stacking supramolecular tecton and in the case of HL(ser) an alcohol functional group, with the appropriate alkali metal hydroxide followed by a variety of crystallization methods leads to the formation of crystalline K(L(ala))(MeOH) (1), K(L(ala))(H2O) (2), Na(L(ala))(H2O) (3), KL(ser) (4), CsL(ser) (5), and CsL(ala) (6). Each of these new complexes has a solid state structure based on six-coordinate metals linked into homochiral helical rod secondary building unit (SBU) central cores. In addition to the bonding of the carboxylate and solvent (in the case of L(ser) the ligand alcohol) to the metals, both oxygens on the 1,8-naphthalimide act as donor groups. One naphthalimide oxygen bonds to the same helical rod SBU as the carboxylate group of that ligand forming a chelate ring. The other naphthalimide oxygen bonds to adjacent SBUs. In complexes 1-3, this inter-rod link has a square arrangement bonding four other rods forming a three-dimensional enantiopure metal-organic framework (MOF) structure, whereas in 4-6 this link has a linear arrangement bonding two other rods forming a two-dimensional, sheet structure. In the latter case, the third dimension is supported exclusively by interdigitated π···π stacking interactions of the naphthalimide supramolecular tecton, forming enantiopure supramolecular MOF solids. Compounds 1-3 lose the coordinated solvent when heating above 100 °C. For 1, the polycrystalline powder reverts to 1 only by recrystallization from methanol, whereas compounds 2 and 3 undergo gas/solid, single-crystal to single-crystal transformations to form dehydrated compounds 2* and 3*, and rehydration occurs when crystals of these new complexes are left out in air. The reversible single

  17. Solid-state NMR: a powerful tool for characterization of metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Sutrisno, Andre; Huang, Yining


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new type of porous materials with numerous current and potential applications in many areas including ion-exchange, catalysis, sensing, separation, molecular recognition, drug delivery and, in particular, gas storage. Solid-state NMR (SSNMR) has played a pivotal role in structural characterization and understanding of host-guest interactions in MOFs. This article provides an overview on application of SSNMR to MOF systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Metal-Organic Framework-Stabilized CO2/Water Interfacial Route for Photocatalytic CO2Conversion. (United States)

    Luo, Tian; Zhang, Jianling; Li, Wei; He, Zhenhong; Sun, Xiaofu; Shi, Jinbiao; Shao, Dan; Zhang, Bingxing; Tan, Xiuniang; Han, Buxing


    Here, we propose a CO 2 /water interfacial route for photocatalytic CO 2 conversion by utilizing a metal-organic framework (MOF) as both an emulsifier and a catalyst. The CO 2 reduction occurring at the CO 2 /water interface produces formate with remarkably enhanced efficiency as compared with that in conventional solvent. The route is efficient, facile, adjustable, and environmentally benign, which is applicable for the CO 2 transformation photocatalyzed by different kinds of MOFs.

  19. Biomimetic Replication of Microscopic Metal-Organic Framework Patterns Using Printed Protein Patterns. (United States)

    Liang, Kang; Carbonell, Carlos; Styles, Mark J; Ricco, Raffaele; Cui, Jiwei; Richardson, Joseph J; Maspoch, Daniel; Caruso, Frank; Falcaro, Paolo


    It is demonstrated that metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can be replicated in a biomimetic fashion from protein patterns. Bendable, fluorescent MOF patterns are formed with micrometer resolution under ambient conditions. Furthermore, this technique is used to grow MOF patterns from fingerprint residue in 30 s with high fidelity. This technique is not only relevant for crime-scene investigation, but also for biomedical applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Chromophore-Based Luminescent Metal-Organic Frameworks as Lighting Phosphors


    Lustig, WP; Wang, F; Teat, SJ; Hu, Z; Gong, Q; Li, J


    © 2016 American Chemical Society.Energy-efficient solid-state-lighting (SSL) technologies are rapidly developing, but the lack of stable, high-performance rare-earth free phosphors may impede the growth of the SSL market. One possible alternative is organic phosphor materials, but these can suffer from lower quantum yields and thermal instability compared to rare-earth phosphors. However, if luminescent organic chromophores can be built into a rigid metal-organic framework, their quantum yiel...

  1. Modular assembly of metal-organic super-containers incorporating calixarenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhenqiang; Dai, Feng-Rong


    A new strategy to design container molecules is presented. Sulfonylcalix[4]arenes, which are synthetic macrocyclic containers, are used as building blocks that are combined with various metal ions and tricarboxylate ligands to construct metal-organic `super-containers` (MOSCs). These MOSCs possess both endo and exo cavities and thus mimic the structure of viruses. The synthesis of MOSCs is highly modular, robust, and predictable.

  2. Modulated synthesis of chromium-based metal-organic framework (MIL-101) with enhanced hydrogen uptake

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei


    Full Text Available -1 International Journal of Hydrogen Energy Vol. 39(23) Modulated synthesis of chromium-based metalorganic framework (MIL-101) with enhanced hydrogen uptake Jianwei Ren a,*, Nicholas M. Musyoka a, Henrietta W. Langmi a, Tshiamo Segakweng a, Brian C. North... a, Mkhulu Mathe a, Xiangdong Kang b a HySA Infrastructure Centre of Competence, Materials Science and Manufacturing, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa b Shenyang National Laboratory...

  3. Metal-Organic Covalent Network Chemical Vapor Deposition for Gas Separation. (United States)

    Boscher, Nicolas D; Wang, Minghui; Perrotta, Alberto; Heinze, Katja; Creatore, Mariadriana; Gleason, Karen K


    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) polymerization of metalloporphyrin building units is demonstrated to provide an easily up-scalable one-step method toward the deposition of a new class of dense and defect-free metal-organic covalent network (MOCN) layers. The resulting hyper-thin and flexible MOCN layers exhibit outstanding gas-separation performances for multiple gas pairs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Photoswitchable nanoporous films by loading azobenzene in metal-organic frameworks of type HKUST-1. (United States)

    Müller, Kai; Wadhwa, Jasmine; Singh Malhi, Jasleen; Schöttner, Ludger; Welle, Alexander; Schwartz, Heidi; Hermann, Daniela; Ruschewitz, Uwe; Heinke, Lars


    Photoswitchable metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) enable the dynamic remote control of their key properties. Here, a readily producible approach is presented where photochromic molecules, i.e. azobenzene (AB) and o-tetrafluoroazobenzene (tfAB), are loaded in MOF films of type HKUST-1. These nanoporous films, which can be reversibly switched with UV/visible or only visible light, have remote-controllable guest uptake properties.

  5. A microporous metal-organic framework for selective C2H2 and CO2 separation (United States)

    Lin, Rong-Guang; Lin, Rui-Biao; Chen, Banglin


    A quartzlike metal-organic framework with interesting one dimensional channel has been synthesized. It exhibits considerable acetylene and carbon dioxide uptake of 41.5 and 24.6 cm3 g-1, respectively, and relatively high selectivity for separation of C2H2/C2H4, C2H2/CH4, CO2/CH4 and CO2/N2 at ambient condition.

  6. Investigations of Electron Transport Properties in Metal-Organic Frameworks for Catalytic Applications


    Ahrenholtz, Spencer Rae


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted much attention in the past few decades due to their ordered, crystalline nature, synthetic tunability, and porosity. MOFs represent a class of hybrid inorganic-organic materials that have been investigated for their applications in areas such as gas sorption and separation, catalysis, drug delivery, and electron or proton conduction. It has been the goal of my graduate research to investigate MOFs for their ability to transport electrons and stor...

  7. Metal?Organic Framework Supported Cobalt Catalysts for the Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane at Low Temperature


    Li, Zhanyong; Peters, Aaron W.; Bernales, Varinia; Ortu?o, Manuel A; Schweitzer, Neil M.; Destefano, Matthew R.; Gallington, Leighanne C; Platero-Prats, Ana E.; Chapman, Karena W; Cramer, Christopher J.; Gagliardi, Laura; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.


    Zr-based metal?organic frameworks (MOFs) have been shown to be excellent catalyst supports in heterogeneous catalysis due to their exceptional stability. Additionally, their crystalline nature affords the opportunity for molecular level characterization of both the support and the catalytically active site, facilitating mechanistic investigations of the catalytic process. We describe herein the installation of Co(II) ions to the Zr6 nodes of the mesoporous MOF, NU-1000, via two distinct route...

  8. Supramolecular structures and metal-organic frameworks based on metal dipyrrin building blocks


    Halper, Sara R.


    Metal dipyrrin complexes have the potential to be incorporated into a variety of supramolecular systems and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Despite their potential, limited work has been done to study simple meso- substituted dipyrrin metal complexes for their use in supramolecular systems; therefore, dipyrrin ligands and metal complexes have been synthesized and studied. Metal dipyrrin complexes were prepared containing copper(II), iron(III), or cobalt(III) metal centers. Phenylacetylene sp...



    Prapti Rahayu; Witri Wahyu Lestari


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous coordination polymer containing bi-or polidentate organic linker coordinated with inorganic part, such as metal oxide cluster or metal cation as node which called as secondary building unit (SBU) to form infinite structure. Due to high porosity and surface area, good thermal stability as well as the availability of unsaturated metal center or the linker influence attracts the interaction with gases, thus MOFs have potential to be applied as hydrogen ...

  10. Variation of Pore Metrics in Metal-Organic Frameworks for Enhanced Storage and Catalytic Applications


    Brown, Jonathan Ward


    With the principles of reticular chemistry, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)with enhanced storage and catalytic capabilities have been prepared. This dissertationpresents the synthesis of azo-IRMOF-74-III for controllable release of cargomolecules as well as the catalytic testing of MOF-525-Mn and an isoreticular seriesof MOFs based on the MOF-5 framework. The variation of pore metrics inthese frameworks show the versatility of reticular chemistry and their applicationin catalytic reactions.Fi...

  11. Construction of hierarchically porous metal?organic frameworks through linker labilization


    Yuan, Shuai; Zou, Lanfang; Qin, Jun-Sheng; Li, Jialuo; Huang, Lan; Feng, Liang; Wang, Xuan; Bosch, Mathieu; Alsalme, Ali; Cagin, Tahir; Zhou, Hong-Cai


    A major goal of metal?organic framework (MOF) research is the expansion of pore size and volume. Although many approaches have been attempted to increase the pore size of MOF materials, it is still a challenge to construct MOFs with precisely customized pore apertures for specific applications. Herein, we present a new method, namely linker labilization, to increase the MOF porosity and pore size, giving rise to hierarchical-pore architectures. Microporous MOFs with robust metal nodes and pro...

  12. Electrically Induced Breathing of the MIL-53(Cr) Metal?Organic Framework


    Ghoufi, Aziz; BENHAMED, Karima; Boukli-Hacene, Leila; Maurin, Guillaume


    The breathing behavior of the MIL-53(Cr) metal?organic framework (MOF) has been explored previously upon guest-adsorption and thermal and mechanical stimuli. Here, advanced molecular simulations based on the use of an accurate force field to describe the flexibility of this porous framework demonstrate that the application of an electrical field induces the structural switching of this MOF leading to a first-order transition and a volume change of more than 40%. This motivated us to electrica...

  13. Molecular simulation studies of gas adsorption and separation in metalorganic frameworks


    Zoroufchian Moghadam, Peyman; Moghadam, Peyman Zoroufchian


    Adsorption in porous materials plays a significant role in industrial separation processes. Here, the host-guest interaction and the pore shape influence the distribution of products. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising materials for separation purposes as their diversity due to their building block synthesis from metal corners and organic linker gives rise to a wide range of porous structures. The selectivity differs from MOF to MOF as the size and shapes of their po...

  14. Collaborative interactions to enhance gas binding energy in porous metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Lin, Rui-Biao; Chen, Banglin


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are potentially useful materials for hydrogen and methane storage. However, the weak interactions between the MOF host and gas guest molecules have limited their storage capacities at elevated temperatures. In this issue, Alkordi et al. [IUCrJ (2017), 4, 131-135] illustrate an example of a porous MOF with a suitable pore size and unique pore surface for enhanced interaction with hydrogen molecules, providing the promise of further increasing the gas binding affinity through collaborative interactions.

  15. Bimetallic Metal-Organic Frameworks for Controlled Catalytic Graphitization of Nanoporous Carbons


    Jing Tang; Rahul R. Salunkhe; Huabin Zhang; Victor Malgras; Tansir Ahamad; Alshehri, Saad M.; Naoya Kobayashi; Satoshi Tominaka; Yusuke Ide; Jung Ho Kim; Yusuke Yamauchi


    Single metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), constructed from the coordination between one-fold metal ions and organic linkers, show limited functionalities when used as precursors for nanoporous carbon materials. Herein, we propose to merge the advantages of zinc and cobalt metals ions into one single MOF crystal (i.e., bimetallic MOFs). The organic linkers that coordinate with cobalt ions tend to yield graphitic carbons after carbonization, unlike those bridging with zinc ions, due to the contro...

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Surface Mounted Chiral Metal-Organic Frameworks


    Gu, Zhi-Gang


    Chiral surface mounted metal-organic frameworks (SURMOFs), composed of metal ions and chiral organic ligands, have been grown on functionalized substrates and studied in this thesis. On one hand, the impact of the pore size of the chiral SURMOF on the enantioselectivity has been investigated in this thesis. On the other hand, oriented circular dichroism (OCD) was chosen as a tool to investigate the chirality and enantioselective separation property of chiral SURMOFs.

  17. Studies on Metal-Organic Frameworks of Cu(II) with Isophthalate Linkers for Hydrogen Storage


    Yan, Yong; Yang, Sihai; Blake, Alexander J.; Schröder, Martin


    Hydrogen (H2) is a promising alternative energy carrier due to its environmental benefits, high energy density and its abundance. However, development of a practical storage system to enable the “Hydrogen Economy” remains a huge challenge. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an important class of crystalline coordination polymers constructed by bridging metal centers with organic linkers, and show promise for H2 storage due to their high surface area and tuneable properties. We summarize our ...

  18. Effective Detection of Mycotoxins by a Highly Luminescent Metal-Organic Framework


    Hu, Z; Lustig, WP; Zhang, J; Zheng, C; Wang, H; Teat, SJ; Gong, Q; Rudd, ND; Li, J


    © 2015 American Chemical Society.We designed and synthesized a new luminescent metal-organic framework (LMOF). LMOF-241 is highly porous and emits strong blue light with high efficiency. We demonstrate for the first time that very fast and extremely sensitive optical detection can be achieved, making use of the fluorescence quenching of an LMOF material. The compound is responsive to Aflatoxin B1 at parts per billion level, which makes it the best performing luminescence-based chemical sensor...

  19. Capture of organic iodides from nuclear waste by metal-organic framework-based molecular traps. (United States)

    Li, Baiyan; Dong, Xinglong; Wang, Hao; Ma, Dingxuan; Tan, Kui; Jensen, Stephanie; Deibert, Benjamin J; Butler, Joseph; Cure, Jeremy; Shi, Zhan; Thonhauser, Timo; Chabal, Yves J; Han, Yu; Li, Jing


    Effective capture of radioactive organic iodides from nuclear waste remains a significant challenge due to the drawbacks of current adsorbents such as low uptake capacity, high cost, and non-recyclability. We report here a general approach to overcome this challenge by creating radioactive organic iodide molecular traps through functionalization of metal-organic framework materials with tertiary amine-binding sites. The molecular trap exhibits a high CH 3 I saturation uptake capacity of 71 wt% at 150 °C, which is more than 340% higher than the industrial adsorbent Ag 0 @MOR under identical conditions. These functionalized metal-organic frameworks also serve as good adsorbents at low temperatures. Furthermore, the resulting adsorbent can be recycled multiple times without loss of capacity, making recyclability a reality. In combination with its chemical and thermal stability, high capture efficiency and low cost, the adsorbent demonstrates promise for industrial radioactive organic iodides capture from nuclear waste. The capture mechanism was investigated by experimental and theoretical methods.Capturing radioactive organic iodides from nuclear waste is important for safe nuclear energy usage, but remains a significant challenge. Here, Li and co-workers fabricate a stable metal-organic framework functionalized with tertiary amine groups that exhibits high capacities for radioactive organic iodides uptake.

  20. Metal-organic aerogel as a coating for solid-phase microextraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraji, Mohammad, E-mail:; Shahvar, Ali


    An iron-based metal-organic aerogel was synthesized using metal-organic framework nanoparticles and applied as a fiber coating for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Chemical, thermal and morphological characteristics of the material were investigated. Headspace SPME followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection was used for the determination of chlorobenzenes in the environmental samples. The key experimental factors affecting the extraction efficiency of the analytes, such as ionic strength, extraction and desorption temperature, and extraction time were investigated and optimized. The applicability of the coating for the extraction of chlorobenzenes from the environmental samples including river and tap water, sludge, and coastal soil was evaluated. The detection limits were in the range of 0.1–60 ng L{sup −1}. The relative standard deviations were between 2.0 and 5.0%. The extraction recovery of the analytes was in the range of 88–100%. Compared to the commercial PDMS fiber, the present fiber showed better extraction efficiency. - Highlights: • Metal-organic aerogel was synthesized and used as a novel fiber coating for SPME. • The new coating material showed high surface area and good thermal stability. • GC-ECD was used for determination of chlorobenzenes in environmental samples. • The method showed fast extraction and better efficiency than PDMS commercial fiber.

  1. Ultrathin metal-organic framework array for efficient electrocatalytic water splitting (United States)

    Duan, Jingjing; Chen, Sheng; Zhao, Chuan


    Two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks represent a family of materials with attractive chemical and structural properties, which are usually prepared in the form of bulk powders. Here we show a generic approach to fabricate ultrathin nanosheet array of metal-organic frameworks on different substrates through a dissolution-crystallization mechanism. These materials exhibit intriguing properties for electrocatalysis including highly exposed active molecular metal sites owning to ultra-small thickness of nanosheets, improved electrical conductivity and a combination of hierarchical porosity. We fabricate a nickel-iron-based metal-organic framework array, which demonstrates superior electrocatalytic performance towards oxygen evolution reaction with a small overpotential of 240 mV at 10 mA cm-2, and robust operation for 20,000 s with no detectable activity decay. Remarkably, the turnover frequency of the electrode is 3.8 s-1 at an overpotential of 400 mV. We further demonstrate the promise of these electrodes for other important catalytic reactions including hydrogen evolution reaction and overall water splitting.

  2. Nano-Biohybrids: In Vivo Synthesis of Metal-Organic Frameworks inside Living Plants. (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph J; Liang, Kang


    Plants have a complex passive fluid transport system capable of internalizing small molecules from the environment, and this system offers an ideal route for augmenting plants with functional nanomaterials. Current plant augmentation techniques use pre-formed nanomaterials and permeabilizing agents or plant cuttings. A so far unexplored concept is the formation of the functional material, in situ, from precursors small enough to be passively internalized through the roots without harming the plants. Metal-organic frameworks are ideal for in situ synthesis as they are composed of metal ions coordinated with organic ligands and have recently been mineralized around single-celled organisms in mild aqueous conditions. Herein, the synthesis of two types of metal-organic frameworks, zinc(2-methylimidazole) 2 and lanthanide 2 (terephthalate) 3 , are reported inside a variety of plants. In situ synchrotron experiments help elucidate the formation kinetics and crystal phases of the nano-biohybrid plants. Plants augmented with luminescent metal-organic frameworks are utilized for small molecule sensing, although other applications, such as pathogen sensing, proton conductive plants, improved CO 2 capture, bacteria-free nitrogen fixation, drought and fungi-resistance, and enhanced photosynthesis and photocatalysis, are foreseeable. Overall, the generation of functional materials inside of fully intact plants could lead to more complex nano-biohybrid sensors and organisms augmented with superior performance characteristics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Hybrid metal-organic chalcogenide nanowires with electrically conductive inorganic core through diamondoid-directed assembly (United States)

    Yan, Hao; Hohman, J. Nathan; Li, Fei Hua; Jia, Chunjing; Solis-Ibarra, Diego; Wu, Bin; Dahl, Jeremy E. P.; Carlson, Robert M. K.; Tkachenko, Boryslav A.; Fokin, Andrey A.; Schreiner, Peter R.; Vailionis, Arturas; Kim, Taeho Roy; Devereaux, Thomas P.; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Melosh, Nicholas A.


    Controlling inorganic structure and dimensionality through structure-directing agents is a versatile approach for new materials synthesis that has been used extensively for metal-organic frameworks and coordination polymers. However, the lack of `solid’ inorganic cores requires charge transport through single-atom chains and/or organic groups, limiting their electronic properties. Here, we report that strongly interacting diamondoid structure-directing agents guide the growth of hybrid metal-organic chalcogenide nanowires with solid inorganic cores having three-atom cross-sections, representing the smallest possible nanowires. The strong van der Waals attraction between diamondoids overcomes steric repulsion leading to a cis configuration at the active growth front, enabling face-on addition of precursors for nanowire elongation. These nanowires have band-like electronic properties, low effective carrier masses and three orders-of-magnitude conductivity modulation by hole doping. This discovery highlights a previously unexplored regime of structure-directing agents compared with traditional surfactant, block copolymer or metal-organic framework linkers.

  4. Capture of organic iodides from nuclear waste by metal-organic framework-based molecular traps

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baiyan


    Effective capture of radioactive organic iodides from nuclear waste remains a significant challenge due to the drawbacks of current adsorbents such as low uptake capacity, high cost, and non-recyclability. We report here a general approach to overcome this challenge by creating radioactive organic iodide molecular traps through functionalization of metal-organic framework materials with tertiary amine-binding sites. The molecular trap exhibits a high CH3I saturation uptake capacity of 71 wt% at 150 °C, which is more than 340% higher than the industrial adsorbent Ag0@MOR under identical conditions. These functionalized metal-organic frameworks also serve as good adsorbents at low temperatures. Furthermore, the resulting adsorbent can be recycled multiple times without loss of capacity, making recyclability a reality. In combination with its chemical and thermal stability, high capture efficiency and low cost, the adsorbent demonstrates promise for industrial radioactive organic iodides capture from nuclear waste. The capture mechanism was investigated by experimental and theoretical methods.Capturing radioactive organic iodides from nuclear waste is important for safe nuclear energy usage, but remains a significant challenge. Here, Li and co-workers fabricate a stable metal-organic framework functionalized with tertiary amine groups that exhibits high capacities for radioactive organic iodides uptake.

  5. Surfactant-thermal method to prepare two new cobalt metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xianglin [School of Materials Science and Engineering and School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Process of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmacy, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Toh, Yong Siang [School of Materials Science and Engineering and School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Zhao, Jun [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hubei Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for New Energy Microgrid, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Nie, Lina [School of Materials Science and Engineering and School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ye, Kaiqi; Wang, Yue [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Dongsheng [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Hubei Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for New Energy Microgrid, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Zhang, Qichun, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering and School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Division of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)


    Employing surfactants as reaction media, two new metal-organic frameworks (MOFs):(HTEA){sub 3}[Co{sub 3}(BTC){sub 3}] (NTU-Z33) and (HTEA)[Co{sub 3}(HBTC){sub 2}(BTC)] (NTU-Z34) (H{sub 3}BTC=1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid, TEA=trimethylamine, and NTU=Nanyang Technological University), have been successfully synthesized and fully characterized. Note that NTU-Z33 has an unusual trimeric [Co{sub 3}(COO){sub 9}] secondary building unit (SBU). Magnetic characterization suggests that both compounds have weak antiferromagnetic behaviors. Our success in preparing new crystalline Co-BTC based MOFs under different surfactant media could provide a new road to prepare new diverse MOFs through various combinations of surfactants. - Graphical abstract: Employing surfactants as reaction media, two new metal-organic frame-works (MOFs) have been successfully synthesized and magnetic study suggests that both compounds have weak antiferromagnetic behaviors. - Highlights: • Two novel metal-organic frame-works (MOFs). • Synthesis through surfactant-thermal condition. • weak antiferromagnetic behaviors for both compounds.

  6. Metal-organic frameworks as functional, porous materials (United States)

    Rood, Jeffrey A.

    The research presented in this thesis investigates the use of metal carboxylates as permanently porous materials called metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The project has focused on three broad areas of study, each which strives to develop a further understanding of this class of materials. The first topic is concerned with the synthesis and structural characterization of MOFs. Our group and others have found that the reaction of metal salts with carboxylic acids in polar solvents at elevated temperatures often leads the formation of crystalline MOF materials that can be examined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Specifically, Chapter 2 reports on some of the first examples of magnesium MOFs, constructed from formate or aryldicarboxylate ligands. The magnesium formate MOF, [Mg3(O2CH) 6] was found to be a permanently porous 3-D material capable of selective uptake and exchange of small molecules. Once the synthesis and structures of some of these materials was known, their physical properties were studied. The magnesium formate MOF, [Mg 3(O2CH)6], was found to be permanently porous and able to reversibly adsorb both N2 and H2 gas. Furthermore, the material was also capable of taking up a variety of organic molecules to form new inclusion compounds that were characterized by XRD studies. Size exclusion was shown for cyclohexane and larger molecules. Chapters 3, 5, and 6 attempt to build off of the synthetic findings reported in Chapter 2. Specifically, the ability of these materials to take up guest molecules is expanded by the attempted synthesis of porous, homochiral MOFs using enantiopure carboxylic acids in the synthesis. It was found that under the appropriate synthetic conditions, both L-tartaric acid and (+)-camphoric acid were robust linkers for the formation of homochiral MOFs. Of the compounds synthesized, the most interesting were the set of compounds, [Zn2(Cam) 2(bipy)⊃3DMF] and [Zn2(Cam)2(apyr)⊃2DMF]. These compounds formed isoreticular cubic

  7. Facile preparation of hierarchically porous carbons from metal-organic gels and their application in energy storage (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Qiu, Bin; Xia, Dingguo; Zou, Ruqiang


    Porous carbon materials have numerous applications due to their thermal and chemical stability, high surface area and low densities. However, conventional preparing porous carbon through zeolite or silica templates casting has been criticized by the costly and/or toxic procedure. Creating three-dimensional (3D) carbon products is another challenge. Here, we report a facile way to prepare porous carbons from metal-organic gel (MOG) template, an extended metal-organic framework (MOF) structure. We surprisingly found that the carbon products inherit the highly porous nature of MOF and combine with gel's integrated character, which results in hierarchical porous architectures with ultrahigh surface areas and quite large pore volumes. They exhibit considerable hydrogen uptake and excellent electrochemical performance as cathode material for lithium-sulfur battery. This work provides a general method to fast and clean synthesis of porous carbon materials and opens new avenues for the application of metal-organic gel in energy storage.

  8. Preparation of value-added metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) using waste PET bottles as source of acid linker

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dyosiba, Xoliswa


    Full Text Available of Value-added Metal-organic Frameworks (MOFs) Using Waste PET Bottles as Source of Acid Linker Xoliswa Dyosiba, Jianwei Ren, Nicholas M. Musyoka, Henrietta W. Langmi, Mkhulu Mathe, Maurice S. Onyango PII: S2214-9937(16)30053-7 DOI: doi:10.1016/j..., Hen- rietta W. Langmi, Mkhulu Mathe, Maurice S. Onyango, Preparation of Value-added Metal-organic Frameworks (MOFs) Using Waste PET Bottles as Source of Acid Linker, Sustainable Materials and Technologies (2016), doi:10.1016/j.susmat.2016...

  9. Nanoscale Fluorescent Metal-Organic Framework@Microporous Organic Polymer Composites for Enhanced Intracellular Uptake and Bioimaging. (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Weiqi; Zheng, Xiaohua; Li, Zhensheng; Xie, Zhigang


    Polymer-modified metal-organic frameworks combine the advantages of both soft polymers and crystalline metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). It is a big challenge to develop simple methods for surface modification of MOFs. In this work, MOF@microporous organic polymer (MOP) hybrid nanoparticles (UNP) have been synthesized by epitaxial growth of luminescent boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPYs)-imine MOPs on the surface of UiO-MOF seeds, which exhibit low cytotoxicity, smaller size distribution, well-retained pore integrity, and available functional sites. After folic acid grafting, the enhanced intracellular uptake and bioimaging was validated. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A novel metal-organic framework for high storage and separation of acetylene at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Xing, E-mail: [College of Materials & Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wang, Huizhen [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Ji, Zhenguo [College of Materials & Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Qian, Guodong, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)


    A novel 3D microporous metal-organic framework with NbO topology, [Cu{sub 2}(L)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]∙(DMF){sub 6}·(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (ZJU-10, ZJU = Zhejiang University; H{sub 4}L =2′-hydroxy-[1,1′:4′,1″-terphenyl]-3,3″,5,5″-tetracarboxylic acid; DMF =N,N-dimethylformamide), has been synthesized and structurally characterized. With suitable pore sizes and open Cu{sup 2+} sites, ZJU-10a exhibits high BET surface area of 2392 m{sup 2}/g, as well as moderately high C{sub 2}H{sub 2} volumetric uptake capacity of 132 cm{sup 3}/cm{sup 3}. Meanwhile, ZJU-10a is a promising porous material for separation of acetylene from methane and carbon dioxide gas mixtures at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: A new NbO-type microporous metal-organic framework ZJU-10 with suitable pore size and open Cu{sup 2+} sites was synthesized to realize the strong interaction with acetylene molecules, which can separate the acetylene from methane and carbon dioxane gas mixtures at room temperature. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A novel 3D NbO-type microporous metal-organic framework ZJU-10 was solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. • ZJU-10a exhibits high BET surface area of 2392 m{sup 2}/g. • ZJU-10a shows a moderately high C{sub 2}H{sub 2} gravimetric (volumetric) uptake capacity of 174 (132) cm{sup 3}/g at 298 K and 1 bar. • ZJU-10a can separate acetylene from methane and carbon dioxide gas mixtures at room temperature.

  11. Dubinin-Astakhov model for acetylene adsorption on metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Peifu; Hu, Yun Hang, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: It was demonstrated that Dubinin-Astakhov equation can be exploited as a general isotherm model for C2H2 adsorption on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), including MOF-5, ZIF-8, HKUST-1, and MIL-53. - Highlights: • Dubinin-Astakhov equation is demonstrated to be a general model for C{sub 2}H{sub 2} adsorption on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). • Surface areas obtained with Dubinin-Astakhov equation from C{sub 2}H{sub 2} adsorption on MOFs are consistent with BET surface areas from N{sub 2} adsorption. • C{sub 2}H{sub 2} on MOF-5, ZIF-8, and MIL-53 is a physical adsorption, whereas its adsorption on HKUST-1 is due to a chemical bonding. - Abstract: Acetylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}) is explosive at a pressure above 29 psi, causing a safety issue for its storage and applications. C{sub 2}H{sub 2} adsorption on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been explored to solve the issue. However, a suitable isotherm equation for C{sub 2}H{sub 2} adsorption on various MOFs has not been found. In this paper, it was demonstrated that Dubinin-Astakhov equation can be exploited as a general isotherm model to depict C{sub 2}H{sub 2} adsorption on MOF-5, ZIF-8, HKUST-1, and MIL-53. In contrast, commonly used Langmuir and BET models exhibited their inapplicability for C{sub 2}H{sub 2} adsorption on those MOFs.

  12. Copper-Based Metal-Organic Porous Materials for CO2 Electrocatalytic Reduction to Alcohols. (United States)

    Albo, Jonathan; Vallejo, Daniel; Beobide, Garikoitz; Castillo, Oscar; Castaño, Pedro; Irabien, Angel


    The electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 has been investigated using four Cu-based metal-organic porous materials supported on gas diffusion electrodes, namely, (1) HKUST-1 metal-organic framework (MOF), [Cu3 (μ6 -C9 H3 O6 )2 ]n ; (2) CuAdeAce MOF, [Cu3 (μ3 -C5 H4 N5 )2 ]n ; (3) CuDTA mesoporous metal-organic aerogel (MOA), [Cu(μ-C2 H2 N2 S2 )]n ; and (4) CuZnDTA MOA, [Cu0.6 Zn0.4 (μ-C2 H2 N2 S2 )]n . The electrodes show relatively high surface areas, accessibilities, and exposure of the Cu catalytic centers as well as favorable electrocatalytic CO2 reduction performance, that is, they have a high efficiency for the production of methanol and ethanol in the liquid phase. The maximum cumulative Faradaic efficiencies for CO2 conversion at HKUST-1-, CuAdeAce-, CuDTA-, and CuZnDTA-based electrodes are 15.9, 1.2, 6, and 9.9 %, respectively, at a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) , an electrolyte-flow/area ratio of 3 mL min cm(-2) , and a gas-flow/area ratio of 20 mL min cm(-2) . We can correlate these observations with the structural features of the electrodes. Furthermore, HKUST-1- and CuZnDTA-based electrodes show stable electrocatalytic performance for 17 and 12 h, respectively. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Nanosizing a Metal-Organic Framework Enzyme Carrier for Accelerating Nerve Agent Hydrolysis. (United States)

    Li, Peng; Moon, Su-Young; Guelta, Mark A; Lin, Lu; Gómez-Gualdrón, Diego A; Snurr, Randall Q; Harvey, Steven P; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K


    We report the synthesis and characterization of a water-stable zirconium metal-organic framework (MOF), NU-1003, featuring the largest mesoporous aperture known for a zirconium MOF. This material has been used to immobilize the nerve agent hydrolyzing enzyme, organophosphorus acid anhydrolase (OPAA). The catalytic efficiency of immobilized OPAA in nanosized NU-1003 is significantly increased compared to that of OPAA immobilized in microsized NU-1003 and even exceeds that of the free OPAA enzyme. This paper highlights a method for rapid and highly efficient hydrolysis of nerve agents using nanosized enzyme carriers.

  14. Bistable Dithienylethene-Based Metal-Organic Framework Illustrating Optically Induced Changes in Chemical Separations. (United States)

    Furlong, Brandon J; Katz, Michael J


    Dithienylethene-containing molecules have been examined due to their photoswitching capabilities. We have prepared a bistable, optically triggered, metal-organic framework (MOF) containing a dithienylethene moiety that was synthesized and characterized. The advantage of this material is that, unlike other dithienylethene-containing MOFs, the properties of the pore can be changed via an optical trigger without the potential risk of structural damage to the framework. We illustrate the application of this MOF to chemical separations. With this class of materials, optically triggered conductivity, chemical storage and release, and sensing are possible.

  15. Metal-organic frameworks as competitive materials for non-linear optics. (United States)

    Mingabudinova, L R; Vinogradov, V V; Milichko, V A; Hey-Hawkins, E; Vinogradov, A V


    The last five years have witnessed a huge breakthrough in the creation and the study of the properties of a new class of compounds - metamaterials. The next stage of this technological revolution will be the development of active, controllable, and non-linear metamaterials, surpassing natural media as platforms for optical data processing and quantum information applications. However, scientists are constantly faced with the need to find new methods that can ensure the formation of quantum and non-linear metamaterials with higher resolution. One such method of producing metamaterials in the future, which will provide scalability and availability, is chemical synthesis. Meanwhile, the chemical synthesis of organized 3D structures with a period of a few nanometers and a size of up to a few millimeters is not an easy task and is yet to be resolved. The most promising avenue seems to be the use of highly porous structures based on metal-organic frameworks that have demonstrated their unique properties in the field of non-linear optics (NLO) over the past three years. Thus, the aim of this review is to examine current progress and the possibilities of using metal-organic frameworks in the field of non-linear optics as chemically obtained metamaterials of the future. The review begins by presenting the theoretical principles of physical phenomena represented by mathematical descriptions for clarity. Major attention is paid to the second harmonic generation (SHG) effect. In this section we compare inorganic single crystals, which are most commonly used to study the effect in question, to organic materials, which also possess the required properties. Based on these data, we present a rationale for the possibility of studying the non-linear optical properties of metal-organic structures as well as describing the use of synthetic approaches and the difficulties associated with them. The second part of the review explicitly acquaints the reader with a new class of materials

  16. Lowering Band Gap of an Electroactive Metal-Organic Framework via Complementary Guest Intercalation. (United States)

    Guo, Zhiyong; Panda, Dillip K; Gordillo, Monica A; Khatun, Amina; Wu, Hui; Zhou, Wei; Saha, Sourav


    A new honeycomb-shaped electroactive metal-organic framework (MOF) has been constructed from an electron deficient naphthalenediimide (NDI) ligand equipped with two terminal salicylic acid groups. π-Intercalation of electron-rich planar tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) guests between the NDI ligands stacked along the walls lowers the electronic band gap of the material by ca. 1 eV. An improved electron delocalization through the guest-mediated π-donor/acceptor stacks is attributed to the diminished band gap of the doped material, which forecasts an improved electrical conductivity.

  17. Engineering homochiral metal-organic frameworks for heterogeneous asymmetric catalysis and enantioselective separation. (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Xuan, Weimin; Cui, Yong


    Owing to the potential applications in technological areas such as gas storage, catalysis, separation, sensing and nonlinear optics, tremendous efforts have been devoted to the development of porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) over the past ten years. Homochiral porous MOFs are particularly attractive candidates as heterogeneous asymmetric catalysts and enantioselective adsorbents and separators for production of optically active organic compounds due to the lack of homochiral inorganic porous materials such as zeolites. In this review, we summarize the recent research progress in homochiral MOF materials, including their synthetic strategy, distinctive structural features and latest advances in asymmetric heterogeneous catalysis and enantioselective separation.

  18. Flexible-Robust Metal-Organic Framework for Efficient Removal of Propyne from Propylene. (United States)

    Li, Libo; Lin, Rui-Biao; Krishna, Rajamani; Wang, Xiaoqing; Li, Bin; Wu, Hui; Li, Jinping; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Banglin


    The removal of trace amounts of propyne from propylene is critical for the production of polymer-grade propylene. We herein report the first example of metal-organic frameworks of flexible-robust nature for the efficient separation of propyne/propylene mixtures. The strong binding affinity and suitable pore confinement for propyne account for its high uptake capacity and selectivity, as evidenced by neutron powder diffraction studies and density functional theory calculations. The purity of the obtained propylene is over 99.9998%, as demonstrated by experimental breakthrough curves for a 1/99 propyne/propylene mixture.

  19. Metal-organic frameworks and their applications in catalysis; Redes metalorganicas e suas aplicacoes em catalise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Andre Luis Dantas, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Quimica; Tanase, Stefania; Rothenberg, Gadi [Van' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) form a new class of materials with well-defined yet tunable properties. These are crystalline, highly porous and exhibit strong metal-ligand interactions. Importantly, their physical and chemical properties, including pore size, pore structure, acidity, and magnetic and optical characteristics, can be tailored by choosing the appropriate ligands and metal precursors. Here we review the key aspects of synthesis and characterization of MOFs, focusing on lanthanide-based and vanadium-based materials. We also outline some of their applications in catalysis and materials science. (author)

  20. Substrate-Independent Epitaxial Growth of the Metal-Organic Framework MOF-508a. (United States)

    Wilson, M; Barrientos-Palomo, S N; Stevens, P C; Mitchell, N L; Oswald, G; Nagaraja, C M; Badyal, J P S


    Plasmachemical deposition is a substrate-independent method for the conformal surface functionalization of solid substrates. Structurally well-defined pulsed plasma deposited poly(1-allylimidazole) layers provide surface imidazole linker groups for the directed liquid-phase epitaxial (layer-by-layer) growth of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) at room temperature. For the case of microporous [Zn (benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate)-(4,4'-bipyridine) 0.5 ] (MOF-508), the MOF-508a polymorph containing two interpenetrating crystal lattice frameworks undergoes orientated Volmer-Weber growth and displays CO 2 gas capture behavior at atmospheric concentrations in proportion to the number of epitaxially grown MOF-508 layers.

  1. Metal-organic framework templated synthesis of porous inorganic materials as novel sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L.; Lin, Wenbin; Abney, Carter W.


    A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) templated process for the synthesis of highly porous inorganic sorbents for removing radionuclides, actinides, and heavy metals is disclosed. The highly porous nature of the MOFs leads to highly porous inorganic sorbents (such as oxides, phosphates, sulfides, etc) with accessible surface binding sites that are suitable for removing radionuclides from high level nuclear wastes, extracting uranium from acid mine drainage and seawater, and sequestering heavy metals from waste streams. In some cases, MOFs can be directly used for removing these metal ions as MOFs are converted to highly porous inorganic sorbents in situ.

  2. Optical spatial modulation of luminescent properties of van der Waals metal-organic framework (United States)

    Milichko, Valentin A.; Makarov, Sergey V.


    UV light processing presents a facile means to tailor the properties of materials and structures. Metal-organic framework (MOF) with strong optical response has been realized through the incorporation of luminescent ligand within the van der Waals structure. The resulting MOF exhibits a significant one-photon excited luminesces change in response to UV light, enabling spatial modulation of the luminescent map of the MOF in micrometer scale. It thus demonstrates the capacity of patterning and data storage inside the crystal in a high resolution.

  3. Metal-organic frameworks for the storage and delivery of biologically active hydrogen sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, Phoebe K; Wheatley, Paul S; Aldous, David; Mohideen, M Infas; Tang, Chiu; Hriljac, Joseph A; Megson, Ian L; Chapman, Karena W; De Weireld, Guy; Vaesen, Sebastian; Morris, Russell E [St Andrews


    Hydrogen sulfide is an extremely toxic gas that is also of great interest for biological applications when delivered in the correct amount and at the desired rate. Here we show that the highly porous metal-organic frameworks with the CPO-27 structure can bind the hydrogen sulfide relatively strongly, allowing the storage of the gas for at least several months. Delivered gas is biologically active in preliminary vasodilation studies of porcine arteries, and the structure of the hydrogen sulfide molecules inside the framework has been elucidated using a combination of powder X-ray diffraction and pair distribution function analysis.

  4. Ultraselective Gas Separation by Nanoporous Metal-Organic Frameworks Embedded in Gas-Barrier Nanocellulose Films. (United States)

    Matsumoto, Makoto; Kitaoka, Takuya


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are synthesized at carboxy groups on crystalline TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (TOCNs). MOF-TOCN films coated on a paper filter have a hierarchical structure from the nano- to macroscale, and demonstrate a high CO2 /CH4 selectivity, over 120 for CO2 at a high gas flux, by the combination of the nanoporous MOFs and the gas-barrier TOCNs, which have strong affinity with each other. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Computational estimation of parity violation effects in a metal-organic framework containing DABCO (United States)

    Mirzaeva, Irina V.; Kozlova, Svetlana G.


    It was previously suggested that a metal-organic framework [Zn2(C8H4O4)2·C6H12N2] could be a possible candidate for observation of parity violation effects related to tunneling of C6H12N2 (DABCO) fragment between chiral twisted states. We have performed relativistic four-component and two-component calculations of parity violating energy (PVE) term for twisted isomers of isolated DABCO molecule and [Zn2DABCO]4+ cation. We also discuss the nature of PVE in these systems with the help of analysis of individual atomic contributions to PVE and visualization of electron chirality density.

  6. Engineering metal-based luminescence in coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Heine, Johanna; Müller-Buschbaum, Klaus


    The rapidly growing number of luminescent coordination polymers (CPs) and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) illustrates high interest as well as accessibility of such materials. The interplay between inorganic and organic components in these materials offers a large number of viable luminescence processes. The enormous variability of available ligand-metal combinations opens the possibility of creating luminescence "by design", based on a proper understanding of the processes involved. Together with the multifunctionality of MOFs (e.g. porosity) further options like sensing become accessible. This tutorial review covers the main luminescence processes and focuses especially on metal-based luminescence of coordination polymers and MOFs.

  7. Multifunctional metal-organic frameworks constructed from meta-benzenedicarboxylate units. (United States)

    He, Yabing; Li, Bin; O'Keeffe, Michael; Chen, Banglin


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), also known as porous coordination polymers (PCPs), are an emerging type of porous materials which are formed by the self-assembly of metallic centers and bridging organic linkers. Design and synthesis of organic linkers are very critical to target MOFs with desired structures and properties. In this review, we summarize and highlight the recent development of porous MOFs that are constructed from the multicarboxylate ligands containing m-benzenedicarboxylate moieties, and their promising applications in gas storage and separation, heterogeneous catalysis and luminescent sensing.

  8. Metal-Organic Frameworks for Removal of Xe and Kr from Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Strachan, Denis M.


    Removal of Xenon (Xe) and Krypton (Kr) from in parts per million (ppm) levels were demonstrated for the first time using two well known metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), HKUST-1 and Ni/DOBDC. Results of an activated carbon were also included for comparison. Ni/DOBDC has higher Xe/Kr selectivities than those of the activated carbon. Moreover, results show that the Ni/DOBDC and HKUST-1 can selectively adsorb Xe and Kr from air even at 1000 ppm concentration. This shows a promising future for MOFs in a radioactive nuclides separation from spent fuel.

  9. Mechanical properties of metal-organic frameworks: An indentation study on epitaxial thin films (United States)

    Bundschuh, S.; Kraft, O.; Arslan, H. K.; Gliemann, H.; Weidler, P. G.; Wöll, C.


    We have determined the hardness and Young's modulus of a highly porous metal-organic framework (MOF) using a standard nanoindentation technique. Despite the very low density of these films, 1.22 g cm-3, Young's modulus reaches values of almost 10 GPa for HKUST-1, demonstrating that this porous coordination polymer is substantially stiffer than normal polymers. This progress in characterizing mechanical properties of MOFs has been made possible by the use of high quality, oriented thin films grown using liquid phase epitaxy on modified Au substrates.

  10. Electrodeposition of WO3 nanoparticles into surface mounted metal-organic framework HKUST-1 thin films (United States)

    Yoo, Hyeonseok; Welle, Alexander; Guo, Wei; Choi, Jinsub; Redel, Engelbert


    We describe a novel procedure to fabricate WO3@surface-mounted metal-organic framework (SURMOF) hybrid materials by electrodeposition of WO3 nanoparticles into HKUST-1, also termed Cu3(BTC)2 SURMOFs. These materials have been characterized using x-ray diffraction, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as linear sweep voltammetry. The WO3 semiconductor/SURMOF heterostructures were further tested as hybrid electrodes in their performance for hydrogen evolution reaction from water.

  11. A porous Cu(II) metal-organic framework: Synthesis, crystal structure and gas adsorption properties (United States)

    Li, Wu-Wu; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Wei-Hong


    Presented here is a new porous Cu(II) metal-organic framework, namely [Cu(tdc)(H2O)]n·n(DMA) (1 H2tdc = thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid, DMA = N,N‧-dimethylacetamide), which was obtained by the self-assembly reaction of CuCl2 and H2tdc under solvothermal conditions. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that compound 1 features a 3D porous framework based on 1D chain structure subunits, and the 1D rhombohedral channels are occupied by the lattice DMA molecules. Gas adsorption studies reveal that this desolvated sample exhibit high uptake capacity for light hydrocarbons.

  12. Enhancement of second harmonic generation in chiral metal-organic frameworks with silicon nanoparticles (United States)

    Zalogina, Anastasia S.; Mingabudinova, Leila R.; Zuev, Dmitry A.; Makarov, Sergey V.; Vinogradov, Alexandr V.; Milichko, Valentin A.; Belov, Pavel A.


    Metal-organic frameworks are of interest as a good candidate for fabrication of optical devices with widely tunable optical properties. Improving nonlinear properties and the enhancement of SHG make the route to the usage of MOFs for various applications. We demonstrate at the first time a novel approach for the enhancement of the SHG for MOFs. The approach is consisted in the combination of MOFs and silicon nanoparticles. The maximum 10-fold enhancement is demonstrated. The achieved results paves the way for the application of MOFs as a components of perspective nonlinear organic-inorganic nanophotonic devices.

  13. Fluorous Metal-Organic Frameworks with Enhanced Stability and High H2/CO2 Storage Capacities (United States)

    Zhang, Da-Shuai; Chang, Ze; Li, Yi-Fan; Jiang, Zhong-Yi; Xuan, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Ying-Hui; Li, Jian-Rong; Chen, Qiang; Hu, Tong-Liang; Bu, Xian-He


    A new class of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been synthesized by ligand-functionalization strategy. Systematic studies of their adsorption properties were performed at low and high pressure. Importantly, when fluorine was introduced into the framework via the functionalization, both the framework stabilities and adsorption capacities towards H2/CO2 were enhanced significantly. This consequence can be well interpreted by theoretical studies of these MOFs structures. In addition, one of these MOFs TKL-107 was used to fabricate mixed matrix membranes, which exhibit great potential for the application of CO2 separation. PMID:24264725

  14. Photochromic metal-organic frameworks: reversible control of singlet oxygen generation. (United States)

    Park, Jihye; Feng, Dawei; Yuan, Shuai; Zhou, Hong-Cai


    The controlled generation of singlet oxygen is of great interest owing to its potential applications including industrial wastewater treatment, photochemistry, and photodynamic therapy. Two photochromic metal-organic frameworks, PC-PCN and SO-PCN, have been developed. A photochromic reaction has been successfully realized in PC-PCN while maintaining its single crystallinity. In particular, as a solid-state material which inherently integrates the photochromic switch and photosensitizer, SO-PCN has demonstrated reversible control of (1)O2 generation. Additionally, SO-PCN shows catalytic activity towards photooxidation of 1,5-dihydroxynaphthalene. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Metal-organic frameworks reactivate deceased diatoms to be efficient CO(2) absorbents. (United States)

    Liu, Dingxin; Gu, Jiajun; Liu, Qinglei; Tan, Yongwen; Li, Zhuo; Zhang, Wang; Su, Yishi; Li, Wuxia; Cui, Ajuan; Gu, Changzhi; Zhang, Di


    Diatomite combined with certain metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is shown to be an effective CO2 absorbent, although diatomite alone is regarded as inert with respect to CO2 absorption. This finding opens the prospect of reactivating millions of tons of diatomite for CO2 absorption. It also shows for the first time that diatom frustules can act as CO2 buffers, an important link in a successive biological CO2 concentration mechanism chain that impacts on global warming. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A highly stable zeotype mesoporous zirconium metal-organic framework with ultralarge pores.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Dawei; Wang, Kecheng; Su, Jie; Liu, Tian-Fu; Park, Jihye; Wei, Zhangwen; Bosch, Mathieu; Yakovenko, Andrey; Zou, Xiaodong; Zhou, Hong-Cai


    Through topological rationalization, a zeotype mesoporous Zr-containing metal-organic framework (MOF), namely PCN-777, has been designed and synthesized. PCN-777 exhibits the largest cage size of 3.8nm and the highest pore volume of 2.8cm(3)g(-1) among reported Zr-MOFs. Moreover, PCN-777 shows excellent stability in aqueous environments, which makes it an ideal candidate as a support to incorporate different functional moieties. Through facile internal surface modification, the interaction between PCN-777 and different guests can be varied to realize efficient immobilization

  17. Zeolite-like metal-organic frameworks (ZMOFs): design, synthesis, and properties. (United States)

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Sava, Dorina F; Eubank, Jarrod F; Adil, Karim; Guillerm, Vincent


    This review highlights various design and synthesis approaches toward the construction of ZMOFs, which are metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with topologies and, in some cases, features akin to traditional inorganic zeolites. The interest in this unique subset of MOFs is correlated with their exceptional characteristics arising from the periodic pore systems and distinctive cage-like cavities, in conjunction with modular intra- and/or extra-framework components, which ultimately allow for tailoring of the pore size, pore shape, and/or properties towards specific applications.

  18. The preparation of metal-organic frameworks and their biomedical application. (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Yu, Tian; Shi, Zheng; Wang, Zhiyong


    The development of a safe and targetable drug carrier is a major challenge. An efficient delivery system should protect cargo from degradation and cleanup, and control of drug release in the target site. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), consisting of metal ions and a variety of organic ligands, have been applied for drug delivery due to their distinct structure. In this review, we summarized the synthesis strategies of MOFs, especially emphasizing the methods of pore creation in frameworks, which were based on recent literatures. Subsequently, the controlled size, biocompatibility, drug releasing performances, and imaging of MOFs were discussed, which would pave the road for the application in drug-delivery systems.

  19. Fabrication of GaAs-Mo-Si structures by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and laser annealing (United States)

    Okakmoto, K.; Imai, T.


    After depositing undoped polycrystalline GaAs layers on Mo layers by means of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, the samples were immersed in SnCl2-dissolved methanol in order to undergo annealing through irradiation by a Q-switched ruby laser. Recrystallization and doping of the GaAs layers was carried out succesfully, and Schottky characteristics were observed between the top GaAs layer and the Mo layer underneath. The barrier height was measured to be 0.53 eV.

  20. A Hafnium-Based Metal-Organic Framework as a Nature-Inspired Tandem Reaction Catalyst. (United States)

    Beyzavi, M Hassan; Vermeulen, Nicolaas A; Howarth, Ashlee J; Tussupbayev, Samat; League, Aaron B; Schweitzer, Neil M; Gallagher, James R; Platero-Prats, Ana E; Hafezi, Nema; Sarjeant, Amy A; Miller, Jeffrey T; Chapman, Karena W; Stoddart, J Fraser; Cramer, Christopher J; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K


    Tandem catalytic systems, often inspired by biological systems, offer many advantages in the formation of highly functionalized small molecules. Herein, a new metal-organic framework (MOF) with porphyrinic struts and Hf6 nodes is reported. This MOF demonstrates catalytic efficacy in the tandem oxidation and functionalization of styrene utilizing molecular oxygen as a terminal oxidant. The product, a protected 1,2-aminoalcohol, is formed selectively and with high efficiency using this recyclable heterogeneous catalyst. Significantly, the unusual regioselective transformation occurs only when an Fe-decorated Hf6 node and the Fe-porphyrin strut work in concert. This report is an example of concurrent orthogonal tandem catalysis.

  1. Templated synthesis, postsynthetic metal exchange, and properties of a porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic material

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie


    Reaction of biphenyl-3,4′,5-tricarboxylate (H 3BPT) and CdCl 2 in the presence of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine tetratosylate (TMPyP) afforded porph@MOM-10, a microporous metal-organic material containing CdTMPyP cations encapsulated in an anionic Cd(II) carboxylate framework, [Cd 6(BPT) 4Cl 4(H 2O) 4]. Porph@MOM-10 is a versatile platform that undergoes exchange to serve as the parent of a series of porph@MOMs that exhibit permanent porosity and heterogeneous catalytic activity. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  2. Chiral metal-organic frameworks bearing free carboxylic acids for organocatalyst encapsulation. (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Xi, Xiaobing; Ye, Chengcheng; Gong, Tengfei; Yang, Zhiwei; Cui, Yong


    Two chiral carboxylic acid functionalized micro- and mesoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are constructed by the stepwise assembly of triple-stranded heptametallic helicates with six carboxylic acid groups. The mesoporous MOF with permanent porosity functions as a host for encapsulation of an enantiopure organic amine catalyst by combining carboxylic acids and chiral amines in situ through acid-base interactions. The organocatalyst-loaded framework is shown to be an efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the asymmetric direct aldol reactions with significantly enhanced stereoselectivity in relative to the homogeneous organocatalyst. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Metal-Organic Framework of Lanthanoid Dinuclear Clusters Undergoes Slow Magnetic Relaxation


    Iwami, Hikaru; Nakanishi, Ryo; Horii, Yoji; Katoh, Keiichi; Breedlove, Brian K.; Yamashita, Masahiro


    Lanthanoid metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs) can adopt a variety of new structures due to the large coordination numbers of Ln metal ions, and Ln-MOFs are expected to show new luminescence and magnetic properties due to the localized f electrons. In particular, some Ln metal ions, such as Dy(III) and Tb(III) ions, work as isolated quantum magnets when they have magnetic anisotropy. In this work, using 4,4′,4″-s-triazine-2,4,6-triyl-tribenzoic acid (H3TATB) as a ligand, two new Ln-MOFs, [Dy(T...

  4. Selective anion exchange and tunable luminescent behaviors of metal-organic framework based supramolecular isomers. (United States)

    Manna, Biplab; Singh, Shweta; Karmakar, Avishek; Desai, Aamod V; Ghosh, Sujit K


    Owing to the conformational (cis or trans) flexibility of a N-donor ligand, the combinations of the same and Cd(ClO4)2 under variable solvent templates afforded two supramolecular isomers based on two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks. Both compounds contain weakly coordinating ClO4(-) anions attached to the metal centers. Both frameworks showed facile anion exchange behaviors with various kinds of foreign anions. Moreover, both frameworks showed anion-driven structural dynamism and exhibited the preferential uptake of strongly coordinating anions over others. Anion-regulated modulation in luminescent behaviors was also observed in both cases.

  5. Microporous sensor: gas sorption, guest exchange and guest-dependant luminescence of metal-organic framework. (United States)

    Sapchenko, Sergey A; Samsonenko, Denis G; Dybtsev, Danil N; Melgunov, Maxim S; Fedin, Vladimir P


    Zn(II)-containing metal-organic framework (MOF) [Zn(4)(dmf)(ur)(2)(ndc)(4)] (ndc(2-) = 2,6-naphtalenedicarboxylate, ur = urotropin, dmf = N,N'-dimethylformamide) was synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography and gas sorption analysis. Host MOF retains its crystallinity after guest removal and exchange. Single-crystal to single-crystal formation of different host-guest systems with benzene and ferrocene was investigated. Interesting guest-depended luminescence properties of the porous host framework were observed.

  6. Pentagonal helices in a periodic metal-organic framework. Crystals as computers for discovering structures of minimal transitivity. (United States)

    Li, Mian; Li, Dan; O'Keeffe, Michael; Su, Zhong-Min


    The structure of a recently-published metal-organic framework is deconstructed into its underlying net which is found to be of exceptional complexity. It is shown that this is because of local pentagonal symmetry and the structure is in fact the simplest possible (minimal transitivity) given that local symmetry.

  7. A homochiral porous metal-organic framework for enantioselective adsorption of mandelates and photocyclizaton of tropolone ethers. (United States)

    Peng, Yongwu; Gong, Tengfei; Cui, Yong


    A chiral porous metal-organic framework of an axially C2-symmetric 1,1'-biphenol ligand is constructed and can be used as a solid-state host to enanioselectively adsorb mandelates with up to 93.1% ee and to entrap achiral tropolone ethers and induce their asymmetric photocyclization with up to 98.5% ee.

  8. A novel three-jet microreactor for localized metal-organic chemical vapour deposition of gallium arsenide : Design and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konakov, S.A.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.


    We present a novel three-jet microreactor design for localized deposition of gallium arsenide (GaAs) by low-pressure Metal-Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD) for semiconductor devices, microelectronics and solar cells. Our approach is advantageous compared to the standard lithography and

  9. Metal-directed topological diversity of three fluorescent metal-organic frameworks based on a new tetracarboxylate strut

    KAUST Repository

    Lou, Xinhua


    Three d- or p-block metal ions based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were isolated by employing a new tetracarboxylate linker, featuring unusual flu, self-interpenetrated lvt and new (3,5)-c topological nets, respectively. Interesting photoluminescent properties of these solid-state materials were also observed. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Two luminescent Zn(II) metal-organic frameworks for exceptionally selective detection of picric acid explosives. (United States)

    Shi, Zhi-Qiang; Guo, Zi-Jian; Zheng, He-Gen


    Two luminescent Zn(II) metal-organic frameworks were prepared from a π-conjugated thiophene-containing carboxylic acid ligand. These two MOFs show strong luminescene and their luminescence could be quenched by a series of nitroaromatic explosives. Importantly, they exhibit very highly sensitive and selective detection of picric acid compared to other nitroaromatic explosives.

  11. Energy level alignment at metal/organic semiconductor interfaces: "pillow" effect, induced density of interface states, and charge neutrality level. (United States)

    Vázquez, H; Dappe, Y J; Ortega, J; Flores, F


    A unified model, embodying the "pillow" effect and the induced density of interface states (IDIS) model, is presented for describing the level alignment at a metal/organic interface. The pillow effect, which originates from the orthogonalization of the metal and organic wave functions, is calculated using a many-body linear combination of atomic orbitals Hamiltonian, whereby electron long-range interactions are obtained using an expansion in the metal/organic wave function overlap, while the electronic charge of both materials remains unchanged. This approach yields the pillow dipole and represents the first effect induced by the metal/organic interaction, resulting in a reduction of the metal work function. In a second step, we consider how charge is transferred between the metal and the organic material by means of the IDIS model: Charge transfer is determined by the relative position of the metal work function (corrected by the pillow effect) and the organic charge neutrality level, as well as by an interface parameter S, which measures how this potential difference is screened. In our approach, we show that the combined IDIS-pillow effects can be described in terms of the original IDIS alignment corrected by a screened pillow dipole. For the organic materials considered in this paper, we see that the IDIS dipole already represents most of the realignment induced at the metal/organic interface. We therefore conclude that the pillow effect yields minor corrections to the IDIS model.

  12. Facile synthesis of multiple enzyme-containing metal-organic frameworks in a biomolecule-friendly environment. (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoling; Ge, Jun; Yang, Cheng; Hou, Miao; Liu, Zheng


    The one-step and facile synthesis of multi-enzyme-containing metal-organic framework (MOF) nanocrystals in aqueous solution at 25 °C was reported in this study. The GOx&HRP/ZIF-8 nanocomposite displayed high catalytic efficiency, high selectivity and enhanced stability due to the protecting effect of the framework.

  13. Preparation, Characterization, and Postsynthetic Modification of Metal-Organic Frameworks: Synthetic Experiments for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course in Inorganic Chemistry (United States)

    Sumida, Kenji; Arnold, John


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are crystalline materials that are composed of an infinite array of metal nodes (single ions or clusters) linked to one another by polyfunctional organic compounds. Because of their extraordinary surface areas and high degree of control over the physical and chemical properties, these materials have received much…

  14. Enhanced adsorptive desulfurization with flexible metal-organic frameworks in the presence of diethyl ether and water. (United States)

    Khan, Nazmul Abedin; Yoon, Ji Woong; Chang, Jong-San; Jhung, Sung Hwa


    Several metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were employed in adsorptive desulfurization in the presence of oxygen-containing compounds (OCCs). Unlike conventional MOFs and activated carbon, flexible MOFs with a MIL-53 topology showed remarkable performances for the desulfurization in the presence of OCCs.

  15. 2-periodic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as supermolecular building layers (SBLs) for making targeted 3-periodic MOFs

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed


    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for chemical assemblies, multidimensional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), supermolecular building layers (SBLs), inorganic molecular building blocks (MBBs), organic MBBs (designed ligands), methods of making each, and methods of using each, and the like. In an embodiment, the composition can be used in catalysis, separations, gas storage, and drug delivery.

  16. Self-diffusion of chain molecules in the metal-organic framework IRMOF-1: simulation and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ford, D. C.; Dubbeldam, D.; Snurr, R.Q.; Kuenzel, V.; Wehring, M.; Stallmach, F.; Kaerger, J.; Mueller, U.


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) possess characteristics, such as tunable pore size and chemical functionality, that make them attractive candidates for separations, catalysis, gas storage, and sensing applications. The rate of diffusion of guest molecules in the pores is an important property for

  17. Let’s Talk about MOFs—Topology and Terminology of Metal-Organic Frameworks and Why We Need Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Öhrström


    Full Text Available Recent IUPAC (The International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry recommendations on the terminology of metal-organic frameworks are reviewed and the background to a proposed topology classification is discussed. The various numerical designators such as point symbols, vertex symbols and transitivity are also explained and their importance elucidated.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of boric acid mediated metal-organic frameworks based on trimesic acid and terephthalic acid (United States)

    Ozer, Demet; Köse, Dursun A.; Şahin, Onur; Oztas, Nursen Altuntas


    The new metal-organic framework materials based on boric acid reported herein. Sodium and boron containing metal-organic frameworks were synthesized by one-pot self-assembly reaction in the presence of trimesic acid and terephthalic acid in water/ethanol solution. Boric acid is a relatively cheap boron source and boric acid mediated metal-organic framework prepared mild conditions compared to the other boron source based metal-organic framework. The synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, p-XRD, TGA/DTA, elemental analysis, 13C-MAS NMR, 11B-NMR and single crystal measurements. The molecular formulas of compounds were estimated as C18H33B2Na5O28 and C8H24B2Na2O17 according to the structural analysis. The obtained complexes were thermally stable. Surface properties of inorganic polymer complexes were investigated by BET analyses and hydrogen storage properties of compound were also calculated.

  19. Rapid and specific luminescence sensing of Cu(ii) ions with a porphyrinic metal-organic framework. (United States)

    Li, Linnan; Shen, Sensen; Lin, Ruoyun; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei


    We herein present a porphyrinic metal-organic framework (MOF) as a highly sensitive fluorescent probe targeting Cu(ii) ions with a fast response. The well-isolated nature of porphyrin moieties within the framework greatly enable accessible recognition sites, which leads to an outstanding detection limit performance of 67 nM among MOF-based materials.

  20. A flexible zwitterion ligand based lanthanide metal-organic framework for luminescence sensing of metal ions and small molecules. (United States)

    Wen, Rong-Mei; Han, Song-De; Ren, Guo-Jian; Chang, Ze; Li, Yun-Wu; Bu, Xian-He


    A new lanthanide metal-organic framework was constructed using a tripodal flexible zwitterion ligand (H3LBr3) which takes a chair-shaped configuration. The luminescence of the compound displays highly selective sensing of the Fe(3+) ion and nitrobenzene.

  1. Patterned growth of luminescent metal-organic framework films: a versatile electrochemically-assisted microwave deposition method. (United States)

    Li, Wei-Jin; Feng, Ji-Fei; Lin, Zu-Jin; Yang, Ying-Long; Yang, Yan; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Gao, Shui-Ying; Cao, Rong


    Electrochemically-assisted microwave deposition technology, a facile method for the fabrication of luminescent metal-organic framework (LMOF) films, is presented herein. This method was further developed into a versatile method for preparing patterned LMOF films. The strategy based on this method can spatially locate microcrystals of MOFs on a surface, which provides great promise in anti-counterfeiting barcode applications.

  2. A four-fold interpenetrated metal-organic framework as a fluorescent sensor for volatile organic compounds. (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyu; Li, Yang; Chang, Ze; Chen, Long; Bu, Xian-He


    A four-fold interpenetrated three dimensional (3D) metal-organic framework, [Cd2(tppe)(bpdc)2(H2O)]·solvent (1), was synthesized with a tetraphenylethene (TPE)-based ligand, 1,1,2,2-tetrakis(4-(pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)ethene (TPPE). This complex exhibits intense blue luminescence and is sensitive to toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

  3. Al2O3 coatings against high temperature corrosion deposited by metal-organic low pressure chemical vapour deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Corbach, H.D.; Haanappel, V.A.C.; Haanappel, V.A.C.; Fransen, T.; Gellings, P.J.


    Metal-organic chemical vapour deposition of thin amorphous films of Al2O3 on steels was performed at low pressure. Aluminium tri-sec-butoxide (ATSB) was used as a precursor. The effects of the deposition temperature (200–380 °C), the deposition pressure (0.17–1.20 kPa) and the ATSB concentration

  4. A spin transition mechanism for cooperative adsorption in metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Reed, Douglas A; Keitz, Benjamin K; Oktawiec, Julia; Mason, Jarad A; Runčevski, Tomče; Xiao, Dianne J; Darago, Lucy E; Crocellà, Valentina; Bordiga, Silvia; Long, Jeffrey R


    Cooperative binding, whereby an initial binding event facilitates the uptake of additional substrate molecules, is common in biological systems such as haemoglobin. It was recently shown that porous solids that exhibit cooperative binding have substantial energetic benefits over traditional adsorbents, but few guidelines currently exist for the design of such materials. In principle, metal-organic frameworks that contain coordinatively unsaturated metal centres could act as both selective and cooperative adsorbents if guest binding at one site were to trigger an electronic transformation that subsequently altered the binding properties at neighbouring metal sites. Here we illustrate this concept through the selective adsorption of carbon monoxide (CO) in a series of metal-organic frameworks featuring coordinatively unsaturated iron(ii) sites. Functioning via a mechanism by which neighbouring iron(ii) sites undergo a spin-state transition above a threshold CO pressure, these materials exhibit large CO separation capacities with only small changes in temperature. The very low regeneration energies that result may enable more efficient Fischer-Tropsch conversions and extraction of CO from industrial waste feeds, which currently underutilize this versatile carbon synthon. The electronic basis for the cooperative adsorption demonstrated here could provide a general strategy for designing efficient and selective adsorbents suitable for various separations.

  5. Bulk synthesis of metal-organic hybrid dimers and their propulsion under electric fields. (United States)

    Wang, Sijia; Ma, Fuduo; Zhao, Hui; Wu, Ning


    Metal-organic hybrid particles have great potential in applications such as colloidal assembly, autonomous microrobots, targeted drug delivery, and colloidal emulsifiers. Existing fabrication methods, however, typically suffer from low throughput, high operation cost, and imprecise property control. Here, we report a facile and bulk synthesis platform that makes a wide range of metal-organic colloidal dimers. Both geometric and interfacial anisotropy on the particles can be tuned independently and conveniently, which represents a key advantage of this method. We further investigate the self-propulsion of platinum-polystyrene dimers under perpendicularly applied electric fields. In 1 × 10(-4) M KCl solution, the dimers exhibit both linear and circular motion with the polystyrene lobes facing toward the moving direction, due to the induced-charge electroosmotic flow surrounding the metal-coated lobes. Surprisingly, in deionized water, the same dimers move in an opposite direction, i.e., the metallic lobes face the forward direction. This is because of the impact of another type of electrokinetic flow: the electrohydrodynamic flow arising from the induced charges on the conducting substrate. The competition between the electrohydrodynamic flow along the substrate and the induced-charge electroosmotic flow along the metallic lobe dictates the propulsion direction of hybrid dimers under electric fields. Our synthetic approach will provide potential opportunities to study the combined impacts of the geometric and interfacial anisotropy on the propulsion, assembly, and other applications of anisotropic particles.

  6. Self-Supporting Metal-Organic Layers as Single-Site Solid Catalysts. (United States)

    Cao, Lingyun; Lin, Zekai; Peng, Fei; Wang, Weiwei; Huang, Ruiyun; Wang, Cheng; Yan, Jiawei; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Zhiming; Zhang, Teng; Long, Lasheng; Sun, Junliang; Lin, Wenbin


    Metal-organic layers (MOLs) represent an emerging class of tunable and functionalizable two-dimensional materials. In this work, the scalable solvothermal synthesis of self-supporting MOLs composed of [Hf6O4(OH)4(HCO2)6] secondary building units (SBUs) and benzene-1,3,5-tribenzoate (BTB) bridging ligands is reported. The MOL structures were directly imaged by TEM and AFM, and doped with 4'-(4-benzoate)-(2,2',2''-terpyridine)-5,5''-dicarboxylate (TPY) before being coordinated with iron centers to afford highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for the hydrosilylation of terminal olefins. MOL-based heterogeneous catalysts are free from the diffusional constraints placed on all known porous solid catalysts, including metal-organic frameworks. This work uncovers an entirely new strategy for designing single-site solid catalysts and opens the door to a new class of two-dimensional coordination materials with molecular functionalities. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Monolithic column incorporated with lanthanide metal-organic framework for capillary electrochromatography. (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Shun; Du, Pei-Yao; Gu, Wen; Zhao, Qing-Li; Huang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Sheng


    A new lanthanide metal-organic frameworks NKU-1 have successfully incorporated into poly (BMA-co-EDMA) monolith and evaluated by capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Lanthanide metal-organic frameworks [Eu2(ABTC)1.5(H2O)3(DMA)] (NKU-1) were synthesized by self-assembly of Eu(III) ions and 3,3',5,5'-azo benzene tetracarboxylic acid ligands have been fabricated into poly(BMA-co-EDMA) monoliths. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and N,N-dimethylformamide were developed as binary porogen obtaining homogeneous dispersibility for NKU-1 and high permeability for monolithic column. The successful incorporation of NKU-1 into poly(BMA-co-EDMA) was confirmed and characterized by FT-IR spectra, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometer area scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Separation ability of the NKU-1-poly (BMA-co-EDMA) monoliths was demonstrated by separating four groups of analytes in CEC, including alkylbenzenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, aniline series and naphthyl substitutes. Compared with bare monolithic (column efficiency of 100,000plates/m), the NKU-1-poly (BMA-co-EDMA) monoliths have displayed greater column efficiency (maximum 210,000plates/m) and higher permeability, as well as less peak tailing. The results showed that the NKU-1-poly (BMA-co-EDMA) monoliths are promising stationary phases for CEC separations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of AlN on sapphire with low etch pit density (United States)

    Koleske, D. D.; Figiel, J. J.; Alliman, D. L.; Gunning, B. P.; Kempisty, J. M.; Creighton, J. R.; Mishima, A.; Ikenaga, K.


    Using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, methods were developed to achieve AlN films on sapphire with low etch pit density (EPD). Key to this achievement was using the same AlN growth recipe and only varying the pre-growth conditioning of the quartz-ware. After AlN growth, the quartz-ware was removed from the growth chamber and either exposed to room air or moved into the N2 purged glove box and exposed to H2O vapor. After the quartz-ware was exposed to room air or H2O, the AlN film growth was found to be more reproducible, resulting in films with (0002) and (10-12) x-ray diffraction (XRD) rocking curve linewidths of 200 and 500 arc sec, respectively, and EPDs NH3 on the quartz-ware surfaces generated AlN films with higher EPDs. The presence of these residual TMAl/NH3-derived coatings in metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) systems and their impact on the sapphire surface during heating might explain why reproducible growth of AlN on sapphire is difficult.

  9. Magnetic Metal-Organic Framework Composite by Fast and Facile Mechanochemical Process. (United States)

    Bellusci, M; Guglielmi, P; Masi, A; Padella, F; Singh, G; Yaacoub, N; Peddis, D; Secci, D


    Magnetic porous metal-organic framework nanocomposite was obtained by an easy, efficient, and environmentally friendly fabrication method. The material consists in magnetic spinel iron oxide nanoparticles incorporated in an iron(III) carboxylate framework. The magnetic composite was fabricated by a multistep mechanochemical approach. In the first step, iron oxide nanoparticles were obtained via ball milling inducing mechanochemical reaction between iron chlorides and NaOH using NaCl as dispersing agent. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNs) were functionalized by neat grinding with benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (1, 3, 5 BTC) and were then subjected to liquid assisted milling using hydrated FeCl 3 , water, and ethanol to obtain a magnetic framework composite (MFC) consisting of iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated in a MOF matrix. We report, for the first time, the applicability of the grinding method to obtain a magnetic composite of metal-organic frameworks. The synthesized material exhibits magnetic characteristics and high porosity, and it has been tested as carrier for targeted drug delivery studying loading and release of a model drug (doxorubicin). Developed systems can associate therapeutics and diagnostics properties with possible relevant impact for theranostic and personalized patient treatment. Furthermore, the material properties make them excellent candidates for several other applications such as catalysis, sensing, and selective sequestration processes.

  10. A facile strategy for enzyme immobilization with highly stable hierarchically porous metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Qi, Wei; Wang, Yuefei; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have drawn extensive research interest as candidates for enzyme immobilization owing to their tunable porosity, high surface area, and excellent chemical/thermal stability. Herein, we report a facile and universal strategy for enzyme immobilization using highly stable hierarchically porous metal-organic frameworks (HP-MOFs). The HP-MOFs were stable over a wide pH range (pH = 2-11 for HP-DUT-5) and met the catalysis conditions of most enzymes. The as-prepared hierarchical micro/mesoporous MOFs with mesoporous defects showed a superior adsorption capacity towards enzymes. The maximum adsorption capacity of HP-DUT-5 for glucose oxidase (GOx) and uricase was 208 mg g(-1) and 225 mg g(-1), respectively. Furthermore, we constructed two multi-enzyme biosensors for glucose and uric acid (UA) by immobilizing GOx and uricase with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on HP-DUT-5, respectively. These sensors were efficiently applied in the colorimetric detection of glucose and UA and showed good sensitivity, selectivity, and recyclability.

  11. A Stimuli-Responsive Zirconium Metal-Organic Framework Based on Supermolecular Design. (United States)

    Krause, Simon; Bon, Volodymyr; Stoeck, Ulrich; Senkovska, Irena; Többens, Daniel M; Wallacher, Dirk; Kaskel, Stefan


    A flexible, yet very stable metal-organic framework (DUT-98, Zr6 O4 (OH)4 (CPCDC)4 (H2 O)4 , CPCDC=9-(4-carboxyphenyl)-9H-carbazole-3,6-dicarboxylate) was synthesized using a rational supermolecular building block approach based on molecular modelling of metal-organic chains and subsequent virtual interlinking into a 3D MOF. Structural characterization via synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) revealed the one-dimensional pore architecture of DUT-98, envisioned in silico. After supercritical solvent extraction, distinctive responses towards various gases stimulated reversible structural transformations, as detected using coupled synchrotron diffraction and physisorption techniques. DUT-98 shows a surprisingly low water uptake but a high selectivity for pore opening towards specific gases and vapors (N2 , CO2 , n-butane, alcohols) at characteristic pressure resulting in multiple steps in the adsorption isotherm and hysteretic behavior upon desorption. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The modulator driven polymorphism of Zr(IV) based metal-organic frameworks (United States)

    Drache, Franziska; Bon, Volodymyr; Senkovska, Irena; Getzschmann, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan


    The reaction of ZrCl4 and 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylic acid (H2tdc) in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid (Htfa) as modulator results in the formation of the new metal-organic framework (MOF) named DUT-126 (DUT = Dresden University of Technology). The nature and concentration of modulators are found to be decisive synthetic parameters affecting the topology of the formed product. DUT-126 (hbr) extends the series of polymorphs differing in topology, namely DUT-67 (reo), DUT-68 (bon) and DUT-69 (bct) to four, where DUT-67 and DUT-68 show the same eight-connected secondary building units as in DUT-126. In DUT-126, linker molecules have a peculiar orientation, resulting in hbr topology, which is described for the first time in this work for MOFs. DUT-126 contains three pore types, including two micropores surrounding mesoporous channels. DUT-126 is stable against hydrolysis and features permanent porosity with a specific surface area of 1297 m2 g-1 and a total pore volume of 0.48 cm3 g-1, calculated from the nitrogen physisorption isotherm measured at 77 K. This article is part of the themed issue 'Coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks: materials by design'.

  13. Bi2O3 nanoparticles encapsulated in surface mounted metal-organic framework thin films (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Chen, Zhi; Yang, Chengwu; Neumann, Tobias; Kübel, Christian; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Welle, Alexander; Pfleging, Wilhelm; Shekhah, Osama; Wöll, Christof; Redel, Engelbert


    We describe a novel procedure to fabricate a recyclable hybrid-photocatalyst based on Bi2O3@HKUST-1 MOF porous thin films. Bi2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized within HKUST-1 (or Cu3(BTC)2) surface-mounted metal-organic frame-works (SURMOFs) and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Bi2O3 semiconductor NPs (diameter 1-3 nm)/SURMOF heterostructures exhibit superior photo-efficiencies compared to NPs synthesized using conventional routes, as demonstrated via the photodegradation of the nuclear fast red (NFR) dye.We describe a novel procedure to fabricate a recyclable hybrid-photocatalyst based on Bi2O3@HKUST-1 MOF porous thin films. Bi2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized within HKUST-1 (or Cu3(BTC)2) surface-mounted metal-organic frame-works (SURMOFs) and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Bi2O3 semiconductor NPs (diameter 1-3 nm)/SURMOF heterostructures exhibit superior photo-efficiencies compared to NPs synthesized using conventional routes, as demonstrated via the photodegradation of the nuclear fast red (NFR) dye. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00532b

  14. Magnetoelectric coupling in the paramagnetic state of a metal-organic framework (United States)

    Wang, W.; Yan, L. -Q.; Cong, J. -Z.; Zhao, Y. -L.; Wang, F.; Shen, S. -P.; Zou, T.; Zhang, D.; Wang, S. -G.; Han, X. -F.; Sun, Y.


    Although the magnetoelectric effects - the mutual control of electric polarization by magnetic fields and magnetism by electric fields, have been intensively studied in a large number of inorganic compounds and heterostructures, they have been rarely observed in organic materials. Here we demonstrate magnetoelectric coupling in a metal-organic framework [(CH3)2NH2]Mn(HCOO)3 which exhibits an order-disorder type of ferroelectricity below 185 K. The magnetic susceptibility starts to deviate from the Curie-Weiss law at the paraelectric-ferroelectric transition temperature, suggesting an enhancement of short-range magnetic correlation in the ferroelectric state. Electron spin resonance study further confirms that the magnetic state indeed changes following the ferroelectric phase transition. Inversely, the ferroelectric polarization can be improved by applying high magnetic fields. We interpret the magnetoelectric coupling in the paramagnetic state in the metal-organic framework as a consequence of the magnetoelastic effect that modifies both the superexchange interaction and the hydrogen bonding. PMID:23778158

  15. Metal-organic aerogel as a coating for solid-phase microextraction. (United States)

    Saraji, Mohammad; Shahvar, Ali


    An iron-based metal-organic aerogel was synthesized using metal-organic framework nanoparticles and applied as a fiber coating for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Chemical, thermal and morphological characteristics of the material were investigated. Headspace SPME followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection was used for the determination of chlorobenzenes in the environmental samples. The key experimental factors affecting the extraction efficiency of the analytes, such as ionic strength, extraction and desorption temperature, and extraction time were investigated and optimized. The applicability of the coating for the extraction of chlorobenzenes from the environmental samples including river and tap water, sludge, and coastal soil was evaluated. The detection limits were in the range of 0.1-60 ng L-1. The relative standard deviations were between 2.0 and 5.0%. The extraction recovery of the analytes was in the range of 88-100%. Compared to the commercial PDMS fiber, the present fiber showed better extraction efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Nanoscale Multiresponsive Luminescent Sensor Based on a Terbium(III) Metal-Organic Framework. (United States)

    Dang, Song; Wang, Ting; Yi, Feiyan; Liu, Qinghui; Yang, Weiting; Sun, Zhong-Ming


    A nanoscale terbium-containing metal-organic framework (nTbL), with a layer-like structure and [H2 NMe2 ](+) cations located in the framework channels, was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The structure of the as-prepared sample was systematically confirmed by powder XRD and elemental analysis; the morphology was characterized by field-emission SEM and TEM. The photoluminescence studies revealed that rod-like nTbL exhibited bright-green emission, corresponding to (5)D4 →(7)FJ (J=6-3) transitions of the Tb(3+) ion under excitation. Further sensing measurements revealed that as-prepared nTbL could be utilized as a multiresponsive luminescent sensor, which showed significant and exclusive detection ability for Fe(3+) ions and phenylmethanol. These results highlight the practical applications of lanthanide-containing metal-organic frameworks as fluorescent probes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Gold nanoparticles immobilized on metal-organic frameworks with enhanced catalytic performance for DNA detection. (United States)

    Liu, Ya Li; Fu, Wen Liang; Li, Chun Mei; Huang, Cheng Zhi; Li, Yuan Fang


    In this work, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) assembled on the surface of iron based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), Fe-MIL-88, are facilely prepared through electrostatic interactions using polyethyleneimine (PEI) molecules as linker. The resulting hybrid materials possess synergetic peroxidase-like activity. Because iron based metal-organic frameworks, Fe-MIL-88, exhibits highly peroxidase-like activity, and AuNPs has the distinct adsorption property to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). The peroxidase-like activity of Au@Fe-MIL-88 exhibit excellent switchable in response to specific DNA, ssDNA is easily adsorbed on the surface of the Au@Fe-MIL-88 hybrids, resulting in the reduce of the peroxidase-like activity of the hybrids. While it is recovered by the addition of target DNA, and the recovery degree is proportional to the target DNA concentration over the range of 30-150 nM with a detection limit of 11.4 nM. Based on these unique properties, we develop a label-free colorimetric method for DNA hybridization detection. In control experiment, base-mismatched DNA cannot induce recovery of the peroxidase-like activity. This detection method is simple, cheap, rapid and colorimetric. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Percolative metal-organic framework/carbon composites for hydrogen storage (United States)

    Xie, Shuqian; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Sun, Xiang; Shi, Shangzhao; Zhang, Zheng; Peng, Zhiwei; Zhai, Yuchun


    Percolative Metal-organic framework/Carbon (MOFAC) composites are synthesized by IRMOF8 (isoreticular metal-organic frameworks) directly depositing on activated carbon via heterogeneous nucleation. Carbon content is calculated by TGA (Thermogravimetric analysis) tests. XRD (X-ray diffraction) and FESEM (Field emission-scanning electron microscope) are carried out to characterize the structures of the samples. BET surface areas and the pore size distribution are measured. The dielectric constant is measured with impedance analyzer and a specially designed sample holder. The dielectric constants of the MOFAC composites rise with increasing the carbon content, and the composites possess the insulator-conductor transition as the carbon content increases from 17.77 wt% to 22.2 wt%. The composites are further tested for hydrogen storage capability under assist of the PMN-PT (single crystal lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate) generated electric field. With help from the PMN-PT, the hydrogen uptake capability is increased about 31.5% over the MOFAC3 (MOF-Carbon composite with 22.2 wt% of carbon) without PMN-PT, which is elucidated by the charge distribution mechanisms. The improved storage is due to a stronger electrostatic interaction between IRMOF8 and hydrogen molecule caused by field polarization. Meanwhile, rapid adsorption/desorption kinetics and total reversibility on the samples are observed in the present or absence of external electric field.

  19. Isolation of Renewable Phenolics by Adsorption on Ultrastable Hydrophobic MIL-140 Metal-Organic Frameworks. (United States)

    Van de Voorde, Ben; Damasceno Borges, Daiane; Vermoortele, Frederik; Wouters, Robin; Bozbiyik, Belgin; Denayer, Joeri; Taulelle, Francis; Martineau, Charlotte; Serre, Christian; Maurin, Guillaume; De Vos, Dirk


    The isolation and separation of phenolic compounds from aqueous backgrounds is challenging and will gain in importance as we become more dependent on phenolics from lignocellulose-derived bio-oil to meet our needs for aromatic compounds. Herein, we show that highly stable and hydrophobic Zr metal-organic frameworks of the MIL-140 type are effective adsorbent materials for the separation of different phenolics and far outperform other classes of porous solids (silica, zeolites, carbons). The mechanism of the hydroquinone-catechol separation on MIL-140C was studied in detail by combining experimental results with computational techniques. Although the differences in adsorption enthalpy between catechol and hydroquinone are negligible, the selective uptake of catechol in MIL-140C is explained by its dense π-π stacking in the pores. The interplay of enthalpic and entropic effects allowed separation of a complex, five-compound phenol mixture through breakthrough over a MIL-140C column. Unlike many other metal-organic frameworks, MIL-140C is remarkably stable and maintained structure, porosity and performance after five adsorption-desorption cycles. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Made-to-order metal-organic frameworks for trace carbon dioxide removal and air capture

    KAUST Repository

    Shekhah, Osama


    Direct air capture is regarded as a plausible alternate approach that, if economically practical, can mitigate the increasing carbon dioxide emissions associated with two of the main carbon polluting sources, namely stationary power plants and transportation. Here we show that metal-organic framework crystal chemistry permits the construction of an isostructural metal-organic framework (SIFSIX-3-Cu) based on pyrazine/copper(II) two-dimensional periodic 4 4 square grids pillared by silicon hexafluoride anions and thus allows further contraction of the pore system to 3.5 versus 3.84 for the parent zinc(II) derivative. This enhances the adsorption energetics and subsequently displays carbon dioxide uptake and selectivity at very low partial pressures relevant to air capture and trace carbon dioxide removal. The resultant SIFSIX-3-Cu exhibits uniformly distributed adsorption energetics and offers enhanced carbon dioxide physical adsorption properties, uptake and selectivity in highly diluted gas streams, a performance, to the best of our knowledge, unachievable with other classes of porous materials. 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  1. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of amide functionalized metal-organic framework for nitroaromatic sensing. (United States)

    Gharib, Maniya; Safarifard, Vahid; Morsali, Ali


    Nano plates of zinc(II) based metal-organic framework (MOF) were prepared via ultrasonic method without any surfactants at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Control of particle size and morphology was enhanced in this synthesis method. Nano plates of an interpenetrated amide-functionalized metal-organic framework, [Zn 2 (oba) 2 (bpfb)]·(DMF) 5 , TMU-23, (H 2 oba = 4,4'-oxybis(benzoic acid); bpfb = N,N'-bis-(4-pyridylformamide)-1,4-benzenediamine, DMF = N,N-dimethyl formamide), was synthesized under ultrasound irradiation in different concentrations of initial precursor. The nano structure and morphology of the synthesized MOF were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), powder X-ray diffraction, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. Moreover, Fluorescence emissions of nanoplates have been studied. Amide-functionalized MOF shows high selectivity for sensing of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrophenol, nitroaniline, and nitrobenzene in acetonitrile solution. Fluorescence intensity decreased with increasing contents of nitroaromatics in acetonitrile solution due to fluorescence quenching effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Trapping gases in metal-organic frameworks with a selective surface molecular barrier layer (United States)

    Tan, Kui; Zuluaga, Sebastian; Fuentes, Erika; Mattson, Eric C.; Veyan, Jean-François; Wang, Hao; Li, Jing; Thonhauser, Timo; Chabal, Yves J.


    The main challenge for gas storage and separation in nanoporous materials is that many molecules of interest adsorb too weakly to be effectively retained. Instead of synthetically modifying the internal surface structure of the entire bulk--as is typically done to enhance adsorption--here we show that post exposure of a prototypical porous metal-organic framework to ethylenediamine can effectively retain a variety of weakly adsorbing molecules (for example, CO, CO2, SO2, C2H4, NO) inside the materials by forming a monolayer-thick cap at the external surface of microcrystals. Furthermore, this capping mechanism, based on hydrogen bonding as explained by ab initio modelling, opens the door for potential selectivity. For example, water molecules are shown to disrupt the hydrogen-bonded amine network and diffuse through the cap without hindrance and fully displace/release the retained small molecules out of the metal-organic framework at room temperature. These findings may provide alternative strategies for gas storage, delivery and separation.

  3. Post Modification of Metal-Organic Framework and Their Application In Cancer Theranostics (United States)

    Lakkakula, Hima bindu

    The research proposal aims to demonstrate that Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are mainly used for cancer theranostics which is the combination of both diagnostic and therapeutic functions. The research will emphasis on synthesis of Fe- MOFs by solvothermal nucleation, crystallization, characterization by microscopy and spectroscopy and evaluation with different lattice parameters and its morphology. Nowadays MOFs are used for the novel drug delivery purposes. The current published Fe- MOFs research focus is on the cancer theranostics by Indian medicines which will be impregnated into the MOFs and which will evaluate bioavailability and the chemotherapeutic activity of the drug. Nanotechnology provides the target specificity without affecting the healthy tissues. Other research problems to be addressed are the relationship between metal connectivity and ligand-based luminescence, MOF stability in an aqueous environment and activating it at increased temperature serves as a crucial role. The merits of this research are to increase the surface area and pore size of the drug so that the therapeutic efficacy can be improved. Moreover, the stabilization of metal-organic frameworks can also be enhanced with high surface area.

  4. A novel (3,36)-connected and self-interpenetrated metal-organic framework with high thermal stability and gas-sorption capabilities. (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Bao; Zhao, Ying; Meng, Xianggao; Zhang, Tianle


    By using a ligand containing pyridyl and carboxylate groups as units, a novel (3,36)-connected and self-interpenetrated metal-organic framework was constructed, which exhibited high thermal stability and gas sorption capabilities.

  5. Covalent immobilization of metal-organic frameworks onto the surface of nylon--a new approach to the functionalization and coloration of textiles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu, Ming; Li, Wanxin; Wang, Ziqiang; Zhang, Bowu; Ma, Hongjuan; Li, Linfan; Li, Jingye


    .... Here, we report a new environmentally friendly route for the simultaneous coloration and functionalization of textiles by the covalent immobilization of a metal-organic framework, Cr-based MIL-101(Cr...

  6. Synthesis and post-synthetic modification of amine-, alkyne-, azide- and nitro-functionalized metal-organic frameworks based on DUT-5. (United States)

    Gotthardt, Meike A; Grosjean, Sylvain; Brunner, Tobias S; Kotzel, Johannes; Gänzler, Andreas M; Wolf, Silke; Bräse, Stefan; Kleist, Wolfgang


    Functionalized 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylic acid molecules with additional amine, alkyne, azide or nitro groups were prepared and applied in the synthesis of novel metal-organic frameworks and mixed-linker metal-organic frameworks isoreticular to DUT-5. The properties of the frameworks could be tuned by varying the number of functional groups in the materials and the amine groups were employed in post-synthetic modification reactions without changing the framework structure or significantly decreasing the porosity of the materials.

  7. A Base-Resistant Metalloporphyrin Metal-Organic Framework for C-H Bond Halogenation. (United States)

    Lv, Xiu-Liang; Wang, Kecheng; Wang, Bin; Su, Jie; Zou, Xiaodong; Xie, Yabo; Li, Jian-Rong; Zhou, Hong-Cai


    A base-resistant porphyrin metal-organic framework (MOF), namely PCN-602 has been constructed with 12-connected [Ni8(OH)4(H2O)2Pz12] (Pz = pyrazolate) cluster and a newly designed pyrazolate-based porphyrin ligand, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-(pyrazolate-4-yl)phenyl)porphyrin under the guidance of the reticular synthesis strategy. Besides its robustness in hydroxide solution, PCN-602 also shows excellent stability in aqueous solutions of F(-), CO3(2-), and PO4(3-) ions. Interestingly, the Mn(3+)-porphyrinic PCN-602, as a recyclable MOF catalyst, presents high catalytic activity for the C-H bond halogenation reaction in a basic system, significantly outperforming its homogeneous counterpart. For the first time, a porphyrinic MOF was thus used as an efficient catalyst in a basic solution with coordinating anions, to the best of our knowledge.

  8. Armoring Enzymes by Metal-Organic Frameworks by the Coprecipitation Method. (United States)

    Hou, Miao; Ge, Jun


    Enzymatic processes have great potential for applications in industrial biocatalysis, biosensing, and biomedical engineering. However, poor stability and difficulty in the reuse of enzymes still create challenges for their use in catalysis and other applications. In recent years, enzyme-incorporated metal-organic frameworks (enzyme@MOF) have emerged as a new type of armored enzymes and are thought to be an appealing solution to the above challenges. To date, the preparation of enzyme-MOF composites can be divided into three categories, including physical adsorption, covalent conjugation, and coprecipitation. The coprecipitation method integrates the synthesis of MOFs and encapsulation of enzymes into one step, allowing common MOFs with regular pore sizes to be used as carriers for enzyme binding. In this chapter, we present a protocol for the synthesis of enzyme@MOF composites using the coprecipitation approach with particular details. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Metal-organic frameworks for electronics: emerging second order nonlinear optical and dielectric materials. (United States)

    Mendiratta, Shruti; Lee, Cheng-Hua; Usman, Muhammad; Lu, Kuang-Lieh


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been intensively studied over the past decade because they represent a new category of hybrid inorganic-organic materials with extensive surface areas, ultrahigh porosity, along with the extraordinary tailorability of structure, shape and dimensions. In this highlight, we summarize the current state of MOF research and report on structure-property relationships for nonlinear optical (NLO) and dielectric applications. We focus on the design principles and structural elements needed to develop potential NLO and low dielectric (low-κ) MOFs with an emphasis on enhancing material performance. In addition, we highlight experimental evidence for the design of devices for low-dielectric applications. These results motivate us to develop better low-dielectric and NLO materials and to perform in-depth studies related to deposition techniques, patterning and the mechanical performance of these materials in the future.

  10. Aluminum Gallium Nitride Alloys Grown via Metalorganic Vapor-Phase Epitaxy Using a Digital Growth Technique (United States)

    Rodak, L. E.; Korakakis, D.


    This work investigates the use of a digital growth technique as a viable method for achieving high-quality aluminum gallium nitride (Al x Ga1- x N) films via metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. Digital alloys are superlattice structures with period thicknesses of a few monolayers. Alloys with an AlN mole fraction ranging from 0.1 to 0.9 were grown by adjusting the thickness of the AlN layer in the superlattice. High-resolution x-ray diffraction was used to determine the superlattice period and c-lattice parameter of the structure, while reciprocal-space mapping was used to determine the a-lattice parameter and evaluate growth coherency. A comparison of the measured lattice parameter with both the nominal value and also the underlying buffer layer is discussed.

  11. Titanium-Phosphonate-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks with Hierarchical Porosity for Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hui


    Photocatalytic hydrogen production is crucial for solar-to-chemical conversion process, wherein high-efficiency photocatalysts lie in the heart of this area. Herein a new photocatalyst of hierarchically mesoporous titanium-phosphonate-based metal-organic frameworks, featuring well-structured spheres, periodic mesostructure and large secondary mesoporosity, are rationally designed with the complex of polyelectrolyte and cathodic surfactant serving as the template. The well-structured hierarchical porosity and homogeneously incorporated phosphonate groups can favor the mass transfer and strong optical absorption during the photocatalytic reactions. Correspondingly, the titanium phosphonates exhibit significantly improved photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate along with impressive stability. This work can provide more insights into designing advanced photocatalysts for energy conversion and render a tunable platform in photoelectrochemical field.

  12. Compositions and methods of making and using metal-organic framework compositions

    KAUST Repository

    Mohideen, Mohamed Infas Haja


    Embodiments of the present disclosure include a metal-organic framework (MOF) composition comprising one or more metal ions, a plurality of organic ligands, and a solvent, wherein the one or more metal ions associate with the plurality of organic ligands sufficient to form a MOF with kag topology. Embodiments of the present disclosure further include a method of making a MOF composition comprising contacting one or more metal ions with a plurality of organic ligands in the presence of a solvent, sufficient to form a MOF with kag topology, wherein the solvent comprises water only. Embodiments of the present disclosure also describe a method of capturing chemical species from a fluid composition comprising contacting a MOF composition with kag topology and pore size of about 3.4Å to 4.8Å with a fluid composition comprising two or more chemical species and capturing one or more captured chemical species from the fluid composition.

  13. A metal-organic framework-based splitter for separating propylene from propane

    KAUST Repository

    Cadiau, Amandine


    The chemical industry is dependent on the olefin/paraffin separation, which is mainly accomplished by using energy-intensive processes. We report the use of reticular chemistry for the fabrication of a chemically stable fluorinated metal-organic framework (MOF) material (NbOFFIVE-1-Ni, also referred to as KAUST-7). The bridging of Ni(II)-pyrazine square-grid layers with (NbOF5)2- pillars afforded the construction of a three-dimensional MOF, enclosing a periodic array of fluoride anions in contracted square-shaped channels. The judiciously selected bulkier (NbOF5)2- caused the looked-for hindrance of the previously free-rotating pyrazine moieties, delimiting the pore system and dictating the pore aperture size and its maximum opening. The restricted MOF window resulted in the selective molecular exclusion of propane from propylene at atmospheric pressure, as evidenced through multiple cyclic mixed-gas adsorption and calorimetric studies.

  14. Rapid Guest Exchange and Ultra-Low Surface Tension Solvents Optimize Metal-Organic Framework Activation. (United States)

    Ma, Jialiu; Kalenak, Andre P; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J


    Exploratory research into the critical steps in metal-organic framework (MOF) activation involving solvent exchange and solvent evacuation are reported. It is discovered that solvent exchange kinetics are extremely fast, and minutes rather days are appropriate for solvent exchange in many MOFs. It is also demonstrated that choice of a very low surface tension solvent is critical in successfully activating challenging MOFs. MOFs that have failed to be activated previously can achieve predicted surface areas provided that lower surface tension solvents, such as n-hexane and perfluoropentane, are applied. The insights herein aid in the efficient activation of MOFs in both laboratory and industrial settings and provide best practices for avoiding structural collapse. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Engineering chiral porous metal-organic frameworks for enantioselective adsorption and separation (United States)

    Peng, Yongwu; Gong, Tengfei; Zhang, Kang; Lin, Xiaochao; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Jianwen; Cui, Yong


    The separation of racemic molecules is of substantial significance not only for basic science but also for technical applications, such as fine chemicals and drug development. Here we report two isostructural chiral metal-organic frameworks decorated with chiral dihydroxy or -methoxy auxiliares from enantiopure tetracarboxylate-bridging ligands of 1,1‧-biphenol and a manganese carboxylate chain. The framework bearing dihydroxy groups functions as a solid-state host capable of adsorbing and separating mixtures of a range of chiral aromatic and aliphatic amines, with high enantioselectivity. The host material can be readily recycled and reused without any apparent loss of performance. The utility of the present adsorption separation is demonstrated in the large-scale resolution of racemic 1-phenylethylamine. Control experiments and molecular simulations suggest that the chiral recognition and separation are attributed to the different orientations and specific binding energies of the enantiomers in the microenvironment of the framework.

  16. A homochiral metal-organic framework as an effective asymmetric catalyst for cyanohydrin synthesis. (United States)

    Mo, Ke; Yang, Yuhua; Cui, Yong


    A homochiral metal-organic framework (MOF) of an enantiopure 2,2'-dihydroxy-1,1'-biphenyl ligand was constructed. After exchanging one proton of the dihydroxyl group for Li(I) ions, the framework is shown to be a highly efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for asymmetric cyanation of aldehydes with up to >99% ee. Compared with the homogeneous counterpart, the MOF catalyst exhibits significantly enhanced catalytic activity and enantioselectivity, especially at a low catalyst/substrate ratio, due to that the rigid framework could stabilize the catalytically active monolithium salt of biphenol against its free transformation to catalytically inactive and/or less active assemblies in reactions. The synthetic utility of the cyanation was demonstrated in the synthesis of (S)-bufuralol (a nonselective β-adrenoceptor blocking agent) with 98% ee.

  17. Liquid- and Gas-Phase Diffusion of Ferrocene in Thin Films of Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencai Zhou


    Full Text Available The mass transfer of the guest molecules in nanoporous host materials, in particular in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, is among the crucial features of their applications. By using thin surface-mounted MOF films in combination with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM, the diffusion of ferrocene vapor and of ethanolic and hexanic ferrocene solution in HKUST-1 was investigated. For the first time, liquid- and gas-phase diffusion in MOFs was compared directly in the identical sample. The diffusion coefficients are in the same order of magnitude (~10−16 m2·s−1, whereas the diffusion coefficient of ferrocene in the empty framework is roughly 3-times smaller than in the MOF which is filled with ethanol or n-hexane.

  18. Sonochemical Synthesis of Photoluminescent Nanoscale Eu(III-Containing Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-an TAO


    Full Text Available Nanoscale lanthanide-containing metal-organic frameworks (MOFs have more and more interest due to their great properties and potential applications, but how to construct them easily is still challenging. Here, we present a facile and rapid synthesis of Eu(III-containing Nanoscale MOF (denoted as NMOF under ultrasonic irradiation. The effect of the ratio and the addition order of metal ions and linkers on the morphology and size of MOFs was investigated. It is found that both of the ratio and the addition order can affect the morphology and size of 1.4-benzenedicarboxylic acid(H2BDC -based MOFs, but they show no evident influence on that of H2aBDC-based MOFs. The former exhibit typical emission bands of Eu(III ions, while the latter only show the photoluminescent properties of ligands.DOI:

  19. High photoluminescent metal-organic frameworks as optical markers for the identification of gunshot residues. (United States)

    Weber, Ingrid Távora; de Melo, Adenaule James Geber; Lucena, Marcella Auxiliadora de Melo; Rodrigues, Marcelo Oliveira; Alves, Severino


    Gunshot residue (GSR) are solid particles produced when a firearm is discharged, and its detection is important evidence in forensic investigations. Currently, scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) is the standard technique adopted for the analysis and identification of GSR; however, this methodology is inefficient for lead-free ammunition. Herein, we report the inclusion of high photoluminescent metal-organic frameworks in ammunition to allow for the visual detection of GSR. The tests indicated that marked GSR is easily visible in proportions above 5.0 wt %. A total of 1 g of marker suffices to tag 100 0.38 mm bullets or 62 0.40 mm bullets.

  20. MOFwich: Sandwiched Metal-Organic Framework-Containing Mixed Matrix Composites for Chemical Warfare Agent Removal. (United States)

    Peterson, Gregory W; Lu, Annie X; Hall, Morgan G; Browe, Matthew A; Tovar, Trenton; Epps, Thomas H


    This work describes a new strategy for fabricating mixed matrix composites containing layered metal-organic framework (MOF)/polymer films as functional barriers for chemical warfare agent protection. Through the use of mechanically robust polymers as the top and bottom encasing layers, a high-MOF-loading, high-performance-core layer can be sandwiched within. We term this multifunctional composite "MOFwich". We found that the use of elastomeric encasing layers enabled core layer reformation after breakage, an important feature for composites and membranes alike. The incorporation of MOFs into the core layer led to enhanced removal of chemical warfare agents while simultaneously promoting moisture vapor transport through the composite, showcasing the promise of these composites for protection applications.

  1. Metal-organic framework based highly selective fluorescence turn-on probe for hydrogen sulphide (United States)

    Nagarkar, Sanjog S.; Saha, Tanmoy; Desai, Aamod V.; Talukdar, Pinaki; Ghosh, Sujit K.


    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is known to play a vital role in human physiology and pathology which stimulated interest in understanding complex behaviour of H2S. Discerning the pathways of H2S production and its mode of action is still a challenge owing to its volatile and reactive nature. Herein we report azide functionalized metal-organic framework (MOF) as a selective turn-on fluorescent probe for H2S detection. The MOF shows highly selective and fast response towards H2S even in presence of other relevant biomolecules. Low cytotoxicity and H2S detection in live cells, demonstrate the potential of MOF towards monitoring H2S chemistry in biological system. To the best of our knowledge this is the first example of MOF that exhibit fast and highly selective fluorescence turn-on response towards H2S under physiological conditions.

  2. Hydrolytically stable fluorinated metal-organic frameworks for energy-efficient dehydration (United States)

    Cadiau, Amandine; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Adil, Karim; Bhatt, Prashant M.; Pillai, Renjith S.; Shkurenko, Aleksander; Martineau-Corcos, Charlotte; Maurin, Guillaume; Eddaoudi, Mohamed


    Natural gas must be dehydrated before it can be transported and used, but conventional drying agents such as activated alumina or inorganic molecular sieves require an energy-intensive desiccant-regeneration step. We report a hydrolytically stable fluorinated metal-organic framework, AlFFIVE-1-Ni (KAUST-8), with a periodic array of open metal coordination sites and fluorine moieties within the contracted square-shaped one-dimensional channel. This material selectively removed water vapor from gas streams containing CO2, N2, CH4, and higher hydrocarbons typical of natural gas, as well as selectively removed both H2O and CO2 in N2-containing streams. The complete desorption of the adsorbed water molecules contained by the AlFFIVE-1-Ni sorbent requires relatively moderate temperature (~105°C) and about half the energy input for commonly used desiccants.

  3. A novel hybrid metal-organic framework-polymeric monolith for solid-phase microextraction. (United States)

    Lin, Chen-Lan; Lirio, Stephen; Chen, Ya-Ting; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya


    This study describes the fabrication of a novel hybrid metal-organic framework- organic polymer (MOF-polymer) for use as a stationary phase in fritless solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for validating analytical methods. The MOF-polymer was prepared by using ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and an imidazolium-based ionic liquid as porogenic solvent followed by microwave-assisted polymerization with the addition of 25 % MOF. This novel hybrid MOF-polymer was used to extract penicillin (penicillin G, penicillin V, oxacillin, cloxacillin, nafcillin, dicloxacillin) under different conditions. Quantitative analysis of the extracted penicillin samples using the MOF-organic polymer for SPME was conducted by using capillary electrochromatography (CEC) coupled with UV analysis. The penicillin recovery was 63-96.2 % with high reproducibility, sensitivity, and reusability. The extraction time with the proposed fabricated SPME was only 34 min. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A Simple Approach to Enhance the Water Stability of a Metal-Organic Framework. (United States)

    Shih, Yung-Han; Kuo, Yu-Ching; Lirio, Stephen; Wang, Kun-Yun; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya


    A facile method to improve the feasibility of water-unstable metal-organic frameworks in an aqueous environment has been developed that involves imbedding in a polymer monolith. The effect of compartment type during polymerization plays a significant role in maintaining the crystalline structure and thermal stability of the MOFs, which was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The MOF-polymer composite prepared in a narrow compartment (column, ID 0.8 mm) has better thermal and chemical stability than that prepared in a broad compartment (vial, ID 7 mm). The developed MOF-polymer composite was applied as an adsorbent in solid-phase microextraction of nine non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and could be used for extraction more than 30 times, demonstrating that the proposed approach has potential for industrial applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Optical nonlinearity, limiting and switching characteristics of novel ruthenium metal-organic complex (United States)

    Manjunatha, K. B.; Rajarao, Ravindra; Umesh, G.; Ramachandra Bhat, B.; Poornesh, P.


    We report the nonlinear optical properties of Ruthenium metal complex a promising organic material for use in scientific and technological applications. The thin films of newly synthesized ruthenium metal-organic complex were fabricated using spin coating technique. Z-scan and degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) techniques used to extract the third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) parameters. The data reveals the investigated material exhibited relatively large NLO properties. The pump-probe experiments shows that the switch-on and off times of the material were in the order of μs at different pump intensities and the energy dependent transmission studies reveal good limiting property of the material in nanosecond regime.

  6. New metal-organic nanomaterials synthesized by laser irradiation of organic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmin, Stanislav L.; Wesolowski, Michal J.; Duley, Walter W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)


    A new type of metal-organic composition consisting of clusters of nanoparticles has been synthesised by laser irradiation of metallocene/benzene solutions. The metallocene molecules in this reaction become the source of the metal. Exposure to high-energy femtosecond laser pulses dehydrogenate benzene molecules and initiate the high-temperature high-pressure conditions that results in the synthesis of new materials. Irradiation experiments have been carried out on ferrocene/benzene and on other solutions. With ferrocene the synthesis of a new compound has been confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction as the peaks detected do not correspond to any known substance in the Crystallography Open Database. Theoretical simulation of the periodic structure of this new carbide predicts that it has hexagonal symmetry and a unit cell with a = 3.2A and c =2.8A. The exact structure is still uncertain but may be determined from scanning tunneling microscope (STM) studies.

  7. Water adsorption and proton conduction in metal-organic frameworks: Insights from molecular simulations (United States)

    Paesani, Francesco


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a relatively new class of porous materials that hold great potential for a wide range of applications in chemistry, materials science, and nanoengineering. Compared to other porous materials such as zeolites, MOF properties are highly tunable. In particular, it has been shown that both size and shape of the MOF pores can be rationally designed for specific applications. For example, the ability to modify the framework properties with respect to hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity and acidity/basicity can enable the direct control of proton conduction through carrier molecules adsorbed inside the pores. Here, I report on our current efforts aimed at providing a molecular-level characterization of water-mediated proton conduction through the MOF pores. Particular emphasis will be put on correlation between proton conduction and both structural and chemical properties of the frameworks as well as on the dynamical behavior of water confined in the MOF pores. NSF award number: DMR-130510

  8. Characterization of Adsorption Enthalpy of Novel Water-Stable Zeolites and Metal-Organic Frameworks (United States)

    Kim, Hyunho; Cho, H. Jeremy; Narayanan, Shankar; Yang, Sungwoo; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Schiffres, Scott; Li, Xiansen; Zhang, Yue-Biao; Jiang, Juncong; Yaghi, Omar M.; Wang, Evelyn N.


    Water adsorption is becoming increasingly important for many applications including thermal energy storage, desalination, and water harvesting. To develop such applications, it is essential to understand both adsorbent-adsorbate and adsorbate-adsorbate interactions, and also the energy required for adsorption/desorption processes of porous material-adsorbate systems, such as zeolites and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). In this study, we present a technique to characterize the enthalpy of adsorption/desorption of zeolites and MOF-801 with water as an adsorbate by conducting desorption experiments with conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). With this method, the enthalpies of adsorption of previously uncharacterized adsorbents were estimated as a function of both uptake and temperature. Our characterizations indicate that the adsorption enthalpies of type I zeolites can increase to greater than twice the latent heat whereas adsorption enthalpies of MOF-801 are nearly constant for a wide range of vapor uptakes.

  9. Chemoselective single-site Earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal-organic framework nodes (United States)

    Manna, Kuntal; Ji, Pengfei; Lin, Zekai; Greene, Francis X.; Urban, Ania; Thacker, Nathan C.; Lin, Wenbin


    Earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed for sustainable chemical synthesis. Here we report a simple, cheap and effective strategy of producing novel earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal-organic framework (MOF) nodes for broad-scope organic transformations. The straightforward metalation of MOF secondary building units (SBUs) with cobalt and iron salts affords highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for a range of organic reactions, including chemoselective borylation, silylation and amination of benzylic C-H bonds, as well as hydrogenation and hydroboration of alkenes and ketones. Our structural, spectroscopic and kinetic studies suggest that chemoselective organic transformations occur on site-isolated, electron-deficient and coordinatively unsaturated metal centres at the SBUs via σ-bond metathesis pathways and as a result of the steric environment around the catalytic site. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for the development of highly active and affordable base metal catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals.

  10. Selective Photooxidation of a Mustard-Gas Simulant Catalyzed by a Porphyrinic Metal-Organic Framework. (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Howarth, Ashlee J; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K


    The photooxidation of a mustard-gas simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), is studied using a porphyrin-based metal-organic framework (MOF) catalyst. At room temperature and neutral pH value, singlet oxygen is generated by PCN-222/MOF-545 using an inexpensive and commercially available light-emitting diode. The singlet oxygen produced by PCN-222/MOF-545 selectively oxidizes CEES to the comparatively nontoxic product 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfoxide (CEESO) without formation of the highly toxic sulfone product. In comparison to current methods, which utilize hydrogen peroxide as an oxidizing agent, this is a more realistic, convenient, and effective method for mustard-gas detoxification. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A Luminescent Metal-Organic Framework Thermometer with Intrinsic Dual Emission from Organic Lumophores. (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Lin, Chensheng; Sheng, Tianlu; Hu, Shengmin; Zhuo, Chao; Fu, Ruibiao; Wen, Yuehong; Li, Haoran; Su, Shaodong; Wu, Xintao


    A new mixed-ligand metal-organic framework (MOF), ZnATZ-BTB, has been constructed as a luminescent ratiometric thermometer by making use of the intrinsic dual emission at cryogenic temperatures. Its twofold interpenetrated network promotes the Dexter energy transfer (DET) between the mixed organic lumophores. The temperature-dependent luminescent behavior arises from the thermal equilibrium between two separated excited states coupled by DET, which is confirmed by Boltzmann distribution fitting. The small excited-state energy gap allows ZnATZ-BTB to measure and visualize cryogenic temperatures (30-130 K) with significantly high relative sensitivity (up to 5.29% K(-1) at 30 K). Moreover, it is the first example of a ratiometric MOF thermometer the dual emitting sources of which are widely applicable mixed organic ligands, opening up new opportunities for designing such devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Flexible, Luminescent Metal-Organic Frameworks Showing Synergistic Solid-Solution Effects on Porosity and Sensitivity. (United States)

    Liu, Si-Yang; Zhou, Dong-Dong; He, Chun-Ting; Liao, Pei-Qin; Cheng, Xiao-Ning; Xu, Yan-Tong; Ye, Jia-Wen; Zhang, Jie-Peng; Chen, Xiao-Ming


    Mixing molecular building blocks in the solid solution manner is a valuable strategy to obtain structures and properties in between the isostructural parent metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). We report nonlinear/synergistic solid-solution effects using highly related yet non-isostructural, phosphorescent CuI triazolate frameworks as parent phases. Near the phase boundaries associated with conformational diversity and ligand heterogeneity, the porosity (+150 %) and optical O2 sensitivity (410 times, limit of detection 0.07 ppm) can be drastically improved from the best-performing parent MOFs and even exceeds the records hold by precious-metal complexes (3 ppm) and C70 (0.2 ppm). © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Nickel(II) oxide nanostructure derived from metal-organic frameworks and its adsorption capability (United States)

    Ru, Shuai; Xu, Lina; Xiao, Hongping; Li, Xinhua


    Nanosized nickel(II) oxide (NiO) was obtained by oxidation of ([(Ni2(nic)4(H2O)] n , nic = nicotinic acid), a metal-organic framework (MOF), at 350 °C. Nanosized NiO assembled to form block NiO having a mesoporous structure similar to the porous structure of activated carbon block. This bulk NiO exhibits excellent adsorbing capability, with 100% higher adsorption capacities than the [(Ni2(nic)4(H2O)] n MOF towards toluene and water steam; therefore, it can find potential application in gas adsorption. Moreover, this bulk NiO can be synthesized using a facile, environment-friendly, and cost-effective method, and exhibits excellent hydrothermal stability, which is not commonly observed for MOFs.

  14. Plasmonic nanopatch array with integrated metal-organic framework for enhanced infrared absorption gas sensing (United States)

    Chong, Xinyuan; Kim, Ki-joong; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Erwen; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Chang, Chih-Hung; Wang, Alan X.


    In this letter, we present a nanophotonic device consisting of plasmonic nanopatch array (NPA) with integrated metal-organic framework (MOF) for enhanced infrared absorption gas sensing. By designing a gold NPA on a sapphire substrate, we are able to achieve enhanced optical field that spatially overlaps with the MOF layer, which can adsorb carbon dioxide (CO2) with high capacity. Experimental results show that this hybrid plasmonic-MOF device can effectively increase the infrared absorption path of on-chip gas sensors by more than 1100-fold. The demonstration of infrared absorption spectroscopy of CO2 using the hybrid plasmonic-MOF device proves a promising strategy for future on-chip gas sensing with ultra-compact size.

  15. Applications of Total Scattering & Pair Distribution Function Analysis in Metal-Organic Framework Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Hui; Birgisson, Steinar; Sommer, Sanna

    Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) is constructed by metal-oxide nodes and organic ligands. The formation of different structures of metal-oxide nodes (also called secondary building units, SBU) is crucial for MOF final structures, because the connectivity of SBU greatly influence the final MOF...... structure. At the same time, there is an ongoing debate on whether the SBU is present prior, or during MOF crystallization in MOF chemistry. However, little is known about MOFs formation mechanism. Currently techniques to study the in situ MOF formation process mainly focused on after......-crystallization process, for example in situ XRD and SAXS/WAXS study on MOF formation. However, the pre-crystallization process in the early stage of MOF formation is still unexplored. In this project, total scattering and PDF study will be carried out to explore the MOF formation process in early stage. This includes...

  16. Metal-Organic Framework Thin Films as Stationary Phases in Microfabricated Gas-Chromatography Columns.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sillerud, Colin Halliday [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The overarching goal of this project is to integrate Sandia's microfabricated gas-chromatography ( GC) columns with a stationary phase material that is capable of retaining high-volatility chemicals and permanent gases. The successful integration of such a material with GCs would dramatically expand the repertoire of detectable compounds for Sandia's various microanalysis systems. One such promising class of candidate materials is metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). In this report we detail our methods for controlled deposition of HKUST-1 MOF stationary phases within GC columns. We demonstrate: the chromatographic separation of natural gas; a method for determining MOF film thickness from chromatography alone; and the first-reported GC x GC separation of natural gas -- in general -- let alone for two disparate MOF stationary phases. In addition we determine the fundamental thermodynamic constant for mass sorption, the partition coefficient, for HKUST-1 and several light hydrocarbons and select toxic industrial chemicals.

  17. Single Pt Atoms Confined into a Metal-Organic Framework for Efficient Photocatalysis. (United States)

    Fang, Xinzuo; Shang, Qichao; Wang, Yu; Jiao, Long; Yao, Tao; Li, Yafei; Zhang, Qun; Luo, Yi; Jiang, Hai-Long


    It is highly desirable yet remains challenging to improve the dispersion and usage of noble metal cocatalysts, beneficial to charge transfer in photocatalysis. Herein, for the first time, single Pt atoms are successfully confined into a metal-organic framework (MOF), in which electrons transfer from the MOF photosensitizer to the Pt acceptor for hydrogen production by water splitting under visible-light irradiation. Remarkably, the single Pt atoms exhibit a superb activity, giving a turnover frequency of 35 h -1 , ≈30 times that of Pt nanoparticles stabilized by the same MOF. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy further unveils that the single Pt atoms confined into the MOF provide highly efficient electron transfer channels and density functional theory calculations indicate that the introduction of single Pt atoms into the MOF improves the hydrogen binding energy, thus greatly boosting the photocatalytic H 2 production activity. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Antifungal activity of water-stable copper-containing metal-organic frameworks (United States)

    Bouson, Supaporn; Krittayavathananon, Atiweena; Phattharasupakun, Nutthaphon; Siwayaprahm, Patcharaporn; Sawangphruk, Montree


    Although metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) or porous coordination polymers have been widely studied, their antimicrobial activities have not yet been fully investigated. In this work, antifungal activity of copper-based benzene-tricarboxylate MOF (Cu-BTC MOF), which is water stable and industrially interesting, is investigated against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Fusarium oxysporum. The Cu-BTC MOF can effectively inhibit the growth rate of C. albicans and remarkably inhibit the spore growth of A. niger, A. oryzae and F. oxysporum. This finding shows the potential of using Cu-BTC MOF as a strong biocidal material against representative yeasts and moulds that are commonly found in the food and agricultural industries.

  19. Anodized Aluminum Oxide Templated Synthesis of Metal-Organic Frameworks Used as Membrane Reactors. (United States)

    Yu, Yifu; Wu, Xue-Jun; Zhao, Meiting; Ma, Qinglang; Chen, Junze; Chen, Bo; Sindoro, Melinda; Yang, Jian; Han, Shikui; Lu, Qipeng; Zhang, Hua


    The incorporation of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) into membrane-shaped architectures is of great importance for practical applications. The currently synthesized MOF-based membranes show many disadvantages, such as poor compatibility, low dispersity, and instability, which severely limit their utility. Herein, we present a general, facile, and robust approach for the synthesis of MOF-based composite membranes through the in situ growth of MOF plates in the channels of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes. After being used as catalysis reactors, they exhibit high catalytic performance and stability in the Knoevenagel condensation reaction. The high catalytic performance might be attributed to the intrinsic structure of MOF-based composite membranes, which can remove the products from the reaction zone quickly, and prevent the aggregation and loss of catalysts during reaction and recycling process. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Hydrolytically stable fluorinated metal-organic frameworks for energy-efficient dehydration

    KAUST Repository

    Cadiau, Amandine


    Natural gas must be dehydrated before it can be transported and used, but conventional drying agents such as activated alumina or inorganic molecular sieves require an energy-intensive desiccant-regeneration step. We report a hydrolytically stable fluorinated metal-organic framework, AlFFIVE-1-Ni (KAUST-8), with a periodic array of open metal coordination sites and fluorine moieties within the contracted square-shaped one-dimensional channel. This material selectively removed water vapor from gas streams containing CO2, N2, CH4, and higher hydrocarbons typical of natural gas, as well as selectively removed both H2O and CO2 in N2-containing streams. The complete desorption of the adsorbed water molecules contained by the AlFFIVE-1-Ni sorbent requires relatively moderate temperature (~105°C) and about half the energy input for commonly used desiccants.

  1. CFA-7: an interpenetrated metal-organic framework of the MFU-4 family. (United States)

    Schmieder, Phillip; Grzywa, Maciej; Denysenko, Dmytro; Hambach, Manuel; Volkmer, Dirk


    The novel interpenetrated metal-organic framework CFA-7 (Coordination Framework Augsburg University-7), [Zn5Cl4(tqpt)3], has been synthesized containing the organic linker {H2-tqpt = 6,6,14,14-tetramethyl-6,14-dihydroquinoxalino[2,3-b]phenazinebistriazole}. Reaction of H2-tqpt and anhydrous ZnCl2 in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) yields CFA-7 as pseudo-cubic crystals. CFA-7 serves as precursor for the synthesis of isostructural frameworks with redox-active metal centers, which is demonstrated by postsynthetic metal exchange of Zn(2+) by different M(2+) (M = Co, Ni, Cu) ions. The novel framework is robust upon solvent removal and has been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, TGA and IR spectroscopy, as well as gas sorption (Ar, CO2 and H2).

  2. System and method for generating and/or screening potential metal-organic frameworks (United States)

    Wilmer, Christopher E; Leaf, Michael; Snurr, Randall Q; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T


    A system and method for systematically generating potential metal-organic framework (MOFs) structures given an input library of building blocks is provided herein. One or more material properties of the potential MOFs are evaluated using computational simulations. A range of material properties (surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, powder x-ray diffraction pattern, methane adsorption capability, and the like) can be estimated, and in doing so, illuminate unidentified structure-property relationships that may only have been recognized by taking a global view of MOF structures. In addition to identifying structure-property relationships, this systematic approach to identify the MOFs of interest is used to identify one or more MOFs that may be useful for high pressure methane storage.

  3. The Functionalization, Size Control and Properties of Metal-Organic Frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Hui; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    Recent years, Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) materials have drawn great attentions due to their potential applications in gas sorption/separation and luminescent sensing. In this dissertation, the recent progress of MOF materials is reviewed, with specific focus on the functionalization, size...... control and properties of MOF materials. A cationic MOF material was synthesized, and small hydrocarbons C1/C2 sorption/separation properties were studied. A MOF with both open metal sites and Lewis basic pyridyl sites was developed, and C2H2, CO2 and CH4 gas sorption/separation properties were explored....... A nanoscale MOF material with controllable size was realized whose morphology has been simulated base on the BFDH method, and the sensing of bacteria endospores was research in detail. We also report the synthesis and sensing of nitroaromatic explosives of a nanoscale MOF material....

  4. Ultrafast water sensing and thermal imaging by a metal-organic framework with switchable luminescence (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Ye, Jia-Wen; Wang, Hai-Ping; Pan, Mei; Yin, Shao-Yun; Wei, Zhang-Wen; Zhang, Lu-Yin; Wu, Kai; Fan, Ya-Nan; Su, Cheng-Yong


    A convenient, fast and selective water analysis method is highly desirable in industrial and detection processes. Here a robust microporous Zn-MOF (metal-organic framework, Zn(hpi2cf)(DMF)(H2O)) is assembled from a dual-emissive H2hpi2cf (5-(2-(5-fluoro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)isophthalic acid) ligand that exhibits characteristic excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). This Zn-MOF contains amphipathic micropores (sensing material, showing a fast (on the order of seconds) and highly selective response to water on a molecular level. Furthermore, paper or in situ grown ZnO-based sensing films have been fabricated and applied in humidity sensing (RHorganic solvents, thermal imaging and as a thermometer.

  5. Luminescent metal-organic frameworks for chemical sensing and explosive detection. (United States)

    Hu, Zhichao; Deibert, Benjamin J; Li, Jing


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a unique class of crystalline solids comprised of metal cations (or metal clusters) and organic ligands that have shown promise for a wide variety of applications. Over the past 15 years, research and development of these materials have become one of the most intensely and extensively pursued areas. A very interesting and well-investigated topic is their optical emission properties and related applications. Several reviews have provided a comprehensive overview covering many aspects of the subject up to 2011. This review intends to provide an update of work published since then and focuses on the photoluminescence (PL) properties of MOFs and their possible utility in chemical and biological sensing and detection. The spectrum of this review includes the origin of luminescence in MOFs, the advantages of luminescent MOF (LMOF) based sensors, general strategies in designing sensory materials, and examples of various applications in sensing and detection.

  6. Pristine Metal-Organic Frameworks and their Composites for Energy Storage and Conversion. (United States)

    Liang, Zibin; Qu, Chong; Guo, Wenhan; Zou, Ruqiang; Xu, Qiang


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a new class of crystalline porous organic-inorganic hybrid materials, have recently attracted increasing interest in the field of energy storage and conversion. Herein, recent progress of MOFs and MOF composites for energy storage and conversion applications, including photochemical and electrochemical fuel production (hydrogen production and CO 2 reduction), water oxidation, supercapacitors, and Li-based batteries (Li-ion, Li-S, and Li-O 2 batteries), is summarized. Typical development strategies (e.g., incorporation of active components, design of smart morphologies, and judicious selection of organic linkers and metal nodes) of MOFs and MOF composites for particular energy storage and conversion applications are highlighted. A broad overview of recent progress is provided, which will hopefully promote the future development of MOFs and MOF composites for advanced energy storage and conversion applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Mechanical tunability via hydrogen bonding in metal-organic frameworks with the perovskite architecture. (United States)

    Li, Wei; Thirumurugan, A; Barton, Phillip T; Lin, Zheshuai; Henke, Sebastian; Yeung, Hamish H-M; Wharmby, Michael T; Bithell, Erica G; Howard, Christopher J; Cheetham, Anthony K


    Two analogous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with the perovskite architecture, [C(NH2)3][Mn(HCOO)3] (1) and [(CH2)3NH2][Mn(HCOO)3] (2), exhibit significantly different mechanical properties. The marked difference is attributed to their distinct modes of hydrogen bonding between the A-site amine cation and the anionic framework. The stronger cross-linking hydrogen bonding in 1 gives rise to Young's moduli and hardnesses that are up to twice those in 2, while the thermal expansion is substantially smaller. This study presents clear evidence that the mechanical properties of MOF materials can be substantially tuned via hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  8. Construction of hierarchically porous metal-organic frameworks through linker labilization (United States)

    Yuan, Shuai; Zou, Lanfang; Qin, Jun-Sheng; Li, Jialuo; Huang, Lan; Feng, Liang; Wang, Xuan; Bosch, Mathieu; Alsalme, Ali; Cagin, Tahir; Zhou, Hong-Cai


    A major goal of metal-organic framework (MOF) research is the expansion of pore size and volume. Although many approaches have been attempted to increase the pore size of MOF materials, it is still a challenge to construct MOFs with precisely customized pore apertures for specific applications. Herein, we present a new method, namely linker labilization, to increase the MOF porosity and pore size, giving rise to hierarchical-pore architectures. Microporous MOFs with robust metal nodes and pro-labile linkers were initially synthesized. The mesopores were subsequently created as crystal defects through the splitting of a pro-labile-linker and the removal of the linker fragments by acid treatment. We demonstrate that linker labilization method can create controllable hierarchical porous structures in stable MOFs, which facilitates the diffusion and adsorption process of guest molecules to improve the performances of MOFs in adsorption and catalysis.

  9. Hydrogen storage in Pd nanocrystals covered with a metal-organic framework (United States)

    Li, Guangqin; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Taylor, Jared M.; Ikeda, Ryuichi; Kubota, Yoshiki; Kato, Kenichi; Takata, Masaki; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Toh, Shoichi; Matsumura, Syo; Kitagawa, Hiroshi


    Hydrogen is an essential component in many industrial processes. As a result of the recent increase in the development of shale gas, steam reforming of shale gas has received considerable attention as a major source of H2, and the more efficient use of hydrogen is strongly demanded. Palladium is well known as a hydrogen-storage metal and an effective catalyst for reactions related to hydrogen in a variety of industrial processes. Here, we present remarkably enhanced capacity and speed of hydrogen storage in Pd nanocrystals covered with the metal-organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1 (copper(II) 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate). The Pd nanocrystals covered with the MOF have twice the storage capacity of the bare Pd nanocrystals. The significantly enhanced hydrogen storage capacity was confirmed by hydrogen pressure-composition isotherms and solid-state deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The speed of hydrogen absorption in the Pd nanocrystals is also enhanced by the MOF coating.

  10. Liquid- and Gas-Phase Diffusion of Ferrocene in Thin Films of Metal-Organic Frameworks (United States)

    Zhou, Wencai; Wöll, Christof; Heinke, Lars


    The mass transfer of the guest molecules in nanoporous host materials, in particular in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), is among the crucial features of their applications. By using thin surface-mounted MOF films in combination with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), the diffusion of ferrocene vapor and of ethanolic and hexanic ferrocene solution in HKUST-1 was investigated. For the first time, liquid- and gas-phase diffusion in MOFs was compared directly in the identical sample. The diffusion coefficients are in the same order of magnitude (~10−16 m2·s−1), whereas the diffusion coefficient of ferrocene in the empty framework is roughly 3-times smaller than in the MOF which is filled with ethanol or n-hexane.

  11. Microporous brookite-phase titania made by replication of a metal-organic framework. (United States)

    Hall, Anthony Shoji; Kondo, Atsushi; Maeda, Kazuyuki; Mallouk, Thomas E


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) provide access to structures with nanoscale pores, the size and connectivity of which can be controlled by combining the appropriate metals and linkers. To date, there have been no reports of using MOFs as templates to make porous, crystalline metal oxides. Microporous titania replicas were made from the MOF template HKUST-1 by dehydration, infiltration with titanium isopropoxide, and subsequent hydrothermal treatment at 200 °C. Etching of the MOF with 1 M aqueous HCl followed by 5% H2O2 yielded a titania replica that retained the morphology of the parent HKUST-1 crystals and contained partially ordered micropores as well as disordered mesopores. Interestingly, the synthesis of porous titania from the HKUST-1 template stabilized the formation of brookite, a rare titania polymorph.

  12. Surface Termination of the Metal-Organic Framework HKUST-1: A Theoretical Investigation. (United States)

    Amirjalayer, Saeed; Tafipolsky, Maxim; Schmid, Rochus


    The surface morphology and termination of metal-organic frameworks (MOF) is of critical importance in many applications, but the surface properties of these soft materials are conceptually different from those of other materials like metal or oxide surfaces. Up to now, experimental investigations are scarce and theoretical simulations have focused on the bulk properties. The possible surface structure of the archetypal MOF HKUST-1 is investigated by a first-principles derived force field in combination with DFT calculations of model systems. The computed surface energies correctly predict the [111] surface to be most stable and allow us to obtain an unprecedented atomistic picture of the surface termination. Entropic factors are identified to determine the preferred surface termination and to be the driving force for the MOF growth. On the basis of this, reported strategies like employing "modulators" during the synthesis to tailor the crystal morphology are discussed.

  13. High-pressure, ambient temperature hydrogen storage in metal-organic frameworks and porous carbon (United States)

    Beckner, Matthew; Dailly, Anne


    We investigated hydrogen storage in micro-porous adsorbents at ambient temperature and pressures up to 320 bar. We measured three benchmark adsorbents: two metal-organic frameworks, Cu3(1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate)2 [Cu3(btc)2; HKUST-1] and Zn4O(1,3,5-benzenetribenzoate)2 [Zn4O(btb)2; MOF-177], and the activated carbon MSC-30. In this talk, we focus on adsorption enthalpy calculations using a single adsorption isotherm. We use the differential form of the Claussius-Clapeyron equation applied to the Dubinin-Astakhov adsorption model to calculate adsorption enthalpies. Calculation of the adsorption enthalpy in this way gives a temperature independent enthalpy of 5-7 kJ/mol at the lowest coverage for the three materials investigated. Additionally, we discuss the assumptions and corrections that must be made when calculating adsorption isotherms at high-pressure and adsorption enthalpies.

  14. Dubinin-Astakhov model for acetylene adsorption on metal-organic frameworks (United States)

    Cheng, Peifu; Hu, Yun Hang


    Acetylene (C2H2) is explosive at a pressure above 29 psi, causing a safety issue for its storage and applications. C2H2 adsorption on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been explored to solve the issue. However, a suitable isotherm equation for C2H2 adsorption on various MOFs has not been found. In this paper, it was demonstrated that Dubinin-Astakhov equation can be exploited as a general isotherm model to depict C2H2 adsorption on MOF-5, ZIF-8, HKUST-1, and MIL-53. In contrast, commonly used Langmuir and BET models exhibited their inapplicability for C2H2 adsorption on those MOFs.

  15. Mimicking heme enzymes in the solid state: metal-organic materials with selectively encapsulated heme. (United States)

    Larsen, Randy W; Wojtas, Lukasz; Perman, Jason; Musselman, Ronald L; Zaworotko, Michael J; Vetromile, Carissa M


    To carry out essential life processes, nature has had to evolve heme enzymes capable of synthesizing and manipulating complex molecules. These proteins perform a plethora of chemical reactions utilizing a single iron porphyrin active site embedded within an evolutionarily designed protein pocket. We herein report the first class of metal-organic materials (MOMs) that mimic heme enzymes in terms of both structure and reactivity. The MOMzyme-1 class is based upon a prototypal MOM, HKUST-1, into which catalytically active metalloporphyrins are selectively encapsulated in a "ship-in-a-bottle" fashion within one of the three nanoscale cages that exist in HKUST-1. MOMs offer unparalleled levels of permanent porosity and their modular nature affords enormous diversity of structures and properties. The MOMzyme-1 class could therefore represent a new paradigm for heme biomimetic catalysis since it combines the activity of a homogeneous catalyst with the stability and recyclability of heterogeneous catalytic systems within a single material.

  16. Regulating the spatial distribution of metal nanoparticles within metal-organic frameworks to enhance catalytic efficiency (United States)

    Yang, Qiu; Liu, Wenxian; Wang, Bingqing; Zhang, Weina; Zeng, Xiaoqiao; Zhang, Cong; Qin, Yongji; Sun, Xiaoming; Wu, Tianpin; Liu, Junfeng; Huo, Fengwei; Lu, Jun


    Composites incorporating metal nanoparticles (MNPs) within metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have broad applications in many fields. However, the controlled spatial distribution of the MNPs within MOFs remains a challenge for addressing key issues in catalysis, for example, the efficiency of catalysts due to the limitation of molecular diffusion within MOF channels. Here we report a facile strategy that enables MNPs to be encapsulated into MOFs with controllable spatial localization by using metal oxide both as support to load MNPs and as a sacrificial template to grow MOFs. This strategy is versatile to a variety of MNPs and MOF crystals. By localizing the encapsulated MNPs closer to the surface of MOFs, the resultant MNPs@MOF composites not only exhibit effective selectivity derived from MOF cavities, but also enhanced catalytic activity due to the spatial regulation of MNPs as close as possible to the MOF surface. PMID:28195131

  17. Recent Progress in Metal-Organic Frameworks and Their Derived Nanostructures for Energy and Environmental Applications. (United States)

    Xie, Zhiqiang; Xu, Wangwang; Cui, Xiaodan; Wang, Ying


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), as a very promising category of porous materials, have attracted increasing interest from research communities due to their extremely high surface areas, diverse nanostructures, and unique properties. In recent years, there is a growing body of evidence to indicate that MOFs can function as ideal templates to prepare various nanostructured materials for energy and environmental cleaning applications. Recent progress in the design and synthesis of MOFs and MOF-derived nanomaterials for particular applications in lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, dye-sensitized solar cells, and heavy-metal-ion detection and removal is reviewed herein. In addition, the remaining major challenges in the above fields are discussed and some perspectives for future research efforts in the development of MOFs are also provided. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Stimuli-Responsive Metal-Organic Frameworks with Photoswitchable Azobenzene Side Groups. (United States)

    Kanj, Anemar Bruno; Müller, Kai; Heinke, Lars


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are nanoporous, crystalline hybrid materials, which enable various functionalities by incorporating functional organic molecules. By using organic linker molecules that possess photoswitchable azobenzene side groups, the remote control over certain properties was introduced to MOFs. Different MOF materials in the form of powders and thin films have been used to demonstrate the photoswitching. The applications of these stimuli-responsive nanoporous solids range from switching the adsorption capacity of various gases over remote-controlled release of guest molecules to continuously tunable membrane separation of molecular mixtures. A particular focus of this review is the effect of the azobenzene photoswitching on the host-guest interaction, enabling smart applications of the material. Steric hindrance, which may suppress the photoswitching in some MOF structures, is also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The chemistry of metal-organic frameworks for CO2 capture, regeneration and conversion (United States)

    Trickett, Christopher A.; Helal, Aasif; Al-Maythalony, Bassem A.; Yamani, Zain H.; Cordova, Kyle E.; Yaghi, Omar M.


    The carbon dioxide challenge is one of the most pressing problems facing our planet. Each stage in the carbon cycle — capture, regeneration and conversion — has its own materials requirements. Recent work on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) demonstrated the potential and effectiveness of these materials in addressing this challenge. In this Review, we identify the specific structural and chemical properties of MOFs that have led to the highest capture capacities, the most efficient separations and regeneration processes, and the most effective catalytic conversions. The interior of MOFs can be designed to have coordinatively unsaturated metal sites, specific heteroatoms, covalent functionalization, other building unit interactions, hydrophobicity, porosity, defects and embedded nanoscale metal catalysts with a level of precision that is crucial for the development of higher-performance MOFs. To realize a total solution, it is necessary to use the precision of MOF chemistry to build more complex materials to address selectivity, capacity and conversion together in one material.

  20. A Homochiral Multifunctional Metal-Organic Framework with Rod-Shaped Secondary Building Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Cai


    Full Text Available A new homochiral multifunctional metal-organic framework, [Zn2(CTBA2·H2O] (JUC-112, was synthesized under solvothermal conditions, through the design of chiral ligand 4-(3-carboxy-2,2,3-trimethylcyclopentanecarboxamido benzoic acid (H2CTBA based on camphoric acid as building block. The crystal structure of the new material is a 2-dimensional (2D chiral layer packed with infinite rod-shaped secondary building units (SBUs. The homochiral framework was identified by circular dichroism (CD spectrum. Thermogravimetric measurement indicates its high thermal stability up to 450 °C. In addition, JUC-112 exhibits the capability of separating water from alcohols, second-order nonlinear optical effect, and photoluminescence.

  1. Metal-organic frameworks with high capacity and selectivity for harmful gases (United States)

    Britt, David; Tranchemontagne, David; Yaghi, Omar M.


    Benchmarks have been established for the performance of six metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and isoreticular MOFs (IRMOFs, which have the same underlying topology as MOF-5), MOF-5, IRMOF-3, MOF-74, MOF-177, MOF-199, and IRMOF-62, as selective adsorbents for eight harmful gases: sulfur dioxide, ammonia, chlorine, tetrahydrothiophene, benzene, dichloromethane, ethylene oxide, and carbon monoxide. Kinetic breakthrough measurements are used to determine the calculated dynamic adsorption capacity of each “benchmark” MOF for each gas. The capacity of each MOF is compared to that of a sample of Calgon BPL activated carbon. We find that pore functionality plays a dominant role in determining the dynamic adsorption performance of MOFs. MOFs featuring reactive functionality outperform BPL carbon in all but one case and exhibit high dynamic adsorption capacities up to 35% by weight. PMID:18711128

  2. Dual-Functional Electrocatalyst Derived from Iron-Porphyrin-Encapsulated Metal-Organic Frameworks. (United States)

    Park, Jungwon; Lee, Hyunjoon; Bae, Young Eun; Park, Kyoung Chul; Ji, Hoon; Jeong, Nak Cheon; Lee, Min Hyung; Kwon, Oh Joong; Lee, Chang Yeon


    Active, stable electrocatalysts based on non-precious metals for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are critical for the development of cost-effective, efficient renewable energy technologies. Here, Fe/Fe3C-embedded nitrogen-doped carbon was fabricated via pyrolysis of iron-porphyrin-encapsulated mesoporous metal-organic frameworks [PCN-333 (Fe), where "PCN" stands for "porous coordination network"] at 700 °C. The various characterization techniques confirmed that Fe- and Fe3C-containing Fe-N-C material (FeP-P333-700) was successfully prepared by pyrolysis of porphyrin-encapsulated PCN-333 (Fe). FeP-P333-700 exhibited superior electrocatalytic performance for the ORR and HER owing to the synergistic effect of Fe/Fe3C and Fe-N-C active sites.

  3. Metal-Organic Frameworks as Micromotors with Tunable Engines and Brakes. (United States)

    Li, Jinxing; Yu, Xiao; Xu, Mingli; Liu, Wenjuan; Sandraz, Elodie; Lan, Hsin; Wang, Joseph; Cohen, Seth M


    Herein, we report that UiO-type (UiO = University of Oslo) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can be transformed into self-propelled micromotors by employing several different metal-based propulsion systems. Incorporation of a bipyridine ligand into the UiO-67 lattice transforms the crystallites, upon metalation, into single-site, metal-based catalytic "engines" to power the micromotors with chemical fuel. The "engine performance" (i.e., propulsion) of the single-site powered micromotors has been tuned by the choice of the metal ion utilized. In addition, a chemical "braking" system was achieved by adding chelating agents capable of sequestering the metal ion engines and thereby suppressing the catalytic activity, with different chelators displaying different deceleration capacities. These results demonstrate that MOFs can be powered by various engines and halted by different brakes, resulting in a high degree of motion design and control at the nanoscale.

  4. Heterometallic Metal-Organic Frameworks That Catalyze Two Different Reactions Sequentially. (United States)

    Saha, Debraj; Hazra, Dipak K; Maity, Tanmoy; Koner, Subratanath


    A series of copper- and alkaline-earth-metal-based multidimensional metal-organic frameworks, {[CuMg(pdc)2(H2O)4]·2H2O}n (1), [CuCa(pdc)2]n (2), [CuSr(pdc)2(H2O)3]n (3), and {[CuBa(pdc)2(H2O)5]·H2O}n (4), where H2Pdc = pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylic acid, were hydrothermally synthesized and characterized. Two different metals act as the active center to catalyze two kinds of reactions, viz., olefin to its epoxide followed by epoxide ring opening to afford the corresponding vicinal diol in a sequential manner.

  5. Communication: Enthalpy relaxation in a metal-organic zeolite imidazole framework (ZIF-4) glass-former (United States)

    Xu, Di; Liu, Yingdan; Tian, Yongjun; Wang, Li-Min


    Amorphization in metal-organic framework materials initiated by the collapsed crystal offers new access to glasses; however, the understanding of such glasses remains to be clarified. Here, we studied the glass transition thermodynamics and kinetics in a zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-4 utilizing enthalpy relaxation measurements. The calorimetric glass transition profile and relaxation behaviors in ZIF-4 are found to reproduce the basic features and correlations manifested by conventional melt-quenched glasses. A comparison with various melt-quenched glasses suggests that the low fragility of ZIF-4 is ascribed to the low thermal-pressure coefficient due to the directional tetrahedral bond, partly leading to the low vibrational entropy in the melt-crystal entropy difference.

  6. Competitive Coordination Strategy to Finely Tune Pore Environment of Zirconium-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks. (United States)

    He, Ting; Ni, Bing; Xu, Xiaobin; Li, Haoyi; Lin, Haifeng; Yuan, Wenjuan; Luo, Jun; Hu, Wenping; Wang, Xun


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of crystalline porous materials with reticular architectures. Precisely tuning pore environment of MOFs has drawn tremendous attention but remains a great challenge. In this work, we demonstrate a competitive coordination approach to synthesize a series of zirconium-metalloporphyrinic MOFs through introducing H2O and monocarboxylic acid as modulating reagents, in which well-ordered mesoporous channels could be observed clearly under conventional transmission electron microscopy. Owing to plenty of unsaturated Lewis acid catalytic sites exposed in the visualized mesoporous channels, these structures exhibit outstanding catalytic activity and excellent stability in the chemical fixation of carbon dioxide to cyclic carbonates. The zirconium-based MOFs with ordered channel structures are expected to pave the way to expand the potential applications of MOFs.

  7. Copper benzene tricarboxylate metal-organic framework with wide permanent mesopores stabilized by Keggin polyoxometallate ions. (United States)

    Wee, Lik H; Wiktor, Christian; Turner, Stuart; Vanderlinden, Willem; Janssens, Nikki; Bajpe, Sneha R; Houthoofd, Kristof; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; De Feyter, Steven; Kirschhock, Christine E A; Martens, Johan A


    Porous solids with organized multiple porosity are of scientific and technological importance for broadening the application range from traditional areas of catalysis and adsorption/separation to drug release and biomedical imaging. Synthesis of crystalline porous materials offering a network of uniform micro- and mesopores remains a major scientific challenge. One strategy is based on variation of synthesis parameters of microporous networks, such as, for example, zeolites or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Here, we show the rational development of an hierarchical variant of the microporous cubic Cu(3)(BTC)(2) (BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) HKUST-1 MOF having strictly repetitive 5 nm wide mesopores separated by uniform microporous walls in a single crystal structure. This new material coined COK-15 (COK = Centrum voor Oppervlaktechemie en Katalyse) was synthesized via a dual-templating approach. Stability was enhanced by Keggin type phosphotungstate (HPW) systematically occluded in the cavities constituting the walls between the mesopores.

  8. Exploiting redox activity in metal-organic frameworks: concepts, trends and perspectives. (United States)

    D'Alessandro, D M


    Of the many thousands of new metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) that are now discovered each year, many possess potential redox activity arising from the constituent metal ions and/or organic ligands, or the guest molecules located within their porous structures. Those redox states that can be accessed via postsynthetic redox modulation often possess distinct physical properties; if harnessed, these provide a basis for applications including microporous conductors, electrocatalysts, energy storage devices and electrochemical sensors, amongst others. This feature article highlights the latest developments in experimental, theoretical and computational concepts relevant to redox-active MOFs, including new solid state electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical techniques that have great utility in this field. A particular emphasis is on current and emerging trends at the fundamental level which underscore the importance of this promising class of electroactive materials for a wide range of technologically- and industrially-relevant applications.

  9. 3D porous metal-organic framework as an efficient electrocatalyst for nonenzymatic sensing application. (United States)

    Zhang, Daojun; Zhang, Jingchao; Zhang, Renchun; Shi, Huaizhong; Guo, Yuanyuan; Guo, Xiuli; Li, Sujuan; Yuan, Baiqing


    Novel electroactive materials with high surface area and stability have great potential for electrochemical sensor. Herein, we demonstrate the exploitation of a porous Cu-based metal-organic framework (Cu-MOF) with large pore size as nonenzymatic sensors for the electrochemical determination of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glucose. The Cu-MOF shows high stability even in NaOH solution. The as-prepared Cu-MOF modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) presents a well-behaved redox event from electroactive metal centers in the MOF at the physiological pH which can be utilized to catalyze the electroreduction of H2O2. It also exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of glucose in alkaline solution. The results showed that the nonenzymatic sensors based on the Cu-MOF display excellent analytical performances, which make it a promising candidate in electrochemical sensor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Improving Water-Treatment Performance of Zirconium Metal-Organic Framework Membranes by Postsynthetic Defect Healing. (United States)

    Wang, Xuerui; Zhai, Linzhi; Wang, Yuxiang; Li, Ruitong; Gu, Xuehong; Yuan, Yi Di; Qian, Yuhong; Hu, Zhigang; Zhao, Dan


    Microporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as building materials for molecular sieving membranes offer unique opportunities to tuning the pore size and chemical property. The recently reported polycrystalline Zr-MOF membranes have greatly expanded their applications from gas separation to water treatment. However, Zr-MOFs are notoriously known for their intrinsic defects caused by ligand/cluster missing, which may greatly affect the molecular sieving property of Zr-MOF membranes. Herein, we present the mitigation of ligand-missing defects in polycrystalline UiO-66(Zr)-(OH)2 membranes by postsynthetic defect healing (PSDH), which can help in increasing the membranes' Na(+) rejection rate by 74.9%. Intriguingly, the membranes also exhibit excellent hydrothermal stability in aqueous solutions (>600 h). Our study proves the feasibility of PSDH in improving the performance of polycrystalline Zr-MOF membranes for water-treatment applications.

  11. A new method to position and functionalize metal-organic framework crystals (United States)

    Falcaro, Paolo; Hill, Anita J.; Nairn, Kate M.; Jasieniak, Jacek; Mardel, James I.; Bastow, Timothy J.; Mayo, Sheridan C.; Gimona, Michele; Gomez, Daniel; Whitfield, Harold J.; Riccò, Raffaele; Patelli, Alessandro; Marmiroli, Benedetta; Amenitsch, Heinz; Colson, Tobias; Villanova, Laura; Buso, Dario


    With controlled nanometre-sized pores and surface areas of thousands of square metres per gram, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) may have an integral role in future catalysis, filtration and sensing applications. In general, for MOF-based device fabrication, well-organized or patterned MOF growth is required, and thus conventional synthetic routes are not suitable. Moreover, to expand their applicability, the introduction of additional functionality into MOFs is desirable. Here, we explore the use of nanostructured poly-hydrate zinc phosphate (α-hopeite) microparticles as nucleation seeds for MOFs that simultaneously address all these issues. Affording spatial control of nucleation and significantly accelerating MOF growth, these α-hopeite microparticles are found to act as nucleation agents both in solution and on solid surfaces. In addition, the introduction of functional nanoparticles (metallic, semiconducting, polymeric) into these nucleating seeds translates directly to the fabrication of functional MOFs suitable for molecular size-selective applications. PMID:21407203

  12. Metal-organic frameworks with exceptionally high capacity for storage of carbon dioxide at room temperature. (United States)

    Millward, Andrew R; Yaghi, Omar M


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) show high CO2 storage capacity at room temperature. Gravimetric CO2 isotherms for MOF-2, MOF-505, Cu3(BTC)2, MOF-74, IRMOFs-11, -3, -6, and -1, and MOF-177 are reported up to 42 bar. Type I isotherms are found in all cases except for MOFs based on Zn4O(O2C)6 clusters, which reveal a sigmoidal isotherm (having a step). The various pressures of the isotherm steps correlate with increasing pore size, which indicates potential for gas separations. The amine functionality of the IRMOF-3 pore shows evidence of relatively increased affinity for CO2. Capacities qualitatively scale with surface area and range from 3.2 mmol/g for MOF-2 to 33.5 mmol/g (320 cm3(STP)/cm3, 147 wt %) for MOF-177, the highest CO2 capacity of any porous material reported.

  13. System and method for generating and/or screening potential metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmer, Christopher E; Leaf, Michael; Snurr, Randall Q; Farha, Omar K; Hupp, Joseph T


    A system and method for systematically generating potential metal-organic framework (MOFs) structures given an input library of building blocks is provided herein. One or more material properties of the potential MOFs are evaluated using computational simulations. A range of material properties (surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, powder x-ray diffraction pattern, methane adsorption capability, and the like) can be estimated, and in doing so, illuminate unidentified structure-property relationships that may only have been recognized by taking a global view of MOF structures. In addition to identifying structure-property relationships, this systematic approach to identify the MOFs of interest is used to identify one or more MOFs that may be useful for high pressure methane storage.

  14. Interfacial synthesis of hollow metal-organic framework capsules demonstrating selective permeability (United States)

    Ameloot, Rob; Vermoortele, Frederik; Vanhove, Wim; Roeffaers, Maarten B. J.; Sels, Bert F.; de Vos, Dirk E.


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of crystalline materials that consist of metal ions and organic ligands linked together by coordination bonds. Because of their porosity and the possibility of combining large surface areas with pore characteristics that can be tailored, these solids show great promise for a wide range of applications. Although most applications currently under investigation are based on powdered solids, developing synthetic methods to prepare defect-free MOF layers will also enable applications based on selective permeation. Here, we demonstrate how the intrinsically hybrid nature of MOFs enables the self-completing growth of thin MOF layers. Moreover, these layers can be shaped as hollow capsules that demonstrate selective permeability directly related to the micropore size of the MOF crystallites forming the capsule wall. Such capsules effectively entrap guest species, and, in the future, could be applied in the development of selective microreactors containing molecular catalysts.

  15. Bimetallic Metal-Organic Frameworks for Controlled Catalytic Graphitization of Nanoporous Carbons (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Salunkhe, Rahul R.; Zhang, Huabin; Malgras, Victor; Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M.; Kobayashi, Naoya; Tominaka, Satoshi; Ide, Yusuke; Kim, Jung Ho; Yamauchi, Yusuke


    Single metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), constructed from the coordination between one-fold metal ions and organic linkers, show limited functionalities when used as precursors for nanoporous carbon materials. Herein, we propose to merge the advantages of zinc and cobalt metals ions into one single MOF crystal (i.e., bimetallic MOFs). The organic linkers that coordinate with cobalt ions tend to yield graphitic carbons after carbonization, unlike those bridging with zinc ions, due to the controlled catalytic graphitization by the cobalt nanoparticles. In this work, we demonstrate a feasible method to achieve nanoporous carbon materials with tailored properties, including specific surface area, pore size distribution, degree of graphitization, and content of heteroatoms. The bimetallic-MOF-derived nanoporous carbon are systematically characterized, highlighting the importance of precisely controlling the properties of the carbon materials. This can be done by finely tuning the components in the bimetallic MOF precursors, and thus designing optimal carbon materials for specific applications.

  16. Large-pore apertures in a series of metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Deng, Hexiang; Grunder, Sergio; Cordova, Kyle E; Valente, Cory; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Hmadeh, Mohamad; Gándara, Felipe; Whalley, Adam C; Liu, Zheng; Asahina, Shunsuke; Kazumori, Hiroyoshi; O'Keeffe, Michael; Terasaki, Osamu; Stoddart, J Fraser; Yaghi, Omar M


    We report a strategy to expand the pore aperture of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) into a previously unattained size regime (>32 angstroms). Specifically, the systematic expansion of a well-known MOF structure, MOF-74, from its original link of one phenylene ring (I) to two, three, four, five, six, seven, nine, and eleven (II to XI, respectively), afforded an isoreticular series of MOF-74 structures (termed IRMOF-74-I to XI) with pore apertures ranging from 14 to 98 angstroms. All members of this series have noninterpenetrating structures and exhibit robust architectures, as evidenced by their permanent porosity and high thermal stability (up to 300°C). The pore apertures of an oligoethylene glycol-functionalized IRMOF-74-VII and IRMOF-74-IX are large enough for natural proteins to enter the pores.

  17. Controlling interpenetration in metal-organic frameworks by liquid-phase epitaxy (United States)

    Shekhah, Osama; Wang, Hui; Paradinas, Markos; Ocal, Carmen; Schüpbach, Björn; Terfort, Andreas; Zacher, Denise; Fischer, Roland A.; Wöll, Christof


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are highly porous materials generally consisting of two building elements: inorganic coupling units and organic linkers. These frameworks offer an enormous porosity, which can be used to store large amounts of gases and, as demonstrated in more recent applications, makes these compounds suitable for drug release. The huge sizes of the pores inside MOFs, however, also give rise to a fundamental complication, namely the formation of sublattices occupying the same space. This interpenetration greatly reduces the pore size and thus the available space within the MOF structure. We demonstrate here that the formation of the second, interpenetrated framework can be suppressed by using liquid-phase epitaxy on an organic template. This success demonstrates the potential of the step-by-step method to synthesize new classes of MOFs not accessible by conventional solvothermal methods.

  18. Electron beam synthesis of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles using metal-organic frameworks as ordered precursors (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin W.; Houk, Ronald J. T.; Wong, Bryan M.; Talin, A. Alec; Allendorf, Mark D.


    We demonstrate a versatile, bottom-up method of forming metal and semiconducting nanoparticles by exposing precursor metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to an electron beam. Using a transmission electron microscope to initiate and observe growth, we show that the composition, size, and morphology of the nanoparticles are determined by the chemistry and structure of the MOF, as well as the electron beam properties. Zinc oxide, metallic indium and copper particles were produced with narrow and tunable size distributions comparable to those obtained from state-of-the-art methods. This method represents a first step toward the fabrication of nanoscale heterostructures using the highly controlled environment of the MOF pores as a scaffold or template.

  19. A novel metal-organic framework for high storage and separation of acetylene at room temperature (United States)

    Duan, Xing; Wang, Huizhen; Ji, Zhenguo; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong


    A novel 3D microporous metal-organic framework with NbO topology, [Cu2(L)(H2O)2]•(DMF)6·(H2O)2 (ZJU-10, ZJU = Zhejiang University; H4L =2‧-hydroxy-[1,1‧:4‧,1″-terphenyl]-3,3″,5,5″-tetracarboxylic acid; DMF =N,N-dimethylformamide), has been synthesized and structurally characterized. With suitable pore sizes and open Cu2+ sites, ZJU-10a exhibits high BET surface area of 2392 m2/g, as well as moderately high C2H2 volumetric uptake capacity of 132 cm3/cm3. Meanwhile, ZJU-10a is a promising porous material for separation of acetylene from methane and carbon dioxide gas mixtures at room temperature.

  20. Synthesis and structure of new carbohydrate metal-organic frameworks and inclusion complexes (United States)

    Sha, Jing-Quan; Wu, Lian-He; Li, Shu-Xian; Yang, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Qian-Nan; Zhu, Pei-Pei


    Two new metal-organic framework compounds based on natural β-cyclodextrin molecules (β-CD) and alkali metals (Na+/K+) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, XPRD and 1HNMR. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that compounds 1 and 2 possess the bowl-like pore and the "8" type double channels configuration. Due to the [blow + channel] double configuration, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and Quercetin inclusion complexes of compound 1 are studied, and the results show that the two kinds of drug with different structure and size can be included into the compound at the same time, which is expected to become a new type of multi-functional green crystalline solid material.

  1. Nanoarchitectured Design of Porous Materials and Nanocomposites from Metal-Organic Frameworks. (United States)

    Kaneti, Yusuf Valentino; Tang, Jing; Salunkhe, Rahul R; Jiang, Xuchuan; Yu, Aibing; Wu, Kevin C-W; Yamauchi, Yusuke


    The emergence of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as a new class of crystalline porous materials is attracting considerable attention in many fields such as catalysis, energy storage and conversion, sensors, and environmental remediation due to their controllable composition, structure and pore size. MOFs are versatile precursors for the preparation of various forms of nanomaterials as well as new multifunctional nanocomposites/hybrids, which exhibit superior functional properties compared to the individual components assembling the composites. This review provides an overview of recent developments achieved in the fabrication of porous MOF-derived nanostructures including carbons, metal oxides, metal chalcogenides (metal sulfides and selenides), metal carbides, metal phosphides and their composites. Finally, the challenges and future trends and prospects associated with the development of MOF-derived nanomaterials are also examined. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Metal-organic frameworks: a rapidly growing class of versatile nanoporous materials. (United States)

    Meek, Scott T; Greathouse, Jeffery A; Allendorf, Mark D


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a new class of hybrid organic-inorganic supramolecular materials comprised of ordered networks formed from organic electron donor linkers and metal cations. They can exhibit extremely high surface areas, as well as tunable pore size and functionality, and can act as hosts for a variety of guest molecules. Since their discovery, MOFs have enjoyed extensive exploration, with applications ranging from gas storage to drug delivery to sensing. This review covers advances in the MOF field from the past three years, focusing on applications, including gas separation, catalysis, drug delivery, optical and electronic applications, and sensing. We also summarize recent work on methods for MOF synthesis and computational modeling.

  3. Stable metal-organic frameworks containing single-molecule traps for enzyme encapsulation (United States)

    Feng, Dawei; Liu, Tian-Fu; Su, Jie; Bosch, Mathieu; Wei, Zhangwen; Wan, Wei; Yuan, Daqiang; Chen, Ying-Pin; Wang, Xuan; Wang, Kecheng; Lian, Xizhen; Gu, Zhi-Yuan; Park, Jihye; Zou, Xiaodong; Zhou, Hong-Cai


    Enzymatic catalytic processes possess great potential in chemical manufacturing, including pharmaceuticals, fuel production and food processing. However, the engineering of enzymes is severely hampered due to their low operational stability and difficulty of reuse. Here, we develop a series of stable metal-organic frameworks with rationally designed ultra-large mesoporous cages as single-molecule traps (SMTs) for enzyme encapsulation. With a high concentration of mesoporous cages as SMTs, PCN-333(Al) encapsulates three enzymes with record-high loadings and recyclability. Immobilized enzymes that most likely undergo single-enzyme encapsulation (SEE) show smaller Km than free enzymes while maintaining comparable catalytic efficiency. Under harsh conditions, the enzyme in SEE exhibits better performance than free enzyme, showing the effectiveness of SEE in preventing enzyme aggregation or denaturation. With extraordinarily large pore size and excellent chemical stability, PCN-333 may be of interest not only for enzyme encapsulation, but also for entrapment of other nanoscaled functional moieties.

  4. Screening of hypothetical metal-organic frameworks for H2 storage. (United States)

    Gomez, Diego A; Toda, Jordi; Sastre, German


    Computational screening throughout a database containing ∼138 000 metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been performed to select candidate structures for hydrogen storage. A total of 231 structures (of which 79 contain paddle-wheel units) have been selected that meet the gravimetric and volumetric targets at 100 atm and 77 K. Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to calculate the isotherms and select structures which meet the targets at 50 atm, and also to check the adsorption in the low pressure regime (1 atm). From this a reduced set of 18 structures has been analysed in more detail, regarding not only gravimetric and volumetric uptake but also pore size distribution and pore volume. A few structures with 3% gravimetric uptake at 1 atm and 77 K perform at the best level found so far.

  5. Applications of homochiral metal-organic frameworks in enantioselective adsorption and chromatography separation. (United States)

    Li, Xianjiang; Chang, Cuilan; Wang, Xin; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei


    Chiral separation is of great importance for drug development, pharmacology, and biology. Chiral metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is a new class of porous solid materials with high surface area, large pore size, high chemical stability, uniformly structured cavities, and the availability of modification. The excellent properties of MOFs have attracted intense interest to explore their performance and mechanism in chiral separation. This review summarizes three synthetic strategies of chiral MOFs and their applications in enantioselective adsorption and chromatographic separation. All the experimental and molecular simulation results demonstrated that high enantioselectivity was strongly correlated with a close match between the size of the pore and chiral molecules. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Adsorptive removal of naproxen and clofibric acid from water using metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Hasan, Zubair; Jeon, Jaewoo; Jhung, Sung Hwa


    Adsorptive removal of naproxen and clofibric acid, two typical PPCPs (pharmaceuticals and personal care products), has been studied using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for the first time. The removal efficiency decreases in the order of MIL-101>MIL-100-Fe>activated carbon both in adsorption rate and adsorption capacity. The adsorption kinetics and capacity of PPCPs generally depend on the average pore size and surface area (or pore volume), respectively, of the adsorbents. The adsorption mechanism may be explained with a simple electrostatic interaction between PPCPs and the adsorbent. Finally, it can be suggested that MOFs having high porosity and large pore size can be potential adsorbents to remove harmful PPCPs in contaminated water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stability and Hydrocarbon/Fluorocarbon Sorption of a Metal-Organic Framework with Fluorinated Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijiang Xie


    Full Text Available The stabilities and hydrocarbon/fluorocarbon sorption properties of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework (MOF Zn(hfipbb with fluorinated channels has been studied. By the combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD measurements, we confirm that Zn(hfipbb has exceptionally high hydrothermal and thermal stabilities. The adsorption behaviors of water and methanol by Zn(hfipbb indicate that it is highly hydrophobic but with high adsorption of alcohols. Hexane and perfluorohexane adsorption measurements show that the fluorinated channels in Zn(hfipbb have high affinity with hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon. The high fluorophilic nature of the channels and the high stability of the compound suggest its potential utility in practical separation applications.

  8. Experimental comparison of chiral metal-organic framework used as stationary phase in chromatography. (United States)

    Xie, Sheng-Ming; Zhang, Mei; Fei, Zhi-Xin; Yuan, Li-Ming


    Chiral metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new class of multifunctional material, which possess diverse structures and unusual properties such as high surface area, uniform and permanent cavities, as well as good chemical and thermal stability. Their chiral functionality makes them attractive as novel enantioselective adsorbents and stationary phases in separation science. In this paper, the experimental comparison of a chiral MOF [In₃O(obb)₃(HCO₂)(H₂O)] solvent used as a stationary phase was investigated in gas chromatography (GC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC). The potential relationship between the structure and components of chiral MOFs with their chiral recognition ability and selectivity are presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Uniformity of quantum well heterostructure GaAlAs lasers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scifres, D.R.; Burnham, R.D.; Bernstein, M.; Chung, H.; Endicott, F.; Mosby, W.; Tramontana, J.; Walker, J.; Yingling, R.D. Jr.


    The threshold current density, laser wavelength, grown layer thickness, reverse breakdown voltage, and far-field radiation pattern as a function of position on the grown wafer are reported for broad area multiple quantum well GaAlAs heterostructure lasers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. It is found that the layer thickness varies across a 1.5-in. sample by as much as 20% at the outer edges of the water, leading to a lasing wavelength shift of as much as 150 A owing to the quantum size effect. It is shown that this thickness variation has only a small effect on the threshold current density across the water such that the uniformity of threshold current density is comparable to that reported previously for molecular beam epitaxy-grown conventional double heterostructure lasers.

  10. Bioinspired Cobalt-Citrate Metal-Organic Framework as an Efficient Electrocatalyst for Water Oxidation. (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Huang, Lan; Liu, Xiaomin; Ai, Lunhong


    Efficient and cost-effective oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalysts are closely associated with many important energy conversion technologies. Herein, we first report an oxygen-evolving cobalt-citrate metal-organic framework (MOF, UTSA-16) for highly efficient electrocatalytic water oxidation. Benefiting from synergistic cooperation of intrinsic open porous structure, in situ formed high valent cobalt species, and existing Co4O4 cubane, the UTSA-16 exhibits excellent activity toward OER catalysis in alkaline medium. The UTSA-16 needs only 408 mV to offer a current density of 10 mA cm-2 for OER catalysis, which is superior to that of most MOF-based electrocatalysts and the standard Co3O4 counterpart. The present finding provides a better understanding of electroactive MOFs for water oxidation.

  11. Hydrogen storage in Pd nanocrystals covered with a metal-organic framework. (United States)

    Li, Guangqin; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Taylor, Jared M; Ikeda, Ryuichi; Kubota, Yoshiki; Kato, Kenichi; Takata, Masaki; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Toh, Shoichi; Matsumura, Syo; Kitagawa, Hiroshi


    Hydrogen is an essential component in many industrial processes. As a result of the recent increase in the development of shale gas, steam reforming of shale gas has received considerable attention as a major source of H2, and the more efficient use of hydrogen is strongly demanded. Palladium is well known as a hydrogen-storage metal and an effective catalyst for reactions related to hydrogen in a variety of industrial processes. Here, we present remarkably enhanced capacity and speed of hydrogen storage in Pd nanocrystals covered with the metal-organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1 (copper(II) 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate). The Pd nanocrystals covered with the MOF have twice the storage capacity of the bare Pd nanocrystals. The significantly enhanced hydrogen storage capacity was confirmed by hydrogen pressure-composition isotherms and solid-state deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The speed of hydrogen absorption in the Pd nanocrystals is also enhanced by the MOF coating.

  12. Metal-Organic Framework of Lanthanoid Dinuclear Clusters Undergoes Slow Magnetic Relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru Iwami


    Full Text Available Lanthanoid metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs can adopt a variety of new structures due to the large coordination numbers of Ln metal ions, and Ln-MOFs are expected to show new luminescence and magnetic properties due to the localized f electrons. In particular, some Ln metal ions, such as Dy(III and Tb(III ions, work as isolated quantum magnets when they have magnetic anisotropy. In this work, using 4,4′,4″-s-triazine-2,4,6-triyl-tribenzoic acid (H3TATB as a ligand, two new Ln-MOFs, [Dy(TATB(DMF2] (1 and [Tb(TATB(DMF2] (2, were obtained. The Ln-MOFs contain Ln dinuclear clusters as secondary building units, and 1 underwent slow magnetic relaxation similar to single-molecule magnets.

  13. Two unusual 12-connected metal-organic coordination polymers with fcu net (United States)

    Guo, Sheng-Qi; Tian, Dan; Luo, Yu-Hui; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Hong


    Two new three-dimensional 12-connected metal-organic coordination polymers, [Zn2(bptc)(H2O)]·C2H5OH·H2O (1) and [Cd4(bptc)2(bbi)(H2O)]·H2O (2) (H4bptc=biphenyl-2,5,2',5'-tetracarboxylic acid, bbi=1,1'-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(imidazole)), have been solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. All compounds are also characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, thermogravimetric (TG) analyses and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Topological analysis indicates that both 1 and 2 are 12-connected frameworks with fcu topology, which are based on cuboid cage and rob-like {Cd3} subunit as 12-connected nodes, respectively. Furthermore, the luminescence properties of the two compounds were discussed in detail.

  14. Luminescent zinc metal-organic framework (ZIF-90) for sensing metal ions, anions and small molecules. (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Yan, Bing


    We synthesize a zinc zeolite-type metal-organic framework, the zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-90), which exhibits an intense blue luminescence excited under visible light. Luminescent studies indicate that ZIF-90 could be an efficient multifunctional fluorescence material for high sensitivity metal ions, anions and organic small molecules, especially for Cd(2+), Cu(2+), CrO4(2-) and acetone. The luminescence intensity of ZIF-90 increases with the concentration of Cd(2+) and decreases proportionally with the concentration of Cu(2+), while the same quenched experimental phenomena appear in the sensing of CrO4(2-). With the increase of the amount of acetone, the luminescence intensity decreases gradually in the emulsions of ZIF-90. The mechanism of the sensing properties is studied in detail as well. This study shows that ZIF-90 could be a useful luminescent sensor for metal ions, anions and organic small molecules.

  15. A chiral lanthanide metal-organic framework for selective sensing of Fe(iii) ions. (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Lin; Tian, Dan; Gao, Qiang; Sun, Hong-Wei; Xu, Jian; Bu, Xian-He


    A new luminescent lanthanide metal-organic framework was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions by introducing the tetracarboxylic acid ligand (H4bptc) as a chromophore to sensitize the luminescence of the Tb(3+) ion. Interestingly, despite the achiral nature of H4bptc, the resulting framework exhibited rare chiral helical channels. The luminescence studies revealed that this material showed a highly selective fluorescence quenching response to Fe(3+) ions in liquid suspension, which can be conveniently observed by the naked eye under UV light. Thus, this material can be potentially used as a chemosensor for sensing Fe(3+) ions and its selective luminescence quenching response can be explained in terms of the competitive absorption mechanism.

  16. A multifunctional chemical sensor based on a three-dimensional lanthanide metal-organic framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Pei-Yao [College of Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liao, Sheng-Yun [Department of Applied Chemistry, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Gu, Wen, E-mail: [College of Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liu, Xin, E-mail: [College of Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)


    A 3D lanthanide MOF with formula [Sm{sub 2}(abtc){sub 1.5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}(DMA)]·H{sub 2}O·DMA (1) has been successfully synthesized via solvothermal method. Luminescence studies reveal that 1 exhibits dual functional detection benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde among different aromatic molecules. In addition, 1 displays a turn-on luminescence sensing with respect to ethanol among different alcohol molecules, which suggests that 1 is also a promising luminescent probe for high selective sensing of ethanol. - Highlights: • A three-dimensional lanthanide metal-organic framework has been synthesized. • Complex 1 exhibits dual functional detection benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde among different aromatic molecules. • Complex 1 displays a turn-on luminescence sensing with respect to ethanol among different alcohol molecules.

  17. Metal-Organic Framework of Lanthanoid Dinuclear Clusters Undergoes Slow Magnetic Relaxation. (United States)

    Iwami, Hikaru; Nakanishi, Ryo; Horii, Yoji; Katoh, Keiichi; Breedlove, Brian K; Yamashita, Masahiro


    Lanthanoid metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs) can adopt a variety of new structures due to the large coordination numbers of Ln metal ions, and Ln-MOFs are expected to show new luminescence and magnetic properties due to the localized f electrons. In particular, some Ln metal ions, such as Dy(III) and Tb(III) ions, work as isolated quantum magnets when they have magnetic anisotropy. In this work, using 4,4',4″-s-triazine-2,4,6-triyl-tribenzoic acid (H₃TATB) as a ligand, two new Ln-MOFs, [Dy(TATB)(DMF)₂] ( 1 ) and [Tb(TATB)(DMF)₂] ( 2 ), were obtained. The Ln-MOFs contain Ln dinuclear clusters as secondary building units, and 1 underwent slow magnetic relaxation similar to single-molecule magnets.

  18. Structure, photoluminescent properties and photocatalytic activities of a new Cd(II) metal-organic framework. (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng Yan; Ma, Wei Xing; Wang, Ming Yan; Yang, Xu Jie; Xu, Xing You


    A new metal-organic framework, [Cd(TDC)(bix)(H2O)]n (H2TDC = thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid; bix = 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene), has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, UV-vis and single X-ray diffraction. Cd-MOF is a 2D infinite layer framework, which is further interconnected by hydrogen-bond interactions leading to a 3D supramolecular architecture. The photoluminescent properties of the Cd-MOF were investigated and this compound shows intense fluorescent emissions in the solid state. In addition, it exhibits good photocatalytic activities for the degradation of methyl organic under UV light irradiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Direct Synthesis of 7 nm Thick Zinc(II)-Benzimidazole-Acetate Metal-Organic Framework Nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Feng; Kumar, Prashant; Xu, Wenqian; Mkhoyan, K. Andre; Tsapatsis, Michael


    Two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising candidates for high performance gas sepa-ration membranes. Currently, MOF nanosheets are mostly fabricated through delamination of layered MOFs, which often re-sults in a low yield of intact free-standing nanosheets. In this work, we present a direct synthesis method for zinc(II)-benzimidazole-acetate (Zn(Bim)OAc) MOF nanosheets. The obtained nanosheets have a lateral dimension of 600 nm when synthesized at room temperature. By adjusting the synthesis temperature, the morphology of obtained nanosheets can be readily tuned from nanosheets to nanobelts. A thickness of 7 nm is determined for Zn(Bim)OAc using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, which makes these nanosheets promising building blocks of gas sepa-ration membranes.

  20. Adsorption of organic arsenic acids from water over functionalized metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Sarker, Mithun; Song, Ji Yoon; Jhung, Sung Hwa


    Organic arsenic acids (OAAs) are regarded as water pollutants because of their toxicity and considerable solubility in water. Adsorption of OAAs such as phenylarsonic acid (PAA) and p-arsanilic acid (ASA) from water was investigated over functionalized (with OH groups) metal-organic framework (MOF, MIL-101), as well as over pristine MIL-101 and commercial activated carbon. The highly porous MIL-101 bearing three hydroxyl groups (MIL-101(OH)3) exhibited remarkable PAA and ASA adsorption capacities. Based on the effects of pH on PAA and ASA adsorption, hydrogen bonding was suggested as a plausible mechanism of OAA adsorption. Importantly, OAAs and MIL-101(OH)3 can be viewed as hydrogen-bond acceptors and donors, respectively. Moreover, MIL-101(OH)3 could be regenerated by acidic ethanol treatment, being a promising adsorbent for the removal of PAA and ASA from water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Remote stabilization of copper paddlewheel based molecular building blocks in metal-organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Wenyang


    Copper paddlewheel based molecular building blocks (MBBs) are ubiquitous and have been widely employed for the construction of highly porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). However, most copper paddlewheel based MOFs fail to retain their structural integrity in the presence of water. This instability is directly correlated to the plausible displacement of coordinating carboxylates in the copper paddlewheel MBB, [Cu2(O2C-)4], by the strongly coordinating water molecules. In this comprehensive study, we illustrate the chemical stability control in the rht-MOF platform via strengthening the coordinating bonds within the triangular inorganic MBB, [Cu3O(N4-x(CH)xC-)3] (x = 0, 1, or 2). Remotely, the chemical stabilization propagated into the paddlewheel MBB to afford isoreticular rht-MOFs with remarkably enhanced water/chemical stabilities compared to the prototypal rht-MOF-1. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  2. Synthesis, structure, and photoluminescent properties of metal-organic coordination polymers assembled with bithiophenedicarboxylic acid. (United States)

    Zhao, Jiao; Wang, Xiu-Li; Shi, Xin; Yang, Qi-Hua; Li, Can


    Four novel metal-organic coordination polymers with the formulas Mn(3)(btdc)(3)(DMF)(4) (1), Co(btdc)(DMF)(3) (2), Zn(btdc)(DMF)(3) (3), and Zn(btdc)(4,4'-bpy)(0.5) (4), where H(2)btdc = 2,2'-bithiophene-5,5'-dicarboxylic acid, DMF = N,N'-dimethylformamide, and 4,4'-bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine, have been successfully synthesized. Crystal 1 with Mn(2+) as the cation features a three-dimensional (3D) infinite framework built from trimanganese clusters, and crystals 2 and 3 with Co(2+) and Zn(2+), respectively, as the cation both have one-dimensional zigzag polymeric coordination chains. Crystal 4 synthesized using a mixture of 4,4'-bpy and H(2)btdc exhibits a triply interpenetrating 3D framework built from a dizinc paddlewheel second building unit with a distorted primitive cubic single net. The results of UV/vis spectra indicate that metal binding does not disturb the detailed electronic structure of the ligand. We also demonstrate that Zn(2+) can greatly enhance the luminescence emission of the H(2)btdc ligand, and the emission intensity of crystal 4 is almost 20 times higher than that of the free H(2)btdc ligand. Steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic measurement reveal that the more rigid environment of the btdc ligand can stabilize the highly excited long-lived states in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which thus greatly changes the emission properties of MOFs.

  3. Intrinsic Thermal Management Capabilities of Flexible Metal-Organic Frameworks for Carbon Dioxide Separation and Capture. (United States)

    Hiraide, Shotaro; Tanaka, Hideki; Ishikawa, Narutomo; Miyahara, Minoru T


    We show that flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) exhibiting "gate openings/closings" for CO2 can intrinsically suppress the exothermic heat released by adsorption and the endothermic heat gained by desorption, both of which reduce the working capacity of CO2 in a separation process under near-adiabatic conditions. We use the elastic layer-structured metal-organic framework-11 (ELM-11) [Cu(4,4'-bipyridine)2(BF4)2], which exhibits a two-step gate-adsorption isotherm, as a model system for flexible MOFs, and perform free energy analyses with the aid of grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations for ELM-11 structures that were determined by the Rietveld method using in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data. We demonstrate that the thermal management capabilities of ELM-11 showing the two-step gating for CO2 at lower and higher pressures are nearly identical and quite effective (41% and 44% at 298 K, respectively). Moreover, we show that ELM-11 has an extremely high CO2 selectivity for both CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 mixtures at 298 K that, in addition to the intrinsic thermal management capability, is a crucial factor for application to carbon capture and storage (CCS). The multigate closing pressures of ELM-11 are not necessarily matched to the operating pressures used in CCS; however, our findings, and perspectives based on free energy analyses regarding modification of the host framework structure to tune the gating pressure, suggest that flexible MOFs exhibiting multigate openings/closings are promising materials for further development into systems with intrinsic thermal management mechanisms for CCS applications.

  4. Methane storage in flexible metal-organic frameworks with intrinsic thermal management (United States)

    Mason, Jarad A.; Oktawiec, Julia; Taylor, Mercedes K.; Hudson, Matthew R.; Rodriguez, Julien; Bachman, Jonathan E.; Gonzalez, Miguel I.; Cervellino, Antonio; Guagliardi, Antonietta; Brown, Craig M.; Llewellyn, Philip L.; Masciocchi, Norberto; Long, Jeffrey R.


    As a cleaner, cheaper, and more globally evenly distributed fuel, natural gas has considerable environmental, economic, and political advantages over petroleum as a source of energy for the transportation sector. Despite these benefits, its low volumetric energy density at ambient temperature and pressure presents substantial challenges, particularly for light-duty vehicles with little space available for on-board fuel storage. Adsorbed natural gas systems have the potential to store high densities of methane (CH4, the principal component of natural gas) within a porous material at ambient temperature and moderate pressures. Although activated carbons, zeolites, and metal-organic frameworks have been investigated extensively for CH4 storage, there are practical challenges involved in designing systems with high capacities and in managing the thermal fluctuations associated with adsorbing and desorbing gas from the adsorbent. Here, we use a reversible phase transition in a metal-organic framework to maximize the deliverable capacity of CH4 while also providing internal heat management during adsorption and desorption. In particular, the flexible compounds Fe(bdp) and Co(bdp) (bdp2- = 1,4-benzenedipyrazolate) are shown to undergo a structural phase transition in response to specific CH4 pressures, resulting in adsorption and desorption isotherms that feature a sharp ‘step’. Such behaviour enables greater storage capacities than have been achieved for classical adsorbents, while also reducing the amount of heat released during adsorption and the impact of cooling during desorption. The pressure and energy associated with the phase transition can be tuned either chemically or by application of mechanical pressure.

  5. High Growth Rate Metal-Organic Molecular Beam Epitaxy for the Fabrication of GaAs Space Solar Cells (United States)

    Freundlich, A.; Newman, F.; Monier, C.; Street, S.; Dargan, P.; Levy, M.


    In this work it is shown that high quality GaAs photovoltaic devices can be produced by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) with growth rates comparable to metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) through the subsitution of group III solid sources by metal-organic compounds. The influence the III/V flux-ratio and growth temperatures in maintaining a two dimensional layer by layer growth mode and achieving high growth rates with low residual background impurities is investigated. Finally subsequent to the study of the optimization of n- and p doping of such high growth rate epilayers, results from a preliminary attempt in the fabrication of GaAs photovoltaic devices such as tunnel diodes and solar cells using the proposed high growth rate approach are reported.

  6. Syntheses, structures and tunable luminescence of lanthanide metal-organic frameworks based on azole-containing carboxylic acid ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dian; Rao, Xingtang; Yu, Jiancan; Cui, Yuanjing, E-mail:; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong, E-mail:


    Design and synthesis of a series of isostructural lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (LnMOFs) serving as phosphors by coordinate the H{sub 2}TIPA (5-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)isophthalic acid) ligands and lanthanide ions is reported. The color of the luminescence can be tuned by adjusting the relative concentration of the lanthanide ions in the host framework GdTIPA, and near-pure-white light emission can be achieved. - Graphical abstract: Lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (LnMOFs) with tunable luminescence were synthesized using an azole-containing carboxylic acid as ligand. - Highlights: • A series of isostructural LnMOFs serving as phosphor is reported. • We model the GdTIPA: Tb{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} which can tune color and emit white light. • The scheme and mechanism of luminescent LnMOFs are also presented and discussed.

  7. Influence of halide ions on the chirality and luminescent property of ionothermally synthesized lanthanide-based metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Wang, Meng-Xi; Long, La-Sheng; Huang, Rong-Bin; Zheng, Lan-Sun


    Four lanthanide-based metal-organic frameworks, [Emim][Ln(1.5)(2,5-tdc)(2)]Cl(1.5-x)Br(x) (Ln = Nd 1, Eu 2) and [Emim][Ln(2,5-tdc)(2)] (Ln = Nd 3, Eu 4) (2,5-tdc = thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate, Emim = 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium), were synthesized under ionothermal conditions. Compounds 1 and 2 crystallize in the polar space group P2(1)2(1)2, while 3 and 4 crystallize in the central symmetry space group P2(1)/c. Luminescence studies revealed a significantly higher quantum yield of 4 than that of 2, with similar lifetimes. It is clear that the coordination of the halide ions has profound effects on the structures and properties of these lanthanide-based metal-organic frameworks.

  8. Selective fluorescence sensors for detection of nitroaniline and metal Ions based on ligand-based luminescent metal-organic frameworks (United States)

    Yu, Zongchao; Wang, Fengqin; Lin, Xiangyi; Wang, Chengmiao; Fu, Yiyuan; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhao, Yongnan; Li, Guodong


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous crystalline materials with high potential for applications in fluorescence sensors. In this work, two solvent-induced Zn(II)-based metal-organic frameworks, Zn3L3(DMF)2 (1) and Zn3L3(DMA)2(H2O)3 (2) (L=4,4‧-stilbenedicarboxylic acid), were investigated as selective sensing materials for detection of nitroaromatic compounds and metal ions. The sensing experiments show that 1 and 2 both exhibit selective fluorescence quenching toward nitroaniline with a low detection limit. In addition, 1 exhibits high selectivity for detection of Fe3+ and Al3+ by significant fluorescence quenching or enhancement effect. While for 2, it only exhibits significant fluorescence quenching effect for Fe3+. The results indicate that 1 and 2 are both promising fluorescence sensors for detecting and recognizing nitroaniline and metal ions with high sensitivity and selectivity.

  9. Reversed thermo-switchable molecular sieving membranes composed of two-dimensional metal-organic nanosheets for gas separation (United States)

    Wang, Xuerui; Chi, Chenglong; Zhang, Kang; Qian, Yuhong; Gupta, Krishna M.; Kang, Zixi; Jiang, Jianwen; Zhao, Dan


    It is highly desirable to reduce the membrane thickness in order to maximize the throughput and break the trade-off limitation for membrane-based gas separation. Two-dimensional membranes composed of atomic-thick graphene or graphene oxide nanosheets have gas transport pathways that are at least three orders of magnitude higher than the membrane thickness, leading to reduced gas permeation flux and impaired separation throughput. Here we present nm-thick molecular sieving membranes composed of porous two-dimensional metal-organic nanosheets. These membranes possess pore openings parallel to gas concentration gradient allowing high gas permeation flux and high selectivity, which are proven by both experiment and molecular dynamics simulation. Furthermore, the gas transport pathways of these membranes exhibit a reversed thermo-switchable feature, which is attributed to the molecular flexibility of the building metal-organic nanosheets.

  10. Microporous metal-organic framework with dual functionalities for highly efficient removal of acetylene from ethylene/acetylene mixtures


    Hu, T.L.; Wang, H.; Li, B; Krishna, R.; Wu, H.; Zhou, W; Zhao, Y.; Han, Y.; Wang, X.; W. Zhu; Yao, Z.; Xiang, S.; B. Chen


    The removal of acetylene from ethylene/acetylene mixtures containing 1% acetylene is a technologically very important, but highly challenging task. Current removal approaches include the partial hydrogenation over a noble metal catalyst and the solvent extraction of cracked olefins, both of which are cost and energy consumptive. Here we report a microporous metal?organic framework in which the suitable pore/cage spaces preferentially take up much more acetylene than ethylene while the functio...

  11. Heteroepitaxial growth of 3-5 semiconductor compounds by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition for device applications (United States)

    Collis, Ward J.; Abul-Fadl, Ali


    The purpose of this research is to design, install and operate a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system which is to be used for the epitaxial growth of 3-5 semiconductor binary compounds, and ternary and quaternary alloys. The long-term goal is to utilize this vapor phase deposition in conjunction with existing current controlled liquid phase epitaxy facilities to perform hybrid growth sequences for fabricating integrated optoelectronic devices.

  12. Incorporation of iron hydrogenase active sites into a highly stable metal-organic framework for photocatalytic hydrogen generation. (United States)

    Sasan, Koroush; Lin, Qipu; Mao, ChengYu; Feng, Pingyun


    A new biomimetic heterogeneous photocatalyst ([FeFe]@ZrPF) has been synthesized through the incorporation of homogeneous complex 1 [(í-SCH2)2NC(O)C5H4N]-[Fe2(CO)6] into the highly robust zirconium-porphyrin based metal-organic framework (ZrPF). The immobilized biomimetic [Fe2S2] catalyst inside the MOF shows great improvement in hydrogen generation compared to the reference homogeneous catalyst complex 1.

  13. Conversion of invisible metal-organic frameworks to luminescent perovskite nanocrystals for confidential information encryption and decryption


    Zhang, Congyang; Wang, Bo; Li, Wanbin; Huang, Shouqiang; Kong, Long; Li, Zhichun; Li, Liang


    Traditional smart fluorescent materials, which have been attracting increasing interest for security protection, are usually visible under either ambient or UV light, making them adverse to the potential application of confidential information protection. Herein, we report an approach to realize confidential information protection and storage based on the conversion of lead-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to luminescent perovskite nanocrystals (NCs). Owing to the invisible and controlle...

  14. Quest for the Ncb-type Metal-Organic Framework Platform: A Bifunctional Ligand Approach Meets Net Topology Needs. (United States)

    Chen, Di-Ming; Zhang, Nan-Nan; Tian, Jia-Yue; Liu, Chun-Sen; Du, Miao


    A custom-designed bifunctional ligand was used to connect an in situ formed Co3(OH) cluster affording a porous metal-organic framework, which represents the first case of ncb-type networks constructed from a single kind of ditopic ligand. Noticeably, the activated MOF shows high volumetric C2H2 uptake and excellent adsorption selectivity for C2H2/CO2 separation at room temperature with a low sorption heat.

  15. A Cryptand Metal-Organic Framework as a Platform for the Selective Uptake and Detection of Group I Metal Cations. (United States)

    Sapchenko, Sergey A; Demakov, Pavel A; Samsonenko, Denis G; Dybtsev, Danil N; Schröder, Martin; Fedin, Vladimir P


    The metal-organic framework (MOF) complex (H 3 O) 2 [Zn 4 (ur)(Hfdc) 2 (fdc) 4 ] (1, ur=urotropine, H 2 fdc=furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid) incorporates cryptand-like cavities, which can be used to separate and detect Rb + and Cs + optically. This is the first example of the effective employment of a MOF material for optical detection of these cations. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A stable porous anionic metal-organic framework for luminescence sensing of ln(3+) ions and detection of nitrobenzene. (United States)

    Qin, Jun-Sheng; Bao, Shao-Juan; Li, Peng; Xie, Wei; Du, Dong-Ying; Zhao, Liang; Lan, Ya-Qian; Su, Zhong-Min


    A hexagonal channel-based porous anionic metal-organic framework was successfully constructed. IFMC-3 is stable in air and acidic/basic aqueous solutions at room temperature, and constitutes a selective luminescent sensing material for Ln(3+) ions and a recyclable probe for the sensitive detection of nitrobenzene. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A Bimetallic Lanthanide Metal-Organic Material as a Self-Calibrating Color-Gradient Luminescent Sensor. (United States)

    Zhou, Jingmin; Li, Huanhuan; Zhang, Huan; Li, Huimin; Shi, Wei; Cheng, Peng


    A new bimetallic lanthanide metal-organic framework [Eu0.5 Tb1.5 (FDA)3 ] (H2 FDA = 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid) exhibits high-sensitivity luminescent sensing of mixtures of organic compounds and can work over a large range of volume ratios. The self-calibrating behavior of this color-gradient luminescent sensor is presented for the first time. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A stable europium metal-organic framework as a dual-functional luminescent sensor for quantitatively detecting temperature and humidity. (United States)

    Wang, Dongbo; Tan, Qinghua; Liu, Jingjuan; Liu, Zhiliang


    We report a luminescent Eu metal-organic framework (MOF) with a one-dimensional, open channel filled with water molecule assemblies; this MOF can serve as a dual-functional luminescent sensor for detecting temperature and humidity. Using this MOF, we have developed a self-calibrating ratiometric thermometer that operates within the cryogenic temperature range and simultaneously functions as a luminescent humidity sensor within the relative humidity (RH) range from 33.0% to 85.1%.

  19. Solvothermal growth of a ruthenium metal-organic framework featuring HKUST-1 structure type as thin films on oxide surfaces. (United States)

    Kozachuk, Olesia; Yusenko, Kirill; Noei, Heshmat; Wang, Yuemin; Walleck, Stephan; Glaser, Thorsten; Fischer, Roland A


    Phase-pure crystalline thin films of a mixed-valence Ru(2)(II,III) metal-organic framework with 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate (btc) as a linker were solvothermally grown on amorphous alumina and silica surfaces. Based on the Rietveld refinement, the structure of Ru-MOF was assigned to be analogous to [Cu(3)(btc)(2)] (HKUST-1). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  20. Synthesis and characterization of bimetallic metal-organic framework Cu-Ru-BTC with HKUST-1 structure. (United States)

    Gotthardt, Meike A; Schoch, Roland; Wolf, Silke; Bauer, Matthias; Kleist, Wolfgang


    The bimetallic metal-organic framework Cu-Ru-BTC with the stoichiometric formula Cu2.75Ru0.25(BTC)2·xH2O, which is isoreticular to HKUST-1, was successfully prepared in a direct synthesis using mild reaction conditions. The partial substitution of Cu(2+) by Ru(3+) centers in the paddlewheel structure and the absence of other Ru-containing phases was proven using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  1. Network diversity through decoration of trigonal-prismatic nodes: Two-step crystal engineering of cationic metal-organic materials

    KAUST Repository

    Schoedel, Alexander


    MOMs the word! In a two-step process, first a trigonal-prismatic Primary Molecular Building Block ([Cr3O(isonic)6]+, tp-PMBB-1) was formed and then it was connected to linear linkers or square-planar nodes to afford three novel highly charged cationic metal-organic materials (MOMs) with snx, snw, and stp topologies. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1,4-dicarboxylic acid: towards transparent metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Llabres-Campaner, P J; Pitarch-Jarque, J; Ballesteros-Garrido, R; Abarca, B; Ballesteros, R; García-España, E


    The preparation of transparent porous materials can offer a different access towards the study of molecules under solid confined space. Metal-organic frameworks represent a unique opportunity due to their tunable pore size, however aromatic linkers present strong absorption and reduce the transparency. Herein, we report the first example of a MOF with bicyclic organic dicarboxylic linkers and its use as a solid solvent.

  3. Tailoring the Pore Size and Functionality of UiO-Type Metal-Organic Frameworks for Optimal Nerve Agent Destruction. (United States)

    Peterson, Gregory W; Moon, Su-Young; Wagner, George W; Hall, Morgan G; DeCoste, Jared B; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K


    Evaluation of UiO-66 and UiO-67 metal-organic framework derivatives as catalysts for the degradation of soman, a chemical warfare agent, showed the importance of both the linker size and functionality. The best catalysts yielded half-lives of less than 1 min. Further testing with a nerve agent simulant established that different rate-assessment techniques yield similar values for degradation half-lives.

  4. Highly selective luminescence sensing of nitrite and benzaldehyde based on 3d-4f heterometallic metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Du, Pei-Yao; Gu, Wen; Liu, Xin


    Framework-isomeric three-dimensional (3D) Zn-Ln heterometallic metal-organic frameworks, {[Ln2Zn(abtc)2(H2O)4]·2H2O}∞ {Ln = Sm(1), Tb(2)}, were synthesized using a convenient solvothermal reaction. They can serve as excellent sensors for the specific identification of benzaldehyde and NO2(-) through a fluorescence quenching process.

  5. Syntheses, structures and tunable luminescence of lanthanide metal-organic frameworks based on azole-containing carboxylic acid ligand (United States)

    Zhao, Dian; Rao, Xingtang; Yu, Jiancan; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong


    Design and synthesis of a series of isostructural lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (LnMOFs) serving as phosphors by coordinate the H2TIPA (5-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)isophthalic acid) ligands and lanthanide ions is reported. The color of the luminescence can be tuned by adjusting the relative concentration of the lanthanide ions in the host framework GdTIPA, and near-pure-white light emission can be achieved.

  6. Fumarate-based metal-organic frameworks as a new platform for highly selective removal of fluoride from brick tea


    Ke, Fei; Peng, Chuanyi; Zhang, Tian; Zhang, Mengran; Zhou, Chengyan; Cai, Huimei; Zhu, Junfa; Wan, Xiaochun


    Adsorption and removal of fluoride from brick tea is very important but challenging. In this work, two fumarate-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were synthesized for the selective removal of fluoride from brick tea infusion. MOFs were examined for adsorption time, effect of dose, and uptake capacity at different initial concentrations and temperatures. Remarkably, over 80% fluoride removal was achieved by MOF-801 within 5 min at room temperature, while no significant adsorption occurred ...

  7. De novo synthesis of a metal-organic framework material featuring ultrahigh surface area and gas storage capacities. (United States)

    Farha, Omar K; Yazaydın, A Özgür; Eryazici, Ibrahim; Malliakas, Christos D; Hauser, Brad G; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Nguyen, SonBinh T; Snurr, Randall Q; Hupp, Joseph T


    Metal-organic frameworks--a class of porous hybrid materials built from metal ions and organic bridges--have recently shown great promise for a wide variety of applications. The large choice of building blocks means that the structures and pore characteristics of the metal-organic frameworks can be tuned relatively easily. However, despite much research, it remains challenging to prepare frameworks specifically tailored for particular applications. Here, we have used computational modelling to design and predictively characterize a metal-organic framework (NU-100) with a particularly high surface area. Subsequent experimental synthesis yielded a material, matching the calculated structure, with a high BET surface area (6,143 m(2) g(-1)). Furthermore, sorption measurements revealed that the material had high storage capacities for hydrogen (164 mg g(-1)) and carbon dioxide (2,315 mg g(-1))--gases of high importance in the contexts of clean energy and climate alteration, respectively--in excellent agreement with predictions from modelling.

  8. Hypersensitive dual-function luminescence switching of a silver-chalcogenolate cluster-based metal-organic framework (United States)

    Huang, Ren-Wu; Wei, Yong-Sheng; Dong, Xi-Yan; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Du, Chen-Xia; Zang, Shuang-Quan; Mak, Thomas C. W.


    Silver(I) chalcogenide/chalcogenolate clusters are promising photofunctional materials for sensing, optoelectronics and solar energy harvesting applications. However, their instability and poor room-temperature luminescent quantum yields have hampered more extensive study. Here, we graft such clusters to adaptable bridging ligands, enabling their interconnection and the formation of rigid metal-organic frameworks. By controlling the spatial separation and orientation of the clusters, they then exhibit enhanced stability (over one year) and quantum yield (12.1%). Ultrafast dual-function fluorescence switching (organic compounds. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction of the inclusion materials, obtained by single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation, enables precise determination of the position of the small molecules within the framework, elucidating the switching mechanism. The work enriches the cluster-based metal-organic framework portfolio, bridges the gap between silver chalcogenide/chalcogenolate clusters and metal-organic frameworks, and provides a foundation for further development of functional silver-cluster-based materials.

  9. Highly selective luminescent sensing of picric acid based on a water-stable europium metal-organic framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Tifeng; Zhu, Fengliang; Cui, Yuanjing, E-mail:; Yang, Yu; Wang, Zhiyu; Qian, Guodong, E-mail:


    A water-stable metal-organic framework (MOF) EuNDC has been synthesized for selective detection of the well-known contaminant and toxicant picric acid (PA) in aqueous solution. Due to the photo-induced electron transfer and self-absorption mechanism, EuNDC displayed rapid, selective and sensitive detection of PA with a detection limit of 37.6 ppb. Recyclability experiments revealed that EuNDC retains its initial luminescent intensity and same quenching efficiency in each cycle, suggesting high photostability and reusability for long-term sensing applications. The excellent detection performance of EuNDC makes it a promising PA sensing material for practical applications. - Graphical abstract: A water-stable europium-based metal-organic framework has been reported for highly selective sensing of picric acid (PA) with a detection limit of 37.6 ppb in aqueous solution. - Highlights: • A water-stable metal-organic framework (MOF) EuNDC was synthesized. • The highly selective detection of picric acid with a detection limit of 37.6 ppb was realized. • The detection mechanism were also presented and discussed.

  10. Characteristics of electron cyclotron resonance plasma formed by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    m3. When the ECR appears .... capacitor bank power supply assisted by ECR plasma, formed by LHCD system. The main parameters of the ..... voltage is gradually decreased from shot to shot, till the discharge ceases to form. We refer these ...

  11. Characteristics of electron cyclotron resonance plasma formed by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 27, 2015 ... The RF powe r, up to 10 kW (of which ∼ 50% is reflected back), with a typical pulse length of 50 ms, is injected into the vacuum chamber of the ADITYA tokamak by a LHCD grill antenna and is used for plasma formation. The average coupled RF power density (the RF power/a typical volume of the plasma) ...

  12. Metal-organic frameworks with functional pores for recognition of small molecules. (United States)

    Chen, Banglin; Xiang, Shengchang; Qian, Guodong


    Molecular recognition, an important process in biological and chemical systems, governs the diverse functions of a variety of enzymes and unique properties of some synthetic receptors. Because molecular recognition is based on weak interactions between receptors and substrates, the design and assembly of synthetic receptors to mimic biological systems and the development of novel materials to discriminate different substrates for selective recognition of specific molecules has proved challenging. The extensive research on synthetic receptors for molecular recognition, particularly on noncovalent complexes self-assembled by hydrogen bonding and metal-organic coordination, has revealed some underlying principles. In particular, these studies have demonstrated that the shapes of the supramolecular receptors play significant roles in their specific and selective recognition of substrates: receptors can offer concave surfaces that complement their convex targets. This Account describes our research to develop a synthetic molecular recognition platform using porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). These materials contain functional pores to direct their specific and unique recognition of small molecules through several types of interactions: van der Waals interactions of the framework surface with the substrate, metal-substrate interactions, and hydrogen bonding of the framework surface with the substrate. These materials have potential applications for gas storage, separation, and sensing. We demonstrate a simple strategy to construct a primitive cubic net of interpenetrated microporous MOFs from the self-assembly of the paddle-wheel clusters M(2)(CO(2))(4) (M = Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Co(2+)) with two types of organic dicarboxylic acid and pillar bidentate linkers. This efficient method allows us to rationally tune the micropores to size-exclusively sort different small gas molecules, leading to the highly selective separation and purification of gases. By optimizing the

  13. Flexible metal-organic framework compounds: In situ studies for selective CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, A.J., E-mail: [Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8520 (United States); Espinal, L.; Wong-Ng, W. [Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8520 (United States); Queen, W.L. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brown, C.M. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Kline, S.R. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); Kauffman, K.L. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States); Culp, J.T. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States); URS Corporation, South Park, PA 15219 (United States); Matranga, C. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 (United States)


    Results are presented that explore the dynamic structural changes occurring in two highly flexible nanocrystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) compounds during the adsorption and desorption of pure gases and binary mixtures. The Ni(1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene)[Ni(CN){sub 4}] and catena-bis(dibenzoylmethanato)-(4,4′-bipyridyl)nickel(II) chosen for this study are 3-D and 1-D porous coordination polymers (PCP) with a similar gate opening pressure response for CO{sub 2} isotherms at 303 K, but with differing degrees of flexibility for structural change to accommodate guest molecules. As such, they serve as a potential model system for evaluating the complex kinetics associated with dynamic structure changes occurring in response to gas adsorption in flexible MOF systems. Insights into the crystallographic changes occurring as the MOF pore structure expands and contracts in response to interactions with CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixtures have been obtained from in situ small-angle neutron scattering and neutron diffraction, combined with ex situ X-ray diffraction structure measurements. The role of structure in carbon capture functionality is discussed with reference to the ongoing characterization challenges and a possible materials-by-design approach. - Graphical abstract: We present in situ small-angle neutron scattering results for two flexible metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The figure shows that for one (NiBpene, high CO{sub 2} adsorption) the intensity of the Bragg peak for the expandable d-spacing most associated with CO{sub 2} adsorption varies approximately with the isotherm, while for the other (NiDBM-Bpy, high CO{sub 2} selectivity) the d-spacing, itself, varies with the isotherm. The cartoons show the proposed modes of structural change. - Highlights: • Dynamic structures of two flexible MOF CO{sub 2} sorbent compounds are compared in situ. • These porous solid sorbents serve as models for pure & dual gas adsorption. • Different

  14. Kinetic separation of carbon dioxide and methane on a copper metal-organic framework. (United States)

    Bao, Zongbi; Alnemrat, Sufian; Yu, Liang; Vasiliev, Igor; Ren, Qilong; Lu, Xiuyang; Deng, Shuguang


    Separation of carbon dioxide and methane is an important issue in upgrading low-quality natural gas. Adsorption equilibria and kinetics of CO(2) and CH(4) on a copper metal-organic framework (MOF), Cu(hfipbb)(H(2)hfipbb)(0.5) [H(2)hfipbb=4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) bis(benzoic acid)], were investigated to evaluate the feasibility of removing CO(2) from CH(4) in a pressure swing adsorption process using this new MOF adsorbent. The heat of adsorption of CO(2) on the Cu-MOF at zero-coverage (29.7 kJ/mol) is much lower than those on a carbon molecular sieve and a zeolite 5A adsorbent; and the heat of adsorption of CH(4) on the Cu-MOF (21.4 kJ/mol) is similar to that on the zeolite 5A adsorbent and smaller than that on a carbon molecular sieve. The Cu-MOF being investigated has apertures of (~3.5 × 3.5 Å), which favors the kinetically controlled separation of CO(2) and CH(4). The kinetic selectivity is found to be 26 at 298 K, and the overall selectivity (combining the equilibrium and kinetic effects) is about 25 for an adsorption separation process. These results suggest that the Cu-MOF adsorbent is an attractive alternative adsorbent for the CO(2)/CH(4) separation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Design and Synthesis of Novel Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) Toward High Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Eddaoudi [USF; Zaworotko, Michael [USF; Space, Brian [USF; Eckert, Juergen [USF


    Statement of Objectives: 1. Synthesize viable porous MOFs for high H2 storage at ambient conditions to be assessed by measuring H2 uptake. 2. Develop a better understanding of the operative interactions of the sorbed H2 with the organic and inorganic constituents of the sorbent MOF by means of inelastic neutron scattering (INS, to characterize the H2-MOF interactions) and computational studies (to interpret the data and predict novel materials suitable for high H2 uptake at moderate temperatures and relatively low pressures). 3. Synergistically combine the outcomes of objectives 1 and 2 to construct a made-to-order inexpensive MOF that is suitable for super H2 storage and meets the DOE targets - 6% H2 per weight (2kWh/kg) by 2010 and 9% H2 per weight (3kWh/kg) by 2015. The ongoing research is a collaborative experimental and computational effort focused on assessing H2 storage and interactions with pre-selected metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolite-like MOFs (ZMOFs), with the eventual goal of synthesizing made-to-order high H2 storage materials to achieve the DOE targets for mobile applications. We proposed in this funded research to increase the amount of H2 uptake, as well as tune the interactions (i.e. isosteric heats of adsorption), by targeting readily tunable MOFs:

  16. Biomimetic Taste Receptors with Chiral Recognition by Photoluminescent Metal-Organic Frameworks Chelated with Polyaniline Helices. (United States)

    Lee, Tu; Lin, Tsung Yan; Lee, Hung Lin; Chang, Yun Hsuan; Tsai, Yee Chen


    The adsorption of phenylaniline (Phe) enantiomers on (+)-polyaniline (PAN)-chelated [In(OH)(bdc)]n microcrystals was carefully designed and studied by using the Job titration, circular dichroism, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoluminescence to mimic heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors in selective, but not specific, ligand binding with chiral recognition and signal transduction. Six essential working principles across different length scales are unraveled: 1) a chiral (+)-PAN (host), 2) specific sites for Phe-(+)/PAN (guest-host) binding, 3) a conformational change of (+)-PAN after binding with Phe enantiomers, 4) different degrees of packing for (+)-PAN, 5) interactions between (+)-PAN and the underlying signal-generating framework (i.e., [In(OH)(bdc)]n microcrystals), and 6) a systematic photoluminescent signal combination by using principal-component analysis from the other three polymer-chelated metal-organic frameworkds (MOFs), such as poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), sodium alginate (SA), and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to enhance the selectivity and discrimination capabilities. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A porous metal-organic framework with ultrahigh acetylene uptake capacity under ambient conditions (United States)

    Pang, Jiandong; Jiang, Feilong; Wu, Mingyan; Liu, Caiping; Su, Kongzhao; Lu, Weigang; Yuan, Daqiang; Hong, Maochun


    Acetylene, an important petrochemical raw material, is very difficult to store safely under compression because of its highly explosive nature. Here we present a porous metal-organic framework named FJI-H8, with both suitable pore space and rich open metal sites, for efficient storage of acetylene under ambient conditions. Compared with existing reports, FJI-H8 shows a record-high gravimetric acetylene uptake of 224 cm3 (STP) g−1 and the second-highest volumetric uptake of 196 cm3 (STP) cm−3 at 295 K and 1 atm. Increasing the storage temperature to 308 K has only a small effect on its acetylene storage capacity (∼200 cm3 (STP) g−1). Furthermore, FJI-H8 exhibits an excellent repeatability with only 3.8% loss of its acetylene storage capacity after five cycles of adsorption–desorption tests. Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation reveals that not only open metal sites but also the suitable pore space and geometry play key roles in its remarkable acetylene uptake. PMID:26123775

  18. Controlling Cooperative CO2Adsorption in Diamine-Appended Mg2(dobpdc) Metal-Organic Frameworks. (United States)

    Siegelman, Rebecca L; McDonald, Thomas M; Gonzalez, Miguel I; Martell, Jeffrey D; Milner, Phillip J; Mason, Jarad A; Berger, Adam H; Bhown, Abhoyjit S; Long, Jeffrey R


    In the transition to a clean-energy future, CO 2 separations will play a critical role in mitigating current greenhouse gas emissions and facilitating conversion to cleaner-burning and renewable fuels. New materials with high selectivities for CO 2 adsorption, large CO 2 removal capacities, and low regeneration energies are needed to achieve these separations efficiently at scale. Here, we present a detailed investigation of nine diamine-appended variants of the metal-organic framework Mg 2 (dobpdc) (dobpdc 4- = 4,4'-dioxidobiphenyl-3,3'-dicarboxylate) that feature step-shaped CO 2 adsorption isotherms resulting from cooperative and reversible insertion of CO 2 into metal-amine bonds to form ammonium carbamate chains. Small modifications to the diamine structure are found to shift the threshold pressure for cooperative CO 2 adsorption by over 4 orders of magnitude at a given temperature, and the observed trends are rationalized on the basis of crystal structures of the isostructural zinc frameworks obtained from in situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. The structure-activity relationships derived from these results can be leveraged to tailor adsorbents to the conditions of a given CO 2 separation process. The unparalleled versatility of these materials, coupled with their high CO 2 capacities and low projected energy costs, highlights their potential as next-generation adsorbents for a wide array of CO 2 separations.

  19. Modeling adsorption properties of structurally deformed metal-organic frameworks using structure-property map. (United States)

    Jeong, WooSeok; Lim, Dae-Woon; Kim, Sungjune; Harale, Aadesh; Yoon, Minyoung; Suh, Myunghyun Paik; Kim, Jihan


    Structural deformation and collapse in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can lead to loss of long-range order, making it a challenge to model these amorphous materials using conventional computational methods. In this work, we show that a structure-property map consisting of simulated data for crystalline MOFs can be used to indirectly obtain adsorption properties of structurally deformed MOFs. The structure-property map (with dimensions such as Henry coefficient, heat of adsorption, and pore volume) was constructed using a large data set of over 12000 crystalline MOFs from molecular simulations. By mapping the experimental data points of deformed SNU-200, MOF-5, and Ni-MOF-74 onto this structure-property map, we show that the experimentally deformed MOFs share similar adsorption properties with their nearest neighbor crystalline structures. Once the nearest neighbor crystalline MOFs for a deformed MOF are selected from a structure-property map at a specific condition, then the adsorption properties of these MOFs can be successfully transformed onto the degraded MOFs, leading to a new way to obtain properties of materials whose structural information is lost.

  20. Stepwise transformation of the molecular building blocks in a porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic material

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie


    When immersed in solutions containing Cu(II) cations, the microporous metal-organic material P11 ([Cd4(BPT)4]·[Cd(C 44H36N8)(S)]·[S], BPT = biphenyl-3,4′,5-tricarboxylate) undergoes a transformation of its [Cd 2(COO)6]2- molecular building blocks (MBBs) into novel tetranuclear [Cu4X2(COO)6(S) 2] MBBs to form P11-Cu. The transformation occurs in single-crystal to single-crystal fashion, and its stepwise mechanism was studied by varying the Cd2+/Cu2+ ratio of the solution in which crystals of P11 were immersed. P11-16/1 (Cd in framework retained, Cd in encapsulated porphyrins exchanged) and other intermediate phases were thereby isolated and structurally characterized. P11-16/1 and P11-Cu retain the microporosity of P11, and the relatively larger MBBs in P11-Cu permit a 20% unit cell expansion and afford a higher surface area and a larger pore size. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  1. Metal-organic semiconductor interfacial barrier height determination from internal photoemission signal in spectral response measurements (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Iyer, S. Sundar Kumar


    Accurate and convenient evaluation methods of the interfacial barrier ϕb for charge carriers in metal semiconductor (MS) junctions are important for designing and building better opto-electronic devices. This becomes more critical for organic semiconductor devices where a plethora of molecules are in use and standardised models applicable to myriads of material combinations for the different devices may have limited applicability. In this paper, internal photoemission (IPE) from spectral response (SR) in the ultra-violet to near infra-red range of different MS junctions of metal-organic semiconductor-metal (MSM) test structures is used to determine more realistic MS ϕb values. The representative organic semiconductor considered is [6, 6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester, and the metals considered are Al and Au. The IPE signals in the SR measurement of the MSM device are identified and separated before it is analysed to estimate ϕb for the MS junction. The analysis of IPE signals under different bias conditions allows the evaluation of ϕb for both the front and back junctions, as well as for symmetric MSM devices.

  2. Fluorescence Quenching Investigation of Methyl Red Adsorption on Aluminum-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks. (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Kai; Yang, Shan-Min; Li, Bing-Han; Lin, Chia-Her; Lee, Szetsen


    The adsorption of methyl red (MR) isomers (ortho, meta, and para) on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) was investigated by using a fluorescence quenching technique. All three MR isomers were found to quench the fluorescence of MOFs effectively. Nonlinear fluorescence quenching trends were observed in Stern-Volmer plots. A modified nonlinear Stern-Volmer equation with the concepts of multiple adsorption sites, adsorption strength, and quencher accessibility was successfully adopted to fit the fluorescence quenching data. The fitted parameters were correlated with the structural properties of MRs and MOFs. The order of quenching efficiency was found to be m-MR > p-MR > o-MR for all MOFs. This indicates that MR molecules not only adsorb via carboxylate-metal bonding but also adsorb through π-π interactions between the aromatic rings of MR and linker molecules in MOFs. The position of the carboxylate group in MRs and the structure of the linkers in MOFs are the key factors affecting the fluorescence quenching efficiency.

  3. Heterogeneous Catalysis in Zeolites, Mesoporous Silica, and Metal-Organic Frameworks. (United States)

    Liang, Jie; Liang, Zibin; Zou, Ruqiang; Zhao, Yanli


    Crystalline porous materials are important in the development of catalytic systems with high scientific and industrial impact. Zeolites, ordered mesoporous silica, and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are three types of porous materials that can be used as heterogeneous catalysts. This review focuses on a comparison of the catalytic activities of zeolites, mesoporous silica, and MOFs. In the first part of the review, the distinctive properties of these porous materials relevant to catalysis are discussed, and the corresponding catalytic reactions are highlighted. In the second part, the catalytic behaviors of zeolites, mesoporous silica, and MOFs in four types of general organic reactions (acid, base, oxidation, and hydrogenation) are compared. The advantages and disadvantages of each porous material for catalytic reactions are summarized. Conclusions and prospects for future development of these porous materials in this field are provided in the last section. This review aims to highlight recent research advancements in zeolites, ordered mesoporous silica, and MOFs for heterogeneous catalysis, and inspire further studies in this rapidly developing field. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Incorporation of Molecular Catalysts in Metal-Organic Frameworks for Highly Efficient Heterogeneous Catalysis. (United States)

    Wu, Chuan-De; Zhao, Min


    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are built from periodically alternate organic moieties and metal ions/clusters. The unique features of the open framework structures, the high surface areas, the permanent porosity, and the appropriate hydrophilic and hydrophobic pore nature mean that MOF materials are a class of ideal host matrices for immobilization of molecular catalysts. The emerging porous materials can not only retain but are also able to enhance the catalytic functions of the single individuals. MOF catalysts have the following super characters: i) uniformly dispersed catalytic sites on the pore surfaces to improve the utility, ii) appropriate hydrophilic and hydrophobic pore nature to facilitate the recognition and transportation of reactant and product molecules, iii) a collaborative microenvironment to realize synergistic catalysis, and iv) simple separation and recovery for long-term usage. Accompanying the development of the synthetic strategies and the technologies for the characterization of MOF materials, MOF catalysis has undergone an upsurge, which has transcended the stage of opportunism. Here, the rational design and synthesis of MOF catalysts are discussed, along with the key factors of active sites, microenvironments, and transmission channels that lead to the distinct catalytic properties of MOF catalysts. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and heterogeneous base catalysis of amino functionalized lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (United States)

    Huang, Jinping; Li, Chunmei; Tao, Lingling; Zhu, Huilin; Hu, Gang


    Lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs) are featured by their tolerance to water and dense structure. In this work, an amine-functionalized Ln-MOF was facilely synthesized by coordination of terbium with 2-aminoterephthalic acid under the condition of microwave irradiation. The crystal structure was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, Raman, TG-DTA and XPS analysis. The basic catalytic activity of the NH2-Tb-MOF was evaluated for Knoevenagel condensation and Henry reactions. Apart from the high activity and 100% selectivity to the condensation product, the NH2-Tb-MOF catalyst could be easily recycled and reused owing to the high stability of the MOF framework formed by coordination of Tb3+ with carboxylic groups. Remarkably, the NH2-Tb-MOF exhibited size-selective catalysis to substrates. For the small-sized reactants, it displayed comparable activity to the homogeneous catalyst of aniline owing to the high dispersion of NH2- active sites and the low diffusion limits. However, in the same reaction system, extremely poor activity in Knoevenagel condensation and Henry reaction for the bulky substrate 4-(tert-butyl) benzaldehyde was observed due to the both effects of substitute and inhibition of diffusion into the micropores. Crystal structure analysis provided a mechanistic evidence that the heterogeneous base catalysis arose from the amino groups densely distributed inside the micropores.

  6. Metal-organic molecular device for non-volatile memory storage (United States)

    Radha, B.; Sagade, Abhay A.; Kulkarni, G. U.


    Non-volatile memory devices have been of immense research interest for their use in active memory storage in powered off-state of electronic chips. In literature, various molecules and metal compounds have been investigated in this regard. Molecular memory devices are particularly attractive as they offer the ease of storing multiple memory states in a unique way and also represent ubiquitous choice for miniaturized devices. However, molecules are fragile and thus the device breakdown at nominal voltages during repeated cycles hinders their practical applicability. Here, in this report, a synergetic combination of an organic molecule and an inorganic metal, i.e., a metal-organic complex, namely, palladium hexadecylthiolate is investigated for memory device characteristics. Palladium hexadecylthiolate following partial thermolysis is converted to a molecular nanocomposite of Pd(II), Pd(0), and long chain hydrocarbons, which is shown to exhibit non-volatile memory characteristics with exceptional stability and retention. The devices are all solution-processed and the memory action stems from filament formation across the pre-formed cracks in the nanocomposite film.

  7. Metal-organic framework-based separator for lithium-sulfur batteries (United States)

    Bai, Songyan; Liu, Xizheng; Zhu, Kai; Wu, Shichao; Zhou, Haoshen


    Lithium-sulfur batteries are a promising energy-storage technology due to their relatively low cost and high theoretical energy density. However, one of their major technical problems is the shuttling of soluble polysulfides between electrodes, resulting in rapid capacity fading. Here, we present a metal-organic framework (MOF)-based battery separator to mitigate the shuttling problem. We show that the MOF-based separator acts as an ionic sieve in lithium-sulfur batteries, which selectively sieves Li+ ions while efficiently suppressing undesired polysulfides migrating to the anode side. When a sulfur-containing mesoporous carbon material (approximately 70 wt% sulfur content) is used as a cathode composite without elaborate synthesis or surface modification, a lithium-sulfur battery with a MOF-based separator exhibits a low capacity decay rate (0.019% per cycle over 1,500 cycles). Moreover, there is almost no capacity fading after the initial 100 cycles. Our approach demonstrates the potential for MOF-based materials as separators for energy-storage applications.

  8. Nano Metal-Organic Framework-Derived Inorganic Hybrid Nanomaterials: Synthetic Strategies and Applications. (United States)

    Mai, Hien Duy; Rafiq, Khezina; Yoo, Hyojong


    Nano- (or micro-scale) metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs), also known as coordination polymer particles (CPPs), have received much attention because of their structural diversities and tunable properties. Besides the direct use, NMOFs can be alternatively used as sacrificial templates/precursors for the preparation of a wide range of hybrid inorganic nanomaterials in straightforward and controllable manners. Distinct advantages of using NMOF templates are correlated to their structural and functional tailorability at molecular levels that is rarely acquired in any other conventional template/precursor. In addition, NMOF-derived inorganic nanomaterials with distinct chemical and physical properties are inferred to dramatically expand the scope of their utilization in many fields. In this review, we aim to provide readers with a comprehensive summary of recent progress in terms of synthetic approaches for the production of diverse inorganic hybrid nanostructures from as-synthesized NMOFs and their promising applications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Thin CdS films prepared by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiroshi Uda; Yonezawa, Hideo; Ohtsubo, Yoshikazu; Kosaka, Manabu; Sonomura, Hajimu [Kinki Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology


    Polycrystalline CdS thin films have been deposited on borosilicate glass substrates coated with ITO film by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using dimethyl cadmium and diethyl sulfide as source materials. The growth of CdS film occurred at substrate temperatures within the range of 280-360{sup o}C. The deposition rate increased with increasing VI/II molar ratio at any substrate temperature and showed a maximum value at the VI/II molar ratio of 4. The grain size of as-deposited CdS film prepared at substrate temperatures from 300{sup o}C to 360{sup o}C was about 0.1 {mu}m. The CdS films consist of hexagonal form with a preferential orientation of the (0 0 2) plane parallel to the substrate. Thin CdS film with high optical transmittance was prepared at 350{sup o}C with the VI/II molar ratio of 4. The CdS film deposited by MOCVD may be used as a window layer for CdS/CdTe solar cell.(author)

  10. Metal-organic fireworks: MOFs as integrated structural scaffolds for pyrotechnic materials. (United States)

    Blair, L H; Colakel, A; Vrcelj, R M; Sinclair, I; Coles, S J


    A new approach to formulating pyrotechnic materials is presented whereby constituent ingredients are bound together in a solid-state lattice. This reduces the batch inconsistencies arising from the traditional approach of combining powders by ensuring the key ingredients are 'mixed' in appropriate quantities and are in intimate contact. Further benefits of these types of material are increased safety levels as well as simpler logistics, storage and manufacture. A systematic series of new frameworks comprising fuel and oxidiser agents (group 1 and 2 metal nodes & terephthalic acid derivatives as linkers) has been synthesised and structurally characterised. These new materials have been assessed for pyrotechnic effect by calorimetry and burn tests. Results indicate that these materials exhibit the desired pyrotechnic material properties and the effect can be correlated to the dimensionality of the structure. A new approach to formulating pyrotechnic materials is proposed whereby constituent ingredients are bound together in a solid-state lattice. A series of Metal-organic framework frameworks comprising fuel and oxidiser agents exhibits the desired properties of a pyrotechnic material and this effect is correlated to the dimensionality of the structure.

  11. Metal-Organic Frameworks: Literature Survey and Recommendation of Potential Sorbent Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, T F


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a special type of porous material with a number of unique properties, including exceptionally high surface areas, large internal pore volumes (void space) and tunable pore sizes. These materials are prepared through the assembly of molecular building blocks into ordered three-dimensional structures. The bulk properties of the MOF are determined by the nature of the building blocks and, as such, these materials can be designed with special characteristics that cannot be realized in other sorbent materials, like activated carbons. For example, MOFs can be constructed with binding sites or pockets that can exhibit selectivity for specific analytes. Alternatively, the framework can be engineered to undergo reversible dimensional changes (or 'breathing') upon interaction with an analyte, effectively trapping the molecule of interest in the lattice structure. In this report, we have surveyed the 4000 different MOF structures reported in the open literature and provided recommendations for specific MOF materials that should be investigated as sorbents for this project.

  12. A fine-tuned Metal-Organic Framework for Autonomous Indoor Moisture Control .

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Halim, Racha Ghassan


    Conventional adsorbents, namely zeolites and silica gel, are often used to control humidity by adsorbing water; however, adsorbents capable of dual functionality of humidification and dehumidification, offering the desired control of the moisture level at room temperature, has yet to be explored. Here we report Y-shp-MOF-5, a hybrid microporous highly-connected Rare-Earth based metal-organic framework (MOF), with dual functionality for moisture control within the recommended range of relative humidity (45% to 65% RH) set by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). Y-shp-MOF-5 exhibits exceptional structural integrity, robustness and unique humidity-control performance as confirmed by the large number (thousand) of conducted water vapor adsorption-desorption cycles. The retained structural integrity and the mechanism of water sorption were corroborated using in situ single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) studies. The resultant working water uptake of 0.45 g.g-1 is solely regulated by a simple adjustment of the relative humidity, positioning this hydrolytically stable MOF as a prospective adsorbent for humidity control in confined spaces such as space shuttles, aircraft cabins and air-conditioned buildings.

  13. Synthesis, functionalisation and post-synthetic modification of bismuth metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Köppen, M; Beyer, O; Wuttke, S; Lüning, U; Stock, N


    Two new bismuth metal-organic frameworks (Bi-MOFs) were discovered using high throughput experiments employing bismuth(iii) nitrate pentahydrate and triazine-2,4,6-triyl-tribenzoic acid (H 3 TATB). The reaction was carried out for long reaction times (∼5 d) in a water/DMF-mixture and resulted in the formation of [Bi 2 (O)(OH)(TATB)]·H 2 O (denoted as CAU-35). By switching to short reaction times and a methanol/DMF-mixture as the solvent, an analogue of CAU-7-BTB with the composition [Bi(TATB)]·DMF·6H 2 O (denoted as CAU-7-TATB) was obtained. The use of the amino-functionalised H 3 TATB linker (H 3 TATB-NH 2 ) resulted in the formation of a functionalised porous Bi-MOF with the composition [Bi(TATB-NH 2 )]·5H 2 O·0.5DMF (CAU-7-TATB-NH 2 ). The structures of CAU-35 and CAU-7-TATB were successfully solved and refined from the PXRD data. CAU-7-TATB-NH 2 was post-synthetically modified using anhydrides (acetic anhydride and valeric anhydride), cyclic anhydrides (succinic anhydride and phthalic anhydride), and 1,3-propane sultone. The degree of conversion ranged from 33% to 79%.

  14. A metal-organic framework-based splitter for separating propylene from propane. (United States)

    Cadiau, A; Adil, K; Bhatt, P M; Belmabkhout, Y; Eddaoudi, M


    The chemical industry is dependent on the olefin/paraffin separation, which is mainly accomplished by using energy-intensive processes. We report the use of reticular chemistry for the fabrication of a chemically stable fluorinated metal-organic framework (MOF) material (NbOFFIVE-1-Ni, also referred to as KAUST-7). The bridging of Ni(II)-pyrazine square-grid layers with (NbOF5)(2-) pillars afforded the construction of a three-dimensional MOF, enclosing a periodic array of fluoride anions in contracted square-shaped channels. The judiciously selected bulkier (NbOF5)(2-) caused the looked-for hindrance of the previously free-rotating pyrazine moieties, delimiting the pore system and dictating the pore aperture size and its maximum opening. The restricted MOF window resulted in the selective molecular exclusion of propane from propylene at atmospheric pressure, as evidenced through multiple cyclic mixed-gas adsorption and calorimetric studies. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Research Update: Mechanical properties of metal-organic frameworks – Influence of structure and chemical bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li


    Full Text Available Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, a young family of functional materials, have been attracting considerable attention from the chemistry, materials science, and physics communities. In the light of their potential applications in industry and technology, the fundamental mechanical properties of MOFs, which are of critical importance for manufacturing, processing, and performance, need to be addressed and understood. It has been widely accepted that the framework topology, which describes the overall connectivity pattern of the MOF building units, is of vital importance for the mechanical properties. However, recent advances in the area of MOF mechanics reveal that chemistry plays a major role as well. From the viewpoint of materials science, a deep understanding of the influence of chemical effects on MOF mechanics is not only highly desirable for the development of novel functional materials with targeted mechanical response, but also for a better understanding of important properties such as structural flexibility and framework breathing. The present work discusses the intrinsic connection between chemical effects and the mechanical behavior of MOFs through a number of prototypical examples.

  16. Cooperative loading and release behavior of a metal-organic receptor. (United States)

    Gan, Quan; Ronson, Tanya K; Vosburg, David A; Thoburn, John D; Nitschke, Jonathan R


    In order to design artificial chemical systems that are capable of achieving complex functions, it is useful to design synthetic receptors that mimic their biological counterparts. Biological functions are underpinned by properties that include specific binding with high affinity and selectivity, cooperativity, and release triggered by external stimuli. Here we show that a metal-organic receptor constructed through subcomponent self-assembly can selectively and cooperatively load and release oxocarbon anions. The flexible coordination spheres of its cadmium(II) centers allow the receptor to dynamically adjust its structure upon exchanging four triflate or triflimide counterions for two oxocarbon anions, resulting in strong cooperativity and very tight binding, with an apparent association constant for C5O5(2-) of 5 × 10(10) M(-1). Substituting the cadmium(II) ions for copper(I) by switching solvent prompted a structural reorganization and release of the oxocarbon anions. Its cooperative behavior allows the receptor to carry a greater payload than would be possible in a noncooperative analogue.

  17. Mechanical downsizing of a gadolinium(III)-based metal-organic framework for anticancer drug delivery. (United States)

    Kundu, Tanay; Mitra, Shouvik; Patra, Prasun; Goswami, Arunava; Díaz Díaz, David; Banerjee, Rahul


    A Gd(III) -based porous metal-organic framework (MOF), Gd-pDBI, has been synthesized using fluorescent linker pDBI (pDBI=(1,4-bis(5-carboxy-1H-benzimidazole-2-yl)benzene)), resulting in a three-dimensional interpenetrated structure with a one-dimensional open channel (1.9×1.2 nm) filled with hydrogen-bonded water assemblies. Gd-pDBI exhibits high thermal stability, porosity, excellent water stability, along with organic-solvent and mild acid and base stability with retention of crystallinity. Gd-pDBI was transformed to the nanoscale regime (ca. 140 nm) by mechanical grinding to yield MG-Gd-pDBI with excellent water dispersibility (>90 min), maintaining its porosity and crystallinity. In vitro and in vivo studies on MG-Gd-pDBI revealed its low blood toxicity and highest drug loading (12 wt %) of anticancer drug doxorubicin in MOFs reported to date with pH-responsive cancer-cell-specific drug release. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Porous, rigid metal(III)-carboxylate metal-organic frameworks for the delivery of nitric oxide (United States)

    Eubank, Jarrod F.; Wheatley, Paul S.; Lebars, Gaëlle; McKinlay, Alistair C.; Leclerc, Hervé; Horcajada, Patricia; Daturi, Marco; Vimont, Alexandre; Morris, Russell E.; Serre, Christian


    The room temperature sorption properties of the biological gas nitric oxide (NO) have been investigated on the highly porous and rigid iron or chromium carboxylate based metal-organic frameworks Material Institut Lavoisier (MIL)-100(Fe or Cr) and MIL-127(Fe). In all cases, a significant amount of NO is chemisorbed at 298 K with a loading capacity that depends both on the nature of the metal cation, the structure and the presence of additional iron(II) Lewis acid sites. In a second step, the release of NO triggered by wet nitrogen gas has been studied by chemiluminescence and indicates that only a partial release of NO occurs as well as a prolonged delivery at the biological level. Finally, an in situ infrared spectroscopy study confirms not only the coordination of NO over the Lewis acid sites and the stronger binding of NO on the additional iron(II) sites, providing further insights over the partial release of NO only in the presence of water at room temperature.

  19. Porous, rigid metal(III-carboxylate metal-organic frameworks for the delivery of nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrod F. Eubank


    Full Text Available The room temperature sorption properties of the biological gas nitric oxide (NO have been investigated on the highly porous and rigid iron or chromium carboxylate based metal-organic frameworks Material Institut Lavoisier (MIL-100(Fe or Cr and MIL-127(Fe. In all cases, a significant amount of NO is chemisorbed at 298 K with a loading capacity that depends both on the nature of the metal cation, the structure and the presence of additional iron(II Lewis acid sites. In a second step, the release of NO triggered by wet nitrogen gas has been studied by chemiluminescence and indicates that only a partial release of NO occurs as well as a prolonged delivery at the biological level. Finally, an in situ infrared spectroscopy study confirms not only the coordination of NO over the Lewis acid sites and the stronger binding of NO on the additional iron(II sites, providing further insights over the partial release of NO only in the presence of water at room temperature.

  20. Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) as Sandwich Coating Cushion for Silicon Anode in Lithium Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Han, Yuzhen; Qi, Pengfei; Zhou, Junwen; Feng, Xiao; Li, Siwu; Fu, Xiaotao; Zhao, Jingshu; Yu, Danni; Wang, Bo


    A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) sandwich coating method (denoted as MOF-SC) is developed for hybrid Li ion battery electrode preparation, in which the MOF films are casted on the surface of a silicon layer and sandwiched between the active silicon and the separator. The obtained electrodes show improved cycling performance. The areal capacity of the cheap and readily available microsized Si treated with MOF-SC can reach 1700 μAh cm(-2) at 265 μA cm(-2) and maintain at 850 μAh cm(-2) after 50 cycles. Beyond the above, the commercial nanosized Si treated by MOF-SC also shows greatly enhanced areal capacity and outstanding cycle stability, 600 μAh cm(-2) for 100 cycles without any apparent fading. By virtue of the novel structure prepared by the MOFs, this new MOF-SC structure serves as an efficient protection cushion for the drastic volume change of silicon during charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, this MOF layer, with large pore volume and high surface area, can adsorb electrolyte and allow faster diffusion of Li(+) as evidenced by decreased impedance and improved rate performance.

  1. Sulfation of metal-organic framework: Opportunities for acid catalysis and proton conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goesten, M.G.; Stavitski, E.; Juan-Alcaniz, J.; Ramos-Fernandez, E.V.; Sai Sankar Gupta, K.B.; van Bekkum, H.; Gascon, J. and Kapteijn, F.


    A new post-functionalization method for metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been developed to introduce acidity for catalysis. Upon treatment with a mixture of triflic anhydride and sulfuric acid, chemically stable MOF structures MIL-101(Cr) and MIL-53(Al) can be sulfated, resulting in a Broensted sulfoxy acid group attached to up to 50% of the aromatic terephthalate linkers of the structure. The sulfated samples have been extensively characterized by solid-state NMR, XANES, and FTIR spectroscopy. The functionalized acidic frameworks show catalytic activity similar to that of acidic polymers like Nafion{reg_sign} display in the esterification of n-butanol with acetic acid (TOF {approx} 1 min{sup -1} {at} 343 K). Water adsorbs strongly up to 4 molecules per sulfoxy acid group, and an additional 2 molecules are taken up at lower temperatures in the 1-D pore channels of S-MIL-53(Al). The high water content and Broensted acidity provide the structure S-MIL-53(Al) a high proton conductivity up to moderate temperatures.

  2. Recent Progress in Metal-Organic Frameworks for Applications in Electrocatalytic and Photocatalytic Water Splitting. (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Xiaomin; Zhou, Wei; Shao, Zongping


    The development of clean and renewable energy materials as alternatives to fossil fuels is foreseen as a potential solution to the crucial problems of environmental pollution and energy shortages. Hydrogen is an ideal energy material for the future, and water splitting using solar/electrical energy is one way to generate hydrogen. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of porous materials with unique properties that have received rapidly growing attention in recent years for applications in water splitting due to their remarkable design flexibility, ultra-large surface-to-volume ratios and tunable pore channels. This review focuses on recent progress in the application of MOFs in electrocatalytic and photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen generation, including both oxygen and hydrogen evolution. It starts with the fundamentals of electrocatalytic and photocatalytic water splitting and the related factors to determine the catalytic activity. The recent progress in the exploitation of MOFs for water splitting is then summarized, and strategies for designing MOF-based catalysts for electrocatalytic and photocatalytic water splitting are presented. Finally, major challenges in the field of water splitting are highlighted, and some perspectives of MOF-based catalysts for water splitting are proposed.

  3. Chromophore-immobilized luminescent metal-organic frameworks as potential lighting phosphors and chemical sensors. (United States)

    Wang, Fangming; Liu, Wei; Teat, Simon J; Xu, Feng; Wang, Hao; Wang, Xinlong; An, Litao; Li, Jing


    An organic chromophore H4tcbpe-F was synthesized and immobilized into metal-organic frameworks along with two bipyridine derivatives as co-ligands to generate two strongly luminescent materials [Zn2(tcbpe-F)(4,4'-bpy)·xDMA] (1) and [Zn2(tcbpe-F)(bpee)·xDMA] (2) [4,4'-bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine, bpee = 4,4'-bipyridyl-ethylene, tcbpe-F = 4',4''',4''''',4'''''''-(ethene-1,1,2,2-tetrayl)tetrakis(3-fluoro-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxylic acid), DMA = N,N-dimethylacetamide]. Compounds 1 and 2 are isoreticular and feature a 2-fold interpenetrated three-dimensional porous structure. Both compounds give green-yellow emission under blue light excitation. Compound 1 has a high internal quantum yield of ∼51% when excited at 455 nm and shows selective luminescence signal change (e.g. emission energy and/or intensity) towards different solvents, including both aromatic and nonaromatic volatile organic species. These properties make it potentially useful as a lighting phosphor and a chemical sensor.

  4. Zirconium-Based Metal-Organic Framework for Removal of Perrhenate from Water. (United States)

    Banerjee, Debasis; Xu, Wenqian; Nie, Zimin; Johnson, Lewis E V; Coghlan, Campbell; Sushko, Maria L; Kim, Dongsang; Schweiger, Michael J; Kruger, Albert A; Doonan, Christian J; Thallapally, Praveen K


    The efficient removal of pertechnetate (TcO4(-)) anions from liquid waste or melter off-gas solution for an alternative treatment is one of the promising options to manage (99)Tc in legacy nuclear waste. Safe immobilization of (99)Tc is of major importance because of its long half-life (t1/2 = 2.13 × 10(5) yrs) and environmental mobility. Different types of inorganic and solid-state ion-exchange materials have been shown to absorb TcO4(-) anions from water. However, both high capacity and selectivity have yet to be achieved in a single material. Herein, we show that a protonated version of an ultrastable zirconium-based metal-organic framework can adsorb perrhenate (ReO4(-)) anions, a nonradioactive surrogate for TcO4(-), from water even in the presence of other common anions. Synchrotron-based powder X-ray diffraction and molecular simulations were used to identify the position of the adsorbed ReO4(-) (surrogate for TcO4(-)) molecule within the framework.

  5. Half-sandwich cobalt complexes in the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgi, Colin [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Faculty of Natural Science, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Chemnitz 09107 (Germany); Hapke, Marko; Thiel, Indre [Leibniz-Institut für Katalyse e.V. an der Universität Rostock (LIKAT), Albert-Einstein-Straße 29a, Rostock 18059 (Germany); Hildebrandt, Alexander [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Faculty of Natural Science, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Chemnitz 09107 (Germany); Waechtler, Thomas; Schulz, Stefan E. [Fraunhofer Institute of Electronic Nano Systems (ENAS), Technologie-Campus 3, Chemnitz 09126 (Germany); Technische Universität Chemnitz, Center for Microtechnologies (ZfM), Chemnitz 09107 (Germany); Lang, Heinrich, E-mail: [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Faculty of Natural Science, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Chemnitz 09107 (Germany)


    A series of cobalt half-sandwich complexes of type [Co(η{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5})(L)(L′)] (1: L, L′ = 1,5-hexadiene; 2: L = P(OEt){sub 3}, L′ = H{sub 2}C=CHSiMe{sub 3}; 3: L = L′ = P(OEt){sub 3}) has been studied regarding their physical properties such as the vapor pressure, decomposition temperature and applicability within the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process, with a focus of the influence of the phosphite ligands. It could be shown that an increasing number of P(OEt){sub 3} ligands increases the vapor pressure and thermal stability of the respective organometallic compound. Complex 3 appeared to be a promising MOCVD precursor with a high vapor pressure and hence was deposited onto Si/SiO{sub 2} (100 nm) substrates. The resulting reflective layer is closed, dense and homogeneous, with a slightly granulated surface morphology. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies demonstrated the formation of metallic cobalt, cobalt phosphate, cobalt oxide and cobalt carbide. - Highlights: • Thermal studies and vapor pressure measurements of cobalt half-sandwich complexes was carried out. • Chemical vapor deposition with cobalt half-sandwich complexes is reported. • The use of Co-phosphites results in significant phosphorous-doped metallic layers.

  6. Smart Resonant Gas Sensor and Switch Operating in Air With Metal-Organic Frameworks Coating

    KAUST Repository

    Jaber, Nizar


    We report a resonant gas sensor, uniformly coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), and excited it near the higher order modes for a higher attained sensitivity. Also, switching upon exceeding a threshold value is demonstrated by operating the resonator near the bifurcation point and the dynamic pull-in instabilities. The resonator is based on an electrostatically excited clamped-clamped microbeam. The microbeam is fabricated from a polyimide layer coated from the top with Cr/Au and from the bottom with Cr/Au/Cr layer. The geometry of the resonator is optimized to reduce the effect of squeeze film damping, thereby allowing operation under atmospheric pressure. The electrostatic electrode is designed to enhance the excitation of the second mode of vibration with the minimum power required. Significant frequency shift (kHz) is demonstrated for the first time upon water vapor, acetone, and ethanol exposure due to the MOF functionalization and the higher order modes excitation. Also, the adsorption dynamics and MOF selectivity is investigated by studying the decaying time constants of the response upon gas exposure.

  7. Diffusion and photoswitching in nanoporous thin films of metal-organic frameworks (United States)

    Heinke, Lars


    Nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are intensively investigated with respect to various applications such as in gas storage, in molecular separation and as sensors. In all these applications, the interaction with the guest molecules in the nanopores, as well as the diffusion properties, are crucial. In this topical review, thin MOF films, referred to as surface-mounted MOFs (SURMOFs), are discussed as a well-defined model system for detailed mass transfer studies. The origins of mass transport hindering surface barriers, which often slow down the mass transfer tremendously, and the slow diffusion of large molecules, are investigated by using thin MOF films. Another focus of this topical review is on photoswitchable MOF films. Azobenzene side groups in the MOF structure allow a remote control of the adsorption and diffusion properties. This is employed for demonstrating the remote-controlled release from a nanoporous container as well as for membrane separation where the separation factor can be continuously tuned by light irradiation.

  8. Facile synthesis of glucoamylase embedded metal-organic frameworks (glucoamylase-MOF) with enhanced stability. (United States)

    Nadar, Shamraja S; Rathod, Virendra K


    The self-assembled glucoamylase metal-organic framework (glucoamylase-MOF) was synthesized by facile one-step method within 20min by simply mixing aqueous solution of 2-methylimidazole (160mM), glucoamylase (5mg/mL) and zinc acetate (40mM) at room temperature (28±2°C). The prepared glucoamylase-MOF was characterized by using FT-IR, confocal scanning laser microscopy, XRD and SEM. The robustness and thermal stability of glucoamylase embedded MOF was evaluated in terms of half-life (in the range of 60-80°C) which showed 6 folds increment as against free form. Further, in Michaelis-Menten kinetics studies, glucoamylase entrapped MOF exhibited higher K m value and lower V max value as compared to native enzyme. Moreover, the immobilized glucoamylase exhibited up to 57% of residual activity after six consecutive cycles of reuse, whereas it retained 91% of residual activity till 25days of storage. Finally, the conformational changes occurred after the encapsulation of glucoamylase in the interior of MOF, which was analyzed by using FT-IR data analysis tools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Al-based metal-organic gels for selective fluorescence recognition of hydroxyl nitro aromatic compounds (United States)

    Guo, Mao Xia; Yang, Liu; Jiang, Zhong Wei; Peng, Zhe Wei; Li, Yuan Fang


    The novel class of luminescent Al3 +-based metal-organic gels (Al-MOGs) have been developed by mix 4-[2,2‧:6‧,2″-terpyridine]-4‧-ylbenzoic acid (Hcptpy) with Al3 + under mild condition. The as-prepared Al-MOGs have not only multiple stimuli-responsive properties, but selective recognition of hydroxyl nitro aromatic compounds, which can quench the fluorescence of the Al-MOGs, while other nitro aromatic analogues without hydroxyl substitutes cannot. The fluorescence of Al-MOGs at 467 nm was seriously quenched by picric acid (PA) whose lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels are lower than those of three other hydroxyl nitro aromatic compounds including 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (3,5-DNTSA) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP). Thus, PA was chosen as a model compound under optimal conditions and the relative fluorescence intensity of Al-MOGs was proportional to the concentration of PA in the range of 5.0-320.0 μM with a detection limit of 4.64 μM. Furthermore, the fluorescence quenching mechanism has also been investigated and revealed that the quenching was attributed to inner filter effects (IFEs), as well as electron transfer (ET) between Al-MOGs and PA.

  10. High-κ Samarium-Based Metal-Organic Framework for Gate Dielectric Applications. (United States)

    Pathak, Abhishek; Chiou, Guan Ru; Gade, Narsinga Rao; Usman, Muhammad; Mendiratta, Shruti; Luo, Tzuoo-Tsair; Tseng, Tien Wen; Chen, Jenq-Wei; Chen, Fu-Rong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong; Lu, Kuang-Lieh


    The self-assembly of a samarium-based metal-organic framework [Sm2(bhc)(H2O)6]n (1) in good yield was achieved by reacting Sm(NO3)3·6H2O with benzenehexacarboxylic acid (bhc) in a mixture of H2O-EtOH under hydrothermal conditions. A structural analysis showed that compound 1 crystallized in a space group of Pnmn and adopted a 3D structure with (4,8) connected nets. Temperature dependent dielectric measurements showed that compound 1 behaves as a high dielectric material with a high dielectric constant (κ = 45.1) at 5 kHz and 310 K, which is comparable to the values for some of the most commonly available dielectric inorganic metal oxides such as Sm2O3, Ta2O5, HfO2, and ZrO2. In addition, electrical measurements of 1 revealed an electrical conductivity of about 2.15 × 10-7 S/cm at a frequency of 5 kHz with a low leakage current (Ileakage = 8.13 × 10-12 Amm-2). Dielectric investigations of the Sm-based MOF provide an effective path for the development of high dielectric materials in the future.

  11. Water depollution using metal-organic frameworks-catalyzed advanced oxidation processes: A review. (United States)

    Sharma, Virender K; Feng, Mingbao


    This paper presents a review on the environmental applications of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which are inorganic-organic hybrid highly porous crystalline materials, prepared from metal ion/clusters and multidentate organic ligands. The emphases are made on the enhancement of the performance of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) (photocatalysis, Fenton reaction methods, and sulfate radical (SO4(-))-mediated oxidations) using MOFs materials. MOFs act as adsorption and light absorbers, leading to superior performance of photocatalytic processes. More recent examples of photocatalytic degradation of dyes are presented. Additionally, it is commonly shown that Fe-based MOFs exhibited excellent catalytic performance on the Fenton-based and SO4(•-)-mediated oxidations of organic pollutants (e.g., dyes, phenol and pharmaceuticals). The significantly enhanced generation of reactive species such as OH and/or SO4(-) by both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis was proposed as the possible mechanism for water depollution. Based on the existing literature, the challenge and future perspectives in MOF-based AOPs are addressed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. CFA-4 - a fluorinated metal-organic framework with exchangeable interchannel cations. (United States)

    Fritzsche, J; Grzywa, M; Denysenko, D; Bon, V; Senkovska, I; Kaskel, S; Volkmer, D


    The syntheses and crystal structures of the fluorinated linker 1,4-bis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-yl)benzene (H2-tfpb; 1) and the novel metal-organic framework family M[CFA-4] (Coordination Framework Augsburg University-4), M[Cu5(tfpb)3] (M = Cu(i), K, Cs, Ca(0.5)), are described. The ligand 1 is fully characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence-, NMR-, IR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The copper(i)-containing MOF crystallizes in the hexagonal crystal system within the chiral space group P6322 (no. 182) and the unit cell parameters are as follows: a = 23.630(5) Å, c = 41.390(5) Å, V = 20 015(6) Å3. M[CFA-4] features a porous 3-D structure constructed from pentanuclear copper(i) secondary building units {Cu(pz)6}- (pz = pyrazolate). Cu(I)[CFA-4] is fully characterized by synchrotron single crystal X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, photoluminescence and gas sorption measurements. Moreover, thermal stability and gas sorption properties of K[CFA-4] and Cu(I)[CFA-4] are compared.

  13. CFA-1: the first chiral metal-organic framework containing Kuratowski-type secondary building units. (United States)

    Schmieder, Phillip; Denysenko, Dmytro; Grzywa, Maciej; Baumgärtner, Benjamin; Senkovska, Irena; Kaskel, Stefan; Sastre, German; van Wüllen, Leo; Volkmer, Dirk


    The novel homochiral metal-organic framework CFA-1 (Coordination Framework Augsburg-1), [Zn5(OAc)4(bibta)3], containing the achiral linker {H2-bibta = 1H,1'H-5,5'-bibenzo[d][1,2,3]triazole}, has been synthesised. The reaction of H2-bibta and Zn(OAc)2·2H2O in N-methylformamide (NMF) (90 °C, 3 d) yields CFA-1 as trigonal prismatic single crystals. CFA-1 serves as a convenient precursor for the synthesis of isostructural frameworks with redox-active metal centres, which is demonstrated by the postsynthetic exchange of Zn(2+) by Co(2+) ions. The framework is robust to solvent removal and has been structurally characterized by synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction and solid state NMR measurements ((13)C MAS- and (1)H MAS-NMR at 10 kHz). Results from MAS-NMR and IR spectroscopy studies are corroborated by cluster and periodic DFT calculations performed on CFA-1 cluster fragments.

  14. Enzyme-Assisted Metal-Organic Framework Sensing System for Diethylstilbestrol Detection. (United States)

    Li, Wen-Juan; Chang, Lan; Liu, Qiao; Ning, Di; Yao, Xi-Yuan; Li, Yue; Ruan, Wen-Juan


    As novel fluorescent-sensing materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have shown great potential in environmental monitoring. However, most of the researches are limited to traditional pollutants, whereas the application of MOFs to the detection of the pollutants with more complicated structures, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), has rarely been explored. The difficulties faced in the sensing of EDCs include their electronic stability and the structural similarity among homologues, which could be overcome by the incorporation of enzymatic reaction. In this work, the first example of enzyme-assisted MOF-fluorescent-sensing was developed for the analysis of diethylstilbestrol (DES, a synthetic estrogen). In this system, DES is first oxidized by HRP/H 2 O 2 quantitatively to its quinone form, and then the quinone product is selectively captured by a stilbene based luminescent MOF to induce fluorescence response. By the tandem sensitization and filtration of enzymatic reaction and MOF adsorption, this method shows high sensitivity (DL=89 nm) and can distinguish DES from other similar-structured EDCs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Turn-on and Ratiometric Luminescent Sensing of Hydrogen Sulfide Based on Metal-Organic Frameworks. (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Hu, Quan; Xia, Tifeng; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Yu; Cui, Yuanjing; Chen, Banglin; Qian, Guodong


    The sensing of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has become a long-time challenging task. In this work, we developed a general strategy for sensing of H 2 S utilizing postsynthetic modification of a nano metal-organic frameworks (MOF) UiO-66-(COOH) 2 with Eu 3+ and Cu 2+ ions. The nano MOF Eu 3+ /Cu 2+ @UiO-66-(COOH) 2 displays the characteristic Eu 3+ sharp emissions and the broad ligand-centered (LC) emission simultaneously. Because H 2 S can strongly increase the fluorescence of Eu 3+ and quench the broad LC emission through its superior affinity for Cu 2+ ions, the MOF Eu 3+ /Cu 2+ @UiO-66-(COOH) 2 exhibits highly sensitive turn-on sensing of H 2 S over other environmentally and biologically relevant species under physiological conditions. Furthermore, this approach for fluorescent turn-on sensing of H 2 S is expected to extend to other water-stable MOFs containing uncoordinated -COOH.

  16. A Series of Multifunctional Metal-Organic Frameworks Showing Excellent Luminescent Sensing, Sensitization, and Adsorbent Abilities. (United States)

    Yi, Fei-Yan; Li, Jian-Ping; Wu, Dai; Sun, Zhong-Ming


    A series of highly luminescent-active metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) 1-3 with hierarchical pores have been rationally constructed and fully characterized. The predesigned semi-rigid hexacarboxylate ligand hexa[4-(carboxyphenyl)oxamethyl]-3-oxapentane acid (H6 L) has been adapted with various space-directed N donors (i.e., 2,2'-bipyridine, 4,4'-di(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-1,1'-biphenyl, and 1,3,5-tri(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzene) from a bidentate V-shape to a tridentate Y-shape. This family of multifunctional MOF materials represents a variety of potential applications in the following aspects: first, as luminescent sensors that show a fast and sensitive detection for pollutant CrO4 (2-) and Cr2 O7 (2-) ions in aqueous media; second, as adsorbents that can rapidly remove harmful organic dyes; third, as an antenna that can effectively sensitize visible-light-emitting Tb(3+) ions. These multifunctional MOF materials combine optical-sensing, adsorption, and sensitization properties, thus are very useful in many potential applications. Furthermore, these materials have proved to be reusable. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Metal-organic frameworks as biosensors for luminescence-based detection and imaging (United States)

    Miller, Sophie E.; Teplensky, Michelle H.; Moghadam, Peyman Z.; Fairen-Jimenez, David


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), formed by the self-assembly of metal centres or clusters and organic linkers, possess many key structural and chemical features that have enabled them to be used in sensing platforms for a variety of environmentally, chemically and biomedically relevant compounds. In particular, their high porosity, large surface area, tuneable chemical composition, high degree of crystallinity, and potential for post-synthetic modification for molecular recognition make MOFs promising candidates for biosensing applications. In this review, we separate our discussion of MOF biosensors into two categories: quantitative sensing, focusing specifically on luminescence-based sensors for the direct measurement of a specific analyte, and qualitative sensing, where we describe MOFs used for fluorescence microscopy and as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. We highlight several key publications in each of these areas, concluding that MOFs present an exciting, versatile new platform for biosensing applications and imaging, and we expect to see their usage grow as the field progresses. PMID:27499847

  18. Metal-organic frameworks: functional luminescent and photonic materials for sensing applications. (United States)

    Lustig, William P; Mukherjee, Soumya; Rudd, Nathan D; Desai, Aamod V; Li, Jing; Ghosh, Sujit K


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) or porous coordination polymers (PCPs) are open, crystalline supramolecular coordination architectures with porous facets. These chemically tailorable framework materials are the subject of intense and expansive research, and are particularly relevant in the fields of sensory materials and device engineering. As the subfield of MOF-based sensing has developed, many diverse chemical functionalities have been carefully and rationally implanted into the coordination nanospace of MOF materials. MOFs with widely varied fluorometric sensing properties have been developed using the design principles of crystal engineering and structure-property correlations, resulting in a large and rapidly growing body of literature. This work has led to advancements in a number of crucial sensing domains, including biomolecules, environmental toxins, explosives, ionic species, and many others. Furthermore, new classes of MOF sensory materials utilizing advanced signal transduction by devices based on MOF photonic crystals and thin films have been developed. This comprehensive review summarizes the topical developments in the field of luminescent MOF and MOF-based photonic crystals/thin film sensory materials.

  19. Valuing Metal-Organic Frameworks for Postcombustion Carbon Capture: A Benchmark Study for Evaluating Physical Adsorbents. (United States)

    Adil, Karim; Bhatt, Prashant M; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Abtab, Sk Md Towsif; Jiang, Hao; Assen, Ayalew H; Mallick, Arijit; Cadiau, Amandine; Aqil, Jamal; Eddaoudi, Mohamed


    The development of practical solutions for the energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide is of prime importance and continues to attract intensive research interest. Conceivably, the implementation of adsorption-based processes using different cycling modes, e.g., pressure-swing adsorption or temperature-swing adsorption, offers great prospects to address this challenge. Practically, the successful deployment of practical adsorption-based technologies depends on the development of made-to-order adsorbents expressing mutually two compulsory requisites: i) high selectivity/affinity for CO 2 and ii) excellent chemical stability in the presence of impurities. This study presents a new comprehensive experimental protocol apposite for assessing the prospects of a given physical adsorbent for carbon capture under flue gas stream conditions. The protocol permits: i) the baseline performance of commercial adsorbents such as zeolite 13X, activated carbon versus liquid amine scrubbing to be ascertained, and ii) a standardized evaluation of the best reported metal-organic framework (MOF) materials for carbon dioxide capture from flue gas to be undertaken. This extensive study corroborates the exceptional CO 2 capture performance of the recently isolated second-generation fluorinated MOF material, NbOFFIVE-1-Ni, concomitant with an impressive chemical stability and a low energy for regeneration. Essentially, the NbOFFIVE-1-Ni adsorbent presents the best compromise by satisfying all the required metrics for efficient CO 2 scrubbing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Complex Nanostructures from Materials based on Metal-Organic Frameworks for Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion. (United States)

    Guan, Bu Yuan; Yu, Xin Yao; Wu, Hao Bin; Lou, Xiong Wen David


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have drawn tremendous attention because of their abundant diversity in structure and composition. Recently, there has been growing research interest in deriving advanced nanomaterials with complex architectures and tailored chemical compositions from MOF-based precursors for electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Here, a comprehensive overview of the synthesis and energy-related applications of complex nanostructures derived from MOF-based precursors is provided. After a brief summary of synthetic methods of MOF-based templates and their conversion to desirable nanostructures, delicate designs and preparation of complex architectures from MOFs or their composites are described in detail, including porous structures, single-shelled hollow structures, and multishelled hollow structures, as well as other unusual complex structures. Afterward, their applications are discussed as electrode materials or catalysts for lithium-ion batteries, hybrid supercapacitors, water-splitting devices, and fuel cells. Lastly, the research challenges and possible development directions of complex nanostructures derived from MOF-based-templates for electrochemical energy storage and conversion applications are outlined. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Adsorptive desulfurization with metal-organic frameworks: A density functional theory investigation (United States)

    Chen, Zhiping; Ling, Lixia; Wang, Baojun; Fan, Huiling; Shangguan, Ju; Mi, Jie


    The contribution of each fragment of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to the adsorption of sulfur compounds were investigated using density functional theory (DFT). The involved sulfur compounds are dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3), ethyl mercaptan (CH3CH2SH) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). MOFs with different organic ligands (NH2-BDC, BDC and NDC), metal centers structures (M, M-M and M3O) and metal ions (Zn, Cu and Fe) were used to study their effects on sulfur species adsorption. The results revealed that, MOFs with coordinatively unsaturated sites (CUS) have the strongest binding strength with sulfur compounds, MOFs with NH2-BDC substituent group ligand comes second, followed by that with saturated metal center, and the organic ligands without substituent group has the weakest adsorption strength. Moreover, it was also found that, among different metal ions (Fe, Zn and Cu), MOFs with unsaturated Fe has the strongest adsorption strength for sulfur compounds. These results are consistent with our previous experimental observations, and therefore provide insights on the better design of MOFs for desulfurization application.

  2. A polyoxometalate-encapsulating cationic metal-organic framework as a heterogeneous catalyst for desulfurization. (United States)

    Hao, Xiu-Li; Ma, Yuan-Yuan; Zang, Hong-Ying; Wang, Yong-Hui; Li, Yang-Guang; Wang, En-Bo


    A new cationic triazole-based metal-organic framework encapsulating Keggin-type polyoxometalates, with the molecular formula [Co(BBPTZ)3][HPMo12O40]⋅24 H2O [compound 1; BBPTZ = 4,4'-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)biphenyl] is hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure of compound 1 contains a non-interpenetrated 3D CdSO4 (cds)-type framework with two types of channels that are interconnected with each other; straight channels that are occupied by the Keggin-type POM anions, and wavelike channels that contain lattice water molecules. The catalytic activity of compound 1 in the oxidative desulfurization reaction indicates that it is not only an effective and size-selective heterogeneous catalyst, but it also exhibits distinct structural stability in the catalytic reaction system. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Supramolecular architecture of metal-organic frameworks involving dinuclear copper paddle-wheel complexes. (United States)

    Gomathi, Sundaramoorthy; Muthiah, Packianathan Thomas


    The two centrosymmetric dinuclear copper paddle-wheel complexes tetrakis(μ-4-hydroxybenzoato-κ(2)O:O')bis[aquacopper(II)] dimethylformamide disolvate dihydrate, [Cu2(C7H5O3)4(H2O)2]·2C3H7NO·2H2O, (I), and tetrakis(μ-4-methoxybenzoato-κ(2)O:O')bis[(dimethylformamide-κO)copper(II)], [Cu2(C8H7O3)4(C3H7NO)2], (II), crystallize with half of the dinuclear paddle-wheel cage unit in the asymmetric unit and, in addition, complex (I) has one dimethylformamide (DMF) and one water solvent molecule in the asymmetric unit. In both (I) and (II), two Cu(II) ions are bridged by four syn,syn-η(1):η(1):μ carboxylate groups, showing a paddle-wheel cage-type structure with a square-pyramidal coordination geometry. The equatorial positions of (I) and (II) are occupied by the carboxylate groups of 4-hydroxy- and 4-methoxybenzoate ligands, and the axial positions are occupied by aqua and DMF ligands, respectively. The three-dimensional supramolecular metal-organic framework of (I) consists of three different R2(2)(20) and an R4(4)(36) ring motif formed via O-H···O and OW-HW···O hydrogen bonds. Complex (II) simply packs as molecular species.

  4. Cooperative insertion of CO2 in diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks (United States)

    McDonald, Thomas M.; Mason, Jarad A.; Kong, Xueqian; Bloch, Eric D.; Gygi, David; Dani, Alessandro; Crocellà, Valentina; Giordanino, Filippo; Odoh, Samuel O.; Drisdell, Walter S.; Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Dzubak, Allison L.; Poloni, Roberta; Schnell, Sondre K.; Planas, Nora; Lee, Kyuho; Pascal, Tod; Wan, Liwen F.; Prendergast, David; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Smit, Berend; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Gagliardi, Laura; Bordiga, Silvia; Reimer, Jeffrey A.; Long, Jeffrey R.


    The process of carbon capture and sequestration has been proposed as a method of mitigating the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. If implemented, the cost of electricity generated by a fossil fuel-burning power plant would rise substantially, owing to the expense of removing CO2 from the effluent stream. There is therefore an urgent need for more efficient gas separation technologies, such as those potentially offered by advanced solid adsorbents. Here we show that diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks can behave as `phase-change' adsorbents, with unusual step-shaped CO2 adsorption isotherms that shift markedly with temperature. Results from spectroscopic, diffraction and computational studies show that the origin of the sharp adsorption step is an unprecedented cooperative process in which, above a metal-dependent threshold pressure, CO2 molecules insert into metal-amine bonds, inducing a reorganization of the amines into well-ordered chains of ammonium carbamate. As a consequence, large CO2 separation capacities can be achieved with small temperature swings, and regeneration energies appreciably lower than achievable with state-of-the-art aqueous amine solutions become feasible. The results provide a mechanistic framework for designing highly efficient adsorbents for removing CO2 from various gas mixtures, and yield insights into the conservation of Mg2+ within the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase family of enzymes.

  5. Computational screening of large molecule adsorption by metal-organic frameworks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Greathouse, Jeffery A.


    Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations were performed to investigate trends in low-pressure adsorption of a broad range of organic molecules by a set of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The organic analytes considered here are relevant to applications in chemical detection: small aromatics (o-, m-, and p-xylene), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene), explosives (TNT and RDX), and chemical warfare agents (GA and VM). The framework materials included several Zn-MOFs (IRMOFs 1-3, 7, 8), a Cr-MOF (CrMIL-53lp), and a Cu-MOF (HKUST-1). Many of the larger organics were significantly adsorbed by the target MOFs at low pressure, which is consistent with the exceptionally high isosteric heats of adsorption (25 kcal/mol - 60 kcal/mol) for this range of analyte. At a higher loading pressure of 101 kPa, the Zn-MOFs show a much higher volumetric uptake than either CrMIL-53-lp or HKUST-1 for all types of analyte. Within the Zn-MOF series, analyte loading is proportional to free volume, and loading decreases with increasing analyte size due to molecular packing effects. CrMIL-53lp showed the highest adsorption energy for all analytes, suggesting that this material may be suitable for low-level detection of organics.

  6. Synthesis of metal-organic framework films by pore diffusion method (United States)

    Murayama, Naohiro; Nishimura, Yuki; Kajiro, Hiroshi; Kishida, Satoru; Kinoshita, Kentaro; Tottori Univ Team; Nippon Steel; Sumitomo Metal Co. Collaboration; Tottori Integrated Frontier Resaerch Center (Tifrec) Collaboration; Tottori University Electronic Display Resaerch Center (Tedrec) Collaboration

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) presents high controllability in designing the nano-scale pore, and this enable molecular storages, catalysts, gas sensors, gas separation membranes, and electronic devices for next-generation. Therefore, a simple method for film synthesis of MOFs compared with conventional methods [1] is strongly required. In this paper, we provide pore diffusion method, in which a substrate containing constituent metals of MOF is inserted in solution that includes only linker molecules of MOF. As a result, 2D growth of MOF was effectively enhanced, and the formation of flat and dense MOF films was attained. The growth time, t, dependence of film thickness, d, can be expressed by the relation of d = Aln(t + 1) + B, where A and B are constants. It means that ionized coppers diffuse through the pores of MOFs and the synthesis reaction proceeds at the MOF/solvent interface. We demonstrated the fabrication of a HKUST-1/Cu-TPA hetero structure by synthesizing a Cu-TPA film continuously after the growth of a HKUST-1 film on the CuOx substrate.

  7. Specific oriented metal-organic framework membranes and their facet-tuned separation performance. (United States)

    Mao, Yiyin; Su, Binbin; Cao, Wei; Li, Junwei; Ying, Yulong; Ying, Wen; Hou, Yajun; Sun, Luwei; Peng, Xinsheng


    Modulating the crystal morphology, or the exposed crystal facets, of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) expands their potential applications in catalysis, adsorption, and separation. In this article, by immobilizing the citrate modulators on Au nanoparticles and subsequently being fixed on solid copper hydroxide nanostrands, a well-intergrown and oriented HKUST-1 cube crystal membrane was formed at room temperature. In contrast, in the absence of Au nanoparticles, well-intergrown and oriented cuboctahedron and octahedron membranes were formed in water/ethanol and ethanol, respectively. The gas separation performances of these HKUST-1 membranes were tuned via their exposed facets with defined pore sizes. The HKUST-1 cube membrane with exposed {001} facets demonstrated the highest permeance but lowest gas binary separation factors, while the octahedron membrane with exposed {111} facets presented the highest separation factors but lowest permeance, since the window size of {111} facets is 0.46 nm which is smaller than 0.9 nm of {001} facets. Separation of 0.38 nm CO2 from 0.55 nm SF6 was realized by the HKUST-1 octahedron membrane. As a proof of concept, this will open a new way to design MOF-related separation membranes by facet controlling.

  8. Adsorption and Reactive Desorption on Metal-Organic Frameworks: A Direct Strategy for Lactic Acid Recovery. (United States)

    Stassin, Timothée; Reinsch, Helge; Van de Voorde, Ben; Wuttke, Stefan; Medina, Dana D; Stock, Norbert; Bein, Thomas; Ameloot, Rob; De Vos, Dirk


    Biomass-derived lactic acid (LA) is an important platform chemical towards the sustainable production of numerous materials. However, the fermentation process currently in use is limited by the difficult recovery of the LA product from the fermentation broth and results in the generation of stoichiometric amounts of gypsum waste. Herein, we show that metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) of the UiO-66(Zr) type are effective adsorbents for the separation of LA from aqueous (buffer) solutions. These frameworks based on zirconium clusters and terephthalic acid derivatives display a tremendous uptake (up to 42 wt %) and a high affinity for LA. The latter can further be tuned by changing the hydrogen-bonding properties of the functional groups present on the organic ligand. A Rietveld refinement disclosed the specific interaction of LA with the clusters of UiO-66(Zr) and a preferential adsorption on open zirconium sites. Taking advantage of the catalytic activity of UiO-66(Zr), desorption of LA was performed in alcohols to recover up to 73 % as ester. Applied to the recovery of LA, adsorption and reactive desorption offer a direct and gypsum-free strategy as an alternative for the current multi-step process. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Chemical Reactions Catalyzed by Metalloporphyrin-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Aparecida Dias de Freitas Castro


    Full Text Available The synthetic versatility and the potential application of metalloporphyrins (MP in different fields have aroused researchers’ interest in studying these complexes, in an attempt to mimic biological systems such as cytochrome P-450. Over the last 40 years, synthetic MPs have been mainly used as catalysts for homogeneous or heterogeneous chemical reactions. To employ them in heterogeneous catalysis, chemists have prepared new MP-based solids by immobilizing MP onto rigid inorganic supports, a strategy that affords hybrid inorganic-organic materials. More recently, materials obtained by supramolecular assembly processes and containing MPs as building blocks have been applied in a variety of areas, like gas storage, photonic devices, separation, molecular sensing, magnets, and heterogeneous catalysis, among others. These coordination polymers, known as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, contain organic ligands or complexes connected by metal ions or clusters, which give rise to a 1-, 2- or 3-D network. These kinds of materials presents large surface areas, Brønsted or redox sites, and high porosity, all of which are desirable features in catalysts with potential use in heterogeneous phases. Building MOFs based on MP is a good way to obtain solid catalysts that offer the advantages of bioinspired systems and zeolitic materials. In this mini review, we will adopt a historical approach to present the most relevant MP-based MOFs applicable to catalytic reactions such as oxidation, reduction, insertion of functional groups, and exchange of organic functions.

  10. Ab initio carbon capture in open-site metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Dzubak, Allison L; Lin, Li-Chiang; Kim, Jihan; Swisher, Joseph A; Poloni, Roberta; Maximoff, Sergey N; Smit, Berend; Gagliardi, Laura


    During the formation of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), metal centres can coordinate with the intended organic linkers, but also with solvent molecules. In this case, subsequent activation by removal of the solvent molecules creates unsaturated 'open' metal sites known to have a strong affinity for CO(2) molecules, but their interactions are still poorly understood. Common force fields typically underestimate by as much as two orders of magnitude the adsorption of CO(2) in open-site Mg-MOF-74, which has emerged as a promising MOF for CO(2) capture. Here we present a systematic procedure to generate force fields using high-level quantum chemical calculations. Monte Carlo simulations based on an ab initio force field generated for CO(2) in Mg-MOF-74 shed some light on the interpretation of thermodynamic data from flue gas in this material. The force field describes accurately the chemistry of the open metal sites, and is transferable to other structures. This approach may serve in molecular simulations in general and in the study of fluid-solid interactions.

  11. Upconversion fluorescence metal-organic frameworks thermo-sensitive imprinted polymer for enrichment and sensing protein. (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Deng, Qiliang; Fang, Guozhen; Gu, Dahai; Yang, Yukun; Wang, Shuo


    A novel fluorescence material with thermo-sensitive for the enrichment and sensing of protein was successfully prepared by combining molecular imprinting technology with upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Herein, the UCNPs acted as signal reporter for composite materials because of its excellent fluorescence property and chemical stability. MOFs were introduced to molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) due to its high specific surface area which increases the rate of mass transfer relative to that of traditional bulk MIP. The thermo-sensitive imprinted material which allows for swelling and shrinking with response to temperature changes was prepared by choosing Bovine hemoglobin (BHB) as the template, N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAAM) as the temperature-sensitive functional monomer and N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker. The recognition characterizations of imprinted material-coated UCNPs/MOFs (UCNPs/MOFs/MIP) were evaluated, and the results showed that the fluorescence intensity of UCNPs/MOFs/MIP reduced gradually with the increase of BHB concentration. The fluorescence material was response to the temperature. The adsorption capacity was as much as 167.6 mg/g at 28°C and 101.2mg/g at 44°C, which was higher than that of traditional MIP. Therefore, this new fluorescence material for enrichment and sensing protein is very promising for future applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Osteogenic activity and antibacterial effect of porous titanium modified with metal-organic framework films. (United States)

    Chen, Junyu; Zhang, Xin; Huang, Chao; Cai, He; Hu, Shanshan; Wan, Qianbing; Pei, Xibo; Wang, Jian


    As a new class of crystalline nanoporous materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently been used for biomedical applications due to their large surface area, high porosity, and theoretically infinite structures. To improve the biological performance of titanium, MOF films were applied to surface modification of titanium. Zn-based MOF films composed of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) crystals with nanoscale and microscale sizes (nanoZIF-8 and microZIF-8) were prepared on porous titanium surfaces by hydrothermal and solvothermal methods, respectively. The ZIF-8 films were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The nanoZIF-8 film exhibited good biocompatibility, whereas the microZIF-8 film showed obvious cytotoxicity to MG63 cells. Compared to pure titanium and alkali- and heat-treated porous titanium, the nanoZIF-8 film not only enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, extracellular matrix mineralization, and expression of osteogenic genes (ALP, Runx2) in MG63 cells but also inhibited the growth of Streptococcus mutans. These results indicate that MOF films or coatings may be promising candidates for bone tissue engineering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 834-846, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Metal-Organic Framework Supported Cobalt Catalysts for the Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Propane at Low Temperature. (United States)

    Li, Zhanyong; Peters, Aaron W; Bernales, Varinia; Ortuño, Manuel A; Schweitzer, Neil M; DeStefano, Matthew R; Gallington, Leighanne C; Platero-Prats, Ana E; Chapman, Karena W; Cramer, Christopher J; Gagliardi, Laura; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K


    Zr-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been shown to be excellent catalyst supports in heterogeneous catalysis due to their exceptional stability. Additionally, their crystalline nature affords the opportunity for molecular level characterization of both the support and the catalytically active site, facilitating mechanistic investigations of the catalytic process. We describe herein the installation of Co(II) ions to the Zr6 nodes of the mesoporous MOF, NU-1000, via two distinct routes, namely, solvothermal deposition in a MOF (SIM) and atomic layer deposition in a MOF (AIM), denoted as Co-SIM+NU-1000 and Co-AIM+NU-1000, respectively. The location of the deposited Co species in the two materials is determined via difference envelope density (DED) analysis. Upon activation in a flow of O2 at 230 °C, both materials catalyze the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of propane to propene under mild conditions. Catalytic activity as well as propene selectivity of these two catalysts, however, is different under the same experimental conditions due to differences in the Co species generated in these two materials upon activation as observed by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A potential reaction mechanism for the propane ODH process catalyzed by Co-SIM+NU-1000 is proposed, yielding a low activation energy barrier which is in accord with the observed catalytic activity at low temperature.

  14. Synthesis of a Water-soluble Metal-Organic Complex Array. (United States)

    Bose, Purnandhu; Sukul, Pradip K; Yaghi, Omar M; Tashiro, Kentaro


    We demonstrate a method for the synthesis of a water-soluble multimetallic peptidic array containing a predetermined sequence of metal centers such as Ru(II), Pt(II), and Rh(III). The compound, named as a water-soluble metal-organic complex array (WSMOCA), is obtained through 1) the conventional solution-chemistry-based preparation of the corresponding metal complex monomers having a 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-protected amino acid moiety and 2) their sequential coupling together with other water-soluble organic building units on the surface-functionalized polymeric resin by following the procedures originally developed for the solid-phase synthesis of polypeptides, with proper modifications. Traces of reactions determined by mass spectrometric analysis at the representative coupling steps in stage 2 confirm the selective construction of a predetermined sequence of metal centers along with the peptide backbone. The WSMOCA cleaved from the resin at the end of stage 2 has a certain level of solubility in aqueous media dependent on the pH value and/or salt content, which is useful for the purification of the compound.

  15. Metal-organic gel enhanced fluorescence anisotropy for sensitive detection of prostate specific antigen (United States)

    Zhao, Ting Ting; Peng, Zhe Wei; Yuan, Dan; Zhen, Shu Jun; Huang, Cheng Zhi; Li, Yuan Fang


    In this contribution, we demonstrated that Cu-based metal-organic gel (Cu-MOG) was able to serve as a novel amplification platform for fluorescence anisotropy (FA) assay for the first time, which was confirmed by the sensitive detection of a common cancer biomarker, prostate specific antigen (PSA). The dye-labeled probe aptamer (PA) product was adsorbed onto the benzimidazole derivative-containing Cu-MOG via electrostatic incorporation and strong π-π stacking interactions, which significantly increased the FA value due to the enlargement of the molecular volume of the PA/Cu-MOG complex. With the introduction of target PSA, the FA value was obviously decreased on account of the specific recognition between PSA and PA which resulted in the detachment of PA from the surface of MOG. The linear range was from 0.5-8 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.33 ng/mL. Our work has thus helped to demonstrate promising application of MOG material in the fields of biomolecules analysis and disease diagnosis.

  16. Drawing Sensors with Ball-Milled Blends of Metal-Organic Frameworks and Graphite. (United States)

    Ko, Michael; Aykanat, Aylin; Smith, Merry K; Mirica, Katherine A


    The synthetically tunable properties and intrinsic porosity of conductive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) make them promising materials for transducing selective interactions with gaseous analytes in an electrically addressable platform. Consequently, conductive MOFs are valuable functional materials with high potential utility in chemical detection. The implementation of these materials, however, is limited by the available methods for device incorporation due to their poor solubility and moderate electrical conductivity. This manuscript describes a straightforward method for the integration of moderately conductive MOFs into chemiresistive sensors by mechanical abrasion. To improve electrical contacts, blends of MOFs with graphite were generated using a solvent-free ball-milling procedure. While most bulk powders of pure conductive MOFs were difficult to integrate into devices directly via mechanical abrasion, the compressed solid-state MOF/graphite blends were easily abraded onto the surface of paper substrates equipped with gold electrodes to generate functional sensors. This method was used to prepare an array of chemiresistors, from four conductive MOFs, capable of detecting and differentiating NH₃, H₂S and NO at parts-per-million concentrations.

  17. Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation of Biomass-Derived Carbonyls over Hafnium-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks. (United States)

    Corma, Avelino; García-García, Pilar; Rojas-Buzo, Sergio


    A series of highly crystalline, porous, hafnium-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have shown to catalyze the transfer hydrogenation reaction of levulinic ester to produce γ-valerolactone using isopropanol as hydrogen donor and the results are compared with the zirconium-based counterparts. The role of the metal center in Hf-MOFs has been identified and reaction parameters optimized. NMR studies with isotopically labeled isopropanol evidences that the transfer hydrogenation occurs via a direct intermolecular hydrogen transfer route. The catalyst, Hf-MOF-808, can be recycled several times with only a minor decrease in catalytic activity. Generality of the procedure was shown by accomplishing the transformation with aldehydes, ketones and α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The combination of Hf-MOF-808 with the Brønsted acidic Al-Beta zeolite gives the four-step one-pot transformation of furfural to γ-valerolactone in good yield of 72%. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Adsorptive removal of hazardous materials using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs): a review. (United States)

    Khan, Nazmul Abedin; Hasan, Zubair; Jhung, Sung Hwa


    Efficient removal of hazardous materials from the environment has become an important issue from a biological and environmental standpoint. Adsorptive removal of toxic components from fuel, waste-water or air is one of the most attractive approaches for cleaning technologies. Recently, porous metal-organic framework (MOF) materials have been very promising in the adsorption/separation of various liquids and gases due to their unique characteristics. This review summarizes the recent literatures on the adsorptive removal of various hazardous compounds mainly from fuel, water, and air by virgin or modified MOF materials. Possible interactions between the adsorbates and active adsorption sites of the MOFs will be also discussed to understand the adsorption mechanism. Most of the observed results can be explained with the following mechanisms: (1) adsorption onto a coordinatively unsaturated site, (2) adsorption via acid-base interaction, (3) adsorption via π-complex formation, (4) adsorption via hydrogen bonding, (5) adsorption via electrostatic interaction, and (6) adsorption based on the breathing properties of some MOFs and so on. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Understanding hydrogen adsorption in metal-organic frameworks with open metal sites: a computational study. (United States)

    Yang, Qingyuan; Zhong, Chongli


    Recent experimental investigations show that the open metal sites may have a favorable impact on the hydrogen adsorption capacity of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs); however, no definite evidence has been obtained to date and little is known on the interactions between hydrogen and the pore walls of this kind of MOFs. In this work, a combined grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation and density functional theory calculation is performed on the adsorption of hydrogen in MOF-505, a recently synthesized MOF with open metal sites, to provide insight into molecular-level details of the underlying mechanisms. This work shows that metal-oxygen clusters are preferential adsorption sites for hydrogen, and the strongest adsorption of hydrogen is found in the directions of coordinatively unsaturated open metal sites, providing evidence that the open metal sites have a favorable impact on the hydrogen sorption capacity of MOFs. The storage capacity of hydrogen of MOF-505 at room temperature and moderate pressures is predicted to be low, in agreement with the outcome for hydrogen physisorption in other porous materials.

  20. Proton Conductivity of Proton Exchange Membrane Synergistically Promoted by Different Functionalized Metal-Organic Frameworks. (United States)

    Rao, Zhuang; Tang, Beibei; Wu, Peiyi


    In this study, two functionalized metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), UiO-66-SO3H and UiO-66-NH2, were synthesized. Then, different composite proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were prepared by single doping and codoping of these two MOFs, respectively. It was found that codoping of these two MOFs with suitable sizes was more conducive to the proton conductivity enhancement of the composite PEM. A synergistic effect between these two MOFs led to the the formation of more consecutive hydration channels in the composite PEM. It further greatly promoted the proton conductivity of the composite PEM. The proton conductivity of the codoped PEM reached up to 0.256 S/cm under 90 °C, 95% RH, which was ∼1.17 times higher than that of the recast Nafion (0.118 S/cm). Besides, the methanol permeability of the codoped PEM was prominently decreased owing to the methanol trapping effect of the pores of these two MOFs. Meanwhile, the high water and thermal stabilities of these two MOFs were beneficial to the high proton conductivity stability of the codoped PEM under high humidity and high temperature. The proton conductivity of the codoped PEM was almost unchanged throughout 3000 min of testing under 90 °C, 95% RH. This work provides a valuable reference for designing different functionalized MOFs to synergistically promote the proton conductivities of PEMs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Hari Sucipto


    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is viruses known as rotaviruses. Potential target for therapeutic is reverse transcriptase (RT, possesses an RNA dependent DNA polymerase, DNA-dependent DNA polymerase and ribonuclease H fuctions. Imidazoles have high anti-HIV inhibitory activity, some derivates of imidazole reported drugs. 8-chloro-2,3-dihydroimidazole[1,2-b] [1,4,2]benzodithiazine-5,5-dioxides and 9-chloro-2,3,4-trihydropyri-mido[1,2-b][1,4,2]benzodithi-azine-6,6-dioxides. This compounds succesfully identified anti-HIV activity. Copper is a bio-essential element and copper complexes have been extensively utilized in metal mediated DNA cleavage for the generation of activated oxygen species. It has been reported that teraaza macrocyclic copper coordination compounds have anti-HIV activities. Studies have shown that these macrocyclic complexes can react with DNA in different binding fashions and exhibit effective nuclease activities. Complex compounds are compounds in which there is an atom that acts as the central atom and trotter group of molecules that can be either neutral or charged ions. Application a metal-organic (complex compounds, especially copper metal and derivates of imidazole. So, in this study can explore new anti-HIV candidate.

  2. A Series of Lanthanide Metal-Organic Frameworks with Interesting Adjustable Photoluminescence Constructed by Helical Chains. (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Gong Hao; Zhou, Shuai; Fan, Ruiqing; Yang, Yulin; Xu, Yan


    Based on the isonicotinic acid (HIN=pyridine-4-carboxylic acid), seven lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with the formula [Ln(IN)2 L] (Ln=Eu (1), Tb (2), Er (3), Dy (4), Ho (5), Gd (6), La (7), L=OCH2 CH2 OH) have been synthesized by mixing Ln2 O3 with HIN under solvothermal conditions, and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Crystal structural analysis shows that compounds 1-6 are isostructural, crystallize in a chiral space group P21 21 21 , whereas compound 7 crystallizes in space group C2/c. Nevertheless, they all consist of new intertwined chains. Simultaneously, on the basis of the above-mentioned compounds, we have realized a rational design strategy to form the doped Ln MOFs [(Eux Tb1-x )(IN)2 L] (x=0.35 (8), x=0.19 (9), x=0.06 (10)) by utilizing Tb(III) as the second "rare-earth metal". Interestingly, the photoluminescence of [(Eux Tb1-x )(IN)2 L] are not only adjustable by the ratios of Eu/Tb, but also temperature or excitation wavelength. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Pore Breathing of Metal-Organic Frameworks by Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy. (United States)

    Parent, Lucas R; Pham, C Huy; Patterson, Joseph P; Denny, Michael S; Cohen, Seth M; Gianneschi, Nathan C; Paesani, Francesco


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as a versatile platform for the rational design of multifunctional materials, combining large specific surface areas with flexible, periodic frameworks that can undergo reversible structural transitions, or "breathing", upon temperature and pressure changes, and through gas adsorption/desorption processes. Although MOF breathing can be inferred from the analysis of adsorption isotherms, direct observation of the structural transitions has been lacking, and the underlying processes of framework reorganization in individual MOF nanocrystals is largely unknown. In this study, we describe the characterization and elucidation of these processes through the combination of in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) and computer simulations. This combined approach enables the direct monitoring of the breathing behavior of individual MIL-53(Cr) nanocrystals upon reversible water adsorption and temperature changes. The ability to characterize structural changes in single nanocrystals and extract lattice level information through in silico correlation provides fundamental insights into the relationship between pore size/shape and host-guest interactions.

  4. An unconventional rapid synthesis of high performance metal-organic framework membranes. (United States)

    Shah, Miral N; Gonzalez, Mariel A; McCarthy, Michael C; Jeong, Hae-Kwon


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are attractive for gas separation membrane applications due to their microporous channels with tunable pore shape, size, and functionality. Conventional MOF membrane fabrication techniques, namely in situ and secondary growth, pose challenges for their wider commercial applications. These challenges include reproducility, scalability, and high manufacturing cost. Recognizing that the coordination chemistry of MOFs is fundamentally different from the covalent chemistry of zeolites, we developed a radically different strategy for MOF membrane synthesis. Using this new technique, we were able to produce continuous well-intergrown membranes of prototypical MOFs, HKUST-1 and ZIF-8, in a relatively short period of time (tens of min). With a minimal consumption of precursors and a greatly simplified synthesis protocol, our new technique provides potential for a continuous, scalable, reproducible, and easily commercializable route for the rapid synthesis of MOF membranes. RTD-prepared MOF membranes show greatly improved gas separation performances as compared to those prepared by conventional solvothermal methods, indicating improved membrane microstructure.

  5. Temperature Treatment of Highly Porous Zirconium-Containing Metal-Organic Frameworks Extends Drug Delivery Release. (United States)

    Teplensky, Michelle H; Fantham, Marcus; Li, Peng; Wang, Timothy C; Mehta, Joshua P; Young, Laurence J; Moghadam, Peyman Z; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K; Kaminski, Clemens F; Fairen-Jimenez, David


    Utilizing metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as a biological carrier can lower the amount of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) required in cancer treatments to provide a more efficacious therapy. In this work, we have developed a temperature treatment process for delaying the release of a model drug compound from the pores of NU-1000 and NU-901, while taking care to utilize these MOFs' large pore volume and size to achieve exceptional model drug loading percentages over 35 wt %. Video-rate super-resolution microscopy reveals movement of MOF particles when located outside of the cell boundary, and their subsequent immobilization when taken up by the cell. Through the use of optical sectioning structured illumination microscopy (SIM), we have captured high-resolution 3D images showing MOF uptake by HeLa cells over a 24 h period. We found that addition of a model drug compound into the MOF and the subsequent temperature treatment process does not affect the rate of MOF uptake by the cell. Endocytosis analysis revealed that MOFs are internalized by active transport and that inhibiting the caveolae-mediated pathway significantly reduced cellular uptake of MOFs. Encapsulation of an anticancer therapeutic, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (α-CHC), and subsequent temperature treatment produced loadings of up to 81 wt % and demonstrated efficacy at killing cells beyond the burst release effect.

  6. Surfactant directed encapsulation of metal nanocrystals in metal-organic frameworks (United States)

    Hu, Pan

    Metal nanocrystals with size and shape control have great potential in heterogeneous catalysis. Controllable encapsulation of well-defined metal nanoparticles into the novel porous materials results in new multifunctional nanomaterials. The core-shell nanostructure can enhance the selectivity, durability, or reactivity of the catalysts and even provide additional functionalities. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of novel crystalline nanoporous materials, with well-defined pore structures and distinctive chemical properties. Using MOFs as the encapsulating porous materials has drawn great interest recently due to their tunable structures and properties. However, it could be challenging to grow another porous material layer on metal surface due to the unfavorable interfacial energy. In this work we develop a new concept of colloidal synthesis to synthesize the metal MOF core-shell nanostructures, in which a layer of self-assembled molecules directed the growth and alignment between two materials. Surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) is designated to facilitate the overgrowth of MOF onto metal surface, and an alignment between the {100} planes of the metal and {110} planes of the MOF can be observed. By utilizing the same concept, a third layer of mesoporous silica could also be coated on the MOF shell with assistance of CTAB. And our method could be a general strategy to fabricate multiple-layer MOF materials.

  7. Switching Thin Films of Azobenzene-Containing Metal-Organic Frameworks with Visible Light. (United States)

    Müller, Kai; Knebel, Alexander; Zhao, Fangli; Bléger, David; Caro, Jürgen; Heinke, Lars


    Stimuli-responsive molecules change their properties when exposed to external signals, such as light, and enable the preparation of smart materials. UV light, which often destroys organic materials, is typically required for activating the desired response of photoswitchable compounds, significantly limiting the potential applications of light-operated smart materials. Herein, we present the first metal-organic framework (MOF), which enables reversible modulation of key properties upon irradiation with visible light only. The fluorinated azobenzene side groups in the MOF structure can be reversibly switched between the trans and cis state by green and violet light, avoiding UV light. It was demonstrated that the uptake of guest molecules by these MOF films can be switched in a fully remote-controlled way. The membrane separation of hydrogen/hydrocarbon mixtures was investigated. The light-induced changes of the MOF pore size result in the switching of the permeation and of the selection factor. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Microscopic Mechanism of Chiral Induction in a Metal-Organic Framework. (United States)

    Evans, Jack D; Coudert, François-Xavier


    The recently reported process of chiral induction in a metal-organic framework (MOF) by nonchiral guest adsorption, demonstrated on the prototypical MOF-5, may revolutionize the production of MOFs for enantioselective separation and catalysis. Herein, we describe an investigation employing multiscale molecular simulation to discover the microscopic mechanism of chiral induction and investigate the stability of the resulting framework. Our results explain how the molecular size and chemical nature of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) give rise to the chiral transformation in MOF-5, whereas it cannot occur for other guest molecules, such as N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). Moreover, we show that the guest-free CMOF-5 structure is energetically unstable, with either the achiral conventional structure or a closed pore structure preferred, demonstrating that chirality will not be retained upon activation of CMOF-5. While this limits the usability of chiral induction in MOFs, our study opens new avenues for the use of other guest molecules and provides microscopic insight into this unexpected outcome of guest-framework interactions in a soft porous crystal.

  9. Introduction of functionalized mesopores to metal-organic frameworks via metal-ligand-fragment coassembly. (United States)

    Park, Jinhee; Wang, Zhiyong U; Sun, Lin-Bing; Chen, Ying-Pin; Zhou, Hong-Cai


    Introduction of functionalized mesopores into microporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) can endow them with suitable properties for applications in gas storage, separation, catalysis, and drug delivery. However, common methods for functionalization (including pre- and post-synthetic modifications) of the internal surface of a MOF reduce the pore size of the MOF because the additional functional groups fill up the pores. We present a metal-ligand-fragment coassembly strategy for the introduction of (meso)pores functionalized with various substituent groups on the ligand fragments. Astonishingly, this new functionalization strategy increases the pore volume of a MOF instead of reducing it. Since the ligand fragments are often readily available or easily prepared, the new procedure for synthesis of the modified MOFs becomes much easier and more applicable than existing approaches. Remarkably, mesopores can be generated conveniently and controllably by the coassembly of a ligand and its fragment containing the desired functional groups. The fragment/ligand ratio has been optimized to preserve the parent structure and to promote maximum mesopore introduction, which has led to a systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of a series of functional groups for the adsorption of guest molecules.

  10. Kinetic and steric differences in adsorption in two porous metal-organic frameworks (United States)

    Lask, Kathleen; Krungleviciute, Vaiva; Bulut, Murat; Migone, Aldo; Lee, J.-Y.; Li, Jing


    Kinetic and steric differences are two of the three fundamental mechanisms underlying the use of adsorption in applications to gas mixture separations. We present experimental results on kinetics and equilibrium adsorption measurements of tetrafluoromethane and argon on two metal-organic framework (MOF) materials: RPM1-Co or [Co3(bpdc)3bpy].4DMF.H2O] (bpdc = biphenyldicarboxylate, bpy = 4,4'-bipyridine, DMF = N,N- dimethylformamide) and Cu-BTC or Cu3(BTC)2(H2O)3 (BTC = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate). The adsorbates display significant differences in their kinetics on RPM1-Co (i.e., there are sizable differences in the time required for each gas to reach equilibrium after it is allowed access to the substrate). Our equilibrium measurements show that CF4 is sterically precluded from adsorbing in the small tetrahedral-shaped side pockets present in Cu-BTC. We will compare our experimental results with predictions for how adsorption kinetics depends on the size of the adsorbate and on those of the pores present in the substrate.

  11. Effect of pore size and shape on the thermal conductivity of metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Babaei, Hasan; McGaughey, Alan J H; Wilmer, Christopher E


    We investigate the effect of pore size and shape on the thermal conductivity of a series of idealized metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) containing adsorbed gas using molecular simulations. With no gas present, the thermal conductivity decreases with increasing pore size. In the presence of adsorbed gas, MOFs with smaller pores experience reduced thermal conductivity due to phonon scattering introduced by gas-crystal interactions. In contrast, for larger pores (>1.7 nm), the adsorbed gas does not significantly affect thermal conductivity. This difference is due to the decreased probability of gas-crystal collisions in larger pore structures. In contrast to MOFs with simple cubic pores, the thermal conductivity in structures with triangular and hexagonal pore channels exhibits significant anisotropy. For different pore geometries at the same atomic density, hexagonal channel MOFs have both the highest and lowest thermal conductivities, along and across the channel direction, respectively. In the triangular and hexagonal channeled structures, the presence of gas molecules has different effects on thermal conductivity along different crystallographic directions.

  12. Electrocatalysts Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks for Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Aqueous Media. (United States)

    Qian, Yuhong; Khan, Inayat Ali; Zhao, Dan


    Electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices such as fuel cells and metal-air batteries have been extensively studied in recent decades for their excellent conversion efficiency, high energy capacity, and low environmental impact. However, sluggish kinetics of the oxygen-related reactions at air cathodes, i.e., oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), are still worth improving. Noble metals such as platinum (Pt), iridium (Ir), ruthenium (Ru) and their oxides are considered as the benchmark ORR and OER electrocatalysts, but they are expensive and prone to be poisoned due to the fuel crossover effect, and may suffer from agglomeration and leaching after long-term usage. To mitigate these limits, it is highly desirable to design alternative ORR/OER electrocatalysts with prominent performance. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of porous crystalline materials consisting metal ions/clusters coordinated by organic ligands. Their crystalline structure, tunable pore size and high surface area afford them wide opportunities as catalytic materials. This Review covers MOF-derived ORR/OER catalysts in electrochemical energy conversion, with a focus on the different strategies of material design and preparation, such as composition control and nanostructure fabrication, to improve the activity and durability of MOF-derived electrocatalysts. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Tuning the structure and function of metal-organic frameworks via linker design. (United States)

    Lu, Weigang; Wei, Zhangwen; Gu, Zhi-Yuan; Liu, Tian-Fu; Park, Jinhee; Park, Jihye; Tian, Jian; Zhang, Muwei; Zhang, Qiang; Gentle, Thomas; Bosch, Mathieu; Zhou, Hong-Cai


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are constructed from metal ions/clusters coordinated by organic linkers (or bridging-ligands). The hallmark of MOFs is their permanent porosity, which is frequently found in MOFs constructed from metal-clusters. These clusters are often formed in situ, whereas the linkers are generally pre-formed. The geometry and connectivity of a linker dictate the structure of the resulting MOF. Adjustments of linker geometry, length, ratio, and functional-group can tune the size, shape, and internal surface property of a MOF for a targeted application. In this critical review, we highlight advances in MOF synthesis focusing on linker design. Examples of building MOFs to reach unique properties, such as unprecedented surface area, pore aperture, molecular recognition, stability, and catalysis, through linker design are described. Further search for application-oriented MOFs through judicious selection of metal clusters and organic linkers is desirable. In this review, linkers are categorized as ditopic (Section 1), tritopic (Section 2), tetratopic (Section 3), hexatopic (Section 4), octatopic (Section 5), mixed (Section 6), desymmetrized (Section 7), metallo (Section 8), and N-heterocyclic linkers (Section 9).

  14. Nanoporous metal oxides with tunable and nanocrystalline frameworks via conversion of metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Lee, Kyung Joo; Cheon, Jae Yeong; Lee, Jae Hwa; Joo, Sang Hoon; Moon, Hoi Ri


    Nanoporous metal oxide materials are ubiquitous in the material sciences because of their numerous potential applications in various areas, including adsorption, catalysis, energy conversion and storage, optoelectronics, and drug delivery. While synthetic strategies for the preparation of siliceous nanoporous materials are well-established, nonsiliceous metal oxide-based nanoporous materials still present challenges. Herein, we report a novel synthetic strategy that exploits a metal-organic framework (MOF)-driven, self-templated route toward nanoporous metal oxides via thermolysis under inert atmosphere. In this approach, an aliphatic ligand-based MOF is thermally converted to nanoporous metal oxides with highly nanocrystalline frameworks, in which aliphatic ligands act as the self-templates that are afterward evaporated to generate nanopores. We demonstrate this concept with hierarchically nanoporous magnesia (MgO) and ceria (CeO2), which have potential applicability for adsorption, catalysis, and energy storage. The pore size of these nanoporous metal oxides can be readily tuned by simple control of experimental parameters. Significantly, nanoporous MgO exhibits exceptional CO2 adsorption capacity (9.2 wt %) under conditions mimicking flue gas. This MOF-driven strategy can be expanded to other nanoporous monometallic and multimetallic oxides with a multitude of potential applications.

  15. Homochiral metal-organic frameworks and their application in chromatography enantioseparations. (United States)

    Peluso, Paola; Mamane, Victor; Cossu, Sergio


    The last frontier in the chiral stationary phases (CSPs) field for chromatography enantioseparations is represented by homochiral metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a class of organic-inorganic hybrid materials built from metal-connecting nodes and organic-bridging ligands. The modular nature of these materials allows to design focused structures by combining properly metal, organic ligands and rigid polytopic spacers. Intriguingly, chiral ligands introduce molecular chirality in the MOF-network as well as homochirality in the secondary structure of materials (such as homohelicity) producing homochiral nets in a manner mimicking biopolymers (proteins, polysaccharides) which are characterized by a definite helical sense associated with the chirality of their building blocks (amino acids or sugars). Nowadays, robust and flexible materials characterized by high porosity and surface area became available by using preparative procedures typical of the so-called reticular synthesis. This review focuses on recent developments in the synthesis and applications of homochiral MOFs as supports for chromatography enantioseparations. Indeed, despite this field is in its infancy, interesting results have been produced and a critical overview of the 12 reported applications for gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) can orient the reader approaching the field. Mechanistic aspects are shortly discussed and a view regarding future trends in this field is provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. High-nuclearity metal-organic nanospheres: a Cd66 ball. (United States)

    Argent, Stephen P; Greenaway, Alex; Gimenez-Lopez, Maria del Carmen; Lewis, William; Nowell, Harriott; Khlobystov, Andrei N; Blake, Alexander J; Champness, Neil R; Schröder, Martin


    Reaction of H(3)L with Cd(NO(3))(2)·4H(2)O in DMF at 150 °C for 3 days affords the metal-organic nanosphere [Cd(66)(μ(3)-OH)(28)(μ(3)-O)(16)(μ(5)-NO(3)-O,O,O',O',O″,O″)(12)(L)(20)(μ(2)-DMF)(12)⊂(DMF)(9)]. The cluster is composed of a spherical shell of 66 Cd(II) cations bridged by 28 μ(3)-hydroxide, 16 μ(3)-oxo, and five μ(5)-NO(3)(-) anions surrounded by a shell of 20 tripodal capping ligands (L) and 12 DMF ligands. The 66 Cd(II) cations and 12 NO(3)(-) anions form a polydeltahedron that has 78 vertices [Cd(II) or NO(3)(-)] (V), 228 edges (E), and 152 triangular faces (F), giving it an Euler characteristic (χ) of 2 (χ = V + F - E). Reaction of H(3)L with Cd(NO(3))(2)·4H(2)O at lower temperatures or with CdCl(2) affords coordination polymer frameworks instead of nanospheres. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. High performance hydrogen storage from Be-BTB metal-organic framework at room temperature. (United States)

    Lim, Wei-Xian; Thornton, Aaron W; Hill, Anita J; Cox, Barry J; Hill, James M; Hill, Matthew R


    The metal-organic framework beryllium benzene tribenzoate (Be-BTB) has recently been reported to have one of the highest gravimetric hydrogen uptakes at room temperature. Storage at room temperature is one of the key requirements for the practical viability of hydrogen-powered vehicles. Be-BTB has an exceptional 298 K storage capacity of 2.3 wt % hydrogen. This result is surprising given that the low adsorption enthalpy of 5.5 kJ mol(-1). In this work, a combination of atomistic simulation and continuum modeling reveals that the beryllium rings contribute strongly to the hydrogen interaction with the framework. These simulations are extended with a thermodynamic energy optimization (TEO) model to compare the performance of Be-BTB to a compressed H2 tank and benchmark materials MOF-5 and MOF-177 in a MOF-based fuel cell. Our investigation shows that none of the MOF-filled tanks satisfy the United States Department of Energy (DOE) storage targets within the required operating temperatures and pressures. However, the Be-BTB tank delivers the most energy per volume and mass compared to the other material-based storage tanks. The pore size and the framework mass are shown to be contributing factors responsible for the superior room temperature hydrogen adsorption of Be-BTB.

  18. Ultrarobust Biochips with Metal-Organic Framework Coating for Point-of-Care Diagnosis. (United States)

    Wang, Congzhou; Wang, Lu; Tadepalli, Sirimuvva; Morrissey, Jeremiah J; Kharasch, Evan D; Naik, Rajesh R; Singamaneni, Srikanth


    Most biosensors relying on antibodies as recognition elements fail in harsh environment conditions such as elevated temperatures, organic solvents, or proteases because of antibody denaturation, and require strict storage conditions with defined shelf life, thus limiting their applications in point-of-care and resource-limited settings. Here, a metal-organic framework (MOF) encapsulation is utilized to preserve the biofunctionality of antibodies conjugated to nanotransducers. This study investigates several parameters of MOF coating (including growth time, surface morphology, thickness, and precursor concentrations) that determine the preservation efficacy against different protein denaturing conditions in both dry and wet environments. A plasmonic biosensor based on gold nanorods as the nanotransducers is employed as a model biodiagnostic platform. The preservation efficacy attained through MOF encapsulation is compared to two other commonly employed materials (sucrose and silk fibroin). The results show that MOF coating outperforms sucrose and silk fibroin coatings under several harsh conditions including high temperature (80 °C), dimethylformamide, and protease solution, owing to complete encapsulation, stability in wet environment and ease of removal at point-of-use by the MOF. We believe this study will broaden the applicability of this universal approach for preserving different types of on-chip biodiagnostic reagents and biosensors/bioassays, thus extending the benefits of advanced diagnostic technologies in resource-limited settings.

  19. Modular and Stepwise Synthesis of a Hybrid Metal-Organic Framework for Efficient Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution. (United States)

    Shen, Jian-Qiang; Liao, Pei-Qin; Zhou, Dong-Dong; He, Chun-Ting; Wu, Jun-Xi; Zhang, Wei-Xiong; Zhang, Jie-Peng; Chen, Xiao-Ming


    The paddle-wheel type cluster Co2(RCOO)4(LT)2 (R = substituent group, LT = terminal ligand), possessing unusual metal coordination geometry compared with other cobalt compounds, may display high catalytic activity but is highly unstable especially in water. Here, we show that with judicious considerations of the host/guest geometries and modular synthetic strategies, the labile dicobalt clusters can be immobilized and stabilized in a metal-organic framework (MOF) as coordinative guests. The Fe(na)4(LT) fragment in the MOF [{Fe3(μ3-O)(bdc)3}4{Fe(na)4(LT)}3] (H2bdc = 1,4-benzenedicaboxylic acid, Hna = nicotinic acid) can be removed to give [{Fe3(μ3-O)(bdc)3}4] with a unique framework connectivity possessing suitable distribution of open metal sites for binding the dicobalt cluster in the form of Co2(na)4(LT)2. After two-step, single-crystal to single-crystal, postsynthetic modifications, a thermal-, water-, and alkaline-stable MOF [{Fe3(μ3-O)(bdc)3}4{Co2(na)4(LT)2}3] containing the desired dicobalt cluster was obtained, giving extraordinarily high electrocatalytic oxygen evolution activity in water at pH = 13 with overpotential as low as 225 mV at 10.0 mA cm-2.

  20. Characterization of compositional modifications in metal-organic frameworks using carbon and alpha particle microbeams (United States)

    Paneta, V.; Fluch, U.; Petersson, P.; Ott, S.; Primetzhofer, D.


    Zirconium-oxide based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were grown on p-type Si wafers. A modified linker molecule containing iodine was introduced by post synthetic exchange (PSE). Samples have been studied using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) techniques, employing the 5 MV 15SDH-2 Pelletron Tandem accelerator at the Ångström laboratory. The degree of post synthetic uptake of the iodine-containing linker has been investigated with both a broad beam and a focused beam of carbon and alpha particles targeting different kind of MOF crystals which were of ∼1-10 μm in size, depending on the linker used. Iodine concentrations in MOF crystallites were also measured by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR) and are compared to the RBS results. In parallel to the ion beam studies, samples were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to quantify possible crystallite clustering, develop optimum sample preparation routines and to characterize the potential ion beam induced sample damage and its dependence on different parameters. Based on these results the reliability and accuracy of ion beam data is assessed.

  1. A porous proton-relaying metal-organic framework material that accelerates electrochemical hydrogen evolution (United States)

    Hod, Idan; Deria, Pravas; Bury, Wojciech; Mondloch, Joseph E.; Kung, Chung-Wei; So, Monica; Sampson, Matthew D.; Peters, Aaron W.; Kubiak, Cliff P.; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.


    The availability of efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) catalysts is of high importance for solar fuel technologies aimed at reducing future carbon emissions. Even though Pt electrodes are excellent HER electrocatalysts, commercialization of large-scale hydrogen production technology requires finding an equally efficient, low-cost, earth-abundant alternative. Here, high porosity, metal-organic framework (MOF) films have been used as scaffolds for the deposition of a Ni-S electrocatalyst. Compared with an MOF-free Ni-S, the resulting hybrid materials exhibit significantly enhanced performance for HER from aqueous acid, decreasing the kinetic overpotential by more than 200 mV at a benchmark current density of 10 mA cm-2. Although the initial aim was to improve electrocatalytic activity by greatly boosting the active area of the Ni-S catalyst, the performance enhancements instead were found to arise primarily from the ability of the proton-conductive MOF to favourably modify the immediate chemical environment of the sulfide-based catalyst.

  2. Creating Hierarchical Pores by Controlled Linker Thermolysis in Multivariate Metal-Organic Frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Liang


    Sufficient pore size, appropriate stability and hierarchical porosity are three prerequisites for open frameworks designed for drug delivery, enzyme immobilization and catalysis involving large molecules. Herein, we report a powerful and general strate-gy, linker thermolysis, to construct ultra-stable hierarchically porous metal−organic frameworks (HP-MOFs) with tunable pore size distribution. Linker instability, usually an undesirable trait of MOFs, was exploited to create mesopores by generating crystal defects throughout a microporous MOF crystal via thermolysis. The crystallinity and stability of HP-MOFs remain after thermolabile linkers are selectively removed from multivariate metal-organic frameworks (MTV-MOFs) through a decarboxyla-tion process. A domain-based linker spatial distribution was found to be critical for creating hierarchical pores inside MTV-MOFs. Furthermore, linker thermolysis promotes the formation of ultra-small metal oxide (MO) nanoparticles immobilized in an open framework that exhibits high catalytic activity for Lewis acid catalyzed reactions. Most importantly, this work pro-vides fresh insights into the connection between linker apportionment and vacancy distribution, which may shed light on prob-ing the disordered linker apportionment in multivariate systems, a long-standing challenge in the study of MTV-MOFs.

  3. Exploring metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of Si-alloyed Al2O3 dielectrics using disilane (United States)

    Chan, Silvia H.; Keller, Stacia; Koksaldi, Onur S.; Gupta, Chirag; DenBaars, Steven P.; Mishra, Umesh K.


    The alloying of Al2O3 films with Si is a promising route to improve gate dielectric properties in Si- and wide-bandgap- based MOS devices. Here we present a comprehensive investigation of alloyed film growth by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using trimethylaluminum, disilane, and oxygen precursors over a variety of temperature and flow conditions. Binary growth rates of Al2O3 and SiO2 were evaluated to explain the aggregate growth kinetics of Si-alloyed Al2O3 films, and refractive indices were used to monitor Si incorporation efficiencies. The temperature dependence of the reaction rate of disilane with oxygen was found to be similar to that of trimethylaluminum and oxygen, leading to well-behaved deposition behavior in the kinetic and mass-transport controlled growth regimes. Compositional predictability and stability was achieved over a wider growth space with disilane-based growths as compared to previous work, which used silane as the Si precursor instead. In situ (Al,Si)O/n-GaN MOS gate stacks were grown and showed increasing reduction of net positive fixed charges with higher Si composition.

  4. Synthesis, crystal structure and luminescent properties of a new samarium-fluorescein metal-organic framework (United States)

    Thomas, Jesty; Ambili, K. S.


    A new metal-organic framework with empirical formula C43H30NO12Sm was solvothermally synthesized using SmCl3, fluorescein and N, N-Dimethyl formamide (DMF) and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, CHN elemental analysis and thermogravimetric analysis. Single crystal X-ray diffraction revealed that the crystal structure belongs to the triclinic system, P-1 space group with a = 12.113 (6) Å, b = 12.1734 (7) Å, c = 13.2760(8) Å, α = 67.930(3)⁰, β = 87.779(3)⁰, γ = 77.603(3)⁰ and V = 1769.71 (17) Å3. The photoluminescence spectrum showed emission peaks at 550 nm, 600 nm and 647 nm due to the characteristic transitions 4G5/2 to 6H5/2, 4G5/2 to 6H7/2 and 4G5/2 to 6H9/2 respectively, when excited at 398 nm.

  5. Two metal-organic frameworks with different configurations constructed from a flexible tripodal triaromatic acid (United States)

    Liang, Li-Li; Xu, Lei; Xue, Hong-Bao; Tao, Zhao-Lin; Chen, Fei-Jian


    Two metal-organic frameworks [Ce2(L)2(DMF)4] (1), and [Ni3(HL2-)4(bpe)3(H2O)4]·[H2N(CH3)2+]2(DMF)6(H2O)8 (2) (H3L = 4,4‧,4″-{[(2,4,6-trimethylbenzene-1,3,5-triyl)tris-(methylene)] tris(oxy)}tribenzoic acid, bpe = trans-4,4‧-bipyridylethylene) have been solvothermally synthesized from a flexible tripodal ligand. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction shows that compound 1 features a 3,6-connected double-layer network which is further connected by weak π-π interactions between benzene rings to form a 3D porous network. Compound 2 exhibits an unprecedented (4,5)-connected ( topology based on zigzag chains and straight chains. In addition, thermal stabilities and luminescent properties of 1 and 2 were investigated in the solid state.

  6. Lanthanide metal-organic frameworks based on a thiophenedicarboxylate linker: Characterization and luminescence (United States)

    Calderone, Paul J.; Plonka, Anna M.; Banerjee, Debasis; Nizami, Quddus A.; Parise, John B.


    Three topologically-related lanthanide thiophenedicarboxylate (TDC) metal-organic frameworks were synthesized using an identical metal:linker:solvet ratio. Nd(TDC)3(EtOH)3(H2O)·H2O (1; space group Cc, a = 24.035(2) Å, b = 10.063(1) Å, c = 18.998(1) Å, β = 132.41(1)°) contains the same metal-TDC coordination modes as two other compounds which have the isostructural formula Ln(TDC)3(EtOH)3(H2O)·H2O; Ln = Tb (2; space group P¯ 1, a = 12.807(9) Å, b = 14.557(1) Å, c = 19.128(1) Å, α = 106.66(2)°, β = 105.62(2)°, γ = 93.691(2)°), Dy (3; space group P¯ 1, a = 12.793(8) Å, b = 14.682(1) Å, c = 19.077(1) Å, α = 107.12(1)°, β = 105.54(1)°, γ = 93.518(2)°). An equimolar solvent mixture of water and ethanol causes both types of solvent molecules coordinating to metal centers. The fluorescence spectra of compounds 2 and 3 show characteristic bands related to their respective metal ions, but Dy-based 3 is very weak compared to Tb-based 2, indicating coordinating solvent molecules may be quenching Dy fluorescence.

  7. A recognition mechanism study: Luminescent metal-organic framework for the detection of nitro-explosives. (United States)

    Zhao, Zhengyan; Song, Xuedan; Liu, Lei; Li, Guanglan; Shah, Shaheen; Hao, Ce


    This article presents a recognition mechanism for nitro-explosives by the luminescent metal-organic framework 1 (LMOF-1) with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The behavior of hydrogen bonding between the LMOF-1 and nitro-explosives in the S 1 state is closely associated with the fluorescence properties of the LMOF-1. In our research, we calculated the geometric configuration, 1 H NMR and IR spectra of the Complex 2 formed by LMOF-1 and nitrobenzene in the S 0 and S 1 states. The results showed that the hydrogen bond in the S 1 state was increased, which was unfavorable for the luminescence of LMOF-1. Furthermore, the fluorescence rate of LMOF-1 decreased after encapsulating nitrobenzene into it. These calculated results collectively suggest that LMOF-1 is a potential fluorescence sensor for the detection of nitro-explosives. This research was aiming to provide a better understanding of the recognition mechanism by LMOFs for nitro-explosives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanosized mesoporous metal-organic framework MIL-101 as a nanocarrier for photoactive hexamolybdenum cluster compounds. (United States)

    Cheplakova, Anastasia M; Solovieva, Anastasiya O; Pozmogova, Tatiana N; Vorotnikov, Yuri A; Brylev, Konstantin A; Vorotnikova, Natalya A; Vorontsova, Elena V; Mironov, Yuri V; Poveshchenko, Alexander F; Kovalenko, Konstantin A; Shestopalov, Michael A


    Inclusion compounds of photoluminescent hexamolybdenum cluster complexes in the chromium terephthalate metal-organic framework, MIL-101 (MIL, Matérial Institut Lavoisier) were successfully synthesized in two different ways and characterized by means of powder X-Ray diffraction, chemical analysis and nitrogen sorption. Some important functional properties of hexamolybdenum cluster complexes for biological and medical applications, in particular singlet oxygen generation ability, luminescence properties, cellular uptake behavior and cytotoxicity were studied. It was revealed that the inclusion compounds possessed significant singlet oxygen generation activity. The materials obtained showed a low cytotoxicity, thus allowing them to be used in living cells. Confocal microscopy of human larynx carcinoma (Hep-2) cells incubated with the inclusion compounds showed that MIL-101 performed as a nanocarrier adhering to the external cell membrane surface and releasing the cluster complexes which that penetrated into the cells. Moreover, photoinduced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in Hep-2 cells incubated with inclusion compounds was demonstrated. The cluster supported on MIL-101 was shown to possess in vivo phototoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Validating Metal-Organic Framework Nanoparticles for Their Nanosafety in Diverse Biomedical Applications. (United States)

    Wuttke, Stefan; Zimpel, Andreas; Bein, Thomas; Braig, Simone; Stoiber, Katharina; Vollmar, Angelika; Müller, Dominik; Haastert-Talini, Kirsten; Schaeske, Jörn; Stiesch, Meike; Zahn, Gesa; Mohmeyer, Alexander; Behrens, Peter; Eickelberg, Oliver; Bölükbas, Deniz A; Meiners, Silke


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising platforms for the synthesis of nanoparticles for diverse medical applications. Their fundamental design principles allow for significant control of the framework architecture and pore chemistry, enabling directed functionalization for nanomedical applications. However, before applying novel nanomaterials to patients, it is imperative to understand their potential health risks. In this study, the nanosafety of different MOF nanoparticles is analyzed comprehensively for diverse medical applications. The authors first evaluate the effects of MOFs on human endothelial and mouse lung cells, which constitute a first line of defense upon systemic blood-mediated and local lung-specific applications of nanoparticles. Second, we validated these MOFs for multifunctional surface coatings of dental implants using human gingiva fibroblasts. Moreover, biocompatibility of MOFs is assessed for surface coating of nerve guidance tubes using human Schwann cells and rat dorsal root ganglion cultures. The main finding of this study is that the nanosafety and principal suitability of our MOF nanoparticles as novel agents for drug delivery and implant coatings strongly varies with the effector cell type. We conclude that it is therefore necessary to carefully evaluate the nanosafety of MOF nanomaterials with respect to their particular medical application and their interacting primary cell types, respectively. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Topological Transformation of a Metal-Organic Framework Triggered by Ligand Exchange. (United States)

    González Miera, Greco; Bermejo Gómez, Antonio; Chupas, Peter J; Martín-Matute, Belén; Chapman, Karena W; Platero-Prats, Ana E


    Here we describe the topological transformation of the pores of a new framework in the bio-MOF-100 family (dia-c) into the known isomer (lcs) by doubling the pore volume, which occurs during postsynthesis modifications. During this transformation, reassembling of the metal-organic framework (MOF) building blocks into a completely different framework occurs, involving breaking/forming of metal-ligand bonds. MOF crystallinity and local structure are retained, as determined by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and pair distribution function (PDF) analyses, respectively. We exploited the inherent dynamism of bio-MOF-100 by coupling chemical decorations of the framework using solvent-assisted ligand exchange to the topological change. Following this method and starting from the pristine dense dia-c phase, open lcs-bio-MOF-100 was prepared and functionalized in situ with an iridium complex (IrL). Alternatively, the dia-c MOF could be modified with wide-ranging amounts of IrL up to ca. 50 mol %, as determined by solution (1)H NMR spectroscopy, by tuning the concentration of the solutions used and with no evidence for isomer transformation. The single-site nature of the iridium complexes within the MOFs was assessed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and PDF analyses. Ligand exchanges occurred quantitatively at room temperature, with no need of excess of the iridium metallolinker.

  11. Kinetic Analysis of the Uptake and Release of Fluorescein by Metal-Organic Framework Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Preiß


    Full Text Available Metal-organic framework nanoparticles (MOF NPs are promising guest-host materials with applications in separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery. However, on- and off-loading of guest molecules by porous MOF nanostructures are still poorly understood. Here we study uptake and release of fluorescein by two representative MOF NPs, MIL-100(Fe and MIL-101(Cr. Suspensions of these MOF NPs exhibit well-defined size distributions and crystallinity, as verified by electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and X-ray diffraction. Using absorbance spectroscopy the equilibrium dissociation constants and maximum numbers of adsorbed fluorescein molecules per NP were determined. Time-resolved fluorescence studies reveal that rates of release and loading are pH dependent. The kinetics observed are compared to theoretical estimates that account for bulk diffusion into NPs, and retarded internal diffusion and adsorption rates. Our study shows that, rather than being simple volumetric carriers, MOF-NPs are dominated by internal surface properties. The findings will help to optimize payload levels and develop release strategies that exploit varying pH for drug delivery.

  12. Encapsulation of strongly fluorescent carbon quantum dots in metal-organic frameworks for enhancing chemical sensing. (United States)

    Lin, Xiaomei; Gao, Gongmin; Zheng, Liyan; Chi, Yuwu; Chen, Guonan


    Novel highly fluorescent (FL) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been synthesized by encapsulating branched poly-(ethylenimine)-capped carbon quantum dots (BPEI-CQDs) with a high FL quantum yield into the zeolitic imidazolate framework materials (ZIF-8). The as-synthesized FL-functionalized MOFs not only maintain an excellent FL activity and sensing selectivity derived from BPEI-CQDs but also can strongly and selectively accumulate target analytes due to the adsorption property of MOFs. The selective accumulation effect of MOFs can greatly amplify the sensing signal and specificity of the nanosized FL probe. The obtained BPEI-CQDs/ZIF-8 composites have been used to develop an ultrasensitive and highly selective sensor for Cu(2+) ion, with a wide response range (2-1000 nM) and a very low detection limit (80 pM), and have been successfully applied in the detection of Cu(2+) ions in environmental water samples. It is envisioned that various MOFs incorporated with FL nanostructures with high FL quantum yields and excellent selectivity would be designed and synthesized in similar ways and could be applied in sensing target analytes.

  13. Valuing Metal-Organic Frameworks for Postcombustion Carbon Capture: A Benchmark Study for Evaluating Physical Adsorbents

    KAUST Repository

    Adil, Karim


    The development of practical solutions for the energy-efficient capture of carbon dioxide is of prime importance and continues to attract intensive research interest. Conceivably, the implementation of adsorption-based processes using different cycling modes, e.g., pressure-swing adsorption or temperature-swing adsorption, offers great prospects to address this challenge. Practically, the successful deployment of practical adsorption-based technologies depends on the development of made-to-order adsorbents expressing mutually two compulsory requisites: i) high selectivity/affinity for CO2 and ii) excellent chemical stability in the presence of impurities. This study presents a new comprehensive experimental protocol apposite for assessing the prospects of a given physical adsorbent for carbon capture under flue gas stream conditions. The protocol permits: i) the baseline performance of commercial adsorbents such as zeolite 13X, activated carbon versus liquid amine scrubbing to be ascertained, and ii) a standardized evaluation of the best reported metal-organic framework (MOF) materials for carbon dioxide capture from flue gas to be undertaken. This extensive study corroborates the exceptional CO2 capture performance of the recently isolated second-generation fluorinated MOF material, NbOFFIVE-1-Ni, concomitant with an impressive chemical stability and a low energy for regeneration. Essentially, the NbOFFIVE-1-Ni adsorbent presents the best compromise by satisfying all the required metrics for efficient CO2 scrubbing.

  14. Drawing Sensors with Ball-Milled Blends of Metal-Organic Frameworks and Graphite (United States)

    Ko, Michael; Aykanat, Aylin; Smith, Merry K.


    The synthetically tunable properties and intrinsic porosity of conductive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) make them promising materials for transducing selective interactions with gaseous analytes in an electrically addressable platform. Consequently, conductive MOFs are valuable functional materials with high potential utility in chemical detection. The implementation of these materials, however, is limited by the available methods for device incorporation due to their poor solubility and moderate electrical conductivity. This manuscript describes a straightforward method for the integration of moderately conductive MOFs into chemiresistive sensors by mechanical abrasion. To improve electrical contacts, blends of MOFs with graphite were generated using a solvent-free ball-milling procedure. While most bulk powders of pure conductive MOFs were difficult to integrate into devices directly via mechanical abrasion, the compressed solid-state MOF/graphite blends were easily abraded onto the surface of paper substrates equipped with gold electrodes to generate functional sensors. This method was used to prepare an array of chemiresistors, from four conductive MOFs, capable of detecting and differentiating NH3, H2S and NO at parts-per-million concentrations. PMID:28946624

  15. Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of New Metal-Organic Frameworks Based on Zinc(II) Ions and 2,5-Thiophendicarboxylate Ligands


    Anna Lysova; Denis Samsonenko; Danil Dybtsev; Vladimir Fedin


    Six new metal-organic frameworks based on 2,5-thiophendicarboxylate (tdc2–) and zinc(II) ions were prepared in different reaction conditions, and their crystal structures were determined by XRD analysis. The compound [Zn(tdc)(dabco)(H2O)]∙DMF (1) is based on mononuclear Zn(II) ions connected by tdc2– and dabco linkers into square-grid layered nets. The compound [Zn3(tdc)3(dabco)2] (2) is a rare example of monocoordinated dabco ligands in the metal-organic framework chemistry. Its crystal stru...

  16. Positional isomerism-driven two 3D pillar-layered metal-organic frameworks: Syntheses, topological structures and photoluminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yayong; Zhao, Siwei; Ma, Haoran; Han, Yi; Liu, Kang; Wang, Lei, E-mail:


    Two novel three-dimensional (3D) pillar-layered metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), namely [Zn{sub 2}(μ{sub 2}-OH)(boaba)(1,4-bmimb)]{sub n} (1) and {[Zn_5K_2(μ_2-H_2O)_2(boaba)_4(1,2-bmimb)_2(H_2O)_2]·H_2O}{sub n} (2), were prepared by hydrothermal reactions (H{sub 3}boaba=3,5-bis-oxyacetate-benzoic acid; 1,4-bmimb=1,4-bis((2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzene; 1,2-bmimb =1,2-bis((2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzene). Notably, 1 exhibits a (3,5)-connected binodal (6{sup 3})(6{sup 9}·8)-gra net with binuclear [Zn{sub 2}(μ{sub 2}-OH)(COO)]{sup 2+} clusters, while 2 shows a novel (4,4,5,9)-connected 4-nodal net constructed from the unique Zn(II)-K(I) heterometal rod-like substructures. The results indicate that the disposition of the 2-methylimidazolyl groups of bis(imidazole) ligands have a significant effect on structural diversity. Moreover, the photoluminescence properties of 1 and 2 have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Two novel 3D pillar-layered metal-organic coordination networks with aromatic multicarboxylate anion and bis(imidazole) ligands have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Display Omitted - Highlights: • It is rarely reported that metal-organic frameworks prepared with 3,5-bis-oxyacetate-benzoic acid. • Two metal-organic frameworks based on positional isomeric ligands were synthesized and structurally characterized. • Compond 1 displays unique (3,5)-connected binodal gra topology. • Compound 2 exhibits (4,4,5,9)-connected 4-nodal topology based on the Zn(II)-K(I) heterometal rod-like substructures. • The photoluminescence properties of compound 1 and 2 have been investigated.

  17. Electron traps as major recombination centers in n-GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (United States)

    Lee, In-Hwan; Polyakov, Alexander Y.; Smirnov, Nikolai B.; Yakimov, Eugene B.; Tarelkin, Sergey A.; Turutin, Andery V.; Shemerov, Ivan V.; Pearton, Stephen J.


    For a group of n-GaN films grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using both straight MOCVD and epitaxial lateral overgrowth techniques (ELOG proper or pendeo overgrowth), the spectra of deep traps were measured by deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) with electrical or optical injection (ODLTS). The results were compared with diffusion length measurement results obtained from electron-beam-induced current experiments. The results strongly indicate that deep electron traps near E c - 0.56 eV could be the major recombination centers determining the diffusion length values in pendeo samples.

  18. Highly sensitive and selective detection of mercury (II) based on a zirconium metal-organic framework in aqueous media (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Xia, Tifeng; Jiang, Ke; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong


    A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) fluorescent probe UiO-66-PSM is obtained by the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne click (CuAAC) reaction of UiO-66-N3 with phenylacetylene. The click-generated triazole unit can act as the metal binding site to coordinate with Hg2+, which exhibits the most pronounced fluorescence response (rapid response, excellent selectivity, and high sensitivity) over other metal ions. Moreover, it is capable of detecting Hg2+ in environmental water samples without any structural disintegration of the framework, indicating its high potential in practical applications.

  19. Detoxification of a Sulfur Mustard Simulant Using a BODIPY-Functionalized Zirconium-Based Metal-Organic Framework. (United States)

    Atilgan, Ahmet; Islamoglu, Timur; Howarth, Ashlee J; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K


    Effective detoxification of chemical warfare agents is a global necessity. As a powerful photosensitizer, a halogenated BODIPY ligand is postsynthetically appended to the Zr6 nodes of the metal-organic framework (MOF), NU-1000, to enhance singlet oxygen generation from the MOF. The BODIPY/MOF material is then used as a heterogeneous photocatalyst to produce singlet oxygen under green LED irradiation. The singlet oxygen selectively detoxifies the sulfur mustard simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), to the less toxic sulfoxide derivative (2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfoxide, CEESO) with a half-life of approximately 2 min.

  20. Three-dimensional lanthanide anionic metal-organic frameworks with tunable luminescent properties induced by cation exchange. (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Guan; Jiang, Long; Feng, Xiao-Long; Lu, Tong-Bu


    Three 3D lanthanide anionic metal-organic frameworks {K(5)[Ln(5)(IDC)(4)(ox)(4)]}(n) x (20H(2)O)(n) with 1D channels were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions [Ln = Gd (1), Tb (2), and Dy (3)]. The K(+) ions within the 1D channel are easily exchanged with various cations. The emission intensities of Tb(III) in 2 increased significantly upon the addition of Ca(2+) ions, while the introduction of other metal ions caused the intensities to be either unchanged or weakened.