WorldWideScience

Sample records for resolves extensive sources

  1. Dosimetry of β extensive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of β extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  2. Extension Theory and Krein-type Resolvent Formulas for Nonsmooth Boundary Value Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abels, Helmut; Grubb, Gerd; Wood, Ian Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    The theory of selfadjoint extensions of symmetric operators, and more generally the theory of extensions of dual pairs, was implemented some years ago for boundary value problems for elliptic operators on smooth bounded domains. Recently, the questions have been taken up again for nonsmooth domains....... In the present work we show that pseudodifferential methods can be used to obtain a full characterization, including Kreĭn resolvent formulas, of the realizations of nonselfadjoint second-order operators on View the MathML <span class=source" title...

  3. Spatially Resolved Isotopic Source Signatures of Wetland Methane Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, A. L.; Stell, A. C.; Gedney, N.; Comyn-Platt, E.; Hayman, G.; Rigby, M.; Poulter, B.; Hornibrook, E. R. C.

    2018-04-01

    We present the first spatially resolved wetland δ13C(CH4) source signature map based on data characterizing wetland ecosystems and demonstrate good agreement with wetland signatures derived from atmospheric observations. The source signature map resolves a latitudinal difference of 10‰ between northern high-latitude (mean -67.8‰) and tropical (mean -56.7‰) wetlands and shows significant regional variations on top of the latitudinal gradient. We assess the errors in inverse modeling studies aiming to separate CH4 sources and sinks by comparing atmospheric δ13C(CH4) derived using our spatially resolved map against the common assumption of globally uniform wetland δ13C(CH4) signature. We find a larger interhemispheric gradient, a larger high-latitude seasonal cycle, and smaller trend over the period 2000-2012. The implication is that erroneous CH4 fluxes would be derived to compensate for the biases imposed by not utilizing spatially resolved signatures for the largest source of CH4 emissions. These biases are significant when compared to the size of observed signals.

  4. Time-resolved X-ray studies using third generation synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1991-10-01

    The third generation, high-brilliance, hard x-ray, synchrotron radiation (SR) sources currently under construction (ESRF at Grenoble, France; APS at Argonne, Illinois; and SPring-8 at Harima, Japan) will usher in a new era of x-ray experimentation for both physical and biological sciences. One of the most exciting areas of experimentation will be the extension of x-ray scattering and diffraction techniques to the study of transient or time-evolving systems. The high repetition rate, short-pulse duration, high brilliance, and variable spectral bandwidth of these sources make them ideal for x-ray time-resolved studies. The temporal properties (bunch length, interpulse period, etc.) of these new sources will be summarized. Finally, the scientific potential and the technological challenges of time-resolved x-ray scattering from these new sources will be described. 13 refs., 4 figs

  5. An Open Source Extensible Smart Energy Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, Linda [V-Squared, Portland, OR (United States)

    2017-03-23

    Aggregated distributed energy resources are the subject of much interest in the energy industry and are expected to play an important role in meeting our future energy needs by changing how we use, distribute and generate electricity. This energy future includes an increased amount of energy from renewable resources, load management techniques to improve resiliency and reliability, and distributed energy storage and generation capabilities that can be managed to meet the needs of the grid as well as individual customers. These energy assets are commonly referred to as Distributed Energy Resources (DER). DERs rely on a means to communicate information between an energy provider and multitudes of devices. Today DER control systems are typically vendor-specific, using custom hardware and software solutions. As a result, customers are locked into communication transport protocols, applications, tools, and data formats. Today’s systems are often difficult to extend to meet new application requirements, resulting in stranded assets when business requirements or energy management models evolve. By partnering with industry advisors and researchers, an implementation DER research platform was developed called the Smart Energy Framework (SEF). The hypothesis of this research was that an open source Internet of Things (IoT) framework could play a role in creating a commodity-based eco-system for DER assets that would reduce costs and provide interoperable products. SEF is based on the AllJoynTM IoT open source framework. The demonstration system incorporated DER assets, specifically batteries and smart water heaters. To verify the behavior of the distributed system, models of water heaters and batteries were also developed. An IoT interface for communicating between the assets and a control server was defined. This interface supports a series of “events” and telemetry reporting, similar to those defined by current smart grid communication standards. The results of this

  6. sources and use of extension information among maize farmers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ADESOPE

    SOURCES AND USE OF EXTENSION INFORMATION AMONG MAIZE ... play one role or the other toward ensuring that research-based technologies ..... alternative means of controlling weeds (e.g. hoeing), high cost of herbicides and the risk.

  7. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  8. Time-resolved hard x-ray studies using third-generation synchrotron radiation sources (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The third-generation, high-brilliance, synchrotron radiation sources currently under construction will usher in a new era of x-ray research in the physical, chemical, and biological sciences. One of the most exciting areas of experimentation will be the extension of static x-ray scattering and diffraction techniques to the study of transient or time-evolving systems. The high repetition rate, short-pulse duration, high-brilliance, variable spectral bandwidth, and large particle beam energies of these sources make them ideal for hard x-ray, time-resolved studies. The primary focus of this presentation will be on the novel instrumentation required for time-resolved studies such as optics which can increase the flux on the sample or disperse the x-ray beam, detectors and electronics for parallel data collection, and methods for altering the natural time structure of the radiation. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, BES-Materials Science, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38

  9. Sources And Use Of Extension Information Among Maize Farmers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... plant spacing, fertilizer application, post-harvest processing, and storage. Recommendations on herbicides and pesticides were however, not utilized to a great extent by the respondents. Key words: Extension information, improved maize, utilization, sources of information. Journal Of Agriculture And Social Research Vol.

  10. An Extensible Open-Source Compiler Infrastructure for Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, D; Ur, S; Vuduc, R

    2005-12-09

    Testing forms a critical part of the development process for large-scale software, and there is growing need for automated tools that can read, represent, analyze, and transform the application's source code to help carry out testing tasks. However, the support required to compile applications written in common general purpose languages is generally inaccessible to the testing research community. In this paper, we report on an extensible, open-source compiler infrastructure called ROSE, which is currently in development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. ROSE specifically targets developers who wish to build source-based tools that implement customized analyses and optimizations for large-scale C, C++, and Fortran90 scientific computing applications (on the order of a million lines of code or more). However, much of this infrastructure can also be used to address problems in testing, and ROSE is by design broadly accessible to those without a formal compiler background. This paper details the interactions between testing of applications and the ways in which compiler technology can aid in the understanding of those applications. We emphasize the particular aspects of ROSE, such as support for the general analysis of whole programs, that are particularly well-suited to the testing research community and the scale of the problems that community solves.

  11. GALE: a generic open source extensible adaptation engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bra, Paul; Knutov, Evgeny; Smits, David; Stash, Natalia; Ramos, Vinicius F. C.

    2013-06-01

    This paper motivates and describes GALE, the Generic Adaptation Language and Engine that came out of the GRAPPLE EU FP7 project. The main focus of the paper is the extensible nature of GALE. The purpose of this description is to illustrate how a single core adaptation engine can be used for different types of adaptation, applied to different types of information items and documents. We illustrate the adaptive functionality on some examples of hypermedia documents. In April 2012, David Smits defended the world's first adaptive PhD thesis on this topic. The thesis, available for download and direct adaptive access at http://gale.win.tue.nl/thesis, shows that a single source of information can serve different audiences and at the same time also allows more freedom of navigation than is possible in any paper or static hypermedia document. The same can be done for course texts, hyperfiction, encyclopedia, museum, or other cultural heritage websites, etc. We explain how to add functionality to GALE if desired, to adapt the system's behavior to whatever the application requires. This stresses our main objective: to provide a technological base for adaptive (hypermedia) system researchers on which they can build extensions for the specific research they have in mind.

  12. Advances in high-order harmonic generation sources for time-resolved investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reduzzi, Maurizio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, CNR-IFN, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Carpeggiani, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Kühn, Sergei [ELI-ALPS, ELI-Hu Kft., Dugonics ter 13, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Calegari, Francesca [Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, CNR-IFN, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Nisoli, Mauro; Stagira, Salvatore [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, CNR-IFN, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Vozzi, Caterina [Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, CNR-IFN, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Dombi, Peter [ELI-ALPS, ELI-Hu Kft., Dugonics ter 13, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Wigner Research Center for Physics, 1121 Budapest (Hungary); Kahaly, Subhendu [ELI-ALPS, ELI-Hu Kft., Dugonics ter 13, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Tzallas, Paris; Charalambidis, Dimitris [ELI-ALPS, ELI-Hu Kft., Dugonics ter 13, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas, Institute of Electronic Structure and Lasers, P.O. Box 1527, GR-711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Varju, Katalin [ELI-ALPS, ELI-Hu Kft., Dugonics ter 13, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, Dóm tér 9, 6720 Szeged (Hungary); Osvay, Karoly [ELI-ALPS, ELI-Hu Kft., Dugonics ter 13, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); and others

    2015-10-15

    We review the main research directions ongoing in the development of extreme ultraviolet sources based on high-harmonic generation for the synthesization and application of trains and isolated attosecond pulses to time-resolved spectroscopy. A few experimental and theoretical works will be discussed in connection to well-established attosecond techniques. In this context, we present the unique possibilities offered for time-resolved investigations on the attosecond timescale by the new Extreme Light Infrastructure Attosecond Light Pulse Source, which is currently under construction.

  13. Advances in high-order harmonic generation sources for time-resolved investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduzzi, Maurizio; Carpeggiani, Paolo; Kühn, Sergei; Calegari, Francesca; Nisoli, Mauro; Stagira, Salvatore; Vozzi, Caterina; Dombi, Peter; Kahaly, Subhendu; Tzallas, Paris; Charalambidis, Dimitris; Varju, Katalin; Osvay, Karoly

    2015-01-01

    We review the main research directions ongoing in the development of extreme ultraviolet sources based on high-harmonic generation for the synthesization and application of trains and isolated attosecond pulses to time-resolved spectroscopy. A few experimental and theoretical works will be discussed in connection to well-established attosecond techniques. In this context, we present the unique possibilities offered for time-resolved investigations on the attosecond timescale by the new Extreme Light Infrastructure Attosecond Light Pulse Source, which is currently under construction.

  14. Time-resolved materials science opportunities using synchrotron x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.C.; Tischler, J.Z.

    1995-06-01

    The high brightness, high intensity, and pulsed time-structure of synchrotron sources provide new opportunities for time-resolved x-ray diffraction investigations. With third generation synchrotron sources coming on line, high brilliance and high brightness are now available in x-ray beams with the highest flux. In addition to the high average flux, the instantaneous flux available in synchrotron beams is greatly enhanced by the pulsed time structure, which consists of short bursts of x-rays that are separated by ∼tens to hundreds of nanoseconds. Time-resolved one- and two-dimensional position sensitive detection techniques that take advantage of synchrotron radiation for materials science x-ray diffraction investigations are presented, and time resolved materials science applications are discussed in terms of recent diffraction and spectroscopy results and materials research opportunities

  15. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; White, Thomas G.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Rack, Alexander; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Scintillator performance in time-resolved, hard, indirect detection X-ray studies on the sub-microsecond timescale at synchrotron light sources is reviewed, modelled and examined experimentally. LYSO:Ce is found to be the only commercially available crystal suitable for these experiments. The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits)

  16. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; White, Thomas G. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Drakopoulos, Michael [Diamond Light Source, I12 Joint Engineering, Environmental, Processing (JEEP) Beamline, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Rack, Alexander [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Eakins, Daniel E., E-mail: d.eakins@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-24

    Scintillator performance in time-resolved, hard, indirect detection X-ray studies on the sub-microsecond timescale at synchrotron light sources is reviewed, modelled and examined experimentally. LYSO:Ce is found to be the only commercially available crystal suitable for these experiments. The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits)

  17. Time-resolved far-infrared experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, D.B.; Reitze, D.H.; Carr, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    A facility for time-resolved infrared and far-infrared spectroscopy has been built and commissioned at the National Synchrotron Light Source. This facility permits the study of time dependent phenomena over a frequency range from 2-8000cm -1 (0.25 meV-1 eV). Temporal resolution is approximately 200 psec and time dependent phenomena in the time range out to 100 nsec can be investigated

  18. Angular and mass resolved energy distribution measurements with a gallium liquid metal ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriott, Philip

    1987-06-01

    Ionisation and energy broadening mechanisms relevant to liquid metal ion sources are discussed. A review of experimental results giving a picture of source operation and a discussion of the emission mechanisms thought to occur for the ionic species and droplets emitted is presented. Further work is suggested by this review and an analysis system for angular and mass resolved energy distribution measurements of liquid metal ion source beams has been constructed. The energy analyser has been calibrated and a series of measurements, both on and off the beam axis, of 69 Ga + , Ga ++ and Ga 2 + ions emitted at various currents from a gallium source has been performed. A comparison is made between these results and published work where possible, and the results are discussed with the aim of determining the emission and energy spread mechanisms operating in the gallium liquid metal ion source. (author)

  19. Open Source Communities in Technical Writing: Local Exigence, Global Extensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Trey; Gresham, Morgan; McCracken, Jill

    2011-01-01

    By offering open-source software (OSS)-based networks as an affordable technology alternative, we partnered with a nonprofit community organization. In this article, we narrate the client-based experiences of this partnership, highlighting the ways in which OSS and open-source culture (OSC) transformed our students' and our own expectations of…

  20. Spectrally resolved, broadband frequency response characterization of photodetectors using continuous-wave supercontinuum sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Vishal; Prakash, Roopa; Nagarjun, K. P.; Supradeepa, V. R.

    2018-02-01

    A simple and powerful method using continuous wave supercontinuum lasers is demonstrated to perform spectrally resolved, broadband frequency response characterization of photodetectors in the NIR Band. In contrast to existing techniques, this method allows for a simple system to achieve the goal, requiring just a standard continuous wave(CW) high-power fiber laser source and an RF spectrum analyzer. From our recent work, we summarize methods to easily convert any high-power fiber laser into a CW supercontinuum. These sources in the time domain exhibit interesting properties all the way down to the femtosecond time scale. This enables measurement of broadband frequency response of photodetectors while the wide optical spectrum of the supercontinuum can be spectrally filtered to obtain this information in a spectrally resolved fashion. The method involves looking at the RF spectrum of the output of a photodetector under test when incident with the supercontinuum. By using prior knowledge of the RF spectrum of the source, the frequency response can be calculated. We utilize two techniques for calibration of the source spectrum, one using a prior measurement and the other relying on a fitted model. Here, we characterize multiple photodetectors from 150MHz bandwidth to >20GHz bandwidth at multiple bands in the NIR region. We utilize a supercontinuum source spanning over 700nm bandwidth from 1300nm to 2000nm. For spectrally resolved measurement, we utilize multiple wavelength bands such as around 1400nm and 1600nm. Interesting behavior was observed in the frequency response of the photodetectors when comparing broadband spectral excitation versus narrower band excitation.

  1. A tunable low-energy photon source for high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harter, John W.; Monkman, Eric J.; Shai, Daniel E.; Nie Yuefeng; Uchida, Masaki; Burganov, Bulat; Chatterjee, Shouvik; King, Philip D. C.; Shen, Kyle M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a tunable low-energy photon source consisting of a laser-driven xenon plasma lamp coupled to a Czerny-Turner monochromator. The combined tunability, brightness, and narrow spectral bandwidth make this light source useful in laboratory-based high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy experiments. The source supplies photons with energies up to ∼7 eV, delivering under typical conditions >10 12 ph/s within a 10 meV spectral bandwidth, which is comparable to helium plasma lamps and many synchrotron beamlines. We first describe the lamp and monochromator system and then characterize its output, with attention to those parameters which are of interest for photoemission experiments. Finally, we present angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data using the light source and compare its performance to a conventional helium plasma lamp.

  2. sources and use of extension information among maize farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ADESOPE

    In addition, information generated from the abattoirs are important in the formulation of effective ... However, meat from sheep, goats and pigs are equally important sources of protein. (Momoh et al. .... man and animal. Scientific publication No.

  3. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Michael E; Chapman, David J; White, Thomas G; Drakopoulos, Michael; Rack, Alexander; Eakins, Daniel E

    2016-05-01

    The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits).

  4. Time-resolved X-ray scattering program at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodricks, B.

    1994-01-01

    The Time-Resolved Scattering Program's goal is the development of instruments and techniques for time-resolved studies. This entails the development of wide bandpass and focusing optics, high-speed detectors, mechanical choppers, and components for the measurement and creation of changes in samples. Techniques being developed are pump-probe experiments, single-bunch scattering experiments, high-speed white and pink beam Laue scattering, and nanosecond to microsecond synchronization of instruments. This program will be carried out primarily from a white-beam, bend-magnet source, experimental station, 1-BM-B, that immediately follows the first optics enclosure (1-BM-A). This paper will describe the experimental station and instruments under development to carry out the program

  5. Information Needs and Source Information of Agricultural Extension Workers in DIY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Wulandari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the important factors that contribute to agricultural development is information. As such agricultural extension workers that link agricultural agencies to the farmers must have adequate and up-to-date information about agricultural practices before they could inform, educate and train the farmers in method and techniques of farming. This study aims to determine the types of information needed by agricultural extension workers; to determine the sources of information used by the agricultural extension workers; and to determine the comparison between types of information with information sources used by agricultural extension workers. The present study was a descriptive study using a survey design and conducted at Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY Province. The populations of the study consists 181 agricultural extension workers divisible in the district level, namely Sleman, Kulon Progo, Gunung Kidul dan Bantul. Sampling procedure in this study used cluster sampling. The method for gathering data from the respondents is based on a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was to describe the characteristics of the respondents and the dependent variables of the study. As a result, most of agricultural extension workers strongly needed the innovation information in seeking information followed by extension service information and extension role information. The result of information sources used by agricultural extension worker for extension service information, innovation information and extension role information indicates that agricultural extension workers used interpersonal source. Most of them never sought information use Internet, they use radio more frequently than television and video, agricultural extension worker also used mass media as information source.

  6. Parallel Resolved Open Source CFD-DEM: Method, Validation and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hager

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper the authors present a fully parallelized Open Source method for calculating the interaction of immersed bodies and surrounding fluid. A combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD and a discrete element method (DEM accounts for the physics of both the fluid and the particles. The objects considered are relatively big compared to the cells of the fluid mesh, i.e. they cover several cells each. Thus this fictitious domain method (FDM is called resolved. The implementation is realized within the Open Source framework CFDEMcOupling (www.cfdem.com, which provides an interface between OpenFOAM® based CFD-solvers and the DEM software LIGGGHTS (www.liggghts.com. While both LIGGGHTS and OpenFOAM® were already parallelized, only a recent improvement of the algorithm permits the fully parallel computation of resolved problems. Alongside with a detailed description of the method, its implementation and recent improvements, a number of application and validation examples is presented in the scope of this paper.

  7. Null stream analysis of Pulsar Timing Array data: localisation of resolvable gravitational wave sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Janna; Veitch, John; Sesana, Alberto; Vecchio, Alberto

    2018-04-01

    Super-massive black hole binaries are expected to produce a gravitational wave (GW) signal in the nano-Hertz frequency band which may be detected by pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) in the coming years. The signal is composed of both stochastic and individually resolvable components. Here we develop a generic Bayesian method for the analysis of resolvable sources based on the construction of `null-streams' which cancel the part of the signal held in common for each pulsar (the Earth-term). For an array of N pulsars there are N - 2 independent null-streams that cancel the GW signal from a particular sky location. This method is applied to the localisation of quasi-circular binaries undergoing adiabatic inspiral. We carry out a systematic investigation of the scaling of the localisation accuracy with signal strength and number of pulsars in the PTA. Additionally, we find that source sky localisation with the International PTA data release one is vastly superior than what is achieved by its constituent regional PTAs.

  8. Chandra Resolves Cosmic X-ray Glow and Finds Mysterious New Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    While taking a giant leap towards solving one of the greatest mysteries of X-ray astronomy, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory also may have revealed the most distant objects ever seen in the universe and discovered two puzzling new types of cosmic objects. Not bad for being on the job only five months. Chandra has resolved most of the X-ray background, a pervasive glow of X-rays throughout the universe, first discovered in the early days of space exploration. Before now, scientists have not been able to discern the background's origin, because no X-ray telescope until Chandra has had both the angular resolution and sensitivity to resolve it. "This is a major discovery," said Dr. Alan Bunner, Director of NASA's Structure andEvolution of the universe science theme. "Since it was first observed thirty-seven years ago, understanding the source of the X-ray background has been aHoly Grail of X-ray astronomy. Now, it is within reach." The results of the observation will be discussed today at the 195th national meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Atlanta, Georgia. An article describing this work has been submitted to the journal Nature by Dr. Richard Mushotzky, of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., Drs. Lennox Cowie and Amy Barger at the University of Hawaii, Honolulu, and Dr. Keith Arnaud of the University of Maryland, College Park. "We are all very excited by this finding," said Mushotzky. "The resolution of most of the hard X-ray background during the first few months of the Chandra mission is a tribute to the power of this observatory and bodes extremely well for its scientific future," Scientists have known about the X-ray glow, called the X-ray background, since the dawn of X-ray astronomy in the early 1960s. They have been unable to discern its origin, however, for no X-ray telescope until Chandra has had both the angular resolution and sensitivity to resolve it. The German-led ROSAT mission, now completed, resolved much of the lower

  9. A time resolved microfocus XEOL facility at the Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosselmans, J F W; Taylor, R P; Quinn, P D; Cibin, G; Gianolio, D; Finch, A A; Sapelkin, A V

    2013-01-01

    We have constructed a Time-Resolved X-ray Excited Optical Luminescence (TR-XEOL) detection system at the Microfocus Spectroscopy beamline I18 at the Diamond Light Source. Using the synchrotron in h ybrid bunch mode , the data collection is triggered by the RF clock, and we are able to record XEOL photons with a time resolution of 6.1 ps during the 230 ns gap between the hybrid bunch and the main train of electron bunches. We can detect photons over the range 180-850 nm using a bespoke optical fibre, with X-ray excitation energies between 2 and 20 keV. We have used the system to study a range of feldspars. The detector is portable and has also been used on beamline B18 to collect Optically Determined X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (OD-XAS) in QEXAFS mode.

  10. A time resolved microfocus XEOL facility at the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Taylor, R. P.; Quinn, P. D.; Finch, A. A.; Cibin, G.; Gianolio, D.; Sapelkin, A. V.

    2013-03-01

    We have constructed a Time-Resolved X-ray Excited Optical Luminescence (TR-XEOL) detection system at the Microfocus Spectroscopy beamline I18 at the Diamond Light Source. Using the synchrotron in "hybrid bunch mode", the data collection is triggered by the RF clock, and we are able to record XEOL photons with a time resolution of 6.1 ps during the 230 ns gap between the hybrid bunch and the main train of electron bunches. We can detect photons over the range 180-850 nm using a bespoke optical fibre, with X-ray excitation energies between 2 and 20 keV. We have used the system to study a range of feldspars. The detector is portable and has also been used on beamline B18 to collect Optically Determined X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (OD-XAS) in QEXAFS mode.

  11. Collimated dual species oven source and its characterisation via spatially resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, N.; Da Ros, E.; Nute, J.; Baldolini, D.; Jouve, P.; Hackermüller, L.; Langer, M.

    2018-03-01

    We describe the design, construction and characterisation of a collimated, dual-species oven source for generating intense beams of lithium and caesium in UHV environments. Our design produces full beam overlap for the two species. Using an aligned microtube array the FWHM of the output beam is restricted to  ˜75 milliradians, with an estimated axial brightness of 3.6× 1014 atoms s-1 sr-1 for Li and 7.4× 1015 atoms s-1 sr-1 for Cs. We measure the properties of the output beam using a spatially-resolved fluorescence technique, which allows for the extraction of additional information not accessible without spatial resolution.

  12. Tunable All Reflective Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy, A Technique For High Resolving Power Observation OI Defused Emission Line Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyedeh Sona

    The solar system presents a challenge to spectroscopic observers, because it is an astrophysically low energy environment populated with often angularly extended targets (e.g, interplanetary medium, comets, planetary upper atmospheres, and planet and satellite near space environments). Spectroscopy is a proven tool for determining compositional and other properties of remote objects. Narrow band imaging and low resolving spectroscopic measurements provide information about composition, photochemical evolution, energy distribution and density. The extension to high resolving power provides further access to temperature, velocity, isotopic ratios, separation of blended sources, and opacity effects. The drawback of high-resolution spectroscopy comes from the instrumental limitations of lower throughput, the necessity of small entrance apertures, sensitivity, field of view, and large physical instrumental size. These limitations quickly become definitive for faint and/or extended targets and for spacecraft encounters. An emerging technique with promise for the study of faint, extended sources at high resolving power is the all-reflective form of the Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS). SHS instruments are compact and naturally possess both high etendue and high resolving power. To achieve similar spectral grasp, grating spectrometers require big telescopes. SHS is a common-path beam Fourier transform interferometer that produces Fizeau fringe pattern for all other wavelengths except the tuned wavelength. Compared to similar Fourier transform Spectrometers (FTS), SHS has considerably relaxed optical tolerances that make it easier to use in the visible and UV spectral ranges. The large etendue of SHS instruments makes them ideal for observations of extended, low surface brightness, isolated emission line sources, while their intrinsically high spectral resolution enables the study of the dynamical and spectral characteristics described above. SHS also combines very

  13. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Miaja-Avila

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  14. Assessment of In Situ Time Resolved Shock Experiments at Synchrotron Light Sources*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belak, J.; Ilavsky, J.; Hessler, J. P.

    2005-07-01

    Prior to fielding in situ time resolved experiments of shock wave loading at the Advanced Photon Source, we have performed feasibility experiments assessing a single photon bunch. Using single and poly-crystal Al, Ti, V and Cu shock to incipient spallation on the gas gun, samples were prepared from slices normal to the spall plane of thickness 100-500 microns. In addition, single crystal Al of thickness 500 microns was shocked to incipient spallation and soft recovered using the LLNL e-gun mini-flyer system. The e-gun mini-flyer impacts the sample target producing a 10's ns flat-top shock transient. Here, we present results for imaging, small-angle scattering (SAS), and diffraction. In particular, there is little SAS away from the spall plane and significant SAS at the spall plane, demonstrating the presence of sub-micron voids. * Use of the Advanced Photon Source was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. W-31-109-Eng-38 and work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  15. Sources and mixing state of size-resolved elemental carbon particles in a European megacity: Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Kamili, K.; Merkel, M.; Müller, T.; Wiedensohler, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Stohl, A.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Wenger, J. C.

    2012-02-01

    An Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed to investigate the size-resolved chemical composition of single particles at an urban background site in Paris, France, as part of the MEGAPOLI winter campaign in January/February 2010. ATOFMS particle counts were scaled to match coincident Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS) data in order to generate hourly size-resolved mass concentrations for the single particle classes observed. The total scaled ATOFMS particle mass concentration in the size range 150-1067 nm was found to agree very well with the sum of concurrent High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) mass concentration measurements of organic carbon (OC), inorganic ions and black carbon (BC) (R2 = 0.91). Clustering analysis of the ATOFMS single particle mass spectra allowed the separation of elemental carbon (EC) particles into four classes: (i) EC attributed to biomass burning (ECbiomass), (ii) EC attributed to traffic (ECtraffic), (iii) EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium sulfate (ECOCSOx), and (iv) EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium nitrate (ECOCNOx). Average hourly mass concentrations for EC-containing particles detected by the ATOFMS were found to agree reasonably well with semi-continuous quantitative thermal/optical EC and optical BC measurements (r2 = 0.61 and 0.65-0.68 respectively, n = 552). The EC particle mass assigned to fossil fuel and biomass burning sources also agreed reasonably well with BC mass fractions assigned to the same sources using seven-wavelength aethalometer data (r2 = 0.60 and 0.48, respectively, n = 568). Agreement between the ATOFMS and other instrumentation improved noticeably when a period influenced by significantly aged, internally mixed EC particles was removed from the intercomparison. 88% and 12% of EC particle mass was apportioned to fossil fuel and biomass burning respectively using the ATOFMS data

  16. Sources and mixing state of size-resolved elemental carbon particles in a European megacity: Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Healy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS was deployed to investigate the size-resolved chemical composition of single particles at an urban background site in Paris, France, as part of the MEGAPOLI winter campaign in January/February 2010. ATOFMS particle counts were scaled to match coincident Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS data in order to generate hourly size-resolved mass concentrations for the single particle classes observed. The total scaled ATOFMS particle mass concentration in the size range 150–1067 nm was found to agree very well with the sum of concurrent High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP mass concentration measurements of organic carbon (OC, inorganic ions and black carbon (BC (R2 = 0.91. Clustering analysis of the ATOFMS single particle mass spectra allowed the separation of elemental carbon (EC particles into four classes: (i EC attributed to biomass burning (ECbiomass, (ii EC attributed to traffic (ECtraffic, (iii EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium sulfate (ECOCSOx, and (iv EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium nitrate (ECOCNOx. Average hourly mass concentrations for EC-containing particles detected by the ATOFMS were found to agree reasonably well with semi-continuous quantitative thermal/optical EC and optical BC measurements (r2 = 0.61 and 0.65–0.68 respectively, n = 552. The EC particle mass assigned to fossil fuel and biomass burning sources also agreed reasonably well with BC mass fractions assigned to the same sources using seven-wavelength aethalometer data (r2 = 0.60 and 0.48, respectively, n = 568. Agreement between the ATOFMS and other instrumentation improved noticeably when a period influenced by significantly aged, internally mixed EC particles was removed from the intercomparison. 88% and 12% of EC particle

  17. Initial time-resolved particle beam profile measurements at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, B.X.; Lumpkin, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    The commissioning of the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring began in early 1995. Characterization of the stored particle beam properties involved time-resolved transverse and longitudinal profile measurements using optical synchrotron radiation (OSR) monitors. Early results include the observation of the beam on a single turn, measurements of the transverse beam sizes after damping using a 100 μs integration time (σ x ∼ 150 ± 25 μm, σ γ ∼ 65 ± 25 μm, depending on vertical coupling), and measurement of the bunch length (σ τ ∼ 25 to 55 ps, depending on the charge per bunch). The results are consistent with specifications and predictions based on the 8.2 nm-rad natural emittance, the calculated lattice parameters, and vertical coupling less than 10%. The novel, single-element focusing mirror for the photon transport line and the dual-sweep streak camera techniques which allow turn-by-turn measurements will also be presented. The latter measurements are believed to be the first of their kind on a storage ring in the USA

  18. Tunable Reflective Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer: A Technique for High Resolving Power, Wide Field Of View Observation Of Diffuse Emission Line Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyedeh Sona

    The purpose of this dissertation is to discuss the need for new technology in broadband high-resolution spectroscopy based on the emerging technique of Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy (SHS) and to propose new solutions that should enhance and generalize this technology to other fields. Spectroscopy is a proven tool for determining compositional and other properties of remote objects. Narrow band imaging and low resolving spectroscopic measurements provide information about composition, photochemical evolution, energy distribution and density. The extension to high resolving power provides further access to temperature, velocity, isotopic ratios, separation of blended sources, and opacity effects. In current high resolving power devices, the drawback of high-resolution spectroscopy is bound to the instrumental limitations of lower throughput, the necessity of small entrance apertures, sensitivity, field of view, and large physical instrumental size. These limitations quickly become handicapping for observation of faint and/or extended targets and for spacecraft encounters. A technique with promise for the study of faint and extended sources at high resolving power is the reflective format of the Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS). SHS instruments are compact and naturally tailored for both high etendue (defined in section 2.2.5) and high resolving power. In contrast, to achieve similar spectral grasp, grating spectrometers require large telescopes. For reference, SHS is a cyclical interferometer that produces Fizeau fringe pattern for all other wavelengths except the tuned wavelength. The large etendue obtained by SHS instruments makes them ideal for observations of extended, low surface brightness, isolated emission line sources, while their intrinsically high spectral resolution enables one to study the dynamical and physical properties described above. This document contains four chapters. Chapter 1, introduces a class of scientific targets that formerly have

  19. Size-resolved source apportionment of ambient particles by positive matrix factorization at Gosan background site in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Han

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Size- and time-resolved aerosol samples were collected using an eight-stage Davis rotating unit for monitoring (DRUM sampler from 29 March to 29 May in 2002 at Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea, which is one of the representative background sites in East Asia. These samples were analyzed using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence for 3-h average concentrations of 19 elements consisting of S, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Cl, Cu, Zn, Ti, K, Mn, Pb, Ni, V, Se, As, Rb, Cr, Br. The size-resolved data sets were then analyzed using the positive matrix factorization (PMF technique in order to identify possible sources and estimate their contribution to particulate matter mass. PMF analysis uses the uncertainty of the measured data to provide an optimal weighting. Fifteen sources were resolved in eight size ranges (0.07~12 μm and included continental soil, local soil, sea salt, biomass/biofuel burning, coal combustion, oil heating furnace, residual oil fired boiler, municipal incineration, nonferrous metal source, ferrous metal source, gasoline vehicle, diesel vehicle, copper smelter and volcanic emission. PMF analysis of size-resolved source contributions showed that natural sources represented by local soil, sea salt and continental soil contributed about 79% to the predicted primary particulate matter (PM mass in the coarse size range (1.15~12 μm. On the other hand, anthropogenic sources such as coal combustion and biomass/biofuel burning contributed about 60% in the fine size range (0.56~2.5 μm. The diesel vehicle source contributed the most in the ultra-fine size range (0.07~0.56 μm and was responsible for about 52% of the primary PM mass.

  20. Chemically-resolved volatility measurements of organic aerosol fom different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, J A; Docherty, K S; Mohr, C; Cubison, M J; Ulbrich, I M; Ziemann, P J; Onasch, T B; Jimenez, J L

    2009-07-15

    A newly modified fast temperature-stepping thermodenuder (TD) was coupled to a High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer for rapid determination of chemically resolved volatility of organic aerosols (OA) emitted from individual sources. The TD-AMS system was used to characterize primary OA (POA) from biomass burning, trash burning surrogates (paper and plastic), and meat cooking as well as chamber-generated secondary OA (SOA) from alpha-pinene and gasoline vapor. Almost all atmospheric models represent POA as nonvolatile, with no allowance for evaporation upon heating or dilution, or condensation upon cooling. Our results indicate that all OAs observed show semivolatile behavior and that most POAs characterized here were at least as volatile as SOA measured in urban environments. Biomass-burning OA (BBOA) exhibited a wide range of volatilities, but more often showed volatility similar to urban OA. Paper-burning resembles some types of BBOA because of its relatively high volatility and intermediate atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratio, while meat-cooking OAs (MCOA) have consistently lower volatility than ambient OA. Chamber-generated SOA under the relatively high concentrations used intraditional experiments was significantly more volatile than urban SOA, challenging extrapolation of traditional laboratory volatility measurements to the atmosphere. Most OAs sampled show increasing O/C ratio and decreasing H/C (hydrogen-to-carbon) ratio with temperature, further indicating that more oxygenated OA components are typically less volatile. Future experiments should systematically explore a wider range of mass concentrations to more fully characterize the volatility distributions of these OAs.

  1. Light Stable Isotopic Compositions of Enriched Mantle Sources: Resolving the Dehydration Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, J. E.; Bindeman, I. N.; Kingsley, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    An outstanding puzzle in mantle geochemistry has been the origin and evolution of Earth's volatile components. The "dehydration paradox" refers to the following conundrum. Mantle compositions for some enriched mid-ocean ridge (MORB) and ocean island (OIB) basalts basalts require involvement of a mostly dehydrated slab component to explain the trace element ratios and radiogenic isotopic compositions, but a fully hydrated slab component to explain the stable isotopic compositions. Volatile and stable isotopic data on enriched MORB show a diversity of enriched components. Pacific PREMA-type basalts (H2O/Ce = 215 ± 30, δDSMOW = -45 ± 5 ‰) are similar to those in the north Atlantic (H2O/Ce = 220 ± 30; δDSMOW = -30 to -40 ‰). Basalts with EM-type signatures have regionally variable volatile compositions. North Atlantic EM-type basalts are wetter (H2O/Ce = 330 ± 30) and have isotopically heavier hydrogen (δDSMOW = -57 ± 5 ‰) than north Atlantic MORB. South Atlantic EM-type basalts are damp (H2O/Ce = 120 ± 10) with intermediate δDSMOW (-68 ± 2 ‰), similar to dDSMOW for Pacific MORB. North EPR EM-type basalts are dry (H2O/Ce = 110 ± 20) and isotopically light (δDSMOW = -94 ± 3 ‰). Boron and lithium isotopic ratios parallel the trends observed for dDSMOW. A multi-stage metasomatic and melting model accounts for the origin of the enriched components by extending the subduction factory concept down through the mantle transition zone, with slab temperature a key variable. The dehydration paradox is resolved by decoupling of volatiles from lithophile elements, reflecting primary dehydration of the slab followed by secondary rehydration and re-equilibration by fluids derived from subcrustal hydrous phases (e.g., antigorite) in cooler, deeper parts of the slab. The "expanded subduction factory" model includes melting at several key depths, including 1) 180 to 280 km, where EM-type mantle compositions are generated above slabs with average to hot thermal

  2. Development and application of helicon plasma sources. Evolution of extensive plasma science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Shunjiro

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in plasma science are remarkable, and are deeply indebted to the development of sophisticated plasma sources. While numerous methods have been proposed for producing the plasma, helicon plasma sources, capable of generating high density (>10 13 cm -3 ) plasma with high ionization degree (>several ten percent) over a wide range of external control parameters, have been utilized in such broad areas as fundamental and processing plasmas, nuclear fusion, gas laser, modeling of space plasma, plasma acceleration/propulsion, among others. On the other hand, a number of important issues are left unsolved, in particular, those relevant to the wave phenomena and efficient plasma production. Solution to these issues are expected to play key roles in taking full advantage of the helicon plasma sources in the next generation. In this article, we overview our current understanding of the helicon plasma production and recent development of characteristic helicon plasma sources, and discuss possible future advancement of extensive plasma science utilizing them. (author)

  3. An extension of compromise ranking method with interval numbers for the evaluation of renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mousavi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating and prioritizing appropriate renewable energy sources is inevitably a complex decision process. Various information and conflicting attributes should be taken into account. For this purpose, multi-attribute decision making (MADM methods can assist managers or decision makers in formulating renewable energy sources priorities by considering important objective and attributes. In this paper, a new extension of compromise ranking method with interval numbers is presented for the prioritization of renewable energy sources that is based on the performance similarity of alternatives to ideal solutions. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed decision method, an application example is provided and the computational results are analyzed. Results illustrate that the presented method is viable in solving the evaluation and prioritization problem of renewable energy sources.

  4. Comparison between two methodologies for uniformity correction of extensive reference sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junior, Iremar Alves S.; Siqueira, Paulo de T.D.; Vivolo, Vitor; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Nascimento, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the procedures to obtain the uniformity correction factors for extensive reference sources proposed by two different methodologies. The first methodology is presented by the Good Practice Guide of Nº 14 of the NPL, which provides a numerical correction. The second one uses the radiation transport code, MCNP5, to obtain the correction factor. Both methods retrieve very similar corrections factor values, with a maximum deviation of 0.24%. (author)

  5. Femtosecond electron diffraction. Next generation electron sources for atomically resolved dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirscht, Julian

    2015-08-01

    Three instruments for femtosecond electron diffraction (FED) experiments were erected, partially commissioned and used for first diffraction experiments. The Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic Exploration (REGAE) was completed by beamline elements including supports, a specimen chamber and dark current or electron beam collimating elements such that the commissioning process, including first diffraction experiments in this context, could be started. The temporal resolution of this machine is simulated to be 25 fs (fwhm) short, while a transverse coherence length of 30 nm (fwhm) is feasible to resolve proteins on this scale. Whether this machine is capable of meeting these predictions or whether the dynamics of the electron beam will stay limited by accelerator components, is not finally determined by the end of this work, because commissioning and improvement of accelerator components is ongoing. Simultaneously, a compact DC electron diffraction apparatus, the E-Gun 300, designed for solid and liquid specimens and a target electron energy of 300 keV, was built. Fundamental design issues of the high potential carrying and beam generating components occurred and are limiting the maximum potential and electron energy to 120 keV. Furthermore, this is limiting the range of possible applications and consequently the design and construction of a brand new instrument began. The Femtosecond Electron Diffraction CAmera for Molecular Movies (FED-CAMM) bridges the performance problems of very high electric potentials and provides optimal operational conditions for all applied electron energies up to 300 keV. The variability of gap spacings and optimized manufacturing of the high voltage electrodes lead to the best possible electron pulse durations obtainable with a compact DC setup, that does not comprise of rf-structures. This third apparatus possesses pulse durations just a few tenth femtoseconds apart from the design limit of the highly relativistic REGAE and combines the

  6. Femtosecond electron diffraction. Next generation electron sources for atomically resolved dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirscht, Julian

    2015-08-15

    Three instruments for femtosecond electron diffraction (FED) experiments were erected, partially commissioned and used for first diffraction experiments. The Relativistic Electron Gun for Atomic Exploration (REGAE) was completed by beamline elements including supports, a specimen chamber and dark current or electron beam collimating elements such that the commissioning process, including first diffraction experiments in this context, could be started. The temporal resolution of this machine is simulated to be 25 fs (fwhm) short, while a transverse coherence length of 30 nm (fwhm) is feasible to resolve proteins on this scale. Whether this machine is capable of meeting these predictions or whether the dynamics of the electron beam will stay limited by accelerator components, is not finally determined by the end of this work, because commissioning and improvement of accelerator components is ongoing. Simultaneously, a compact DC electron diffraction apparatus, the E-Gun 300, designed for solid and liquid specimens and a target electron energy of 300 keV, was built. Fundamental design issues of the high potential carrying and beam generating components occurred and are limiting the maximum potential and electron energy to 120 keV. Furthermore, this is limiting the range of possible applications and consequently the design and construction of a brand new instrument began. The Femtosecond Electron Diffraction CAmera for Molecular Movies (FED-CAMM) bridges the performance problems of very high electric potentials and provides optimal operational conditions for all applied electron energies up to 300 keV. The variability of gap spacings and optimized manufacturing of the high voltage electrodes lead to the best possible electron pulse durations obtainable with a compact DC setup, that does not comprise of rf-structures. This third apparatus possesses pulse durations just a few tenth femtoseconds apart from the design limit of the highly relativistic REGAE and combines the

  7. Chemical characterization and source apportionment of size-resolved particles in Hong Kong sub-urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Lee, Shun-Cheng; Huang, Yu; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.

    2016-03-01

    Size-resolved particulate matter (PM) samples were collected with a 10-stage Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) at a sub-urban site (Tung Chung) in Hong Kong for four non-consecutive months representing four seasons from 2011 to 2012. Major chemical components were water-soluble anions (i.e., Cl-, NO3-, and SO42 -), cations (i.e., NH4+, Na+, K+, and Ca2 +), organic and elemental carbon and elements. Both chemical mass closure and positive matrix factorization (PMF) were employed to understand the chemical composition, resolve particle size modes, and evaluate the PM sources. Tri-modal size distributions were found for PM mass and major chemical components (e.g., SO42 -, NH4+, and OC). Mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMADs) with similar standard deviations (1.32 burning. Secondary SO42 - is also the most dominant component in the droplet mode, accounting for 23% of PM mass, followed by an industrial source (19%). Engine exhaust, secondary NO3-, and sea salt each accounted for 13-15% of PM mass. Sea salt and soil are the dominated sources in the coarse mode, accounting for 80% of coarse mass.

  8. Diagnostics of underwater electrical wire explosion through a time- and space-resolved hard x-ray source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftman, D; Shafer, D; Efimov, S; Gruzinsky, K; Gleizer, S; Krasik, Ya E

    2012-10-01

    A time- and space-resolved hard x-ray source was developed as a diagnostic tool for imaging underwater exploding wires. A ~4 ns width pulse of hard x-rays with energies of up to 100 keV was obtained from the discharge in a vacuum diode consisting of point-shaped tungsten electrodes. To improve contrast and image quality, an external pulsed magnetic field produced by Helmholtz coils was used. High resolution x-ray images of an underwater exploding wire were obtained using a sensitive x-ray CCD detector, and were compared to optical fast framing images. Future developments and application of this diagnostic technique are discussed.

  9. An evaluation of information sources and requirements for nuclear plant-aging research with life-extension implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, P.T.

    1986-01-01

    Information requirements for plant-aging and life-extension research are discussed. Various information sources that have been used in plant-aging studies and reliability assessments are described. Data-base searches and analyses were performed for a specific system using several data bases and plant sources. Comments are provided on the results using the various information sources

  10. Source apportionment of size and time resolved trace elements and organic aerosols from an urban courtyard site in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, A.; Gianini, M. F. D.; Mohr, C.; Furger, M.; Bukowiecki, N.; Minguillón, M. C.; Lienemann, P.; Flechsig, U.; Appel, K.; Decarlo, P. F.; Heringa, M. F.; Chirico, R.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2011-09-01

    Time and size resolved data of trace elements were obtained from measurements with a rotating drum impactor (RDI) and subsequent X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Trace elements can act as indicators for the identification of sources of particulate matter Switzerland. Eight different sources were identified for the three examined size ranges (PM1-0.1, PM2.5-1 and PM10-2.5): secondary sulfate, wood combustion, fire works, road traffic, mineral dust, de-icing salt, industrial and local anthropogenic activities. The major component was secondary sulfate for the smallest size range; the road traffic factor was found in all three size ranges. This trace element analysis is complemented with data from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), assessing the PM1 fraction of organic aerosols. A separate PMF analysis revealed three factors related to three of the sources found with the RDI: oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, related to inorganic secondary sulfate), hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA, related to road traffic) and biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA), explaining 60 %, 22 % and 17 % of total measured organics, respectively. Since different compounds are used for the source classification, a higher percentage of the ambient PM10 mass concentration can be apportioned to sources by the combination of both methods.

  11. Ambiguity resolving based on cosine property of phase differences for 3D source localization with uniform circular array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Wang, Shuhong; Liu, Zhen; Wei, Xizhang

    2017-07-01

    Localization of a source whose half-wavelength is smaller than the array aperture would suffer from serious phase ambiguity problem, which also appears in recently proposed phase-based algorithms. In this paper, by using the centro-symmetry of fixed uniform circular array (UCA) with even number of sensors, the source's angles and range can be decoupled and a novel ambiguity resolving approach is addressed for phase-based algorithms of source's 3-D localization (azimuth angle, elevation angle, and range). In the proposed method, by using the cosine property of unambiguous phase differences, ambiguity searching and actual-value matching are first employed to obtain actual phase differences and corresponding source's angles. Then, the unambiguous angles are utilized to estimate the source's range based on a one dimension multiple signal classification (1-D MUSIC) estimator. Finally, simulation experiments investigate the influence of step size in search and SNR on performance of ambiguity resolution and demonstrate the satisfactory estimation performance of the proposed method.

  12. IQM: an extensible and portable open source application for image and signal analysis in Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainz, Philipp; Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Ahammer, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Image and signal analysis applications are substantial in scientific research. Both open source and commercial packages provide a wide range of functions for image and signal analysis, which are sometimes supported very well by the communities in the corresponding fields. Commercial software packages have the major drawback of being expensive and having undisclosed source code, which hampers extending the functionality if there is no plugin interface or similar option available. However, both variants cannot cover all possible use cases and sometimes custom developments are unavoidable, requiring open source applications. In this paper we describe IQM, a completely free, portable and open source (GNU GPLv3) image and signal analysis application written in pure Java. IQM does not depend on any natively installed libraries and is therefore runnable out-of-the-box. Currently, a continuously growing repertoire of 50 image and 16 signal analysis algorithms is provided. The modular functional architecture based on the three-tier model is described along the most important functionality. Extensibility is achieved using operator plugins, and the development of more complex workflows is provided by a Groovy script interface to the JVM. We demonstrate IQM's image and signal processing capabilities in a proof-of-principle analysis and provide example implementations to illustrate the plugin framework and the scripting interface. IQM integrates with the popular ImageJ image processing software and is aiming at complementing functionality rather than competing with existing open source software. Machine learning can be integrated into more complex algorithms via the WEKA software package as well, enabling the development of transparent and robust methods for image and signal analysis.

  13. Self-Consistent Sources Extensions of Modified Differential-Difference KP Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenhasi; Li, Ya-Qian; Zhang, Duo-Duo

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate a modified differential-difference KP equation which is shown to have a continuum limit into the mKP equation. It is also shown that the solution of the modified differential-difference KP equation is related to the solution of the differential-difference KP equation through a Miura transformation. We first present the Grammian solution to the modified differential-difference KP equation, and then produce a coupled modified differential-difference KP system by applying the source generation procedure. The explicit N-soliton solution of the resulting coupled modified differential-difference system is expressed in compact forms by using the Grammian determinant and Casorati determinant. We also construct and solve another form of the self-consistent sources extension of the modified differential-difference KP equation, which constitutes a Bäcklund transformation for the differential-difference KP equation with self-consistent sources. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11601247 and 11605096, the Natural Science Foundation of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region under Grant Nos. 2016MS0115 and 2015MS0116 and the Innovation Fund Programme of Inner Mongolia University No. 20161115

  14. Flash X-Ray (FXR) Accelerator Optimization Electronic Time-Resolved Measurement of X-Ray Source Size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, J; Ong, M; Wargo, P

    2005-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating various approaches to minimize the x-ray source size on the Flash X-Ray (FXR) linear induction accelerator in order to improve x-ray flux and increase resolution for hydrodynamic radiography experiments. In order to effectively gauge improvements to final x-ray source size, a fast, robust, and accurate system for measuring the spot size is required. Timely feedback on x-ray source size allows new and improved accelerator tunes to be deployed and optimized within the limited run-time constraints of a production facility with a busy experimental schedule; in addition, time-resolved measurement capability allows the investigation of not only the time-averaged source size, but also the evolution of the source size, centroid position, and x-ray dose throughout the 70 ns beam pulse. Combined with time-resolved measurements of electron beam parameters such as emittance, energy, and current, key limiting factors can be identified, modeled, and optimized for the best possible spot size. Roll-bar techniques are a widely used method for x-ray source size measurement, and have been the method of choice at FXR for many years. A thick bar of tungsten or other dense metal with a sharp edge is inserted into the path of the x-ray beam so as to heavily attenuate the lower half of the beam, resulting in a half-light, half-dark image as seen downstream of the roll-bar; by measuring the width of the transition from light to dark across the edge of the roll-bar, the source size can be deduced. For many years, film has been the imaging medium of choice for roll-bar measurements thanks to its high resolution, linear response, and excellent contrast ratio. Film measurements, however, are fairly cumbersome and require considerable setup and analysis time; moreover, with the continuing trend towards all-electronic measurement systems, film is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive to procure. Here, we shall

  15. Source apportionment of size and time resolved trace elements and organic aerosols from an urban courtyard site in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Richard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Time and size resolved data of trace elements were obtained from measurements with a rotating drum impactor (RDI and subsequent X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Trace elements can act as indicators for the identification of sources of particulate matter <10 μm (PM10 in ambient air. Receptor modeling was performed with positive matrix factorization (PMF for trace element data from an urban background site in Zürich, Switzerland. Eight different sources were identified for the three examined size ranges (PM1−0.1, PM2.5−1 and PM10−2.5: secondary sulfate, wood combustion, fire works, road traffic, mineral dust, de-icing salt, industrial and local anthropogenic activities. The major component was secondary sulfate for the smallest size range; the road traffic factor was found in all three size ranges. This trace element analysis is complemented with data from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS, assessing the PM1 fraction of organic aerosols. A separate PMF analysis revealed three factors related to three of the sources found with the RDI: oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA, related to inorganic secondary sulfate, hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA, related to road traffic and biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA, explaining 60 %, 22 % and 17 % of total measured organics, respectively. Since different compounds are used for the source classification, a higher percentage of the ambient PM10 mass concentration can be apportioned to sources by the combination of both methods.

  16. Size-resolved source apportionment of particulate matter in urban Beijing during haze and non-haze episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Additional size-resolved chemical information is needed before the physicochemical characteristics and sources of airborne particles can be understood; however, this information remains unavailable in most regions of China due to lacking measurement data. In this study, we report observations of various chemical species in size-segregated particle samples that were collected over 1 year in the urban area of Beijing, a megacity that experiences severe haze episodes. In addition to fine particles, high concentrations of coarse particles were measured during the periods of haze. The abundance and chemical compositions of the particles in this study were temporally and spatially variable, with major contributions from organic matter and secondary inorganic aerosols. The contributions of organic matter to the particle mass decreased from 37.9 to 31.2 %, and the total contribution of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium increased from 19.1 to 33.9 % between non-haze and haze days, respectively. Due to heterogeneous reactions and hygroscopic growth, the peak concentrations of the organic carbon, cadmium and sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride and potassium shifted from 0.43 to 0.65 µm on non-haze days to 0.65–1.1 µm on haze days. Although the size distributions of lead and thallium were similar during the observation period, their concentrations increased by a factor of more than 1.5 on haze days compared with non-haze days. We observed that sulfate and ammonium, which have a size range of 0.43–0.65 µm, sulfate and nitrate, which have a size range of 0.65–1.1 µm, calcium, which has a size range of 5.8–9 µm, and the meteorological factors of relative humidity and wind speed were responsible for haze pollution when the visibility was less than 10 km. Source apportionment using Positive Matrix Factorization showed six PM2.1 sources and seven PM2.1–9 common sources: secondary inorganic aerosol (25.1 % for fine particles vs. 9.8

  17. Size-resolved source apportionment of particulate matter in urban Beijing during haze and non-haze episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, S. L.; Pan, Y. P.; Wang, Y. S.

    2015-03-01

    More size-resolved chemical information is needed before the physicochemical characteristics and sources of airborne particles can be understood, but this information remains unavailable in most regions of China due to a paucity of measurement data. In this study, we report a one-year observation of various chemical species in size-segregated particle samples collected in urban Beijing, a mega city that experiences severe haze episodes. In addition to fine particles, the measured particle size distributions showed high concentrations of coarse particles during the haze periods. The abundance and chemical compositions of the particles in this study were temporally and spatially variable, with major contributions from organic matter and secondary inorganic aerosols. The contribution of the organic matter to the mass decreased from 37.9 to 33.1%, whereas the total contribution of SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ increased from 19.1 to 32.3% on non-haze and haze days, respectively. Due to heterogeneous reactions and hygroscopic growth, the peaks in the size distributions of organic carbon, SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, Cl-, K+ and Cu shifted from 0.43-0.65 μm on non-haze days to 0.65-1.1 μm on haze days. Although the size distributions are similar for the heavy metals Pb, Cd and Tl during the observation period, their concentrations increased by a factor of more than 1.5 on haze days compared with non-haze days. We found that NH4+ with a size range of 0.43-0.65 μm, SO42- and NO3- with a size range of 0.65-1.1 μm and Ca2+ with a size range of 5.8-9 μm as well as the meteorological factors of relative humidity and wind speed were responsible for the haze pollution when the visibility was less than 15 km. Source apportionment using positive matrix factorization identified six common sources: secondary inorganic aerosols (26.1% for fine particles vs. 9.5% for coarse particles), coal combustion (19 vs. 23.6%), primary emissions from vehicles (5.9 vs. 8.0%), biomass burning (8.5 vs. 2

  18. From carbon sink to carbon source: extensive peat oxidation in insular Southeast Asia since 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Jukka; Hooijer, Aljosja; Vernimmen, Ronald; Liew, Soo Chin; Page, Susan E.

    2017-02-01

    Tropical peatlands of the western part of insular Southeast Asia have experienced extensive land cover changes since 1990. Typically involving drainage, these land cover changes have resulted in increased peat oxidation in the upper peat profile. In this paper we provide current (2015) and cumulative carbon emissions estimates since 1990 from peat oxidation in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo, utilizing newly published peatland land cover information and the recently agreed Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) peat oxidation emission values for tropical peatland areas. Our results highlight the change of one of the Earth’s most efficient long-term carbon sinks to a short-term emission source, with cumulative carbon emissions since 1990 estimated to have been in the order of 2.5 Gt C. Current (2015) levels of emissions are estimated at around 146 Mt C yr-1, with a range of 132-159 Mt C yr-1 depending on the selection of emissions factors for different land cover types. 44% (or 64 Mt C yr-1) of the emissions come from industrial plantations (mainly oil palm and Acacia pulpwood), followed by 34% (49 Mt C yr-1) of emissions from small-holder areas. Thus, altogether 78% of current peat oxidation emissions come from managed land cover types. Although based on the latest information, these estimates may still include considerable, yet currently unquantifiable, uncertainties (e.g. due to uncertainties in the extent of peatlands and drainage networks) which need to be focused on in future research. In comparison, fire induced carbon dioxide emissions over the past ten years for the entire equatorial Southeast Asia region have been estimated to average 122 Mt C yr-1 (www.globalfiredata.org/_index.html). The results emphasise that whilst reducing emissions from peat fires is important, urgent efforts are also needed to mitigate the constantly high level of emissions arising from peat drainage, regardless of fire occurrence.

  19. Complex EUV imaging reflectometry: spatially resolved 3D composition determination and dopant profiling with a tabletop 13nm source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Christina L.; Tanksalvala, Michael; Gerrity, Michael; Miley, Galen P.; Esashi, Yuka; Horiguchi, Naoto; Zhang, Xiaoshi; Bevis, Charles S.; Karl, Robert; Johnsen, Peter; Adams, Daniel E.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    2018-03-01

    With increasingly 3D devices becoming the norm, there is a growing need in the semiconductor industry and in materials science for high spatial resolution, non-destructive metrology techniques capable of determining depth-dependent composition information on devices. We present a solution to this problem using ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) implemented using a commercially available, tabletop 13 nm source. We present the design, simulations, and preliminary results from our new complex EUV imaging reflectometer, which uses coherent 13 nm light produced by tabletop high harmonic generation. This tool is capable of determining spatially-resolved composition vs. depth profiles for samples by recording ptychographic images at multiple incidence angles. By harnessing phase measurements, we can locally and nondestructively determine quantities such as device and thin film layer thicknesses, surface roughness, interface quality, and dopant concentration profiles. Using this advanced imaging reflectometer, we can quantitatively characterize materials-sciencerelevant and industry-relevant nanostructures for a wide variety of applications, spanning from defect and overlay metrology to the development and optimization of nano-enhanced thermoelectric or spintronic devices.

  20. PLEIADES: A picosecond Compton scattering x-ray source for advanced backlighting and time-resolved material studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, David J.; Anderson, Scott G.; Barty, Christopher P.J.; Betts, Shawn M.; Booth, Rex; Brown, Winthrop J.; Crane, John K.; Cross, Robert R.; Fittinghoff, David N.; Hartemann, Fred V.; Kuba, Jaroslav; Le Sage, Gregory P.; Slaughter, Dennis R.; Tremaine, Aaron M.; Wootton, Alan J.; Hartouni, Edward P.; Springer, Paul T.; Rosenzweig, James B.

    2004-01-01

    The PLEIADES (Picosecond Laser-Electron Inter-Action for the Dynamical Evaluation of Structures) facility has produced first light at 70 keV. This milestone offers a new opportunity to develop laser-driven, compact, tunable x-ray sources for critical applications such as diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility and time-resolved material studies. The electron beam was focused to 50 μm rms, at 57 MeV, with 260 pC of charge, a relative energy spread of 0.2%, and a normalized emittance of 5 mm mrad horizontally and 13 mm mrad vertically. The scattered 820 nm laser pulse had an energy of 180 mJ and a duration of 54 fs. Initial x rays were captured with a cooled charge-coupled device using a cesium iodide scintillator; the peak photon energy was approximately 78 keV, with a total x-ray flux of 1.3x10 6 photons/shot, and the observed angular distribution found to agree very well with three-dimensional codes. Simple K-edge radiography of a tantalum foil showed good agreement with the theoretical divergence-angle dependence of the x-ray energy. Optimization of the x-ray dose is currently under way, with the goal of reaching 10 8 photons/shot and a peak brightness approaching 10 20 photons/mm 2 /mrad 2 /s/0.1% bandwidth

  1. Using Extensible Markup Language (XML) for the Single Source Delivery of Educational Resources by Print and Online: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Lucas

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to provide an introduction to Extensible Markup Language (XML) by looking at its use in a single source publishing approach to the provision of teaching resources in both hardcopy and online. Using the development of the International Baccalaureate Organisation's online Economics Subject Guide as a practical example, this…

  2. Assessment of Contribution of Contemporary Carbon Sources to Size-Fractionated Particulate Matter and Time-Resolved Bulk Particulate Matter Using the Measurement of Radiocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, H M; Young, T M; Buchholz, B A

    2009-04-16

    This study was motivated by a desire to improve understanding of the sources contributing to the carbon that is an important component of airborne particulate matter (PM). The ultimate goal of this project was to lay a ground work for future tools that might be easily implemented with archived or routinely collected samples. A key feature of this study was application of radiocarbon measurement that can be interpreted to indicate the relative contributions from fossil and non-fossil carbon sources of atmospheric PM. Size-resolved PM and time-resolved PM{sub 10} collected from a site in Sacramento, CA in November 2007 (Phase I) and March 2008 (Phase II) were analyzed for radiocarbon and source markers such as levoglucosan, cholesterol, and elemental carbon. Radiocarbon data indicates that the contributions of non-fossil carbon sources were much greater than that from fossil carbon sources in all samples. Radiocarbon and source marker measurements confirm that a greater contribution of non-fossil carbon sources in Phase I samples was highly likely due to residential wood combustion. The present study proves that measurement of radiocarbon and source markers can be readily applied to archived or routinely collected samples for better characterization of PM sources. More accurate source apportionment will support ARB in developing more efficient control strategies.

  3. PyLDM - An open source package for lifetime density analysis of time-resolved spectroscopic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel F Dorlhiac

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast spectroscopy offers temporal resolution for probing processes in the femto- and picosecond regimes. This has allowed for investigation of energy and charge transfer in numerous photoactive compounds and complexes. However, analysis of the resultant data can be complicated, particularly in more complex biological systems, such as photosystems. Historically, the dual approach of global analysis and target modelling has been used to elucidate kinetic descriptions of the system, and the identity of transient species respectively. With regards to the former, the technique of lifetime density analysis (LDA offers an appealing alternative. While global analysis approximates the data to the sum of a small number of exponential decays, typically on the order of 2-4, LDA uses a semi-continuous distribution of 100 lifetimes. This allows for the elucidation of lifetime distributions, which may be expected from investigation of complex systems with many chromophores, as opposed to averages. Furthermore, the inherent assumption of linear combinations of decays in global analysis means the technique is unable to describe dynamic motion, a process which is resolvable with LDA. The technique was introduced to the field of photosynthesis over a decade ago by the Holzwarth group. The analysis has been demonstrated to be an important tool to evaluate complex dynamics such as photosynthetic energy transfer, and complements traditional global and target analysis techniques. Although theory has been well described, no open source code has so far been available to perform lifetime density analysis. Therefore, we introduce a python (2.7 based package, PyLDM, to address this need. We furthermore provide a direct comparison of the capabilities of LDA with those of the more familiar global analysis, as well as providing a number of statistical techniques for dealing with the regularization of noisy data.

  4. Seasonal variations in high time-resolved chemical compositions, sources, and evolution of atmospheric submicron aerosols in the megacity Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A severe regional haze problem in the megacity Beijing and surrounding areas, caused by fast formation and growth of fine particles, has attracted much attention in recent years. In order to investigate the secondary formation and aging process of urban aerosols, four intensive campaigns were conducted in four seasons between March 2012 and March 2013 at an urban site in Beijing (116.31° E, 37.99° N. An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-AMS was deployed to measure non-refractory chemical components of submicron particulate matter (NR-PM1. The average mass concentrations of PM1 (NR-PM1+black carbon were 45.1 ± 45.8, 37.5 ± 31.0, 41.3 ± 42.7, and 81.7 ± 72.4 µg m−3 in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. Organic aerosol (OA was the most abundant component in PM1, accounting for 31, 33, 44, and 36 % seasonally, and secondary inorganic aerosol (SNA, sum of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium accounted for 59, 57, 43, and 55 % of PM1 correspondingly. Based on the application of positive matrix factorization (PMF, the sources of OA were obtained, including the primary ones of hydrocarbon-like (HOA, cooking (COA, biomass burning OA (BBOA and coal combustion OA (CCOA, and secondary component oxygenated OA (OOA. OOA, which can be split into more-oxidized (MO-OOA and less-oxidized OOA (LO-OOA, accounted for 49, 69, 47, and 50 % in four seasons, respectively. Totally, the fraction of secondary components (OOA+SNA contributed about 60–80 % to PM1, suggesting that secondary formation played an important role in the PM pollution in Beijing, and primary sources were also non-negligible. The evolution process of OA in different seasons was investigated with multiple metrics and tools. The average carbon oxidation states and other metrics show that the oxidation state of OA was the highest in summer, probably due to both strong photochemical and aqueous-phase oxidations

  5. Seasonal variations in high time-resolved chemical compositions, sources, and evolution of atmospheric submicron aerosols in the megacity Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Hu, Min; Hu, Wei-Wei; Zheng, Jing; Chen, Chen; Wu, Yusheng; Guo, Song

    2017-08-01

    A severe regional haze problem in the megacity Beijing and surrounding areas, caused by fast formation and growth of fine particles, has attracted much attention in recent years. In order to investigate the secondary formation and aging process of urban aerosols, four intensive campaigns were conducted in four seasons between March 2012 and March 2013 at an urban site in Beijing (116.31° E, 37.99° N). An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed to measure non-refractory chemical components of submicron particulate matter (NR-PM1). The average mass concentrations of PM1 (NR-PM1+black carbon) were 45.1 ± 45.8, 37.5 ± 31.0, 41.3 ± 42.7, and 81.7 ± 72.4 µg m-3 in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. Organic aerosol (OA) was the most abundant component in PM1, accounting for 31, 33, 44, and 36 % seasonally, and secondary inorganic aerosol (SNA, sum of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium) accounted for 59, 57, 43, and 55 % of PM1 correspondingly. Based on the application of positive matrix factorization (PMF), the sources of OA were obtained, including the primary ones of hydrocarbon-like (HOA), cooking (COA), biomass burning OA (BBOA) and coal combustion OA (CCOA), and secondary component oxygenated OA (OOA). OOA, which can be split into more-oxidized (MO-OOA) and less-oxidized OOA (LO-OOA), accounted for 49, 69, 47, and 50 % in four seasons, respectively. Totally, the fraction of secondary components (OOA+SNA) contributed about 60-80 % to PM1, suggesting that secondary formation played an important role in the PM pollution in Beijing, and primary sources were also non-negligible. The evolution process of OA in different seasons was investigated with multiple metrics and tools. The average carbon oxidation states and other metrics show that the oxidation state of OA was the highest in summer, probably due to both strong photochemical and aqueous-phase oxidations. It was indicated by the good correlations

  6. Characterization of noise sources in a rod-airfoil configuration by means of Time-Resolved Tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzoni, V.; Violato, D.; Scarano, F.

    2010-01-01

    Time-resolved Tomographic PIV was used to characterize the flow around the leading edge of a NACA 0012 airfoil in rod-airfoil configuration at ReD = 3500. The volumetric approach at relatively high temporal resolution allows the measurement of the evolution of the 3D vortical structures constituting

  7. Long-term operation experience with 2 ECR ion sources and planned extensions at HIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, T.; Cee, R.; Haberer, T.; Naas, B.; Peters, A.

    2012-01-01

    The HIT (Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center) is the first treatment facility at a hospital in Europe where patients can be treated with protons and carbon ions. Since the commissioning starting in 2006 two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce a variety of ion beams from protons up to oxygen. The operating time is 330 days per year, our experience after three years of continuous operation will be presented. In the future a helium beam for patient treatment is requested, therefore a third ion source will be integrated. This third ECR source with a newly designed extraction system and a spectrometer line will be installed at a test-bench to commission and validate this section. Different test settings are foreseen to study helium operation as well as enhanced parameter sets for proton and carbon beams in combination with a modified beam transport line for higher transmission efficiency. An outlook to the possible integration scheme of the new ion source into the production facility will be discussed. The paper is followed by the associated poster. (authors)

  8. Persistence of attitude change and attitude-behavior correspondence based on extensive processing of source information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierro, Antonio; Mannetti, Lucia; Kruglanski, Arie W.; Klein, Kristen; Orehek, Edward

    A three-phase longitudinal study (spread over a month's time) was carried out to investigate attitude's persistence and linkage to behavior as it may be affected by the processing of information about the communication source. The following three independent variables were manipulated: (i) contents

  9. Tor1/Sch9-regulated carbon source substitution is as effective as calorie restriction in life span extension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wei

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of calorie restriction (CR on life span extension, demonstrated in organisms ranging from yeast to mice, may involve the down-regulation of pathways, including Tor, Akt, and Ras. Here, we present data suggesting that yeast Tor1 and Sch9 (a homolog of the mammalian kinases Akt and S6K is a central component of a network that controls a common set of genes implicated in a metabolic switch from the TCA cycle and respiration to glycolysis and glycerol biosynthesis. During chronological survival, mutants lacking SCH9 depleted extracellular ethanol and reduced stored lipids, but synthesized and released glycerol. Deletion of the glycerol biosynthesis genes GPD1, GPD2, or RHR2, among the most up-regulated in long-lived sch9Delta, tor1Delta, and ras2Delta mutants, was sufficient to reverse chronological life span extension in sch9Delta mutants, suggesting that glycerol production, in addition to the regulation of stress resistance systems, optimizes life span extension. Glycerol, unlike glucose or ethanol, did not adversely affect the life span extension induced by calorie restriction or starvation, suggesting that carbon source substitution may represent an alternative to calorie restriction as a strategy to delay aging.

  10. Advanced light source technologies that enable high-volume manufacturing of DUV lithography extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacouris, Theodore; Rao, Rajasekhar; Rokitski, Rostislav; Jiang, Rui; Melchior, John; Burfeindt, Bernd; O'Brien, Kevin

    2012-03-01

    Deep UV (DUV) lithography is being applied to pattern increasingly finer geometries, leading to solutions like double- and multiple-patterning. Such process complexities lead to higher costs due to the increasing number of steps required to produce the desired results. One of the consequences is that the lithography equipment needs to provide higher operating efficiencies to minimize the cost increases, especially for producers of memory devices that experience a rapid decline in sales prices of these products over time. In addition to having introduced higher power 193nm light sources to enable higher throughput, we previously described technologies that also enable: higher tool availability via advanced discharge chamber gas management algorithms; improved process monitoring via enhanced on-board beam metrology; and increased depth of focus (DOF) via light source bandwidth modulation. In this paper we will report on the field performance of these technologies with data that supports the desired improvements in on-wafer performance and operational efficiencies.

  11. The stepping source dosimetry system as an extension of the manchester system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rembowska, A.M.E.; Cook, M.; Hoskin, P.J.; Mahdevan, A.

    1996-01-01

    Brachytherapy based on absolute application of Manchester distribution rules has been used at Mount Vernon Hospital for single and two plane breast implants. Here dwell times are extracted from the required ratio of source activity in the periphery to that at the centre of the implant. Required dwell times can then be calculated directly from the original Manchester tables using a simple formula. Traditionally High Dose Rate Brachytherapy Dosimetry has used equal exposure times at each source dwell position as a starting point, an approach comparable to a Paris type implant. An optimisation system based on introducing constraints into the system can then be applied, however the number and type of constraints are limited, and there is little clinical evidence to justify this approach. The advantages of using Manchester distribution rules in planar implants, where the sources are contained in the target area or volume and also circumscribe it, but do not extend beyond it, together with the homogenous dose distribution achievable, are illustrated, with clinical examples. A proposed distribution, based on this approach for treating a spherical volume typical of planned prostate treatments at this centre is also described

  12. Extensive and every day risk in the Bolivian Chaco: Sources of crisis and disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian R. Reyes Pando

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Disaster risk comprises a continuum, ranging from primary-structural (pre-impact, through contingent (resulting from impact to future or reconstructed risk (resulting from inadequate recovery or reconstruction practices. At the same time these categories are many times constructed on the basis of existing chronic risk. These different categories are employed to demonstrate how the 2009-2011 disasters associated with the drought and freezing that affected the Bolivian Chaco region evolved and were perpetuated in cyclical manner. Additionally, the article demonstrates how preconceived notions of causal factors and post impact needs analysis, associated with large scale, rapid onset hazards, belies an understanding of the needs in slow onset and lifestyle based extensive risk crises. It also reveals how any attempt to deal with the successive, apparently sequenced categories of risk, using independent mechanisms and institutional frameworks is doomed to failure due to the relations that exist between primary, contingent and future risk and the disaster risk management and development mechanisms required to reduce them.

  13. Laser Raman Spectroscopy with Different Excitation Sources and Extension to Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Wahadoszamen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A dispersive Raman spectrometer was used with three different excitation sources (Argon-ion, He-Ne, and Diode lasers operating at 514.5 nm, 633 nm, and 782 nm, resp.. The system was employed to a variety of Raman active compounds. Many of the compounds exhibit very strong fluorescence while being excited with a laser emitting at UV-VIS region, hereby imposing severe limitation to the detection efficiency of the particular Raman system. The Raman system with variable excitation laser sources provided us with a desired flexibility toward the suppression of unwanted fluorescence signal. With this Raman system, we could detect and specify the different vibrational modes of various hazardous organic compounds and some typical dyes (both fluorescent and nonfluorescent. We then compared those results with the ones reported in literature and found the deviation within the range of ±2 cm−1, which indicates reasonable accuracy and usability of the Raman system. Then, the surface enhancement technique of Raman spectrum was employed to the present system. To this end, we used chemically prepared colloidal suspension of silver nanoparticles as substrate and Rhodamine 6G as probe. We could observe significant enhancement of Raman signal from Rhodamine 6G using the colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles the average magnitude of which is estimated to be 103.

  14. Extension of the principles of radiation protection to sources of potential exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The principles of radiation protection recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the normal operation of a radiation source constitute a dose limitation system that has three components; namely, the justification of a practice, the optimization of radiation protection and the limitation of individual doses. This report describes how the application of these principles may be extended to unexpected or accidental situations by changing from the dose based system of radiation protection to a unified approach within a probabilistic framework. The key conceptual link in this transition is the recognition that the receipt of a given dose by an individual confers a corresponding probability of harm, as represented by a dose-response curve. The concept of limitation of individual doses may therefore be transformed relatively straightforwardly into the concept of limitation of the probability of harm to an individual. The other two principles, the justification principle and the optimization principle, can also be translated to the probabilistic framework, but the procedure for so doing is not as straightforward as that for the principle of limitation of individual doses, owing in part to the fact that the other two principles are not as simple to apply in practice. 13 refs

  15. Time- and wavelength-resolved luminescence evaluation of several types of scintillators using streak camera system equipped with pulsed X-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, Yuki, E-mail: f.yuki@mail.tagen.tohoku.ac.j [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui; Kamada, Kei [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kawaguchi, Noriaki [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Research and Development Division, Tokuyama., Co. Ltd., ICR-Building, Minamiyoshinari, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Ishizu, Sumito [Research and Development Division, Tokuyama., Co. Ltd., ICR-Building, Minamiyoshinari, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Uchiyama, Koro; Mori, Kuniyoshi [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 325-6, Sunayama-cho, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 430-8587 (Japan); Kitano, Ken [Vacuum and Optical Instruments, 2-18-18 Shimomaruko, Ota, Tokyo 146-0092 (Japan); Nikl, Martin [Institute of Physics ASCR, Cukrovarnicka 10, Prague 6, 162-53 (Czech Republic); Yoshikawa, Akira [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); NICHe, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    To design new scintillating materials, it is very important to understand detailed information about the events, which occurred during the excitation and emission processes under the ionizing radiation excitation. We developed a streak camera system equipped with picosecond pulsed X-ray source to observe time- and wavelength-resolved scintillation events. In this report, we test the performance of this new system using several types of scintillators including bulk oxide/halide crystals, transparent ceramics, plastics and powders. For all samples, the results were consistent with those reported previously. The results demonstrated that the developed system is suitable for evaluation of the scintillation properties.

  16. Transparent ICD and DRG coding using information technology: linking and associating information sources with the eXtensible Markup Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzer, Simon; Schweiger, Ralf K; Dudeck, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    With the introduction of ICD-10 as the standard for diagnostics, it becomes necessary to develop an electronic representation of its complete content, inherent semantics, and coding rules. The authors' design relates to the current efforts by the CEN/TC 251 to establish a European standard for hierarchical classification systems in health care. The authors have developed an electronic representation of ICD-10 with the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) that facilitates integration into current information systems and coding software, taking different languages and versions into account. In this context, XML provides a complete processing framework of related technologies and standard tools that helps develop interoperable applications. XML provides semantic markup. It allows domain-specific definition of tags and hierarchical document structure. The idea of linking and thus combining information from different sources is a valuable feature of XML. In addition, XML topic maps are used to describe relationships between different sources, or "semantically associated" parts of these sources. The issue of achieving a standardized medical vocabulary becomes more and more important with the stepwise implementation of diagnostically related groups, for example. The aim of the authors' work is to provide a transparent and open infrastructure that can be used to support clinical coding and to develop further software applications. The authors are assuming that a comprehensive representation of the content, structure, inherent semantics, and layout of medical classification systems can be achieved through a document-oriented approach.

  17. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction with accelerator- and laser-plasma-based X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoul, Matthieu

    2010-01-01

    Femtosecond X-ray pulses are a powerful tool to investigate atomic motions triggered by femtosecond pump pulses. This thesis is dedicated to the production of such pulses and their use in optical pump - X-ray probe measurement. This thesis describes the laser-plasma-based sources available at the University of Duisburg-Essen. Part of it consists of the description of the design, built-up and characterization of a new ''modular'' X-ray source dedicated to optimize the X-ray flux onto the sample under investigation. The acoustic wave generation in femtosecond optically excited semiconductor (gallium arsenide) and metal (gold) was performed using the sources of the University of Duisburg-Essen. The physical answer of the material was modeled by a simple strain model for the semiconductor, pressure model for the metal, in order to gain information on the interplay of the electronic and thermal pressures rising after excitation. Whereas no reliable information could be obtain in gallium arsenide (principally due to the use of a bulk), the model for gold achieved very good agreement, providing useful information. The relaxation time of the electron to lattice energy was found to be (5.0±0.3) ps, and the ratio of the Grueneisen parameters was found to be γ e / γ i = (0.5±0.1). This thesis also describes the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) which existed at the (formally) Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, an accelerator-based X-ray source, and two measurements performed with it. The first one is the detailed investigation of the phonon softening of the A 1g mode launch in bismuth upon fluence excitation. Detailed information concerning the new equilibrium position and phonon frequency were obtained over extended laser pump fluences. The second measurement concerned the study of the liquid phase dynamics in a newly formed liquid phase following ultrafast melting in indium antimonide. The formation of the liquid phase and its development for excitations close to the

  18. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction with accelerator- and laser-plasma-based X-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoul, Matthieu

    2010-09-01

    Femtosecond X-ray pulses are a powerful tool to investigate atomic motions triggered by femtosecond pump pulses. This thesis is dedicated to the production of such pulses and their use in optical pump - X-ray probe measurement. This thesis describes the laser-plasma-based sources available at the University of Duisburg-Essen. Part of it consists of the description of the design, built-up and characterization of a new ''modular'' X-ray source dedicated to optimize the X-ray flux onto the sample under investigation. The acoustic wave generation in femtosecond optically excited semiconductor (gallium arsenide) and metal (gold) was performed using the sources of the University of Duisburg-Essen. The physical answer of the material was modeled by a simple strain model for the semiconductor, pressure model for the metal, in order to gain information on the interplay of the electronic and thermal pressures rising after excitation. Whereas no reliable information could be obtain in gallium arsenide (principally due to the use of a bulk), the model for gold achieved very good agreement, providing useful information. The relaxation time of the electron to lattice energy was found to be (5.0{+-}0.3) ps, and the ratio of the Grueneisen parameters was found to be {gamma}{sub e} / {gamma}{sub i} = (0.5{+-}0.1). This thesis also describes the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) which existed at the (formally) Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, an accelerator-based X-ray source, and two measurements performed with it. The first one is the detailed investigation of the phonon softening of the A{sub 1g} mode launch in bismuth upon fluence excitation. Detailed information concerning the new equilibrium position and phonon frequency were obtained over extended laser pump fluences. The second measurement concerned the study of the liquid phase dynamics in a newly formed liquid phase following ultrafast melting in indium antimonide. The formation of the liquid phase

  19. High time-resolved chemical compositions, sources and evolution for atmospheric submicron aerosols in the winter of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, H.; Hu, W.; Zheng, J.; Guo, S.; Wu, Y.; Zeng, L.; Lu, S.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Severe regional haze problem in the megacity Beijing and surrounding areas has attracted much attention in recent years. In order to investigate the secondary formation and aging process of urban aerosols, intensive campaigns were conducted in the winter of 2010 and 2013 at an urban site in Beijing. An Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed to measure chemical components of PM1, coupled with multiple state of the art online instruments. In the winter of 2010, PM1 mass concentrations changed dramatically along with meteorological conditions. The high average fraction (58%) of primary species in PM1 indicated that primary emissions usually played a more important role. Based on the source apportionment results, 45% POA are from non-fossil sources, contributed by cooking OA and biomass burning OA (BBOA). Cooking OA, accounting for 13-24% of OA, is an important non-fossil carbon source in all years of Beijing and should not be neglected. The fossil sources of POA include hydrocarbon-like OA from vehicle emissions and coal combustion OA (CCOA). The CCOA and BBOA were the two main contributors (57% of OA) for the highest OA concentrations (>100 μg m-3). In the winter of 2013, OOA (MO-OOA and LO-OOA), accounted for 50% of PM1, while (OOA+SNA) contributed 60-80%, suggesting that secondary formation played an important role in the PM pollution. In the winter of 2010 higher OOA/Ox (= NO2 + O3) ratio (0.49 μg m-3 ppb-1) than these ratios from western cities (0.03-0.16 μg m-3 ppb-1) was observed, which may be due to the aqueous reaction or extra SOA formation contributed by semi-VOCs from various primary sources (e.g., BBOA or CCOA). However, aqueous chemistry resulting in efficient secondary formation during occasional periods with high relative humidity may also contribute substantially to haze in winter. CCOA was only identified in winter due to domestic heating. These results signified that the comprehensive

  20. LesionTracker: Extensible Open-Source Zero-Footprint Web Viewer for Cancer Imaging Research and Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Trinity; Ziegler, Erik; Lewis, Rob; Hafey, Chris; Sadow, Cheryl; Van den Abbeele, Annick D; Harris, Gordon J

    2017-11-01

    Oncology clinical trials have become increasingly dependent upon image-based surrogate endpoints for determining patient eligibility and treatment efficacy. As therapeutics have evolved and multiplied in number, the tumor metrics criteria used to characterize therapeutic response have become progressively more varied and complex. The growing intricacies of image-based response evaluation, together with rising expectations for rapid and consistent results reporting, make it difficult for site radiologists to adequately address local and multicenter imaging demands. These challenges demonstrate the need for advanced cancer imaging informatics tools that can help ensure protocol-compliant image evaluation while simultaneously promoting reviewer efficiency. LesionTracker is a quantitative imaging package optimized for oncology clinical trial workflows. The goal of the project is to create an open source zero-footprint viewer for image analysis that is designed to be extensible as well as capable of being integrated into third-party systems for advanced imaging tools and clinical trials informatics platforms. Cancer Res; 77(21); e119-22. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Proposed ultraviolet free-electron laser at Brookhaven National Laboratory: A source for time-resolved biochemical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.D.; Sutherland, J.C.; Laws, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory is designing an ultraviolet free- electron laser (UV-FEL) user facility that will provide pico-second and sub-picosecond pulses of coherent ultraviolet radiation for wavelengths from 300 to 75 nm. Pulse width will be variable from abut 7 ps to ∼ 200 fs, with repetition rates as high as 10 4 Hz, single pulse energies > 1 mJ and hence peak pulse power >200 MW and average beam power > 10 W. The facility will be capable of ''pump-probe'' experiments utilizing the FEL radiation with: (1) synchronized auxiliary lasers, (2) a second, independently tunable FEL beam, or (3) broad-spectrum, high-intensity x-rays from the adjacent National Synchrotron Light Source. The UV-FEL consists of a high repetition rate recirculating superconducting linear accelerator which feeds pulses of electrons to two magnetic wigglers. Within these two devices, photons from tunable ''conventional'' laser would be frequency multiplied and amplified. By synchronously tuning the seed laser and modulating the energy of the electron beam, tuning of as much as 60% in wavelength is possible between alternating pulses supplied to different experimental stations, with Fourier transform limited resolution. Thus, up to four independent experiments may operate at one time, each with independent control of the wavelength and pulse duration. The UV-FEL will make possible new avenues of inquiry in time studies of diverse field including chemical, surface, and solid state physics, biology and materials science. The experimental area is scheduled to include a station dedicated to biological research. The complement of experimental and support facilities required by the biology station will be determined by the interests of the user community. 7 refs., 5 figs

  2. Resolving the variability of CDOM fluorescence to differentiate the sources and fate of DOM in Lake Taihu and its tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin; Zhang, Yunlin; Zhu, Guangwei; Qin, Boqiang; Feng, Longqing; Cai, Linlin; Gao, Guang

    2011-01-01

    Taihu Basin is the most developed area in China, which economic development has resulted in pollutants being produced and discharged into rivers and the lake. Lake Taihu is located in the center of the basin, which is characterized by a complex network of rivers and channels. To assess the sources and fate of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface waters, we determined the components and abundance of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) within Lake Taihu and 66 of its tributaries, and 22 sites along transects from two main rivers. In Lake Taihu, there was a relative less spatial variation in CDOM absorption a(CDOM)(355) with a mean of 2.46 ± 0.69 m⁻¹ compared to the mean of 3.36 ± 1.77 m⁻¹ in the rivers. Two autochthonous tryptophan-like components (C1 and C5), two humic-like components (C2 and C3), and one autochthonous tyrosine-like component (C4) were identified using the parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) model. The C2 and C3 had a direct relationship with a(CDOM)(355), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and chemical oxygen demand (COD). The separation of lake samples from river samples, on both axes of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), showed the difference in DOM fluorophores between these various environments. Components C1 and C5 concurrently showed positive factor 1 loadings, while C4 was close to the negative factor 1 axis. Components C2 and C3 showed positive second factor loadings. The major contribution of autochthonous tryptophan-like components to lake samples is due to the autochthonous production of CDOM in the lake ecosystems. The results also showed that the differences in geology and associated land use control CDOM dynamics, such as the high levels of CDOM with terrestrial characteristics in the northwestern upstream rivers and low levels of CDOM with increased microbial characteristics in the southwestern upstream rivers. Most of river samples from the downstream regions in the eastern and southeastern plains had a

  3. The Post-periapsis Evolution of Galactic Center Source G1: The Second Case of a Resolved Tidal Interaction with a Supermassive Black Hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzel, G.; Sitarski, B. N.; Ghez, A. M.; Morris, M. R.; Hees, A.; Do, T.; Naoz, S.; Boehle, A.; Martinez, G.; Chappell, S.; Meyer, L.; Yelda, S.; Becklin, E. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Lu, J. R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Schödel, R. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomia S/N, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Matthews, K., E-mail: witzel@astro.ucla.edu [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We present new adaptive optics (AO) imaging and spectroscopic measurements of Galactic center source G1 from W. M. Keck Observatory. Our goal is to understand its nature and relationship to G2, which is the first example of a spatially resolved object interacting with a supermassive black hole (SMBH). Both objects have been monitored with AO for the past decade (2003–2014) and are comparatively close to the black hole ( a {sub min} ∼ 200–300 au) on very eccentric orbits ( e {sub G1} ∼ 0.99; e {sub G2} ∼ 0.96). While G2 has been tracked before and during periapsis passage ( T {sub 0} ∼ 2014.2), G1 has been followed since soon after emerging from periapsis ( T {sub 0} ∼ 2001.3). Our observations of G1 double the previously reported observational time baseline, which improves its orbital parameter determinations. G1's orbital trajectory appears to be in the same plane as that of G2 but with a significantly different argument of periapsis (Δ ω = 21° ± 4°). This suggests that G1 is an independent object and not part of a gas stream containing G2, as has been proposed. Furthermore, we show for the first time that (1) G1 is extended in the epochs closest to periapsis along the direction of orbital motion, and (2) it becomes significantly smaller over time (450 au in 2004 to less than 170 au in 2009). Based on these observations, G1 appears to be the second example of an object tidally interacting with an SMBH. G1's existence 14 yr after periapsis, along with its compactness in epochs further from the time of periapsis, suggest that this source is stellar in nature.

  4. Seasonal Variations of High Time-Resolved Chemical Compositions, Sources and Evolution for Atmospheric Submicron Aerosols in the Megacity of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; Hu, Wei; Hu, Weiwei; Zheng, Jing; Guo, Song; Wu, Yusheng; Lu, Sihua; Zeng, Limin

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to investigate aerosol secondary formation and aging process in the megacity of Beijing. Seasonal intensive campaigns were conducted from March 2012 to March 2013 at an urban site located at the campus of Peking University (116.31° E, 37.99° N). An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-AMS) and other relevant instrumentations for gaseous and particulate pollutants were deployed. The average submicron aerosol (PM1) mass concentrations were 45.1 ± 45.8, 37.5 ± 31.0, 41.3 ± 42.7 and 81.7 ± 72.4 μg m-3 in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. Organic matter was the most abundant component, accounting for 31%, 33%, 44% and 36% in PM1 correspondingly, followed by sulfate and nitrate. Distinct seasonal and diurnal patterns of the components of PM1 tracking primary sources (e.g., BC and HOA) and secondary formation (e.g., sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, LV-OOA and SV-OOA) were significantly influenced by primary emissions and mesoscale meteorology. Combining positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis with the mass spectrometry of organics measured by AMS, the contributions of primary and secondary sources to submicron organic aerosols (OA) were apportioned. In spring and summer, the primary sources were hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and cooking OA (COA), and the secondary components were low volatility (LV-OOA) and semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA). In winter biomass burning OA (BBOA) was also resolved. In autumn, four factors were resolved, that is, OOA, HOA, COA and BBOA. In general, OOA (sum of LV-OOA and SV-OOA) was important in OA in four seasons, accounting for about 63%, 70%, 47% and 50%, respectively. SV-OOA dominated OA in summer (44%) due to the fresh secondary formation from strong photochemical oxidations; whereas, LV-OOA was dominant in OA in winter (33%), maybe because the transported air masses were more aged in heavily polluted days. The POA (sum of HOA, COA and BBOA) in OA was dominant in

  5. Molecular Chemical Structure of Barley Proteins Revealed by Ultra-Spatially Resolved Synchrotron Light Sourced FTIR Microspectroscopy: Comparison of Barley Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.

    2007-01-01

    Barley protein structure affects the barley quality, fermentation, and degradation behavior in both humans and animals among other factors such as protein matrix. Publications show various biological differences among barley varieties such as Valier and Harrington, which have significantly different degradation behaviors. The objectives of this study were to reveal the molecular structure of barley protein, comparing various varieties (Dolly, Valier, Harrington, LP955, AC Metcalfe, and Sisler), and quantify protein structure profiles using Gaussian and Lorentzian methods of multi-component peak modeling by using the ultra-spatially resolved synchrotron light sourced Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SFTIRM). The items of the protein molecular structure revealed included protein structure α-helices, β-sheets, and others such as β-turns and random coils. The experiment was performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL, US Department of Energy, NY). The results showed that with the SFTIRM, the molecular structure of barley protein could be revealed. Barley protein structures exhibited significant differences among the varieties in terms of proportion and ratio of model-fitted α-helices, β-sheets, and others. By using multi-component peaks modeling at protein amide I region of 1710-1576 cm -1 , the results show that barley protein consisted of approximately 18-34% of α-helices, 14-25% of β-sheets, and 44-69% others. AC Metcalfe, Sisler, and LP955 consisted of higher (P 0.05). The ratio of α-helices to others (0.3 to 1.0, P < 0.05) and that of β-sheets to others (0.2 to 0.8, P < 0.05) were different among the barley varieties. It needs to be pointed out that using a multi-peak modeling for protein structure analysis is only for making relative estimates and not exact determinations and only for the comparison purpose between varieties. The principal component analysis showed that protein amide I Fourier

  6. Novel Insight for Organic Matter Sourcing: Interest of Time Resolved Fluorescence to Qualify and Quantify PAH Content of Solid Matrix at High Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiers, M.; Perrette, Y.; Jacq, K.; Pousset, E.; Plassart, G.

    2017-12-01

    OM fluorescence is today a well-developed tool used to characterize and quantify organic matter (OM), but also to evaluate and discriminate OM fate and changes related to climate and environmental modifications. While fluorescence measurements on water and soils extracts provide information about organic fluxes today, solid phase fluorescence using natural archives allows to obtain high resolution records of OM evolution during time. These evolutions can be discussed in regards of climate and environmental perturbations detected in archives using different proxies, and thus provide keys for understanding factors driving carbon fluxes mechanisms. Among fluorescent organic species, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) have been used as probe molecules for organic contamination tracking. Moreover, monitoring studies have shown that PAH could also be used as markers to discriminates atmospheric and erosion factors leading to PAH and organic matter fluxes to the aquifer. PAH records in soils and natural archives appear as a promising proxy to follow both past atmospheric contamination and soil erosion. But, PAH fluorescence is difficult to discriminate from bulk OM fluorescence using steady-state fluorescence (SSF) technics as their fluorescence domains recover. Time resolved emission spectroscopy (TRES) increases the information provided by SSF technic, adding a time dimension to measurements and allowing to discriminate PAH fluorescence. We report here a first application of this technic on natural archives. The challenge is to obtain TRES signature along the sample, including for low PAH concentrations. This study aims to evaluate the reliability of high resolution TRES measurement as PAH carbon fluxes sources. Method is based on LIF instrument for solid phase fluorescence measurement. An instrument coupling an excitation system constituting by 2 pulsed lasers (266 and 355 nm) and a detection system was developed. This measurement provides high resolution record of

  7. Rapid high-resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with pulsed laser source and time-of-flight spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlieb, K.; Hussain, Z.; Bostwick, A.; Lanzara, A.; Jozwiak, C.

    2013-09-01

    A high-efficiency spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (spin-ARPES) spectrometer is coupled with a laboratory-based laser for rapid high-resolution measurements. The spectrometer combines time-of-flight (TOF) energy measurements with low-energy exchange scattering spin polarimetry for high detection efficiencies. Samples are irradiated with fourth harmonic photons generated from a cavity-dumped Ti:sapphire laser that provides high photon flux in a narrow bandwidth, with a pulse timing structure ideally matched to the needs of the TOF spectrometer. The overall efficiency of the combined system results in near-EF spin-resolved ARPES measurements with an unprecedented combination of energy resolution and acquisition speed. This allows high-resolution spin measurements with a large number of data points spanning multiple dimensions of interest (energy, momentum, photon polarization, etc.) and thus enables experiments not otherwise possible. The system is demonstrated with spin-resolved energy and momentum mapping of the L-gap Au(111) surface states, a prototypical Rashba system. The successful integration of the spectrometer with the pulsed laser system demonstrates its potential for simultaneous spin- and time-resolved ARPES with pump-probe based measurements.

  8. USE OF GUACIMO (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. AS A FORAGE SOURCE FOR EXTENSIVE LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN A TROPICAL AREA OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elena Nava-Tablada

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the traditional uses of guacimo (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam, compared to other local forage resources for livestock. The expectative of farmers on the use of trees as alternative sources of forage in Angostillo, Paso de Ovejas, Veracruz, Mexico was also investigated. Data was collected through interviews and direct observation. All farmers practice ranching and 85% combine animal production with crop cultivation; allocating 40% of their land to corn and 60% to dual purpose cattle production. The principal uses of guacimo are as forage, firewood, timber, shade, and living fence posts. Guacimo has the highest value as forage compared to other local fodder trees such as guaje de indio (Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson, espino (Acacia cavenia Mol. and huizache (A. farnesiana Willd.. Farmers showed interest in establishing silvopastoral systems including forage banks using guacimo. However, they foresaw limitations due to a lack of consulting, agronomic training and financial support to establish the crops.

  9. RESOLVE: A new algorithm for aperture synthesis imaging of extended emission in radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junklewitz, H.; Bell, M. R.; Selig, M.; Enßlin, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present resolve, a new algorithm for radio aperture synthesis imaging of extended and diffuse emission in total intensity. The algorithm is derived using Bayesian statistical inference techniques, estimating the surface brightness in the sky assuming a priori log-normal statistics. resolve estimates the measured sky brightness in total intensity, and the spatial correlation structure in the sky, which is used to guide the algorithm to an optimal reconstruction of extended and diffuse sources. During this process, the algorithm succeeds in deconvolving the effects of the radio interferometric point spread function. Additionally, resolve provides a map with an uncertainty estimate of the reconstructed surface brightness. Furthermore, with resolve we introduce a new, optimal visibility weighting scheme that can be viewed as an extension to robust weighting. In tests using simulated observations, the algorithm shows improved performance against two standard imaging approaches for extended sources, Multiscale-CLEAN and the Maximum Entropy Method.

  10. Time resolved techniques: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.C.; Tischler, J.Z.

    1990-06-01

    Synchrotron sources provide exceptional opportunities for carrying out time-resolved x-ray diffraction investigations. The high intensity, high angular resolution, and continuously tunable energy spectrum of synchrotron x-ray beams lend themselves directly to carrying out sophisticated time-resolved x-ray scattering measurements on a wide range of materials and phenomena. When these attributes are coupled with the pulsed time-structure of synchrotron sources, entirely new time-resolved scattering possibilities are opened. Synchrotron beams typically consist of sub-nanosecond pulses of x-rays separated in time by a few tens of nanoseconds to a few hundred nanoseconds so that these beams appear as continuous x-ray sources for investigations of phenomena on time scales ranging from hours down to microseconds. Studies requiring time-resolution ranging from microseconds to fractions of a nanosecond can be carried out in a triggering mode by stimulating the phenomena under investigation in coincidence with the x-ray pulses. Time resolution on the picosecond scale can, in principle, be achieved through the use of streak camera techniques in which the time structure of the individual x-ray pulses are viewed as quasi-continuous sources with ∼100--200 picoseconds duration. Techniques for carrying out time-resolved scattering measurements on time scales varying from picoseconds to kiloseconds at present and proposed synchrotron sources are discussed and examples of time-resolved studies are cited. 17 refs., 8 figs

  11. 'EXTSANGLE' - an extension of the efficiency conversion program 'SOLANG' to sources with a diameter larger than that of the Ge-detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihaljevic, N.; Jovanovic, S.; Vukotic, P.

    1993-01-01

    The computer program SOLANG, originally developed by MOENS et al. for the efficiency conversion via effective solid angles (Ω-bar), was extended to cylindrical sources with a diameter larger than that of the Ge-detector. New program, named EXTSANGLE, was experimentally checked in three laboratories. For the most unfavourable case from the standpoint of the accuracy of Ω-bar (bulky source counted at the top of detector), discrepancies were below 7% in the whole range of gamma-energies considered (88-1115 keV), with an average of 3-4%. EXTSANGLE is extensive and flexible with respect to the data input, storage and output, thus contributing to the automation of a gamma-spectrometry laboratory dealing, for instance, with the k 0 -NAA and/or environmental radioactivity monitoring. (author) 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  12. Contribution to time resolved X-ray fluence and differential spectra measurement method improvement in 5-200 KeV range. Application to pulsed emission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vie, M.

    1983-09-01

    Two types of sensors have been developed to measure locally the time-resolved fluence and differential energetic spectrum of pulsed X-ray in the energy range 5 to 200 keV. Rise time of these sensors is very short (10 ns) in order to permit time-resolved measurements. Fluence sensors have been developed by putting filters in front of detector in order to make sensor response independent of X-ray energy and proportional to X-ray fluence. The energetic differential spectrum was calculated by way of a method similar to the ROSS method but using filters separated within a pair defining adjacent spectral width. A detailed analysis of uncertainties affecting calculated fluence and spectrum has been done [fr

  13. Selective leaching studies of sediments from a seamount flank in the Central Indian Basin: Resolving hydrothermal, volcanogenic and terrigenous sources using major, trace and rare-earth elements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas-Pereira, M.B.L.; Nath, B.N.

    with increasing distance from the initial vent source (Mitra et al., 1994; German et al., 2002; Edmonds and German, 2004). Sherrell et al. 15 (1999) contend that in a time scale of plume advection, adsorption reflects near–instanteous equilibrium...

  14. Cylindrical gate all around Schottky barrier MOSFET with insulated shallow extensions at source/drain for removal of ambipolarity: a novel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Pratap, Yogesh; Haldar, Subhasis; Gupta, Mridula; Gupta, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper TCAD-based simulation of a novel insulated shallow extension (ISE) cylindrical gate all around (CGAA) Schottky barrier (SB) MOSFET has been reported, to eliminate the suicidal ambipolar behavior (bias-dependent OFF state leakage current) of conventional SB-CGAA MOSFET by blocking the metal-induced gap states as well as unwanted charge sharing between source/channel and drain/channel regions. This novel structure offers low barrier height at the source and offers high ON-state current. The I ON/I OFF of ISE-CGAA-SB-MOSFET increases by 1177 times and offers steeper subthreshold slope (~60 mV/decade). However a little reduction in peak cut off frequency is observed and to further improve the cut-off frequency dual metal gate architecture has been employed and a comparative assessment of single metal gate, dual metal gate, single metal gate with ISE, and dual metal gate with ISE has been presented. The improved performance of Schottky barrier CGAA MOSFET by the incorporation of ISE makes it an attractive candidate for CMOS digital circuit design. The numerical simulation is performed using the ATLAS-3D device simulator.

  15. Level of carbon dioxide diffuse degassing from the ground of Vesuvio: comparison between extensive surveys and inferences on the gas source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Granieri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An extensive campaign of diffuse CO2 soil flux was carried out at the cone of Vesuvio in October 2006 with two main objectives: 1 to provide an estimation of CO2 diffusely discharged through the soils in the summit area and 2 to evidence those sectors of the volcano where structural and morphological conditions could favour the gas output. The survey consisted of 502 measurements of soil CO2 flux homogenously distributed over an area of about 1.8 km2. Results of this survey were compared with those obtained during a similar campaign carried out by Frondini et al. in 2000, from which we have taken and reinterpreted a subset of data belonging to the common investigated area. Graphical statistical analysis showed three overlapping populations in both surveys, evidencing the contribution of three different sources feeding the soil CO2 degassing process. The overall CO2 emission pattern of 2006 is coherent with that observed in 2000 and suggests that a value between 120 and 140 t/day of CO2 is representative of the total CO2 discharged by diffuse degassing from the summit area of Vesuvio. The preferential exhaling area lies in the inner crater, whose contribution resulted in 45.3% of the total CO2 emission in 2006 (with 62.8 t/day and in 57.4% (with 70.3 t/day in 2000, although its extension is only 13% of the investigated area. This highly emissive area correlated closely with the structural discontinuities of Vesuvio cone, mainly suggesting that the NW-SE trending tectonic line is actually an active fault leaking deep gas to the bottom of the crater. The drainage action of the fault could be enhanced by the “aspiration” effect of the volcanic conduit.

  16. Time-resolved studies. Ch. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Dennis M.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1991-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation, with its unique properties, offers a tool to extend X-ray measurements from the static to the time-resolved regime. The most straight-forward application of synchrotron radiation to the study of transient phenomena is directly through the possibility of decreased data-collection times via the enormous increase in flux over that of a laboratory X-ray system. Even further increases in intensity can be obtained through the use of novel X-ray optical devices. Wide-bandpass monochromators, e.g., that utilize the continuous spectral distribution of synchrotron radiation, can increase flux on the sample several orders of magnitude over conventional X-ray optical systems thereby allowing a further shortening of the data-collection time. Another approach that uses the continuous spectral nature of synchrotron radiation to decrease data-collection times is the 'parallel data collection' method. Using this technique, intensities as a function of X-ray energy are recorded simultaneously for all energies rather than sequentially recording data at each energy, allowing for a dramatic decrease in data-collection time. Perhaps the most exciting advances in time-resolved X-ray studies will be made by those methods that exploit the pulsed nature of the radiation emitted from storage rings. Pulsed techniques have had an enormous impact in the study of the temporal evolution of transient phenomena. The extension from continuous to modulated sources for use in time-resolved work has been carried over in a host of fields that use both pulsed particle and pulsed electro-magnetic beams. In this chapter the new experimental techniques are reviewed and illustrated with some experiments. (author). 98 refs.; 20 figs.; 5 tabs

  17. Size-Resolved Characterization of Particles and Fibers Released during Abrasion of Fiber-Reinforced Composite in a Workplace Influenced by Ambient Background Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Kirsten I.; Levin, Marcus; Jensen, Alexander C. O.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of high-to low-resolution microscopy and particle chemical analysis during normal vacuum and cryo-conditions to identify the nature and relative abundances of process-generated particles and fibers from sanding of a glass and carbon fiber epoxy layer-composite in a workplace...... influenced by both indoor and ambient background sources. The study suggests that a proper exposure characterization requires multiple techniques covering wide size ranges to reach a conclusion. Besides a rise in number concentration due to release of particles during the sanding, a significant contribution...

  18. MSiReader: an open-source interface to view and analyze high resolving power MS imaging files on Matlab platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaud, Guillaume; Garrard, Kenneth P; Barry, Jeremy A; Muddiman, David C

    2013-05-01

    During the past decade, the field of mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has greatly evolved, to a point where it has now been fully integrated by most vendors as an optional or dedicated platform that can be purchased with their instruments. However, the technology is not mature and multiple research groups in both academia and industry are still very actively studying the fundamentals of imaging techniques, adapting the technology to new ionization sources, and developing new applications. As a result, there important varieties of data file formats used to store mass spectrometry imaging data and, concurrent to the development of MSi, collaborative efforts have been undertaken to introduce common imaging data file formats. However, few free software packages to read and analyze files of these different formats are readily available. We introduce here MSiReader, a free open source application to read and analyze high resolution MSI data from the most common MSi data formats. The application is built on the Matlab platform (Mathworks, Natick, MA, USA) and includes a large selection of data analysis tools and features. People who are unfamiliar with the Matlab language will have little difficult navigating the user-friendly interface, and users with Matlab programming experience can adapt and customize MSiReader for their own needs.

  19. Table-top instrumentation for time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy of solids excited by nanosecond pulse of soft X-ray source and/or UV laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruza, Petr; Fidler, Vlastimil; Nikl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The practical applicability of the rare-earth doped scintillators in high-speed detectors is limited by the slow decay components in the temporal response of a scintillator. The study of origin and properties of material defects that induce the slow decay components is of major importance for the development of new scintillation materials. We present a table-top, time-domain UV-VIS luminescence spectrometer, featuring extended time and input sensitivity ranges and two excitation sources. The combination of both soft X-ray/XUV and UV excitation source allows the comparative measurements of luminescence spectra and decay kinetics of scintillators to be performed under the same experimental conditions. The luminescence of emission centers of a doped scintillator can be induced by conventional N 2 laser pulse, while the complete scintillation process can be initiated by a soft X-ray/XUV pulse excitation from the laser-produced plasma in gas puff target of 4 ns duration. In order to demonstrate the spectrometer, the UV-VIS luminescence spectra and decay kinetics of cerium doped Lu 3 Al 5 O 12 single crystal (LuAG:Ce) scintillator excited by XUV and UV radiation were acquired. Luminescence of the doped Ce 3+ ions was studied under 2.88 nm (430 eV) XUV excitation from the laser-produced nitrogen plasma, and compared with the luminescence under 337 nm (3.68 eV) UV excitation from nitrogen laser. In the former case the excitation energy is deposited in the LuAG host, while in the latter the 4f-5d 2 transition of Ce 3+ is directly excited. Furthermore, YAG:Ce and LuAG:Ce single crystals luminescence decay profiles are compared and discussed.

  20. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  1. Effect of Ion Flux (Dose Rate) in Source-Drain Extension Ion Implantation for 10-nm Node FinFET and Beyond on 300/450mm Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ming-Yi

    The improvement of wafer equipment productivity has been a continuous effort of the semiconductor industry. Higher productivity implies lower product price, which economically drives more demand from the market. This is desired by the semiconductor manufacturing industry. By raising the ion beam current of the ion implanter for 300/450mm platforms, it is possible to increase the throughput of the ion implanter. The resulting dose rate can be comparable to the performance of conventional ion implanters or higher, depending on beam current and beam size. Thus, effects caused by higher dose rate must be investigated further. One of the major applications of ion implantation (I/I) is source-drain extension (SDE) I/I for the silicon FinFET device. This study investigated the dose rate effects on the material properties and device performance of the 10-nm node silicon FinFET. In order to gain better understanding of the dose rate effects, the dose rate study is based on Synopsys Technology CAD (TCAD) process and device simulations that are calibrated and validated using available structural silicon fin samples. We have successfully shown that the kinetic monte carlo (KMC) I/I simulation can precisely model both the silicon amorphization and the arsenic distribution in the fin by comparing the KMC simulation results with TEM images. The results of the KMC I/I simulation show that at high dose rate more activated arsenic dopants were in the source-drain extension (SDE) region. This finding matches with the increased silicon amorphization caused by the high dose-rate I/I, given that the arsenic atoms could be more easily activated by the solid phase epitaxial regrowth process. This increased silicon amorphization led to not only higher arsenic activation near the spacer edge, but also less arsenic atoms straggling into the channel. Hence, it is possible to improve the throughput of the ion implanter when the dopants are implanted at high dose rate if the same doping level

  2. High-speed x-ray imaging with the Keck pixel array detector (Keck PAD) for time-resolved experiments at synchrotron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, Hugh T., E-mail: htp2@cornell.edu; Tate, Mark W.; Purohit, Prafull; Shanks, Katherine S.; Weiss, Joel T. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Chamberlain, Darol; Gruner, Sol M. [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Modern storage rings are readily capable of providing intense x-ray pulses, tens of picoseconds in duration, millions of times per second. Exploiting the temporal structure of these x-ray sources opens avenues for studying rapid structural changes in materials. Many processes (e.g. crack propagation, deformation on impact, turbulence, etc.) differ in detail from one sample trial to the next and would benefit from the ability to record successive x-ray images with single x-ray sensitivity while framing at 5 to 10 MHz rates. To this end, we have pursued the development of fast x-ray imaging detectors capable of collecting bursts of images that enable the isolation of single synchrotron bunches and/or bunch trains. The detector technology used is the hybrid pixel array detector (PAD) with a charge integrating front-end, and high-speed, in-pixel signal storage elements. A 384×256 pixel version, the Keck-PAD, with 150 µm × 150 µm pixels and 8 dedicated in-pixel storage elements is operational, has been tested at CHESS, and has collected data for compression wave studies. An updated version with 27 dedicated storage capacitors and identical pixel size has been fabricated.

  3. Field measurements and modeling to resolve m2 to km2 CH4 emissions for a complex urban source: An Indiana landfill study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Obiminda L. Cambaliza

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Large spatial and temporal uncertainties for landfill CH4 emissions remain unresolved by short-term field campaigns and historic greenhouse gas (GHG inventory models. Using four field methods (aircraft-based mass balance, tracer correlation, vertical radial plume mapping, static chambers and a new field-validated process-based model (California Landfill Methane Inventory Model, CALMIM 5.4, we investigated the total CH4 emissions from a central Indiana landfill as well as the partitioned emissions inclusive of methanotrophic oxidation for the various cover soils at the site. We observed close agreement between whole site emissions derived from the tracer correlation (8 to 13 mol s–1 and the aircraft mass balance approaches (7 and 17 mol s–1 that were statistically indistinguishable from the modeling result (12 ± 2 mol s–1 inclusive of oxidation. Our model calculations indicated that approximately 90% of the annual average CH4 emissions (11 ± 1 mol s–1; 2200 ± 250 g m–2 d–1 derived from the small daily operational area. Characterized by a thin overnight soil cover directly overlying a thick sequence of older methanogenic waste without biogas recovery, this area constitutes only 2% of the 0.7 km2 total waste footprint area. Because this Indiana landfill is an upwind source for Indianapolis, USA, the resolution of m2 to km2 scale emissions at various temporal scales contributes to improved regional inventories relevant for addressing GHG mitigation strategies. Finally, our comparison of measured to reported CH4 emissions under the US EPA National GHG Reporting program suggests the need to revisit the current IPCC (2006 GHG inventory methodology based on CH4 generation modeling. The reasonable prediction of emissions at individual U.S. landfills requires incorporation of both cover-specific landfill climate modeling (e.g., soil temperature/moisture variability over a typical annual cycle driving CH4 transport and oxidation rates as

  4. Indoor and outdoor sources of size-resolved mass concentration of particulate matter in a school gym-implications for exposure of exercising children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniš, Martin; Safránek, Jiří; Hytychová, Adéla

    2011-05-01

    activity is the main source of indoor emission of coarse particles. The fourth factor involved only outdoor variables showing the resuspension of coarse ambient aerosol on dry and warm days without its seeming effect on the indoor coarse PM levels. Having in mind that high concentrations of both fine and coarse aerosol were frequently observed in the studied space, our results suggest that indoor exercise in polluted urbanized areas may increase the overall exposure and thus represent a potential health risk to young individuals during physical education at schools.

  5. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  6. Turning an Extension Aide into an Extension Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seevers, Brenda; Dormody, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    For any organization to remain sustainable, a renewable source of faculty and staff needs to be available. The Extension Internship Program for Juniors and Seniors in High School is a new tool for recruiting and developing new Extension agents. Students get "hands on" experience working in an Extension office and earn college credit…

  7. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokmakoff, Andrei [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Champion, Paul [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Heilweil, Edwin J. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Nelson, Keith A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ziegler, Larry [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2009-05-14

    This document contains the Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, which was held in Meredith, NH from May 9-14, 2009. The study of molecular dynamics in chemical reaction and biological processes using time-resolved spectroscopy plays an important role in our understanding of energy conversion, storage, and utilization problems. Fundamental studies of chemical reactivity, molecular rearrangements, and charge transport are broadly supported by the DOE's Office of Science because of their role in the development of alternative energy sources, the understanding of biological energy conversion processes, the efficient utilization of existing energy resources, and the mitigation of reactive intermediates in radiation chemistry. In addition, time-resolved spectroscopy is central to all fiveof DOE's grand challenges for fundamental energy science. The Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy conference is organized biennially to bring the leaders in this field from around the globe together with young scientists to discuss the most recent scientific and technological advances. The latest technology in ultrafast infrared, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy and the scientific advances that these methods enable were covered. Particular emphasis was placed on new experimental methods used to probe molecular dynamics in liquids, solids, interfaces, nanostructured materials, and biomolecules.

  8. Dimension and extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Aarts, JM

    1993-01-01

    Two types of seemingly unrelated extension problems are discussed in this book. Their common focus is a long-standing problem of Johannes de Groot, the main conjecture of which was recently resolved. As is true of many important conjectures, a wide range of mathematical investigations had developed, which have been grouped into the two extension problems. The first concerns the extending of spaces, the second concerns extending the theory of dimension by replacing the empty space with other spaces. The problem of de Groot concerned compactifications of spaces by means of an adjunction of a set of minimal dimension. This minimal dimension was called the compactness deficiency of a space. Early success in 1942 lead de Groot to invent a generalization of the dimension function, called the compactness degree of a space, with the hope that this function would internally characterize the compactness deficiency which is a topological invariant of a space that is externally defined by means of compact extensions of a...

  9. Level of carbon dioxide diffuse degassing from the ground of Vesuvio: comparison between extensive surveys and inferences on the gas source

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Granieri; Maria Luisa Carapezza; Rosario Avino; Stefano Caliro; Carlo Cardellini; Giovanni Chiodini; Marco Donnini; Carmine Minopoli; Massimo Ranaldi; Tullio Ricci; Luca Tarchini

    2013-01-01

    An extensive campaign of diffuse CO2 soil flux was carried out at the cone of Vesuvio in October 2006 with two main objectives: 1) to provide an estimation of CO2 diffusely discharged through the soils in the summit area and 2) to evidence those sectors of the volcano where structural and morphological conditions could favour the gas output. The survey consisted of 502 measurements of soil CO2 flux homogenously distributed over an area of about 1.8 km2. Results of this survey were compared wi...

  10. Level of carbon dioxide diffuse degassing from the ground of Vesuvio: comparison between extensive surveys and inferences on the gas source

    OpenAIRE

    Granieri, D.; Carapezza, M. L.; Avino, R.; Caliro, S.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Donnini, M.; Minopoli, C.; Ranaldi, M.; Ricci, T.; Tarchini, L.

    2013-01-01

    An extensive campaign of diffuse CO2 soil flux was carried out at the cone of Vesuvio in October 2006 with two main objectives: 1) to provide an estimation of CO2 diffusely discharged through the soils in the summit area and 2) to evidence those sectors of the volcano where structural and morphological conditions could favour the gas output. The survey consisted of 502 measurements of soil CO2 flux homogenously distributed over an area of about 1.8 km2. Results of this surve...

  11. U.S. Tsunami Information technology (TIM) Modernization:Developing a Maintainable and Extensible Open Source Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, S. B.; Lisowski, S.; Baker, B.; Hagerty, M.; Lomax, A.; Leifer, J. M.; Thies, D. A.; Schnackenberg, A.; Barrows, J.

    2015-12-01

    Tsunami Information technology Modernization (TIM) is a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) project to update and standardize the earthquake and tsunami monitoring systems currently employed at the U.S. Tsunami Warning Centers in Ewa Beach, Hawaii (PTWC) and Palmer, Alaska (NTWC). While this project was funded by NOAA to solve a specific problem, the requirements that the delivered system be both open source and easily maintainable have resulted in the creation of a variety of open source (OS) software packages. The open source software is now complete and this is a presentation of the OS Software that has been funded by NOAA for benefit of the entire seismic community. The design architecture comprises three distinct components: (1) The user interface, (2) The real-time data acquisition and processing system and (3) The scientific algorithm library. The system follows a modular design with loose coupling between components. We now identify the major project constituents. The user interface, CAVE, is written in Java and is compatible with the existing National Weather Service (NWS) open source graphical system AWIPS. The selected real-time seismic acquisition and processing system is open source SeisComp3 (sc3). The seismic library (libseismic) contains numerous custom written and wrapped open source seismic algorithms (e.g., ML/mb/Ms/Mwp, mantle magnitude (Mm), w-phase moment tensor, bodywave moment tensor, finite-fault inversion, array processing). The seismic library is organized in a way (function naming and usage) that will be familiar to users of Matlab. The seismic library extends sc3 so that it can be called by the real-time system, but it can also be driven and tested outside of sc3, for example, by ObsPy or Earthworm. To unify the three principal components we have developed a flexible and lightweight communication layer called SeismoEdex.

  12. Estimation of parameters of finite seismic source model for selected event of West Bohemia year 2008 seismic swarm-methodology improvement and data extension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2015), s. 935-947 ISSN 1383-4649 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : West Bohemia 2008 seismic swarm * finite seismic source * stopping phases Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.550, year: 2015

  13. Operation: Inherent Resolve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Larsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet giver læseren indsigt i den internationale koalitions engagement mod IS igennem Operaton Inherent Resolve; herunder koalitionens strategi i forhold til IS strategi, ligesom det belyser kampagnens legalitet og folkeretlige grundlag, ligesom det giver et bud på overvejelser om kampagnens...

  14. Evaluation of Lactococcus lactis Isolates from Nondairy Sources with Potential Dairy Applications Reveals Extensive Phenotype-Genotype Disparity and Implications for a Revised Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Daniel; Casey, Aidan; Altermann, Eric; Cotter, Paul D; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; McAuliffe, Olivia

    2015-06-15

    Lactococcus lactis is predominantly associated with dairy fermentations, but evidence suggests that the domesticated organism originated from a plant niche. L. lactis possesses an unusual taxonomic structure whereby strain phenotypes and genotypes often do not correlate, which in turn has led to confusion in L. lactis classification. A bank of L. lactis strains was isolated from various nondairy niches (grass, vegetables, and bovine rumen) and was further characterized on the basis of key technological traits, including growth in milk and key enzyme activities. Phenotypic analysis revealed all strains from nondairy sources to possess an L. lactis subsp. lactis phenotype (lactis phenotype); however, seven of these strains possessed an L. lactis subsp. cremoris genotype (cremoris genotype), determined by two separate PCR assays. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed that strains with lactis and cremoris genotypes clustered together regardless of habitat, but it highlighted the increased diversity that exists among "wild" strains. Calculation of average nucleotide identity (ANI) and tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA), using the JSpecies software tool, revealed that L. lactis subsp. cremoris and L. lactis subsp. lactis differ in ANI values by ∼14%, below the threshold set for species circumscription. Further analysis of strain TIFN3 and strains from nonindustrial backgrounds revealed TETRA values of lactis taxonomy. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. 48 CFR 29.101 - Resolving tax problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (d) Before purchasing goods or services from a foreign source, the contracting officer should consult... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Resolving tax problems. 29... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES General 29.101 Resolving tax problems. (a) Contract tax problems are...

  16. Extensive air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M V S

    1997-01-01

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays carry information about their sources and the intervening medium apart from providing a beam of particles for studying certain features of high energy interactions currently inaccessible at man-made accelerators. They can at present be studied only via the extensive air showers (EAS's) they generate while passing through the Earth's atmosphere, since their fluxes are too low for the experiments of limited capability flown in balloons and satellites. The EAS is generated by a series of interactions of the primary cosmic ray and its progeny with the atmospheric nucle

  17. Highly resolving computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, B.; Petersen, D.; Walter, E.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of highly-resolving devices for computerized tomography, CT diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column has gained increasing importance. As an ambulatory, non-invasive method it has proved in comparative studies to be at least equivalent to myelography in the detection of dislocations of inter-vertebral disks (4,6,7,15). Because with modern devices not alone the bones, but especially the spinal soft part structures are clearly and precisely presented with a resolution of distinctly below 1 mm, a further improvement of the results is expected as experience will increase. The authors report on the diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column with the aid of a modern device for computerized tomography and wish to draw particular attention to the possibility of doing this investigation as a routine, and to the diagnostic value of secondary reconstructions. (BWU) [de

  18. Highly resolving computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, B.; Petersen, D.; Walter, E.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of highly-resolving devices for computerized tomography, CT diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column has gained increasing importance. As an ambulatory, non-invasive method it has proved in comparative studies to be at least equivalent to myelography in the detection of dislocations of inter-vertebral disks (4,6,7,15). Because with modern devices not alone the bones, but especially the spinal soft part structures are clearly and precisely presented with a resolution of distinctly below 1 mm, a further improvement of the results is expected as experience will increase. The authors report on the diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column with the aid of a modern device for computerized tomography and wish to draw particular attention to the possibility of doing this investigation as a routine, and to the diagnostic value of secondary reconstructions.

  19. Time-resolved brightness measurements by streaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Joshua S.; Speirs, Rory W.; McCulloch, Andrew J.; Scholten, Robert E.

    2018-03-01

    Brightness is a key figure of merit for charged particle beams, and time-resolved brightness measurements can elucidate the processes involved in beam creation and manipulation. Here we report on a simple, robust, and widely applicable method for the measurement of beam brightness with temporal resolution by streaking one-dimensional pepperpots, and demonstrate the technique to characterize electron bunches produced from a cold-atom electron source. We demonstrate brightness measurements with 145 ps temporal resolution and a minimum resolvable emittance of 40 nm rad. This technique provides an efficient method of exploring source parameters and will prove useful for examining the efficacy of techniques to counter space-charge expansion, a critical hurdle to achieving single-shot imaging of atomic scale targets.

  20. Resolving deconvolution ambiguity in gene alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubbell Earl

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For many gene structures it is impossible to resolve intensity data uniquely to establish abundances of splice variants. This was empirically noted by Wang et al. in which it was called a "degeneracy problem". The ambiguity results from an ill-posed problem where additional information is needed in order to obtain an unique answer in splice variant deconvolution. Results In this paper, we analyze the situations under which the problem occurs and perform a rigorous mathematical study which gives necessary and sufficient conditions on how many and what type of constraints are needed to resolve all ambiguity. This analysis is generally applicable to matrix models of splice variants. We explore the proposal that probe sequence information may provide sufficient additional constraints to resolve real-world instances. However, probe behavior cannot be predicted with sufficient accuracy by any existing probe sequence model, and so we present a Bayesian framework for estimating variant abundances by incorporating the prediction uncertainty from the micro-model of probe responsiveness into the macro-model of probe intensities. Conclusion The matrix analysis of constraints provides a tool for detecting real-world instances in which additional constraints may be necessary to resolve splice variants. While purely mathematical constraints can be stated without error, real-world constraints may themselves be poorly resolved. Our Bayesian framework provides a generic solution to the problem of uniquely estimating transcript abundances given additional constraints that themselves may be uncertain, such as regression fit to probe sequence models. We demonstrate the efficacy of it by extensive simulations as well as various biological data.

  1. Controleum - an independently extensible control system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Lykke Rytter

    2014-01-01

    challenging kind of system to design for independent extension. This thesis presents two new software technologies that improve the extensibility of control systems: First, the concept of dynamic links is introduced and Decouplink – an implementation of dynamic links for Java - is presented. Dynamic links...... is introduced, and an implementation is presented. The extensible controller is a component framework designed to automatically resolve conflicts among mutually unaware components in a control system. The solution is based on the idea that independent components implement different kinds of control concerns...

  2. Resolving inventory differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.H.; Clark, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Determining the cause of an inventory difference (ID) that exceeds warning or alarm limits should not only involve investigation into measurement methods and reexamination of the model assumptions used in the calculation of the limits, but also result in corrective actions that improve the quality of the accountability measurements. An example illustrating methods used by Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel to resolve an ID is presented that may be useful to other facilities faced with a similar problem. After first determining that no theft or diversion of material occurred and correcting any accountability calculation errors, investigation into the IDs focused on volume and analytical measurements, limit of error of inventory difference (LEID) modeling assumptions, and changes in the measurement procedures and methods prior to the alarm. There had been a gradual gain trend in IDs prior to the alarm which was reversed by the alarm inventory. The majority of the NM in the facility was stored in four large tanks which helped identify causes for the alarm. The investigation, while indicating no diversion or theft, resulted in changes in the analytical method and in improvements in the measurement and accountability that produced a 67% improvement in the LEID

  3. The Bern Simple Climate Model (BernSCM) v1.0: an extensible and fully documented open-source re-implementation of the Bern reduced-form model for global carbon cycle-climate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmann, Kuno M.; Joos, Fortunat

    2018-05-01

    The Bern Simple Climate Model (BernSCM) is a free open-source re-implementation of a reduced-form carbon cycle-climate model which has been used widely in previous scientific work and IPCC assessments. BernSCM represents the carbon cycle and climate system with a small set of equations for the heat and carbon budget, the parametrization of major nonlinearities, and the substitution of complex component systems with impulse response functions (IRFs). The IRF approach allows cost-efficient yet accurate substitution of detailed parent models of climate system components with near-linear behavior. Illustrative simulations of scenarios from previous multimodel studies show that BernSCM is broadly representative of the range of the climate-carbon cycle response simulated by more complex and detailed models. Model code (in Fortran) was written from scratch with transparency and extensibility in mind, and is provided open source. BernSCM makes scientifically sound carbon cycle-climate modeling available for many applications. Supporting up to decadal time steps with high accuracy, it is suitable for studies with high computational load and for coupling with integrated assessment models (IAMs), for example. Further applications include climate risk assessment in a business, public, or educational context and the estimation of CO2 and climate benefits of emission mitigation options.

  4. The Bern Simple Climate Model (BernSCM v1.0: an extensible and fully documented open-source re-implementation of the Bern reduced-form model for global carbon cycle–climate simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Strassmann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bern Simple Climate Model (BernSCM is a free open-source re-implementation of a reduced-form carbon cycle–climate model which has been used widely in previous scientific work and IPCC assessments. BernSCM represents the carbon cycle and climate system with a small set of equations for the heat and carbon budget, the parametrization of major nonlinearities, and the substitution of complex component systems with impulse response functions (IRFs. The IRF approach allows cost-efficient yet accurate substitution of detailed parent models of climate system components with near-linear behavior. Illustrative simulations of scenarios from previous multimodel studies show that BernSCM is broadly representative of the range of the climate–carbon cycle response simulated by more complex and detailed models. Model code (in Fortran was written from scratch with transparency and extensibility in mind, and is provided open source. BernSCM makes scientifically sound carbon cycle–climate modeling available for many applications. Supporting up to decadal time steps with high accuracy, it is suitable for studies with high computational load and for coupling with integrated assessment models (IAMs, for example. Further applications include climate risk assessment in a business, public, or educational context and the estimation of CO2 and climate benefits of emission mitigation options.

  5. Effectiveness of infection prevention measures featuring advanced source control and environmental cleaning to limit transmission of extremely-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Thai intensive care unit: An analysis before and after extensive flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Pinitchai, Uayporn; Warachan, Boonyasit; Warren, David K; Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Hayden, Mary K

    2014-02-01

    Advanced source control (once-daily bathing and 4-times daily oral care with chlorhexidine aqueous solution) and thorough environmental cleaning were implemented in response to an increased incidence of colonization and infection with extremely drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii in a Thai medical intensive care unit (MICU). During the 12-month baseline period (P1), contact isolation, active surveillance for XDR A baumannii, cohorting of XDR A baumannii patients, twice-daily environmental cleaning with detergent-disinfectant, and antibiotic stewardship were implemented. In the 5.5-month intervention period (P2), additional measures were introduced. Sodium hypochlorite was substituted for detergent-disinfectant, and advanced source control was implemented. All interventions except cleaning with sodium hypochlorite were continued during the 12.5-month follow-up period (P3). Extensive flooding necessitating closure of the hospital for 2 months occurred between P2 and P3. A total of 1,365 patients were studied. Compared with P1 (11.1 cases/1,000 patient-days), the rate of XDR A baumannii clinical isolates declined in P2 (1.74 cases/1,000 patient-days; P control and thorough environmental cleaning to limit colonization and infection with XDR A baumannii in MICUs in resource-limited settings. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sociologists in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, James A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The article describes the work activities of the extension sociologist, the relative advantage and disadvantage of extension roles in relation to teaching/research roles, and the relevance of sociological training and research for extension work. (NQ)

  7. Time-resolved studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    When new or more powerful probes become available that offer both shorter data-collection times and the opportunity to apply innovative approaches to established techniques, it is natural that investigators consider the feasibility of exploring the kinetics of time-evolving systems. This stimulating area of research not only can lead to insights into the metastable or excited states that a system may populate on its way to a ground state, but can also lead to a better understanding of that final state. Synchrotron radiation, with its unique properties, offers just such a tool to extend X-ray measurements from the static to the time-resolved regime. The most straight-forward application of synchrotron radiation to the study of transient phenomena is directly through the possibility of decreased data-collection times via the enormous increase in flux over that of a laboratory X-ray system. Even further increases in intensity can be obtained through the use of novel X-ray optical devices. Widebandpass monochromators, e.g., that utilize the continuous spectral distribution of synchrotron radiation, can increase flux on the sample several orders of magnitude over conventional X-ray optical systems thereby allowing a further shortening of the data-collection time. Another approach that uses the continuous spectral nature of synchrotron radiation to decrease data-collection times is the open-quote parallel data collectionclose quotes method. Using this technique, intensities as a function of X-ray energy are recorded simultaneously for all energies rather than sequentially recording data at each energy, allowing for a dramatic decrease in the data-collection time

  8. m-Accretive extensions of a sectorial operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlinskii, Yu M; Popov, A B [East-Ukrainian National University, Lugansk (Ukraine)

    2013-08-31

    A description of all the maximal accretive extensions and their resolvents is given for a densely defined closed sectorial operator in terms of abstract boundary conditions. These results are applied to parametrize all the m-accretive extensions of a symmetric operator in a planar model of one-centre point interaction. Bibliography: 40 titles.

  9. Resolvability of regional density structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonka, A.; Fichtner, A.

    2016-12-01

    Lateral density variations are the source of mass transport in the Earth at all scales, acting as drivers of convectivemotion. However, the density structure of the Earth remains largely unknown since classic seismic observables and gravityprovide only weak constraints with strong trade-offs. Current density models are therefore often based on velocity scaling,making strong assumptions on the origin of structural heterogeneities, which may not necessarily be correct. Our goal is to assessif 3D density structure may be resolvable with emerging full-waveform inversion techniques. We have previously quantified the impact of regional-scale crustal density structure on seismic waveforms with the conclusion that reasonably sized density variations within thecrust can leave a strong imprint on both travel times and amplitudes, and, while this can produce significant biases in velocity and Q estimates, the seismic waveform inversion for density may become feasible. In this study we performprincipal component analyses of sensitivity kernels for P velocity, S velocity, and density. This is intended to establish theextent to which these kernels are linearly independent, i.e. the extent to which the different parameters may be constrainedindependently. Since the density imprint we observe is not exclusively linked to travel times and amplitudes of specific phases,we consider waveform differences between complete seismograms. We test the method using a known smooth model of the crust and seismograms with clear Love and Rayleigh waves, showing that - as expected - the first principal kernel maximizes sensitivity to SH and SV velocity structure, respectively, and that the leakage between S velocity, P velocity and density parameter spaces is minimal in the chosen setup. Next, we apply the method to data from 81 events around the Iberian Penninsula, registered in total by 492 stations. The objective is to find a principal kernel which would maximize the sensitivity to density

  10. Indoor Measurement of Angle Resolved Light Absorption by Black Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amdemeskel, Mekbib Wubishet; Iandolo, Beniamino; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    Angle resolved optical spectroscopy of photovoltaic (PV) samples gives crucial information on PV panels under realistic working conditions. Here, we introduce measurements of angle resolved light absorption by PV cells, performed indoors using a collimated high radiance broadband light source. Our...... indoor method offers a significant simplification as compared to measurements by solar trackers. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we show characterization of black silicon solar cells. The experimental results showed stable and reliable optical responses that makes our setup suitable for indoor......, angle resolved characterization of solar cells....

  11. Spatially Resolved Circumnuclear Dust in Centaurus A

    OpenAIRE

    Karovska, Margarita; Marengo, Massimo; Elvis, Martin; Fazio, Giovanni; Hora, Joseph; Hinz, Philip; Hoffmann, William; Meyer, Michael; Mamajek, Eric

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present results from our exploratory mid-IR study of Centaurus A circumnuclear environment using high-angular resolution imaging at the Magellan 6.5m telescope with the MIRAC/BLINC camera. We detected emission from a compact region surrounding the nuclear source, and obtained photometry at 8.8 microns and in the N band. Our analysis suggests that the nuclear region is resolved with a size of approximately 3 pc. The mid-IR emission from this region is likely associated with co...

  12. Development of a high-resolution soft x-ray (30--1500 eV) beamline at the Advanced Light Source and its use for the study of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, W.R.A.

    1996-02-01

    ALS Bending magnet beamline 9.3.2 is for high resolution spectroscopy, with circularly polarized light. Fixed included-angle SGM uses three gratings for 30--1500 eV photons; circular polarization is produced by an aperture for selecting the beam above or below the horizontal plane. Photocurrent from upper and lower jaws of entrance slit sets a piezoelectric drive feedback loop on the vertically deflecting mirror for stable beam. End station has a movable platform. With photomeission data from Stanford, structure of c(2x2)P/Fe(100) was determined using angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS). Multiple-scattering spherical-wave (MSSW) calculations indicate that P atoms adsorb in fourfold hollow sites 1.02A above the first Fe layer. Self-consistent-field Xα scattered wave calculation confirm that the Fe 1 -Fe 2 space is contracted for S/Fe but not for P/Fe; comparison is made to atomic N and O on Fe(100). Final-state effects on ARPEFS curves used literature data from the S 1s and 2p core levels of c(2x2)S/Ni(001); a generalized Ramsauer-Townsend splitting is present in the 1s but not 2p data. An approximate method for analyzing ARPEFS data from a non-s initial state using only the higher-ell partial wave was tested successfully. ARPEFS data from clean surfaces were collected normal to Ni(111) (3p core levels) and 5 degree off-normal from Cu(111)(3s, 3p). Fourier transforms (FT) resemble adsorbate systems, showing backscattering signals from atoms up to 4 layers below emitters. 3p FTs show scattering from 6 nearest neighbors in the same crystal layer as the emitters. MSSW calulation indicate that Cu 3p photoemission is mostly d-wave. FTs also indicate double-scattering and single-scattering from laterally distant atoms; calculations indicate that the signal is dominated by photoemission from the first 2 crystal layers

  13. P 8: Table-top instrumentation for time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy of solids excited by soft X-ray from a laser induced plasma source and/or UV-VIS laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruza, P.; Fidler, V.; Nikl, M.

    2010-01-01

    The design and use of a novel, table-top UV-VIS luminescence spectrometer with two excitation sources is described: a soft X-ray/XUV pulse excitation from the laser-produced plasma in gas puff target of about 4 ns duration, and a conventional N 2 pulse laser excitation at 337 nm (or any other UV-VIS pulse laser excitation). The XUV plasma source generates photons of either quasi-monochromatic (N target, E = 430 eV) or wide (Ar target, E = 200 ∼ 600 eV) spectral range. A combination of both X-ray/XUV and UV-VIS excitation in one experimental apparatus allows to perform comparative luminescence spectra and kinetics measurements under the same experimental conditions. In order to demonstrate the spectrometer, the UV-VIS luminescence spectra and decay kinetics of cerium doped Lu 3 Al 5 O 12 single crystal (LuAG:Ce) scintillator excited by XUV and UV radiation were acquired. Luminescence of doped Ce 3+ ions was studied under XUV 430 eV excitation from the laser-produced nitrogen plasma, and compared with the luminescence under 337 nm (3,68 eV) UV excitation from nitrogen laser. In the former case the excitation energy is deposited in the LuAG host, while in the latter the 4f-5d transition of Ce 3+ is directly excited. Furthermore, LuAG:Ce single crystals and single crystalline films luminescence decay profiles are compared and discussed. (authors)

  14. newspapers' agricultural agenda setting and extension agents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    Keywords: Newspapers', agricultural, extension agents' agenda setting. ABSTRACT ... from the priorities of political or other interest groups to the news priorities of media ... people. The questions that arise are-: what are the sources operating for ... The ADPs presently adopt the training and visit (T & V) system of extension.

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Time-resolved ESR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckert, D.

    1986-06-01

    The time-resolved ESR spectroscopy is one of the modern methods in radiospectroscopy and plays an important role in solving various problems in chemistry and biology. Proceeding from the basic ideas of time-resolved ESR spectroscopy the experimental equipment is described generally including the equipment developed at the Central Institute of Isotope and Radiation Research. The experimental methods applied to the investigation of effects of chemically induced magnetic polarization of electrons and to kinetic studies of free radicals in polymer systems are presented. The theory of radical pair mechanism is discussed and theoretical expressions are summarized in a computer code to compute the theoretical polarization for each pair of the radicals

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Time-resolved quantitative phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verano-Braga, Thiago; Schwämmle, Veit; Sylvester, Marc

    2012-01-01

    proteins involved in the Ang-(1-7) signaling, we performed a mass spectrometry-based time-resolved quantitative phosphoproteome study of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) treated with Ang-(1-7). We identified 1288 unique phosphosites on 699 different proteins with 99% certainty of correct peptide...

  19. Resolving Ethical Issues at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninga, Jacques S.

    2013-01-01

    Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

  20. Theory of time-resolved inelastic x-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Ulf; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2010-01-01

    Starting from a general theory of time-resolved x-ray scattering, we derive a convenient expression for the diffraction signal based on a careful analysis of the relevant inelastic scattering processes. We demonstrate that the resulting inelastic limit applies to a wider variety of experimental...... conditions than similar, previously derived formulas, and it directly allows the application of selection rules when interpreting diffraction signals. Furthermore, we present a simple extension to systems simultaneously illuminated by x rays and a laser beam....

  1. Journal of Agricultural Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scope of journal The Journal of Agricultural Extension" is devoted to the advancement of knowledge of agricultural extension services and practice through the publication of original and empirically based research, ... Vol 22, No 1 (2018) ... Symbol recognition and interpretation of HIV/AIDS pictorial messages among rural ...

  2. Priorities for Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, J. A.

    Agricultural extension is one component in an array including research, training, education, marketing, international trade, etc. which develop together to bring about growth, and sustained growth determines the priorities for extension. These priorities depend inevitably on the stage of development of a country or region, and on the current…

  3. Nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negin, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear power industry's addressing of life extension is a natural trend in the maturation of this technology after 20 years of commercial operation. With increasing emphasis on how plants are operated, and less on how to build them, attention is turning on to maximizing the use of these substantial investments. The first studies of life extension were conducted in the period from 1978 and 1982. These were motivated by the initiation, by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), of studies to support decommissioning rulemaking. The basic conclusions of those early studies that life extension is feasible and worth pursuing have not been changed by the much more extensive investigations that have since been conducted. From an engineering perspective, life extension for nuclear plants is fundamentally the same as for fossil plants

  4. An x-ray detector for time-resolved studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodricks, B.; Brizard, C.; Clarke, R.; Lowe, W.

    1992-01-01

    The development of ultrahigh-brightness x-ray sources makes time-resolved x-ray studies more and more feasible. Improvements in x-ray optics components are also critical for obtaining the appropriate beam for a particular type of experiment. Moreover, fast parallel detectors will be essential in order to exploit the combination of high intensity x-ray sources and novel optics for time-resolved experiments. A CCD detector with a time resolution of microseconds has been developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). This detector is fully programmable using CAMAC electronics and a Micro Vax computer. The techniques of time-resolved x-ray studies, which include scattering, microradiography, microtomography, stroboscopy, etc., can be applied to a range of phenomena (including rapid thermal annealing, surface ordering, crystallization, and the kinetics of phase transition) in order to understand these time-dependent microscopic processes. Some of these applications will be illustrated by recent results performed at synchrotrons. New powerful x-ray sources now under construction offer the opportunity to apply innovative approaches in time-resolved work

  5. Minimum resolvable power contrast model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shuai; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    Signal-to-noise ratio and MTF are important indexs to evaluate the performance of optical systems. However,whether they are used alone or joint assessment cannot intuitively describe the overall performance of the system. Therefore, an index is proposed to reflect the comprehensive system performance-Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast (MRP) model. MRP is an evaluation model without human eyes. It starts from the radiance of the target and the background, transforms the target and background into the equivalent strips,and considers attenuation of the atmosphere, the optical imaging system, and the detector. Combining with the signal-to-noise ratio and the MTF, the Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast is obtained. Finally the detection probability model of MRP is given.

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Electroweak baryogenesis in extensions of the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromme, L.

    2006-07-07

    We investigate the generation of the baryon asymmetry in two extensions of the Standard Model; these are the {phi}{sup 6} and the two-Higgs-doublet model. Analyzing the thermal potential in the presence of CP violation, we find a strong first order phase transition for a wide range of parameters in both models. We compute the relevant bubble wall properties which then enter the transport equations. In non-supersymmetric models electroweak baryogenesis is dominated by top transport, which we treat in the WKB approximation. We calculate the CP-violating source terms starting from the Dirac equation. We show how to resolve discrepancies between this treatment and the computation in the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism. Furthermore, we keep inelastic scatterings of quarks and W bosons at a finite rate, which considerably affects the amount of the generated baryon asymmetry depending on the bubble wall velocity. In addition, we improve the transport equations by novel source terms which are generated by CP-conserving perturbations in the plasma. It turns out that their effect is relatively small. Both models under consideration predict a baryon to entropy ratio close to the observed value for a large part of the parameter space without being in conflict with constraints on electric dipole moments. (orig.)

  9. Electroweak baryogenesis in extensions of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromme, L.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the generation of the baryon asymmetry in two extensions of the Standard Model; these are the Φ 6 and the two-Higgs-doublet model. Analyzing the thermal potential in the presence of CP violation, we find a strong first order phase transition for a wide range of parameters in both models. We compute the relevant bubble wall properties which then enter the transport equations. In non-supersymmetric models electroweak baryogenesis is dominated by top transport, which we treat in the WKB approximation. We calculate the CP-violating source terms starting from the Dirac equation. We show how to resolve discrepancies between this treatment and the computation in the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism. Furthermore, we keep inelastic scatterings of quarks and W bosons at a finite rate, which considerably affects the amount of the generated baryon asymmetry depending on the bubble wall velocity. In addition, we improve the transport equations by novel source terms which are generated by CP-conserving perturbations in the plasma. It turns out that their effect is relatively small. Both models under consideration predict a baryon to entropy ratio close to the observed value for a large part of the parameter space without being in conflict with constraints on electric dipole moments. (orig.)

  10. Dettol: Managing Brand Extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Kumar Jaiswal; Arpita Srivastav; Dhwani Kothari

    2009-01-01

    This case is about evolution of a parent brand and its subsequent extensions into different product categories. Dettol as a brand has immense trust and loyalty from the consumers. Since the 1930s when Dettol was introduced in India, it has occupied a distinct position in the mind of its consumers. To achieve fast growth and leverage the strong brand equity of Dettol, Reckitt Benckiser India Limited (RBIL) rolled out a number of brand extensions. Some of these extensions such as Dettol soap an...

  11. Time-resolved suprathermal x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.H.Y.; Rosen, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    Temporally resolved x-ray spectra in the range of 1 to 20 keV have been obtained from gold disk targets irradiated by 1.06 μm laser pulses from the Argus facility. The x-ray streak camera used for the measurement has been calibrated for streak speed and dynamic range by using an air-gap Fabry-Perot etalon, and the instrument response has been calibrated using a multi-range monoenergetic x-ray source. The experimental results indicate that we are able to observe the ''hot'' x-ray temperature evolve in time and that the experimentally observed values can be qualitatively predicted by LASNEX code computations when the inhibited transport model is used

  12. Spacetime extensions Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, I.

    1991-09-01

    The problem of the existence of local extensions of spacetime is considered. It is shown that for a spacetime including an incomplete inextendible non-coiling causal geodesic curve there exists a particular C k (resp. C k- ) local extension provided that the curvature and its covariant derivatives are well behaved up to order k + 1 (resp. k) along a family of causal geodetics (around the chosen one). (R.P.) 15 refs

  13. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  14. Less extensive surgery compared to extensive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauszus, Finn F; Petersen, Astrid C; Neumann, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    -up by hospital data files, general practitioner, death certificate, and autopsy report. Revision of histopathology by a single pathologist. Main outcome measures: Survival and relapse by clinical data, stage, and type of surgery. RESULTS: The incidence of AGCT was 1.37 per year per 100,000 women (95% CI: 1.08, 1.......68). The median follow-up time was 15 years and for the 79 surviving women 22 years. Stage I was found in 94% of cases. Relapse occurred in 24% of women in stage I and 100% of the other stages. Survival in stage I was 95%, 89% and 84% after 5, 10 and 20 years respectively. Increased survival of stage I......: The survival of women was better in AGCT than in epithelial ovarian tumor. Age and type of surgery, besides stage, influenced survival. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is the recommended treatment with advancing age. At younger age less extensive surgery was associated...

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Mediation for resolving family disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamenecka-Usova M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the understanding of the institute of marriage and its importance in the society has changed. Marriage is no longer assumed to be a commitment for a lifetime. As the principle of equality has replaced hierarchy as the guiding principle of family law it gave more grounds for family disputes and it became socially acceptable to leave marriages that are intolerable or merely unfulfilling. The aim of this article is to suggest an alternative dispute resolution method-mediation as a worthy option for resolving family conflicts.

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Time-resolved and position-resolved X-ray spectrometry with a pixelated detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, Peter

    2012-12-07

    show a good agreement. Up to now the measurements of impinging spectra with a Timepix detector have been performed in radiation fields with a relatively high fluence. To cope with the requirement of measuring in radiation fields with a low fluence, there had to be changes in the method of analysis compared to those performed formerly. An important improvement in this context was the employment of the Bayesian deconvolution method. The spectra reconstructed with this method were then compared to the results of two different and established detection systems. Firstly, the shape of the deconvolved spectrum was compared to the one measured with a hpGe detector. Secondly, the calculated value of the kerma rate was compared to the one measured with an ionization chamber. This gave an estimate on the correctness of the absolute number of photons. Both comparisons have shown a good agreement and thus I was able to validate that the method delivers precise results. Compared to the formerly used spectrum-stripping method the Bayesian deconvolution turned out to be very stable and reliable. This robustness of the deconvolution method and the development of a pixel-by-pixel energy calibration were the keys towards position-resolved spectrometry. With such a precise energy calibration the energy resolution was enhanced by up to 45%. This improved accuracy in the measurement has been very demanding on the improvements of the simulation of the response matrix needed for deconvolution. Both this enhanced simulation and a pixel-by-pixel calibrated detector opened the possibility of measuring the anode heel effect. Not only the relative angular dependency of the spectrum emitted but also the change in the absolute photon fluence were measured. Furthermore, it is possible to even use small ROIs down to 4x4 pixels to evaluate a spectrum. This was then applied for the spectrometry of small focal spots of a miniature X-ray source used in therapeutics. Furthermore, the robustness and the

  12. Time-resolved and position-resolved X-ray spectrometry with a pixelated detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievers, Peter

    2012-01-01

    show a good agreement. Up to now the measurements of impinging spectra with a Timepix detector have been performed in radiation fields with a relatively high fluence. To cope with the requirement of measuring in radiation fields with a low fluence, there had to be changes in the method of analysis compared to those performed formerly. An important improvement in this context was the employment of the Bayesian deconvolution method. The spectra reconstructed with this method were then compared to the results of two different and established detection systems. Firstly, the shape of the deconvolved spectrum was compared to the one measured with a hpGe detector. Secondly, the calculated value of the kerma rate was compared to the one measured with an ionization chamber. This gave an estimate on the correctness of the absolute number of photons. Both comparisons have shown a good agreement and thus I was able to validate that the method delivers precise results. Compared to the formerly used spectrum-stripping method the Bayesian deconvolution turned out to be very stable and reliable. This robustness of the deconvolution method and the development of a pixel-by-pixel energy calibration were the keys towards position-resolved spectrometry. With such a precise energy calibration the energy resolution was enhanced by up to 45%. This improved accuracy in the measurement has been very demanding on the improvements of the simulation of the response matrix needed for deconvolution. Both this enhanced simulation and a pixel-by-pixel calibrated detector opened the possibility of measuring the anode heel effect. Not only the relative angular dependency of the spectrum emitted but also the change in the absolute photon fluence were measured. Furthermore, it is possible to even use small ROIs down to 4x4 pixels to evaluate a spectrum. This was then applied for the spectrometry of small focal spots of a miniature X-ray source used in therapeutics. Furthermore, the robustness and the

  13. Spatially-resolved measurement of optically stimulated luminescence and time-resolved luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailiff, I.K.; Mikhailik, V.B.

    2003-01-01

    Spatially-resolved measurements of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were performed using a two-dimensional scanning system designed for use with planar samples. The scanning system employs a focused laser beam to stimulate a selected area of the sample, which is moved under the beam by a motorised stage. Exposure of the sample is controlled by an electronic shutter. Mapping of the distribution of OSL using a continuous wave laser source was obtained with sub-millimeter resolution for samples of sliced brick, synthetic single crystal quartz, concrete and dental ceramic. These revealed sporadic emission in the case of brick or concrete and significant spatial variation of emission for quartz and dental ceramic slices. Determinations of absorbed dose were performed for quartz grains within a slice of modern brick. Reconfiguration of the scanner with a pulsed laser source enabled quartz and feldspathic minerals within a ceramic sample to be thinner region. about 6 nm from the extrapolation of themeasuring the time-resolved luminescence spectrum

  14. Android Access Control Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Baláž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to analyze and extend security model of mobile devices running on Android OS. Provided security extension is a Linux kernel security module that allows the system administrator to restrict program's capabilities with per-program profiles. Profiles can allow capabilities like network access, raw socket access, and the permission to read, write, or execute files on matching paths. Module supplements the traditional Android capability access control model by providing mandatory access control (MAC based on path. This extension increases security of access to system objects in a device and allows creating security sandboxes per application.

  15. Life extension economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithling, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    Life extension economic analyses of fossil fueled power plants need the development of consistent methods which consider the capital costs associated with component replacement or repair and estimates of normal station capital expenditures over the units remaining life. In order to link capital and production costs, Niagra Mohawk Power Corp. develops most and worst cases. A most case includes capital components that would definitely need replacement or modification for life extension. The worst case scenario contains must case capital costs plus various components which may need replacement or modification. In addition, two forecasted conditions are used, base case capacity and low capacity

  16. Resolvent-based feedback control for turbulent friction drag reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagoe, Aika; Nakashima, Satoshi; Luhar, Mitul; Fukagata, Koji

    2017-11-01

    Suboptimal control for turbulent friction drag reduction has been studied extensively. Nakashima et al. (accepted) extended resolvent analysis to suboptimal control, and for the control where the streamwise wall shear stress is used as an input (Case ST), they revealed the control effect across spectral space is mixed: there are regions of drag increase as well as reduction. This suggests that control performance may be improved if the control is applied for selective wavelengths, or if a new law is designed to suppress the spectral region leading to drag increase. In the present study, we first assess the effect of suboptimal control for selective wavelengths via DNS. The friction Reynolds number is set at 180. For Case ST, resolvent analysis predicts drag reduction at long streamwise wavelengths. DNS with control applied only for this spectral region, however, did not result in drag reduction. Then, we seek an effective control law using resolvent analysis and propose a new law. DNS results for this law are consistent with predictions from resolvent analysis, and about 10% drag reduction is attained. Further, we discuss how this law reduces the drag from a dynamical and theoretical point of view. This work was supported through Grant-in-Aid for Scientic Research (C) (No. 25420129) by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

  17. Extension spatiale de la salinisation des ressources en eau et modèle conceptuel des sources salées dans la plaine des Triffa (Maroc nord-oriental)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughriba, Mimoun; Melloul, Abderrahmane; Zarhloule, Yassine; Ouardi, Abdelillah

    2006-09-01

    The succession of drought years and excessive abstraction in the plain of Triffa caused deterioration in water quality and endangers future exploitation of groundwater resources. A combination of geophysical surveys, including electrical resistivity and hydrochemical data has been used to identify the geographical extension of salinization and identify its origin. Electrical conductivity measurements are used to show the history of salinization in space and time. In this paper, a first conceptual model of the brackish springs has been established. To cite this article: M. Boughriba et al., C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  18. Mobile Applications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile computing devices (smart phones, tablets, etc.) are rapidly becoming the dominant means of communication worldwide and are increasingly being used for scientific investigation. This technology can further our Extension mission by increasing our power for data collection, information dissemination, and informed decision-making. Mobile…

  19. Depth-resolved incoherent and coherent wide-field high-content imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Peter T.

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in depth-resolved wide-field imaging technique has enabled many high throughput applications in biology and medicine. Depth resolved imaging of incoherent signals can be readily accomplished with structured light illumination or nonlinear temporal focusing. The integration of these high throughput systems with novel spectroscopic resolving elements further enable high-content information extraction. We will introduce a novel near common-path interferometer and demonstrate its uses in toxicology and cancer biology applications. The extension of incoherent depth-resolved wide-field imaging to coherent modality is non-trivial. Here, we will cover recent advances in wide-field 3D resolved mapping of refractive index, absorbance, and vibronic components in biological specimens.

  20. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Thomas; Mialocq, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the evolution in time of light emitted by a molecular system after a brief photo-excitation. The authors first describe fluorescence from a photo-physical point of view and discuss the characterization of the excited state. Then, they explain some basic notions related to fluorescence characterization (lifetime and decays, quantum efficiency, so on). They present the different experimental methods and techniques currently used to study time-resolved fluorescence. They discuss basic notions of time resolution and spectral reconstruction. They briefly present some conventional methods: intensified Ccd cameras, photo-multipliers and photodiodes associated with a fast oscilloscope, and phase modulation. Other methods and techniques are more precisely presented: time-correlated single photon counting (principle, examples, and fluorescence lifetime imagery), streak camera (principle, examples), and optical methods like the Kerr optical effect (principle and examples) and fluorescence up-conversion (principle and theoretical considerations, examples of application)

  1. Source and replica calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalen, P.P.

    1994-01-01

    The starting point of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki Dose Reevaluation Program is the energy and directional distributions of the prompt neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from the exploding bombs. A brief introduction to the neutron source calculations is presented. The development of our current understanding of the source problem is outlined. It is recommended that adjoint calculations be used to modify source spectra to resolve the neutron discrepancy problem

  2. Continuous Flow Hygroscopicity-Resolved Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (Hy-Res REA) Method of Measuring Size-Resolved Sea-Salt Particle Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, N.; Royalty, T. M.; Phillips, B.; Dawson, K. W.; Petters, M. D.; Reed, R.; Weinstein, J.; Hook, D.; Wiener, R.

    2017-12-01

    The accurate representation of aerosols in climate models requires direct ambient measurement of the size- and composition-dependent particle production fluxes. Here we present the design, testing, and analysis of data collected through the first instrument capable of measuring hygroscopicity-based, size-resolved particle fluxes using a continuous-flow Hygroscopicity-Resolved Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (Hy-Res REA) technique. The different components of the instrument were extensively tested inside the US Environmental Protection Agency's Aerosol Test Facility for sea-salt and ammoniums sulfate particle fluxes. The new REA system design does not require particle accumulation, therefore avoids the diffusional wall losses associated with long residence times of particles inside the air collectors of the traditional REA devices. The Hy-Res REA system used in this study includes a 3-D sonic anemometer, two fast-response solenoid valves, two Condensation Particle Counters (CPCs), a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), and a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA). A linear relationship was found between the sea-salt particle fluxes measured by eddy covariance and REA techniques, with comparable theoretical (0.34) and measured (0.39) proportionality constants. The sea-salt particle detection limit of the Hy-Res REA flux system is estimated to be 6x105 m-2s-1. For the conditions of ammonium sulfate and sea-salt particles of comparable source strength and location, the continuous-flow Hy-Res REA instrument was able to achieve better than 90% accuracy of measuring the sea-salt particle fluxes. In principle, the instrument can be applied to measure fluxes of particles of variable size and distinct hygroscopic properties (i.e., mineral dust, black carbon, etc.).

  3. Extension without Cut

    OpenAIRE

    Straßburger , Lutz

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In proof theory one distinguishes sequent proofs with cut and cut-free sequent proofs, while for proof complexity one distinguishes Frege-systems and extended Frege-systems. In this paper we show how deep inference can provide a uniform treatment for both classifications, such that we can define cut-free systems with extension, which is neither possible with Frege-systems, nor with the sequent calculus. We show that the propositional pigeon-hole principle admits polyno...

  4. The RATIO method for time-resolved Laue crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, P.; Pitak, M.; Gembicky, M.; Messerschmidt, M.; Scheins, S.; Benedict, J.; Adachi, S.-I.; Sato, T.; Nozawa, S.; Ichiyanagi, K.; Chollet, M.; Koshihara, S.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    A RATIO method for analysis of intensity changes in time-resolved pump-probe Laue diffraction experiments is described. The method eliminates the need for scaling the data with a wavelength curve representing the spectral distribution of the source and removes the effect of possible anisotropic absorption. It does not require relative scaling of series of frames and removes errors due to all but very short term fluctuations in the synchrotron beam.

  5. Performance evaluation of the Champagne source reconstruction algorithm on simulated and real M/EEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Julia P; Wipf, David P; Attias, Hagai T; Sekihara, Kensuke; Nagarajan, Srikantan S

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present an extensive performance evaluation of a novel source localization algorithm, Champagne. It is derived in an empirical Bayesian framework that yields sparse solutions to the inverse problem. It is robust to correlated sources and learns the statistics of non-stimulus-evoked activity to suppress the effect of noise and interfering brain activity. We tested Champagne on both simulated and real M/EEG data. The source locations used for the simulated data were chosen to test the performance on challenging source configurations. In simulations, we found that Champagne outperforms the benchmark algorithms in terms of both the accuracy of the source localizations and the correct estimation of source time courses. We also demonstrate that Champagne is more robust to correlated brain activity present in real MEG data and is able to resolve many distinct and functionally relevant brain areas with real MEG and EEG data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Improving Generation Y Volunteerism in Extension Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Kevin B.; Lockett, Landry L.

    2013-01-01

    Members of Generation Y have many positive attributes that make them attractive to Extension volunteer administrators as a potential source of labor. However, they think differently, have unique needs, require new management styles, and have less tolerance for unpleasant working conditions than previous generations. Additionally, they are engaged…

  7. JESS: Java extensible snakes system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Tim; Akhavan Sharif, M. Reza; Pashotanizadeh, Nasrin

    2005-04-01

    Snakes (Active Contour Models) are powerful model-based image segmentation tools. Although researchers have proven them especially useful in medical image analysis over the past decade, Snakes have remained primarily in the academic world and they have not become widely used in clinical practice or widely available in commercial packages. A number of confusing and specialized variants exist and there has been no standard open-source implementation available. To address this problem, we present a Java Extensible Snakes System (JESS) that is general, portable, and extensible. The system uses Java Swing classes to allow for the rapid development of custom graphical user interfaces (GUI's). It also incorporates the Java Advanced Imaging(JAI) class library, which provide custom image preprocessing, image display and general image I/O. The Snakes algorithm itself is written in a hierarchical fashion, consisting of a general Snake class and several subclasses that span the main variants of Snakes including a new, powerful, robust subdivision-curve Snake. These subclasses can be easily and quickly extended and customized for any specific segmentation and analysis task. We demonstrate the utility of these classes for segmenting various anatomical structures from 2D medical images. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of JESS by using it to rapidly build a prototype semi-automatic sperm analysis system. The JESS software will be made publicly available in early 2005.

  8. Extensible Systems Dynamics Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brooks, Christopher; Lee, Edward A

    2008-01-01

    .... The Pedigree Management and Assessment Framework (PMAF) enables the publisher of information to record standard pedigree, such as information about the source, manner of collection, and the chain of modification of that information...

  9. Comments on advanced, time-resolved imaging techniques for free-electron laser (FEL) experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    An extensive set of time-resolved imaging experiments has been performed on rf-linac driven free-electron lasers (FELs) over the past few years. These experiments have addressed both micropulse and macropulse timescales on both the charged-particle beam and the wiggler/undulator outputs (spontaneous emission and lasing). A brief review of first measurements on photoinjecter micropulse elongation, submacropulse phase slew in drive lasers, submacropulse wavelength shifts in lasers, etc. is presented. This is followed by discussions of new measurements of 35-MeV electron beam micropulse bunch length (<10 ps) using optical transition radiation, some of the first single bend synchrotron radiation beam profile measurements at gamma <80, and comments on the low-jitter synchroscan streak camera tuner. These techniques will be further developed on the 200-650 MeV linac test stand at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in the next few years. Such techniques should be adaptable to many of the present FEL designs and to some aspects of the next generation of light sources.

  10. Comments on advanced, time-resolved imaging techniques for free-electron laser (FEL) experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A.H.

    1992-11-01

    An extensive set of time-resolved imaging experiments has been performed on rf-linac driven free-electron lasers (FELs) over the past few years. These experiments have addressed both micropulse and macropulse timescales on both the charged-particle beam and the wiggler/undulator outputs (spontaneous emission and lasing). A brief review of first measurements on photoinjecter micropulse elongation, submacropulse phase slew in drive lasers, submacropulse wavelength shifts in lasers, etc. is presented. This is followed by discussions of new measurements of 35-MeV electron beam micropulse bunch length (<10 ps) using optical transition radiation, some of the first single bend synchrotron radiation beam profile measurements at gamma <80, and comments on the low-jitter synchroscan streak camera tuner. These techniques will be further developed on the 200-650 MeV linac test stand at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in the next few years. Such techniques should be adaptable to many of the present FEL designs and to some aspects of the next generation of light sources.

  11. The Chandra Source Catalog : Automated Source Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, Roger; Evans, I. N.; Evans, J. D.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Anderson, C. S.; Bonaventura, N. R.; Chen, J. C.; Davis, J. E.; Doe, S. M.; Fabbiano, G.; Galle, E.; Gibbs, D. G.; Grier, J. D.; Hall, D. M.; Harbo, P. N.; He, X.; Houck, J. C.; Karovska, M.; Lauer, J.; McCollough, M. L.; McDowell, J. C.; Miller, J. B.; Mitschang, A. W.; Morgan, D. L.; Nichols, J. S.; Nowak, M. A.; Plummer, D. A.; Primini, F. A.; Refsdal, B. L.; Rots, A. H.; Siemiginowska, A. L.; Sundheim, B. A.; Tibbetts, M. S.; Van Stone, D. W.; Winkelman, S. L.; Zografou, P.

    2009-01-01

    Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) master source pipeline processing seeks to automatically detect sources and compute their properties. Since Chandra is a pointed mission and not a sky survey, different sky regions are observed for a different number of times at varying orientations, resolutions, and other heterogeneous conditions. While this provides an opportunity to collect data from a potentially large number of observing passes, it also creates challenges in determining the best way to combine different detection results for the most accurate characterization of the detected sources. The CSC master source pipeline correlates data from multiple observations by updating existing cataloged source information with new data from the same sky region as they become available. This process sometimes leads to relatively straightforward conclusions, such as when single sources from two observations are similar in size and position. Other observation results require more logic to combine, such as one observation finding a single, large source and another identifying multiple, smaller sources at the same position. We present examples of different overlapping source detections processed in the current version of the CSC master source pipeline. We explain how they are resolved into entries in the master source database, and examine the challenges of computing source properties for the same source detected multiple times. Future enhancements are also discussed. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC).

  12. Resolving Nuclear Reactor Lifetime Extension Questions: A Combined Multiscale Modeling and Positron Characterization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, B; Asoka-Kumar, P; Denison, A; Glade, S; Howell, R; Marian, J; Odette, G; Sterne, P

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the chemical composition of nanometer precipitates responsible for irradiation hardening and embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steels, which threaten to limit the operating lifetime of nuclear power plants worldwide. The scientific approach incorporates computational multiscale modeling of radiation damage and microstructural evolution in Fe-Cu-Ni-Mn alloys, and experimental characterization by positron annihilation spectroscopy and small angle neutron scattering. The modeling and experimental results are

  13. Continuous multivariate exponential extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, H.W.

    1975-01-01

    The Freund-Weinman multivariate exponential extension is generalized to the case of nonidentically distributed marginal distributions. A fatal shock model is given for the resulting distribution. Results in the bivariate case and the concept of constant multivariate hazard rate lead to a continuous distribution related to the multivariate exponential distribution (MVE) of Marshall and Olkin. This distribution is shown to be a special case of the extended Freund-Weinman distribution. A generalization of the bivariate model of Proschan and Sullo leads to a distribution which contains both the extended Freund-Weinman distribution and the MVE

  14. Fully Resolved Simulations of 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryggvason, Gretar; Xia, Huanxiong; Lu, Jiacai

    2017-11-01

    Numerical simulations of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) (or Fused Filament Fabrication) where a filament of hot, viscous polymer is deposited to ``print'' a three-dimensional object, layer by layer, are presented. A finite volume/front tracking method is used to follow the injection, cooling, solidification and shrinking of the filament. The injection of the hot melt is modeled using a volume source, combined with a nozzle, modeled as an immersed boundary, that follows a prescribed trajectory. The viscosity of the melt depends on the temperature and the shear rate and the polymer becomes immobile as its viscosity increases. As the polymer solidifies, the stress is found by assuming a hyperelastic constitutive equation. The method is described and its accuracy and convergence properties are tested by grid refinement studies for a simple setup involving two short filaments, one on top of the other. The effect of the various injection parameters, such as nozzle velocity and injection velocity are briefly examined and the applicability of the approach to simulate the construction of simple multilayer objects is shown. The role of fully resolved simulations for additive manufacturing and their use for novel processes and as the ``ground truth'' for reduced order models is discussed.

  15. Presentation Extensions of the SOAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnright, Robert; Stodden, David; Coggi, John

    2009-01-01

    A set of extensions of the Satellite Orbit Analysis Program (SOAP) enables simultaneous and/or sequential presentation of information from multiple sources. SOAP is used in the aerospace community as a means of collaborative visualization and analysis of data on planned spacecraft missions. The following definitions of terms also describe the display modalities of SOAP as now extended: In SOAP terminology, View signifies an animated three-dimensional (3D) scene, two-dimensional still image, plot of numerical data, or any other visible display derived from a computational simulation or other data source; a) "Viewport" signifies a rectangular portion of a computer-display window containing a view; b) "Palette" signifies a collection of one or more viewports configured for simultaneous (split-screen) display in the same window; c) "Slide" signifies a palette with a beginning and ending time and an animation time step; and d) "Presentation" signifies a prescribed sequence of slides. For example, multiple 3D views from different locations can be crafted for simultaneous display and combined with numerical plots and other representations of data for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The resulting sets of views can be temporally sequenced to convey visual impressions of a sequence of events for a planned mission.

  16. Imposing resolved turbulence in CFD simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, L.; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2011-01-01

    In large‐eddy simulations, the inflow velocity field should contain resolved turbulence. This paper describes and analyzes two methods for imposing resolved turbulence in the interior of the domain in Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations. The intended application of the methods is to impose...

  17. Ground System Extensibility Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Greene, E.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners, such as NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS), NOAA's current POES, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of national and international missions, including command and control, mission management, data acquisition and routing, and environmental data processing and distribution. The current suite of CGS-supported missions has demonstrated the value of interagency and international partnerships to address global observation needs. With its established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS is extensible to a wider array of potential new missions. This paper will describe how the inherent scalability and extensibility of the CGS enables the addition of these new missions, with an eye on global enterprise needs in the 2020's and beyond.

  18. SaDA: From Sampling to Data Analysis-An Extensible Open Source Infrastructure for Rapid, Robust and Automated Management and Analysis of Modern Ecological High-Throughput Microarray Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kumar Saurabh; Thual, Dominique; Spurio, Roberto; Cannata, Nicola

    2015-06-03

    One of the most crucial characteristics of day-to-day laboratory information management is the collection, storage and retrieval of information about research subjects and environmental or biomedical samples. An efficient link between sample data and experimental results is absolutely important for the successful outcome of a collaborative project. Currently available software solutions are largely limited to large scale, expensive commercial Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS). Acquiring such LIMS indeed can bring laboratory information management to a higher level, but most of the times this requires a sufficient investment of money, time and technical efforts. There is a clear need for a light weighted open source system which can easily be managed on local servers and handled by individual researchers. Here we present a software named SaDA for storing, retrieving and analyzing data originated from microorganism monitoring experiments. SaDA is fully integrated in the management of environmental samples, oligonucleotide sequences, microarray data and the subsequent downstream analysis procedures. It is simple and generic software, and can be extended and customized for various environmental and biomedical studies.

  19. SaDA: From Sampling to Data Analysis—An Extensible Open Source Infrastructure for Rapid, Robust and Automated Management and Analysis of Modern Ecological High-Throughput Microarray Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kumar Saurabh; Thual, Dominique; Spurio, Roberto; Cannata, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    One of the most crucial characteristics of day-to-day laboratory information management is the collection, storage and retrieval of information about research subjects and environmental or biomedical samples. An efficient link between sample data and experimental results is absolutely important for the successful outcome of a collaborative project. Currently available software solutions are largely limited to large scale, expensive commercial Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS). Acquiring such LIMS indeed can bring laboratory information management to a higher level, but most of the times this requires a sufficient investment of money, time and technical efforts. There is a clear need for a light weighted open source system which can easily be managed on local servers and handled by individual researchers. Here we present a software named SaDA for storing, retrieving and analyzing data originated from microorganism monitoring experiments. SaDA is fully integrated in the management of environmental samples, oligonucleotide sequences, microarray data and the subsequent downstream analysis procedures. It is simple and generic software, and can be extended and customized for various environmental and biomedical studies. PMID:26047146

  20. SaDA: From Sampling to Data Analysis—An Extensible Open Source Infrastructure for Rapid, Robust and Automated Management and Analysis of Modern Ecological High-Throughput Microarray Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Saurabh Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most crucial characteristics of day-to-day laboratory information management is the collection, storage and retrieval of information about research subjects and environmental or biomedical samples. An efficient link between sample data and experimental results is absolutely important for the successful outcome of a collaborative project. Currently available software solutions are largely limited to large scale, expensive commercial Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS. Acquiring such LIMS indeed can bring laboratory information management to a higher level, but most of the times this requires a sufficient investment of money, time and technical efforts. There is a clear need for a light weighted open source system which can easily be managed on local servers and handled by individual researchers. Here we present a software named SaDA for storing, retrieving and analyzing data originated from microorganism monitoring experiments. SaDA is fully integrated in the management of environmental samples, oligonucleotide sequences, microarray data and the subsequent downstream analysis procedures. It is simple and generic software, and can be extended and customized for various environmental and biomedical studies.

  1. Numerical simulations of time-resolved quantum electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaury, Benoit; Weston, Joseph; Santin, Matthieu; Houzet, Manuel; Groth, Christoph; Waintal, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulation has become a major tool in quantum electronics both for fundamental and applied purposes. While for a long time those simulations focused on stationary properties (e.g. DC currents), the recent experimental trend toward GHz frequencies and beyond has triggered a new interest for handling time-dependent perturbations. As the experimental frequencies get higher, it becomes possible to conceive experiments which are both time-resolved and fast enough to probe the internal quantum dynamics of the system. This paper discusses the technical aspects–mathematical and numerical–associated with the numerical simulations of such a setup in the time domain (i.e. beyond the single-frequency AC limit). After a short review of the state of the art, we develop a theoretical framework for the calculation of time-resolved observables in a general multiterminal system subject to an arbitrary time-dependent perturbation (oscillating electrostatic gates, voltage pulses, time-varying magnetic fields, etc.) The approach is mathematically equivalent to (i) the time-dependent scattering formalism, (ii) the time-resolved non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) formalism and (iii) the partition-free approach. The central object of our theory is a wave function that obeys a simple Schrödinger equation with an additional source term that accounts for the electrons injected from the electrodes. The time-resolved observables (current, density, etc.) and the (inelastic) scattering matrix are simply expressed in terms of this wave function. We use our approach to develop a numerical technique for simulating time-resolved quantum transport. We find that the use of this wave function is advantageous for numerical simulations resulting in a speed up of many orders of magnitude with respect to the direct integration of NEGF equations. Our technique allows one to simulate realistic situations beyond simple models, a subject that was until now beyond the simulation

  2. Spatially resolved remote measurement of temperature by neutron resonance absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kockelmann, W.; Pooley, D.E. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, ISIS Facility, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Feller, W.B. [NOVA Scientific, Inc., 10 Picker Road, Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States)

    2015-12-11

    Deep penetration of neutrons into most engineering materials enables non-destructive studies of their bulk properties. The existence of sharp resonances in neutron absorption spectra enables isotopically-resolved imaging of elements present in a sample, as demonstrated by previous studies. At the same time the Doppler broadening of resonance peaks provides a method of remote measurement of temperature distributions within the same sample. This technique can be implemented at a pulsed neutron source with a short initial pulse allowing for the measurement of the energy of each registered neutron by the time of flight technique. A neutron counting detector with relatively high timing and spatial resolution is used to demonstrate the possibility to obtain temperature distributions across a 100 µm Ta foil with ~millimeter spatial resolution. Moreover, a neutron transmission measurement over a wide energy range can provide spatially resolved sample information such as temperature, elemental composition and microstructure properties simultaneously.

  3. Spacetime extensions II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, Istvan, E-mail: iracz@rmki.kfki.h [RMKI, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33 (Hungary)

    2010-08-07

    The global extendibility of smooth causal geodesically incomplete spacetimes is investigated. Denote by {gamma} one of the incomplete non-extendible causal geodesics of a causal geodesically incomplete spacetime (M, g{sub ab}). First, it is shown that it is always possible to select a synchronized family of causal geodesics {Gamma} and an open neighbourhood U of a final segment of {gamma} in M such that U comprises members of {Gamma}, and suitable local coordinates can be defined everywhere on U provided that {gamma} does not terminate either on a tidal force tensor singularity or on a topological singularity. It is also shown that if, in addition, the spacetime (M, g{sub ab}) is globally hyperbolic, and the components of the curvature tensor, and its covariant derivatives up to order k - 1 are bounded on U, and also the line integrals of the components of the kth-order covariant derivatives are finite along the members of {Gamma}-where all the components are meant to be registered with respect to a synchronized frame field on U-then there exists a C{sup k-} extension {Phi} : (M,g{sub ab}) {yields}(M,g{sub ab}) so that for each {gamma}-bar from {Gamma}, which is inextendible in (M, g{sub ab}), the image, {Phi}{gamma}-bar, is extendible in (M,g{sub ab}). Finally, it is also proved that whenever {gamma} does terminate on a topological singularity (M, g{sub ab}) cannot be generic.

  4. Web Extensible Display Manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slominski, Ryan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Larrieu, Theodore L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Jefferson Lab's Web Extensible Display Manager (WEDM) allows staff to access EDM control system screens from a web browser in remote offices and from mobile devices. Native browser technologies are leveraged to avoid installing and managing software on remote clients such as browser plugins, tunnel applications, or an EDM environment. Since standard network ports are used firewall exceptions are minimized. To avoid security concerns from remote users modifying a control system, WEDM exposes read-only access and basic web authentication can be used to further restrict access. Updates of monitored EPICS channels are delivered via a Web Socket using a web gateway. The software translates EDM description files (denoted with the edl suffix) to HTML with Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) following the EDM's edl file vector drawing rules to create faithful screen renderings. The WEDM server parses edl files and creates the HTML equivalent in real-time allowing existing screens to work without modification. Alternatively, the familiar drag and drop EDM screen creation tool can be used to create optimized screens sized specifically for smart phones and then rendered by WEDM.

  5. extension communication and farmers' adoption of yam production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ita

    training on seed yam multiplication and small size nature of yam minisett, while ... contact farmers, posters, bulletins and radio served as sources of information to ... KEY WORDS: Adoption, Communication, Channels, Extension, Production, ...

  6. Lessons from the Malawi Agroforestry Extension Project Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The study examined the factors affecting agroforestry technology upscaling and .... This means that farmers whose main source of income is crop sales are .... depended on the performance and commitment of the agricultural extension staff in.

  7. Pump laser-induced space-charge effects in HHG-driven time- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oloff, L.-P., E-mail: oloff@physik.uni-kiel.de; Hanff, K.; Stange, A.; Rohde, G.; Diekmann, F.; Bauer, M.; Rossnagel, K., E-mail: rossnagel@physik.uni-kiel.de [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-06-14

    With the advent of ultrashort-pulsed extreme ultraviolet sources, such as free-electron lasers or high-harmonic-generation (HHG) sources, a new research field for photoelectron spectroscopy has opened up in terms of femtosecond time-resolved pump-probe experiments. The impact of the high peak brilliance of these novel sources on photoemission spectra, so-called vacuum space-charge effects caused by the Coulomb interaction among the photoemitted probe electrons, has been studied extensively. However, possible distortions of the energy and momentum distributions of the probe photoelectrons caused by the low photon energy pump pulse due to the nonlinear emission of electrons have not been studied in detail yet. Here, we systematically investigate these pump laser-induced space-charge effects in a HHG-based experiment for the test case of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Specifically, we determine how the key parameters of the pump pulse—the excitation density, wavelength, spot size, and emitted electron energy distribution—affect the measured time-dependent energy and momentum distributions of the probe photoelectrons. The results are well reproduced by a simple mean-field model, which could open a path for the correction of pump laser-induced space-charge effects and thus toward probing ultrafast electron dynamics in strongly excited materials.

  8. Design extension conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bujor, A.; Harwood, C.; Lei, Q.; Viktorov, A., E-mail: christopher.harwood@cnsc-ccsn.gc.ca [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The CNSC has introduced the term Design Extension Conditions (DEC) in regulatory document RD-337 version 2, 'Design of New Nuclear Power Plants' which was issued for public consultation in July 2012. The primary drivers for this change compared with the earlier version of RD-337 are to maintain alignment with the equivalent International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety standard and to introduce changes resulting from lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident. RD-337 version 2 and the accompanying guidance document GD-337 establish high level design requirements and expectations for new Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), including those pertaining to DEC. Other regulatory documents provide requirements for safety analysis and accident management as well as other aspect relevant to DEC. Nevertheless, the currently available guidance specific to DEC is not comprehensive, while the practices just begin to emerge. CNSC and industry stakeholders are actively discussing how the high level requirements and expectations will be applied in various fields. This paper is a summary of a CNSC discussion paper that is being developed to encourage substantive stakeholder discussions. The topic of DEC is being advanced rapidly both nationally and internationally. With this in mind, this paper does not intend to provide a final established position, but rather to stimulate discussion on the subject of DEC. This paper provides the definition of DEC, gives background information relating to the adoption of the term, describes the identification of DECs and the underlying principles associated with design, analysis, operational and procedural requirements. As described in this paper, DEC and associated requirements apply to new NPPs. Applicability to existing NPPs is also discussed. (author)

  9. A Classification of BPEL Extensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kopp

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Business Process Execution Language (BPEL has emerged as de-facto standard for business processes implementation. This language is designed to be extensible for including additional valuable features in a standardized manner. There are a number of BPEL extensions available. They are, however, neither classified nor evaluated with respect to their compliance to the BPEL standard. This article fills this gap by providing a framework for classifying BPEL extensions, a classification of existing extensions, and a guideline for designing BPEL extensions.

  10. Time-resolved absorption measurements on OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaanimagi, P.A.; DaSilva, L.; Delettrez, J.; Gregory, G.G.; Richardson, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    Time-resolved measurements of the incident laser light that is scattered and/or refracted from targets irradiated by the 24 uv-beam OMEGA laser at LLE, have provided some interesting features related to time-resolved absorption. The decrease in laser absorption characteristic of irradiating a target that implodes during the laser pulse has been observed. The increase in absorption expected as the critical density surface moves from a low to a high Z material in the target has also been noted. The detailed interpretation of these results is made through comparisons with simulation using the code LILAC, as well as with streak data from time-resolved x-ray imaging and spectroscopy. In addition, time and space-resolved imaging of the scattered light yields information on laser irradiation uniformity conditions on the target. The report consists of viewgraphs

  11. Knowledge Extraction from Atomically Resolved Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlcek, Lukas; Maksov, Artem; Pan, Minghu; Vasudevan, Rama K; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2017-10-24

    Tremendous strides in experimental capabilities of scanning transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) over the past 30 years made atomically resolved imaging routine. However, consistent integration and use of atomically resolved data with generative models is unavailable, so information on local thermodynamics and other microscopic driving forces encoded in the observed atomic configurations remains hidden. Here, we present a framework based on statistical distance minimization to consistently utilize the information available from atomic configurations obtained from an atomically resolved image and extract meaningful physical interaction parameters. We illustrate the applicability of the framework on an STM image of a FeSe x Te 1-x superconductor, with the segregation of the chalcogen atoms investigated using a nonideal interacting solid solution model. This universal method makes full use of the microscopic degrees of freedom sampled in an atomically resolved image and can be extended via Bayesian inference toward unbiased model selection with uncertainty quantification.

  12. Monte Carlo modeling of time-resolved fluorescence for depth-selective interrogation of layered tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefer, T Joshua; Wang, Quanzeng; Drezek, Rebekah A

    2011-11-01

    Computational approaches for simulation of light-tissue interactions have provided extensive insight into biophotonic procedures for diagnosis and therapy. However, few studies have addressed simulation of time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) in tissue and none have combined Monte Carlo simulations with standard TRF processing algorithms to elucidate approaches for cancer detection in layered biological tissue. In this study, we investigate how illumination-collection parameters (e.g., collection angle and source-detector separation) influence the ability to measure fluorophore lifetime and tissue layer thickness. Decay curves are simulated with a Monte Carlo TRF light propagation model. Multi-exponential iterative deconvolution is used to determine lifetimes and fractional signal contributions. The ability to detect changes in mucosal thickness is optimized by probes that selectively interrogate regions superficial to the mucosal-submucosal boundary. Optimal accuracy in simultaneous determination of lifetimes in both layers is achieved when each layer contributes 40-60% of the signal. These results indicate that depth-selective approaches to TRF have the potential to enhance disease detection in layered biological tissue and that modeling can play an important role in probe design optimization. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. RESOLVE: Bridge between early lunar ISRU and science objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G.; Sanders, G.; Larson, W.; Johnson, K.

    2007-08-01

    and make direct measurements. With this in mind, NASA initiated development of a payload named RESOLVE (Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction) that could be flown to the lunar poles and answer the questions surrounding the hydrogen: what's its form? how much is there? how deep or distributed is it? To do this, RESOLVE will use a drill to take a 1-2 meter core sample, crush and heat sample segments of the core in an oven and monitor the amount and type of volatile gases that evolve with a gas chromatograph (GC). RESOLVE will also selectively capture both hydrogen gas and water as a secondary method of quantification. A specialized camera that is coupled with a Raman spectrometer will allow core samples to be microscopically examined while also determining its mineral composition and possible water content before heating. Because RESOLVE is aimed at demonstrating capabilities and techniques that might be later used for ISRU, a multi-use oven is utilized with the ability to produce oxygen using the hydrogen reduction method. SCIENCE BENEFITS: In the process of answering the hydrogen question, the RESOLVE instrument suite will provide data that can address a number of other scientific questions and debate issues, especially the sources of volatiles and reactions that might take place in cold traps. It should be noted that the original instrument suite for RESOLVE was selected to accomplish the largest number of ISRU and science objectives as possible within the limited funding available. Complementary instruments are noted when additional science objectives can be accomplished. Incorporation of these new instruments into RESOLVE and potential partnerships is an area of near-term interest. Sources of Volatiles: The main proposed sources are episodic comet impacts, moreor- less continuous micrometeorite (both comet and asteroidal) impacts, solar wind bombardment, occasional volcanic emissions from the interior, and episodic delivery of

  14. Transient analysis for resolving safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, J.; Layman, W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC) has a Generic Safety Analysis Program to help resolve high priority generic safety issues. This paper describes several high priority safety issues considered at NSAC and how they were resolved by transient analysis using thermal hydraulics and neutronics codes. These issues are pressurized thermal shock (PTS), anticipated transients without scram (ATWS), steam generator tube rupture (SGTR), and reactivity transients in light of the Chernobyl accident

  15. Time-resolved spectroscopy in synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehn, V.; Stanford Univ., CA

    1980-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) from large-diameter storage rings has intrinsic time structure which facilitates time-resolved measurements form milliseconds to picoseconds and possibly below. The scientific importance of time-resolved measurements is steadily increasing as more and better techniques are discovered and applied to a wider variety of scientific problems. This paper presents a discussion of the importance of various parameters of the SR facility in providing for time-resolved spectroscopy experiments, including the role of beam-line optical design parameters. Special emphasis is placed on the requirements of extremely fast time-resolved experiments with which the effects of atomic vibrational or relaxation motion may be studied. Before discussing the state-of-the-art timing experiments, we review several types of time-resolved measurements which have now become routine: nanosecond-range fluorescence decay times, time-resolved emission and excitation spectroscopies, and various time-of-flight applications. These techniques all depend on a short SR pulse length and a long interpulse period, such as is provided by a large-diameter ring operating in a single-bunch mode. In most cases, the pulse shape and even the stability of the pulse shape is relatively unimportant as long as the pulse length is smaller than the risetime of the detection apparatus, typically 1 to 2 ns. For time resolution smaller than 1 ns, the requirements on the pulse shape become more stringent. (orig./FKS)

  16. Stochastic and Resolvable Gravitational Waves from Ultralight Bosons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Richard; Ghosh, Shrobana; Barausse, Enrico; Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Dvorkin, Irina; Klein, Antoine; Pani, Paolo

    2017-09-29

    Ultralight scalar fields around spinning black holes can trigger superradiant instabilities, forming a long-lived bosonic condensate outside the horizon. We use numerical solutions of the perturbed field equations and astrophysical models of massive and stellar-mass black hole populations to compute, for the first time, the stochastic gravitational-wave background from these sources. In optimistic scenarios the background is observable by Advanced LIGO and LISA for field masses m_{s} in the range ∼[2×10^{-13},10^{-12}] and ∼5×[10^{-19},10^{-16}]  eV, respectively, and it can affect the detectability of resolvable sources. Our estimates suggest that an analysis of the stochastic background limits from LIGO O1 might already be used to marginally exclude axions with mass ∼10^{-12.5}  eV. Semicoherent searches with Advanced LIGO (LISA) should detect ∼15(5) to 200(40) resolvable sources for scalar field masses 3×10^{-13} (10^{-17})  eV. LISA measurements of massive BH spins could either rule out bosons in the range ∼[10^{-18},2×10^{-13}]  eV, or measure m_{s} with 10% accuracy in the range ∼[10^{-17},10^{-13}]  eV.

  17. The Dark Energy Survey: Prospects for resolved stellar populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossetto, Bruno M. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santiago, Basílio X. [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Girardi, Léo [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Osservatorio Astronomica di Padova-INAF, Padova (Italy); Camargo, Julio I. B. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Balbinot, Eduardo [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Porto Alegre (Brazil); da Costa, Luiz N. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Maia, Marcio A. G. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Makler, Martin [Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ogando, Ricardo L. C. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pellegrini, Paulo S. [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ramos, Beatriz [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); de Simoni, Fernando [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia-LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Armstrong, R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Bertin, E. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Desai, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Kuropatkin, N. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lin, H. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Mohr, J. J. [Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Tucker, D. L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2 x 108 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters in the southern equatorial hemisphere. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of the Galaxy.

  18. Search for Extended Sources in the Galactic Plane Using Six Years of Fermi -Large Area Telescope Pass 8 Data above 10 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Baldini, L. [Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E.; Caragiulo, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Cameron, R. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Bonino, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Brandt, T. J.; Castro, D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS/IN2P3, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Caraveo, P. A. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Cavazzuti, E., E-mail: jcohen@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: elizabeth.a.hays@nasa.gov [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center, I-00133 Roma (Italy); and others

    2017-07-10

    The spatial extension of a γ -ray source is an essential ingredient to determine its spectral properties, as well as its potential multiwavelength counterpart. The capability to spatially resolve γ -ray sources is greatly improved by the newly delivered Fermi -Large Area Telescope (LAT) Pass 8 event-level analysis, which provides a greater acceptance and an improved point-spread function, two crucial factors for the detection of extended sources. Here, we present a complete search for extended sources located within 7° from the Galactic plane, using 6 yr of Fermi -LAT data above 10 GeV. We find 46 extended sources and provide their morphological and spectral characteristics. This constitutes the first catalog of hard Fermi -LAT extended sources, named the Fermi Galactic Extended Source Catalog, which allows a thorough study of the properties of the Galactic plane in the sub-TeV domain.

  19. Search for Extended Sources in the Galactic Plane Using Six Years of Fermi -Large Area Telescope Pass 8 Data above 10 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Caragiulo, M.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Cameron, R. A.; Bonino, R.; Brandt, T. J.; Castro, D.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.

    2017-01-01

    The spatial extension of a γ -ray source is an essential ingredient to determine its spectral properties, as well as its potential multiwavelength counterpart. The capability to spatially resolve γ -ray sources is greatly improved by the newly delivered Fermi -Large Area Telescope (LAT) Pass 8 event-level analysis, which provides a greater acceptance and an improved point-spread function, two crucial factors for the detection of extended sources. Here, we present a complete search for extended sources located within 7° from the Galactic plane, using 6 yr of Fermi -LAT data above 10 GeV. We find 46 extended sources and provide their morphological and spectral characteristics. This constitutes the first catalog of hard Fermi -LAT extended sources, named the Fermi Galactic Extended Source Catalog, which allows a thorough study of the properties of the Galactic plane in the sub-TeV domain.

  20. Spatial resolution limits for the localization of noise sources using direct sound mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comesana, D. Fernandez; Holland, K. R.; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    2016-01-01

    the relationship between spatial resolution, noise level and geometry. The proposed expressions are validated via simulations and experiments. It is shown that particle velocity mapping yields better results for identifying closely spaced sound sources than sound pressure or sound intensity, especially...... extensively been used for many years to locate sound sources. However, it is not yet well defined when two sources should be regarded as resolved by means of direct sound mapping. This paper derives the limits of the direct representation of sound pressure, particle velocity and sound intensity by exploring......One of the main challenges arising from noise and vibration problems is how to identify the areas of a device, machine or structure that produce significant acoustic excitation, i.e. the localization of main noise sources. The direct visualization of sound, in particular sound intensity, has...

  1. Regulatory issues resolved through design certification on the System 80+trademark standard plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.; Brinkman, C.B.

    1996-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has completed its review of the System 80+trademark Standard Plant Design, approving advanced design features and closing severe accident licensing issues. Final Design Approval was granted in July 1994. The NRC review was extensive, requiring written responses to over 4,950 questions and formal printing of over 50,000 Safety Analysis Report pages. New safety issues never before addressed in a regulatory atmosphere had to be resolved with detailed analysis and evaluation of design features. the System 80+ review demonstrated that regulatory issues can be firmly resolved only through presentation of a detailed design and completion of a comprehensive regulatory review

  2. Time-resolved CT angiography in aortic dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinel, Felix G.; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Weidenhagen, Rolf; Hellbach, Katharina; Helck, Andreas; Bamberg, Fabian; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Sommer, Wieland H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We performed this study to assess feasibility and additional diagnostic value of time-resolved CT angiography of the entire aorta in patients with aortic dissection. Materials and methods: 14 consecutive patients with known or suspected aortic dissection (aged 60 ± 9 years) referred for aortic CT angiography were scanned on a dual-source CT scanner (Somatom Definition Flash; Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) using a shuttle mode for multiphasic image acquisition (range 48 cm, time resolution 6 s, 6 phases, 100 kV, 110 mAs/rot). Effective radiation doses were calculated from recorded dose length products. For all phases, CT densities were measured in the aortic lumen and renal parenchyma. From the multiphasic data, 3 phases corresponding to a triphasic standard CT protocol, served as a reference and were compared against findings from the time-resolved datasets. Results: Mean effective radiation dose was 27.7 ± 3.5 mSv. CT density of the true lumen peaked at 355 ± 53 HU. Compared to the simulated triphasic protocol, time-resolved CT angiography added diagnostic information regarding a number of important findings: the enhancement delay between true and false lumen (n = 14); the degree of membrane oscillation (n = 14); the perfusion delay in arteries originating from the false lumen (n = 9). Other additional information included true lumen collapse (n = 4), quantitative assessment of renal perfusion asymmetry (n = 2), and dynamic occlusion of aortic branches (n = 2). In 3/14 patients (21%), these additional findings of the multiphasic protocol altered patient management. Conclusions: Multiphasic, time-resolved CT angiography covering the entire aorta is feasible at a reasonable effective radiation dose and adds significant diagnostic information with therapeutic consequences in patients with aortic dissection.

  3. Investigating mechanically induced phase response of the tissue by using high-speed phase-resolved optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yuye; Hendon, Christine P.

    2017-02-01

    Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography (OCT), a functional extension of OCT, provides depth-resolved phase information with extra contrast. In cardiology, changes in the mechanical properties have been associated with tissue remodeling and disease progression. Here we present the capability of profiling structural deformation of the sample in vivo by using a highly stable swept source OCT system The system, operating at 1300 nm, has an A-line acquisition rate of 200 kHz. We measured the phase noise floor to be 6.5 pm±3.2 pm by placing a cover slip in the sample arm, while blocking the reference arm. We then conducted a vibrational frequency test by measuring the phase response from a polymer membrane stimulated by a pure tone acoustic wave from 10 kHz to 80 kHz. The measured frequency response agreed with the known stimulation frequency with an error < 0.005%. We further measured the phase response of 7 fresh swine hearts obtained from Green Village Packing Company through a mechanical stretching test, within 24 hours of sacrifice. The heart tissue was cut into a 1 mm slices and fixed on two motorized stages. We acquired 100,000 consecutive M-scans, while the sample is stretched at a constant velocity of 10 um/s. The depth-resolved phase image presents linear phase response over time at each depth, but the slope varies among tissue types. Our future work includes refining our experiment protocol to quantitatively measured the elastic modulus of the tissue in vivo and building a tissue classifier based on depth-resolved phase information.

  4. sources and use of extension information among maize farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ADESOPE

    the process of technology development in both systems and compare, to ascertain any ... Through their innovative activities many different farming systems emerged .... Latin America and Africa by the end of year 2000 (Gallagher 2000).

  5. sources and use of extension information among maize farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ADESOPE

    Aquaculture. 154: 283 – 291. Robinson, E. H., Jackson, L. S. & Li, M.H (1996) Supplemental phosphorus in practical channel catfish diets Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 27: 303 – 308. Steel, R.G.D. and Torrie, J.H. (1980). Principles and procedures of statistics: A biometrical approach. Second edition. McGraw-Hill ...

  6. sources and use of extension information among maize farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ADESOPE

    This paper highlights the potentials of agro-tourism for rural development in Nigeria and ... promotion of entrepreneurship and industrialization, economic advancement, ..... Cai, J. (2003), 'Peri-urban Agriculture Development in China, Urban.

  7. sources and use of extension information among maize farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ADESOPE

    JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE AND SOCIAL RESEARCH (JASR) Vol. ... psychological variables have influence on adoption or non-adoption of technology by ..... A Paper Prepared For the 5th World Congress for Rural Sociology, Mexico City,.

  8. sources and use of extension information among maize farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ADESOPE

    This paper examines some objectives such as, what roles do ... shrewd investors. ... be helpful. Whether integrated or segregated activities are more beneficial to women depends on .... Evidence from previous works suggests that the older an.

  9. Think - Baltic Extension / Kalle Kask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kask, Kalle

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna TÜ Rehabilitatsiooni tehnoloogia keskus korraldas pressikonverentsi, kus tutvustati osalemist EL V raamprogrammis Think - Baltic Extension, mis on suunatud puuetega inimeste tööhõive tagamisele

  10. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  11. Lucas–Kanade fluid trajectories for time-resolved PIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yegavian, Robin; Leclaire, Benjamin; Illoul, Cédric; Losfeld, Gilles; Champagnat, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new method for estimating fluid trajectories in time-resolved PIV. It relies on a Lucas–Kanade paradigm and consists in a simple and direct extension of a two-frame estimation with FOLKI-PIV (Champagnat et al 2011 Exp. Fluids 50 1169–82). The so-called Lucas–Kanade Fluid Trajectories (LKFT) are assumed to be polynomial in time, and are found as the minimizer of a global functional, in which displacements are sought so as to match the intensities of a series of images pairs in the sequence, in the least-squares sense. All pairs involve the central image, similar to other recent time-resolved approaches (FTC (Lynch and Scarano 2013 Meas. Sci. Technol . 24 035305) and FTEE (Jeon et al 2014 Exp. Fluids 55 1–16)). As switching from a two-frame to a time-resolved objective simply amounts to adding terms in a functional, no significant additional algorithmic element is required. Similar to FOLKI-PIV the method is very well suited for GPU acceleration, which is an important feature as computational complexity increases with the image sequence size. Tests on synthetic data exhibiting peak-locking show that increasing the image sequence size strongly reduces both associated bias and random error, and that LKFT has a remaining total error comparable to that of FTEE on this case. Results on case B of the third PIV challenge (Stanislas et al 2008 Exp. Fluids 45 27–71) also show its ability to drastically reduce the error in situations with low signal-to-noise ratio. These results are finally confirmed on experimental images acquired in the near-field of a low Reynolds number jet. Strong reductions in peak-locking, spatial and temporal noise compared to two-frame estimation are also observed, on the displacement components themselves, as well as on spatial or temporal derivatives, such as vorticity and material acceleration. (paper)

  12. Time-resolved fluorometry of the aromatic amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laws, W.R.; Ross, J.B.A.; Katsoyannis, P.G.; Wyssbrod, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    The aromatic amino acids tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine are the chromophores that produce the intrinsic fluorescence of proteins. It has been a long-desired goal to be able to use the fluorescence of these amino acids to help understand protein dynamics, structure, and function. Considerable information about proteins in solution has come from steady-state, or time-averaged, fluorescence measurements, especially from the fluorescence of tryptophan. For a protein to be characterized more extensively, however, the time dependence of the intrinsic fluorescence must also be explained. Unfortunately, complex fluorescence decay kinetics have been observed not only for proteins having just a single aromatic amino acid, but also for simple analogues of these amino acids; the cause of these complex decays is not fully understood. Considerable effort must still be made to resolve the mechanisms causing the complex decays

  13. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with quantum gas microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrdt, A.; Greif, D.; Demler, E.; Knap, M.; Grusdt, F.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum gas microscopes are a promising tool to study interacting quantum many-body systems and bridge the gap between theoretical models and real materials. So far, they were limited to measurements of instantaneous correlation functions of the form 〈O ̂(t ) 〉 , even though extensions to frequency-resolved response functions 〈O ̂(t ) O ̂(0 ) 〉 would provide important information about the elementary excitations in a many-body system. For example, single-particle spectral functions, which are usually measured using photoemission experiments in electron systems, contain direct information about fractionalization and the quasiparticle excitation spectrum. Here, we propose a measurement scheme to experimentally access the momentum and energy-resolved spectral function in a quantum gas microscope with currently available techniques. As an example for possible applications, we numerically calculate the spectrum of a single hole excitation in one-dimensional t -J models with isotropic and anisotropic antiferromagnetic couplings. A sharp asymmetry in the distribution of spectral weight appears when a hole is created in an isotropic Heisenberg spin chain. This effect slowly vanishes for anisotropic spin interactions and disappears completely in the case of pure Ising interactions. The asymmetry strongly depends on the total magnetization of the spin chain, which can be tuned in experiments with quantum gas microscopes. An intuitive picture for the observed behavior is provided by a slave-fermion mean-field theory. The key properties of the spectra are visible at currently accessible temperatures.

  14. The conforming brain and deontological resolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Melanie; LaViers, Lisa; Prietula, Michael J; Berns, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Our personal values are subject to forces of social influence. Deontological resolve captures how strongly one relies on absolute rules of right and wrong in the representation of one's personal values and may predict willingness to modify one's values in the presence of social influence. Using fMRI, we found that a neurobiological metric for deontological resolve based on relative activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) during the passive processing of sacred values predicted individual differences in conformity. Individuals with stronger deontological resolve, as measured by greater VLPFC activity, displayed lower levels of conformity. We also tested whether responsiveness to social reward, as measured by ventral striatal activity during social feedback, predicted variability in conformist behavior across individuals but found no significant relationship. From these results we conclude that unwillingness to conform to others' values is associated with a strong neurobiological representation of social rules.

  15. The conforming brain and deontological resolve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Pincus

    Full Text Available Our personal values are subject to forces of social influence. Deontological resolve captures how strongly one relies on absolute rules of right and wrong in the representation of one's personal values and may predict willingness to modify one's values in the presence of social influence. Using fMRI, we found that a neurobiological metric for deontological resolve based on relative activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC during the passive processing of sacred values predicted individual differences in conformity. Individuals with stronger deontological resolve, as measured by greater VLPFC activity, displayed lower levels of conformity. We also tested whether responsiveness to social reward, as measured by ventral striatal activity during social feedback, predicted variability in conformist behavior across individuals but found no significant relationship. From these results we conclude that unwillingness to conform to others' values is associated with a strong neurobiological representation of social rules.

  16. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  17. Frames and extension problems I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present a short survey of frame theory in Hilbert spaces. We discuss Gabor frames and wavelet frames and set the stage for a discussion of various extension principles; this will be presented in the article Frames and extension problems II (joint with H.O. Kim and R.Y. Kim)....

  18. Why Do Extension Agents Resign?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, Linda Nunes; van Es, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Past and current Illinois extension agents were surveyed via mail questionnaires as to reasons for staying or leaving extension programs. Reasons for leaving included family changes, family moves, opportunity to advance, better salary/benefits, dissatisfaction with administration, and too much time away from family. (CT)

  19. Quotient semigroups and extension semigroups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Abelian groups and semigroups play an important role in the classification of C. ∗. -algebras and their extensions. ... -algebra extension theory and K K-theory, it is crucial to study the theory of quotient semigroups from the ...

  20. Universal extensions to simulate specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    A previous paper introduced eternity variables as an alternative to the prophecy variables of Abadi and Lamport and proved the formalism to be semantically complete: every simulation F. K -> L that preserves quiescence contains a composition of a history extension, an extension with eternity

  1. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas in Financial Audit

    OpenAIRE

    Professor PhD Turlea Eugeniu; PhD Student Mocanu Mihaela

    2010-01-01

    Resolving ethical dilemmas is a difficult endeavor in any field and financial auditing makes no exception. Ethical dilemmas are complex situations which derive from a conflict and in which a decision among several alternatives is needed. Ethical dilemmas are common in the work of the financial auditor, whose mission is to serve the interests of the public at large, not those of the auditee’s managers who mandate him/her. The objective of the present paper is to offer support in resolving ethi...

  2. RAiSE II: resolved spectral evolution in radio AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ross J.; Rogers, Jonathan G.; Shabala, Stanislav S.; Krause, Martin G. H.

    2018-01-01

    The active galactic nuclei (AGN) lobe radio luminosities modelled in hydrodynamical simulations and most analytical models do not address the redistribution of the electron energies due to adiabatic expansion, synchrotron radiation and inverse-Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons. We present a synchrotron emissivity model for resolved sources that includes a full treatment of the loss mechanisms spatially across the lobe, and apply it to a dynamical radio source model with known pressure and volume expansion rates. The bulk flow and dispersion of discrete electron packets is represented by tracer fields in hydrodynamical simulations; we show that the mixing of different aged electrons strongly affects the spectrum at each point of the radio map in high-powered Fanaroff & Riley type II (FR-II) sources. The inclusion of this mixing leads to a factor of a few discrepancy between the spectral age measured using impulsive injection models (e.g. JP model) and the dynamical age. The observable properties of radio sources are predicted to be strongly frequency dependent: FR-II lobes are expected to appear more elongated at higher frequencies, while jetted FR-I sources appear less extended. The emerging FR0 class of radio sources, comprising gigahertz peaked and compact steep spectrum sources, can potentially be explained by a population of low-powered FR-Is. The extended emission from such sources is shown to be undetectable for objects within a few orders of magnitude of the survey detection limit and to not contribute to the curvature of the radio spectral energy distribution.

  3. Highly Resolved Studies of Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakar, Sandeep

    We use measurements of dispersed fluorescence from electronically excited photoions to study fundamental aspects of intramolecular dynamics. Our experimental innovations make it possible to obtain highly resolved photoionization data that offer qualitative insights into molecular scattering. In particular, we obtain vibrationally resolved data to probe coupling between the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom by studying the distribution of vibrational energy among photoions. Vibrationally resolved branching ratios are measured over a broad spectral range of excitation energy and their non-Franck-Condon behavior is used as a tool to investigate two diverse aspects of shape resonant photoionization. First, vibrational branching ratios are obtained for the SiF_4 5a _1^{-1} and CS_2 5sigma_{rm u} ^{-1} photoionization channels to help elucidate the microscopic aspects of shape resonant wavefunction for polyatomic molecules. It is shown that in such molecules the shape resonant wavefunction is not necessarily attributable to a specific bond in the molecule. Second, the multichannel aspect of shape resonant photoionization dynamics, reflected in continuum channel coupling, is investigated by obtaining vibrational branching ratios for the 2 sigma_{rm u}^{ -1} and 4sigma^{ -1} photoionization of the isoelectronic molecules N_2 and CO, respectively. These data indicate that effects of continuum coupling may be widespread. We also present the first set of rotationally resolved data over a wide energy range for the 2 sigma_{rm u}^{ -1} photoionization of N_2. These data probe the partitioning of the angular momentum between the photoelectron and photoion, and highlight the multicenter nature of the molecular potential. These case studies illustrate the utility of dispersed fluorescence measurements as a complement to photoelectron spectroscopy for obtaining highly resolved data for molecular photoionization. These measurements makes it possible to probe intrinsically

  4. Journal of Agricultural Extension submitted to Agricultural Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. MADUKWE

    ... typically confront narrower range of labour markets than men, and lower wage ... capabilities of women and by extension the household, female household ..... gap in accessibility to productive resources between male and female heads of.

  5. Direct angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since 1997 we systematically perform direct angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) on in-situ grown thin (< 30 nm) cuprate films. Specifically, we probe low-energy electronic structure and properties of high-c superconductors (HTSC) under different degrees of epitaxial (compressive vs. tensile) strain.

  6. Resolved resonance parameters for 236Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morogovskij, G.B.; Bakhanovich, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    Multilevel Breit-Wigner parameters were obtained for fission cross-section representation in the 0.01-33 eV energy region from evaluation of a 236 Np experimental fission cross-section in the resolved resonance region. (author)

  7. Decomposition of time-resolved tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, P.J.; Violato, D.; Scarano, F.

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted on a transitional water jet at a Reynolds number of Re = 5,000. Flow fields have been obtained by means of time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry capturing all relevant spatial and temporal scales. The measured threedimensional flow fields have

  8. Learning Joomla! 3 extension development

    CERN Document Server

    Plummer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A practical guide with step-by-step examples that build on each other so you can learn by doing and get hands-on knowledge about creating your plugins, modules, and components in Joomla.""Learning Joomla! 3 Extension Development, Third Edition"" is for developers who want to create their own Joomla extensions. It is assumed you will have some basic PHP, HTML, and CSS knowledge, but you don't need any prior Joomla programming experience. This book will also be useful to people who just want to make minor customizations to existing Joomla extensions and build on the work of others in the open so

  9. Programming Reactive Extensions and LINQ

    CERN Document Server

    Liberty, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Pro Reactive Extensions and LINQ is a deep dive into the next important technology for .NET developers: Reactive Extensions. This in-depth tutorial goes beyond what is available anywhere else to teach how to write WPF, Silverlight, and Windows Phone applications using the Reactive Extensions (Rx) to handle events and asynchronous method calls. Reactive programming allows you to turn those aspects of your code that are currently imperative into something much more event-driven and flexible. For this reason, it's sometimes referred to as LINQ for Events. Reactive programming hinges on the concep

  10. Extensions of the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Zwirner, Fabio

    1996-01-01

    Rapporteur talk at the International Europhysics Conference on High Energy Physics, Brussels (Belgium), July 27-August 2, 1995. This talk begins with a brief general introduction to the extensions of the Standard Model, reviewing the ideology of effective field theories and its practical implications. The central part deals with candidate extensions near the Fermi scale, focusing on some phenomenological aspects of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model. The final part discusses some possible low-energy implications of further extensions near the Planck scale, namely superstring theories.

  11. Java Source Code Analysis for API Migration to Embedded Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Victor [Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States); McCoy, James A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guerrero, Jonathan [Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States); Reinke, Carl Werner [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Perry, James Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Embedded systems form an integral part of our technological infrastructure and oftentimes play a complex and critical role within larger systems. From the perspective of reliability, security, and safety, strong arguments can be made favoring the use of Java over C in such systems. In part, this argument is based on the assumption that suitable subsets of Java’s APIs and extension libraries are available to embedded software developers. In practice, a number of Java-based embedded processors do not support the full features of the JVM. For such processors, source code migration is a mechanism by which key abstractions offered by APIs and extension libraries can made available to embedded software developers. The analysis required for Java source code-level library migration is based on the ability to correctly resolve element references to their corresponding element declarations. A key challenge in this setting is how to perform analysis for incomplete source-code bases (e.g., subsets of libraries) from which types and packages have been omitted. This article formalizes an approach that can be used to extend code bases targeted for migration in such a manner that the threats associated the analysis of incomplete code bases are eliminated.

  12. An online, energy-resolving beam profile detector for laser-driven proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzkes, J.; Rehwald, M.; Obst, L.; Schramm, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden–Rossendorf (HZDR), Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Zeil, K.; Kraft, S. D.; Sobiella, M.; Schlenvoigt, H.-P. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden–Rossendorf (HZDR), Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Karsch, L. [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Technische Universität Dresden, 01307 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, a scintillator-based online beam profile detector for the characterization of laser-driven proton beams is presented. Using a pixelated matrix with varying absorber thicknesses, the proton beam is spatially resolved in two dimensions and simultaneously energy-resolved. A thin plastic scintillator placed behind the absorber and read out by a CCD camera is used as the active detector material. The spatial detector resolution reaches down to ∼4 mm and the detector can resolve proton beam profiles for up to 9 proton threshold energies. With these detector design parameters, the spatial characteristics of the proton distribution and its cut-off energy can be analyzed online and on-shot under vacuum conditions. The paper discusses the detector design, its characterization and calibration at a conventional proton source, as well as the first detector application at a laser-driven proton source.

  13. Research-extension-farmer linkages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agricultural research and extension services, Government in 1990 set up a number of ... charged with the role of articulating the most appropriate research and ... production of 1800 copies of NARO bulletin, 1000 copies of Uganda Journal of ...

  14. Journal of Environmental Extension: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Environmental Extension is purely academic and accepts positional or ... and so responsibility for the content and macro formatting remain of the author. ... For research articles, the methodology, result analysis (statistical tests to be ...

  15. RESOLVING THE HD 100546 PROTOPLANETARY SYSTEM WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER: EVIDENCE FOR MULTIPLE FORMING, ACCRETING PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currie, Thayne [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Subaru Telescope (Japan); Cloutier, Ryan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Brittain, Sean [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); Grady, Carol; Kuchner, Marc J. [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysics Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Muto, Takayuki [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan); Kenyon, Scott J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We report Gemini Planet Imager H-band high-contrast imaging/integral field spectroscopy and polarimetry of the HD 100546, a 10 Myr old early-type star recently confirmed to host a thermal infrared (IR) bright (super-)Jovian protoplanet at wide separation, HD 100546 b. We resolve the inner disk cavity in polarized light, recover the thermal IR-bright arm, and identify one additional spiral arm. We easily recover HD 100546 b and show that much of its emission plausibly originates from an unresolved point source. The point-source component of HD 100546 b has extremely red IR colors compared to field brown dwarfs, qualitatively similar to young cloudy super-Jovian planets; however, these colors may instead indicate that HD 100546 b is still accreting material from a circumplanetary disk. Additionally, we identify a second point-source-like peak at r{sub proj} ∼ 14 AU, located just interior to or at the inner disk wall consistent with being a <10–20 M{sub J} candidate second protoplanet—“HD 100546 c”—and lying within a weakly polarized region of the disk but along an extension of the thermal IR-bright spiral arm. Alternatively, it is equally plausible that this feature is a weakly polarized but locally bright region of the inner disk wall. Astrometric monitoring of this feature over the next 2 years and emission line measurements could confirm its status as a protoplanet, rotating disk hot spot that is possibly a signpost of a protoplanet, or a stationary emission source from within the disk.

  16. RESOLVING THE HD 100546 PROTOPLANETARY SYSTEM WITH THE GEMINI PLANET IMAGER: EVIDENCE FOR MULTIPLE FORMING, ACCRETING PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, Thayne; Cloutier, Ryan; Brittain, Sean; Grady, Carol; Kuchner, Marc J.; Burrows, Adam; Muto, Takayuki; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    We report Gemini Planet Imager H-band high-contrast imaging/integral field spectroscopy and polarimetry of the HD 100546, a 10 Myr old early-type star recently confirmed to host a thermal infrared (IR) bright (super-)Jovian protoplanet at wide separation, HD 100546 b. We resolve the inner disk cavity in polarized light, recover the thermal IR-bright arm, and identify one additional spiral arm. We easily recover HD 100546 b and show that much of its emission plausibly originates from an unresolved point source. The point-source component of HD 100546 b has extremely red IR colors compared to field brown dwarfs, qualitatively similar to young cloudy super-Jovian planets; however, these colors may instead indicate that HD 100546 b is still accreting material from a circumplanetary disk. Additionally, we identify a second point-source-like peak at r proj ∼ 14 AU, located just interior to or at the inner disk wall consistent with being a <10–20 M J candidate second protoplanet—“HD 100546 c”—and lying within a weakly polarized region of the disk but along an extension of the thermal IR-bright spiral arm. Alternatively, it is equally plausible that this feature is a weakly polarized but locally bright region of the inner disk wall. Astrometric monitoring of this feature over the next 2 years and emission line measurements could confirm its status as a protoplanet, rotating disk hot spot that is possibly a signpost of a protoplanet, or a stationary emission source from within the disk

  17. Boiler-turbine life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  18. Radially resolved simulation of a high-gain free electron laser amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawley, W.M.; Prosnitz, D.; Doss, S.; Gelinas, R.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a two-dimensional simulation of a high-gain free electron laser (FEL) amplifier is presented. The simulation solves the inhomogeneous paraxial wave equation. The source term is radially resolved and is obtained by tracking the interaction of the laser field with localized macroparticles

  19. Sensitivity Analysis and Requirements for Temporally and Spatially Resolved Thermometry Using Neutron Resonance Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Juan Carlos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Barnes, Cris William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocko, Michael Jeffrey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavorka, Lukas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This report is intended to examine the use of neutron resonance spectroscopy (NRS) to make time- dependent and spatially-resolved temperature measurements of materials in extreme conditions. Specifically, the sensitivities of the temperature estimate on neutron-beam and diagnostic parameters is examined. Based on that examination, requirements are set on a pulsed neutron-source and diagnostics to make a meaningful measurement.

  20. Compact cryogenic Kerr microscope for time-resolved studies of electron spin transport in microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizo, P. J.; Pugzlys, A.; Liu, J.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.; van der Wal, C. H.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.; Pugžlys, A.

    2008-01-01

    A compact cryogenic Kerr microscope for operation in the small volume of high-field magnets is described. It is suited for measurements both in Voigt and Faraday configurations. Coupled with a pulsed laser source, the microscope is used to measure the time-resolved Kerr rotation response of

  1. PLASTIQUE: A synchrotron radiation beamline for time resolved fluorescence in the frequency domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Stasio, G.; Zema, N.; Antonangeli, F.; Parasassi, T.; Rosato, N.

    1991-01-01

    PLASTIQUE is the only synchrotron radiation beamline in the world that performs time resolved fluorescence experiments in the frequency domain. These experiments are extremely valuable sources of informations on the structure and dynamics of molecules. The beamline and some examples of initial data are described

  2. Plastique: A synchrotron radiation beamline for time resolved fluorescence in the frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stasio, Gelsomina; Zema, N.; Antonangeli, F.; Savoia, A.; Parasassi, T.; Rosato, N.

    1991-06-01

    PLASTIQUE is the only synchrotron radiation beamline in the world that performs time resolved fluorescence experiments in frequency domain. These experiments are extremely valuable sources of information on the structure and dynamics of molecules. We describe the beamline and some initial data.

  3. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  4. RURAL EXTENSION EPISTEMOLOGY AND THE TIME OF TOTAL EXTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Calgaro Neto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to explore the field of knowledge related to rural extension. In general, a three complementary perspective is used as theoretical strategy to present this epistemological study. The first perspective, seeks to accomplish a brief archeology of rural extension, identifying the remarkable historical passages. At the second, we look to some theoretical models through the modern epistemological platform. Finally, the third perspective, aims to present a methodological proposal that contemplate this epistemic characteristics, relating with the contemporary transformations observed in the knowledge construction and technological transference for a rural development. Keywords: Total institutions. University.

  5. Deflection evaluation using time-resolved radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, D.A.; Lucero, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Time-resolved radiography is the creation of an x-ray image for which both the start-exposure and stop-exposure times are known with respect to the event under study. The combination of image and timing are used to derive information about the event. The authors have applied time-resolved radiography to evaluate motions of explosive-driven events. In the particular application discussed in this paper, the author's intent is to measure maximum deflections of the components involved. Exposures are made during the time just before to just after the event of interest occurs. A smear or blur of motion out to its furthest extent is recorded on the image. Comparison of the dynamic images with static images allows deflection measurements to be made

  6. Reverse Universal Resolving Algorithm and inverse driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Inverse interpretation is a semantics based, non-standard interpretation of programs. Given a program and a value, an inverse interpreter finds all or one of the inputs, that would yield the given value as output with normal forward evaluation. The Reverse Universal Resolving Algorithm is a new...... variant of the Universal Resolving Algorithm for inverse interpretation. The new variant outperforms the original algorithm in several cases, e.g., when unpacking a list using inverse interpretation of a pack program. It uses inverse driving as its main technique, which has not been described in detail...... before. Inverse driving may find application with, e.g., supercompilation, thus suggesting a new kind of program inverter....

  7. Time-resolved Laue diffraction from protein crystals: Instrumental considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilderback, D.H.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY; Moffat, K.; Szebenyi, D.M.E.

    1984-01-01

    A serious limitation of macromolecular crystallography has been its inability to determine changes in structure on a biochemical time scale of milliseconds or less. Recently, we have shown that X-ray exposures on single crystals of macromolecules may be obtained in the millisecond time range through the use of intense, polychromatic radiation with Δlambda/lambda approx.= 0.2 derived from the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, CHESS. Such radiation falling on a stationary crystal yields a Laue diffraction pattern, in which almost all Laue reflections arise from a unique set of Miller indices and where their intensities are automatically integrated over wavelength. This Laue technique requires wide band pass optics, which may be obtained by a combination of reflection and transmission mirrors, filters or layered synthetic microstructures. Time-resolved macromolecular crystallography may be achieved by several data collection schemes: 'one-shot' recording coupled to a simple streak camera, repetitive sample perturbation coupled to a detector with temporal resolution and repetitive perturbation which uses the synchrotron pulses for stroboscopic triggering and detection. These schemes are appropriate for different time scales, roughly the milli-, micro- and nanosecond regimes. It appears that time-resolved crystallography is entirely feasible, with an ultimate time resolution limited only by the length of a synchrotron light pulse, some 150 ps at CHESS. (orig.)

  8. Time resolved fluorescence of cow and goat milk powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandao, Mariana P.; de Carvalho dos Anjos, Virgílio; Bell., Maria José V.

    2017-01-01

    Milk powder is an international dairy commodity. Goat and cow milk powders are significant sources of nutrients and the investigation of the authenticity and classification of milk powder is particularly important. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to distinguish chemical composition and structure modifications could assist develop a portable and non-destructive methodology to perform milk powder classification and determine composition. This study goal is to differentiate milk powder samples from cows and goats using fluorescence lifetimes. The samples were excited at 315 nm and the fluorescence intensity decay registered at 468 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes of 1.5 ± 0.3, 6.4 ± 0.4 and 18.7 ± 2.5 ns for goat milk powder; and 1.7 ± 0.3, 6.9 ± 0.2 and 29.9 ± 1.6 ns for cow's milk powder. We discriminate goat and cow powder milk by analysis of variance using Fisher's method. In addition, we employed quadratic discriminant analysis to differentiate the milk samples with accuracy of 100%. Our results suggest that time-resolved fluorescence can provide a new method to the analysis of powder milk and its composition.

  9. Time-resolved pump-probe experiments at the LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glownia, James; /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Cryan, J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Andreasson, J.; /Uppsala U.; Belkacem, A.; /LBNL, Berkeley; Berrah, N.; /Western Michigan U.; Blaga, C.L.; /Ohio State U.; Bostedt, C.; Bozek, J.; /SLAC; DiMauro, L.F.; /Ohio State U.; Fang, L.; /Western Michigan U.; Frisch, J.; /SLAC; Gessner, O.; /LBNL; Guhr, M.; /SLAC; Hajdu, J.; /Uppsala U.; Hertlein, M.P.; /LBNL; Hoener, M.; /Western Michigan U. /LBNL; Huang, G.; Kornilov, O.; /LBNL; Marangos, J.P.; /Imperial Coll., London; March, A.M.; /Argonne; McFarland, B.K.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /IRAMIS, Saclay /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Georgia Tech /Argonne /Kansas State U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC /LBNL /Argonne /SLAC /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-12

    The first time-resolved x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments at the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) used a combination of feedback methods and post-analysis binning techniques to synchronize an ultrafast optical laser to the linac-based x-ray laser. Transient molecular nitrogen alignment revival features were resolved in time-dependent x-ray-induced fragmentation spectra. These alignment features were used to find the temporal overlap of the pump and probe pulses. The strong-field dissociation of x-ray generated quasi-bound molecular dications was used to establish the residual timing jitter. This analysis shows that the relative arrival time of the Ti:Sapphire laser and the x-ray pulses had a distribution with a standard deviation of approximately 120 fs. The largest contribution to the jitter noise spectrum was the locking of the laser oscillator to the reference RF of the accelerator, which suggests that simple technical improvements could reduce the jitter to better than 50 fs.

  10. 238U + n resolved resonance energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.; de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.; Difilippo, F.C.; Ingle, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Neutron transmission measurements from 100 eV to 170 keV at 150 m through four 238 U samples are reported. The energy calibration is described, and the resultant 233 U resolved resonance energies are found to be intermediate between those from other workers. In addition, some energies for sharp resonances in 23 Na, 27 Al, 32 S, and 206 Pb are given

  11. Generalized Darcy–Oseen resolvent problem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medková, Dagmar; Ptashnyk, M.; Varnhorn, W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2016), s. 1621-1630 ISSN 0170-4214 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Darcy-Oseen resolvent problem * semipermeable membrane * Brinkman-Darcy equations * fluid flow between free-fluid domains and porous media Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mma.3872/abstract

  12. On marginally resolved objects in optical interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaume, R.

    2003-03-01

    With the present and soon-to-be breakthrough of optical interferometry, countless objects shall be within reach of interferometers; yet, most of them are expected to remain only marginally resolved with hectometric baselines. In this paper, we tackle the problem of deriving the properties of a marginally resolved object from its optical visibilities. We show that they depend on the moments of flux distribution of the object: centre, mean angular size, asymmetry, and curtosis. We also point out that the visibility amplitude is a second-order phenomenon, whereas the phase is a combination of a first-order term, giving the location of the photocentre, and a third-order term, more difficult to detect than the visibility amplitude, giving an asymmetry coefficient of the object. We then demonstrate that optical visibilities are not a good model constraint while the object stays marginally resolved, unless observations are carried out at different wavelengths. Finally, we show an application of this formalism to circumstellar discs.

  13. WFIRST: Resolving the Milky Way Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalirai, Jason; Conroy, Charlie; Dressler, Alan; Geha, Marla; Levesque, Emily; Lu, Jessica; Tumlinson, Jason

    2018-01-01

    WFIRST will yield a transformative impact in measuring and characterizing resolved stellar populations in the Milky Way. The proximity and level of detail that such populations need to be studied at directly map to all three pillars of WFIRST capabilities - sensitivity from a 2.4 meter space based telescope, resolution from 0.1" pixels, and large 0.3 degree field of view from multiple detectors. In this poster, we describe the activities of the WFIRST Science Investigation Team (SIT), "Resolving the Milky Way with WFIRST". Notional programs guiding our analysis include targeting sightlines to establish the first well-resolved large scale maps of the Galactic bulge aand central region, pockets of star formation in the disk, benchmark star clusters, and halo substructure and ultra faint dwarf satellites. As an output of this study, our team is building optimized strategies and tools to maximize stellar population science with WFIRST. This will include: new grids of IR-optimized stellar evolution and synthetic spectroscopic models; pipelines and algorithms for optimal data reduction at the WFIRST sensitivity and pixel scale; wide field simulations of Milky Way environments including new astrometric studies; and strategies and automated algorithms to find substructure and dwarf galaxies in the Milky Way through the WFIRST High Latitude Survey.

  14. Size-resolved particle emission factors for individual ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Åsa M.; Westerlund, Jonathan; Hallquist, Mattias

    2011-07-01

    In these experiments size-resolved emission factors for particle number (EFPN) and mass (EFPM) have been determined for 734 individual ship passages for real-world dilution. The method used is an extractive sampling method of the passing ship plumes where particle number/mass and CO2 were measured with high time resolution (1 Hz). The measurements were conducted on a small island located in the entrance to the port of Gothenburg (N57.6849, E11.838), the largest harbor in Scandinavia. This is an emission control area (ECA) and in close vicinity to populated areas. The average EFPN and EFPM were 2.55 ± 0.11 × 1016 (kg fuel)-1 and 2050 ± 110 mg (kg fuel)-1, respectively. The determined EF for ships with multiple passages showed a great reproducibility. Size-resolved EFPN were peaking at small particle sizes ˜35 nm. Smaller particle sizes and hence less mass were observed by a gas turbine equipped ship compared to diesel engine equipped ships. On average 36 to 46% of the emitted particles by number were non-volatile and 24% by mass (EFPN 1.16 ± 0.19 × 1016 [kg fuel]-1 and EFPM 488 ± 73 mg [kg fuel]-1, respectively). This study shows a great potential to gain large data-sets regarding ship emission determining parameters that can improve current dispersion modeling for health assessments on local and regional scales. The global contributions of total and non-volatile particle mass from shipping using this extensive data-set from an ECA were estimated to be at least 0.80 Tgy-1 and 0.19 Tgy-1.

  15. verbal extensions: valency decreasing extensions in the basà ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finance

    London: Hodder. Education. Imoh, P.M., 2013. Verbal extensions: Valency increasing operations in Basà verbal system. Paper presented at the West African Languages Congress (WALC) and 26th Annual. Conference of the Linguistic Association of Nigeria (26th CLAN), 29th July to 2nd August. 2013, University of Ibadan, ...

  16. Is boundary extension emotionally selective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménétrier, Emmanuelle; Didierjean, André; Vieillard, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    When they have to memorize a picture, people usually build a memory trace including more extensive boundaries than the original picture, a phenomenon known as boundary extension or BE. This article looks at whether the emotion category expressed (i.e., happiness, pleasure, irritation, or anger) by actors in short films could have an influence on the BE effect. The results showed that positively valenced emotions (happiness, pleasure) led to an extension effect, while the negatively valenced ones (anger, irritation) did not produce any significant memory distortion. The arousal dimension of emotions had no significant effect on BE. The current results were discussed in the light of previous studies on the links between BE and emotions.

  17. NDE and plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.N.; Ammirato, F.V.; Nottingham, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    Component life extension is the process of making run-repair-replace decisions for plant components and includes a thorough analysis of the capability of the component to perform throughout the projected lifetime. For many critical plant components, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is essential in determining whether the component can be operated safely and economically in the extended life period and to help utilities determine safe and economic inspection intervals. NDE technology is required for not only detecting defects that could grow to a size of concern during extended lifetimes, but also will be called upon to measure and monitor accumulating material degradation that strongly affects component reliability. This paper discusses the role of NDE in life extension by reviewing three examples--a reactor pressure vessel, steam turbine-generator rotors, and generator retaining rings. In each example, the contribution of NDE to life extension decisions is described. (author)

  18. Elbow arthroscopy: valgus extension overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Christopher S; Conway, John E

    2011-01-01

    Valgus torque combined with deceleration produces high compression and shear forces acting on the posteromedial olecranon and the posteromedial trochlea. This valgus extension overload process may cause posteromedial trochlea chondromalacia, chondral flap formation, osteochondrosis, subchondral erosion, a subchondral insufficiency fracture, and marginal exostosis formation. Olecranon pathologies include proximal stress reaction, a posteromedial tip stress fracture, a transverse proximal process stress fracture, exostosis formation, exostosis fragmentation, and intra-articular loose bodies. Symptoms include posteromedial elbow pain during the deceleration phase of the throwing motion. The extension impingement test reproduces posterior or posteromedial pain similar to that experienced while throwing. Special radiographic techniques and CT scans can show loose bodies and osteophyte fragmentation. Surgical treatment is indicated when symptoms persist despite nonsurgical management. Based on clinical and basic science research, all patients with valgus extension overload should be comprehensively evaluated for medial ulnar collateral ligament insufficiency. Surgical treatment is limited to the resection of osteophytes only; normal olecranon should not be resected.

  19. Analyzing the natural resource extension needs of Spanish-speakers: A perspective from Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miriam Wyman; Francisco Escobedo; Sebastian Varela; Cesar Asuaje; Henry Mayer; Mickie Swisher; Annie Hermansen

    2011-01-01

    Hispanics are the country's fastest growing minority group. The study reported here surveyed and assessed Extension agents from two demographically different regions in Florida on perceptions and attitudes about the need, quality, and dissemination of Spanish Extension materials. Results showed Extension programs are important sources of information for Spanish-...

  20. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of formaldehyde and methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, P. R.; Taylor, J. W.; Grimm, F. A.; Carlson, Thomas A.

    1984-10-01

    Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to obtain the angular distribution parameter, β, for the valence orbitals (IP < 21.1 eV) of formaldehyde and methanol over the 10-30 eV photon energy range using dispersed polarized synchrotron radiation as the excitation source. It was found that the energy dependence of β in the photoelectron energy range between 2 and 10 eV can be related to the molecular-orbital type from which ionization occurs. This generalized energy behavior is discussed with regard to earlier energy-dependence studies on molecules of different orbital character. Evidence is presented for the presence of resonance photoionization phenomena in formaldehyde in agreement with theoretical cross-section calculations.

  1. OSPF-TE Extensions for Green Routing in Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Ricciardi, S.; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes extensions to the OSPF-TE protocol to enable green routing in GMPLS-controlled optical networks. Simulation results show a remarkable reduction in CO2 emissions by preferring network elements powered by green energy sources in the connection routing.......This paper proposes extensions to the OSPF-TE protocol to enable green routing in GMPLS-controlled optical networks. Simulation results show a remarkable reduction in CO2 emissions by preferring network elements powered by green energy sources in the connection routing....

  2. On extensions of superconformal algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagi, Jasbir

    2005-01-01

    Starting from vector fields that preserve a differential form on a Riemann sphere with Grassmann variables, one can construct a superconformal algebra by considering central extensions of the algebra of vector fields. In this paper, the N=4 case is analyzed closely, where the presence of weight zero operators in the field theory forces the introduction of noncentral extensions. How this modifies the existing field theory, representation theory, and Gelfand-Fuchs constructions is discussed. It is also discussed how graded Riemann sphere geometry can be used to give a geometrical description of the central charge in the N=1 theory

  3. THE CHANDRA SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Ian N.; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G.; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He Xiangqun; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Davis, John E.; Houck, John C.; Hall, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. The first release of the CSC includes information about 94,676 distinct X-ray sources detected in a subset of public Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents ∼<30''. The catalog (1) provides access to the best estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources, with good scientific fidelity, and directly supports scientific analysis using the individual source data; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; and (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources, so that users can perform detailed further analysis using existing tools. The catalog includes real X-ray sources detected with flux estimates that are at least 3 times their estimated 1σ uncertainties in at least one energy band, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at a level of ∼<1 false source per field for a 100 ks observation. For each detected source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics, derived from the observations in which the source is detected. In addition to these traditional catalog elements, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra from each observation in which a

  4. The Chandra Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ian N.; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger M.; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Xiangqun Helen; Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; Van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.; Zografou, Panagoula

    2010-07-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is a general purpose virtual X-ray astrophysics facility that provides access to a carefully selected set of generally useful quantities for individual X-ray sources, and is designed to satisfy the needs of a broad-based group of scientists, including those who may be less familiar with astronomical data analysis in the X-ray regime. The first release of the CSC includes information about 94,676 distinct X-ray sources detected in a subset of public Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer imaging observations from roughly the first eight years of the Chandra mission. This release of the catalog includes point and compact sources with observed spatial extents lsim30''. The catalog (1) provides access to the best estimates of the X-ray source properties for detected sources, with good scientific fidelity, and directly supports scientific analysis using the individual source data; (2) facilitates analysis of a wide range of statistical properties for classes of X-ray sources; and (3) provides efficient access to calibrated observational data and ancillary data products for individual X-ray sources, so that users can perform detailed further analysis using existing tools. The catalog includes real X-ray sources detected with flux estimates that are at least 3 times their estimated 1σ uncertainties in at least one energy band, while maintaining the number of spurious sources at a level of lsim1 false source per field for a 100 ks observation. For each detected source, the CSC provides commonly tabulated quantities, including source position, extent, multi-band fluxes, hardness ratios, and variability statistics, derived from the observations in which the source is detected. In addition to these traditional catalog elements, for each X-ray source the CSC includes an extensive set of file-based data products that can be manipulated interactively, including source images, event lists, light curves, and spectra from each observation in which a

  5. African Journal of Livestock Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Livestock Extension aims to bring to the fore the role and significance of livestock in maintaining rural, peri-urban and urban households, vis-à-vis its impact on poverty alleviation, household nutritional status, economic coping strategy and provision of employment. The focus of the journal relates to all ...

  6. Extensiveness of Farmers' Buying Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Broens, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    In this article we study farmers' buying processes, in particular the selection of a supplier for a given farm input. Extensiveness of farmers' buying processes is defined as the degree information acquisition and alternative evaluation effort carried out to prepare that selection. Hypotheses,

  7. Cross System Extensions (CSE) experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, T.Y.

    1990-08-01

    Cross System Extension (CSE) provides VM/XA systems with the ability to share minidisks and spool in loosely coupled environment. CSE will also cooperate with the VM/HPO Inter System Facility (ISF) in sharing minidisks between VM/XA and VM/HPO to XA, reliability of CSE, and some operational considerations when running with it

  8. Extension Resources for International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  9. Agricultural Extension. A Reference Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunder, Addison, H.

    The basic philosophy of agricultural extension was established in the more highly developed countries over the past century. Newly formed nations, the rural population of which formerly maintained a subsistence agriculture with limited industry, found it essential to establish a better-balanced economy. This led to a variety of rural services and…

  10. Extensions of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1983-01-01

    In these lectures we focus on several issues that arise in theoretical extensions of the standard model. First we describe the kinds of fermions that can be added to the standard model without affecting known phenomenology. We focus in particular on three types: the vector-like completion of the existing fermions as would be predicted by a Kaluza-Klein type theory, which we find cannot be realistically achieved without some chiral symmetry; fermions which are vector-like by themselves, such as do appear in supersymmetric extensions, and finally anomaly-free chiral sets of fermions. We note that a chiral symmetry, such as the Peccei-Quinn symmetry can be used to produce a vector-like theory which, at scales less than M/sub W/, appears to be chiral. Next, we turn to the analysis of the second hierarchy problem which arises in Grand Unified extensions of the standard model, and plays a crucial role in proton decay of supersymmetric extensions. We review the known mechanisms for avoiding this problem and present a new one which seems to lead to the (family) triplication of the gauge group. Finally, this being a summer school, we present a list of homework problems. 44 references

  11. An extension of Babinet's principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    da Silveira, R.

    1990-07-01

    It is shown that the diffraction pattern produced by any of two complementary screens and the one produced by a slit having the shape of their boundary, oscillates in opposite phase. This extension of Babinet's principle is illustrated with examples from nuclear scattering and classical optics

  12. Extension properties of states on operator algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamhalter, Jan

    1995-08-01

    We summarize and deepen some recent results concerning the extension problem for states on operator algebras and general quantum logics. In particular, we establish equivalence between the Gleason extension property, the Hahn-Banach extension property, and the universal state extension property of projection logics. Extensions of Jauch-Piron states are investigated.

  13. High resolution time- and 2-dimensional space-resolved x-ray imaging of plasmas at NOVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landen, O.L.

    1992-01-01

    A streaked multiple pinhole camera technique, first used by P. Choi et al. to record time- and 2-D space-resolved soft X-ray images of plasma pinches, has been implemented on laser plasmas at NOVA. The instrument is particularly useful for time-resolved imaging of small sources ( 2.5 key imaging, complementing the existing 1--3 key streaked X-ray microscope capabilities at NOVA

  14. Time-resolved x-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques for time-resolved x-ray diagnostics will be reviewed with emphasis on systems utilizing x-ray diodes or scintillators. System design concerns for high-bandwidth (> 1 GHz) diagnostics will be emphasized. The limitations of a coaxial cable system and a technique for equalizing to improve bandwidth of such a system will be reviewed. Characteristics of new multi-GHz amplifiers will be presented. An example of a complete operational system on the Los Alamos Helios laser will be presented which has a bandwidth near 3 GHz over 38 m of coax. The system includes the cable, an amplifier, an oscilloscope, and a digital camera readout

  15. Achieving patient satisfaction: resolving patient complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxler, K F

    1997-07-01

    Patients demand to be active participants on and partners with the health care team to design their care regimen. Patients bring unique perceptions and expectations and use these to evaluate service quality and satisfaction. If customer satisfaction is not achieved and a patient complaint results, staff must have the skills to respond and launch a service recovery program. Service recovery, when done with style and panache, can retain loyal customers. Achieving patient satisfaction and resolving patient complaints require commitment from top leadership and commitment from providers to dedicate the time to understand their patients' needs.

  16. Spatially Resolved Analysis of Bragg Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Sabel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper targets an inherent control of optical shrinkage in photosensitive polymers, contributing by means of spatially resolved analysis of volume holographic phase gratings. Point by point scanning of the local material response to the Gaussian intensity distribution of the recording beams is accomplished. Derived information on the local grating period and grating slant is evaluated by mapping of optical shrinkage in the lateral plane as well as through the depth of the layer. The influence of recording intensity, exposure duration and the material viscosity on the Bragg selectivity is investigated.

  17. Periodicity in Age-Resolved Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esipov, Sergei

    We discuss the interplay between the non-linear diffusion and age-resolved population dynamics. Depending on the age properties of collective migration the system may exhibit continuous joint expansion of all ages or continuous expansion with age segregation. Between these two obvious limiting regimes there is an interesting window of periodic expansion, which has been previously used by us in modeling bacterial colonies of Proteus mirabilis. In order to test whether the age-dependent collective migration leads to periodicity in other systems we performed a Fourier analysis of historical data on ethnic expansions and found multiple co-existing periods of activity.

  18. Polarized electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prepost, R.

    1994-01-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented

  19. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  20. The time resolved SBS and SRS research in heavy water and its application in CARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinbo; Gai, Baodong; Yuan, Hong; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Di; Xia, Xusheng; Wang, Pengyuan; Hu, Shu; Chen, Ying; Guo, Jingwei; Jin, Yuqi; Sang, Fengting

    2018-05-01

    We present the time-resolved character of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and backward stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS) in heavy water and its application in Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) technique. A nanosecond laser from a frequency-doubled Nd: YAG laser is introduced into a heavy water cell, to generate SBS and BSRS beams. The SBS and BSRS beams are collinear, and their time resolved characters are studied by a streak camera, experiment show that they are ideal source for an alignment-free CARS system, and the time resolved property of SBS and BSRS beams could affect the CARS efficiency significantly. By inserting a Dye cuvette to the collinear beams, the time-overlapping of SBS and BSRS could be improved, and finally the CARS efficiency is increased, even though the SBS energy is decreased. Possible methods to improve the efficiency of this CARS system are discussed too.

  1. Rapid Spontaneously Resolving Acute Subdural Hematoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Qi; Zhao, Hexiang; Zhang, Hanmei; You, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study reports a rare patient of a rapid spontaneously resolving acute subdural hematoma. In addition, an analysis of potential clues for the phenomenon is presented with a review of the literature. Patient Presentation: A 1-year-and-2-month-old boy fell from a height of approximately 2 m. The patient was in a superficial coma with a Glasgow Coma Scale of 8 when he was transferred to the authors’ hospital. Computed tomography revealed the presence of an acute subdural hematoma with a midline shift beyond 1 cm. His guardians refused invasive interventions and chose conservative treatment. Repeat imaging after 15 hours showed the evident resolution of the hematoma and midline reversion. Progressive magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the complete resolution of the hematoma, without redistribution to a remote site. Conclusions: Even though this phenomenon has a low incidence, the probability of a rapid spontaneously resolving acute subdural hematoma should be considered when patients present with the following characteristics: children or elderly individuals suffering from mild to moderate head trauma; stable or rapidly recovered consciousness; and simple acute subdural hematoma with a moderate thickness and a particularly low-density band in computed tomography scans. PMID:28468224

  2. High resolving power spectrometer for beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshammer, H.W.; Spencer, J.E.

    1992-03-01

    We describe a system designed to analyze the high energy, closely spaced bunches from individual RF pulses. Neither a large solid angle nor momentum range is required so this allows characteristics that appear useful for other applications such as ion beam lithography. The spectrometer is a compact, double-focusing QBQ design whose symmetry allows the Quads to range between F or D with a correspondingly large range of magnifications, dispersion and resolving power. This flexibility insures the possibility of spatially separating all of the bunches along the focal plane with minimal transverse kicks and bending angle for differing input conditions. The symmetry of the system allows a simple geometric interpretationof the resolving power in terms of thin lenses and ray optics. We discuss the optics and the hardware that is proposed to measure emittance, energy, energy spread and bunch length for each bunch in an RF pulse train for small bunch separations. We also discuss how to use such measurements for feedback and feedforward control of these bunch characteristics as well as maintain their stability. 2 refs

  3. Femtosecond Time-resolved Optical Polarigraphy (FTOP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoshima, S.; Fujimoto, M.; Hosoda, M.; Tsuchiya, Y.

    2000-01-01

    A novel time-resolved imaging technique named FTOP (Femtosecond Time-resolved Optical Polarigraphy) for visualizing the ultrafast propagation dynamics of intense light pulses in a medium has been proposed and demonstrated. Femtosecond snapshot images can be created with a high spatial resolution by imaging only the polarization components of the probe pulse; these polarization components change due to the instantaneous birefringence induced by the pump pulse in the medium. Ultrafast temporal changes in the two-dimensional spatial distribution of the optical pulse intensity were clearly visualized in consecutive images by changing the delay between the pump and probe. We observe that several filaments appear and then come together before the vacuum focus due to nonlinear effects in air. We also prove that filamentation dynamics such as the formation position and the propagation behavior are complex and are strongly affected by the pump energy. The results collected clearly show that this method FTOP succeeds for the first time in directly visualizing the ultrafast dynamics of the self-modulated nonlinear propagation of light. (author)

  4. Healthcare Teams Neurodynamically Reorganize When Resolving Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Stevens

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on the microscale neural dynamics of social interactions has yet to be translated into improvements in the assembly, training and evaluation of teams. This is partially due to the scale of neural involvements in team activities, spanning the millisecond oscillations in individual brains to the minutes/hours performance behaviors of the team. We have used intermediate neurodynamic representations to show that healthcare teams enter persistent (50–100 s neurodynamic states when they encounter and resolve uncertainty while managing simulated patients. Each of the second symbols was developed situating the electroencephalogram (EEG power of each team member in the contexts of those of other team members and the task. These representations were acquired from EEG headsets with 19 recording electrodes for each of the 1–40 Hz frequencies. Estimates of the information in each symbol stream were calculated from a 60 s moving window of Shannon entropy that was updated each second, providing a quantitative neurodynamic history of the team’s performance. Neurodynamic organizations fluctuated with the task demands with increased organization (i.e., lower entropy occurring when the team needed to resolve uncertainty. These results show that intermediate neurodynamic representations can provide a quantitative bridge between the micro and macro scales of teamwork.

  5. Time Resolved Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Roquemore, A.L.; Hogan, J.; Wampler, W.R.

    2004-01-01

    Time-resolved measurements of deposition in current tokamaks are crucial to gain a predictive understanding of deposition with a view to mitigating tritium retention and deposition on diagnostic mirrors expected in next-step devices. Two quartz crystal microbalances have been installed on NSTX at a location 0.77m outside the last closed flux surface. This configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. The deposits were analyzed ex-situ and found to be dominantly carbon, oxygen, and deuterium. A rear facing quartz crystal recorded deposition of lower sticking probability molecules at 10% of the rate of the front facing one. Time resolved measurements over a 4-week period with 497 discharges, recorded 29.2 (micro)g/cm 2 of deposition, however surprisingly, 15.9 (micro)g/cm 2 of material loss occurred at 7 discharges. The net deposited mass of 13.3 (micro)g/cm 2 matched the mass of 13.5 (micro)g/cm 2 measured independently by ion beam analysis. Monte Carlo modeling suggests that transient processes are likely to dominate the deposition

  6. Curve collection, extension of databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillemot, F.

    1992-01-01

    Full text: Databases: generally calculated data only. The original measurements: diagrams. Information loss between them Expensive research eg. irradiation, aging, creep etc. Original curves should be stored for reanalysing. The format of the stored curves: a. Data in ASCII files, only numbers b. Other information in strings in a second file Same name, but different extension. Extensions shows the type of the test and the type of the file. EXAMPLES. TEN is tensile information, TED is tensile data, CHN is Charpy informations, CHD is Charpy data. Storing techniques: digitalised measurements, digitalising old curves stored on paper. Use: making catalogues, reanalysing, comparison with new data. Tools: mathematical software packages like quattro, genplot, exel, mathcad, qbasic, pascal, fortran, mathlab, grapher etc. (author)

  7. Extension agents and conflict narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Jennifer Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used...... to elicit the conflict narratives present among extension professionals. A concourse of 221 statements were devised from interviews and group discussions with key informants and a final sample of 49 statements was used for the sorting. Thirteen Q-sorts were undertaken with among rural extension...... professionals from government, non-government, faith-based and private organizations. Findings: Four factors were elicited from the data, labelled—A: ‘Improved Leadership’; B: ‘Resource-centred conflict’; C: ‘Improved Governance’; and D: ‘Improved Management’. Practical Implications: Narratives of neo...

  8. New examples of frobenius extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Kadison, Lars

    1999-01-01

    This volume is based on the author's lecture courses to algebraists at Munich and at G�teborg. He presents, for the first time in book form, a unified approach from the point of view of Frobenius algebras/extensions to diverse topics, such as Jones' subfactor theory, Hopf algebras and Hopf subalgebras, the Yang-Baxter Equation and 2-dimensional topological quantum field theories. Other Features: Initial steps toward a theory of noncommutative ring extensions. Self-contained sections on Azumaya algebras and strongly separable algebras. Applications and generalizations of Morita theory and Azumaya algebra due to Hirata and Sugano. Understanding the text requires no prior background in Frobenius algebras or Hopf algebras. An index and a thorough list of further references are included. There is an appendix giving a brief historical guide to the literature.

  9. Linear programming foundations and extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Vanderbei, Robert J

    2001-01-01

    Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions is an introduction to the field of optimization. The book emphasizes constrained optimization, beginning with a substantial treatment of linear programming, and proceeding to convex analysis, network flows, integer programming, quadratic programming, and convex optimization. The book is carefully written. Specific examples and concrete algorithms precede more abstract topics. Topics are clearly developed with a large number of numerical examples worked out in detail. Moreover, Linear Programming: Foundations and Extensions underscores the purpose of optimization: to solve practical problems on a computer. Accordingly, the book is coordinated with free efficient C programs that implement the major algorithms studied: -The two-phase simplex method; -The primal-dual simplex method; -The path-following interior-point method; -The homogeneous self-dual methods. In addition, there are online JAVA applets that illustrate various pivot rules and variants of the simplex m...

  10. Managing BWR plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianni, P.W.; Kiss, E.

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that extending the useful life of a large nuclear plant can be justified with very high cost benefit ratio. In turn, experience with large power plant systems and equipment has shown that a well-integrated and -managed plan is essential in order to achieve potential economic benefits. Consequently, General Electric's efforts have been directed at establishing a life extension plan that considers alternative options and cost-effective steps that can be taken in early life, those appropriate during middle life, and those required in late life. This paper briefly describes an approach designed to provide the plant owner a maximum of flexibility in developing a life extension plan

  11. Perineural extension of facial melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalina, Peter [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Bevilacqua, Paula

    2005-05-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with a pigmented cutaneous lesion on the right side of his face along with right facial numbness. Histological examination revealed malignant melanoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed perineural extension along the entire course of the maxillary division of the right trigeminal nerve. This is a rare but important manifestation of the spread of head and neck malignancy. (orig.)

  12. Recall in extensive form games

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Ritzberger

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers characterizations of perfect recall in extensive form games. It is shown that perfect recall can be expressed in terms of choices without any reference to infomation sets. When information sets are taken into account, it is decomposable into an ordering of information sets and that players do not forget what they knew nor what they did. Thus, if information sets are partially ordered, then perfect recall is implied by the player's inability to refine her information from ...

  13. evaluation of job performance of village extension agents in lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFINNI IMAM

    media sources (P<0.05).However ... should assist farmers in the area by sponsoring adult education so that farmers can make ... experience (World Bank, 1990), since the purpose of communication is to bring about change of attitude ..... (television, news papers, extension bulletin exhibition, talking drum, and film and slide.

  14. Delivering Extension to the Living Room Using Internet TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Grant G., III

    2014-01-01

    Television is a widely adopted source for viewing educational information. Unfortunately, producing a television show on network television can be costly and time consuming. Internet TV offers Extension video content producers the opportunity to create a niche topic channel quickly and at low cost. Internet TV offers viewers a low-cost and…

  15. Information-Seeking Behaviour of Extension Workers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the information-seeking behaviour of extension workers and specialist in the context of their use and non-use of job-related information in Nigeria, and also in relation to their job satisfaction. The objectives of the study are to identify the types of information sources, resources and communication ...

  16. Research Use by Cooperative Extension Educators in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Chen, Emily K.; Pillemer, Karl; Meador, Rhoda H.

    2013-01-01

    A Web-based survey of 388 off-campus Cornell Extension educators in New York State examined their attitudes toward research, sources of research-based information, knowledge and beliefs about evidence-based programs, and involvement in research activities. Strong consensus emerged that research is central and that educators are capable of reading…

  17. Approaches of Extension Specialists to Teaching Community and Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leones, Julie

    1995-01-01

    Responses from 64 of 80 extension agents specializing in community resources and economic development identified the "Journal of the Community Development Society" as the primary source of ideas and information. Frequently cited program topics were entrepreneurship, fiscal policy, budgeting, strategic planning, and leadership development. Among…

  18. Use of internet for innovation management by extension agents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined extension agents' perception of the use of the Internet for sourcing and disseminating agricultural innovation in Oyo state. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 80 respondents. Data collected with a questionnaire were subjected to descriptive and Pearson product moment correlation ...

  19. X-ray spectrometer having 12 000 resolving power at 8 keV energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, John F.; Hudson, Lawrence T.; Henins, Albert; Feldman, Uri

    2017-10-01

    An x-ray spectrometer employing a thin (50 μm) silicon transmission crystal was used to record high-resolution Cu Kα spectra from a laboratory x-ray source. The diffraction was from the (331) planes that were at an angle of 13.26° to the crystal surface. The components of the spectral lines resulting from single-vacancy (1s) and double-vacancy (1s and 3d) transitions were observed. After accounting for the natural lifetime widths from reference double-crystal spectra and the spatial resolution of the image plate detector, the intrinsic broadening of the transmission crystal was measured to be as small as 0.67 eV and the resolving power 12 000, the highest resolving power achieved by a compact (0.5 m long) spectrometer employing a single transmission crystal operating in the hard x-ray region. By recording spectra with variable source-to-crystal distances and comparing to the calculated widths from various geometrical broadening mechanisms, the primary contributions to the intrinsic crystal broadening were found to be the source height at small distances and the crystal apertured height at large distances. By reducing these two effects, using a smaller source size and vignetting the crystal height, the intrinsic crystal broadening is then limited by the crystal thickness and the rocking curve width and would be 0.4 eV at 8 keV energy (20 000 resolving power).

  20. Exploratory study on a statistical method to analyse time resolved data obtained during nanomaterial exposure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerc, F; Njiki-Menga, G-H; Witschger, O

    2013-01-01

    Most of the measurement strategies that are suggested at the international level to assess workplace exposure to nanomaterials rely on devices measuring, in real time, airborne particles concentrations (according different metrics). Since none of the instruments to measure aerosols can distinguish a particle of interest to the background aerosol, the statistical analysis of time resolved data requires special attention. So far, very few approaches have been used for statistical analysis in the literature. This ranges from simple qualitative analysis of graphs to the implementation of more complex statistical models. To date, there is still no consensus on a particular approach and the current period is always looking for an appropriate and robust method. In this context, this exploratory study investigates a statistical method to analyse time resolved data based on a Bayesian probabilistic approach. To investigate and illustrate the use of the this statistical method, particle number concentration data from a workplace study that investigated the potential for exposure via inhalation from cleanout operations by sandpapering of a reactor producing nanocomposite thin films have been used. In this workplace study, the background issue has been addressed through the near-field and far-field approaches and several size integrated and time resolved devices have been used. The analysis of the results presented here focuses only on data obtained with two handheld condensation particle counters. While one was measuring at the source of the released particles, the other one was measuring in parallel far-field. The Bayesian probabilistic approach allows a probabilistic modelling of data series, and the observed task is modelled in the form of probability distributions. The probability distributions issuing from time resolved data obtained at the source can be compared with the probability distributions issuing from the time resolved data obtained far-field, leading in a

  1. Coupling of WRF and Building-resolved CFD Simulations for Greenhouse Gas Transport and Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K.; Hu, H.; McDermott, R.; Lopez-Coto, I.; Davis, K. J.; Whetstone, J. R.; Lauvaux, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) aims to use a top-down inversion methodology to quantify sources of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions over an urban domain with high spatial and temporal resolution. Atmospheric transport of tracer gases from an emission source to a tower mounted receptor are usually conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. WRF is used extensively in the atmospheric community to simulate mesoscale atmospheric transport. For such simulations, WRF employs a parameterized turbulence model and does not resolve the fine scale dynamics that are generated by the flow around buildings and communities that are part of a large city. Since the model domain includes the city of Indianapolis, much of the flow of interest is over an urban topography. The NIST Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) is a computational fluid dynamics model to perform large eddy simulations of flow around buildings, but it has not been nested within a larger-scale atmospheric transport model such as WRF. FDS has the potential to evaluate the impact of complex urban topography on near-field dispersion and mixing that cannot be simulated with a mesoscale atmospheric model, and which may be important to determining urban GHG emissions using atmospheric measurements. A methodology has been developed to run FDS as a sub-grid scale model within a WRF simulation. The coupling is based on nudging the FDS flow field towards the one computed by WRF, and is currently limited to one way coupling performed in an off-line mode. Using the coupled WRF / FDS model, NIST will investigate the effects of the urban canopy at horizontal resolutions of 2-10 m. The coupled WRF-FDS simulations will be used to calculate the dispersion of tracer gases in an urban domain and to evaluate the upwind areas that contribute to tower observations, referred to in the inversion community as influence functions. Predicted mixing ratios will be compared with tower measurements and WRF simulations

  2. Time-resolved measurements of luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, Bradley B. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, 408 Mechanical Engineering Office Building, Spence Street, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); McShane, Michael J., E-mail: mcshane@tamu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, 408 Mechanical Engineering Office Building, Spence Street, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, 408 Mechanical Engineering Office Building, Spence Street, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Luminescence sensing and imaging has become more widespread in recent years in a variety of industries including the biomedical and environmental fields. Measurements of luminescence lifetime hold inherent advantages over intensity-based response measurements, and advances in both technology and methods have enabled their use in a broader spectrum of applications including real-time medical diagnostics. This review will focus on recent advances in analytical methods, particularly calculation techniques, including time- and frequency-domain lifetime approaches as well as other time-resolved measurements of luminescence. -- Highlights: • Developments in technology have led to widespread use of luminescence lifetime. • Growing interest for sensing and imaging applications. • Recent advances in approaches to lifetime calculations are reviewed. • Advantages and disadvantages of various methods are weighed. • Other methods for measurement of luminescence lifetime also described.

  3. Time-resolved measurements of luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, Bradley B.; McShane, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Luminescence sensing and imaging has become more widespread in recent years in a variety of industries including the biomedical and environmental fields. Measurements of luminescence lifetime hold inherent advantages over intensity-based response measurements, and advances in both technology and methods have enabled their use in a broader spectrum of applications including real-time medical diagnostics. This review will focus on recent advances in analytical methods, particularly calculation techniques, including time- and frequency-domain lifetime approaches as well as other time-resolved measurements of luminescence. -- Highlights: • Developments in technology have led to widespread use of luminescence lifetime. • Growing interest for sensing and imaging applications. • Recent advances in approaches to lifetime calculations are reviewed. • Advantages and disadvantages of various methods are weighed. • Other methods for measurement of luminescence lifetime also described

  4. Radiofrequency encoded angular-resolved light scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buckley, Brandon W.; Akbari, Najva; Diebold, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    The sensitive, specific, and label-free classification of microscopic cells and organisms is one of the outstanding problems in biology. Today, instruments such as the flow cytometer use a combination of light scatter measurements at two distinct angles to infer the size and internal complexity...... of cells at rates of more than 10,000 per second. However, by examining the entire angular light scattering spectrum it is possible to classify cells with higher resolution and specificity. Current approaches to performing these angular spectrum measurements all have significant throughput limitations...... Encoded Angular-resolved Light Scattering (REALS), this technique multiplexes angular light scattering in the radiofrequency domain, such that a single photodetector captures the entire scattering spectrum from a particle over approximately 100 discrete incident angles on a single shot basis. As a proof...

  5. Time - resolved thermography at Tokamak T-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunow, C.; Guenther, K.; Lingertat, J.; Chicherov, V.M.; Evstigneev, S.A.; Zvonkov, S.N.

    1987-01-01

    Thermographic experiments were performed at T-10 tokamak to investigate the thermic coupling of plasma and the limiter. The limiter is an internal equipment of the vacuum vessel of tokamak-type fusion devices and the interaction of plasma with limiter results a high thermal load of limiter for short time. In according to improve the limiter design the temperature distribution on the limiter surface was measured by a time-resolved thermographic method. Typical isotherms and temperature increment curves are presented. This measurement can be used as a systematic plasma diagnostic method because the limiter is installed in the tokamak whereas special additional probes often disturb the plasma discharge. (D.Gy.) 3 refs.; 7 figs

  6. Resolvent-Techniques for Multiple Exercise Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Sören; Lempa, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    We study optimal multiple stopping of strong Markov processes with random refraction periods. The refraction periods are assumed to be exponentially distributed with a common rate and independent of the underlying dynamics. Our main tool is using the resolvent operator. In the first part, we reduce infinite stopping problems to ordinary ones in a general strong Markov setting. This leads to explicit solutions for wide classes of such problems. Starting from this result, we analyze problems with finitely many exercise rights and explain solution methods for some classes of problems with underlying Lévy and diffusion processes, where the optimal characteristics of the problems can be identified more explicitly. We illustrate the main results with explicit examples

  7. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    Measurements of the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the S(1s) core level of a c(2 x 2)S/Ni(001) are analyzed to determine the spacing between the S overlayer and the first and second Ni layers. ARPEFS is a type of photoelectron diffraction measurement in which the photoelectron kinetic energy is swept typically from 100 to 600 eV. By using this wide range of intermediate energies we add high precision and theoretical simplification to the advantages of the photoelectron diffraction technique for determining surface structures. We report developments in the theory of photoelectron scattering in the intermediate energy range, measurement of the experimental photoemission spectra, their reduction to ARPEFS, and the surface structure determination from the ARPEFS by combined Fourier and multiple-scattering analyses. 202 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Resolvent-Techniques for Multiple Exercise Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Sören, E-mail: christensen@math.uni-kiel.de [Christian–Albrechts-University in Kiel, Mathematical Institute (Germany); Lempa, Jukka, E-mail: jukka.lempa@hioa.no [Oslo and Akershus University College, School of business, Faculty of Social Sciences (Norway)

    2015-02-15

    We study optimal multiple stopping of strong Markov processes with random refraction periods. The refraction periods are assumed to be exponentially distributed with a common rate and independent of the underlying dynamics. Our main tool is using the resolvent operator. In the first part, we reduce infinite stopping problems to ordinary ones in a general strong Markov setting. This leads to explicit solutions for wide classes of such problems. Starting from this result, we analyze problems with finitely many exercise rights and explain solution methods for some classes of problems with underlying Lévy and diffusion processes, where the optimal characteristics of the problems can be identified more explicitly. We illustrate the main results with explicit examples.

  9. Spatially resolved spectroscopy on semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessler, Johanna

    2009-02-20

    Cleared edge overgrowth (CEO) nanostructures are identified and studied by 1D und 2D {mu}PL mapping scans and by time-resolved and power-dependent measurements. Distinct excitonic ground states of 2fold CEO QDs with large localization energies are achieved. The deeper localization reached as compared to the only other report on 2fold CEO QDs in literature is attributed to a new strain-free fabrication process and changed QW thickness in [001] growth. In order to achieve controlled manipulation of 2fold CEO QDs the concept of a CEO structure with three top gates and one back gate is presented. Due to the complexity of this device, a simpler test structure is realized. Measurements on this test structure confirm the necessity to either grow significantly thicker overgrowth layers or to provide separate top gates in all three spatial direction to controllably manipulate 2fold CEO QDs with an external electric field. (orig.)

  10. Strain resolving method of composite plane plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion FUIOREA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extension of isotropic plates problem to the case of composite plates. In order to perform it, the Kirchhoff-Love hypotheses were “softened” by some additional ones. Considering the constitutive laws for composite materials the stress functions were eliminated by using Cauchy equations. As a result a partial derivative equation in displacements was obtained. Finally the boundary condition formulation was extended for the case of complex composite plates.

  11. Professional development and extension programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereznai, G. [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Professional Development (PD) refers to the means by which people acquire, develop, maintain and enhance the specialist knowledge and skills needed to practice in their profession. Extension Programs (aka Continuing Education) are offered by most post-secondary degree/diploma/certificate granting institutions.The courses are typically taken on a part-time basis, and course delivery often includes distance learning technology. An important implementation of PD is via workplace training, industry specific seminars, workshops and non-credit courses offered by a wide range of service providers.

  12. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2006-01-11

    This final project report presents the activities and accomplishments of the ''Coal Combustion Products Extension Program'' conducted at The Ohio State University from August 1, 2000 to June 30, 2005 to advance the beneficial uses of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highway and construction, mine reclamation, agricultural, and manufacturing sectors. The objective of this technology transfer/research program at The Ohio State University was to promote the increased use of Ohio CCPs (fly ash, FGD material, bottom ash, and boiler slag) in applications that are technically sound, environmentally benign, and commercially competitive. The project objective was accomplished by housing the CCP Extension Program within The Ohio State University College of Engineering with support from the university Extension Service and The Ohio State University Research Foundation. Dr. Tarunjit S. Butalia, an internationally reputed CCP expert and registered professional engineer, was the program coordinator. The program coordinator acted as liaison among CCP stakeholders in the state, produced information sheets, provided expertise in the field to those who desired it, sponsored and co-sponsored seminars, meetings, and speaking at these events, and generally worked to promote knowledge about the productive and proper application of CCPs as useful raw materials. The major accomplishments of the program were: (1) Increase in FGD material utilization rate from 8% in 1997 to more than 20% in 2005, and an increase in overall CCP utilization rate of 21% in 1997 to just under 30% in 2005 for the State of Ohio. (2) Recognition as a ''voice of trust'' among Ohio and national CCP stakeholders (particularly regulatory agencies). (3) Establishment of a national and international reputation, especially for the use of FGD materials and fly ash in construction applications. It is recommended that to increase Ohio's CCP utilization rate from 30% in 2005 to

  13. Professional development and extension programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereznai, G.

    2015-01-01

    Professional Development (PD) refers to the means by which people acquire, develop, maintain and enhance the specialist knowledge and skills needed to practice in their profession. Extension Programs (aka Continuing Education) are offered by most post-secondary degree/diploma/certificate granting institutions.The courses are typically taken on a part-time basis, and course delivery often includes distance learning technology. An important implementation of PD is via workplace training, industry specific seminars, workshops and non-credit courses offered by a wide range of service providers.

  14. New Stethoscope With Extensible Diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashina, Tsunekazu; Shimizu, Masashi; Muratake, Torakazu; Mayuzumi, Syuichi

    2016-08-25

    This study compared the diagnostic efficacy of the common suspended diaphragm stethoscope (SDS) with a new extensible diaphragm stethoscope (EDS) for low-frequency heart sounds. The EDS was developed by using an ethylene propylene diene monomer diaphragm. The results showed that the EDS enhanced both the volume and quality of low-frequency heart sounds, and improved the ability of examiners to auscultate such heart sounds. Based on the results of the sound analysis, the EDS is more efficient than the SDS. (Circ J 2016; 80: 2047-2049).

  15. Japanese plant life extension program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitsugu, M.

    1988-01-01

    As one of the main items of up-grading light water reactor program in Japan, plant life extension has been recommended by Advisory Committee of Ministry of International trade and Industry and the practical work has begun to be carried out. It is overviewed here. After preliminary works, including investigation on the state of the arts through a entrusted survey work, participation in international meetings and exchange of informations with related organizations, actual work has just started. So-called critical components based on our experience during the past 17 years have been listed up and some experimental works inaugurated as from 1987

  16. A synchrotron radiation camera and data acquisition system for time resolved x-ray scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordas, J.; Koch, M.H.J.; Clout, P.N.; Dorrington, E.; Boulin, C.; Gabriel, A.

    1980-01-01

    Until recently, time resolved measurements of x-ray scattering patterns have not been feasible because laboratory x-ray sources were too weak and detectors unavailable. Recent developments in both these fields have changed the situation, and it is now possible to follow changes in x-ray scattering patterns with a time resolution of a few ms. The apparatus used to achieve this is described and some examples from recent biological experiments are given. (author)

  17. Ultrafast Structural Dynamics in InSb Probed by Time-Resolved X-Ray Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, A.H.; Shank, C.V.; Chin, A.H.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Shank, C.V.; Glover, T.E.; Leemans, W.P.; Balling, P.

    1999-01-01

    Ultrafast structural dynamics in laser-perturbed InSb are studied using time-resolved x-ray diffraction with a novel femtosecond x-ray source. We report the first observation of a delay in the onset of lattice expansion, which we attribute to energy relaxation processes and lattice strain propagation. In addition, we observe direct indications of ultrafast disordering on a subpicosecond time scale. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  18. Time-resolved dual RNA-seq reveals extensive rewiring of lung epithelial and pneumococcal transcriptomes during early infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aprianto, Rieza; Slager, Jelle; Holsappel, Siger; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae, the pneumococcus, is the main etiological agent of pneumonia. Pneumococcal infection is initiated by bacterial adherence to lung epithelial cells. The exact transcriptional changes occurring in both host and microbe during infection are unknown. Here, we

  19. Measurements of Turbulent Convection Speeds in Multistream Jets Using Time-Resolved PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark P.

    2017-01-01

    Convection speeds of turbulent velocities in jets, including multi-stream jets with and without flight stream, were measured using an innovative application of time-resolved particle image velocimetry. The paper describes the unique instrumentation and data analysis that allows the measurement to be made. Extensive data is shown that relates convection speed, mean velocity, and turbulent velocities for multiple jet cases. These data support the overall observation that the local turbulent convection speed is roughly that of the local mean velocity, biased by the relative intensity of turbulence.

  20. Measurements of Turbulence Convection Speeds in Multistream Jets Using Time-Resolved PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark P.

    2017-01-01

    Convection speeds of turbulent velocities in jets, including multi-stream jets with and without flight stream, were measured using an innovative application of time-resolved particle image velocimetry. The paper describes the unique instrumentation and data analysis that allows the measurement to be made. Extensive data is shown that relates convection speed, mean velocity, and turbulent velocities for multiple jet cases. These data support the overall observation that the local turbulent convection speed is roughly that of the local mean velocity, biased by the relative intensity of turbulence.

  1. Time-resolved circular dichroism: Application to the study of conformal changes in biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hache, F.

    2010-06-01

    Circular dichroism (CD) is known to be a very sensitive probe of the conformation of molecules and biomolecules. It is therefore tempting to implement CD in a pump-probe experiment in order to measure ultrarapid conformational changes which occur in photochemical processes. We present two technical developments of such time-resolved CD experiments. The first one relies on the modulation of the probe polarization from left to right circular whereas the second one measures the pump-induced ellipticity of the probe with a Babinet-Soleil compensator. Some applications are described and extension of these techniques towards the study of elementary protein folding processes is discussed.

  2. Time-resolved circular dichroism: Application to the study of conformal changes in biomolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hache F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Circular dichroism (CD is known to be a very sensitive probe of the conformation of molecules and biomolecules. It is therefore tempting to implement CD in a pump-probe experiment in order to measure ultrarapid conformational changes which occur in photochemical processes. We present two technical developments of such time-resolved CD experiments. The first one relies on the modulation of the probe polarization from left to right circular whereas the second one measures the pump-induced ellipticity of the probe with a Babinet-Soleil compensator. Some applications are described and extension of these techniques towards the study of elementary protein folding processes is discussed.

  3. Time-resolved spectroscopy using a chopper wheel as a fast shutter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shicong; Wendt, Amy E.; Boffard, John B.; Lin, Chun C.

    2015-01-01

    Widely available, small form-factor, fiber-coupled spectrometers typically have a minimum exposure time measured in milliseconds, and thus cannot be used directly for time-resolved measurements at the microsecond level. Spectroscopy at these faster time scales is typically done with an intensified charge coupled device (CCD) system where the image intensifier acts as a “fast” electronic shutter for the slower CCD array. In this paper, we describe simple modifications to a commercially available chopper wheel system to allow it to be used as a “fast” mechanical shutter for gating a fiber-coupled spectrometer to achieve microsecond-scale time-resolved optical measurements of a periodically pulsed light source. With the chopper wheel synchronized to the pulsing of the light source, the time resolution can be set to a small fraction of the pulse period by using a chopper wheel with narrow slots separated by wide spokes. Different methods of synchronizing the chopper wheel and pulsing of the light sources are explored. The capability of the chopper wheel system is illustrated with time-resolved measurements of pulsed plasmas

  4. Fluorescein-related extensive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Asim; Turedi, Suleyman; Aydin, Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescein is a chemical dye frequently used in eye diseases to assess blood flow in the retina, choroid tissue, and iris. Although it has many known adverse effects, it has not previously been reported to lead to jaundice. The purpose of this case report was to emphasize that for patients presenting at the emergency department with jaundice symptoms, it should not be forgotten by emergency physicians that jaundice can develop after fluorescein angiography. Case: A 65-year-old woman presented at the emergency department with extensive jaundice that had developed on her entire body a few hours after fluorescein angiography applied because of vision impairment. The test results for all the diseases considered to cause jaundice were normal,and fluorescein-related jaundice was diagnosed. Conclusion: A detailed anamnesis should be taken when jaundice is seen in patients who have undergone fluorescein angiography, and it should not be forgotten that fluorescein dye is a rare cause of jaundice.

  5. An extension of fuzzy decisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basem Mohamed Elomda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new extension to Fuzzy Decision Maps (FDMs by allowing use of fuzzy linguistic values to represent relative importance among criteria in the preference matrix as well as representing relative influence among criteria for computing the steady-state matrix in the stage of Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM. The proposed model is called the Linguistic Fuzzy Decision Networks (LFDNs. The proposed LFDN provides considerable flexibility to decision makers when solving real world Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM problems. The performance of the proposed LFDN model is compared with the original FDM using a previously published case study. The result of comparison ensures the ability to draw the same decisions with a more realistic decision environment.

  6. Extensible numerical library in JAVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aso, T.; Okazawa, H.; Takashimizu, N.

    2001-01-01

    The authors present the current status of the project for developing the numerical library in JAVA. The authors have presented how object-oriented techniques improve usage and also development of numerical libraries compared with the conventional way at previous conference. The authors need many functions for data analysis which is not provided within JAVA language, for example, good random number generators, special functions and so on. Authors' development strategy is focused on easiness of implementation and adding new features by users themselves not only by developers. In HPC field, there are other focus efforts to develop numerical libraries in JAVA. However, their focus is on the performance of execution, not easiness of extension. Following the strategy, the authors have designed and implemented more classes for random number generators and so on

  7. Extensive Renovation of Heritage Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Møller, Eva B.; Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    In the debate on whether or not heritage buildings should be included in work to mitigate climate change impacts, it is important to assess the impact of these buildings. Therefore the results of an extensive energy upgrading of a listed complex was studied. Climate change and measures to mitigate...... its effects have been a global priority for more than a decade. Efforts to mitigate climate change have focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO2. As a consequence, there is an increased interest in reducing the energy consumption and increase the indoor climate standard of many...... feasible energy-upgrading measures for implementation including measures to provide an acceptable indoor climate. The energy savings as well as the reduction of CO2 emissions are calculated. Furthermore, it is discussed how measures can affect the durability of a heritage building, as measures may create...

  8. The Advanced Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayter, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new user experimental facility planned to be operational at Oak Ridge in the late 1990's. The centerpiece of the ANS will be a steady-state research reactor of unprecedented thermal neutron flux (φ th ∼ 9·10 19 m -2 ·s -1 ) accompanied by extensive and comprehensive equipment and facilities for neutron-based research. 5 refs., 5 figs

  9. The advanced neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.; Hayter, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new user experimental facility planned to be operational at Oak Ridge in the late 1990's. The centerpiece of the ANS will be a steady-state research reactor of unprecedented thermal neutron flux (φ th ∼ 8 x 10 19 m -2 ·s -1 ) accompanied by extensive and comprehensive equipment and facilities for neutron-based research

  10. High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2

  11. Resolving Environmental Effects of Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Karin C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeGeorge, Elise M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; May, Roel [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research; Bennet, Finlay [Marine Scotland Science; Warnas, Marijke [Rijkswaterstaat; Perron, Muriel [nateco AG; Elmqvist, Asa [Swedish Environmental Protection Agency

    2018-04-25

    Concerns for potential wildlife impacts resulting from land-based and offshore wind energy have created challenges for wind project development. Research is not always adequately supported, results are neither always readily accessible nor are they satisfactorily disseminated, and so decisions are often made based on the best available information, which may be missing key findings. The potential for high impacts to avian and bat species and marine mammals have been used by wind project opponents to stop, downsize, or severely delay project development. The global nature of the wind industry - combined with the understanding that many affected species cross-national boundaries, and in many cases migrate between continents - also points to the need to collaborate on an international level. The International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Technology Collaborative Programs facilitates coordination on key research issues. IEA Wind Task 34 - WREN: Working Together to Resolve Environmental Effects of Wind Energy-is a collaborative forum to share lessons gained from field research and modeling, including management methods, wildlife monitoring methods, best practices, study results, and successful approaches to mitigating impacts and addressing the cumulative effects of wind energy on wildlife.

  12. Time resolved ion beam induced charge collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton W, Frederick; Walsh S, David; Doyle L, Barney; Dodd E, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Under this effort, a new method for studying the single event upset (SEU) in microelectronics has been developed and demonstrated. Called TRIBICC, for Time Resolved Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection, this technique measures the transient charge-collection waveform from a single heavy-ion strike with a -.03db bandwidth of 5 GHz. Bandwidth can be expanded up to 15 GHz (with 5 ps sampling windows) by using an FFT-based off-line waveform renormalization technique developed at Sandia. The theoretical time resolution of the digitized waveform is 24 ps with data re-normalization and 70 ps without re-normalization. To preserve the high bandwidth from IC to the digitizing oscilloscope, individual test structures are assembled in custom high-frequency fixtures. A leading-edge digitized waveform is stored with the corresponding ion beam position at each point in a two-dimensional raster scan. The resulting data cube contains a spatial charge distribution map of up to 4,096 traces of charge (Q) collected as a function of time. These two dimensional traces of Q(t) can cover a period as short as 5 ns with up to 1,024 points per trace. This tool overcomes limitations observed in previous multi-shot techniques due to the displacement damage effects of multiple ion strikes that changed the signal of interest during its measurement. This system is the first demonstration of a single-ion transient measurement capability coupled with spatial mapping of fast transients

  13. The Resolved Stellar Population of Leo A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline

    1996-05-01

    New observations of the resolved stellar population of the extremely metal-poor Magellanic dwarf irregular galaxy Leo A in Thuan-Gunn r, g, i, and narrowband Hα filters are presented. Using the recent Cepheid variable star distance determination to Leo A by Hoessel et al., we are able to create an accurate color-magnitude diagram (CMD). We have used the Bavesian inference method described by Tolstoy & Saha to calculate the likelihood of a Monte Carlo simulation of the stellar population of Leo A being a good match to the data within the well understood errors in the data. The magnitude limits on our data are sensitive enough to look back at ~1 Gyr of star formation history at the distance of Leo A. To explain the observed ratio of red to blue stars in the observed CMD, it is necessary to invoke either a steadily decreasing star formation rate toward the present time or gaps in the star formation history. We also compare the properties of the observed stellar population with the known spatial distribution of the H I gas and H II regions to support the conclusions from CMD modeling. We consider the possibility that currently there is a period of diminished star formation in Leo A, as evidenced by the lack of very young stars in the CMD and the faint H II regions. How the chaotic H I distribution, with no observable rotation, fits into our picture of the evolution of Leo A is as yet unclear.

  14. Enzyme reactions and their time resolved measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajdu, Janos

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses experimental strategies in data collection with the Laue method and summarises recent results using synchrotron radiation. Then, an assessment is made of the progress towards time resolved studies with protein crystals and the problems that remain. The paper consists of three parts which respectively describe some aspects of Laue diffraction, recent examples of structural results from Laue diffraction, and kinetic Laue crystallography. In the first part, characteristics of Laue diffraction is discussed first, focusing on the harmonics problems, spatials problem, wavelength normalization, low resolution hole, data completeness, and uneven coverage of reciprocal space. Then, capture of the symmetry unique reflection set is discussed focusing on the effect of wavelength range on the number of reciprocal lattice points occupying diffracting positions, effect of crystal to film distance and the film area and shape on the number of reflections captured, and effect of crystal symmetry on the number of unique reflections within the number of reflections captured. The second part addresses the determination of the structure of turkey egg white lysozyme, and calcium binding in tomato bushy stunt virus. The third part describes the initiation of reactions in enzyme crystals, picosecond Laue diffraction at high energy storage rings, and detectors. (N.K.)

  15. Component-resolved diagnostics in vernal conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia, Alicia; Sanchís, Eugenia; Montero, Javier A

    2016-10-01

    Conventional diagnostic tests in allergy are insufficient to clarify the cause of vernal conjunctivitis. Component-resolved diagnostic (CRD) by microarray allergen assay may be useful in detecting allergens that might be involved in the inflammatory process. In a recent trial in patients suffered from eosinophilic esophagitis, after 2 years of the CRD-guided exclusion diet and specific immunotherapy, significant clinical improvement was observed, and 68% of patients were discharged (cure based on negative biopsy, no symptoms, and no medication intake). Our new objective was to evaluate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity by CRD in tears and serum from patients with vernal conjunctivitis and treat patients with identified triggering allergens by specific immunotherapy. Twenty-five patients with vernal conjunctivitis were evaluated. The identified triggering allergens were n Lol p 1 (11 cases), n Cyn d 1 (eight cases), group 4 and 6 grasses (six cases) and group 5 of grasses (five cases). Prick test and pollen IgE were positive in one case. Clinical improvement was observed in 13/25 vernal conjunctivitis patients after 1-year specific immunotherapy. CRD seems to be a more sensitive diagnostic tool compared with prick test and IgE detection. Specific CRD-led immunotherapy may achieve clinical improvements in vernal conjunctivitis patients.

  16. Component Resolved Diagnosis in Hymenoptera Anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsitz, D; Brockow, K

    2017-06-01

    Hymenoptera anaphylaxis is one of the leading causes of severe allergic reactions and can be fatal. Venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT) can prevent a life-threatening reaction; however, confirmation of an allergy to a Hymenoptera venom is a prerequisite before starting such a treatment. Component resolved diagnostics (CRD) have helped to better identify the responsible allergen. Many new insect venom allergens have been identified within the last few years. Commercially available recombinant allergens offer new diagnostic tools for detecting sensitivity to insect venoms. Additional added sensitivity to nearly 95% was introduced by spiking yellow jacket venom (YJV) extract with Ves v 5. The further value of CRD for sensitivity in YJV and honey bee venom (HBV) allergy is more controversially discussed. Recombinant allergens devoid of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants often help to identify the culprit venom in patients with double sensitivity to YJV and HBV. CRD identified a group of patients with predominant Api m 10 sensitization, which may be less well protected by VIT, as some treatment extracts are lacking this allergen. The diagnostic gap of previously undetected Hymenoptera allergy has been decreased via production of recombinant allergens. Knowledge of analogies in interspecies proteins and cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants is necessary to distinguish relevant from irrelevant sensitizations.

  17. Time resolved ion beam induced charge collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEXTON,FREDERICK W.; WALSH,DAVID S.; DOYLE,BARNEY L.; DODD,PAUL E.

    2000-04-01

    Under this effort, a new method for studying the single event upset (SEU) in microelectronics has been developed and demonstrated. Called TRIBICC, for Time Resolved Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection, this technique measures the transient charge-collection waveform from a single heavy-ion strike with a {minus}.03db bandwidth of 5 GHz. Bandwidth can be expanded up to 15 GHz (with 5 ps sampling windows) by using an FFT-based off-line waveform renormalization technique developed at Sandia. The theoretical time resolution of the digitized waveform is 24 ps with data re-normalization and 70 ps without re-normalization. To preserve the high bandwidth from IC to the digitizing oscilloscope, individual test structures are assembled in custom high-frequency fixtures. A leading-edge digitized waveform is stored with the corresponding ion beam position at each point in a two-dimensional raster scan. The resulting data cube contains a spatial charge distribution map of up to 4,096 traces of charge (Q) collected as a function of time. These two dimensional traces of Q(t) can cover a period as short as 5 ns with up to 1,024 points per trace. This tool overcomes limitations observed in previous multi-shot techniques due to the displacement damage effects of multiple ion strikes that changed the signal of interest during its measurement. This system is the first demonstration of a single-ion transient measurement capability coupled with spatial mapping of fast transients.

  18. Resolving Gas-Phase Metallicity In Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, David

    2017-06-01

    Chapter 2: As part of the Bluedisk survey we analyse the radial gas-phase metallicity profiles of 50 late-type galaxies. We compare the metallicity profiles of a sample of HI-rich galaxies against a control sample of HI-'normal' galaxies. We find the metallicity gradient of a galaxy to be strongly correlated with its HI mass fraction {M}{HI}) / {M}_{\\ast}). We note that some galaxies exhibit a steeper metallicity profile in the outer disc than in the inner disc. These galaxies are found in both the HI-rich and control samples. This contradicts a previous indication that these outer drops are exclusive to HI-rich galaxies. These effects are not driven by bars, although we do find some indication that barred galaxies have flatter metallicity profiles. By applying a simple analytical model we are able to account for the variety of metallicity profiles that the two samples present. The success of this model implies that the metallicity in these isolated galaxies may be in a local equilibrium, regulated by star formation. This insight could provide an explanation of the observed local mass-metallicity relation. Chapter 3 We present a method to recover the gas-phase metallicity gradients from integral field spectroscopic (IFS) observations of barely resolved galaxies. We take a forward modelling approach and compare our models to the observed spatial distribution of emission line fluxes, accounting for the degrading effects of seeing and spatial binning. The method is flexible and is not limited to particular emission lines or instruments. We test the model through comparison to synthetic observations and use downgraded observations of nearby galaxies to validate this work. As a proof of concept we also apply the model to real IFS observations of high-redshift galaxies. From our testing we show that the inferred metallicity gradients and central metallicities are fairly insensitive to the assumptions made in the model and that they are reliably recovered for galaxies

  19. Resolved Parental Infertility and Children's Educational Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branigan, Amelia R; Helgertz, Jonas

    2017-06-01

    Although difficulty conceiving a child has long been a major medical and social preoccupation, it has not been considered as a predictor of long-term outcomes in children ultimately conceived. This is consistent with a broader gap in knowledge regarding the consequences of parental health for educational performance in offspring. Here we address that omission, asking how resolved parental infertility relates to children's academic achievement. In a sample of all Swedish births between 1988 and 1995, we find that involuntary childlessness prior to either a first or a second birth is associated with lower academic achievement (both test scores and GPA) in children at age 16, even if the period of infertility was prior to a sibling's birth rather than the child's own. Our results support a conceptualization of infertility as a cumulative physical and social experience with effects extending well beyond the point at which a child is born, and emphasize the need to better understand how specific parental health conditions constrain children's educational outcomes.

  20. Photon number projection using non-number-resolving detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, Peter P; Webb, James G; Huntington, Elanor H; Ralph, Timothy C

    2007-01-01

    Number-resolving photo-detection is necessary for many quantum optics experiments, especially in the application of entangled state preparation. Several schemes have been proposed for approximating number-resolving photo-detection using non-number-resolving detectors. Such techniques include multi-port detection and time-division multiplexing. We provide a detailed analysis and comparison of different number-resolving detection schemes, with a view to creating a useful reference for experimentalists. We show that the ideal architecture for projective measurements is a function of the detector's dark count and efficiency parameters. We also describe a process for selecting an appropriate topology given actual experimental component parameters

  1. An influence of extremal edges on boundary extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Ralph G; Brown, James M; McDunn, Benjamin A; Siddiqui, Aisha P

    2015-08-01

    Studies have shown that people consistently remember seeing more of a studied scene than was physically present (e.g., Intraub & Richardson Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15, 179-187, 1989). This scene memory error, known as boundary extension, has been suggested to occur due to an observer's failure to differentiate between the contributing sources of information, including the sensory input, amodal continuation beyond the view boundaries, and contextual associations with the main objects and depicted scene locations (Intraub, 2010). Here, "scenes" made of abstract shapes on random-dot backgrounds, previously shown to elicit boundary extension (McDunn, Siddiqui, & Brown Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 370-375, 2014), were compared with versions made with extremal edges (Palmer & Ghose Psychological Science, 19, 77-84, 2008) added to their borders, in order to examine how boundary extension is influenced when amodal continuation at the borders' view boundaries is manipulated in this way. Extremal edges were expected to reduce boundary extension as compared to the same scenes without them, because extremal edge boundaries explicitly indicate an image's end (i.e., they do not continue past the view boundary). A large and a small difference (16 % and 40 %) between the close and wide-angle views shown during the experiment were tested to examine the effects of both boundary extension and normalization with and without extremal edges. Images without extremal edges elicited typical boundary extension for the 16 % size change condition, whereas the 40 % condition showed signs of normalization. With extremal edges, a reduced amount of boundary extension occurred for the 16 % condition, and only normalization was found for the 40 % condition. Our findings support and highlight the importance of amodal continuation at the view boundaries as a component of boundary extension.

  2. Competency Modeling in Extension Education: Integrating an Academic Extension Education Model with an Extension Human Resource Management Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Scott D.; Cochran, Graham R.; Harder, Amy; Place, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast an academic extension education model with an Extension human resource management model. The academic model of 19 competencies was similar across the 22 competencies of the Extension human resource management model. There were seven unique competencies for the human resource management model.…

  3. Lessons Learned from resolving massive IPS database change for SPADES+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Safety Parameter Display and Evaluation System+ (SPADES+) was implemented to meet the requirements for Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) which are related to TMI Action Plan requirements. SPADES+ monitors continuously the critical safety function during normal, abnormal, and emergency operation mode and generates the alarm output to the alarm server when the tolerance related to safety functions are not satisfied. The alarm algorithm for critical safety function is performed in the NSSS Application Software (NAPS) server of the Information Process System (IPS) and the calculation result will be displayed on the flat panel display (FPD) of the IPS. SPADES+ provides the critical variable to the control room operators to aid them in rapidly and reliable determining the safety status of the plant. Many database point ID names (518 points) were changed. POINT_ID is used in the programming source code, the related documents such as SDS and SRS, and Graphic database. To reduce human errors, computer program and office program’s Macro are used. Though the automatic methods are used for changing POINT_IDs, it takes lots of time to resolve for editing the change list except for making computerized solutions. In IPS, there are many more programs than SPADES+ and over 30,000 POINT_IDs are in IPS database. Changing POINT_IDs could be a burden to software engineers. In case of Ovation system database, there is the Alias field to prevent this kind of problem. The Alias is a kind of secondary key in database

  4. Spatially resolved NEXAFS spectroscopy of siderophores in biological matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieme, J; Kilcoyne, D; Tyliszczak, T; Haselwandter, K

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for almost all forms of life. In the presence of oxygen iron is present in its ferric form which precipitates under formation of rather insoluble oxide-hydroxide polymers. Hence the bioavailability of iron is extremely low ( −17 M at pH 7 for Fe 3+ ). Under such conditions almost all microorganisms synthesize siderophores as iron chelating agents, thus solubilizing ferric iron from rather insoluble iron sources. Siderophores form soluble complexes with Fe 3+ . The present study aims at developing a methodology that would allow for the specific detection and localization of such iron chelators in their natural environment. The applicability of spatially resolved NEXAFS spectroscopy in the soft X-ray energy (E < 1 keV) range was evaluated for localization of typical fungal hydroxamate siderophores like ferrichrome or coprogen, which can be present in various biological materials. Results obtained with the scanning transmission X-ray microscopes at beamlines 11.0.2 and 5.3.2 of the ALS have shown characteristic signatures for siderophores. Thus NEXAFS spectroscopy at the carbon K-edge, nitrogen K-edge and iron L-edge with high spatial resolution has proven to be extremely useful for their identification in their natural environment. Spectra of different siderophores as well as spectra and images of biological material containing siderophores are presented

  5. Management potential of organizational culture in resolving business conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kopytova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to determine peculiarities, essence, content, dialectic nature of correlation of business conflicts and organizational culture in developing countries (in the case of Ukraine. A special attention draws to preconditioned application of management potential of organization culture for maintaining management potential of organization culture for ensuring conflict management in business companies. The research showed that the internal reason for any business conflict cores in frameworks of interpersonal relations in the staff, which are conditioned under the impact of organization culture. This justifies its management significance in preventing and constructively resolving business conflicts in companies. The analysis of practice of management certifies that ignoring high management potential of organization culture and its inactivity in enterprises of Ukraine is a source of conflict-relatedness of social relations. The author suggests the principles to be followed in the formation of organizational culture. It will help to reduce the level of conflict in Ukrainian business organizations and will increase their efficiency and competitiveness.

  6. The safe use of radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    As a means of promoting safety in the use of radiation sources, as well as encouraging consistency in regulatory control, the IAEA has from time to time organized training courses with the co-operation of Member State governments and organizations, to inform individuals from developing countries with appropriate responsibilities on the provisions for the safe use and regulation of radiation sources. Three such courses on the safe use of radiation sources have been held in both the USA, with the co-operation of the United States Government, and in Dublin, Ireland, with the co-operation of the Irish Government. The Training Course on the Safe Use and Regulation of Radiation Sources has been successfully given to over 77 participants from over 30 countries during the last years. The course is aimed at providing a basis of radiation protection knowledge in all aspects of the uses of radiation and of radiation sources that are used today. It is the intention of this course to provide a systematic enhancement of radioisotope safety in countries with developing radiological programmes through a core group of national authorities. The IAEA's training programmes provide an excellent opportunity for direct contact with lecturers that have extensive experience in resolving issues faced by developing countries and in providing guidance documents useful in addressing their problems. This document uses this collective experience and provides valuable technical information regarding the safety aspects of the uses not only of sealed and unsealed sources of radiation, but also for those machines that produce ionizing radiation. The first of these training courses, 'Safety and Regulation of Unsealed Sources' was held in Dublin, Ireland, June through July 1989 with the co-operation of the Nuclear Energy Board and Trinity College. This was an interregional training course, the participants came from all over the world. The second and third interregional courses, 'Safety and Regulation

  7. The safe use of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    As a means of promoting safety in the use of radiation sources, as well as encouraging consistency in regulatory control, the IAEA has from time to time organized training courses with the co-operation of Member State governments and organizations, to inform individuals from developing countries with appropriate responsibilities on the provisions for the safe use and regulation of radiation sources. Three such courses on the safe use of radiation sources have been held in both the USA, with the co-operation of the United States Government, and in Dublin, Ireland, with the co-operation of the Irish Government. The Training Course on the Safe Use and Regulation of Radiation Sources has been successfully given to over 77 participants from over 30 countries during the last years. The course is aimed at providing a basis of radiation protection knowledge in all aspects of the uses of radiation and of radiation sources that are used today. It is the intention of this course to provide a systematic enhancement of radioisotope safety in countries with developing radiological programmes through a core group of national authorities. The IAEA's training programmes provide an excellent opportunity for direct contact with lecturers that have extensive experience in resolving issues faced by developing countries and in providing guidance documents useful in addressing their problems. This document uses this collective experience and provides valuable technical information regarding the safety aspects of the uses not only of sealed and unsealed sources of radiation, but also for those machines that produce ionizing radiation. The first of these training courses, 'Safety and Regulation of Unsealed Sources' was held in Dublin, Ireland, June through July 1989 with the co-operation of the Nuclear Energy Board and Trinity College. This was an interregional training course, the participants came from all over the world. The second and third interregional courses, 'Safety and Regulation

  8. Resolving environmental issues in energy development: roles for the Department of Energy and its field offices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellickson, P.L.; Merrow, E.W.

    1979-01-01

    This study asks what the Department of Energy (DOE) might do to resolve environmental conflicts that arise during the implementation of energy projects or programs. We define implementation as efforts to establish an energy facility at a specific site. The environmental concerns surrounding implementation serve as touchstones of the relevance and feasibility of national energy policies. We have analyzed geothermal development in California and oil shale development in Colorado and Utah and addressed the following questions: By what processes are energy and environmental tradeoffs made. In what circumstances can DOE participation in these processes lead to a more satisfactory outcome. What options does DOE have for resolving environmetal issues and how can it choose the best option. How can DOE establish an effective working relationship with both the governmental and private groups affected by the siting and operation of energy projects. The government's most effective role in resolving environmental conflicts and uncertainties is to improve communications among the concerned parties. This role requires flexibility and evenhandedness from the government as well as an understanding of the local conditions and a commitment to appropriate local solutions. Involving local sources at every stage of the environmental impact analysis will reduce the probability of conflicts and make those that do arise more easily resolvable.

  9. Chandra resolves the T Tauri binary system RW Aur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Stephen L. [CASA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Güdel, Manuel, E-mail: stephen.skinner@colorado.edu, E-mail: manuel.guedel@univie.ac.at [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-06-20

    RW Aur is a multiple T Tauri system consisting of an early-K type primary (A) and a K5 companion (B) at a separation of 1.''4. RW Aur A drives a bipolar optical jet that is well characterized optically. We present results of a sensitive Chandra observation whose primary objective was to search for evidence of soft extended X-ray emission along the jet, as has been seen for a few other nearby T Tauri stars. The binary is clearly resolved by Chandra and both stars are detected as X-ray sources. The X-ray spectra of both stars reveal evidence for cool and hot plasma. Surprisingly, the X-ray luminosity of the less-massive secondary is at least twice that of the primary and is variable. The disparity is attributed to the primary whose X-ray luminosity is at the low end of the range for classical T Tauri stars of similar mass based on established correlations. Deconvolved soft-band images show evidence for slight outward elongation of the source structure of RW Aur A along the blueshifted jet axis inside the central arcsecond. In addition, a faint X-ray emission peak is present on the redshifted axis at an offset of 1.''2 ± 0.''2 from the star. Deprojected jet speeds determined from previous optical studies are too low to explain this faint emission peak as shock-heated jet plasma. Thus, unless flow speeds in the redshifted jet have been underestimated, other mechanisms such as magnetic jet heating may be involved.

  10. Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening Agricultural Research Capacity for Viable Extension Policies in Nigeria: An Exploration of Ricoeur's Hermeneutic Theory for Analysing Extension Research. ... Progressively more, researchers use hermeneutic philosophy to inform the conduct of interpretive research. Analogy between the philosophical ...

  11. Economic efficiency of extensive livestock production in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastić Lana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types of extensive livestock production are present worldwide, primarily in regions where natural resources such as pastures and meadows could be used. Extensive livestock production is common in the EU, as well. Therefore the goal of this research was to establish economic efficiency of extensive livestock production types and to compare their efficiency with some intensive livestock production types. In order to achieve that goal FADN (Farm Accountancy Data Network methodology was used. Source of information was FADN database as well as appropriate sector analysis and publications of European commission. It has been determined that sheep and goat production is competitive with intensive production types (dairy and granivores - pigs and poultry. Cattle production (other than dairy production proved to be economically inefficient due to low output level.

  12. Panchromatic SED modelling of spatially resolved galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel J. B.; Hayward, Christopher C.

    2018-05-01

    We test the efficacy of the energy-balance spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting code MAGPHYS for recovering the spatially resolved properties of a simulated isolated disc galaxy, for which it was not designed. We perform 226 950 MAGPHYS SED fits to regions between 0.2 and 25 kpc in size across the galaxy's disc, viewed from three different sight-lines, to probe how well MAGPHYS can recover key galaxy properties based on 21 bands of UV-far-infrared model photometry. MAGPHYS yields statistically acceptable fits to >99 per cent of the pixels within the r-band effective radius and between 59 and 77 percent of pixels within 20 kpc of the nucleus. MAGPHYS is able to recover the distribution of stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), specific SFR, dust luminosity, dust mass, and V-band attenuation reasonably well, especially when the pixel size is ≳ 1 kpc, whereas non-standard outputs (stellar metallicity and mass-weighted age) are recovered less well. Accurate recovery is more challenging in the smallest sub-regions of the disc (pixel scale ≲ 1 kpc), where the energy balance criterion becomes increasingly incorrect. Estimating integrated galaxy properties by summing the recovered pixel values, the true integrated values of all parameters considered except metallicity and age are well recovered at all spatial resolutions, ranging from 0.2 kpc to integrating across the disc, albeit with some evidence for resolution-dependent biases. These results must be considered when attempting to analyse the structure of real galaxies with actual observational data, for which the `ground truth' is unknown.

  13. Resolved Hapke parameter maps of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H.; Robinson, M. S.; Hapke, B.; Denevi, B. W.; Boyd, A. K.

    2014-08-01

    We derived spatially resolved near-global Hapke photometric parameter maps of the Moon from 21 months of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) multispectral observations using a novel "tile-by-tile method" (1° latitude by 1° longitude bins). The derived six parameters (w,b,c,BS0,hS, andθ¯p) for each tile were used to normalize the observed reflectance (standard angles i = g = 60°, e = 0° instead of the traditional angles i = g = 30°, e = 0°) within each tile, resulting in accurate normalization optimized for the local photometric response. Each pixel in the seven-color near-global mosaic (70°S to 70°N and 0°E to 360°E) was computed by the median of normalized reflectance from large numbers of repeated observations (UV: ˜50 and visible: ˜126 on average). The derived mosaic exhibits no significant artifacts with latitude or along the tile boundaries, demonstrating the quality of the normalization procedure. The derived Hapke parameter maps reveal regional photometric response variations across the lunar surface. The b, c (Henyey-Greenstein double-lobed phase function parameters) maps demonstrate decreased backscattering in the maria relative to the highlands (except 321 nm band), probably due to the higher content of both SMFe (submicron iron) and ilmenite in the interiors of back scattering agglutinates in the maria. The hS (angular width of shadow hiding opposition effect) map exhibits relatively lower values in the maria than the highlands and slightly higher values for immature highland crater ejecta, possibly related to the variation in a grain size distribution of regolith.

  14. Parameterized and resolved Southern Ocean eddy compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Mads B.; Jochum, Markus; Nuterman, Roman

    2018-04-01

    The ability to parameterize Southern Ocean eddy effects in a forced coarse resolution ocean general circulation model is assessed. The transient model response to a suite of different Southern Ocean wind stress forcing perturbations is presented and compared to identical experiments performed with the same model in 0.1° eddy-resolving resolution. With forcing of present-day wind stress magnitude and a thickness diffusivity formulated in terms of the local stratification, it is shown that the Southern Ocean residual meridional overturning circulation in the two models is different in structure and magnitude. It is found that the difference in the upper overturning cell is primarily explained by an overly strong subsurface flow in the parameterized eddy-induced circulation while the difference in the lower cell is mainly ascribed to the mean-flow overturning. With a zonally constant decrease of the zonal wind stress by 50% we show that the absolute decrease in the overturning circulation is insensitive to model resolution, and that the meridional isopycnal slope is relaxed in both models. The agreement between the models is not reproduced by a 50% wind stress increase, where the high resolution overturning decreases by 20%, but increases by 100% in the coarse resolution model. It is demonstrated that this difference is explained by changes in surface buoyancy forcing due to a reduced Antarctic sea ice cover, which strongly modulate the overturning response and ocean stratification. We conclude that the parameterized eddies are able to mimic the transient response to altered wind stress in the high resolution model, but partly misrepresent the unperturbed Southern Ocean meridional overturning circulation and associated heat transports.

  15. Formal System Verification - Extension 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    vision of truly trustworthy systems has been to provide a formally verified microkernel basis. We have previously developed the seL4 microkernel...together with a formal proof (in the theorem prover Isabelle/HOL) of its functional correctness [6]. This means that all the behaviours of the seL4 C...source code are included in the high-level, formal specification of the kernel. This work enabled us to provide further formal guarantees about seL4 , in

  16. Logic regression and its extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwender, Holger; Ruczinski, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    Logic regression is an adaptive classification and regression procedure, initially developed to reveal interacting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetic association studies. In general, this approach can be used in any setting with binary predictors, when the interaction of these covariates is of primary interest. Logic regression searches for Boolean (logic) combinations of binary variables that best explain the variability in the outcome variable, and thus, reveals variables and interactions that are associated with the response and/or have predictive capabilities. The logic expressions are embedded in a generalized linear regression framework, and thus, logic regression can handle a variety of outcome types, such as binary responses in case-control studies, numeric responses, and time-to-event data. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to the logic regression methodology, list some applications in public health and medicine, and summarize some of the direct extensions and modifications of logic regression that have been proposed in the literature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. XPL the Extensible Presentation Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Santangelo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed a growing interest in the development of web interfaces enabling both multiple ways to access contents and, at the same time, fruition by multiple modalities of interaction (point-and-click, contents reading, voice commands, gestures, etc.. In this paper we describe a framework aimed at streamlining the design process of multi-channel, multimodal interfaces enabling full reuse of software components. This framework is called the eXtensible Presentation architecture and Language (XPL, a presentation language based on design pattern paradigm that keeps separated the presentation layer from the underlying programming logic. The language supplies a methodology to expedite multimodal interface development and to reduce the effort to implement interfaces for multiple access devices, by means of using the same code. This paper describes a methodology approach based on Visual Design Pattern (ViDP and Verbal Design Pattern (VeDP, offering examples of multimodal and multichannel interfaces created with the XPL Editor.

  18. Effectiveness Of Communication Outreach Strategies Of Extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communication is a major component of agricultural extension and extension agents utilize various methods to deliver messages to their clienteles. The paper focused on the effectiveness of communication outreach strategies of extension agents in Imo State, Nigeria. Data for the study was collected with the aid of ...

  19. Purdue Extension: Employee Engagement and Leadership Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Angela R.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to assess the Purdue Extension county directors' level of engagement and leadership style and to examine the relationship between these two variables. The study aimed to inform a professional development training program for all Purdue Extension county extension directors. Survey data were collected from…

  20. Building and Managing Makerspaces in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Dave; Hill, Paul; Graham, Dallini; Swadley, Emy; Esplin, Kaleb

    2017-01-01

    As traditional face-to-face Extension office interactions are supplanted by online education options, the makerspace offers a venue for authentic engagement between Extension and the community. In makerspaces, learners make and learn from one another in a cooperative learning environment. Through involvement in the maker movement, Extension has an…

  1. 7 CFR 15b.27 - Extension education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension education. 15b.27 Section 15b.27 Agriculture... Education § 15b.27 Extension education. (a) General. A recipient to which this subpart applies that provides extension education may not, on the basis of handicap, exclude qualified handicapped persons. A recipient...

  2. User contributions and public extension delivery modes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high recurrent costs faced by the public extension service constraint the number of visits farmers receive. This study examined a number of extension communication channels through which farmers received farm management services/information from the public extension agent. The idea was, first, to find out the ...

  3. Improving Disability Awareness among Extension Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Lakshmi; Peterson, Rick L.; Grenwelge, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Increasing prevalence rates and legislative mandates imply that educators, parents, and Extension agents will need better tools and resources to meet the needs of special populations. The Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service addresses this issue by using e-learning tools. Extension agents can take advantage of these courses to gain critical…

  4. Size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions using positive matrix factorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domínguez-Sáez, A.; Viana, M.; Barrios, C.C.; Rubio, J.R.; Amato, F.; Pujadas, M.; Querol, X.

    2012-01-01

    A novel on-board system was tested to characterize size-resolved particle number emission patterns under real-world driving conditions, running in a EURO4 diesel vehicle and in a typical urban circuit in Madrid (Spain). Emission profiles were determined as a function of driving conditions. Source

  5. On power series expansions of the S-resolvent operator and the Taylor formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Fabrizio; Gantner, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    The S-functional calculus is based on the theory of slice hyperholomorphic functions and it defines functions of n-tuples of not necessarily commuting operators or of quaternionic operators. This calculus relays on the notion of S-spectrum and of S-resolvent operator. Since most of the properties that hold for the Riesz-Dunford functional calculus extend to the S-functional calculus, it can be considered its non commutative version. In this paper we show that the Taylor formula of the Riesz-Dunford functional calculus can be generalized to the S-functional calculus. The proof is not a trivial extension of the classical case because there are several obstructions due to the non commutativity of the setting in which we work that have to be overcome. To prove the Taylor formula we need to introduce a new series expansion of the S-resolvent operators associated to the sum of two n-tuples of operators. This result is a crucial step in the proof of our main results, but it is also of independent interest because it gives a new series expansion for the S-resolvent operators. This paper is addressed to researchers working in operator theory and in hypercomplex analysis.

  6. Bmi-1 Regulates Extensive Erythroid Self-Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah Ram Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBCs, responsible for oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide exchange, are essential for our well-being. Alternative RBC sources are needed to meet the increased demand for RBC transfusions projected to occur as our population ages. We previously have discovered that erythroblasts derived from the early mouse embryo can self-renew extensively ex vivo for many months. To better understand the mechanisms regulating extensive erythroid self-renewal, global gene expression data sets from self-renewing and differentiating erythroblasts were analyzed and revealed the differential expression of Bmi-1. Bmi-1 overexpression conferred extensive self-renewal capacity upon adult bone-marrow-derived self-renewing erythroblasts, which normally have limited proliferative potential. Importantly, Bmi-1 transduction did not interfere with the ability of extensively self-renewing erythroblasts (ESREs to terminally mature either in vitro or in vivo. Bmi-1-induced ESREs can serve to generate in vitro models of erythroid-intrinsic disorders and ultimately may serve as a source of cultured RBCs for transfusion therapy.

  7. Time-resolved Femtosecond Photon Echo Probes Bimodal Solvent Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pshenichnikov, M.S; Duppen, K.; Wiersma, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    We report on time-resolved femtosecond photon echo experiments of a dye molecule in a polar solution. The photon echo is time resolved by mixing the echo with a femtosecond gate pulse in a nonlinear crystal. It is shown that the temporal profile of the photon echo allows separation of the

  8. 48 CFR 30.606 - Resolving cost impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Resolving cost impacts. 30... impacts. (a) General. (1) The CFAO shall coordinate with the affected contracting officers before negotiating and resolving the cost impact when the estimated cost impact on any of their contracts is at least...

  9. Relevance of the law of international organisations in resolving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    structures to resolve disputes between states. Uncertainty remains, however, on the availability of effective structures within the system to resolve disputes between international organisations. It is important to note that international organisations were, prior to 1945, not considered subjects of international law so as to be ...

  10. Theoretical resolving power of a radiofrequency mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coc, A.; Le Gac, R.; Saint Simon, M. de; Thibault, C.; Touchard, F.

    1988-01-01

    Radiofrequency mass spectrometers of L.G. Smith's type can reach a resolving power of 10 6 -10 7 and a precision of 10 -9 -10 -10 . The resolving power, shape of peaks and limitations are described. As an example, the spectrometer to be used in an experiment aimed at measuring the anti p/p mass ratio is considered. (orig.)

  11. Conflict Resolution for Product Performance Requirements Based on Propagation Analysis in the Extension Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional product data mining methods are mainly focused on the static data. Performance requirements are generally met as possible by finding some cases and changing their structures. However, when one is satisfied with the structures changed, the other effects are not taken into account by analyzing the correlations; that is, design conflicts are not identified and resolved. An approach to resolving the conflict problems is proposed based on propagation analysis in Extension Theory. Firstly, the extension distance is improved to better fit evaluating the similarity among cases, then, a case retrieval method is developed. Secondly, the transformations that can be made on selected cases are formulated by understanding the conflict natures in the different performance requirements, which leads to the extension transformation strategy development for coordinating conflicts using propagation analysis. Thirdly, the effects and levels of propagation are determined by analyzing the performance values before and after the transformations, thus the co-existing conflict coordination strategy of multiple performances is developed. The method has been implemented in a working prototype system for supporting decision-making. And it has been demonstrated the feasible and effective through resolving the conflicts of noise, exhaust, weight and intake pressure for the screw air compressor performance design.

  12. 340nm UV LED excitation in time-resolved fluorescence system for europium-based immunoassays detection

    OpenAIRE

    Rodenko, Olga; Fodgaard, Henrik; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In immunoassay analyzers for in-vitro diagnostics, Xenon flash lamps have been widely used as excitation light sources. Recent advancements in UV LED technology and its advantages over the flash lamps such as smaller footprint, better wall-plug efficiency, narrow emission spectrum, and no significant afterglow, have made them attractive light sources for gated detection systems. In this paper, we report on the implementation of a 340 nm UV LED based time-resolved fluorescence system based on ...

  13. Dual time-resolved temperature-jump fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy for the study of fast protein dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Caitlin M; Reddish, Michael J; Dyer, R Brian

    2017-05-05

    Time-resolved temperature-jump (T-jump) coupled with fluorescence and infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a powerful technique for monitoring protein dynamics. Although IR spectroscopy of the polypeptide amide I mode is more technically challenging, it offers complementary information because it directly probes changes in the protein backbone, whereas, fluorescence spectroscopy is sensitive to the environment of specific side chains. With the advent of widely tunable quantum cascade lasers (QCL) it is possible to efficiently probe multiple IR frequencies with high sensitivity and reproducibility. Here we describe a dual time-resolved T-jump fluorescence and IR spectrometer and its application to study protein folding dynamics. A Q-switched Ho:YAG laser provides the T-jump source for both time-resolved IR and fluorescence spectroscopy, which are probed by a QCL and Ti:Sapphire laser, respectively. The Ho:YAG laser simultaneously pumps the time-resolved IR and fluorescence spectrometers. The instrument has high sensitivity, with an IR absorbance detection limit of jump induced difference spectrum from 50ns to 0.5ms. This study demonstrates the power of the dual time-resolved T-jump fluorescence and IR spectroscopy to resolve complex folding mechanisms by complementary IR absorbance and fluorescence measurements of protein dynamics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Study on sociological approach to resolve maintenance related social problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes a sociological approach to resolve maintenance related social problems. As a result of consideration, the followings were found. (1) In general, solutions to some kinds of questions can be deduced from basic laws using some theories or methodologies in the field of the natural science or engineering. The approach to resolve maintenance related social problems is similar to the approach in the natural science or engineering. (2) The points of view based on fundamental human rights, market principles and community principles, and so on, are very important in resolving maintenance related social problems and can be placed as theories or tools for resolution. (3) If such theories or tools for resolving maintenance related social problems as described above are systematically prepared, it is estimated that it becomes very much easier to resolve maintenance related social problems. (author)

  15. Design of angle-resolved illumination optics using nonimaging bi-telecentricity for 193 nm scatterfield microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Martin Y; Barnes, Bryan M; Silver, Richard M

    2018-03-01

    Accurate optics-based dimensional measurements of features sized well-below the diffraction limit require a thorough understanding of the illumination within the optical column and of the three-dimensional scattered fields that contain the information required for quantitative metrology. Scatterfield microscopy can pair simulations with angle-resolved tool characterization to improve agreement between the experiment and calculated libraries, yielding sub-nanometer parametric uncertainties. Optimized angle-resolved illumination requires bi-telecentric optics in which a telecentric sample plane defined by a Köhler illumination configuration and a telecentric conjugate back focal plane (CBFP) of the objective lens; scanning an aperture or an aperture source at the CBFP allows control of the illumination beam angle at the sample plane with minimal distortion. A bi-telecentric illumination optics have been designed enabling angle-resolved illumination for both aperture and source scanning modes while yielding low distortion and chief ray parallelism. The optimized design features a maximum chief ray angle at the CBFP of 0.002° and maximum wavefront deviations of less than 0.06 λ for angle-resolved illumination beams at the sample plane, holding promise for high quality angle-resolved illumination for improved measurements of deep-subwavelength structures using deep-ultraviolet light.

  16. Chandra Source Catalog: User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Nina; Evans, Ian N.; Rots, Arnold H.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; van Stone, David W.; Zografou, Panagoula; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Helen; Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Winkelman, Sherry L.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is intended to be the definitive catalog of all X-ray sources detected by Chandra. For each source, the CSC provides positions and multi-band fluxes, as well as derived spatial, spectral, and temporal source properties. Full-field and source region data products are also available, including images, photon event lists, light curves, and spectra. The Chandra X-ray Center CSC website (http://cxc.harvard.edu/csc/) is the place to visit for high-level descriptions of each source property and data product included in the catalog, along with other useful information, such as step-by-step catalog tutorials, answers to FAQs, and a thorough summary of the catalog statistical characterization. Eight categories of detailed catalog documents may be accessed from the navigation bar on most of the 50+ CSC pages; these categories are: About the Catalog, Creating the Catalog, Using the Catalog, Catalog Columns, Column Descriptions, Documents, Conferences, and Useful Links. There are also prominent links to CSCview, the CSC data access GUI, and related help documentation, as well as a tutorial for using the new CSC/Google Earth interface. Catalog source properties are presented in seven scientific categories, within two table views: the Master Source and Source Observations tables. Each X-ray source has one ``master source'' entry and one or more ``source observation'' entries, the details of which are documented on the CSC ``Catalog Columns'' pages. The master source properties represent the best estimates of the properties of a source; these are extensively described on the following pages of the website: Position and Position Errors, Source Flags, Source Extent and Errors, Source Fluxes, Source Significance, Spectral Properties, and Source Variability. The eight tutorials (``threads'') available on the website serve as a collective guide for accessing, understanding, and manipulating the source properties and data products provided by the catalog.

  17. Single Hit Energy-resolved Laue Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Shamim; Suggit, Matthew J.; Stubley, Paul G.; Ciricosta, Orlando; Wark, Justin S.; Higginbotham, Andrew [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Hawreliak, James A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Eggert, Jon H. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Comley, Andrew J.; Foster, John M. [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-15

    In situ white light Laue diffraction has been successfully used to interrogate the structure of single crystal materials undergoing rapid (nanosecond) dynamic compression up to megabar pressures. However, information on strain state accessible via this technique is limited, reducing its applicability for a range of applications. We present an extension to the existing Laue diffraction platform in which we record the photon energy of a subset of diffraction peaks. This allows for a measurement of the longitudinal and transverse strains in situ during compression. Consequently, we demonstrate measurement of volumetric compression of the unit cell, in addition to the limited aspect ratio information accessible in conventional white light Laue. We present preliminary results for silicon, where only an elastic strain is observed. VISAR measurements show the presence of a two wave structure and measurements show that material downstream of the second wave does not contribute to the observed diffraction peaks, supporting the idea that this material may be highly disordered, or has undergone large scale rotation.

  18. Single Hit Energy-resolved Laue Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Shamim; Suggit, Matthew J.; Stubley, Paul G.; Ciricosta, Orlando; Wark, Justin S.; Higginbotham, Andrew; Hawreliak, James A.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Eggert, Jon H.; Comley, Andrew J.; Foster, John M.

    2015-01-01

    In situ white light Laue diffraction has been successfully used to interrogate the structure of single crystal materials undergoing rapid (nanosecond) dynamic compression up to megabar pressures. However, information on strain state accessible via this technique is limited, reducing its applicability for a range of applications. We present an extension to the existing Laue diffraction platform in which we record the photon energy of a subset of diffraction peaks. This allows for a measurement of the longitudinal and transverse strains in situ during compression. Consequently, we demonstrate measurement of volumetric compression of the unit cell, in addition to the limited aspect ratio information accessible in conventional white light Laue. We present preliminary results for silicon, where only an elastic strain is observed. VISAR measurements show the presence of a two wave structure and measurements show that material downstream of the second wave does not contribute to the observed diffraction peaks, supporting the idea that this material may be highly disordered, or has undergone large scale rotation

  19. Dual source CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidensticker, Peter R.; Hofmann, Lars K.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of Dual Source Computed Tomography (DSCT) in 2005 was an evolutionary leap in the field of CT imaging. Two x-ray sources operated simultaneously enable heart-rate independent temporal resolution and routine spiral dual energy imaging. The precise delivery of contrast media is a critical part of the contrast-enhanced CT procedure. This book provides an introduction to DSCT technology and to the basics of contrast media administration followed by 25 in-depth clinical scan and contrast media injection protocols. All were developed in consensus by selected physicians on the Dual Source CT Expert Panel. Each protocol is complemented by individual considerations, tricks and pitfalls, and by clinical examples from several of the world's best radiologists and cardiologists. This extensive CME-accredited manual is intended to help readers to achieve consistently high image quality, optimal patient care, and a solid starting point for the development of their own unique protocols. (orig.)

  20. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  1. U.S. National and regional impacts nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makovick, L.; Fletcher, T.; Harrison, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the economic impacts of nuclear plant life extension on a national and regional level. Nuclear generating capacity is expected to reach 104 Gigawatts (119 units) in the 1994-1995 period. Nuclear units of the 1970 to 1980 vintage are expected to account for 96% of nuclear capacity. As operating licenses expire, a precipitous decline in nuclear capacity results, with an average of 5 gigawatts of capacity lost each year from 2010 to 2030. Without life extension, 95% of all nuclear capacity is retired between the years 2010 and 2030. Even with historically slow growth in electric demand and extensive fossil plant life extension, the need for new generating capacity in the 2010-2030 time period is eight times greater than installed nuclear capacity. Nuclear plant life extension costs and benefits were quantified under numerous scenarios using the DRI Electricity Market Model. Under a wide range of economic assumptions and investment requirements, nuclear plant life extension resulted in a net benefit to electricity consumers. The major source of net benefits from nuclear plant life extension results from the displacement of fossil-fired generating sources. In the most likely case, nuclear plant life extension provides a dollar 200 billion net savings through the year 2030. Regions with a large nuclear capacity share, newer nuclear units and relatively higher costs of alternative fuels benefit the most from life extension. This paper also discusses the importance of regulatory policies on nuclear plant life extension

  2. Assessing Extension's Ability to Promote Family Forests as a Woody Biomass Feedstock in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Rene' H.; Ghosh, Chandrani

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here surveyed Extension educators' awareness and knowledge of woody biomass energy and assessed their desire and ability to reach out to family forest owners-a critical feedstock source. The results indicate Extension educators are aware of the potential of woody biomass to serve as a renewable source of energy. Respondents…

  3. Time Resolved Detection of Infrared Synchrotron Radiation at DAΦNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocci, A.; Marcelli, A.; Drago, A.; Guidi, M. Cestelli; Pace, E.; Piccinini, M.; Sali, D.; Morini, P.; Piotrowski, J.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is characterized by a very wide spectral emission from IR to X-ray wavelengths and a pulsed structure that is a function of the source time structure. In a storage ring, the typical temporal distance between two bunches, whose duration is a few hundreds of picoseconds, is on the nanosecond scale. Therefore, synchrotron radiation sources are a very powerful tools to perform time-resolved experiments that however need extremely fast detectors. Uncooled IR devices optimized for the mid-IR range with sub-nanosecond response time, are now available and can be used for fast detection of intense IR sources such as synchrotron radiation storage rings. We present here different measurements of the pulsed synchrotron radiation emission at DAΦNE (Double Annular Φ-factory for Nice Experiments), the collider of the Laboratori Nazionali of Frascati (LNF) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), performed with very fast uncooled infrared detectors with a time resolution of a few hundreds of picoseconds. We resolved the emission time structure of the electron bunches of the DAΦNE collider when it works in a normal condition for high energy physics experiments with both photovoltaic and photoconductive detectors. Such a technology should pave the way to new diagnostic methods in storage rings, monitoring also source instabilities and bunch dynamics

  4. State of technology assessment for life extension of electrical and I and C equipment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Boger, R.M.; Meyer, L.C.; Beament, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the IEEE Working Group 3.4 on Nuclear Plant Life Extension, an assessment is made of the current state of technology for the life extension of certain classes of electrical and IandC equipment. The classes investigated include motors, cables, emergency diesel generators, penetrations, inverters/chargers, switchgear, and reactor protection systems. The work is focussed on assessment of current or recently completed RandD efforts to resolve issues affecting life extension of the equipment. Aspects discussed include the degree of resolution of these issues, potentially affected standards, and technical aspects requiring further research. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  5. State of technology assessment for life extension of electrical and I and C equipment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Charme, A.R.; Boger, R.M.; Meyer, L.C.; Beament, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the IEEE Working Group 3.4 on Nuclear Plant Life Extension, an assessment is made of the current state of technology for the life extension of certain classes of electrical and I and C equipment. The classes investigated include motors, cables, emergency diesel generators, penetrations, inverters/charges, switchgear, and reactor protection systems. The work is focussed on assessment of current or recently completed R and D efforts to resolve issues affecting life extension of the equipment. Aspects discussed include the degree of resolution of these issues, potentially affected standards, and technical aspects requiring further research

  6. Mix and Inject: Reaction Initiation by Diffusion for Time-Resolved Macromolecular Crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-resolved macromolecular crystallography unifies structure determination with chemical kinetics, since the structures of transient states and chemical and kinetic mechanisms can be determined simultaneously from the same data. To start a reaction in an enzyme, typically, an initially inactive substrate present in the crystal is activated. This has particular disadvantages that are circumvented when active substrate is directly provided by diffusion. However, then it is prohibitive to use macroscopic crystals because diffusion times become too long. With small micro- and nanocrystals diffusion times are adequately short for most enzymes and the reaction can be swiftly initiated. We demonstrate here that a time-resolved crystallographic experiment becomes feasible by mixing substrate with enzyme nanocrystals which are subsequently injected into the X-ray beam of a pulsed X-ray source.

  7. Understanding the concept of resolving power in the Fabry-Perot interferometer using a digital simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juvells, I; Carnicer, A; Ferre-Borrull, J; MartIn-Badosa, E; Montes-Usategui, M

    2006-01-01

    The resolution concept in connection with the Fabry-Perot interferometer is difficult to understand for undergraduate students enrolled in physical optics courses. The resolution criterion proposed in textbooks for distinguishing equal intensity maxima and the deduction of the resolving power equation is formal and non-intuitive. In this paper, we study the practical meaning of the resolution criterion and resolution power using a computer simulation of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The light source in the program has two monochromatic components, the wavelength difference being tunable by the user. The student can also adjust other physical parameters so as to obtain different simulation results. By analysing the images and graphics of the simulation, the resolving power concept becomes intuitive and understandable

  8. MCNP simulations of a new time-resolved Compton scattering imaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilan, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Medical images of human tissue can be produced using Computed Tomography (CT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Ultrasound or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In all of the above techniques, in order to get a three-dimensional (3D) image, one has to rotate or move the source, the detectors or the scanned target. This procedure is complicated, time consuming and increases the cost and weight of the scanning equipment. Time resolved optical tomography has been suggested as an alternative to the above conventional methods. This technique implies near infrared light (NIR) and fast time-resolved detectors to obtain a 3D image of the scanned target. However, due to the limited penetration of the NIR light in the tissue, the application of this technique is limited to soft tissue like a female breast or a premature infant brain

  9. Consistency between the luminosity function of resolved millisecond pulsars and the galactic center excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploeg, Harrison; Gordon, Chris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutherford Building, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Crocker, Roland [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek (Australia); Macias, Oscar, E-mail: harrison.ploeg@pg.canterbury.ac.nz, E-mail: chris.gordon@canterbury.ac.nz, E-mail: Roland.Crocker@anu.edu.au, E-mail: oscar.macias@vt.edu [Center for Neutrino Physics, Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, 850 West Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Fermi Large Area Telescope data reveal an excess of GeV gamma rays from the direction of the Galactic Center and bulge. Several explanations have been proposed for this excess including an unresolved population of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) and self-annihilating dark matter. It has been claimed that a key discriminant for or against the MSP explanation can be extracted from the properties of the luminosity function describing this source population. Specifically, is the luminosity function of the putative MSPs in the Galactic Center consistent with that characterizing the resolved MSPs in the Galactic disk? To investigate this we have used a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo to evaluate the posterior distribution of the parameters of the MSP luminosity function describing both resolved MSPs and the Galactic Center excess. At variance with some other claims, our analysis reveals that, within current uncertainties, both data sets can be well fit with the same luminosity function.

  10. Time-resolved protein nano-crystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; Fromme, Petra; Fromme, Raimund; Grotjohann, Ingo; Doak, R. Bruce; Kirian, Richard A.; Schmidt, Kevin E.; Wang, Xiaoyu; Weierstall, Uwe; Spence, John C.H.; White, Thomas A.; Caleman, Carl; DePonte, Daniel P.; Fleckenstein, Holger; Gumprecht, Lars; Liang, Mengning; Martin, Andrew V.; Schulz, Joachim; Stellato, Francesco; Stern, Stephan; Barty, Anton; Andreasson, Jakob; Davidsson, Jan; Hajdu, Janos; Maia, Filipe R.N.C.; Seibert, M. Marvin; Timneanu, Nicusor; Arnlund, David; Johansson, Linda; Malmerberg, Erik; Neutze, Richard; Bajt, Sasa; Barthelmess, Miriam; Graafsma, Heinz; Hirsemann, Helmut; Wunderer, Cornelia; Barends, Thomas R.M.; Foucar, Lutz; Krasniqi, Faton; Lomb, Lukas; Rolles, Daniel; Schlichting, Ilme; Schmidt, Carlo; Bogan, Michael J.; Hampton, Christina Y.; Sierra, Raymond; Starodub, Dmitri; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J.; Bottin, Herve

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of an X-ray free electron laser synchronized with an optical pump laser to obtain X-ray diffraction snapshots from the photo-activated states of large membrane protein complexes in the form of nano-crystals flowing in a liquid jet. Light-induced changes of Photosystem I-Ferredoxin co-crystals were observed at time delays of 5 to 10 μs after excitation. The result correlates with the microsecond kinetics of electron transfer from Photosystem I to ferredoxin. The undocking process that follows the electron transfer leads to large rearrangements in the crystals that will terminally lead to the disintegration of the crystals. We describe the experimental setup and obtain the first time resolved femtosecond serial X-ray crystallography results from an irreversible photo-chemical reaction at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This technique opens the door to time-resolved structural studies of reaction dynamics in biological systems. (authors)

  11. Developments in time-resolved high pressure x-ray diffraction using rapid compression and decompression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Lin, Chuanlong; Rod, Eric; Bai, Ligang; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-01-01

    Complementary advances in high pressure research apparatus and techniques make it possible to carry out time-resolved high pressure research using what would customarily be considered static high pressure apparatus. This work specifically explores time-resolved high pressure x-ray diffraction with rapid compression and/or decompression of a sample in a diamond anvil cell. Key aspects of the synchrotron beamline and ancillary equipment are presented, including source considerations, rapid (de)compression apparatus, high frequency imaging detectors, and software suitable for processing large volumes of data. A number of examples are presented, including fast equation of state measurements, compression rate dependent synthesis of metastable states in silicon and germanium, and ultrahigh compression rates using a piezoelectric driven diamond anvil cell

  12. A split-beam probe-pump-probe scheme for femtosecond time resolved protein X-ray crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper J. van Thor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to exploit the femtosecond pulse duration of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFEL operating in the hard X-ray regime for ultrafast time-resolved protein crystallography experiments, critical parameters that determine the crystallographic signal-to-noise (I/σI must be addressed. For single-crystal studies under low absorbed dose conditions, it has been shown that the intrinsic pulse intensity stability as well as mode structure and jitter of this structure, significantly affect the crystallographic signal-to-noise. Here, geometrical parameters are theoretically explored for a three-beam scheme: X-ray probe, optical pump, X-ray probe (or “probe-pump-probe” which will allow experimental determination of the photo-induced structure factor amplitude differences, ΔF, in a ratiometric manner, thereby internally referencing the intensity noise of the XFEL source. In addition to a non-collinear split-beam geometry which separates un-pumped and pumped diffraction patterns on an area detector, applying an additional convergence angle to both beams by focusing leads to integration over mosaic blocks in the case of well-ordered stationary protein crystals. Ray-tracing X-ray diffraction simulations are performed for an example using photoactive yellow protein crystals in order to explore the geometrical design parameters which would be needed. The specifications for an X-ray split and delay instrument that implements both an offset angle and focused beams are discussed, for implementation of a probe-pump-probe scheme at the European XFEL. We discuss possible extension of single crystal studies to serial femtosecond crystallography, particularly in view of the expected X-ray damage and ablation due to the first probe pulse.

  13. Knowledge and perception of extension workers towards ict utilization in agricultural extension service delivery in Gazipur district of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Prodhan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the study was to assess the extent of knowledge and perception of extension workers towards ICT utilization and to determine the relationship between the selected characteristics of the respondents and knowledge and perception of extension workers towards ICT utilization in extension service delivery. The study was conducted in Gazipur district and comprised proportionate random sample of 90 extension workers from five upazila of Gazipur district. A pre-tested interview schedule was used to collect data from the respondents. To measure the knowledge on ICT utilization 35 statements were selected regarding 7 ICT with five possible answer of each tools and a score of one was given to the right answer and zero to the wrong answer alternatively to measure the perception of the respondents rated each of 10 statements ICT utilization in agriculture on a 5-point Likert type scale and the total of these ratings formed perception index. The result of the study showed that out of seven ICT tools the knowledge of extension workers was highest in case of MS Word this was followed by internet/ web service and the lowest knowledge was found in case of Geographical Information System. It is observed that an overwhelming majority (88.9% of agricultural extension workers in the study area had low to medium knowledge towards ICT utilization. Findings reveal that the respondents had top most perception on the ICT utilization in respect of ‘Extension work can be greatly enhanced by ICT’ followed by on ‘The benefits of ICT use outweigh the financial burden involved’. The result also indicated that more than fourth-fifth (84.4% of the respondents had medium to high perception towards ICT utilization. There were significant relationship between service experience and use of the information sources of the respondents with their knowledge towards ICT utilization conversely innovativeness, cosmopoliteness and job satisfaction of the

  14. The impact of brand extension fit, extension strategy and product exposure on attitudinal responses to brand extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Farstad, Lena Kvelland; Jabran, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Brand extensions have for decades been one of the most used strategies for growth, but the sad reality is that 8 out of 10 extensions fail, making the likelihood of failure unattractively high. In addition, competition and pressure on margins increases as retailers’ power improves due to proliferation of private labels. As a result, managers are eager for new innovative strategies that can differentiate their extension and improve likelihood of success. The purpose of this paper is therefore ...

  15. Subring Depth, Frobenius Extensions, and Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kadison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The minimum depth d(B,A of a subring B⊆A introduced in the work of Boltje, Danz and Külshammer (2011 is studied and compared with the tower depth of a Frobenius extension. We show that d(B,A < ∞ if A is a finite-dimensional algebra and Be has finite representation type. Some conditions in terms of depth and QF property are given that ensure that the modular function of a Hopf algebra restricts to the modular function of a Hopf subalgebra. If A⊇B is a QF extension, minimum left and right even subring depths are shown to coincide. If A⊇B is a Frobenius extension with surjective Frobenius, homomorphism, its subring depth is shown to coincide with its tower depth. Formulas for the ring, module, Frobenius and Temperley-Lieb structures are noted for the tower over a Frobenius extension in its realization as tensor powers. A depth 3 QF extension is embedded in a depth 2 QF extension; in turn certain depth n extensions embed in depth 3 extensions if they are Frobenius extensions or other special ring extensions with ring structures on their relative Hochschild bar resolution groups.

  16. Resolving the International Monetary Fund's Legitimacy Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    Since the Asian financial crisis of 1997-1998 the International Monetary Fund (the Fund) has been embroiled in an international crisis of legitimacy. Assertions of a crisis are premised on the notions that the Fund's voting system is unfair, and that the Fund enforces homogenous policies onto...... borrowing member states and that loan programs tend to fail. Seen this way, poor institutional and policy design has led to a loss of legitimacy. But institutionalised inequalities or policy failure is not in itself sufficient to constitute an international crisis of legitimacy. This article provides...... a conceptually-driven discussion of the sources of the Fund's international crisis of legitimacy by investigating how its formal "foreground" institutional relations with its member states have become strained, and how informal "background" political and economic relationships are expanding in a way...

  17. Time-resolved Neutron Powder Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannetier, J.

    1986-01-01

    The use of a high-flux neutron source together with a large position sensitive detector (PSD) allows a powder diffraction pattern to be recorded at a time-scale of a few minutes so that crystalline systems under non-equilibrium conditions may now conveniently be investigated. This introduces a new dimension into powder diffraction (the time and transient phenomena like heterogeneous chemical reactions can now be easily studied. The instrumental parameters relevant for the design of such time-dependent experiments are briefly surveyed and the current limits of the method are discussed. The applications are illustrated by two kinds of experiment in the field of inorganic solid state chemistry: true kinetic studies of heterogeneous chemical reactions and thermodiffractometry experiments

  18. Positron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, R.

    1994-01-01

    A tentative survey of positron sources is given. Physical processes on which positron generation is based are indicated and analyzed. Explanation of the general features of electromagnetic interactions and nuclear β + decay makes it possible to predict the yield and emittance for a given optical matching system between the positron source and the accelerator. Some kinds of matching systems commonly used - mainly working with solenoidal field - are studied and the acceptance volume calculated. Such knowledge is helpful in comparing different matching systems. Since for large machines, a significant distance exists between the positron source and the experimental facility, positron emittance has to be preserved during beam transfer over large distances and methods used for that purpose are indicated. Comparison of existing positron sources leads to extrapolation to sources for future linear colliders. Some new ideas associated with these sources are also presented. (orig.)

  19. An analytic approach to resolving problems in medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candee, D; Puka, B

    1984-06-01

    Education in ethics among practising professionals should provide a systematic procedure for resolving moral problems. A method for such decision-making is outlined using the two classical orientations in moral philosophy, teleology and deontology. Teleological views such as utilitarianism resolve moral dilemmas by calculating the excess of good over harm expected to be produced by each feasible alternative for action. The deontological view focuses on rights, duties, and principles of justice. Both methods are used to resolve the 1971 Johns Hopkins case of a baby born with Down's syndrome and duodenal atresia.

  20. An analytic approach to resolving problems in medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candee, D; Puka, B

    1984-01-01

    Education in ethics among practising professionals should provide a systematic procedure for resolving moral problems. A method for such decision-making is outlined using the two classical orientations in moral philosophy, teleology and deontology. Teleological views such as utilitarianism resolve moral dilemmas by calculating the excess of good over harm expected to be produced by each feasible alternative for action. The deontological view focuses on rights, duties, and principles of justice. Both methods are used to resolve the 1971 Johns Hopkins case of a baby born with Down's syndrome and duodenal atresia. PMID:6234395

  1. Sources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoux, H.; Gourmelon; Scanff, P.; Fournet, F.; Murith, Ch.; Saint-Paul, N.; Colson, P.; Jouve, A.; Feron, F.; Haranger, D.; Mathieu, P.; Paycha, F.; Israel, S.; Auboiroux, B.; Chartier, P.

    2005-01-01

    Organized by the section of technical protection of the French society of radiation protection ( S.F.R.P.), these two days had for objective to review the evolution of the rule relative to the sources of ionising radiations 'sealed and unsealed radioactive sources, electric generators'. They addressed all the actors concerned by the implementation of the new regulatory system in the different sectors of activities ( research, medicine and industry): Authorities, manufacturers, and suppliers of sources, holders and users, bodies involved in the approval of sources, carriers. (N.C.)

  2. Lessons Learned from resolving massive IPS database change for SPADES+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin-Soo [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Safety Parameter Display and Evaluation System+ (SPADES+) was implemented to meet the requirements for Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) which are related to TMI Action Plan requirements. SPADES+ monitors continuously the critical safety function during normal, abnormal, and emergency operation mode and generates the alarm output to the alarm server when the tolerance related to safety functions are not satisfied. The alarm algorithm for critical safety function is performed in the NSSS Application Software (NAPS) server of the Information Process System (IPS) and the calculation result will be displayed on the flat panel display (FPD) of the IPS. SPADES+ provides the critical variable to the control room operators to aid them in rapidly and reliable determining the safety status of the plant. Many database point ID names (518 points) were changed. POINT{sub I}D is used in the programming source code, the related documents such as SDS and SRS, and Graphic database. To reduce human errors, computer program and office program’s Macro are used. Though the automatic methods are used for changing POINT{sub I}Ds, it takes lots of time to resolve for editing the change list except for making computerized solutions. In IPS, there are many more programs than SPADES+ and over 30,000 POINT{sub I}Ds are in IPS database. Changing POINT{sub I}Ds could be a burden to software engineers. In case of Ovation system database, there is the Alias field to prevent this kind of problem. The Alias is a kind of secondary key in database.

  3. A simultaneous multi-slice selective J-resolved experiment for fully resolved scalar coupling information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qing; Lin, Liangjie; Chen, Jinyong; Lin, Yanqin; Barker, Peter B.; Chen, Zhong

    2017-09-01

    Proton-proton scalar coupling plays an important role in molecular structure elucidation. Many methods have been proposed for revealing scalar coupling networks involving chosen protons. However, determining all JHH values within a fully coupled network remains as a tedious process. Here, we propose a method termed as simultaneous multi-slice selective J-resolved spectroscopy (SMS-SEJRES) for simultaneously measuring JHH values out of all coupling networks in a sample within one experiment. In this work, gradient-encoded selective refocusing, PSYCHE decoupling and echo planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) detection module are adopted, resulting in different selective J-edited spectra extracted from different spatial positions. The proposed pulse sequence can facilitate the analysis of molecular structures. Therefore, it will interest scientists who would like to efficiently address the structural analysis of molecules.

  4. Scintigraphic characteristics of experimental myocardial infarct extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, M.W.; Wooten, N.E.; Friesinger, G.C.; Page, D.L.; Higgins, S.B.; Collins, J.C.; O'Connor, J.L.; Price, R.R.; Brill, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    Technetium-99m-stannous pyrophosphate scintiphotos were evaluated for diagnosing and quantitating myocardial infarct (MI) extension in sedated dogs. Infarction and extension were produced by serial left anterior descending coronary artery ligations at 0 and 48 hours. We compared serial scintiphoto data with regional myocardial blood flow (MBF) (microsphere technique) and infarct histopathology. In eight control dogs, the scintigraphic MI area was stable at 24, 48, and 72 hours. In each of 11 dogs undergoing extension, the MI area increased after the 48-hour occlusion, averaging a 48.9% increase (p < 0.001). Grossly, most extensions were mixtures of confluent necrosis and moderate (patchy) necrosis. MBF to confluent infarct tissue decreased significantly, allowing the documentation of extension by totaling the grams of newly flow-deprived tissue, but patchy infarct tissue had little flow deprivation, making it difficult to quantitate this type of extension accurately by flow criteria alone. Rarely, extension could be diagnosed using conventional histologic criteria. We concluded that the scintiphoto MI area was related quantitatively to infarct weight in both control and extension. However, it was not possible to determine that an increase in the MI scintiphoto area was an accurate predictor of the degree of extension using independent flow or pathologic criteria

  5. The Resolved Outflow from 3C 48

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the properties of the high-velocity outflow driven by the young radio jet of 3C 48, a compact-steep-spectrum source. We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telecope to obtain (1) low-resolution UV and optical spectra and (2) multi-slit medium-resolution spectra of the ionized outflow. With supporting data from ground-based spectrographs, we are able to accurately measure the ratios of diagnostic emission lines such as [O III] λ5007, [O III] λ3727, [N II] λ6548, Hα, Hβ, [Ne V] λ3425, and [Ne III] λ3869. We fit the observed emission-line ratios using a range of ionization models, powered by active galactic nucleus (AGN) radiation and shocks, produced by the MAPPINGS code. We have determined that AGN radiation is likely the dominant ionization source. The outflow's density is estimated to be in the range n = 103-104 cm-3, the mass is ~6 × 106 M ⊙, and the metallicity is likely equal to or higher than solar. Compared with the typical outflows associated with more evolved radio jets, this young outflow is denser, less massive, and more metal rich. Multi-slit observations allow us to construct a two-dimensional velocity map of the outflow that shows a wide range of velocities with distinct velocity components, suggesting a wide-angle clumpy outflow. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-11574. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Some of the

  6. Sourcing Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    2011-01-01

    Sourcing Excellence is one of the key performance indicators (KPIs) in this world of ever changing sourcing strategies. Manufacturing companies need to access and diagnose the reliability and competencies of existing suppliers in order to coordinate and develop them. This would help in managing...

  7. Orbital Evolution and Orbital Phase Resolved Spectroscopy of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    binary. We have carried out orbital phase resolved spectroscopy to mea- ... agreement with a simple model of a spherically symmetric stellar wind from the .... has a set of Narrow Field Instruments (NFI) comprising one Low Energy Concen-.

  8. Using a referee to resolve shipper-receiver differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietjen, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Within the nuclear community, shipper-receiver differences generate considerable concern. Current methods of resolving these differences are discussed, prticularly the use of an umpire or referee. Numerous statistical problems connected with the present procedures are also considered

  9. Existence Results for a Family of Equations of Fractional Resolvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.W.; Qasem, S.A.; Zailan Siri

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with the presence and distinction of bounded m-solutions (type mild) for a family of generalized integral and differential equations of spot order with fractional resolvent and indefinite delay. (author)

  10. Motivations to Resolve Communication Dilemmas in Database-Mediated Collaboration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalman, Michael E; Monge, Peter; Fulk, Janet; Heino, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    ... it. This article develops and tests an expectancy model that predicts specific conditions under which collective benefits can be made to converge with private ones, thus resolving communication dilemmas...

  11. A comparison of the structure, properties, and water mass composition of quasi-isotropic eddies in western boundary currents in an eddy-resolving ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rykova, Tatiana; Oke, Peter R.; Griffin, David A.

    2017-06-01

    Using output from a near-global eddy-resolving ocean model, we analyse the properties and characteristics of quasi-isotropic eddies in five Western Boundary Current (WBC) regions, including the extensions of the Agulhas, East Australian Current (EAC), Brazil-Malvinas Confluence (BMC), Kuroshio and Gulf Stream regions. We assess the model eddies by comparing to satellite and in situ observations, and show that most aspects of the model's representation of eddies are realistic. We find that the mean eddies differ dramatically between these WBC regions - all with some unique and noteworthy characteristics. We find that the vertical displacement of isopycnals of Agulhas eddies is the greatest, averaging 350-450 m at depths of over 800-900 m. EAC (BMC) eddies are the least (most) barotropic, with only 50% (85-90%) of the velocity associated with the barotropic mode. Kuroshio eddies are the most stratified, resulting in small isopycnal displacement, even for strong eddies; and Gulf Stream eddies carry the most heat. Despite their differences, we explicitly show that the source waters for anticyclonic eddies are a mix of the WBC water (from the boundary current itself) and water that originates equatorward of the WBC eddy-field; and cyclonic eddies are a mix of WBC water and water that originates poleward of the WBC eddy-field.

  12. Positron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, R.

    1989-01-01

    A tentative survey of positron sources is given. Physical processes on which positron generation is based are indicated and analyzed. Explanation of the general features of electromagnetic interactions and nuclear β + decay makes it possible to predict the yield and emittance for a given optical matching system between the positron source and the accelerator. Some kinds of matching systems commonly used - mainly working with solenoidal fields - are studied and the acceptance volume calculated. Such knowledge is helpful in comparing different matching systems. Since for large machines, a significant distance exists between the positron source and the experimental facility, positron emittance has to be preserved during beam transfer over large distances and methods used for that purpose are indicated. Comparison of existing positron sources leads to extrapolation to sources for future linear colliders

  13. Highly sensitive time resolved singlet oxygen luminescence detection using LEDs as the excitation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackbarth, S; Schlothauer, J; Preuss, A; Röder, B

    2013-01-01

    For the first time singlet oxygen luminescence kinetics in living cells were detected at high precision using LED light for excitation. As LED technology evolves, the light intensity emitted by standard LEDs allows photosensitized singlet oxygen luminescence detection in solution and cell suspensions. We present measurements superior to those of most actual laser powered setups regarding precision of singlet oxygen kinetics in solutions and cell suspensions. Data presented here show that LED based setups allow the determination of the photosensitizer triplet and singlet oxygen decay times in vitro with an accuracy of 0.1 μs. This enables monitoring of the photosensitizer efficiency and interaction with the cellular components using illumination doses small enough not to cause cell death. (letter)

  14. Highly efficient angularly resolving x-ray spectrometer optimized for absorption measurements with collimated sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Michal; Gonzalez, I.G.; Ekerfelt, H.; Svensson, J.B.; Hansson, M.; Wood, I. C.; Persson, A.; Mangles, S.P.D.; Lundh, O.; Falk, Kateřina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 6 (2017), s. 1-8, č. článku 063102. ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk LQ1606 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 654148 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : acceleration * measurments * x ray * high energy Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.515, year: 2016

  15. NRU licence extension via integrated safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantifel, N. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The National Research Reactor, NRU at AECL Chalk River Laboratories achieved first criticality in November 1957. The completion of an Integrated Safety Review (ISR) in 2011, and subsequent Global Assessment Report (GAR), and Integrated Implementation Plan (IIP) has given confidence in the safe and reliable operation of NRU, therefore extending the licensing case to safely and reliably operate NRU until 2021 and beyond (64+ years of operation). The key vehicle to achieve this confidence is the IIP, that resulted from the ISR. NRU's IIP is a 10 year plan that addresses the gaps identified in the ISR between modern codes and standards in a prioritized approach. AECL is currently in year 3 of the IIP execution, is on or ahead of schedule to complete the identified improvements. The IIP in conjunction with a License Condition Handbook has replaced the licensing protocol with the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, (CNSC). Execution of the IIP to plan supports the continued safe operation of NRU. The ISR was carried out with the recognition that the NRU reactor is a research and isotope producing reactor approaching license renewal and not a power reactor undergoing refurbishment and life extension. Therefore, the IIP is being executed while NRU continues to deliver on its three missions: production of medical isotopes, support for fuels and materials research, and serving as a high flux neutron source in support of research relying on neutron scattering. The IIP is grouped into 5 Global Issue Groups, (GIGs) to support focused execution. The activities and tasks within the five GIGs are being executed via a matrix organization through the use of the Chalk River Laboratories Corrective Action Program to ensure the assignment of actions, completion and evidence to support closure is documented and retained. This paper discusses the approach taken by AECL to license and ensure safe, reliable operation of NRU until 2021 and beyond. (author)

  16. An object-oriented extension for debugging the virtual machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzi, Jr, Robert G. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    A computer is nothing more then a virtual machine programmed by source code to perform a task. The program`s source code expresses abstract constructs which are compiled into some lower level target language. When a virtual machine breaks, it can be very difficult to debug because typical debuggers provide only low-level target implementation information to the software engineer. We believe that the debugging task can be simplified by introducing aspects of the abstract design and data into the source code. We introduce OODIE, an object-oriented extension to programming languages that allows programmers to specify a virtual environment by describing the meaning of the design and data of a virtual machine. This specification is translated into symbolic information such that an augmented debugger can present engineers with a programmable debugging environment specifically tailored for the virtual machine that is to be debugged.

  17. On the resolvents methods in quantum perturbation calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burzynski, A.

    1979-01-01

    This paper gives a systematic review of resolvent methods in quantum perturbation calculations. The case of discrete spectrum of hamiltonian is considered specially (in the literature this is the fewest considered case). The topics of calculations of quantum transitions by using of the resolvent formalism, quantum transitions between states from particular subspaces, the shifts of energy levels, are shown. The main ideas of stationary perturbation theory developed by Lippmann and Schwinger are considered too. (author)

  18. An analytic approach to resolving problems in medical ethics.

    OpenAIRE

    Candee, D; Puka, B

    1984-01-01

    Education in ethics among practising professionals should provide a systematic procedure for resolving moral problems. A method for such decision-making is outlined using the two classical orientations in moral philosophy, teleology and deontology. Teleological views such as utilitarianism resolve moral dilemmas by calculating the excess of good over harm expected to be produced by each feasible alternative for action. The deontological view focuses on rights, duties, and principles of justic...

  19. Extended resolvent and inverse scattering with an application to KPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiti, M.; Pempinelli, F.; Pogrebkov, A. K.; Prinari, B.

    2003-08-01

    We present in detail an extended resolvent approach for investigating linear problems associated to 2+1 dimensional integrable equations. Our presentation is based as an example on the nonstationary Schrödinger equation with potential being a perturbation of the one-soliton potential by means of a decaying two-dimensional function. Modification of the inverse scattering theory as well as properties of the Jost solutions and spectral data as follows from the resolvent approach are given.

  20. Extended resolvent and inverse scattering with an application to KPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiti, M.; Pempinelli, F.; Pogrebkov, A.K.; Prinari, B.

    2003-01-01

    We present in detail an extended resolvent approach for investigating linear problems associated to 2+1 dimensional integrable equations. Our presentation is based as an example on the nonstationary Schroedinger equation with potential being a perturbation of the one-soliton potential by means of a decaying two-dimensional function. Modification of the inverse scattering theory as well as properties of the Jost solutions and spectral data as follows from the resolvent approach are given

  1. Seventh international conference on time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, R.B.; Martinez, M.A.D.; Shreve, A.; Woodruff, W.H. [comps.

    1997-04-01

    The International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy (TRVS) is widely recognized as the major international forum for the discussion of advances in this rapidly growing field. The 1995 conference was the seventh in a series that began at Lake Placid, New York, 1982. Santa Fe, New Mexico, was the site of the Seventh International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, held from June 11 to 16, 1995. TRVS-7 was attended by 157 participants from 16 countries and 85 institutions, and research ranging across the full breadth of the field of time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy was presented. Advances in both experimental capabilities for time-resolved vibrational measurements and in theoretical descriptions of time-resolved vibrational methods continue to occur, and several sessions of the conference were devoted to discussion of these advances and the associated new directions in TRVS. Continuing the interdisciplinary tradition of the TRVS meetings, applications of time-resolved vibrational methods to problems in physics, biology, materials science, and chemistry comprised a large portion of the papers presented at the conference.

  2. The complex ion structure of warm dense carbon measured by spectrally resolved x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, D.; Barbrel, B.; Falcone, R. W. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Vorberger, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Straße 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Helfrich, J.; Frydrych, S.; Ortner, A.; Otten, A.; Roth, F.; Schaumann, G.; Schumacher, D.; Siegenthaler, K.; Wagner, F.; Roth, M. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Gericke, D. O.; Wünsch, K. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Bachmann, B.; Döppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bagnoud, V.; Blažević, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2015-05-15

    We present measurements of the complex ion structure of warm dense carbon close to the melting line at pressures around 100 GPa. High-pressure samples were created by laser-driven shock compression of graphite and probed by intense laser-generated x-ray sources with photon energies of 4.75 keV and 4.95 keV. High-efficiency crystal spectrometers allow for spectrally resolving the scattered radiation. Comparing the ratio of elastically and inelastically scattered radiation, we find evidence for a complex bonded liquid that is predicted by ab-initio quantum simulations showing the influence of chemical bonds under these conditions. Using graphite samples of different initial densities we demonstrate the capability of spectrally resolved x-ray scattering to monitor the carbon solid-liquid transition at relatively constant pressure of 150 GPa. Showing first single-pulse scattering spectra from cold graphite of unprecedented quality recorded at the Linac Coherent Light Source, we demonstrate the outstanding possibilities for future high-precision measurements at 4th Generation Light Sources.

  3. Computational time-resolved and resonant x-ray scattering of strongly correlated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansil, Arun [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-11-09

    Basic-Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy (BES/DOE) has made large investments in x-ray sources in the U.S. (NSLS-II, LCLS, NGLS, ALS, APS) as powerful enabling tools for opening up unprecedented new opportunities for exploring properties of matter at various length and time scales. The coming online of the pulsed photon source, literally allows us to see and follow the dynamics of processes in materials at their natural timescales. There is an urgent need therefore to develop theoretical methodologies and computational models for understanding how x-rays interact with matter and the related spectroscopies of materials. The present project addressed aspects of this grand challenge of x-ray science. In particular, our Collaborative Research Team (CRT) focused on developing viable computational schemes for modeling x-ray scattering and photoemission spectra of strongly correlated materials in the time-domain. The vast arsenal of formal/numerical techniques and approaches encompassed by the members of our CRT were brought to bear through appropriate generalizations and extensions to model the pumped state and the dynamics of this non-equilibrium state, and how it can be probed via x-ray absorption (XAS), emission (XES), resonant and non-resonant x-ray scattering, and photoemission processes. We explored the conceptual connections between the time-domain problems and other second-order spectroscopies, such as resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) because RIXS may be effectively thought of as a pump-probe experiment in which the incoming photon acts as the pump, and the fluorescent decay is the probe. Alternatively, when the core-valence interactions are strong, one can view K-edge RIXS for example, as the dynamic response of the material to the transient presence of a strong core-hole potential. Unlike an actual pump-probe experiment, here there is no mechanism for adjusting the time-delay between the pump and the probe. However, the core hole

  4. Agricultural extension, research, and development for increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges of food security and agricultural development in South Africa cannot simply be solved by limiting extension and research development to the public sector. However, if shortcomings arise in the public sector while addressing extension, research and development, the potential involvement of the private sector ...

  5. Extension Sustainability Camp: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Roslynn; Upton, Sally; Tingey, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Camps provide an opportunity for Extension educators to be in the forefront of sustainability outreach and to meet the growing demand for sustainability education. This article shares development, implementation, and evaluation of an Extension Sustainability Camp for youth, grades 4-6. Camp impact was measured via daily pre-and…

  6. Effective Use of Facebook for Extension Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mains, Mark; Jenkins-Howard, Brooke; Stephenson, Laura

    2013-01-01

    As the use of social media increases, Extension is challenged to stay relevant with cliental by using digital tools. This article illustrates how Facebook can be part of Extension's repertoire of methods for communication, program implementation, education, and marketing. This allows professionals to build social networking capacity with…

  7. Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards professionalism in agricultural extension: The professional registration of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the South African Society of Extensionists in South Africa – A dream or a reality? The role of the South African Society of Agricultural Extension (SASAE)

  8. Enhancing academic reading skills through extensive reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The current study explores the feasibility of an extensive reading programme in the context of a low-income country (Mozambique), as well as the influence of extensive reading on academic reading. The programme took over 4 months and was conducted among 30 students majoring in Journalism at the Eduardo ...

  9. Job satisfaction of extension agents towards innovation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed job satisfaction of extension agents towards innovation dissemination to fish farmers in Lagos State, Nigeria. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 44 extension officers from which data were collected. A structured questionnaire consisting of 6 personal characteristics, 23 management ...

  10. Regular extensions of some classes of grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    Culik and Cohen introduced the class of LR-regular grammars, an extension of the LR(k) grammars. In this report we consider the analogous extension of the LL(k) grammers, called the LL-regular grammars. The relations of this class of grammars to other classes of grammars are shown. Every LL-regular

  11. Plagiarism within Extension: Origin and Current Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Dora

    2011-01-01

    Extension publication editors from around the United States are finding cases of plagiarism within manuscripts that Extension educators submit as new public education materials. When editors confront such educators with the problem, some don't understand it as such, rationalizing that reproducing published information for a new purpose qualifies…

  12. Creating Teams Increases Extension Educator Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalker-Scott, Linda; Daniels, Catherine H.; Martini, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The Garden Team at Washington State University is a transdisciplinary group of faculty, staff, and students with expertise in applied plant and soil sciences and an interest in Extension education. The team's primary mission is to create current, relevant, and peer-reviewed materials as Extension publications for home gardeners. The average yearly…

  13. A New Funding Model for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paul W.; Otto, Daniel M.; Ouart, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    The traditional funding model of the Cooperative Extension System has been stretched to its limits by increasing demand for information and programs without concurrent increases in funding by the public sector. As the social, economic, and political environments have evolved and become more complex, extension is often asked to apply the expertise…

  14. Extension Learners' Use of Electronic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenthner, Joseph F.; Swan, Benjamin G.

    2011-01-01

    Extension clientele use electronic technology for entertainment, communication, and business. Educational programs that use electronic technology can enhance learning. To learn more about use of electronic technology among Extension clientele, we surveyed 80 university students and 135 potato farmers. We found that the farmers were likely to use…

  15. Anticommutative extension of the Adler map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou-Rizos, S.; Mikhailov, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    We construct a noncommutative (Grassmann) extension of the well-known Adler Yang-Baxter map. It satisfies the Yang-Baxter equation, it is reversible and birational. Our extension preserves all the properties of the original map except the involutivity.

  16. Australian National University Science Extension Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The first Australian National University (ANU) Science Extension Day was held on September 8, 2015. The ANU Science Extension Day is a project that was initiated by Theodore Primary School (ACT) and developed by Theodore Primary, Calwell High School, Science Educators Association of the ACT (SEA*ACT), and the ANU. The project was developed with a…

  17. Agricultural extension officers' perceptions of integrated pest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the basis of the positive perceptions of the extension officers regarding IPM, the government of Kenya should establish a supportive policy that will enable the extension officers to promote and educate farmers on the various IPM practices. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development Vol. 7(2) 2006: 125- ...

  18. Extensive Reading in Enhancing Lexical Chunks Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Nilsa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to investigate the effect of extensive reading and related activities on the acquisition of lexical chunks in EFL students. Seven adult EFL learners with an Intermediate level volunteered to take part in the 16 week project following Extensive Reading principles combined with tasks based on the Lexical…

  19. Quantum random-number generator based on a photon-number-resolving detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Min; Wu, E; Liang Yan; Jian Yi; Wu Guang; Zeng Heping

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrated a high-efficiency quantum random number generator which takes inherent advantage of the photon number distribution randomness of a coherent light source. This scheme was realized by comparing the photon flux of consecutive pulses with a photon number resolving detector. The random bit generation rate could reach 2.4 MHz with a system clock of 6.0 MHz, corresponding to a random bit generation efficiency as high as 40%. The random number files passed all the stringent statistical tests.

  20. Angle resolved characterization of nanostructured and conventionally textured silicon solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Ormstrup, Jeppe; Ommen, Martin Lind

    2015-01-01

    current, open circuit voltage, fill factor (FF) and power conversion efficiency are each measured as function of the relative incident angle between the solar cell and the light source. The relative incident angle is varied from 0° to 90° in steps of 10° in orthogonal axes, such that each solar cell......We report angle resolved characterization of nanostructured and conventionally textured silicon solar cells. The nanostructured solar cells are realized through a single step, mask-less, scalable reactive ion etching (RIE) texturing of the surface. Photovoltaic properties including short circuit...

  1. Direct observation of spin-resolved full and empty electron states in ferromagnetic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berti, G., E-mail: giulia.berti@polimi.it; Calloni, A.; Brambilla, A.; Bussetti, G.; Duò, L.; Ciccacci, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133, Milano (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    We present a versatile apparatus for the study of ferromagnetic surfaces, which combines spin-polarized photoemission and inverse photoemission spectroscopies. Samples can be grown by molecular beam epitaxy and analyzed in situ. Spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy analysis is done with a hemispherical electron analyzer coupled to a 25 kV-Mott detector. Inverse photoemission spectroscopy experiments are performed with GaAs crystals as spin-polarized electron sources and a UV bandpass photon detector. As an example, measurements on the oxygen passivated Fe(100)-p(1×1)O surface are presented.

  2. On the theory of time-resolved x-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Møller, Klaus Braagaard

    2008-01-01

    We derive the basic theoretical formulation for X-ray diffraction with pulsed fields, using a fully quantized description of light and matter. Relevant time scales are discussed for coherent as well as incoherent X-ray pulses, and we provide expressions to be used for calculation...... of the experimental diffraction signal for both types of X-ray sources. We present a simple analysis of time-resolved X-ray scattering for direct bond breaking in diatomic molecules. This essentially analytical approach highlights the relation between the signal and the time-dependent quantum distribution...

  3. Time-resolved experiments in the frequency domain using synchrotron radiation (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stasio, Gelsomina; Giusti, A. M.; Parasassi, T.; Ravagnan, G.; Sapora, O.

    1992-01-01

    PLASTIQUE is the only synchrotron radiation beam line in the world that performs time-resolved fluorescence experiments in frequency domain. These experiments are extremely valuable sources of information on the structure and the dynamics of molecules. This technique measures fluorescence lifetimes with picosecond resolution in the near UV spectral range. Such accurate measurements are rendered possible by taking phase and modulation data, and by the advantages of the cross-correlation technique. A successful experiment demonstrated the radiation damage induced by low doses of radiation on rabbit blood cell membranes.

  4. Subcycle interference dynamics of time-resolved photoelectron holography with midinfrared laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Xuebin; Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, Andre D.; Huismans, Y.; Smirnova, O.; Vrakking, M. J. J.

    2011-01-01

    Time-resolved photoelectron holography from atoms using midinfrared laser pulses is investigated by solving the corresponding time-dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) and a classical model, respectively. The numerical simulation of the photoelectron angular distribution of Xe irradiated with a low-frequency free-electron laser source agrees well with the experimental results. Different types of subcycle interferometric structures are predicted by the classical model. Furthermore with the TDSE model it is demonstrated that the holographic pattern is sensitive to the shape of the atomic orbitals. This is a step toward imaging by means of photoelectron holography.

  5. Annual cycle of size-resolved organic aerosol characterization in an urbanized desert environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Thomas M.

    2013-06-01

    Studies of size-resolved organic speciation of aerosols are still relatively rare and are generally only conducted over short durations. However, size-resolved organic data can both suggest possible sources of the aerosols and identify the human exposure to the chemicals since different aerosol sizes have different lung capture efficiencies. The objective of this study was to conduct size-resolved organic aerosol speciation for a calendar year in Phoenix, Arizona to determine the seasonal variations in both chemical concentrations and size profiles. The results showed large seasonal differences in combustion pollutants where the highest concentrations were observed in winter. Summertime aerosols have a greater proportion of biological compounds (e.g. sugars and fatty acids) and the biological compounds represent the largest fraction of the organic compounds detected. These results suggest that standard organic carbon (OC) measurements might be heavily influenced by primary biological compounds particularly if the samples are PM10 and TSP samples. Several large dust storms did not significantly alter the organic aerosol profile since Phoenix resides in a dusty desert environment, so the soil and plant tracer of trehalose was almost always present. The aerosol size profiles showed that PAHs were generally most abundant in the smallest aerosol size fractions, which are most likely to be captured by the lung, while the biological compounds were almost exclusively found in the coarse size fraction.

  6. Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugh, M. J.; Jacoby, K. D.; Wu, M.; Loisel, G. P.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a double crystal diffractometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed

  7. Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugh, M. J., E-mail: haughmj@nv.doe.gov; Jacoby, K. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Wu, M.; Loisel, G. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a double crystal diffractometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

  8. Turbulence-resolved Numerical Simulation for Hydrogen Safety in a NPP Containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongtae; Hong, Seong-Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, a new measure to distinguish numerical analysis methods is proposed, which is based on how to resolve turbulent characteristics in nuclear thermal hydraulics. Even though 3-dimensional thermal hydraulic equations are used, it belongs to turbulence-unresolved approach if turbulence effect is lumped into correlations. The current numerical approach for the severe accident analysis strongly relies on models and correlations which are developed by analytical and experimental works. Traditionally, the numerical method is split into a lumped-parameter (LP) method and a multi-dimensional method. In the frame of multi-sale approach proposed by Yadigaroglu, LP method is thought to be useful for system scale (macro scale) analysis. On the contrary, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is applicable to component (meso scale) or detail (micro scale) analysis. Recently the boundary of the two LP and CFD methods becomes more and more obscure. LP codes such as Melcor and Relap have been continuously improved in their capabilities. Melcor has been added convection terms in two-phase momentum equations. Relap-3D, a 3-dimensional version of the Relap code, has a multi-dimensional nodalization module similar to a CFD code. One of long-standing containment analysis codes GOTHIC was developed as a LP code originating Cobra-TF. Now, it can simulate a containment three-dimensionally using a Cartesian or cylindrical coordinate-based nodalization. So, it is believed that the LP codes can now resolve 3-D behavior of flows in a component such as a reactor or containment. GASFLOW is a famous containment analysis code based on 3-D nodalization. It has some lumped models for PAR (passive auto-catalytic recombiner) and sink and source of mass and energy to reduce the number of nodes and efficiently simulate their thermal hydraulic phenomena. Nowadays the turbulence-resolved approach becomes more important, and it is expected that the traditional LP method is supported by the

  9. Turbulence-resolved Numerical Simulation for Hydrogen Safety in a NPP Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongtae; Hong, Seong-Wan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new measure to distinguish numerical analysis methods is proposed, which is based on how to resolve turbulent characteristics in nuclear thermal hydraulics. Even though 3-dimensional thermal hydraulic equations are used, it belongs to turbulence-unresolved approach if turbulence effect is lumped into correlations. The current numerical approach for the severe accident analysis strongly relies on models and correlations which are developed by analytical and experimental works. Traditionally, the numerical method is split into a lumped-parameter (LP) method and a multi-dimensional method. In the frame of multi-sale approach proposed by Yadigaroglu, LP method is thought to be useful for system scale (macro scale) analysis. On the contrary, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is applicable to component (meso scale) or detail (micro scale) analysis. Recently the boundary of the two LP and CFD methods becomes more and more obscure. LP codes such as Melcor and Relap have been continuously improved in their capabilities. Melcor has been added convection terms in two-phase momentum equations. Relap-3D, a 3-dimensional version of the Relap code, has a multi-dimensional nodalization module similar to a CFD code. One of long-standing containment analysis codes GOTHIC was developed as a LP code originating Cobra-TF. Now, it can simulate a containment three-dimensionally using a Cartesian or cylindrical coordinate-based nodalization. So, it is believed that the LP codes can now resolve 3-D behavior of flows in a component such as a reactor or containment. GASFLOW is a famous containment analysis code based on 3-D nodalization. It has some lumped models for PAR (passive auto-catalytic recombiner) and sink and source of mass and energy to reduce the number of nodes and efficiently simulate their thermal hydraulic phenomena. Nowadays the turbulence-resolved approach becomes more important, and it is expected that the traditional LP method is supported by the

  10. Traleika Glacier X-Stack Extension Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryman, Joshua [Intel Federal LLC, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2017-08-31

    The XStack Extension Project continued along the direction of the XStack program in exploring the software tools and frameworks to support a task-based community runtime towards the goal of Exascale programming. The momentum built as part of the XStack project, with the development of the task-based Open Community Runtime (OCR) and related tools, was carried through during the XStack Extension with the focus areas of easing application development, improving performance and supporting more features. The infrastructure set up for a community-driven open-source development continued to be used towards these areas, with continued co-development of runtime and applications. A variety of OCR programming environments were studied, as described in Sections Revolutionary Programming Environments & Applications – to assist with application development on OCR, and we develop OCR Translator, a ROSE-based source-to-source compiler that parses high-level annotations in an MPI program to generate equivalent OCR code. Figure 2 compares the number of OCR objects needed to generate the 2D stencil workload using the translator, against manual approaches based on SPMD library or native coding. The rate of increase with the translator, with an increase in number of ranks, is consistent with other approaches. This is explored further in Section OCR Translator.

  11. US national and regional impacts of nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makovich, L.; Forest, L.; Fletcher, T.

    1988-01-01

    The US will need new sources of electricity in the early 21st century due to retirement of much of the nation's generating capacity. Almost all of the US nuclear capacity would be included in those retirements if, as originally expected, the nuclear units were shut down and decommissioned as the operating licenses expired between 2005 and 2025. However, given the large demands for new capacity during that period, nuclear plant life extension (NUPLEX) -- the extension of operating life beyond the original license period -- needs to be considered as an electricity source. This study assesses the benefits and costs of NUPLEX relative to the anticipated competing sources of electricity supply in the early 21st century. We find that NUPLEX yields large net benefits under a wide range of plausible economic conditions. This study associates net benefits with electricity cost savings, thereby abstracting from speculative reliability considerations. To illustrate the effects of uncertainty, the study assesses NUPLEX net benefits under varying assumptions on NUPLEX investment costs and other future economic conditions

  12. NPP Krsko Lifetime Extension - Business Impact for Hrvatska Elektroprivreda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrankic, K.; Krejci, M.; Lebegner, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of possible business impacts for HEP in the case of NPP Krsko life extension. Due to numerous reasons nuclear power plant life extension of ten to twenty years is a common procedure abroad. Having this practise in mind as well as other circumstances in Croatian and Slovenian electric power system, the extension of NPP Krsko lifetime is considered to be a possible scenario. Foreseeable impacts of this decision are evaluated primarily with consideration of its effect on HEPs projected cash flows, though other aspects will be addressed as well. Preserving a well maintained production facility with an extraordinary operational record and stable, or possibly falling overall production costs seems as a very rational choice. This is particularly true having in mind expected rise of electricity demand and energy prices in the region. Having NPP Krsko in operation beyond 2023 implies that no replacement source for NPP Krsko capacity needs to be built. This means avoiding all costs connected with the construction and operation of the replacement plant, assuming it will be fossil fuelled. Due to the high uncertainty of the future fossil fuel prices, the avoidance of replacement plant operational cost is likely to prove as highly rewarding. It should be kept in mind that avoided costs also include the replacement plant greenhouse gases emission costs, thus further enlarging the list of value adding impacts. The latter is valid anticipating the ratification of the Kyoto protocol and joining the European emission trading scheme. In addition to that, the extension of NPP Krsko lifetime would mean that the majority of costs connected with the decommissioning and final waste disposal can be postponed further down the time line. This will have very positive financial and possibly technological impact. Other value creating effects for HEP that are foreseeable as a consequence of the plant lifetime extension include: maintaining the knowledge of

  13. Extension through Partnerships: Research and Education Center Teams with County Extension to Deliver Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullahey, J. Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Budget reductions have severely affected resources available to deliver agriculture and natural resource Extension programs in Florida. University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences delivers Extension programming through a unique partnership between research and education centers and county Extension. Science-based information…

  14. The Brazilian Experience with Agroecological Extension: A Critical Analysis of Reform in a Pluralistic Extension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Vivien; Miná Dias, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the Brazilian experience in designing and implementing a recent extension policy reform based on agroecology, and reflect on its wider theoretical implications for extension reform literature. Design/methodology/approach: Using a critical public analysis we characterize the evolution of Brazilian federal extension policy…

  15. Characteristics, Views Held of Agricultural Extension Activities, and Communication Behavior of Hsien Extension Supervisors in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Pi-Feng

    Government agencies in Taiwan have carried out agricultural extension programs since 1910, with the assistance of Farmers' Associations. Programs have been expanded since 1953, and now include both general extension (subsidy programs) and educational extension. Comparison of personal characteristics of hsien (county) Farmers' Association…

  16. Agricultural Extension: Farm Extension Services in Australia, Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Donald B.

    By analyzing the scope and structure of agricultural extension services in Australia, Great Britain, and the United States, this work attempts to set guidelines for measuring progress and guiding extension efforts. Extension training, agricultural policy, and activities of national, international, state, and provincial bodies are examined. The…

  17. Extension versus Bending for Continuum Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Grimes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the capabilities of a novel class of continuous-backbone ("continuum" robots. These robots are inspired by biological "trunks, and tentacles". However, the capabilities of established continuum robot designs, which feature controlled bending but not extension, fall short of those of their biological counterparts. In this paper, we argue that the addition of controlled extension provides dual and complementary functionality, and correspondingly enhanced performance, in continuum robots. We present an interval-based analysis to show how the inclusion of controllable extension significantly enhances the workspace and capabilities of continuum robots.

  18. Introduction to theory and analysis of resolved (and unresolved) neutron resonances via SAMMY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, N.M.

    1998-07-01

    Neutron cross-section data are important for two distinct purposes: first, they provide insight into the nature of matter, thus assisting in the understanding of fundamental physics; second, they are needed for practical applications (e.g., for calculating when and how a reactor will become critical, or how much shielding is needed for storage of nuclear materials, and for medical applications). Neutron cross section data in the resolved-resonance region are generally obtained by time-of-flight experiments, which must be carefully analyzed if they are to be properly understood and utilized. In this paper, important features of the analysis process are discussed, with emphasis on the particular technique used in the analysis code SAMMY. Other features of the code are also described; these include such topics as calculation of group cross sections (including covariance matrices), generation and fitting of integral quantities, and extensions into the unresolved-resonance region and higher-energy regions.

  19. EP toxicity testing of lead to resolve disposition of radioactively contaminated lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, M.M.; Boehmer, A.M.

    1986-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in its efforts to comply with the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976, is concerned with hazardous waste which is also radioactively contaminated. There are no existing facilities to treat or dispose of these wastes. One such waste is lead, which is extensively used in the nuclear industry as shielding. This paper reports the results of leach testing of lead (both solid lead samples and lead shot) to resolve questions as to whether or not radioactively contaminated waste lead must be treated as a hazardous waste. The results of these tests showed that: some samples passed the leach test. Results of development efforts performed to date to recycle lead and those planned for the future are included in this report

  20. Development of Micron-Resolved Electron Spectroscopy to Study Organic Thin Films in Real Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.-H.; Fan, L.-J.; Yang, Y.-W.; Su, J.-W.; Chan, S.-W.; Chen, M.-C.

    2010-01-01

    A straightforward application of an electron energy analyzer equipped with an image detector to micron-resolved electron spectroscopic studies of organic thin film devices is reported. The electron spectroscopies implemented include synchrotron-based UPS, XPS, and Auger yield NEXAFS. Along the non-energy-dispersion direction of the analyzer, a spatial resolution of ∼40 μm is obtained through the employment of entrance slits, electrostatic lenses and segmented CCD detector. One significant benefit offered by the technique is that the electronic transport and electronic structure of the same micron-sized sample can be directly examined. The example illustrated is a top-contact organic field effect transistor (OFET) fabricated from semiconducting triethylsilylethynyl anthradithiophene and gold electrodes. It is found that an extensive out-diffusion of gold atoms to adjacent conduction channels takes place, presumably due to the inability of soft organic materials in dissipating the excess energy with which gaseous Au atoms possess.

  1. Understanding healthcare professionals' self-efficacy to resolve interprofessional conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Martha; Orchard, Carole

    2016-05-01

    Conflict within interprofessional healthcare teams, when not effectively resolved, has been linked to detrimental consequences; however, effective conflict resolution has been shown to enhance team performance, increase patient safety, and improve patient outcomes. Alarmingly, knowledge of healthcare professionals' ability to resolve conflict has been limited, largely due to the challenges that arise when researchers attempt to observe a conflict occurring in real time. Research literature has identified three central components that seem to influence healthcare professional's perceived ability to resolve conflict: communication competence, problem-solving ability, and conflict resolution education and training. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of communication competence, problem-solving ability, and conflict resolution education and training on healthcare professionals' perceived ability to resolve conflicts. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that two of the three central components-conflict resolution education and training and communication competence-were found to be statistically significant predictors of healthcare professionals' perceived ability to resolve conflict. Implications include a call to action for clinicians and academicians to recognize the importance of communication competence and conflict resolution education and training as a vital area in interprofessional pre- and post-licensure education and collaborative practice.

  2. [A new measurement method of time-resolved spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhi-gang; Huang, Shi-hua; Liang, Chun-jun; Lei, Quan-sheng

    2007-02-01

    A new method for measuring time-resolved spectrum (TRS) is brought forward. Programming with assemble language controlled the micro-control-processor (AT89C51), and a kind of peripheral circuit constituted the drive circuit, which drived the stepping motor to run the monochromator. So the light of different kinds of expected wavelength could be obtained. The optical signal was transformed to electrical signal by optical-to-electrical transform with the help of photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu 1P28). The electrical signal of spectrum data was transmitted to the oscillograph. Connecting the two serial interfaces of RS232 between the oscillograph and computer, the electrical signal of spectrum data could be transmitted to computer for programming to draw the attenuation curve and time-resolved spectrum (TRS) of the swatch. The method for measuring time-resolved spectrum (TRS) features parallel measurement in time scale but serial measurement in wavelength scale. Time-resolved spectrum (TRS) and integrated emission spectrum of Tb3+ in swatch Tb(o-BBA)3 phen were measured using this method. Compared with the real time-resolved spectrum (TRS). It was validated to be feasible, credible and convenient. The 3D spectra of fluorescence intensity-wavelength-time, and the integrated spectrum of the swatch Tb(o-BBA)3 phen are given.

  3. Super-resolution optical microscopy resolves network morphology of smart colloidal microgels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Stephan; Wrede, Oliver; Huser, Thomas; Hellweg, Thomas

    2018-02-14

    We present a new method to resolve the network morphology of colloidal particles in an aqueous environment via super-resolution microscopy. By localization of freely diffusing fluorophores inside the particle network we can resolve the three dimensional structure of one species of colloidal particles (thermoresponsive microgels) without altering their chemical composition through copolymerization with fluorescent monomers. Our approach utilizes the interaction of the fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G with the polymer network to achieve an indirect labeling. We calculate the 3D structure from the 2D images and compare the structure to previously published models for the microgel morphology, e.g. the fuzzy sphere model. To describe the differences in the data an extension of this model is suggested. Our method enables the tailor-made fabrication of colloidal particles which are used in various applications, such as paints or cosmetics, and are promising candidates for drug delivery, smart surface coatings, and nanocatalysis. With the precise knowledge of the particle morphology an understanding of the underlying structure-property relationships for various colloidal systems is possible.

  4. Size resolved airborne particulate polysaccharides in summer high Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leck, C.; Gao, Q.; Mashayekhy Rad, F.; Nilsson, U.

    2013-04-01

    Size-resolved aerosol samples for subsequent determination of polysaccharides (monosaccharides in combined form) were collected in air over the central Arctic Ocean during the biologically most active period between the late summer melt season and into the transition to autumn freeze-up. The analysis was carried out using liquid chromatography coupled with highly selective and sensitive tandem mass spectrometry. Polysaccharides were detected in all sizes ranging from 0.035 to 10 μm in diameter with distinct features of heteropolysaccharides, enriched in xylose, glucose + mannose as well as a substantial fraction of deoxysugars. Polysaccharides containing deoxysugars showed a bimodal structure with about 60% of their mass found in the Aitken mode over the pack ice area. Pentose (xylose) and hexose (glucose + mannose) showed a weaker bimodal character and were largely found in the coarse mode in addition to a minor fraction apportioned in the sub-micrometer size range. The concentration of total hydrolysable neutral sugars (THNS) in the samples collected varied over 3 orders of magnitude (1 to 692 pmol m-3) in the super-micrometer size fraction and to a lesser extent in sub-micrometer particles (4 to 88 pmol m-3). Lowest THNS concentrations were observed in air masses that had spent more than 5 days over the pack ice. Within the pack ice area, about 53% (by mass) of the total mass of polysaccharides were found in sub-micrometer particles. The relative abundance of sub-micrometer polysaccharides was closely related to the length of time that the air mass spent over pack ice, with highest fraction (> 90%) observed for > 7 days of advection. The ambient aerosol particles collected onboard ship showed similar monosaccharide composition, compared to particles generated experimentally in situ at the open lead site. This supports the existence of a primary source of particulate polysaccharides from open leads by bubble bursting at the air-sea interface. We speculate that

  5. Resolving stellar populations with crowded field 3D spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamann, S.; Wisotzki, L.; Roth, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new method of extracting the spectra of stars from observations of crowded stellar fields with integral field spectroscopy (IFS). Our approach extends the well-established concept of crowded field photometry in images into the domain of 3-dimensional spectroscopic datacubes. The main features of our algorithm follow. (1) We assume that a high-fidelity input source catalogue already exists, e.g. from HST data, and that it is not needed to perform sophisticated source detection in the IFS data. (2) Source positions and properties of the point spread function (PSF) vary smoothly between spectral layers of the datacube, and these variations can be described by simple fitting functions. (3) The shape of the PSF can be adequately described by an analytical function. Even without isolated PSF calibrator stars we can therefore estimate the PSF by a model fit to the full ensemble of stars visible within the field of view. (4) By using sparse matrices to describe the sources, the problem of extracting the spectra of many stars simultaneously becomes computationally tractable. We present extensive performance and validation tests of our algorithm using realistic simulated datacubes that closely reproduce actual IFS observations of the central regions of Galactic globular clusters. We investigate the quality of the extracted spectra under the effects of crowding with respect to the resulting signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) and any possible changes in the continuum level, as well as with respect to absorption line spectral parameters, radial velocities, and equivalent widths. The main effect of blending between two nearby stars is a decrease in the S/N in their spectra. The effect increases with the crowding in the field in a way that the maximum number of stars with useful spectra is always ~0.2 per spatial resolution element. This balance breaks down when exceeding a total source density of one significantly detected star per resolution element. We also explore the

  6. Coil extensions improve line shapes by removing field distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradi, Mark S.; Altobelli, Stephen A.; McDowell, Andrew F.

    2018-06-01

    The static magnetic susceptibility of the rf coil can substantially distort the field B0 and be a dominant source of line broadening. A scaling argument shows that this may be a particular problem in microcoil NMR. We propose coil extensions to reduce the distortion. The actual rf coil is extended to a much longer overall length by abutted coil segments that do not carry rf current. The result is a long and nearly uniform sheath of copper wire, in terms of the static susceptibility. The line shape improvement is demonstrated at 43.9 MHz and in simulation calculations.

  7. Journal of Agricultural Extension Vol.17 (2) December, 2013 ISSN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONIKOYI

    National Agricultural Extension Research Liaison Services (NAERGLS), ... agricultural extension, the organization is meant to serve the extension, ... farm families ratio, extension agents (EAs) training, and the likely causes of the problem.

  8. Neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cason, J.L. Jr.; Shaw, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    A neutron source which is particularly useful for neutron radiography consists of a vessel containing a moderating media of relatively low moderating ratio, a flux trap including a moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio at the center of the vessel, a shell of depleted uranium dioxide surrounding the moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio, a plurality of guide tubes each containing a movable source of neutrons surrounding the flux trap, a neutron shield surrounding one part of each guide tube, and at least one collimator extending from the flux trap to the exterior of the neutron source. The shell of depleted uranium dioxide has a window provided with depleted uranium dioxide shutters for each collimator. Reflectors are provided above and below the flux trap and on the guide tubes away from the flux trap

  9. Crowd Sourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has contributed new words and slang to our daily vernacular. A few terms, such as tweeting, texting, sexting, blogging, and googling, have become common in most vocabularies and in many languages, and are now included in the dictionary. A new buzzword making the rounds in industry is crowd sourcing, which involves outsourcing an activity, task, or problem by sending it to people or groups outside a business or a practice. Crowd sourcing allows doctors and practices to tap the wisdom of many instead of relying only on the few members of their close-knit group. This article defines "crowd sourcing," offers examples, and explains how to get started with this approach that can increase your ability to finish a task or solve problems that you don't have the time or expertise to accomplish.

  10. Pulsar emission amplified and resolved by plasma lensing in an eclipsing binary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Robert; Yang, I-Sheng; Chan, Victor; Li, Dongzi; Lin, Fang Xi; Mahajan, Nikhil; Pen, Ue-Li; Vanderlinde, Keith; van Kerkwijk, Marten H

    2018-05-01

    Radio pulsars scintillate because their emission travels through the ionized interstellar medium along multiple paths, which interfere with each other. It has long been realized that, independent of their nature, the regions responsible for the scintillation could be used as 'interstellar lenses' to localize pulsar emission regions 1,2 . Most such lenses, however, resolve emission components only marginally, limiting results to statistical inferences and detections of small positional shifts 3-5 . As lenses situated close to their source offer better resolution, it should be easier to resolve emission regions of pulsars located in high-density environments such as supernova remnants 6 or binaries in which the pulsar's companion has an ionized outflow. Here we report observations of extreme plasma lensing in the 'black widow' pulsar, B1957+20, near the phase in its 9.2-hour orbit at which its emission is eclipsed by its companion's outflow 7-9 . During the lensing events, the observed radio flux is enhanced by factors of up to 70-80 at specific frequencies. The strongest events clearly resolve the emission regions: they affect the narrow main pulse and parts of the wider interpulse differently. We show that the events arise naturally from density fluctuations in the outer regions of the outflow, and we infer a resolution of our lenses that is comparable to the pulsar's radius, about 10 kilometres. Furthermore, the distinct frequency structures imparted by the lensing are reminiscent of what is observed for the repeating fast radio burst FRB 121102, providing observational support for the idea that this source is observed through, and thus at times strongly magnified by, plasma lenses 10 .

  11. Bandwidth extension of speech using perceptual criteria

    CERN Document Server

    Berisha, Visar; Liss, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Bandwidth extension of speech is used in the International Telecommunication Union G.729.1 standard in which the narrowband bitstream is combined with quantized high-band parameters. Although this system produces high-quality wideband speech, the additional bits used to represent the high band can be further reduced. In addition to the algorithm used in the G.729.1 standard, bandwidth extension methods based on spectrum prediction have also been proposed. Although these algorithms do not require additional bits, they perform poorly when the correlation between the low and the high band is weak. In this book, two wideband speech coding algorithms that rely on bandwidth extension are developed. The algorithms operate as wrappers around existing narrowband compression schemes. More specifically, in these algorithms, the low band is encoded using an existing toll-quality narrowband system, whereas the high band is generated using the proposed extension techniques. The first method relies only on transmitted high-...

  12. 77 FR 20616 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    .... EIA's petroleum marketing survey forms collect volumetric and price information needed for determining... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. ACTION: Agency Information...

  13. ERP extension - Supply Chain Management (SCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile LUPSE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an extension of a ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning, more precisely the Supply Chain Management (SCM, together with some personal considerations and contributions of the authors, regarding the presented concepts.

  14. implementing socially responsive forestry extension programmes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    responsive forestry extension model is outlined. It is contended ... solutions it has been argued that education (formal or informal) is a ... boards and ceo-tourism are also employed to disseminate ..... environmental conservation and sustained.

  15. Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and demonstrate an Integrated Composite Rocket Nozzle Extension (ICRNE) for use in rocket thrust chambers. The ICRNE will utilize an...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2322 - Extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., by authority delegated under section 188(d) of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, extends for two... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2322 Extensions. (a) The Administrator, by authority...

  17. Extension of the Consolidation 3 shaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnenkamp, G [Gesteins- und Tiefbau G.m.b.H., Recklinghausen (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-02-01

    The conversion of a mine shaft into a central winning shaft is described, in particular planning principles, problems to be solved, preliminary work, timber drawing, extension work, shaft deepening, and the installation of shaft internals.

  18. Fundamentally Flawed: Extension Administrative Practice (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Thomas F., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Extension's current administrative techniques are based on the assumptions of classical management from the early 20th century. They are fundamentally flawed and inappropriate for the contemporary workplace. (SK)

  19. assessment of extension agents' communication methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    communication, therefore, requires a balance between homophily and heterophily. ... Networks are structured fabrics of the organization made up of lines, .... work life affect work performance among government agriculture extension officers?

  20. (ICTs) in Nigeria's agricultural extension service

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's Agricultural Extension Service has had a long and checkered history of ... and Visit (T&V) System, to reach its diverse clients with their various needs. ... stakeholders, costs, and the country's poor ICT infrastructural development.