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Sample records for resolved x-ray fluorescence

  1. Spatially resolved density and ionization measurements of shocked foams using x-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, M. J.; Keiter, P. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Scott, H. A.; Biener, M. M.; Fein, J. R.; Fournier, K. B.; Gamboa, E. J.; Kemp, G. E.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; LeFevre, H. J.; Manuel, M. J. -E.; Wan, W. C.; Drake, R. P.

    2016-09-28

    We present experiments at the Trident laser facility demonstrating the use of x-ray fluorescence (XRF) to simultaneously measure density, ionization state populations, and electron temperature in shocked foams. An imaging x-ray spectrometer obtained spatially resolved measurements of Ti K-α emission. Density profiles were measured from K-α intensity. Ti ionization state distributions and electron temperatures were inferred by fitting K-α spectra to spectra from CRETIN simulations. This work shows that XRF provides a powerful tool to complement other diagnostics to make equation of state measurements of shocked materials containing a suitable tracer element.

  2. Angle-resolved X-ray fluorescence spectrometry using synchrotron radiation at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, W.; Rothe, J.; Hormes, J.; Gries, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements on the centroid depth of ion-implanted phosphorus-in-silicon specimen by the method of angle-resolved, self-ratio X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (AR/SR/XFS) have been carried out using 'white' synchrotron radiation (SR). The measurements were performed using a modified wavelength-dispersive fluorescence spectrometer. Problems due to the use of SR, like carbonaceous specimen contamination and sample heating were overcome by flooding the specimen chamber with helium and by pre-absorbing the non-exciting parts of the incident SR with suitable filters, respectively. The decaying primary intensity was monitored by measuring the compensation current of the photoelectrons emitted from a tungsten wire stretched across the primary beam. Results have been obtained for specimen with dose density levels of 10 16 cm -2 and 3x10 15 cm -2 . (orig.)

  3. Spatially resolved synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence analyses of rare Rembrandt silverpoint drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiche, I.; Radtke, M.; Berger, A.; Goerner, W.; Merchel, S.; Riesemeier, H.; Bevers, H.

    2006-01-01

    New analyses of a series of very rare silverpoint drawings that were executed by Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn (1606-1669) which are kept today in the Kupferstichkabinett (Museum of Prints and Drawings) of the State Museums of Berlin are reported here. Analysis of these drawings requires particular attention because the study has to be fully non-destructive and extremely sensitive. The metal alloy on the paper does not exceed some hundreds of μg/cm 2 . Therefore, synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) is - together with external micro-proton-induced X-ray emission - the only well-suited method for the analyses of metalpoint drawings. In some primary work, about 25 German and Flemish metalpoint drawings were investigated using spatially resolved SR-XRF analysis at the BAMline at BESSY. This study enlarges the existing French-German database of metalpoint drawings dating from the 15th and 16th centuries, as these Rembrandt drawings originate from the 17th century where this graphical technique was even rarer and already obsolete. It also illustrates how SR-XRF analysis can reinforce art historical assumptions on the dating of drawings and their connection. (orig.)

  4. Thickness determination of thin solid films by angle-resolved X-ray fluorescence spectrometry using monochromatized synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, W.; Drotbohm, P.; Rothe, J.; Hormes, J.; Ottermann, C. R.; Bange, K.

    1995-05-01

    Thickness measurements by the method of angle-resolved, self-ratio X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (AR/SR/XFS) have been carried out on thin solid films using monochromatized synchrotron radiation at the Bonn storage ring ELSA. Synchrotron radiation was monochromatized by means of a double-crystal monochromator and fluorescence radiation was detected by a Si(Li) semiconductor detector. The results for sample systems consisting of Au on Si, Cr on SiO2 and TiO2 on alkali-free glass are very satisfactory and agree well with results obtained by other methods.

  5. Spatially resolved x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of beryllium capsule implosions at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, M. J.; Bishel, D. T.; Saunders, A. M.; Scott, H. A.; Kyrala, G.; Kline, J.; MacLaren, S.; Thorn, D. B.; Yi, S. A.; Zylstra, A. B.; Falcone, R. W.; Doeppner, T.

    2017-10-01

    Beryllium ablators used in indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are doped with copper to prevent preheat of the cryogenic hydrogen fuel. Here, we present analysis of spatially resolved copper K- α fluorescence spectra from the beryllium ablator layer. It has been shown that K- α fluorescence spectroscopy can be used to measure plasma conditions of partially ionized dopants in high energy density systems. In these experiments, K-shell vacancies in the copper dopant are created by the hotspot emission at stagnation, resulting in K-shell fluorescence at bang time. Spatially resolved copper K- α emission spectra are compared to atomic kinetics and radiation code simulations to infer density and temperature profiles. This work was supported by the US DOE under Grant No. DE-NA0001859, under the auspices of the US DOE by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344, and by Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-06NA52396.

  6. X-ray fluorescence holography

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, K; Takahashi, Y

    2003-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a new structural analysis method of determining a 3D atomic arrangement around fluorescing atoms. We developed an XFH apparatus using advanced X-ray techniques and succeeded in obtaining high-quality hologram data. Furthermore, we introduced applications to the structural analysis of a thin film and the environment around dopants and, discussed the quantitative analysis of local lattice distortion. (author)

  7. X-ray fluorescence holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu, Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-03-07

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy.

  8. X-ray fluorescence holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy. (topical review)

  9. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of Literature on x-ray fluorescence spectrometry starts with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. It is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is subdivided according to spectra, equipment, applications and absorption analysis

  10. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, N.B.

    1977-01-01

    The principle, instrument and procedure of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are described. It is a rapid, simple and sensitive method for the trace analysis of elements from sodium to uranium in powder, liquid or metal samples. (M.G.B.)

  11. X-ray emission spectroscopy. X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despujols, J.

    1992-01-01

    Principles of X-ray emission spectrometry are first recalled, then wave-length dispersive and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer are described. They are essentially designed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements (Z>10). Sample preparation, calibration, corrections, interferences, accuracy are reviewed. Examples of use in different industries are given. (71 refs.)

  12. Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.

    1994-01-01

    The author's achievements in the title field are summarized and discussed. The following topics are dealt with: (i) principles of radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis; (ii) mathematical methods in X-ray fluorescence analysis; (iii) Ross differential filters; (iv) application of radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis in the coal industry (with emphasis on the determination of the ash content, sulfur content, and arsenic content of coal); and (v) evaluation of the X-ray fluorescence analyzer from the radiological safety point of view. (P.A.)

  13. Time-resolved suprathermal x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.H.Y.; Rosen, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    Temporally resolved x-ray spectra in the range of 1 to 20 keV have been obtained from gold disk targets irradiated by 1.06 μm laser pulses from the Argus facility. The x-ray streak camera used for the measurement has been calibrated for streak speed and dynamic range by using an air-gap Fabry-Perot etalon, and the instrument response has been calibrated using a multi-range monoenergetic x-ray source. The experimental results indicate that we are able to observe the ''hot'' x-ray temperature evolve in time and that the experimentally observed values can be qualitatively predicted by LASNEX code computations when the inhibited transport model is used

  14. Spatially resolved synchrotron-induced X-ray fluorescence analyses of metal point drawings and their mysterious inscriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiche, Ina; Radtke, Martin; Berger, Achim; Goerner, Wolf; Ketelsen, Thomas; Merchel, Silke; Riederer, Josef; Riesemeier, Heinrich; Roth, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Synchrotron-induced X-ray fluorescence (Sy-XRF) analysis was used to study the chemical composition of precious Renaissance silverpoint drawings. Drawings by famous artists such as Albrecht Duerer (1471-1528) and Jan van Eyck (approximately 1395-1441) must be investigated non-destructively. Moreover, extremely sensitive synchrotron- or accelerator-based techniques are needed since only small quantities of silver are deposited on the paper. New criteria for attributing these works to a particular artist could be established based on the analysis of the chemical composition of the metal points used. We illustrate how analysis can give new art historical information by means of two case studies. Two particular drawings, one of Albrecht Duerer, showing a profile portrait of his closest friend, 'Willibald Pirckheimer' (1503), and a second one attributed to Jan van Eyck, showing a 'Portrait of an elderly man', often named 'Niccolo Albergati', are the object of intense art historical controversy. Both drawings show inscriptions next to the figures. Analyses by Sy-XRF could reveal the same kind of silverpoint for the Pirckheimer portrait and its mysterious Greek inscription, contrary to the drawing by Van Eyck where at least three different metal points were applied. Two different types of silver marks were found in this portrait. Silver containing gold marks were detected in the inscriptions and over-subscriptions. This is the first evidence of the use of gold points for metal point drawings in the Middle Ages

  15. Time-resolved x-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques for time-resolved x-ray diagnostics will be reviewed with emphasis on systems utilizing x-ray diodes or scintillators. System design concerns for high-bandwidth (> 1 GHz) diagnostics will be emphasized. The limitations of a coaxial cable system and a technique for equalizing to improve bandwidth of such a system will be reviewed. Characteristics of new multi-GHz amplifiers will be presented. An example of a complete operational system on the Los Alamos Helios laser will be presented which has a bandwidth near 3 GHz over 38 m of coax. The system includes the cable, an amplifier, an oscilloscope, and a digital camera readout

  16. Automated x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    A fully automated x-ray fluorescence analytical system is described. The hardware is based on a Philips PW1220 sequential x-ray spectrometer. Software for on-line analysis of a wide range of sample types has been developed for the Hewlett-Packard 9810A programmable calculator. Routines to test the system hardware are also described. (Author)

  17. X-ray fluorescence in geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, C.V.; Gomes, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the X-ray fluorescence aplication in geology. It's showing the X-ray origin and excitation. About the instrumentation this work shows the following: X-ray tubes, colimators, analysers crystals, detectors, amplifiers, pulse height selector, and others electronic components. By X-ray fluorescente are done quantitative and qualitative geological analysis and this work shows this analysis and its detection limits. The problems determination is the example. In this work was done yet the comparative analysis of the various instrumental methods in geochemistry. (C.G.) [pt

  18. X-ray fluorescence analyzer arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatai, Endre; Ando, Laszlo; Gal, Janos.

    1981-01-01

    An x-ray fluorescence analyzer for the quantitative determination of one or more elements of complex samples is reported. The novelties of the invention are the excitation of the samples by x-rays or γ-radiation, the application of a balanced filter pair as energy selector, and the measurement of the current or ion charge of ionization detectors used as sensors. Due to the increased sensitivity and accuracy, the novel design can extend the application fields of x-ray fluorescence analyzers. (A.L.)

  19. Advanced in X-ray fluorescence holography

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, K

    2002-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) can resolve 'phase problem' in crystal diffraction and therefore it provides 3D atomic images around specific elements. Since first demonstration of the XFH in 1996, view of atoms has been improved rapidly with the refinement of the hologram data collection method. The present performance of the XFH makes it possible to apply to impurity, thin film and quasicrystal, and opens a way to practical tool for determination of local structure. In this paper, theory including solutions for twin image problem, advanced experimental systems and application to Si sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 9 sub 9 Ge sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 0 sub 1 are discussed. (author)

  20. Locally resolved investigation of wedged Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} films prepared by physical vapor deposition using hard X-ray photoelectron and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvet, Wolfram, E-mail: wolfram.calvet@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Ümsür, Bünyamin; Höpfner, Britta; Lauermann, Iver; Prietzel, Karsten; Kaufmann, Christan A.; Unold, Thomas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Lux-Steiner, Martha C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Freie Universität Berlin, Department of Physics, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    We have investigated a specially grown Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) absorber, which was deposited by co-evaporation of Cu, In, Ga, and Se using a modified three stage process. Prior to the growth, the molybdenum-coated glass substrate was covered by a bent shroud made from tantalum (Ta), leading to a wedged absorber structure with a width of about 2 mm where the film thickness varies from 0 to 2 μm. In this region of interest the thickness dependency of morphology, concentration ratios and electronic properties was studied with secondary electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES), probing the CIGSe sample along the thickness gradient. The evidence of the thickness gradient itself was proven with SEM measurements in cross section geometry. By using XRF it was found that with decreasing film thickness the Cu concentration decreases significantly. This finding was also verified by HAXPES measurements. Furthermore, an enrichment of Ga towards the Mo back contact was found using the same technique. Besides these results the formation of a molybdenum selenide (MoSe) phase was observed on the fully covered part of the Mo coated substrate indicating a high mobility of Se on Mo under the given temperature conditions of the modified three stage deposition process. - Highlights: • Growth of a CIGSe wedge • Application of HAXPES and XRF as local probing techniques • Good agreement with former studies • Wedged CIGSe structures can be used for further, locally resolved experiments.

  1. The Mapping X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (MapX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D. F.; Marchis, F.; Bristow, T.; Thompson, K.

    2017-12-01

    Many planetary surface processes leave traces of their actions as features in the size range 10s to 100s of microns. The Mapping X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (MapX) will provide elemental imaging at 100 micron spatial resolution, yielding elemental chemistry at a scale where many relict physical, chemical, or biological features can be imaged and interpreted in ancient rocks on planetary bodies and planetesimals. MapX is an arm-based instrument positioned on a rock or regolith with touch sensors. During an analysis, an X-ray source (tube or radioisotope) bombards the sample with X-rays or alpha-particles / gamma-rays, resulting in sample X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). X-rays emitted in the direction of an X-ray sensitive CCD imager pass through a 1:1 focusing lens (X-ray micro-pore Optic (MPO)) that projects a spatially resolved image of the X-rays onto the CCD. The CCD is operated in single photon counting mode so that the energies and positions of individual X-ray photons are recorded. In a single analysis, several thousand frames are both stored and processed in real-time. Higher level data products include single-element maps with a lateral spatial resolution of 100 microns and quantitative XRF spectra from ground- or instrument- selected Regions of Interest (ROI). XRF spectra from ROI are compared with known rock and mineral compositions to extrapolate the data to rock types and putative mineralogies. When applied to airless bodies and implemented with an appropriate radioisotope source for alpha-particle excitation, MapX will be able to analyze biogenic elements C, N, O, P, S, in addition to the cations of the rock-forming elements >Na, accessible with either X-ray or gamma-ray excitation. The MapX concept has been demonstrated with a series of lab-based prototypes and is currently under refinement and TRL maturation.

  2. An angle-resolved, wavelength-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer for depth profile analysis of ion-implanted semiconductors using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, W.; Hormes, J.; Kuetgens, U.; Gries, W. H.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for angle-resolved, wavelength-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation has been built and tested at the beam line BN2 of the Bonn electron stretcher and accelerator (ELSA). The apparatus is to be used for nondestructive depth profile analysis of ion-implanted semiconductors as part of the multinational Versailles Project of Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) project on ion-implanted reference materials. In particular, the centroid depths of depth profiles of various implants is to be determined by use of the angle-resolved signal ratio technique. First results of measurements on implants of phosphorus (100 keV, 1016 cm-2) and sulfur (200 keV, 1014 cm-2) in silicon wafers using ``white'' synchrotron radiation are presented and suggest that it should be generally possible to measure the centroid depth of an implant at dose densities as low as 1014 cm-2. Some of the apparative and technical requirements are discussed which are peculiar to the use of synchrotron radiation in general and to the use of nonmonochromatized radiation in particular.

  3. An angle-resolved, wavelength-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer for depth profile analysis of ion-implanted semiconductors using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, W.; Hormes, J.; Kuetgens, U.; Gries, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for angle-resolved, wavelength-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation has been built and tested at the beam line BN2 of the Bonn electron stretcher and accelerator (ELSA). The apparatus is to be used for nondestructive depth profile analysis of ion-implanted semiconductors as part of the multinational Versailles Project of Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) project on ion-implanted reference materials. In particular, the centroid depths of depth profiles of various implants is to be determined by use of the angle-resolved signal ratio technique. First results of measurements on implants of phosphorus (100 keV, 10 16 cm -2 ) and sulfur (200 keV, 10 14 cm -2 ) in silicon wafers using ''white'' synchrotron radiation are presented and suggest that it should be generally possible to measure the centroid depth of an implant at dose densities as low as 10 14 cm -2 . Some of the apparative and technical requirements are discussed which are peculiar to the use of synchrotron radiation in general and to the use of nonmonochromatized radiation in particular

  4. Capacity of X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobrauschek, P.; Kregsamer, P.

    1997-01-01

    X-Ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) is a powerful analytical tool for the qualitative and quantitative determination of chemical elements in a sample. Two different detection principles are accepted widely: wavelength dispersive and energy dispersive. Various sources for XRF are discussed: X-ray tubes, accelerators for particle induced XRF, radioactive isotopes, and the use of synchrotron radiation. Applications include environmental, technical, medical, fine art, and forensic studies. Due to the demands of research and application special techniques like total reflection XRF (TXRF) were developed with ultimately achievable detection limits in the femtogram region. The elements detectable by XRF range from Be to U. (author)

  5. Escape probabilities for fluorescent x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, D.R.; Day, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Computation of the energy absorption efficiency of an x-ray photon detector involves consideration of the histories of the secondary particles produced in any initial or secondary interaction which may occur within the detector. In particular, the K or higher shell fluorescent x-rays which may be emitted following a photoelectric interaction can carry away a large fraction of the energy of the incident photon, especially if this energy is just above an absorption edge. The effects of such photons cannot be ignored and a correction term, depending upon the probability that the fluorescent x-rays will escape from the detector, must be applied to the energy absorption efficiency. For detectors such as x-ray intensifying screens, it has been usual to calculate this probability by numerical integration. In this note analytic expressions are derived for the escape probability of fluorescent photons from planar detectors in terms of exponential integral functions. Rational approximations for these functions are readily available and these analytic expressions therefore facilitate the computation of photon absorption efficiencies. A table is presented which should obviate the need for calculating the escape probability for most cases of interest. (author)

  6. Development of confocal micro X-ray fluorescence instrument using two X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Ding Xunliang

    2007-01-01

    A new confocal micro X-ray fluorescence instrument was developed. This instrument has two independent micro X-ray tubes with Mo targets. A full polycapillary X-ray lens was attached to each X-ray tube. Another half polycapillary lens was attached to a silicon drift X-ray detector (SDD). The focal spots of the three lenses were adjusted to a common position. The effects of the excitation of two X-ray beams were investigated. The instrument enabled highly sensitive three-dimensional X-ray fluorescence analysis. We confirmed that the X-ray fluorescence intensity from the sample increased by applying the two independent X-ray tubes in confocal configuration. Elemental depth profiling of black wheat was demonstrated with the result that each element in the surface coat of a wheat grain showed unique distribution

  7. Millianalyser by x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, A.; Hirao, O.; Kashiwakura, J.; Gohshi, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Research on the possibility of mm-size nondestructive analysis was carried out by the fluorescent x-ray method. With 0.2 mm pin-hole slit, source x-rays from a Cu target diffraction tube were collimated to a spot smaller than 1 mm phi at a slide stage placed about 5 cm distant from the pin-hole slit. Resultant x-rays from a sample placed on the slide stage, which is excited by the collimated x-ray, were detected with a head-on-type 6 mm SSD, placed so that its 12.5 micron Be window was about 5 cm beneath the stage. X-ray intensities sufficient for analysis (500 to 5000 CPS) could be obtained for various metallic samples with up to 40 kV-10 mA excitation. This instrument proved to be useful for mm-size qualitative analysis in measurements of tiny samples. Furthermore, the possibility of distribution analysis is expected based on the result of an investigation on c.a. 0.1 percent Cr in LiNbO 3 , where the ratios of Cr-Kα intensity to scattered Cu-Kα intensity varied between 0.094 and 0.19, with deviations of less than 7.5 percent at five successive points located at 2 mm intervals along the direction of growth

  8. Synchrotron x-ray microbeam characteristics for x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Atsuo; Noma, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis using a synchrotron x-ray microprobe has become an indispensable technique for non-destructive micro-analysis. One of the most important parameters that characterize the x-ray microbeam system for x-ray fluorescence analysis is the beam size. For practical analysis, however, the photon flux, the energy resolution and the available energy range are also crucial. Three types of x-ray microbeam systems, including monochromatic and continuum excitation systems, were compared with reference to the sensitivity, the minimum detection limit and the applicability to various types of x-ray spectroscopic analysis. 16 refs., 5 figs

  9. X-ray fluorescence imaging with polycapillary X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, Tasuku; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Tsuji, Kouichi

    2010-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry imaging is a powerful tool to provide information about the chemical composition and elemental distribution of a specimen. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry images were conventionally obtained by using a μ-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry spectrometer, which requires scanning a sample. Faster X-ray fluorescence spectrometry imaging would be achieved by eliminating the process of sample scanning. Thus, we developed an X-ray fluorescence spectrometry imaging instrument without sample scanning by using polycapillary X-ray optics, which had energy filter characteristics caused by the energy dependence of the total reflection phenomenon. In the present paper, we show that two independent straight polycapillary X-ray optics could be used as an energy filter of X-rays for X-ray fluorescence. Only low energy X-rays were detected when the angle between the two optical axes was increased slightly. Energy-selective X-ray fluorescence spectrometry images with projection mode were taken by using an X-ray CCD camera equipped with two polycapillary optics. It was shown that Fe Kα (6.40 keV) and Cu Kα (8.04 keV) could be discriminated for Fe and Cu foils.

  10. Atom-resolving x-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, B.; Hiort, T.; Materlik, G.; Nishino, Y.; Novikov, D. V.

    2000-01-01

    The current state of atomic resolution x-ray holography is discussed on the basis of theory and experimental results. X-ray holography is theoretically described in quantum theory. Presently-used experimental implementations are shown together with the data analysis used. Reconstructions of experimental and simulated holograms are compared for a Cu 3 Au crystal structure. Rigorous experimental realizations of pure direct and reciprocal x-ray holography methods are demonstrated, and future developments and applications of the method are suggested

  11. X-ray microtome by fluorescence tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Simionovici, A S; Guenzler, F; Schrör, C; Snigirev, A; Snigireva, I; Tümmler, J; Weitkamp, T

    2001-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescence microtomography method is presented, which is capable of virtually slicing samples to obtain cross-sections of their inner structure. High precision experimental results of fluo-tomography in 'pencil-beam' geometry with up to 1.2 mu m resolution are described. Image reconstructions are based on either a simplified algebraic reconstruction method (ART) or the filtered back-projection method (FBP). Phantoms of inhomogeneous test objects as well as biological samples are successfully analyzed.

  12. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, W.; Prange, A.

    1987-01-01

    In the past few years, total reflection X-ray flourescence analysis (TXRF) has found an increasing number of assignments and applications. Experience of trace element analysis using TXRF and examples of applications are already widespread. Therefore, users of TXRF had the opportunity of an intensive exchange of their experience at the 1st workshop on total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis which took place on May 27th and 28th 1986 at the GKSS Research Centre at Geesthacht. In a series of lectures and discussions dealing with the analytical principle itself, sample preparation techniques and applications as well as comuter programs for spectrum evaluation, the present state of development and the range of applications were outlined. 3 studies out of a total of 14 were included separately in the INIS and ENERGY databases. With 61 figs., 12 tabs [de

  13. Silicon lithium detector for x ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Cabal, A. E.; Diaz Garcia, A.; Noriega Scull, C.; Martinez Munoz, O.; Diaz Cepeda, R.

    1997-01-01

    The Silicon Lithium detector is the system for the detection of nuclear radiation. It transforms the charge that was produced inside of Silicon material as a result of the incidence of particles and X rays, in voltage pulses at the output of the preamplifier. In this work was made the adjustment of the technological process of manufacture of the detector. Also was made the design and construction of the cryostat and preamplifier and then the validation of the system in a Cuban Dewar. The system, which was made for the first time in our country, has an energy resolution of 185 eV for the Fe-55 source (E=5.9 KeV), which has permitted its implementation in energy dispersive X ray fluorescence. (author) [es

  14. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Miaja-Avila

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  15. Submicron, soft x-ray fluorescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Fontaine, B.; MacDowell, A.A.; Tan, Z.; White, D.L.; Taylor, G.N.; Wood, O.R. II; Bjorkholm, J.E.; Tennant, D.M.; Hulbert, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Submicron fluorescence imaging of soft x-ray aerial images, using a high resolution fluorescent crystal is reported. Features as small as 0.1 μm were observed using a commercially available single-crystal phosphor, STI-F10G (Star Tech Instruments Inc. P. O. Box 2536, Danbury, CT 06813-2536), excited with 139 A light. Its quantum efficiency was estimated to be 5--10 times that of sodium salicylate and to be constant over a broad spectral range from 30 to 400 A. A comparison with a terbium-activated yttrium orthosilicate fluorescent crystal is also presented. Several applications, such as the characterization of the aerial images produced by deep ultraviolet or extreme ultraviolet lithographic exposure tools, are envisaged

  16. X-ray fluorescence method for trace analysis and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Shinjiro

    2000-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis has a long history as conventional bulk elemental analysis with medium sensitivity. However, with the use of synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence method has become a unique analytical technique which can provide tace elemental information with the spatial resolution. To obtain quantitative information of trace elemental distribution by using the x-ray fluorescence method, theoretical description of x-ray fluorescence yield is described. Moreover, methods and instruments for trace characterization with a scanning x-ray microprobe are described. (author)

  17. In vivo X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlgren, L.

    1980-02-01

    Measurements on five occupationally exposed persons have shown that it is possible to use X-ray fluorescence analysis for in vivo measurements of lead in the skeleton. The technique for calibrating in vivo X-ray fluorescence measurements of lead in bone tissue has been studied in detail and a two-component phantom simulating the bone and the soft tissue parts of the finger constructed. The technique has been used for in vivo measurements on 22 occupationally exposed persons. The minimum detectable concentration of lead in fingerbones was found to be around 20 μg x g -1 . The lead concentrations in their skeletons and blood were compared: the correlation was poor. The variations in lead concentrations in the skeleton have been studied in occupationally exposed persons and in samples from archaeological skeletons. The sensitivity and the minimum detectable concentration of cadmium in the kidney cortex in in vivo measurements has been studied by measurements on kidney models. The minimum detectable concentration was 20 μg x g -1 at a skin-kidney distance of 30 mm and 40 μg x g -1 at 40 mm. Five persons occupationally exposed were studied. (Author)

  18. X-ray Fluorescence Holography: Principles, Apparatus, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Korecki, Pawel

    2018-06-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is an atomic structure determination technique that combines the capabilities of X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. It provides a unique means of gaining fully three-dimensional information about the local atomic structure and lattice site positions of selected elements inside compound samples. In this work, we discuss experimental and theoretical aspects that are essential for the efficient recording and analysis of X-ray fluorescence holograms and review the most recent advances in XFH. We describe experiments performed with brilliant synchrotron radiation as well as with tabletop setups that employ conventional X-ray tubes.

  19. Review of X-ray Tomography and X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shear, Trevor A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-16

    This literature review will focus on both laboratory and synchrotron based X-ray tomography of materials and highlight the inner workings of these instruments. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy will also be reviewed and applications of the tandem use of these techniques will be explored. The real world application of these techniques during the internship will also be discussed.

  20. An x-ray detector for time-resolved studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodricks, B.; Brizard, C.; Clarke, R.; Lowe, W.

    1992-01-01

    The development of ultrahigh-brightness x-ray sources makes time-resolved x-ray studies more and more feasible. Improvements in x-ray optics components are also critical for obtaining the appropriate beam for a particular type of experiment. Moreover, fast parallel detectors will be essential in order to exploit the combination of high intensity x-ray sources and novel optics for time-resolved experiments. A CCD detector with a time resolution of microseconds has been developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). This detector is fully programmable using CAMAC electronics and a Micro Vax computer. The techniques of time-resolved x-ray studies, which include scattering, microradiography, microtomography, stroboscopy, etc., can be applied to a range of phenomena (including rapid thermal annealing, surface ordering, crystallization, and the kinetics of phase transition) in order to understand these time-dependent microscopic processes. Some of these applications will be illustrated by recent results performed at synchrotrons. New powerful x-ray sources now under construction offer the opportunity to apply innovative approaches in time-resolved work

  1. Fluorescent scanning x-ray tomography with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Maeda, Toshikazu; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Akatsuka, Takao; Ito, Tatsuo; Kishi, Kenichi; Wu, Jin; Kazama, Masahiro; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Itai, Yuji

    1995-02-01

    Fluorescent scanning (FS) x-ray tomography was developed to detect nonradioactive tracer materials (iodine and gadolinium) in a living object. FS x-ray tomography consists of a silicon (111) channel cut monochromator, an x-ray shutter, an x-ray slit system and a collimator for detection, a scanning table for the target organ, and an x-ray detector with pure germanium. The minimal detectable dose of iodine in this experiment was 100 ng in a volume of 2 mm3 and a linear relationship was shown between the photon counts of a fluorescent x ray and the concentration of iodine contrast material. A FS x-ray tomographic image was clearly obtained with a phantom.

  2. Theory of time-resolved inelastic x-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Ulf; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    2010-01-01

    Starting from a general theory of time-resolved x-ray scattering, we derive a convenient expression for the diffraction signal based on a careful analysis of the relevant inelastic scattering processes. We demonstrate that the resulting inelastic limit applies to a wider variety of experimental...... conditions than similar, previously derived formulas, and it directly allows the application of selection rules when interpreting diffraction signals. Furthermore, we present a simple extension to systems simultaneously illuminated by x rays and a laser beam....

  3. A library for X-ray-matter interaction cross sections for X-ray fluorescence applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetti, A. [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Cagliari (Italy)]. E-mail: brunetti@uniss.it; Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Golosio, B. [INFN, Sezione di Cagliari (Italy); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Simionovici, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Sciences de la Terre, Ecole Normale Superieure, Lyon, F-69364 (France); Somogyi, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2004-10-08

    Quantitative estimate of elemental composition by spectroscopic and imaging techniques using X-ray fluorescence requires the availability of accurate data of X-ray interaction with matter. Although a wide number of computer codes and data sets are reported in literature, none of them is presented in the form of freely available library functions which can be easily included in software applications for X-ray fluorescence. This work presents a compilation of data sets from different published works and an xraylib interface in the form of callable functions. Although the target applications are on X-ray fluorescence, cross sections of interactions like photoionization, coherent scattering and Compton scattering, as well as form factors and anomalous scattering functions, are also available.

  4. Advanced of X-ray fluorescence logging technique in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Sichun; Ge Liangquan; Lai Wanchang; Yang Qiang

    2010-01-01

    The paper discuses principle of X-ray fluorescence logging, and introduces advanced of X-ray fluorescence logging technique in China. By 2009, third generation XRF logging instrument has been developed in China, and good logging result has been obtained in Lala copper mine. (authors)

  5. Portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer of high sensitivity using X-ray tube excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatai, E.; Ando, L.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the three main methods of X-ray fluorescence analysis and their problems is given. The attainable accuracy and effectiveness of each method are discussed. The main properties of portable X-ray analyzers required by the industry are described. The results and experiences of R and D activities in ATOMKI (Debrecen, Hungary) for developing portable X-ray analyzers are presented. The only way for increasing the accuracy and decreasing the measuring time is the application of X-ray tube excitation instead of radioactive sources. The new ATOMKI equipment presently under construction and patenting uses X-ray tube excitation; it will increase the accuracy of concentration determination by one order of magnitude. (D.Gy.)

  6. X-ray Microprobe for Fluorescence and Diffraction Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (see unit 1.1) and x-ray excited fluorescence analysis are powerful techniques for the nondestructive measurement of crystal structure and chemical composition. X-ray fluorescence analysis is inherently nondestructive with orders of magnitude lower power deposited for the same detectable limit as with fluorescence excited by charged particle probes (Sparks, 1980). X-ray diffraction analysis is sensitive to crystal structure with orders-of-magnitude greater sensitivity to crystallographic strain than electron probes (Rebonato, et al. 1989). When a small-area x-ray microbeam is used as the probe, chemical composition (Z>14), crystal structure, crystalline texture, and crystalline strain distributions can be determined. These distributions can be studied both at the surface of the sample and deep within the sample (Fig. 1). Current state-of-the-art can achieve an ∼1 mm-D x-ray microprobe and an ∼0.1 mm-D x-ray microprobe has been demonstrated (Bilderback, et al., 1994). Despite their great chemical and crystallographic sensitivities, x-ray microprobe techniques have until recently been restricted by inefficient x-ray focusing optics and weak x-ray sources; x-ray microbeam analysis was largely superseded by electron techniques in the 50's. However, interest in x-ray microprobe techniques has now been revived (Howells, et al., 1983; Ice and Sparks, 1984; Chevallier, et al., 1997; Riekel 1992; Thompson, el al., 1992; and Making and Using... 1997) by the development of efficient x-ray focusing optics and ultra-high intensity synchrotron x-ray sources (Buras and Tazzari, 1984; Shenoy, et al., 1988). These advances have increased the achievable microbeam flux by more than 11 orders of magnitude (Fig. 2) (Ice, 1997); the flux in a tunable 1 mm-D beam on a 'so called' 3rd-generation synchrotron source such as the APS can exceed the flux in a fixed-energy mm2 beam on a conventional source. These advances make x-ray microfluorescence and x-ray

  7. Quantitative analysis with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataria, S.K.; Kapoor, S.S.; Lal, M.; Rao, B.V.N.

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of samples using radioisotope excited energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence system is described. The complete set-up is built around a locally made Si(Li) detector x-ray spectrometer with an energy resolution of 220 eV at 5.94 KeV. The photopeaks observed in the x-ray fluorescence spectra are fitted with a Gaussian function and the intensities of the characteristic x-ray lines are extracted, which in turn are used for calculating the elemental concentrations. The results for a few typical cases are presented. (author)

  8. Preparation of specimens for analysis by: X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banos L, L.

    2004-01-01

    Specimen preparation is one of the most important requirements in the analysis of samples by X-ray Diffraction and X-ray Fluorescence. This statement is especially true for samples containing different types of materials. There are many forms of specimen suitable for X-ray analysis and the type of the sample as received will generally determine the method of pretreatment. It is convenient to refer to the material received for analysis as the sample, and that, which is actually analyzed as the specimen. The powder Diffraction method assumes that the particles in the specimen are ideally random orientation and that there are enough crystallites in the specimen to achieve a representative intensity distribution for these crystallites. X ray Fluorescence is essentially a comparative method of analysis, it is vital that all standards and unknowns be presented to the spectrometer in a reproducible and identical manner. (Author) 3 refs., 6 figs

  9. Milli X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Eagle III Micro XRF unit is similar to a traditional XRF unit, with the primary difference being that the X-rays are focused by a polycapillary optic into a spot...

  10. Resolve Instrument on X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission (XARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishisaki, Y.; Ezoe, Y.; Yamada, S.; Ichinohe, Y.; Fujimoto, R.; Takei, Y.; Yasuda, S.; Ishida, M.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Maeda, Y.; Tsujimoto, M.; Iizuka, R.; Koyama, S.; Noda, H.; Tamagawa, T.; Sawada, M.; Sato, K.; Kitamoto, S.; Hoshino, A.; Brown, G. V.; Eckart, M. E.; Hayashi, T.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Mori, H.; Okajima, T.; Porter, F. S.; Soong, Y.; McCammon, D.; Szymkowiak, A. E.

    2018-04-01

    The X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission (XARM) is a recovery mission of ASTRO-H/Hitomi, which is expected to be launched in Japanese Fiscal Year of 2020 at the earliest. The Resolve instrument on XARM consists of an array of 6 × 6 silicon-thermistor microcalorimeters cooled down to 50 mK and a high-throughput X-ray mirror assembly with the focal length of 5.6 m. Hitomi was launched into orbit in February 2016 and observed several celestial objects, although the operation of Hitomi was terminated in April 2016. The soft X-ray spectrometer (SXS) on Hitomi demonstrated high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of 5 eV FWHM in orbit for most of the pixels. The Resolve instrument is planned to mostly be a copy of the Hitomi SXS and soft X-ray telescope designs, though several changes are planned based on the lessons learned from Hitomi. We report a brief summary of the SXS performance and the status of the Resolve instrument.

  11. Use of X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry to Determine Trace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with application of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the detection of trace elements in graphic. An X-ray spectrometer was constructed and used to carry out measurements on graphite spheres impregnated with different chemical elements. The intensities of the lines of these trace elements, as function of ...

  12. Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence and extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.R.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Kraner, H.W.; Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The advent of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has led to a significant increase in activity in many areas of science dealing with the interaction of x-rays with matter. Synchrotron radiation provides intense, linearly polarized, naturally collimated, continuously tunable photon beams, which are used to determine not only the elemental composition of a complex, polyatomic, dilute material but also the chemical form of the elements with improved accuracy. Examples of the application of synchrotron radiation include experiments in synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF) analysis and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. New synchrotron radiation x-ray microprobes for elemental analysis in the parts per billion range are under construction at several laboratories. 76 references, 24 figures

  13. Modern X-ray spectroscopy 3. X-ray fluorescence holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kouichi

    2008-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) provides three dimensional atomic images around specified elements. The XFH uses atoms as a wave source or monitor of interference field within a crystal sample, and therefore it can record both intensity and phase of scattered X-rays. Its current performance makes it possible to apply to ultra thin film, impurity and quasicrystal. In this article, I show the theory including solutions for twin image problem, advanced measuring system, data processing for reconstruction of the atomic images and for obtaining accurate atomic positions, applications using resonant X-ray scattering and X-ray excited optical luminescence, and an example of XFH result on the local structure around copper in silicon steal. (author)

  14. Energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence spectrometric study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence spectrometric study of compositional differences in trace elements in dried Moringa oleifera leaves grown in two different agro-ecological locations in Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

  15. X-ray fluorescence analysis of Fe - Ni - Mo systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, E.E.; Ershov, A.V.; Mashin, A.I.; Mashin, N.I.; Rudnevskij, N.K.

    1998-01-01

    Procedures for the X-ray fluorescence determination of the composition and thickness of Fe - Ni - Mo thin films and the concentration of elements in thick films of the Fe - Ni - Mo alloy are developed [ru

  16. System for Gamma an X rays fluorescence spectrometric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Abad, D.; Arista Romeu, E.; Bolanos Perez, L. and others

    1997-01-01

    A system for spectrometry of gamma or fluorescence X rays is presented. It sis composed by a Si(Li) semiconductors detector, a charge sensitive preamplifier, a high voltage power supply, a spectrometric amplifier and a monolithic 1024 channels multichannel analyzers or an IBM compatible 4096 channels add - on- card multichannel analyzer. The system can be configured as a 1024 or 4096 channels gamma or fluorescent X rays spectrometer

  17. Fluorescent intensifying screens: contribution of secondary X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, R.C.; Goncalves, O.D.; Eichler, J.; Lopes, R.T.; Cardoso, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    The counting rate and angular distribution of secondary X-rays produced by fluorescent intensifying screens are studied. A source of 241 Am - gamma radiation of 59.54 keV - is used. Fluorescent intensifying screens reduce the radiation dose in radiology since they produce visible light which increases the efficiency of the film. In addition, secondary X-rays arise due to the photoelectric effect, elastic (Rayleigh) and inelastic (Compton) scattering

  18. Studying atomic-resolution by X-ray fluorescence holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hongyi; Chen Jianwen; Xie Honglan; Zhu Huafeng; Li Ruxin; Xu Zhizhan

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the results of numerical simulations of X-ray fluorescence holograms and the reconstructed atomic images for Fe single crystal are given. The influences of the recording angles ranges and the polarization effect on the reconstruction of the atomic images are discussed. The process for removing twin images by multiple energy fluorescence holography and expanding the energy range of the incident X-rays to improve the resolution of the reconstructed images is presented

  19. X-ray fluorescent elemental analysis. Ch. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshev, V.; Kulipanov, G.; Skrinsky, A.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis (XFA) is used worldwide to define a quantitative content of the elements as well as to visualize the distribution of elements in different regions (element mapping). Utilization of synchrotron radiation (SR) to excite X-ray fluorescence enables the XFA method to be qualitatively improved. This chapter reviews the experimental work in especially the last decade (author). 71 refs.; 24 figs.; 3 tabs

  20. X-ray fluorescence imaging with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The micro-distribution of trace elements is of great interest in fields such as geochemistry, biology and material science. The synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microprobe provides a technique to quantitatively measure trace element compositions at individual points and to construct semiquantitative two dimensional maps of trace element compositions. This paper describes an x-ray fluorescence system used at the National Synchrotron Light Source

  1. X-ray fluorescence cross sections for K and L x rays of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, M.O.; Nestor, C.W. Jr.; Sparks, C.J. Jr.; Ricci, E.

    1978-06-01

    X-ray fluorescence cross sections are calculated for the major x rays of the K series 5 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 101, and the three L series 12 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 101 in the energy range 1 to 200 keV. This calculation uses Scofield's theoretical partical photoionization cross sections, Krause's evaluation of fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields, and Scofield's theoretical radiative rates. Values are presented in table and graph format, and an estimate of their accuracy is made. The following x rays are considered: Kα 1 , Kα 1 , 2 , Kβ 1 , Kβ 1 , 3 , Lα 1 , Lα 1 , 2 , Lβ 1 , Lβ 2 , 15 , Lβ 3 , Ll, Lγ 1 , Lγ 4 , and L 1 → L 2 , 3 . For use in x-ray fluorescence analysis, Kα and Lα fluorescence cross sections are presented at specific energies: TiK identical with 4.55 keV, CrK identical with 5.46 keV, CoK identical with 7.00 keV, CuK identical with 8.13 keV, MoKα identical with 17.44 keV, AgK identical with 22.5 keV, DyK identical with 47.0 keV, and 241 Am identical with 59.54 keV. Supplementary material includes fluorescence and Coster--Kronig yields, fractional radiative rates, fractional fluorescence yields, total L-shell fluorescence cross sections, fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields in condensed matter, effective fluorescence yields, average L-shell fluorescence yield, L-subshell photoionization cross section ratios, and conversion factors from barns per atom to square centimeters per gram

  2. Time-Resolved Hard X-Ray Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenneth Moya; Ian McKennaa; Thomas Keenana; Michael Cuneob

    2007-01-01

    Wired array studies are being conducted at the SNL Z accelerator to maximize the x-ray generation for inertial confinement fusion targets and high energy density physics experiments. An integral component of these studies is the characterization of the time-resolved spectral content of the x-rays. Due to potential spatial anisotropy in the emitted radiation, it is also critical to diagnose the time-evolved spectral content in a space-resolved manner. To accomplish these two measurement goals, we developed an x-ray spectrometer using a set of high-speed detectors (silicon PIN diodes) with a collimated field-of-view that converged on a 1-cm-diameter spot at the pinch axis. Spectral discrimination is achieved by placing high Z absorbers in front of these detectors. We built two spectrometers to permit simultaneous different angular views of the emitted radiation. Spectral data have been acquired from recent Z shots for the radial and polar views. UNSPEC1 has been adapted to analyze and unfold the measured data to reconstruct the x-ray spectrum. The unfold operator code, UFO2, is being adapted for a more comprehensive spectral unfolding treatment

  3. Polarized X-ray excitation for scatter reduction in X-ray fluorescence computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernekohl, Don; Tzoumas, Stratis; Zhao, Wei; Xing, Lei

    2018-05-25

    X-ray fluorescence computer tomography (XFCT) is a new molecular imaging modality which uses X-ray excitation to stimulate the emission of fluorescent photons in high atomic number contrast agents. Scatter contamination is one of the main challenges in XFCT imaging which limits the molecular sensitivity. When polarized X-rays are used, it is possible to reduce the scatter contamination significantly by placing detectors perpendicular to the polarization direction. This study quantifies scatter contamination for polarized and unpolarized X-ray excitation and determines the advantages of scatter reduction. The amount of scatter in preclinical XFCT is quantified in Monte Carlo simulations. The fluorescent X-rays are emitted isotropically, while scattered X-rays propagate in polarization direction. The magnitude of scatter contamination is studied in XFCT simulations of a mouse phantom. In this study, the contrast agent gold is examined as an example but a scatter reduction from polarized excitation is also expected for other elements. The scatter reduction capability is examined for different polarization intensities with a monoenergetic X-ray excitation energy of 82 keV. The study evaluates two different geometrical shapes of CZT detectors which are modeled with an energy resolution of 1 keV FWHM at an X-ray energy of 80 keV. Benefits of a detector placement perpendicular to the polarization direction are shown in iterative and analytic image reconstruction including scatter correction. The contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and the normalized mean square error (NMSE) are analyzed and compared for the reconstructed images. A substantial scatter reduction for common detector sizes was achieved for 100% and 80% linear polarization while lower polarization intensities provide a decreased scatter reduction. By placing the detector perpendicular to the polarization direction, a scatter reduction by factor up to 5.5 can be achieved for common detector sizes. The image

  4. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) set-up with a low power X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sheenu; Deep, Kanan; Jain, Lalita; Ansari, M.A.; Mittal, Vijay Kumar; Mittal, Raj

    2010-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescence set-up with a 100 W X-ray tube comprises a computer controlled system developed for remote operation and monitoring of tube and an adjustable stable 3D arrangement to procure variable excitation energies with low scattered background. The system was tested at different filament currents/anode voltages. The MDL of the set-up at 0.05-1.00 mA/4-12 kV is found ∼(1-100) ppm for K and L excitations and ∼(200-700) ppm for M excitations of elements and improves with filament current and anode voltage. Moreover, L measurements for Sm and Eu at five K X-ray energies of elements(Z=29-40) and analytical determination in some synthetic samples were undertaken.

  5. Total-reflection x-ray fluorescence with a brillant undulator x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, K.; Eba, H.; Numako, C.; Suzuki, M.; Inoue, K.; Yagi, N.

    2000-01-01

    Total-reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a highly sensitive technique for analyzing trace elements, because of the very low background from the sample support. Use of third-generation synchrotron x-ray source could further enhance the detection power. However, while such high sensitivity permits the detection of signals from trace elements of interest, it also means that one can observe weak parasitic x-rays as well. If the sample surface becomes even slightly contaminated, owing to air particulates near the beamline, x-ray fluorescence lines of iron, zinc, copper, nickel, chromium, and titanium can be observed even for a blank sample. Another critical problem is the low-energy-side tail of the scattering x-rays, which ultimately restricts the detection capability of the technique using a TXRF spectrometer based on a Si(Li) detector. The present paper describes our experiments with brilliant undulator x-ray beams at BL39XU and BL40XU, at the SPring-8, Harima, Japan. The emphasis is on the development of instruments to analyze a droplet of 0.1 μl containing trace elements of ppb level. Although the beamline is not a clean room, we have employed equipment for preparing a clean sample and also for avoiding contamination during transferring the sample into the spectrometer. We will report on the successful detection of the peak from 0.8 ppb selenium in a droplet (absolute amount 80 fg). We will also present the results of recent experiments obtained from a Johansson spectrometer rather than a Si(Li) detector. (author)

  6. Application of X-ray fluorescence analysis in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliment, V.; Kliman, J.; Turzo, I.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of the X-ray fluorescence analysis principles and of its possibilities in the study of environmental pollution impact. Experiments with X-ray fluorescence analysis using 241-Am and a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector are discussed. The reproducibility of determinations in dependence on the sample preparation and the evaluation of peak surfaces of characteristic radiation is shown. The dependence of the peak surface on the elemental contents in the sample was linear. Detection limits of the investigated elements ranged in tenths of μg for 300 s measurement. (author)

  7. X-ray fluorescence microtomography analyzing prostate tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Gabriela R.; Rocha, Henrique S.; Calza, Cristiane; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the elemental distribution map in reference samples and prostate tissue samples using X-Ray Fluorescence Microtomography (XRFCT) in order to verify concentrations of certain elements correlated with characteristics observed by the transmission microtomography. The experiments were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Facility of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory. A quasi-monochromatic beam produced by a multilayer monochromator was used as an incident beam. The transmission CT images were reconstructed using filtered-back-projection algorithm, and the XRFCT images were reconstructed using filtered-back-projection algorithm with absorption corrections. (author)

  8. Time Resolved X-Ray Scattering of molecules in Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt van Driel, Tim

    The dissertation describes the use of Time-Resolved X-ray Diffuse Scattering (TR-XDS) to study photo-induced structural changes in molecules in solution. The application of the technique is exemplified with experiments on two bimetallic molecules. The main focus is on the data-flow and process......)42+ obtained at European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are presented to exemplify TR-XDS at synchrotrons. Similarly, measurements on Ir2(dimen)42+ are used to show the XFEL data-flow and how it deviates from the prior. A method to identify and account for systematic fluctuations...

  9. Quantitative X ray analysis system. User's manual and guide to X ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This guide covers trimmed and re-arranged version 3.6 of the Quantitative X ray Analysis System (QXAS) software package that includes the most frequently used methods of quantitative analysis. QXAS is a comprehensive quantitative analysis package that has been developed by the IAEA through research and technical contracts. Additional development has also been carried out in the IAEA Laboratories in Seibersdorf where QXAS was extensively tested. New in this version of the manual are the descriptions of the Voigt-profile peak fitting, the backscatter fundamental parameters' and emission-transmission methods of chemical composition analysis, an expanded chapter on the X ray fluorescence physics, and completely revised and increased number of practical examples of utilization of the QXAS software package. The analytical data accompanying this manual were collected in the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratories in the years 2006/2007

  10. MSL Chemistry and Mineralogy X-Ray Diffraction X-Ray Fluorescence (CheMin) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Blake, Dave; Harris, William; Morookian, John Michael; Randall, Dave; Reder, Leonard J.; Sarrazin, Phillipe

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Chemistry and Mineralogy Xray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) (CheMin) Instrument, an element of the landed Curiosity rover payload, which landed on Mars in August of 2012. The scientific goal of the MSL mission is to explore and quantitatively assess regions in Gale Crater as a potential habitat for life - past or present. The CheMin instrument will receive Martian rock and soil samples from the MSL Sample Acquisition/Sample Processing and Handling (SA/SPaH) system, and process it utilizing X-Ray spectroscopy methods to determine mineral composition. The Chemin instrument will analyze Martian soil and rocks to enable scientists to investigate geophysical processes occurring on Mars. The CheMin science objectives and proposed surface operations are described along with the CheMin hardware with an emphasis on the system engineering challenges associated with developing such a complex instrument.

  11. Submicron hard X-ray fluorescence imaging of synthetic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Aryal, Baikuntha P; Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Paunesku, Tatjana; Lai, Barry; Vogt, Stefan; Woloschak, Gayle E

    2012-04-13

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) using hard X-rays focused into sub-micron spots is a powerful technique for elemental quantification and mapping, as well as microspectroscopic measurements such as μ-XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure). We have used XFM to image and simultaneously quantify the transuranic element plutonium at the L(3) or L(2)-edge as well as Th and lighter biologically essential elements in individual rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells after exposure to the long-lived plutonium isotope (242)Pu. Elemental maps demonstrate that plutonium localizes principally in the cytoplasm of the cells and avoids the cell nucleus, which is marked by the highest concentrations of phosphorus and zinc, under the conditions of our experiments. The minimum detection limit under typical acquisition conditions with an incident X-ray energy of 18 keV for an average 202 μm(2) cell is 1.4 fg Pu or 2.9×10(-20) moles Pu μm(-2), which is similar to the detection limit of K-edge XFM of transition metals at 10 keV. Copper electron microscopy grids were used to avoid interference from gold X-ray emissions, but traces of strontium present in naturally occurring calcium can still interfere with plutonium detection using its L(α) X-ray emission. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Instrument and method for X-ray diffraction, fluorescence, and crystal texture analysis without sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith (Inventor); Martins, Jose Vanderlei (Inventor); Arzoumanian, Zaven (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence instrument for analyzing samples having no sample preparation includes a X-ray source configured to output a collimated X-ray beam comprising a continuum spectrum of X-rays to a predetermined coordinate and a photon-counting X-ray imaging spectrometer disposed to receive X-rays output from an unprepared sample disposed at the predetermined coordinate upon exposure of the unprepared sample to the collimated X-ray beam. The X-ray source and the photon-counting X-ray imaging spectrometer are arranged in a reflection geometry relative to the predetermined coordinate.

  13. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometric Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2017-06-11

    Jun 11, 2017 ... Compositional Differences in Trace Elements in Dried Moringa oleifera ... Ti, Cu, Mo, Fe, Zn, Ni, Re, Eu and Pb using Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence ... Africa, Southeast Asia (Valdez-Solana et al., 2015). ... vegetable in many countries, including Nigeria .... of other elements in environmental samples.

  14. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry applied to soil analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, Vera Lucia Ribeiro; Sato, Ivone Mulako; Scapin Junior, Wilson Santo; Scapin, Marcos Antonio; Imakima, Kengo

    1997-01-01

    This paper studies the X-ray fluorescence spectrometry applied to the soil analysis. A comparative study of the WD-XRFS and ED-XRFS techniques was carried out by using the following soil samples: SL-1, SOIL-7 and marine sediment SD-M-2/TM, from IAEA, and clay, JG-1a from Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ)

  15. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry - an introduction course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, V.L.R.

    1989-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental principles of the X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, is presented the text is a synthesis of the most important literature in this area. The authors included are: E.P. Bertin, R. Jenkins, J.L. Devries, R. Muller, R. Tertian, F. Claisse e K.L. Willians. (author)

  16. A portable tube exciting X-ray fluorescence analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Qiang; Lai Wanchang; Ge Liangquan

    2009-01-01

    Article introduced a portable tube exciting X-ray fluorescence analysis system which is based on arm architecture. Also, we designed Tube control circuit and finished preliminary application. The energy and the intensity of the photon can be adjusted continuously by using the tube. Experiments show that high excitation efficiency obtained by setting the appropriate parameters of the tube for the various elements. (authors)

  17. Limestone rocks analysis by X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo M, G.; Ponce R, R.; Vazquez J, J.

    1996-01-01

    By request of a private company, employing basically X-ray fluorescence analysis (X RF), was established a fast and accurate method for the analysis of the major elements in limestone rocks. Additionally, for complementing analysis was determined by ion chromatography, the chlorides appearance and by atomic absorption of sodium. By gravimetry, was determined the losses by ignition and the alpha quartz. (Author)

  18. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic determination of heavy metals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the heavy metal and trace element composition of the powdered aerial parts of Origanum sipyleum L. and its water extract. Methods: The heavy metal and trace elements content of the powdered plant material and 2 % aqueous extract were evaluated by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy with silicon ...

  19. Research Note: Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy Dispersive X-Ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique for the analysis of geological, biological and environmental samples is described. The technique has been applied in the analysis of 10 (geological, biological, environmental) standard reference materials. The accuracy and precision of the technique were attested ...

  20. Measuring and interpreting X-ray fluorescence from planetary surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Alan; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Fraser, George; Kolbe, Michael; Krumrey, Michael; Mantero, Alfonso; Mantler, Michael; Peacock, Anthony; Pia, Maria-Grazia; Pullan, Derek; Schneider, Uwe G; Ulm, Gerhard

    2008-11-15

    As part of a comprehensive study of X-ray emission from planetary surfaces and in particular the planet Mercury, we have measured fluorescent radiation from a number of planetary analog rock samples using monochromatized synchrotron radiation provided by the BESSY II electron storage ring. The experiments were carried out using a purpose built X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer chamber developed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's national metrology institute. The XRF instrumentation is absolutely calibrated and allows for reference-free quantitation of rock sample composition, taking into account secondary photon- and electron-induced enhancement effects. The fluorescence data, in turn, have been used to validate a planetary fluorescence simulation tool based on the GEANT4 transport code. This simulation can be used as a mission analysis tool to predict the time-dependent orbital XRF spectral distributions from planetary surfaces throughout the mapping phase.

  1. X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy: the Potential of Astrophysics-developed Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, M.; Allen, B.; Hong, J.; Grindlay, J.; Kraft, R.; Binzel, R. P.; Masterton, R.

    2012-12-01

    X-ray fluorescence from the surface of airless bodies has been studied since the Apollo X-ray fluorescence experiment mapped parts of the lunar surface in 1971-1972. That experiment used a collimated proportional counter with a resolving power of ~1 and a beam size of ~1degree. Filters separated only Mg, Al and SI lines. We review progress in X-ray detectors and imaging for astrophysics and show how these advances enable much more powerful use of X-ray fluorescence for the study of airless bodies. Astrophysics X-ray instrumentation has developed enormously since 1972. Low noise, high quantum efficiency, X-ray CCDs have flown on ASCA, XMM-Newton, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, Swift and Suzaku, and are the workhorses of X-ray astronomy. They normally span 0.5 to ~8 keV with an energy resolution of ~100 eV. New developments in silicon based detectors, especially individual pixel addressable devices, such as CMOS detectors, can withstand many orders of magnitude more radiation than conventional CCDs before degradation. The capability of high read rates provides dynamic range and temporal resolution. Additionally, the rapid read rates minimize shot noise from thermal dark current and optical light. CMOS detectors can therefore run at warmer temperatures and with ultra-thin optical blocking filters. Thin OBFs mean near unity quantum efficiency below 1 keV, thus maximizing response at the C and O lines.such as CMOS detectors, promise advances. X-ray imaging has advanced similarly far. Two types of imager are now available: specular reflection and coded apertures. X-ray mirrors have been flown on the Einstein Observatory, XMM-Newton, Chandra and others. However, as X-ray reflection only occurs at small (~1degree) incidence angles, which then requires long focal lengths (meters), mirrors are not usually practical for planetary missions. Moreover the field of view of X-ray mirrors is comparable to the incident angle, so can only image relatively small regions. More useful

  2. X-ray imaging with monochromatic synchrotron radiation. Fluorescent and phase-contrast method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2002-05-01

    To obtain the high sensitive x-ray images of biomedical object, new x-ray imaging techniques using fluorescent x-ray and phase-contrast x-ray are being developed in Japan. Fluorescent x-ray CT can detect very small amounts of specific elements in the order of ppm at one pixel, whereas phase-contrast x-ray imaging with interferometer can detect minute differences of biological object. Here, our recent experimental results are presented. (author)

  3. Investigation of Pink Tourmalines by X-ray Fluorescent Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangariyavanich, A.; Na Songkhla, S.; Pimjum, S.

    1998-01-01

    X-ray fluorescent technique has been employed in the study of trace elements in six samples of gamma irradiated pink tourmalines, namely, red-pink (rubellite), light-pink, orange-pink, brownish orange-pink, purple red and purple orange-pink. The analysis of their characteristic X-ray indicated the existence of manganese in all samples. Trace amounts of iron, zinc, lead, bismuth or gallium were also investigated in certain samples. Since these elements were not present in red-pink tourmaline, therefore, we believed that manganese is the major cause of pink color in tourmaline while other elements produce various types of pink color

  4. Effect of Electric Voltage and Current of X-ray Chamber on the Element inthe Zirconium Alloy Analysis X-ray by X-ray Fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf-Nampira; Narko-Wibowo, L; Rosika-Krisnawati; Nudia-Barenzani

    2000-01-01

    The using of x-ray fluorescence in the chemical analysis depend heavilyon the parameters of x-ray chamber, for examples : electric voltage andelectric current. That parameter give effect in the result of determine ofSn, Cr, Fe and Ni in the zirconium alloy. 20 kV electric voltages are used onthe Mo x-ray chamber shall product x-ray of zirconium in the sample materialcan give effect in the stability of the analysis result (deviation more than5%). The result of analysis of elements in the zirconium alloy shall givedeviation less than 5% when using of electric voltage of the x-ray chamberless than 19 kV. The sensitivity of analysis can be reached by step upelectric current of x-ray chamber. (author)

  5. A new X-ray pinhole camera for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence imaging with high-energy and high-spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, F.P., E-mail: romanop@lns.infn.it [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Altana, C. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cosentino, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Pappalardo, L. [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Rizzo, F. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    A new X-ray pinhole camera for the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) imaging of materials with high-energy and high-spatial resolution, was designed and developed. It consists of a back-illuminated and deep depleted CCD detector (composed of 1024 × 1024 pixels with a lateral size of 13 μm) coupled to a 70 μm laser-drilled pinhole-collimator, positioned between the sample under analysis and the CCD. The X-ray pinhole camera works in a coaxial geometry allowing a wide range of magnification values. The characteristic X-ray fluorescence is induced on the samples by irradiation with an external X-ray tube working at a maximum power of 100 W (50 kV and 2 mA operating conditions). The spectroscopic capabilities of the X-ray pinhole camera were accurately investigated. Energy response and energy calibration of the CCD detector were determined by irradiating pure target-materials emitting characteristic X-rays in the energy working-domain of the system (between 3 keV and 30 keV). Measurements were performed by using a multi-frame acquisition in single-photon counting. The characteristic X-ray spectra were obtained by an automated processing of the acquired images. The energy resolution measured at the Fe–Kα line is 157 eV. The use of the X-ray pinhole camera for the 2D resolved elemental analysis was investigated by using reference-patterns of different materials and geometries. The possibility of the elemental mapping of samples up to an area of 3 × 3 cm{sup 2} was demonstrated. Finally, the spatial resolution of the pinhole camera was measured by analyzing the profile function of a sharp-edge. The spatial resolution determined at the magnification values of 3.2 × and 0.8 × (used as testing values) is about 90 μm and 190 μm respectively. - Highlights: • We developed an X-ray pinhole camera for the 2D X-ray fluorescence imaging. • X-ray spectra are obtained by a multi-frame acquisition in single photon mode. • The energy resolution in the X-ray

  6. Development and applications of grazing exit micro X-ray fluorescence instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emoto, T.; Sato, Y.; Konishi, Y.; Ding, X.; Tsuji, K.

    2004-01-01

    A polycapillary X-ray lens is an effective optics to obtain a μm-size X-ray beam for micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-XRF). We developed a μ-XRF instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens, which also enabled us to perform Grazing Exit μ-XRF (GE-μ-XRF). The evaluated diameter of the primary X-ray beam was 48 μm at the focal distance of the X-ray lens. Use of this instrument enabled two-dimensional mapping of the elemental distributions during growth of the plant 'Quinoa'. The results of the mapping revealed elemental transition during growth. In addition, a small region of thin film was analyzed by GE-μ-XRF. We expect that GE-μ-XRF will become an effective method of estimating the film thickness of a small region

  7. Development and applications of grazing exit micro X-ray fluorescence instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emoto, T.; Sato, Y.; Konishi, Y.; Ding, X.; Tsuji, K. E-mail: tsuji@a-chem.eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp

    2004-08-31

    A polycapillary X-ray lens is an effective optics to obtain a {mu}m-size X-ray beam for micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry ({mu}-XRF). We developed a {mu}-XRF instrument using a polycapillary X-ray lens, which also enabled us to perform Grazing Exit {mu}-XRF (GE-{mu}-XRF). The evaluated diameter of the primary X-ray beam was 48 {mu}m at the focal distance of the X-ray lens. Use of this instrument enabled two-dimensional mapping of the elemental distributions during growth of the plant 'Quinoa'. The results of the mapping revealed elemental transition during growth. In addition, a small region of thin film was analyzed by GE-{mu}-XRF. We expect that GE-{mu}-XRF will become an effective method of estimating the film thickness of a small region.

  8. Monitoring body iron burden using X-ray fluorescence (XRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquharson, M.J.; Bagshaw, A.P.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence, using Cu K alpha and K beta radiation, has been used to measure the Fe content of skin of two groups of rats, one Fe overloaded and one control group. These skin Fe levels were compared to the liver and heart Fe levels measured using colorimetry. Correlation coefficients of 0.86 and 0.88 respectively were found indicating that skin Fe levels may be a potential marker for body iron burden.

  9. Method and device for X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagoutz, E.; Palme, C.

    1978-01-01

    In the x-ray fluorescence analyzer the useful signal can be completely separated from the spurious signals, and especially the pulse can be determined. For this purpose the output of the radiation detector is connected with a multichannel pulse height discriminator. The measured signal determined in the pulse heigth discriminator may be indicated by a visual display or processed by a computer (coincidence circuits). (DG) [de

  10. Portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer for Works of art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, A.; Griesser, A.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence is an analytical technique of prier importance in archaeometry, for restoration and art history investigation; it is because of non-destructive and multi-elemental character of the analysis simplicity and high speed of operation, ability to produce immediate analytical results for the objects, which can neither be sampled nor removed to the laboratory Recent advances in X-ray tubes, X-ray detectors and electronic provided an opportunity to produce portable high resolution XRF spectrometers characterized by a good reliability and analytical performance; in this paper a prototype portable XRF spectrometer based on a small size, low power X-ray tube and a thermometrically cooled Si-Pin detector is described. The spectrometer provides a possibility for direct and secondary target excitation geometry use of proper secondary target and filter and size adjustment of the primary photon bean by using a set of different beam collimators; the portable XRF spectrometer was successfully applied to study art objects in the Art History Museum in Vienna, including such objects as old master paintings bronze and brass alloys of antique as well as Renaissance objects and silver/copper coins produced at different locations. Quantitative and Quantitative analysis were amedee depending of the curator questions and discussed from the point of view of art History. The importance of the results for restoration and authentification of the art objects is also emphasized

  11. Time-resolved X-ray PIV technique for diagnosing opaque biofluid flow with insufficient X-ray fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung Yong; Park, Han Wook; Kim, Bo Heum; Lee, Sang Joon

    2013-05-01

    X-ray imaging is used to visualize the biofluid flow phenomena in a nondestructive manner. A technique currently used for quantitative visualization is X-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV). Although this technique provides a high spatial resolution (less than 10 µm), significant hemodynamic parameters are difficult to obtain under actual physiological conditions because of the limited temporal resolution of the technique, which in turn is due to the relatively long exposure time (~10 ms) involved in X-ray imaging. This study combines an image intensifier with a high-speed camera to reduce exposure time, thereby improving temporal resolution. The image intensifier amplifies light flux by emitting secondary electrons in the micro-channel plate. The increased incident light flux greatly reduces the exposure time (below 200 µs). The proposed X-ray PIV system was applied to high-speed blood flows in a tube, and the velocity field information was successfully obtained. The time-resolved X-ray PIV system can be employed to investigate blood flows at beamlines with insufficient X-ray fluxes under specific physiological conditions. This method facilitates understanding of the basic hemodynamic characteristics and pathological mechanism of cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Relative probabilities of the uranium isotopes for thorium x-ray emission and fluorescence of uranium x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Both thorium x-rays from decaying uranium isotopes and self-fluoresced uranium x-rays are prominent in high-resolution gamma-ray spectra of uranium-bearing materials. Useful application of the information carried by those x-rays has been curtailed because the probabilities of the uranium isotopes for thorium x-ray emission and for uranium x-ray fluorescence have not been known. By analyzing enrichment-meter geometry spectra from uranium oxide standards whose enrichments ranged from 0.7% to 91%, relative values, primarily, have been obtained for the probabilities of both processes. Thorium x-ray emission is very heavily dominated by 235 U. In all ordinarily occurring uranium isotopic distributions, thorium x-rays may be used as a valid 235 U signature. The probability for a thorium K α1 x-ray to be emitted in the decay of a 235 U atom is 0.048 ±0.002. In infinitely thick uranium oxide materials, the relative ratios of effectiveness for self-fluorescence, on a per unit mass basis, are approximately 234 U : 235 U : 236 U : 238 U = 1.13 : 1.00 : 0.52 : 0.028. on a per decay basis, the approximate ratios are 0.00039 : 1.00 : 0.017 : 0.18. These results imply that, contrary to what has often been stated, gamma rays are far more important than alpha particles in the self-fluorescence of uranium. Because of the importance of gamma-ray self-fluorescence, the uranium x-ray yield will be somewhat influenced by the size, shape, and composition of the materials. 4 refs., 1 fig

  13. Quantitative x-ray fluorescent analysis using fundamental parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, C.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A monochromatic source of x-rays for sample excitation permits the use of pure elemental standards and relatively simple calculations to convert the measured fluorescent intensities to an absolute basis of weight per unit weight of sample. Only the mass absorption coefficients of the sample for the exciting and the fluorescent radiation need be determined. Besides the direct measurement of these absorption coefficients in the sample, other techniques are considered which require fewer sample manipulations and measurements. These fundamental parameters methods permit quantitative analysis without recourse to the time-consuming process of preparing nearly identical standards

  14. Trends in environmental science using microscopic X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fittschen, Ursula Elisabeth Adriane; Falkenberg, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    Microscopic X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) is a versatile tool in environmental analysis. We review work done in this field from 2008 to 2010 and highlight new aspects. Overall, there is a strong trend to combine fluorescence data with other data like diffraction or absorption spectroscopy. Also, the use of laboratory based instrumentation has become wide spread as more commercial instruments are available. At laboratories and synchrotron sites the trend towards higher spatial resolution is still persistent hitting sub micrometer values in case of synchrotron set ups.

  15. Trends in environmental science using microscopic X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fittschen, Ursula Elisabeth Adriane, E-mail: ursula.fittschen@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [Department of Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Falkenberg, Gerald [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Microscopic X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) is a versatile tool in environmental analysis. We review work done in this field from 2008 to 2010 and highlight new aspects. Overall, there is a strong trend to combine fluorescence data with other data like diffraction or absorption spectroscopy. Also, the use of laboratory based instrumentation has become wide spread as more commercial instruments are available. At laboratories and synchrotron sites the trend towards higher spatial resolution is still persistent hitting sub micrometer values in case of synchrotron set ups.

  16. X-ray scattering in X-ray fluorescence spectra with X-ray tube excitation - Modelling, experiment, and Monte-Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodoroaba, V.-D.; Radtke, M.; Vincze, L.; Rackwitz, V.; Reuter, D.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray scattering may contribute significantly to the spectral background of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra. Based on metrological measurements carried out with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) having attached a well characterised X-ray source (polychromatic X-ray tube) and a calibrated energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) the accuracy of a physical model for X-ray scattering is systematically evaluated for representative samples. The knowledge of the X-ray spectrometer efficiency, but also of the spectrometer response functions makes it possible to define a physical spectral background of XRF spectra. Background subtraction relying on purely mathematical procedures is state-of-the-art. The results produced by the analytical model are at least as reliable as those obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations, even without considering the very challenging contribution of multiple scattering. Special attention has been paid to Compton broadening. Relevant applications of the implementation of the analytical model presented in this paper are the prediction of the limits of detection for particular cases or the determination of the transmission of X-ray polycapillary lenses.

  17. Absorption correction factor in X-ray fluorescent quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimjun, S.

    1994-01-01

    An experiment on absorption correction factor in X-ray fluorescent quantitative analysis were carried out. Standard samples were prepared from the mixture of Fe 2 O 3 and tapioca flour at various concentration of Fe 2 O 3 ranging from 5% to 25%. Unknown samples were kaolin containing 3.5% to-50% of Fe 2 O 3 Kaolin samples were diluted with tapioca flour in order to reduce the absorption of FeK α and make them easy to prepare. Pressed samples with 0.150 /cm 2 and 2.76 cm in diameter, were used in the experiment. Absorption correction factor is related to total mass absorption coefficient (χ) which varied with sample composition. In known sample, χ can be calculated by conveniently the formula. However in unknown sample, χ can be determined by Emission-Transmission method. It was found that the relationship between corrected FeK α intensity and contents of Fe 2 O 3 in these samples was linear. This result indicate that this correction factor can be used to adjust the accuracy of X-ray intensity. Therefore, this correction factor is essential in quantitative analysis of elements comprising in any sample by X-ray fluorescent technique

  18. Gaseous detectors for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Silva, A. L. M.

    2018-01-01

    The energy resolution capability of gaseous detectors is being used in the last years to perform studies on the detection of characteristic X-ray lines emitted by elements when excited by external radiation sources. One of the most successful techniques is the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis. Recent developments in the new generation of micropatterned gaseous detectors (MPGDs), triggered the possibility not only of recording the photon energy, but also of providing position information, extending their application to EDXRF imaging. The relevant features and strategies to be applied in gaseous detectors in order to better fit the requirements for EDXRF imaging will be reviewed and discussed, and some application examples will be presented.

  19. Quantitative analysis by computer controlled X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, T.V.; Angelo, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy has become a widely accepted method in the metallurgical field for analysis of both minor and major elements. As encountered in many other analytical techniques, the problem of matrix effect generally known as the interelemental effects is to be dealt with effectively in order to make the analysis accurate. There are several methods by which the effects of matrix on the analyte are minimised or corrected for and the mathematical correction is one among them. In this method the characteristic secondary X-ray intensities are measured from standard samples and correction coefficients. If any, for interelemental effects are evaluated by mathematical calculations. This paper describes attempts to evaluate the correction coefficients for interelemental effects by multiple linear regression programmes using a computer for the quantitative analysis of stainless steel and a nickel base cast alloy. The quantitative results obtained using this method for a standard stainless steel sample are compared with the given certified values. (author)

  20. Fluorescence versus X-ray cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehrskov, Lars Lang; Larsen, Søren S; Kristensen, Billy B

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative fluorescent cholangiography is a novel non-invasive imaging technique to visualise the extrahepatic biliary tract during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It has been proven feasible, fast and cost effective. Never-theless, there is only sparse data on the capacity...... of fluorescent cholangiography to visualise the biliary anatomy. METHODS: Based on a non-inferiority design, patients with complicated gallstone disease are randomised to either -intraoperative conventional X-ray cholangiography (reference group, n = 60) or intraoperative fluorescent cholangiography (n = 60......). The primary outcome is visualisation of the junction between the cystic duct, the common hepatic duct and the common bile duct. CONCLUSION: The present study may show that fluorescent cholangiography is as valid for visualisation of important structures of the extrahepatic biliary tract as conventional X...

  1. Analysis of fresco paintings by X-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Gerndt, J.; Musilek, L.; Kopecka, I.

    2000-01-01

    In this work we present the application of X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) to examine fresco paintings from the Karlstejn castle. The X-ray fluorescence apparatus built and operated in the Laboratory of Quantitative Methods in Research of Ancient Monuments was used for the purpose of fresco paintings measurements. The X-ray sources (radionuclides) generate the characteristic X-ray photons from the sample. The Si(Li) detector measures numbers and energies of photons emitted from the specimen. The energy and number of photons detected can be converted into kind and amount of measured atoms. These results give data for qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples. XRFA is relatively simple and non-destructive method. Capability of in-situ measurement is one of big advantages of this method. The radionuclide sources of exciting radiation (e.g. 55 Fe enables the excitation of elements with Z up to 23, 238 Pu is used in interval of Z from 20 to 39 etc.) were used. An Si(Li) semiconductor detector with a 5 l Dewar vessel and portable spectroscopy system enable the in situ measurement. Narrow collimation of the exciting beam makes it possible to select the measured area of fresco painting. The valuable fresco paintings from the Karlstejn castle were investigated in this way. The measurements were carried out in collaboration with the Analytical Laboratory of the State Institute for the Preservation of Historic Monuments. A suitable analysis of paintings makes it possible to detect the kind of colours and evaluate changes in the surface colour of paintings and suggest useful and timely procedures for their conservation and restoration. (author)

  2. Resolving colocalization of bacteria and metal(loid)s on plant root surfaces by combining fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with multiple-energy micro-focused X-ray fluorescence (ME μXRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeker, Linnea K; Root, Robert A; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M

    2016-12-01

    Metal(loid)-contamination of the environment due to anthropogenic activities is a global problem. Understanding the fate of contaminants requires elucidation of biotic and abiotic factors that influence metal(loid) speciation from molecular to field scales. Improved methods are needed to assess micro-scale processes, such as those occurring at biogeochemical interfaces between plant tissues, microbial cells, and metal(loid)s. Here we present an advanced method that combines fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with synchrotron-based multiple-energy micro-focused X-ray fluorescence microprobe imaging (ME μXRF) to examine colocalization of bacteria and metal(loid)s on root surfaces of plants used to phytostabilize metalliferous mine tailings. Bacteria were visualized on a small root section using SytoBC nucleic acid stain and FISH probes targeting the domain Bacteria and a specific group (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, or Actinobacteria). The same root region was then analyzed for elemental distribution and metal(loid) speciation of As and Fe using ME μXRF. The FISH and ME μXRF images were aligned using ImageJ software to correlate microbiological and geochemical results. Results from quantitative analysis of colocalization show a significantly higher fraction of As colocalized with Fe-oxide plaques on the root surfaces (fraction of overlap 0.49±0.19) than to bacteria (0.072±0.052) (proots, metal(loid)s and microbes, information that should lead to improved mechanistic models of metal(loid) speciation and fate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. X-ray Peltier cooled detectors for X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loupilov, A.; Sokolov, A.; Gostilo, V.

    2001-01-01

    The recent results on development of X-ray Si(Li), Si-planar and CdTe p-i-n detectors cooled by Peltier coolers for fabrication of laboratory and portable XRF analysers for different applications are discussed. Low detection limits of XRF analysers are provided by increasing of detectors sensitive surface; improvement of their spectrometrical characteristics; decreasing of front-end-electronics noise level; Peltier coolers and vacuum chambers cooling modes optimization. Solution of all mentioned tasks allowed to develop Peltier cooled detectors with the following performances: (1.) Si(Li) detectors: S=20 mm 2 , thickness=3.5 mm, 175 eV (5.9 keV), 430 eV (59.6 keV); S=100 mm 2 ; thickness=4.5 mm, 270 eV (5.9 keV), 485 eV (59.6 keV). (2.) Si-planar detector: S=10 mm 2 , thickness=0.4 mm, 230 eV (5.9 keV), 460 eV (59.6 keV). (3.) CdTe p-i-n detectors: S=16 mm 2 , thickness=0.5 mm, 350 eV (5.9 keV), 585 eV (59.6 keV). S=16 mm 2 , thickness=1.2 mm, 310 eV (5.9 keV), 600 eV (59.6 keV). Advantages and disadvantages of all types of detectors for X-ray fluorescence analysis are compared. Spectra are presented. Application of different XRF analysers based on developed detectors in medicine, environmental science, industry, cryminalistics and history of art are demonstrated

  4. X-ray Peltier cooled detectors for X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loupilov, A.; Sokolov, A.; Gostilo, V.

    2000-01-01

    The recent results on development of X-ray Si(Li), Si-planar and CdTe p-i- n detectors cooled by Peltier coolers for fabrication of laboratory and portable XRF analysers for different applications are discussed. Low detection limits of XRF analysers are provided by increasing of detectors sensitive surface; improvement of their spectrometrical characteristics; decreasing of front-end-electronics noise level; Peltier coolers and vacuum chambers cooling modes optimization. Solution of all mentioned tasks allowed to develop Peltier cooled detectors with the following performances: (1) Si(Li) detectors: S = 20 mm 2 , thickness = 3.5 mm, 175 eV (5.9 keV), 430 eV (59.6 keV); S = 100 mm 2 ; thickness = 4.5 mm, 270 eV (5.9 keV), 485 eV (59,6 keV). (2) Si-planar detector: S = 10 mm 2 , thickness = 0.4 mm, 230 eV (5.9 keV), 460 eV (59.6 keV). (3) CdTe p-i-n detectors: S = 16 mm 2 , thickness 0.5 mm, 350 eV (5.9 keV), 585 eV (59.6 keV). S = 16 mm 2 , thickness = 1.2 mm, 310 eV (5.9 keV), 600 eV (59.6 keV). Advantages and disadvantages of all types of detectors for X-ray fluorescence analysis are compared. Spectra are presented. Application of different XRF analysers based on developed detectors in medicine, environmental science, industry, criminalistics and history of art are demonstrated. (author)

  5. Simulation and application of micro X-ray fluorescence based on an ellipsoidal capillary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Li, Yude; Wang, Xingyi; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Lin, Xiaoyan

    2017-06-01

    A micro X-ray fluorescence setup was presented, based on an ellipsoidal capillary and a traditional laboratorial X-ray source. Using Ray-tracing principle, we have simulated the transmission path of X-ray beam in the ellipsoidal capillary and designed the optimal parameters of the ellipsoidal capillary for the micro X-ray fluorescence setup. We demonstrate that ellipsoidal capillary is well suited as condenser for the micro X-ray fluorescence based on traditional laboratorial X-ray source. Furthermore, we obtain the 2D mapping image of the leaf blade sample by using the ellipsoidal capillary we designed.

  6. X-ray fluorescence in IAEA Member States: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldan, C.; Ferrero, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Instrumental facilities of the ICMUV include: a Total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF), laboratory and portable Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometers. These equipments are employed in the field of the art and archaeometry. Current projects are: EDXRF analysis of blue pigments used in Valencian ceramics. EDXRF analyses of cobalt-blue pigments were made on 73 pieces of Valencian ceramics from the beginning of the 14th century up to 20th century. These ceramic samples have the pigment decoration applied together with a tin opacified lead glaze cover on the clay body. The comparison between EDXRF spectra from coloured and non-coloured areas provides information about the pigment composition. The following elements: Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As are identified as characteristics of the blue pigments. Different association of these elements as well as correlation with the chronology of the samples were found. These results can be used for identifying the different types of cobalt ores employed in the manufacture of the blue pigments to study their provenance. Non-destructive analysis of paper supports used in prints: In paper based works of art it is not possible to separate the support from the work of the author. Then, the maximum knowledge of the support in this kind of works is desirable. In this work, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to determine the elemental composition of a set of European and Oriental papers from the 20th century and an Arabian paper from the 14th century. These papers were manufactured with different production techniques and used as support for writing, drawing and printing. Normalised fluorescence yields of the elements to the weight of the paper show that there are some correlations between its elemental composition and the type of paper, provenance and use. Therefore, the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique could be used for a better characterization and

  7. High resolution projection X-ray microscope equipped with fluorescent X-ray analyzer and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, K; Saito, Y; Kai, H; Shirota, K; Yada, K

    2009-01-01

    We have newly developed an open type fine-focus X-ray tube 'TX-510' to realize a spatial resolution of 50nm and to radiate low energy characteristic X-rays for giving high absorption contrast to images of microscopic organisms. The 'TX-510' employs a ZrO/W(100) Schottky emitter and an 'In-Lens Field Emission Gun'. The key points of the improvements are (1) reduced spherical aberration coefficient of magnetic objective lens, (2) easy and accurate focusing, (3) newly designed astigmatism compensator, (4) segmented thin film target for interchanging the target materials by electron beam shift and (5) fluorescent X-ray analysis system.

  8. Trends in hard X-ray fluorescence mapping: environmental applications in the age of fast detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombi, E.; Donner, E. [University of South Australia, Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Mawson Lakes, South Australia (Australia); CRC CARE, PO Box 486, Salisbury, South Australia (Australia); Jonge, M.D. de; Paterson, D. [Australian Synchrotron, X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Ryan, C.G. [CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Normanby Road, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    Environmental samples are extremely diverse but share a tendency for heterogeneity and complexity. This heterogeneity poses methodological challenges when investigating biogeochemical processes. In recent years, the development of analytical tools capable of probing element distribution and speciation at the microscale have allowed this challenge to be addressed. Of these available tools, laterally resolved synchrotron techniques such as X-ray fluorescence mapping are key methods for the in situ investigation of micronutrients and inorganic contaminants in environmental samples. This article demonstrates how recent advances in X-ray fluorescence detector technology are bringing new possibilities to environmental research. Fast detectors are helping to circumvent major issues such as X-ray beam damage of hydrated samples, as dwell times during scanning are reduced. They are also helping to reduce temporal beamtime requirements, making particularly time-consuming techniques such as micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) tomography increasingly feasible. This article focuses on {mu}XRF mapping of nutrients and metalloids in environmental samples, and suggests that the current divide between mapping and speciation techniques will be increasingly blurred by the development of combined approaches. (orig.)

  9. X-ray fluorescence holography and multiple-energy x-ray holography: A critical comparison of atomic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Len, P.M.; Gog, T.; Fadley, C.S.; Materlik, G.

    1997-01-01

    We compare x-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) and multiple-energy x-ray holography (MEXH), two techniques that have recently been used to obtain experimental three-dimensional atomic images. For single-energy holograms, these methods are equivalent by virtue of the optical reciprocity theorem. However, XFH can only record holographic information at the characteristic fluorescence energies of the emitting species, while MEXH can record holographic information at any energy above the fluorescent edge of the emitter, thus enabling the suppression of real-twin overlaps and other aberrations and artifacts in atomic images. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Rare earth aerosol analysis by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citron, I.M.; Mausner, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of four lanthanides in air filter samples is described. The method involves simultaneous quantitative determinations of La, Ce, Pr, and Nd at the microgram level by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry without chemical separation of these rare earths and without serious interferences from the dust matrices on the filters. The method has been used successfully to analyze some air filter samples collected at a rare earth processing refinery in Illinois. A description of the development of the method is given as well as the results obtained by using this method on the air filter samples. The reproducibility of the results was generally +-5%

  11. Improved fluorescent X-ray image intensifying screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeghem, W.K. van; Suys, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    An X-ray image intensifying screen is described, which includes at least one fluorescent layer comprising phosphor particles dispersed in a binder and on top of such layer a protective layer containing a crosslinked polymer mass obtained by an acid-catalyzed reaction of a polymer or mixture of polymers containing reactive hydrogen atoms and a cross-linking agent, the cross-linking agent being an organic compound containing a plurality of etherified N-methylol groups. Examples are given of appropriate polymers and cross-linking agents. (author)

  12. X-ray fluorescence analysis of welding fume particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsey, T.P.

    1982-01-01

    A commercial standard filter set and two laboratory-made standard filter sets are compared via the analysis of generated welding fume samples by X-ray fluorescence. The latter standards are made by (1) hydrophobic-edge membrane filters spiked with prepared metal ion solutions, and (2) filters through which a dispersion of metal oxide powder in isopropanol has been drawn. The results are presented in table form. Precision (Pre) is the relative standard deviation of the six samples. Four main conclusions are enumerated

  13. Blood selenium content determination by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainardi, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of some elements in small amounts (traces) in the human body is of foremost importance for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. It has been recently shown that traces of selenium in blood are closely related to the occurrence of miotonic distrophy, a muscular disease that is affecting a significant percentage of the population. This work describes a simple procedure to determine selenium in human blood serum by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. Final quantification is achieved through the addition of titanium as an internal standard. (Author) [es

  14. Studies of some alloys using x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmahi, Elamin Musaid

    1997-01-01

    In this project an attempt has been made for the study of alloys commonly used using x-ray fluorescence ( XRF ) technique. The alloys selected for the study included gold jewellery, steels, brasses and coins. The XRF method proved to be simple, fast, non-destructive and reliable as compared to chemical methods. The results showed that most of the gold jewellery used in this country have carat value of 18 and 21. Also most coins used in different countries are alloys of Cu and Ni. A simple spark method was used for the determination of C in steels, since C is not possible to analyze by XRF. ( Author )

  15. Sensitometric curve of radiographic films by X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonçalves, E.A.S., E-mail: elicardo.goncalves@ifrj.edu.br [Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, D.F.; Anjos, M.J. dos; Oliveira, L.F. de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Radiographic film exposure is traditionally measured by the transmittance of a beam of light through the film. There are many mathematical and computational models to characterize the curve behavior and its properties, but almost none of them considers the limitations caused by the equipment used. As long as exposure in film increases, light intensity measured after the film decreases in a way that from a certain exposure, light could not be distinguished from any kind of noise. This work aims to propose x-ray fluorescence as a solution for better measure high exposed films and show how it could be modeled mathematically. (author)

  16. Quantification procedures in micro X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanngiesser, Birgit

    2003-01-01

    For the quantification in micro X-ray fluorescence analysis standardfree quantification procedures have become especially important. An introduction to the basic concepts of these quantification procedures is given, followed by a short survey of the procedures which are available now and what kind of experimental situations and analytical problems are addressed. The last point is extended by the description of an own development for the fundamental parameter method, which renders the inclusion of nonparallel beam geometries possible. Finally, open problems for the quantification procedures are discussed

  17. Time-resolved x-ray spectra of laser irradiated high-Z targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.H.Y.; Attwood, D.T.; Boyle, M.J.; Campbell, E.M.; Coleman, L.C.; Kornblum, H.N.

    1977-01-01

    Recent results obtained by using the Livermore 15 psec x-ray streak camera to record x-ray emission from laser-irradiated high-z targets in the 1-20 keV range are reported. Nine to eleven K-edge filter channels were used for the measurements. In the lower energy channels, a dynamic range of x-ray emission intensity of better than three orders of magnitude have been recorded. Data will be presented which describe temporally and spectrally resolved x-ray spectra of gold disk targets irradiated by laser pulses from the Argus facility, including the temporal evolution of the superthermal x-ray tail

  18. X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Instrument for Mineralogical Analysis at the Lunar Surface, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop LUNA, a compact and lightweight X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) / X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument for mineralogical analysis of regolith, rock...

  19. X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Instrument for Mineralogical Analysis at the Lunar Surface, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact and lightweight X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) / X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument for analysis of mineralogical composition of regolith,...

  20. A low power x-ray tube for use in energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataria, S.K.; Govil, Rekha; Lal, M.

    1980-01-01

    A low power X-ray tube with thin molybdenum transmission target for use in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ENDXRF) element analysis has been indigenously built, along with its power supply. The X-ray tube has been in operation since August 1979, and it has been operated upto maximum target voltage of 35 KV and tube current upto 200 μA which is more than sufficient for trace element analysis. This X-ray tube has been used alongwith the indigenously built Si(Li) detector X-ray spectrometer with an energy resolution of 200 eV at 5.9 Kev MnKsub(α) X-ray peak for ENDXRF analysis. A simple procedure of calibration has been developed for thin samples based on the cellulose diluted, thin multielement standard pellets. Analytical sensitivities of the order of a few p.p.m. have been obtained with the experimental setup for elements with 20 < = Z < = 38 and 60 < = Z < = 90. A number of X-ray spectra for samples of environmental, biological, agricultural, industrial and metallurgical interest are presented to demonstrate the salient features of the experimental sep up. (auth.)

  1. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence - an approach to nanoanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klockenkaemper, R.

    2000-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) is a powerful tool used for industrial production, geological prospecting and for environmental control. However, the method suffers from a lack of sensitivity so that analyses are restricted to microanalytical investigations. That means: the sample amount needed for analysis is above some 10 micrograms, concentrations to be determined have to be on the μg/ml level, and thin layers to be characterized must be of micrometer thickness. In contrast to conventional XRFA, total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is extremely sensitive and even allows nano-analytical investigations. Three different ways can be taken: (i) use of minute sample amounts of only 10 nano-grams, (ii) determination of extreme traces below ng/ml and (iii) surface analysis and depth profiling of shallow layers with nano-meter thickness. In this lecture, the basic physical phenomena of total reflection and standing waves are outlined. The experimental equipment for TXRF is sketched out and commercially available instruments of different manufacturers are compared. Furthermore, examples are given for the three kinds of nano-analytical applications: ultra-micro, analysis, ultra trace analysis and mono- and thin-layer analysis. (author)

  2. Preparation of tissue samples for X-ray fluorescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwiej, Joanna; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Magdalena; Lankosz, Marek; Wojcik, Slawomir; Falkenberg, Gerald; Stegowski, Zdzislaw; Setkowicz, Zuzanna

    2005-01-01

    As is well-known, trace elements, especially metals, play an important role in the pathogenesis of many disorders. The topographic and quantitative elemental analysis of pathologically changed tissues may shed some new light on processes leading to the degeneration of cells in the case of selected diseases. An ideal and powerful tool for such purpose is the Synchrotron Microbeam X-ray Fluorescence technique. It enables the carrying out of investigations of the elemental composition of tissues even at the single cell level. The tissue samples for histopathological investigations are routinely fixed and embedded in paraffin. The authors try to verify the usefulness of such prepared tissue sections for elemental analysis with the use of X-ray fluorescence microscopy. Studies were performed on rat brain samples. Changes in elemental composition caused by fixation in formalin or paraformaldehyde and embedding in paraffin were examined. Measurements were carried out at the bending magnet beamline L of the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB in Hamburg. The decrease in mass per unit area of K, Br and the increase in P, S, Fe, Cu and Zn in the tissue were observed as a result of the fixation. For the samples embedded in paraffin, a lower level of most elements was observed. Additionally, for these samples, changes in the composition of some elements were not uniform for different analyzed areas of rat brain

  3. Preparation of tissue samples for X-ray fluorescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chwiej, Joanna [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: jchwiej@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, Magdalena [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Lankosz, Marek [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Wojcik, Slawomir [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Falkenberg, Gerald [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestr. 85, Hamburg (Germany); Stegowski, Zdzislaw [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Setkowicz, Zuzanna [Department of Neuroanatomy, Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, Ingardena 6, 30-060 Cracow (Poland)

    2005-12-15

    As is well-known, trace elements, especially metals, play an important role in the pathogenesis of many disorders. The topographic and quantitative elemental analysis of pathologically changed tissues may shed some new light on processes leading to the degeneration of cells in the case of selected diseases. An ideal and powerful tool for such purpose is the Synchrotron Microbeam X-ray Fluorescence technique. It enables the carrying out of investigations of the elemental composition of tissues even at the single cell level. The tissue samples for histopathological investigations are routinely fixed and embedded in paraffin. The authors try to verify the usefulness of such prepared tissue sections for elemental analysis with the use of X-ray fluorescence microscopy. Studies were performed on rat brain samples. Changes in elemental composition caused by fixation in formalin or paraformaldehyde and embedding in paraffin were examined. Measurements were carried out at the bending magnet beamline L of the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB in Hamburg. The decrease in mass per unit area of K, Br and the increase in P, S, Fe, Cu and Zn in the tissue were observed as a result of the fixation. For the samples embedded in paraffin, a lower level of most elements was observed. Additionally, for these samples, changes in the composition of some elements were not uniform for different analyzed areas of rat brain.

  4. Characterization of energy response for photon-counting detectors using x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Huanjun; Cho, Hyo-Min; Molloi, Sabee; Barber, William C.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of characterizing a Si strip photon-counting detector using x-ray fluorescence. Methods: X-ray fluorescence was generated by using a pencil beam from a tungsten anode x-ray tube with 2 mm Al filtration. Spectra were acquired at 90° from the primary beam direction with an energy-resolved photon-counting detector based on an edge illuminated Si strip detector. The distances from the source to target and the target to detector were approximately 19 and 11 cm, respectively. Four different materials, containing silver (Ag), iodine (I), barium (Ba), and gadolinium (Gd), were placed in small plastic containers with a diameter of approximately 0.7 cm for x-ray fluorescence measurements. Linear regression analysis was performed to derive the gain and offset values for the correlation between the measured fluorescence peak center and the known fluorescence energies. The energy resolutions and charge-sharing fractions were also obtained from analytical fittings of the recorded fluorescence spectra. An analytical model, which employed four parameters that can be determined from the fluorescence calibration, was used to estimate the detector response function. Results: Strong fluorescence signals of all four target materials were recorded with the investigated geometry for the Si strip detector. The average gain and offset of all pixels for detector energy calibration were determined to be 6.95 mV/keV and −66.33 mV, respectively. The detector’s energy resolution remained at approximately 2.7 keV for low energies, and increased slightly at 45 keV. The average charge-sharing fraction was estimated to be 36% within the investigated energy range of 20–45 keV. The simulated detector output based on the proposed response function agreed well with the experimental measurement. Conclusions: The performance of a spectral imaging system using energy-resolved photon-counting detectors is very dependent on the energy calibration of the

  5. Flash X-Ray (FXR) Accelerator Optimization Electronic Time-Resolved Measurement of X-Ray Source Size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, J; Ong, M; Wargo, P

    2005-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating various approaches to minimize the x-ray source size on the Flash X-Ray (FXR) linear induction accelerator in order to improve x-ray flux and increase resolution for hydrodynamic radiography experiments. In order to effectively gauge improvements to final x-ray source size, a fast, robust, and accurate system for measuring the spot size is required. Timely feedback on x-ray source size allows new and improved accelerator tunes to be deployed and optimized within the limited run-time constraints of a production facility with a busy experimental schedule; in addition, time-resolved measurement capability allows the investigation of not only the time-averaged source size, but also the evolution of the source size, centroid position, and x-ray dose throughout the 70 ns beam pulse. Combined with time-resolved measurements of electron beam parameters such as emittance, energy, and current, key limiting factors can be identified, modeled, and optimized for the best possible spot size. Roll-bar techniques are a widely used method for x-ray source size measurement, and have been the method of choice at FXR for many years. A thick bar of tungsten or other dense metal with a sharp edge is inserted into the path of the x-ray beam so as to heavily attenuate the lower half of the beam, resulting in a half-light, half-dark image as seen downstream of the roll-bar; by measuring the width of the transition from light to dark across the edge of the roll-bar, the source size can be deduced. For many years, film has been the imaging medium of choice for roll-bar measurements thanks to its high resolution, linear response, and excellent contrast ratio. Film measurements, however, are fairly cumbersome and require considerable setup and analysis time; moreover, with the continuing trend towards all-electronic measurement systems, film is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive to procure. Here, we shall

  6. A synchrotron radiation camera and data acquisition system for time resolved x-ray scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordas, J.; Koch, M.H.J.; Clout, P.N.; Dorrington, E.; Boulin, C.; Gabriel, A.

    1980-01-01

    Until recently, time resolved measurements of x-ray scattering patterns have not been feasible because laboratory x-ray sources were too weak and detectors unavailable. Recent developments in both these fields have changed the situation, and it is now possible to follow changes in x-ray scattering patterns with a time resolution of a few ms. The apparatus used to achieve this is described and some examples from recent biological experiments are given. (author)

  7. Determination of technetium by total reflection x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermudez, J.I.; Greaves, E.D.; Nemeth, P.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a technique using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) for determination of Technetium produced by elution of chromatography generators with physiological saline solutions. The analysis with the 18.41 keV K α line of Technetium was accomplished with monochromatized K α radiation from a silver anode x-ray tube operated at 45 keV and 20 mA. This radiation at 22.104 keV is efficiently coupled to the 21.054 keV absorption edge of Tc. It is also of advantage in the direct analysis of organic and saline properties of the Tc-bearing samples. Quantification was accomplished by internal standard addition of Ga and using an interpolated value of the sensitivity for Tc between Molybdenum and Rhenium. Data processing was carried out with the QXAS-AXIL software package. System sensitivity was found adequate for direct Tc determination of eluted saline solutions. The interest and advantages of the use of the technique as an auxiliary in the synthesis and characterization of Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnosis in nuclear medicine are discussed. Detection limits in the matrices analyzed are reported. (author)

  8. Automating X-ray Fluorescence Analysis for Rapid Astrobiology Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R; Flannery, David T; Lanka, Ravi; Allwood, Abigail C; Bue, Brian D; Clark, Benton C; Elam, W Timothy; Estlin, Tara A; Hodyss, Robert P; Hurowitz, Joel A; Liu, Yang; Wade, Lawrence A

    2015-11-01

    A new generation of planetary rover instruments, such as PIXL (Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry) and SHERLOC (Scanning Habitable Environments with Raman Luminescence for Organics and Chemicals) selected for the Mars 2020 mission rover payload, aim to map mineralogical and elemental composition in situ at microscopic scales. These instruments will produce large spectral cubes with thousands of channels acquired over thousands of spatial locations, a large potential science yield limited mainly by the time required to acquire a measurement after placement. A secondary bottleneck also faces mission planners after downlink; analysts must interpret the complex data products quickly to inform tactical planning for the next command cycle. This study demonstrates operational approaches to overcome these bottlenecks by specialized early-stage science data processing. Onboard, simple real-time systems can perform a basic compositional assessment, recognizing specific features of interest and optimizing sensor integration time to characterize anomalies. On the ground, statistically motivated visualization can make raw uncalibrated data products more interpretable for tactical decision making. Techniques such as manifold dimensionality reduction can help operators comprehend large databases at a glance, identifying trends and anomalies in data. These onboard and ground-side analyses can complement a quantitative interpretation. We evaluate system performance for the case study of PIXL, an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Experiments on three representative samples demonstrate improved methods for onboard and ground-side automation and illustrate new astrobiological science capabilities unavailable in previous planetary instruments. Dimensionality reduction-Planetary science-Visualization.

  9. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and related techniques an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Margui, Eva

    2013-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) is a well-established analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of a wide variety of routine quality control and research samples. Among its many desirable features, it delivers true multi-element character analysis, acceptable speed and economy, easy of automation, and the capacity to analyze solid samples. This remarkable contribution to this field provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of basic principles, recent developments, instrumentation, sample preparation procedures, and applications of XRF analysis. If you are a professional in materials science, analytic chemistry, or physics, you will benefit from not only the review of basics, but also the newly developed technologies with XRF. Those recent technological advances, including the design of low-power micro- focus tubes and novel X-ray optics and detectors, have made it possible to extend XRF to the analysis of low-Z elements and to obtain 2D or 3D information on a microme...

  10. X-ray fluorescence and the study of microcirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthuvelu, P.; Hugtenburg, R.P.; Bradley, D.A.; Winlove, C.P.

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of using K-shell X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique for study of subchondral bone microcirculation in ex vivo samples is examined. Studies have been carried out at the Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) ultra-dilute extended X-ray absorption fine structure beamline. Initial investigations were made on fine-bore capillaries with diameters of either 500 or 200 μm, attenuated by up to 2 mm of Perspex and containing dilute iodine-based contrast media. This allowed comparison to be made with the capabilities of angiographic imaging systems, also allowing definition of suitable XRF set-up parameters for subsequent microcirculation studies. Measurements were obtained in 30 s run times, for concentrations of iodine (K ab 33.164 keV) down to 2 /(ml saline). Intensities were linear up to 3.7 mg/ml, self-absorption becoming significant for concentrations beyond this. To determine detection limits, preliminary studies of subchondral bone microcirculation were made on bone sections which were known to be poorly infused with silver-coated (K ab 25.517 keV) 30 μm diameter microspheres. For a 2 mm slice of bone, the presence of small numbers of silver-coated microspheres were detected in the first 2 mm layer from the surface, at a level equivalent to ∼1 ppm of silver solution

  11. Time Resolved X-Ray Spot Size Diagnostic

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Roger; Falabella, Steven; Guethlein, Gary; Raymond, Brett; Weir, John

    2005-01-01

    A diagnostic was developed for the determination of temporal history of an X-ray spot. A pair of thin (0.5 mm) slits image the x-ray spot to a fast scintillator which is coupled to a fast detector, thus sampling a slice of the X-Ray spot. Two other scintillator/detectors are used to determine the position of the spot and total forward dose. The slit signal is normalized to the dose and the resulting signal is analyzed to get the spot size. The position information is used to compensate for small changes due to spot motion and misalignment. The time resolution of the diagnostic is about 1 ns and measures spots from 0.5 mm to over 3 mm. The theory and equations used to calculate spot size and position are presented, as well as data. The calculations assume a symmetric, Gaussian spot. The spot data is generated by the ETA II accelerator, a 2kA, 5.5 MeV, 60ns electron beam focused on a Tantalum target. The spot generated is typically about 1 mm FWHM. Comparisons are made to an X-ray pinhole camera which images th...

  12. Combined X-ray fluorescence and absorption computed tomography using a synchrotron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, C

    2013-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) and fluorescence X-ray computed tomography (FXCT) using synchrotron sources are both useful tools in biomedical imaging research. Synchrotron CT (SRCT) in its various forms is considered an important technique for biomedical imaging since the phase coherence of SR beams can be exploited to obtain images with high contrast resolution. Using a synchrotron as the source for FXCT ensures a fluorescence signal that is optimally detectable by exploiting the beam monochromaticity and polarisation. The ability to combine these techniques so that SRCT and FXCT images are collected simultaneously, would bring distinct benefits to certain biomedical experiments. Simultaneous image acquisition would alleviate some of the registration difficulties which comes from collecting separate data, and it would provide increased information about the sample: functional X-ray images from the FXCT, with the morphological information from the SRCT. A method is presented for generating simultaneous SRCT and FXCT images. Proof of principle modelling has been used to show that it is possible to recover a fluorescence image of a point-like source from an SRCT apparatus by suitably modulating the illuminating planar X-ray beam. The projection image can be successfully used for reconstruction by removing the static modulation from the sinogram in the normal flat and dark field processing. Detection of the modulated fluorescence signal using an energy resolving detector allows the position of a fluorescent marker to be obtained using inverse reconstruction techniques. A discussion is made of particular reconstruction methods which might be applied by utilising both the CT and FXCT data.

  13. Human thyroid specimen imaging by fluorescent x-ray computed tomography with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Yu, Quanwen; Yashiro, Toru; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Yasuo; Itai, Yuji; Akatsuka, Takao

    1999-09-01

    Fluorescent x-ray computed tomography (FXCT) is being developed to detect non-radioactive contrast materials in living specimens. The FXCT system consists of a silicon (111) channel cut monochromator, an x-ray slit and a collimator for fluorescent x ray detection, a scanning table for the target organ and an x-ray detector for fluorescent x-ray and transmission x-ray. To reduce Compton scattering overlapped on the fluorescent K(alpha) line, incident monochromatic x-ray was set at 37 keV. The FXCT clearly imaged a human thyroid gland and iodine content was estimated quantitatively. In a case of hyperthyroidism, the two-dimensional distribution of iodine content was not uniform, and thyroid cancer had a small amount of iodine. FXCT can be used to detect iodine within thyroid gland quantitatively and to delineate its distribution.

  14. Simulation and application of micro X-ray fluorescence based on an ellipsoidal capillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jing; Li, Yude; Wang, Xingyi; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Lin, Xiaoyan, E-mail: yangjing_928@126.com

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • A micro X-ray fluorescence setup based on an ellipsoidal capillary was presented. • The optimal parameters of ellipsoidal capillary were designed. • The 2D mapping image of biological sample was obtained. - Abstract: A micro X-ray fluorescence setup was presented, based on an ellipsoidal capillary and a traditional laboratorial X-ray source. Using Ray-tracing principle, we have simulated the transmission path of X-ray beam in the ellipsoidal capillary and designed the optimal parameters of the ellipsoidal capillary for the micro X-ray fluorescence setup. We demonstrate that ellipsoidal capillary is well suited as condenser for the micro X-ray fluorescence based on traditional laboratorial X-ray source. Furthermore, we obtain the 2D mapping image of the leaf blade sample by using the ellipsoidal capillary we designed.

  15. X-ray fluorescent scanning of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonckheer, M.H.; Deconinck, F.

    1983-01-01

    The main emphasis of the technical chapters of this monograph lies on the aspects which are of direct importance to thyroid scanning: the general principles of X-ray fluorescence, the choice and characteristics of appropriate sources and detectors, a stationary system, quantification problems, and the pitfalls in the interpretation of the intrathyroidal iodine imaging and quantification. The clinical part of the monograph consists of chapters on the role of stable iodine and the thyroid function, on endemic non-toxic goiter, on hyperthyroidism as a result of iodine overload, on feasibility of dynamic studies, on stable iodine stores in thyroiditis, and on a general review of the clinical usefulness of XRF in thyroid disease. (Auth.)

  16. Analysis of solar blocker through portable X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Diego de Dio; Melquiades, Fabio Luiz; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Lopes, Fabio; Lonni, Audrey Stinghen G.; Oliveira, Frederico Minardi de; Duarte, Jose C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the concentration of TiO 2 by Energy Dispersion X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) viewing t obtain the FPS due to the physical barrier in the composition of solar blockers, and identifies possible present metals in the samples. A portable EDXRF equipment was used and 27 commercial of different brands and solar protection factors were analysed. Also, three formulations (A, B and C) were prepared and measured estimated in FPS-30 using 5% or TiO 2 . The quantification was performed through calibration curves with 1% to 30% standards of TiO 2 . As result, it was possible to determine the contribution to physical protection in the FPS, associated to the Ti concentration present in some solar blocker samples available in the market. Also, it was possible to detect the presence of various metals in solar protectors, such as Fe, Zn, Br and Sr, and identify chemical elements which were not mentioned and their formulation as well

  17. X-ray fluorescence in research on Czech cultural monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Gerndt, J.; Kopecka, I.; Musilek, L.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis (RXRFA), as a non-destructive method, relatively simple and allowing measurements to be carried out in situ, is an excellent tool in research on various objects of art. A range of artefacts have been investigated by our laboratory, in part for the purposes of history of art and in part as a basis for restoration works - medieval frescoes in some Czech castles and churches, metal sculptures and objects of applied art, paints and inks of old manuscripts, paintings. Some of these are among the most valuable monuments in the Czech cultural heritage. The contribution of the results of the tests to the investigation of their 'life story' and, in some cases, to their conservation, is not negligible. Later additions and repairs can be recognised, and materials and technologies that are close to their historic counterparts can be used in restoration work

  18. Uranium concentrate analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Guerra, J.P.; Bayon, A.; Roca, R.

    1978-01-01

    The determination of As, Ca, Fe, Mo, P, S, Si. Th, V and U in uranium concentrates by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy has been studied. As and U are determined in nitric solutions and for the rest of elements analysis is performed by a bead fusion technique using Li 2 B 4 O 7 and Li 2 CO 3 as fluxes. Although the uranium matrix minimizes the absorption and enhancement effects, because of the content variations of this element it is advisable to operate at a constant level of U 3 O 8 . Despite the high matrix absorption and the large dilution of the samples, sensitivity and speed are found to be satisfactory as the result of the use of a high sensitivity automatic spectrometer. The spectral interferences of Mo on S and P, and of Pb on As have been particularly considered. (author) [es

  19. Environmental studies in Khartoum area using x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Elmagid, Suliman Alamin

    1996-06-01

    In the present work an attempt has been made for the analysis of some soil, plant, sediments and fish samples of relevance to environmental pollution in Khartoum area. These samples have been collected from different places in residential areas, so as to cover industrial areas, agricultural and residential areas, as well as Tuti Island as control area. Special attention has been dedicated to the analysis of lead concentrations resulting from automobile-emissions in soils and to other toxic metals such as Cr in some industries. The samples were analysed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique. The results obtained using XRF measurements and computer software called QXAS for data analysis. The concentrations of lead and some heavy metals such as Cr in soils from certain locations were alarming and may create pollution problems in the near future. The results obtained from different countries. The results are generally lower than the international limits. (Author)

  20. Handbook of practical X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckhoff, B.; Wedell, R.; Wolff, H.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) is a reliable multi-elemental and nondestructive analytical method widely used in research and industrial applications. This practical handbook provides self-contained modules featuring XRF instrumentation, quantification methods, and most of the current applications. The broad spectrum of topics is due to the efforts of a large number of authors from a variety of different types of institutions such as universities, research institutes, and companies. The book gives a survey of the theoretical fundamentals, analytical instrumentation, software for data processing, various excitation regimes including gracing incidents and microfocus measurements, quantitative analysis, applications in routine and micro analysis, mineralogy, biology, medicine, criminal investigations, archeology, metallurgy, abrasion, microelectronics, environmental air and water analysis. It gives the basic knowledge on this technique, information on analytical equipment and guides the reader to the various applications. This practical handbook is intended as a resource for graduate students, research scientists, and industrial users. (orig.)

  1. Handbook of practical X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckhoff, B. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin (Germany). X-ray Spectrometry; Kanngiesser, B. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Atomare Physik und Fachdidaktik; Langhoff, N. [IfG-Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Wedell, R.; Wolff, H. (eds.) [Institut fuer Angewandte Photonik e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) is a reliable multi-elemental and nondestructive analytical method widely used in research and industrial applications. This practical handbook provides self-contained modules featuring XRF instrumentation, quantification methods, and most of the current applications. The broad spectrum of topics is due to the efforts of a large number of authors from a variety of different types of institutions such as universities, research institutes, and companies. The book gives a survey of the theoretical fundamentals, analytical instrumentation, software for data processing, various excitation regimes including gracing incidents and microfocus measurements, quantitative analysis, applications in routine and micro analysis, mineralogy, biology, medicine, criminal investigations, archeology, metallurgy, abrasion, microelectronics, environmental air and water analysis. It gives the basic knowledge on this technique, information on analytical equipment and guides the reader to the various applications. This practical handbook is intended as a resource for graduate students, research scientists, and industrial users. (orig.)

  2. Compositional analysis of steels by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutty, K.V.G.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ananthakrishnan, S.K.; Asuvatharaman, R.

    1988-01-01

    The x-ray fluorescence spectrometric method of determining Ni, Cr, Mn, Mo, T i, Si and Co in austenitic, ferritic, titanium-stabilised and low alloy steels is described. Samples in the bulk solid form (25-50 mm diameter and upto 50 mm height) or very small samples having a flat surface at least 5 mm in diameter are analysed as received after a brief surface treatment. The complex matrix effects affecting the determination of the various elements are discussed. The direct calibration method as well as the mathematical method of empirical coefficients of overcoming the matrix effects is described. The precision and accuracy of the analyses are discussed. (author). 10 refs

  3. Hyper-filter-fluorescer spectrometer for fusion x-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    The filter-fluorescer spectrometer (FFS) is a powerful tool for measuring x-ray spectrum from high fluence x-ray sources. However, this technique is limited to energies less than 120 keV, because there are no practical absorption edges available above this energy. In this paper, we present a new method of utilizing the filter-fluorescer system for x-ray spectral measurement above 120 keV. The new apparatus is called hyper-filter-fluorescer spectrometer

  4. X-ray fluorescence beamline at LNLS: components and some associated techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, CArlos A.; Radtke, Martin; Perez, Carlos; Tolentino, Helio; Vicentin, Flavio; Sanchez, Hector Jorge; Perez, Roberto D.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. In this work a general description of the Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) and the X-Ray Fluorescence Microprobe (XRFM) is presented. Components, equipment and experimental stations for the x-ray fluorescence beamline are described, regarding to the techniques mentioned above. Results from the simulations of a pair bended mirrors in a Kirkpatrick-Baez configuration, are shown. The simulations were performed with Shadow program. (author)

  5. Direct comparison of soft x-ray images of organelles with optical fluorescence images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishino, Masahiko; Kado, Masataka; Kishimoto, Maki; Nishikino, Masaharu; Ohba, Toshiyuki; Kaihori, Takeshi; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Yasuda, Keiko; Mikata, Yuji; Shinohara, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    Soft x-ray microscopes operating in the water window region are capable of imaging living hydrated cells. Up to now, we have been able to take some soft x-ray images of living cells by the use of a contact x-ray microscope system with laser produced plasma soft x-ray source. Since the soft x-ray images are different from the optical images obtained with an ordinary microscope, it is very important to identify what is seen in the x-ray images. Hence, we have demonstrated the direct comparison between the images of organelles obtained with a fluorescence microscope and those with a soft x-ray microscope. Comparing the soft x-ray images to the fluorescence images, the fine structures of the organelles could be identified and observed. (author)

  6. On the theory of time-resolved x-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Møller, Klaus Braagaard

    2008-01-01

    We derive the basic theoretical formulation for X-ray diffraction with pulsed fields, using a fully quantized description of light and matter. Relevant time scales are discussed for coherent as well as incoherent X-ray pulses, and we provide expressions to be used for calculation...... of the experimental diffraction signal for both types of X-ray sources. We present a simple analysis of time-resolved X-ray scattering for direct bond breaking in diatomic molecules. This essentially analytical approach highlights the relation between the signal and the time-dependent quantum distribution...

  7. Spatially resolved X-ray spectra of coronal active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catura, R.C.; Acton, L.W.; Joki, E.G.; Rapley, C.G.; Culhane, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    X-ray spectra from a number of coronal active regions were obtained during ATM support rocket flights carried out by the Lockheed group on June 11 and December 19, 1973. Multi-grid collimators were used to provide fields of view of 40ins. diameter and 90ins. diameter for a number of scanning crystal spectrometers and a bent crystal spectrometer which employed a position sensitive proportional counter to register the diffracted spectrum. A solar image was produced on film and on a TV camera on board the rocket with the aid of a 1 A Hα filter. A small part of the X-ray collimator was used to generate a multiple spot diffraction pattern which was superimposed on the Hα image and the composite picture was transmitted to the ground. Pre-launch calibrations allowed the spot corresponding to the X-ray collimator axis to be identified and so the collimator pointing direction on the solar disc was controlled from the ground by means of commands sent to the rocket. (Auth.)

  8. Application of synchrotron radiation to x-ray fluorescence analysis of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Hanson, A.L.

    1986-08-01

    The development of synchrotron radiation x-ray sources has provided the means to greatly extend the capabilities of x-ray fluorescence analysis for determinations of trace element concentrations. A brief description of synchrotron radiation properties provides a background for a discussion of the improved detection limits compared to existing x-ray fluorescence techniques. Calculated detection limits for x-ray microprobes with micrometer spatial resolutions are described and compared with experimental results beginning to appear from a number of laboratories. The current activities and future plans for a dedicated x-ray microprobe beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented

  9. Development of portable X-ray diffractometer equipped with X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and its application to archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Daisuke; Ishizaki, Atsushi; Uda, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    A portable X-ray diffractometer equipped with an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was improved so as to obtain a diffraction pattern and a fluorescence spectrum in air from one and the same small area of a specimen. The reason why the portable XRD with an XRF spectrometer was specially designed for archaeology may be understood from the following facts: (1) some objects exhibited in museums are not allowed to be transferred from the open air to a vacuum, even if their volumes are small; (2) some objects are very difficult to move from their original sites; (3) some parts of exhibits are extremely fragile and cannot be examined in a vacuum; and (4) information on the chemical composition and structure from the same area of an object offers a better understanding of the constitutive materials of the object. Some examples of the use of a portable X-ray diffractometer equipped with an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer in the field are also introduced. Experimental results of Sho-kannon, Snew's mask and Tutankhamun's golden mask are shown here. (author)

  10. Time-resolved X-ray studies using third generation synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1991-10-01

    The third generation, high-brilliance, hard x-ray, synchrotron radiation (SR) sources currently under construction (ESRF at Grenoble, France; APS at Argonne, Illinois; and SPring-8 at Harima, Japan) will usher in a new era of x-ray experimentation for both physical and biological sciences. One of the most exciting areas of experimentation will be the extension of x-ray scattering and diffraction techniques to the study of transient or time-evolving systems. The high repetition rate, short-pulse duration, high brilliance, and variable spectral bandwidth of these sources make them ideal for x-ray time-resolved studies. The temporal properties (bunch length, interpulse period, etc.) of these new sources will be summarized. Finally, the scientific potential and the technological challenges of time-resolved x-ray scattering from these new sources will be described. 13 refs., 4 figs

  11. Background approximation in automatic qualitative X-ray-fluorescent analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanov, J.; Tsanov, T.; Stefanov, R.; Jordanov, N.; Paunov, M.

    1982-01-01

    An empirical method of finding the dependence of the background intensity (Isub(bg) on the wavelength is proposed, based on the approximation of the experimentally found values for the background in the course of an automatic qualitative X-ray fluorescent analysis with pre-set curve. It is assumed that the dependence I(lambda) will be well approximated by a curve of the type Isub(bg)=(lambda-lambda sub(o)sup(fsub(1)(lambda))exp[fsub(2)(lambda)] where fsub(1) (lambda) and f 2 (lambda) are linear functions with respect to the sought parameters. This assumption was checked out on a ''pure'' starch background, in which it is not known beforehand which points belong to the background. It was assumed that the dependence I(lambda) can be found from all minima in the spectrum. Three types of minima has been distinguished: 1. the lowest point between two well-solved X-ray lines; 2. a minimum obtained as a result of statistical fluctuations of the measured signal; 3. the lowest point between two overlapped lines. The minima strongly deviating from the background are removed from the obtained set. The sum-total of the remaining minima serves as a base for the approximation of the dependence I(lambda). The unknown parameters are determined by means of the LSM. The approximated curve obtained by this method is closer to the real background than the background determined by the method described by Kigaki Denki, as the effect of all recorded minima is taken into account. As an example the PbTe spectrum recorded with crystal LiF 220 is shown graphically. The curve well describes the background of the spectrum even in the regions in which there are no minima belonging to the background. (authors)

  12. The Catalytic Conversion of Thiophenes over Large H-ZSM-5 Crystals: An X-Ray, UV/Vis, and Fluorescence Microspectroscopic Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kox, M.H.F.; Mijovilovich, A.E.; S ättler, J.J.H.B.; Stavitski, I.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray absorption, UV/Vis, and fluorescence microspectroscopy have been used to characterize the catalytic conversion of thiophene derivatives within the micropores of an individual H-ZSM-5 zeolite crystal. Space-resolved information into the Si/ Al ratios and sulfur content was provided by X-ray

  13. Fast x-ray fluorescence microtomography of hydrated biological samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Lombi

    Full Text Available Metals and metalloids play a key role in plant and other biological systems as some of them are essential to living organisms and all can be toxic at high concentrations. It is therefore important to understand how they are accumulated, complexed and transported within plants. In situ imaging of metal distribution at physiological relevant concentrations in highly hydrated biological systems is technically challenging. In the case of roots, this is mainly due to the possibility of artifacts arising during sample preparation such as cross sectioning. Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microtomography has been used to obtain virtual cross sections of elemental distributions. However, traditionally this technique requires long data acquisition times. This has prohibited its application to highly hydrated biological samples which suffer both radiation damage and dehydration during extended analysis. However, recent advances in fast detectors coupled with powerful data acquisition approaches and suitable sample preparation methods can circumvent this problem. We demonstrate the heightened potential of this technique by imaging the distribution of nickel and zinc in hydrated plant roots. Although 3D tomography was still impeded by radiation damage, we successfully collected 2D tomograms of hydrated plant roots exposed to environmentally relevant metal concentrations for short periods of time. To our knowledge, this is the first published example of the possibilities offered by a new generation of fast fluorescence detectors to investigate metal and metalloid distribution in radiation-sensitive, biological samples.

  14. Layer thickness measurement using the X-ray fluorescence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengelkamp, B.

    1980-01-01

    Curium 244 having a gamma energy of about 15.5 keV is used as excitation emitter for contactless and continuous measuring of the thickness of metallic layers on iron strip. Soft gamma radiation is absorbed in matter according to the photo effect, so that X-ray fluorescence radiation is generated in the matter, which depends on the element and is radiated to all sides. For instance, it amounts for iron 6.4 keV and is measured with a specific ionisation chamber for this energy range. With increasing atomic number of the elements, the energy of fluorescence radiation increases and hence also the emission signal of the detector. The prerequisite for a usable measuring effect is an element distance of at least two and the thickness of the layer to be measured being in an optimum range. A signal dependent on the thickness of the layer is produced either by absorption of iron radiation (absorption method - aluminium and tin) or by build-up radiation of the material of the layer (emission method - zinc and lead). (orig./GSCH) [de

  15. Time-resolved pump-probe X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of Gaq3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicke, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    of Gaq 3 was analyzed and presents one of the first time-resolved measurements at PETRA III. In addition to pump-probe XAFS spectroscopy, different phases of Gaq 3 and Alq 3 in form of powder, crystal, film and solution were analyzed by means of UV-VIS and fluorescence spectroscopy. Electronic and optical differences of the molecules related to the particular form could be revealed. Gaq 3 in benzyl alcohol solution and Gaq 3 in crystalline form exhibit very similar optical features, indicating similar structural properties. The various preparation techniques used to obtain the sample forms are presented in this thesis. Analyzing the differences among the diverse sample forms helps to answer the question on how the conclusions extracted from sample systems in liquid form can be transferred to the ones in crystal form or film form, the latter appearing in organic light emitting diodes. The future goal of this research project is the direct measurement of the excited state structure of Alq 3 as well as Gaq 3 , and similar sample systems by time-resolved X-ray crystallography. The sample crystals have to fulfill specific requirements especially for the laser induced photoexcitation process. In this thesis a newly developed preparation method for low roughness singe crystal slices is presented. These crystal slices can be used for future perspective time-resolved X-ray crystallography experiments.

  16. Computational time-resolved and resonant x-ray scattering of strongly correlated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansil, Arun [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-11-09

    Basic-Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy (BES/DOE) has made large investments in x-ray sources in the U.S. (NSLS-II, LCLS, NGLS, ALS, APS) as powerful enabling tools for opening up unprecedented new opportunities for exploring properties of matter at various length and time scales. The coming online of the pulsed photon source, literally allows us to see and follow the dynamics of processes in materials at their natural timescales. There is an urgent need therefore to develop theoretical methodologies and computational models for understanding how x-rays interact with matter and the related spectroscopies of materials. The present project addressed aspects of this grand challenge of x-ray science. In particular, our Collaborative Research Team (CRT) focused on developing viable computational schemes for modeling x-ray scattering and photoemission spectra of strongly correlated materials in the time-domain. The vast arsenal of formal/numerical techniques and approaches encompassed by the members of our CRT were brought to bear through appropriate generalizations and extensions to model the pumped state and the dynamics of this non-equilibrium state, and how it can be probed via x-ray absorption (XAS), emission (XES), resonant and non-resonant x-ray scattering, and photoemission processes. We explored the conceptual connections between the time-domain problems and other second-order spectroscopies, such as resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) because RIXS may be effectively thought of as a pump-probe experiment in which the incoming photon acts as the pump, and the fluorescent decay is the probe. Alternatively, when the core-valence interactions are strong, one can view K-edge RIXS for example, as the dynamic response of the material to the transient presence of a strong core-hole potential. Unlike an actual pump-probe experiment, here there is no mechanism for adjusting the time-delay between the pump and the probe. However, the core hole

  17. Sensitivity of in vivo X-ray fluorescence determination of skeletal lead stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokas, R.K.; Besarab, A.; McDiarmid, M.A.; Shapiro, I.M.; Bloch, P.

    1990-01-01

    Eighteen patients with known past occupational lead exposure underwent parenteral diagnostic chelation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and x-ray fluorescent determination of in vivo skeletal lead stores at the distal styloid process of the ulna and at the temporal base bone using a cobalt 57 source and measuring lead Ka x-rays. X-ray fluorescent lead measurements in both locations correlated with results of diagnostic chelation. Using a post-chelation urinary excretion of greater than 600 micrograms lead/24 h as the definition of high-lead stores, sensitivity of x-ray fluorescence at the wrist and temple was 56% and 39%, respectively

  18. Time-resolved materials science opportunities using synchrotron x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.C.; Tischler, J.Z.

    1995-06-01

    The high brightness, high intensity, and pulsed time-structure of synchrotron sources provide new opportunities for time-resolved x-ray diffraction investigations. With third generation synchrotron sources coming on line, high brilliance and high brightness are now available in x-ray beams with the highest flux. In addition to the high average flux, the instantaneous flux available in synchrotron beams is greatly enhanced by the pulsed time structure, which consists of short bursts of x-rays that are separated by ∼tens to hundreds of nanoseconds. Time-resolved one- and two-dimensional position sensitive detection techniques that take advantage of synchrotron radiation for materials science x-ray diffraction investigations are presented, and time resolved materials science applications are discussed in terms of recent diffraction and spectroscopy results and materials research opportunities

  19. Studies of nanostructures using time-resolved x-ray excited optical luminescence*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.A.; Shenoy, G.K.; Smita, S.; Burda, C.; Sham, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text:The scientific community is currently investing a great deal of effort into understanding the physics and chemistry of nanoscale structures. Synchrotron radiation techniques are being used to study the physical, electronic, and magnetic structure of nanosystems, albeit at a relatively large size (greater than 30 nm). A major challenge facing researchers is finding methods that can probe structures of the smallest scale (less than 10 nm). Optical luminescence has been shown to be directly sensitive to structures in this size range due to quantum confinement phenomena. X-ray-excited optical luminescence (XEOL) provides the capability to chemically map the sites responsible for producing low-energy (1-6 eV) fluorescence. By taking advantage of the time structure of the x-ray pulses at the Advanced Photon Source (70 ps wide, 153 ns separation), it also possible to determine the dynamic behavior of the states involved in the luminescence. In this paper we will present results of time-resolved XEOL experiments on various nanostructures including porous silicon, silicon nanowires, and CdSe nanodots

  20. Results of improvement of simultaneous and sequential x-ray fluorescence equipment for quantitative routine analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zsamboky, Jozsef

    1985-01-01

    Two main types of x-ray fluorescence analyzers measuring sequentially and simultaneously, respectively, the intensities at given wave lengths are described. The main parts of an up to date x-ray fluorescence analyzer are surveyed in detail. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed. Some results on calibration and optimization are given. (D.Gy.)

  1. Sulfur content measurement in coal by X-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Thinova, L.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence, using backscattering, was employed in the determination of sulfur content and ash content measurement in coal. The results of the methods are given to illustrate the differences between the chemical analysis and X-ray fluorescence method.

  2. Dispersive X-ray fluorescence applications in energy in environmental problems diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odino, R.; Souto, B.; Roca, S.; Campomar, W.

    1994-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence energy was used to detect the grade of contamination due to a Portland cement factory. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the incidence of a Portland cement plant in the quality of air in its surroundings. Many contaminants (Cu, Pb, Ni, Br) do not come from the Portland cement industry but other industries in the zone

  3. Time resolved x-ray photography of a dense plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.C.; Meyer, J.; Rankin, G.

    1977-01-01

    The temporal development of the hot plasma in a dense plasma focus is studied by x-ray streak photography of approximately 2 ns resolution time. It is shown that initially a uniform x-ray emitting pinch plasma is formed which subsequently cools down until x-ray emission stops after approximately 50 ns. At a time of around 100 ns after initial x-ray emission coinciding with the break-up time of the pinch a second burst of x-rays is observed coming from small localized regions. The observations are compared with results obtained from time-resolved shadow and schlieren photography of a similar dense focus discharge. (author)

  4. Renal function measured by X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boijsen, M.; Jacobsson, L.; Tylen, U.; Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg

    1987-01-01

    In twenty-six patients injected with metrizoate during urography, plasma was analyzed for iodine concentration using X-ray fluorescence analysis, and total plasma clearance of contrast medium was calculated. Total plasma clearance of 51 Cr-EDTA was also determined, but not simultaneously, in order to find out if the urographic procedure would influence the kidneys to such an extent that the contrast medium clearance value would differ much from the 51 Cr-EDTA clearance value. The errors in the method were assessed and the total error of the contrast medium clearance determination was calculated. When comparing 51 Cr-EDTA and metrizoate clearance a correlation of 0.94 and a mean ratio of 1.046 (SD 0.138) was found. The assessable errors cannot fully explain the standard deviation, which might indicate a transient change in kidney function related to elements of the urographic procedure such as laxation with possible dehydration and/or the contrast medium dose. (orig.)

  5. Fluorescence x-ray analyzer for plating-bath solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Shigemi; Hato, Yoshio; Tono, Miki; Ishijima, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    This analyzer was developed for the analysis of plating solution composition and the measurement of plating thickness at the same time in the noble and base metal plating applied to electronic components. The analyzer operates on the principle of fluorescence X-ray measurement which features the capability of high accuracy, non-destructive and multi-element simultaneous analysis. In this paper, the principle of measurement, the configuration of a model SFA 875 analyzer and also the main specifications and measurement examples are described. As the measurement examples, it is described in detail that the model SFA 875 achieved the expansion of the range of application and the improvement of accuracy and the accuracy of simply repeated measurement by combining a digital filter with the linear method of least squares. The digital filter method is that for eliminating noise in data, smoothing spectra and subtracting background. The linear method of least squares is the method for separating the spectra with overlapping peaks into individual peaks. The combination of them allows the analyzer to perform various analyses even by using the spectra obtained with proportional counters. The analysis of the elements whose atomic numbers are close to each other is also possible. The accuracy of measurement of plating thickness is about 0.2 to 2.0 μm, and that of solution composition is about 0.4 to 0.7 g/l. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Radioisotope sources for X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonowich, J.; Pandian, S.; Preiss, I.L.

    1977-01-01

    Problems involved in developing radioisotope sources and the characteristics of potentially useful radioisotopes for X-ray fluorescence analysis are presented. These include the following. The isotope must be evaluated for the physical and chemical forms available, purity, half-life, specific activity, toxicity, and cost. The radiation hazards of the source must be considered. The type and amount of radiation output of the source must be evaluated. The source construction must be planned. The source should also present an advance over those currently available in order to justify its development. Some of the isotopes, which are not in use but look very promising, are indicated, and their data are tabulated. A more or less ''perfect'' source within a given range of interest would exhibit the following characteristics. (1) Decay by an isometric transition with little or no internal conversion, (2) Have an intense gamma transition near the absorption edge of the element(s) of interest with no high energy gammas, (3) Have a sufficiently long half-life (in the order of years) for both economic and calibration reasons, (4) Have a sufficiently large cross-section for production in a reasonable amount of time. If there are competing reactions the interfering isotopes should be reasonably short-lived, or if not, be apt to be separated from the isotope chemically with a minimum of difficulty. (T.G.)

  7. Thin film characterization by total reflection x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danel, Adrien; Nolot, Emmanuel; Veillerot, Marc; Olivier, Segolene; Decorps, Tifenn; Calvo-Munoz, Maria-Luisa; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; Lhostis, Sandrine; Kohno, Hiroshi; Yamagami, Motoyuki; Geoffroy, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Sensitive and accurate characterization of films thinner than a few nm used in nanoelectronics represents a challenge for many conventional production metrology tools. With capabilities in the 10 10 at/cm 2 , methods usually dedicated to contamination analysis appear promising, especially Total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF). This study shows that under usual configuration for contamination analysis, with incident angle smaller than the critical angle of the substrate, TXRF signal saturation occurs very rapidly for dense films (below 0.5 nm for HfO 2 films on Si wafers using a 9.67 keV excitation at 0.5 deg.). Increasing the incident angle, the range of linear results can be extended, but on the other hand, the TXRF sensitivity is degraded because of a strong increase of the measurement dead time. On HfO 2 films grown on Si wafers, an incident angle of 0.32 deg. corresponding to a dead time of 95% was used to achieve linear analysis up to 2 nm. Composition analysis by TXRF, and especially the detection of minor elements into thin films, requires the use of a specific incident angle to optimize sensitivity. Although quantitative analyses might require specific calibration, this work shows on Co-based films that the ratio between minor elements (W, P, Mo) and Co taking into account their relative sensitivity factors is a good direct reading of the composition

  8. A Brazilian tree collection analyzed by X ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, H; Fernandes, E A.N.; Ferraz, E S.B. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Laboratorio de Radioisotopos, Piracicaba (Brazil); Haselberger, N; Markowicz, A [International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2000-06-01

    The analysis of the inorganic components of wood is of great interest for several reasons, including the acquisition of basic data creating a data base of values for individual species. Knowing the wide variability in matrix composition (lignin, oil, resin, silica) and densities (0.39-1.09 g cm{sup -3}), 40 species of trees were analysed by X ray fluorescence (XRF) to determine the concentrations of Br, Ca, Cu, K, Mn, Pb, Rb, Sr, and A. This technique is widely used because of its accuracy and simplicity of sample preparation, normally complex for this type of biological material. This multi-elemental analysis has proven suitable for wood, a material in which a wide range for each element was encountered in the different species studied: 0.3-5.2 for Br, 126-9074 for Ca, 2.2-11 for Cu, 108-5873 for K, 3.1-134 for Mn, 0.5-4.7 for Pb, 0.3-20 for Rb, 1.2-120 for Sr, and 1.1-20 for Zn (values given in {mu}g g{sup -1}). (author)

  9. A Brazilian tree collection analyzed by X ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, H.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Ferraz, E.S.B.; Haselberger, N.; Markowicz, A.

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of the inorganic components of wood is of great interest for several reasons, including the acquisition of basic data creating a data base of values for individual species. Knowing the wide variability in matrix composition (lignin, oil, resin, silica) and densities (0.39-1.09 g cm -3 ), 40 species of trees were analysed by X ray fluorescence (XRF) to determine the concentrations of Br, Ca, Cu, K, Mn, Pb, Rb, Sr, and A. This technique is widely used because of its accuracy and simplicity of sample preparation, normally complex for this type of biological material. This multi-elemental analysis has proven suitable for wood, a material in which a wide range for each element was encountered in the different species studied: 0.3-5.2 for Br, 126-9074 for Ca, 2.2-11 for Cu, 108-5873 for K, 3.1-134 for Mn, 0.5-4.7 for Pb, 0.3-20 for Rb, 1.2-120 for Sr, and 1.1-20 for Zn (values given in μg g -1 ). (author)

  10. High-throughput screening with micro-x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havrilla, George J.; Miller, Thomasin C.

    2005-01-01

    Micro-x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) is a useful characterization tool for high-throughput screening of combinatorial libraries. Due to the increasing threat of use of chemical warfare (CW) agents both in military actions and against civilians by terrorist extremists, there is a strong push to improve existing methods and develop means for the detection of a broad spectrum of CW agents in a minimal amount of time to increase national security. This paper describes a combinatorial high-throughput screening technique for CW receptor discovery to aid in sensor development. MXRF can screen materials for elemental composition at the mesoscale level (tens to hundreds of micrometers). The key aspect of this work is the use of commercial MXRF instrumentation coupled with the inherent heteroatom elements within the target molecules of the combinatorial reaction to provide rapid and specific identification of lead species. The method is demonstrated by screening an 11-mer oligopeptide library for selective binding of the degradation products of the nerve agent VX. The identified oligopeptides can be used as selective molecular receptors for sensor development. The MXRF screening method is nondestructive, requires minimal sample preparation or special tags for analysis, and the screening time depends on the desired sensitivity

  11. Portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This report describes the application of portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry to characterize materials related to deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of contaminated facilities. Two portable XRF instruments manufactured by TN Spectrace were used in a technology evaluation as part of the Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) held at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) located at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The LSDP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology, Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Are (DDFA). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate innovative technologies or technology applications potentially beneficial to the D and D of contaminated facilities. The portable XRF technology offers several potential benefits for rapid characterization of facility components and contaminants, including significant cost reduction, fast turnaround time,a nd virtually no secondary waste. Field work for the demonstration of the portable XRF technology was performed from August 28--September 3, 1996 and October 30--December 13, 1996

  12. Spatially resolved single crystal x-ray spectropolarimetry of wire array z-pinch plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M S; Haque, S; Neill, P; Pereira, N R; Presura, R

    2018-01-01

    A recently developed single-crystal x-ray spectropolarimeter has been used to record paired sets of polarization-dependent and axially resolved x-ray spectra emitted by wire array z-pinches. In this measurement, two internal planes inside a suitable crystal diffract the x-rays into two perpendicular directions that are normal to each other, thereby separating incident x-rays into their linearly polarized components. This paper gives considerations for fielding the instrument on extended sources. Results from extended sources are difficult to interpret because generally the incident x-rays are not separated properly by the crystal. This difficulty is mitigated by using a series of collimating slits to select incident x-rays that propagate in a plane of symmetry between the polarization-splitting planes. The resulting instrument and some of the spatially resolved polarized x-ray spectra recorded for a 1-MA aluminum wire array z-pinch at the Nevada Terawatt Facility at the University of Nevada, Reno will be presented.

  13. X-ray fluorescence analysis of praseodymium oxide/oxalate for rare earth impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandola, L.C.; Mohile, A.N.

    1976-01-01

    A method for the determination of lanthanum, cerium, neodymium and samarium oxides in praseodymium oxide is described. The sample in the oxalate form is mixed with boric acid binder in the weight ratio of 1:1 and pressed into a pellet. The pellet is irradiated by X-rays from a tungsten tube and fluorescent X-rays are dispersed by a LiF (200) crystal in a Philips semiautomatic X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The intensity of the characteristic X-rays of the impurity elements is measured by a flow proportional counter at selected 20 angles. The minium determination limit is 0.01% for all impurities. (author)

  14. Time-resolved x-ray line diagnostics of laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, R.L.; Matthews, D.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Lee, R.W.

    1982-11-01

    We have examined the underdense plasma conditions of laser irradiated disks using K x-rays from highly ionized ions. A 900 ps laser pulse of 0.532 μm light is used to irradiate various Z disks which have been doped with low concentrations of tracer materials. The tracers, whose Z's range from 13 to 22, are chosen so that their K x-ray spectrum is sensitive to typical underdense plasma temperatures and densities. Spectra are measured using a time-resolved crystal spectrograph recording the time history of the x-ray spectrum. A spatially-resolved, time-integrated crystal spectrograph also monitors the x-ray lines. Large differences in Al spectra are observed when the host plasms is changed from SiO 2 to PbO or In. Spectra will be presented along with preliminary analysis of the data

  15. Time-resolved x-ray line diagnostics of laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, R.L.; Matthews, D.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Lee, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    We have examined the underdense plasma conditions of laser irradiated disks using K x-rays from highly ionized ions. A 900 ps laser pulse of 0.532 μm light is used to irradiate various Z disks which have been doped with low concentrations of tracer materials. The tracers whose Z's range from 13 to 22 are chosen so that their K x-ray spectrum is sensitive to typical underdense plasma temperatures and densities. Spectra are measured using a time-resolved crystal spectrograph recording the time history of the x-ray spectrum. A spatially-resolved, time-integrated crystal spectrograph also monitors the x-ray lines. Large differences in Al spectra are observed when the host plasma is changed from SiO 2 to PbO or In. Spectra will be presented along with preliminary analysis of the data

  16. Ultrafast Structural Dynamics in InSb Probed by Time-Resolved X-Ray Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, A.H.; Shank, C.V.; Chin, A.H.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Shank, C.V.; Glover, T.E.; Leemans, W.P.; Balling, P.

    1999-01-01

    Ultrafast structural dynamics in laser-perturbed InSb are studied using time-resolved x-ray diffraction with a novel femtosecond x-ray source. We report the first observation of a delay in the onset of lattice expansion, which we attribute to energy relaxation processes and lattice strain propagation. In addition, we observe direct indications of ultrafast disordering on a subpicosecond time scale. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  17. Romanian medieval earring analysis by X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therese, Laurent; Guillot, Philippe; Muja, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Several instrumental techniques of elemental analysis are now used for the characterization of archaeological materials. The combination between archaeological and analytical information can provide significant knowledge on the constituting material origin, heritage authentication and restoration, provenance, migration, social interaction and exchange. Surface mapping techniques such as X-Ray Fluorescence have become a powerful tool for obtaining qualitative and semi-quantitative information about the chemical composition of cultural heritage materials, including metallic archaeological objects. In this study, the material comes from the Middle Age cemetery of Feldioara (Romania). The excavation of the site located between the evangelical church and the parsonage led to the discovery of several funeral artifacts in 18 graves among a total of 127 excavated. Even if the inventory was quite poor, some of the objects helped in establishing the chronology. Six anonymous Hungarian denarii (silver coins) were attributed to Geza II (1141-1161) and Stefan III (1162-1172), placing the cemetery in the second half of the XII century. This period was also confirmed by three loop shaped earrings with the end in 'S' form (one small and two large earrings). The small earring was found during the excavation in grave number 86, while the two others were discovered together in grave number 113. The anthropological study shown that skeletons excavated from graves 86 and 113 belonged respectively to a child (1 individual, medium level preservation, 9 months +/- 3 months) and to an adult (1 individual). In this work, elemental mapping were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique from Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument offering detailed elemental images with a spatial resolution of 100μm. The analysis revealed that the earrings were composed of copper, zinc and tin as major elements. Minor elements were also determined. The comparison between the two large earrings

  18. Romanian medieval earring analysis by X-ray fluorescence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therese, Laurent; Guillot, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.guillot@univ-jfc.fr [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasmas, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Muja, Cristina [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasmas, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest (Romania); Vasile Parvan Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest, (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Several instrumental techniques of elemental analysis are now used for the characterization of archaeological materials. The combination between archaeological and analytical information can provide significant knowledge on the constituting material origin, heritage authentication and restoration, provenance, migration, social interaction and exchange. Surface mapping techniques such as X-Ray Fluorescence have become a powerful tool for obtaining qualitative and semi-quantitative information about the chemical composition of cultural heritage materials, including metallic archaeological objects. In this study, the material comes from the Middle Age cemetery of Feldioara (Romania). The excavation of the site located between the evangelical church and the parsonage led to the discovery of several funeral artifacts in 18 graves among a total of 127 excavated. Even if the inventory was quite poor, some of the objects helped in establishing the chronology. Six anonymous Hungarian denarii (silver coins) were attributed to Geza II (1141-1161) and Stefan III (1162-1172), placing the cemetery in the second half of the XII century. This period was also confirmed by three loop shaped earrings with the end in 'S' form (one small and two large earrings). The small earring was found during the excavation in grave number 86, while the two others were discovered together in grave number 113. The anthropological study shown that skeletons excavated from graves 86 and 113 belonged respectively to a child (1 individual, medium level preservation, 9 months +/- 3 months) and to an adult (1 individual). In this work, elemental mapping were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique from Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument offering detailed elemental images with a spatial resolution of 100{mu}m. The analysis revealed that the earrings were composed of copper, zinc and tin as major elements. Minor elements were also determined. The comparison between the two

  19. Quantum electrodynamics of the internal source x-ray holographies: Bremsstrahlung, fluorescence, and multiple-energy x-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.; Sorensen, L.B.

    1997-01-01

    Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is used to derive the differential cross sections measured in the three new experimental internal source ensemble x-ray holographies: bremsstrahlung (BXH), fluorescence (XFH), and multiple-energy (MEXH) x-ray holography. The polarization dependence of the BXH cross section is also obtained. For BXH, we study analytically and numerically the possible effects of the virtual photons and electrons which enter QED calculations in summing over the intermediate states. For the low photon and electron energies used in the current experiments, we show that the virtual intermediate states produce only very small effects. This is because the uncertainty principle limits the distance that the virtual particles can propagate to be much shorter than the separation between the regions of high electron density in the adjacent atoms. We also find that using the asymptotic form of the scattering wave function causes about a 5 10% error for near forward scattering. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  20. Time-Resolved Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Elshof, Johan E.; Besselink, R.; Stawski, Tomasz; Castricum, H.L.; Levy, D.; Zayat, M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on time-resolved studies of nanostructure development in sol-gel liquids, that is, diluted sols, wet gels, and drying thin fffilms. The most commonly investigated classes of sol-gel materials are silica, organically modified silica, template-directed mesostructured silica,

  1. Time-resolved X-ray spectroscopies of chemical systems: New perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed Chergui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The past 3–5 years have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of time-resolved X-ray spectroscopic studies, mainly driven by novel technical and methodological developments. The latter include (i the high repetition rate optical pump/X-ray probe studies, which have greatly boosted the signal-to-noise ratio for picosecond (ps X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies, while enabling ps X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES at synchrotrons; (ii the X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs are a game changer and have allowed the first femtosecond (fs XES and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering experiments to be carried out; (iii XFELs are also opening the road to the development of non-linear X-ray methods. In this perspective, I will mainly focus on the most recent technical developments and briefly address some examples of scientific questions that have been addressed thanks to them. I will look at the novel opportunities in the horizon.

  2. Numerical simulation study for atomic-resolution x-ray fluorescence holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Honglan; Gao Hongyi; Chen Jianwen; Xiong Shisheng; Xu Zhizhan; Wang Junyue; Zhu Peiping; Xian Dingchang

    2003-01-01

    Based on the principle of x-ray fluorescence holography, an iron single crystal model of a body-centred cubic lattice is numerically simulated. From the fluorescence hologram produced numerically, the Fe atomic images were reconstructed. The atomic images of the (001), (100), (010) crystallographic planes were consistent with the corresponding atomic positions of the model. The result indicates that one can obtain internal structure images of single crystals at atomic-resolution by using x-ray fluorescence holography

  3. Direct observation of ultrafast atomic motion using time-resolved X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shymanovich, U.

    2007-11-13

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of the atomic motion in laser irradiated solids on a picosecond to subpicosecond time-scale using the time-resolved X-ray diffraction technique. In the second chapter, the laser system, the laser-plasma based X-ray source and the experimental setup for optical pump / X-ray probe measurements were presented. Chapter 3 is devoted to the characterization and comparison of different types of X-ray optics. Chapter 4 presented the time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments performed for this thesis. The first two sections of this chapter discuss the measurements of initially unexpected strain-induced transient changes of the integrated reflectivity of the X-ray probe beam. The elimination of the strain-induced transient changes of the integrated reflectivity represented an important prerequisite to perform the study of lattice heating in Germanium after femtosecond optical excitation by measuring the transient Debye-Waller effect. The third section describes the investigations of acoustic waves upon ultrafast optical excitation and discusses the two different pressure contributions driving them: the thermal and the electronic ones. (orig.)

  4. Direct observation of ultrafast atomic motion using time-resolved X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shymanovich, U.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of the atomic motion in laser irradiated solids on a picosecond to subpicosecond time-scale using the time-resolved X-ray diffraction technique. In the second chapter, the laser system, the laser-plasma based X-ray source and the experimental setup for optical pump / X-ray probe measurements were presented. Chapter 3 is devoted to the characterization and comparison of different types of X-ray optics. Chapter 4 presented the time-resolved X-ray diffraction experiments performed for this thesis. The first two sections of this chapter discuss the measurements of initially unexpected strain-induced transient changes of the integrated reflectivity of the X-ray probe beam. The elimination of the strain-induced transient changes of the integrated reflectivity represented an important prerequisite to perform the study of lattice heating in Germanium after femtosecond optical excitation by measuring the transient Debye-Waller effect. The third section describes the investigations of acoustic waves upon ultrafast optical excitation and discusses the two different pressure contributions driving them: the thermal and the electronic ones. (orig.)

  5. Thin film growth studies using time-resolved x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowarik, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Thin-film growth is important for novel functional materials and new generations of devices. The non-equilibrium growth physics involved is very challenging, because the energy landscape for atomic scale processes is determined by many parameters, such as the diffusion and Ehrlich-Schwoebel barriers. We review the in situ real-time techniques of x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray growth oscillations and diffuse x-ray scattering (GISAXS) for the determination of structure and morphology on length scales from Å to µm. We give examples of time resolved growth experiments mainly from molecular thin film growth, but also highlight growth of inorganic materials using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and electrochemical deposition from liquids. We discuss how scaling parameters of rate equation models and fundamental energy barriers in kinetic Monte Carlo methods can be determined from fits of the real-time x-ray data.

  6. Chandra Resolves Cosmic X-ray Glow and Finds Mysterious New Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    While taking a giant leap towards solving one of the greatest mysteries of X-ray astronomy, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory also may have revealed the most distant objects ever seen in the universe and discovered two puzzling new types of cosmic objects. Not bad for being on the job only five months. Chandra has resolved most of the X-ray background, a pervasive glow of X-rays throughout the universe, first discovered in the early days of space exploration. Before now, scientists have not been able to discern the background's origin, because no X-ray telescope until Chandra has had both the angular resolution and sensitivity to resolve it. "This is a major discovery," said Dr. Alan Bunner, Director of NASA's Structure andEvolution of the universe science theme. "Since it was first observed thirty-seven years ago, understanding the source of the X-ray background has been aHoly Grail of X-ray astronomy. Now, it is within reach." The results of the observation will be discussed today at the 195th national meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Atlanta, Georgia. An article describing this work has been submitted to the journal Nature by Dr. Richard Mushotzky, of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., Drs. Lennox Cowie and Amy Barger at the University of Hawaii, Honolulu, and Dr. Keith Arnaud of the University of Maryland, College Park. "We are all very excited by this finding," said Mushotzky. "The resolution of most of the hard X-ray background during the first few months of the Chandra mission is a tribute to the power of this observatory and bodes extremely well for its scientific future," Scientists have known about the X-ray glow, called the X-ray background, since the dawn of X-ray astronomy in the early 1960s. They have been unable to discern its origin, however, for no X-ray telescope until Chandra has had both the angular resolution and sensitivity to resolve it. The German-led ROSAT mission, now completed, resolved much of the lower

  7. X-ray fluorescence analyzers for investigating postmediaeval pottery from Southern Moravia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trojek, Tomas; Hlozek, Matin; Cechak, Tomas; Musilek, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with an investigation of ceramic archaeological finds with the use of in-situ X-ray fluorescence analysis. Firstly, three configurations of X-ray fluorescence analyzers constructed and used at the Czech Technical University in Prague are described and compared for use in a non-destructive survey of siliceous materials. Detection limits, depth of analysis, the relation of the analyzed area, the homogeneity of the samples, and variations in the element concentrations are discussed. Secondly, many shards of postmediaeval pottery from Southern Moravia are analyzed with X-ray fluorescence analysis and some of them also with electron microprobe analysis. Selected results are described.

  8. A guide for approval of x-ray fluorescence analysis devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This guide has been written to assist manufacturers, distributors and users of x-ray fluorescence analysis devices in the preparation of a submission to the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) in support of a request for approval of an x-ray fluorescence analysis device. Prior to the issuance of a Radioisotope licence authorizing the use or possession of an x-ray fluorescence analysis device in Canada, the design and construction of the device must be approved by the AECB. The AECB assessment is limited to the radiation safety aspects of use and packaging for transportation

  9. Sampling, storage and sample preparation procedures for X ray fluorescence analysis of environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    X ray fluorescence (XRF) method is one of the most commonly used nuclear analytical technique because of its multielement and non-destructive character, speed, economy and ease of operation. From the point of view of quality assurance practices, sampling and sample preparation procedures are the most crucial steps in all analytical techniques, (including X ray fluorescence) applied for the analysis of heterogeneous materials. This technical document covers recent modes of the X ray fluorescence method and recent developments in sample preparation techniques for the analysis of environmental materials. Refs, figs, tabs

  10. use of x-ray fluorescence spectrometry to determine trace elements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    Abstract. This paper deals with application of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the detection of trace elements in graphic. An X-ray spectrometer was constructed and used to carry out measurements on graphite spheres impregnated with different chemical elements. The intensities of the lines of these trace elements, ...

  11. Microprocessor-based system for automatic X-ray diffraction and fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, A.M. de; Carmo, L.C.S. do; Pereira, V.J.E.; Soares, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    A data acquisition and processing device appropriate for X-ray analysis and goniometer control was built. The Z-80 based system as well as the whole architeture is described. The advantages and new possibilities of the automated instrument as compared to the traditional ones are listed. The X-ray diffraction and fluorescence techniques can take advantage of the automation. (Author) [pt

  12. X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Analysis of Explosive-Related Materials and Unknowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    instrument uses a 50 W X-ray tube with a Pd target and has a sample chamber with a six- sample turret. The maximum sample size is 44 mm in diameter by...absorbance of X-rays by the elements present, and the X-ray fluorescence following excitation from other X-rays produced by the sample . Qualitative data...CAN2 Big Approximately 7.6 g of weathered CAN, enough to fill a sample cup To investigate possible errors associated with small sample size

  13. Compton polarimetry with position-resolving X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Sebastian

    2010-02-01

    In the present thesis the prototype of a novel position-resolving and multi-hit able 2D Si(Li) strip detector is characterized, the planar detector crystal of which is simultaneously applied both as scatterer and as absorber. In the framework of this thesis the Si(Li) polarimeter could be applied in different experiments on the radiative electron capture and on the characteristic radiation at the experimental storage ring of the GSI. The characterization of the detector pursued by means of the highly polarized radiation of the electron capture into the K shell of naked xenon. In the following in two further experiments new values on the polarization of the electron capture into the K shell both of the naked and of the hydrogen-like uranium were performed.

  14. X-ray fluorescence in IAEA Member States: Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karydas, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Laboratory of Material Analysis (LMA) of the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) at the National Center for Scientific Research (NCSR) 'Demokritos', has been involved very actively during the past few years in the development, evaluation and analytical application of portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instruments, applied in particular for the non-destructive analysis of cultural materials. The study, conservation and preservation of cultural materials are considered nowadays issues of main concern for countries and international cultural organizations. Due to the strong interest and motivation from archaeologists, conservators and archaeometrical scientists in Greece and elsewhere, a large network has been developed involving the LMA and archaeologists/conservator scientists from Museums (Benaki Museum in Athens), Cultural Foundations (Thera Foundation P. Nomikos), the Greek Ministry of Culture-Conservation Department, Foreign Schools in Greece (American School of Classical Studies, French School of Athens), Universities (Department of Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art in the Technological Educational Institution of Athens, University of Cincinnatti, Universite de Paris I, Pantheon Sorbonne), private sectors (THETIS, Thetis Authentics - Science and Techniques for Art History Conservation Ltd) and Institutions (Centre de Recherche et de Rastauration des Musees de France, LNS-INFN, LANDIS group). A variety of cultural materials/artifacts have been examined so far, including ceramic vases with colored decoration, bronze artifacts, wall-painting pigments, traces of polychromy on marble sculptures, Gold and Silver ancient jewelry, Gemstones, Roman Coins. Our research and analytical applications of the in-situ XRF analysis have been focused so far on the following: 1) optimum selection and integration of portable XRF instrumentation for improving analytical and sensitivity range; 2) evaluation of the potential of in-situ XRF analysis to provide specific

  15. RESOLVED COMPANIONS OF CEPHEIDS: TESTING THE CANDIDATES WITH X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 4, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Ave., Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaefer, Gail H. [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson, California 91023 (United States); Mason, Brian D., E-mail: nevans@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20392-5420 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    We have made XMM-Newton observations of 14 Galactic Cepheids that have candidate resolved (≥5″) companion stars based on our earlier HST Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging survey. Main-sequence stars that are young enough to be physical companions of Cepheids are expected to be strong X-ray producers in contrast to field stars. XMM-Newton exposures were set to detect essentially all companions hotter than spectral type M0 (corresponding to 0.5 M{sub ⊙}). The large majority of our candidate companions were not detected in X-rays, and hence are not confirmed as young companions. One resolved candidate (S Nor #4) was unambiguously detected, but the Cepheid is a member of a populous cluster. For this reason, it is likely that S Nor #4 is a cluster member rather than a gravitationally bound companion. Two further Cepheids (S Mus and R Cru) have X-ray emission that might be produced by either the Cepheid or the candidate resolved companion. A subsequent Chandra observation of S Mus shows that the X-rays are at the location of the Cepheid/spectroscopic binary. R Cru and also V659 Cen (also X-ray bright) have possible companions closer than 5″ (the limit for this study) which are the likely sources of X-rays. One final X-ray detection (V473 Lyr) has no known optical companion, so the prime suspect is the Cepheid itself. It is a unique Cepheid with a variable amplitude. The 14 stars that we observed with XMM constitute 36% of the 39 Cepheids found to have candidate companions in our HST/WFC3 optical survey. No young probable binary companions were found with separations of ≥5″ or 4000 au.

  16. RESOLVED COMPANIONS OF CEPHEIDS: TESTING THE CANDIDATES WITH X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan; Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    We have made XMM-Newton observations of 14 Galactic Cepheids that have candidate resolved (≥5″) companion stars based on our earlier HST Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging survey. Main-sequence stars that are young enough to be physical companions of Cepheids are expected to be strong X-ray producers in contrast to field stars. XMM-Newton exposures were set to detect essentially all companions hotter than spectral type M0 (corresponding to 0.5 M ⊙ ). The large majority of our candidate companions were not detected in X-rays, and hence are not confirmed as young companions. One resolved candidate (S Nor #4) was unambiguously detected, but the Cepheid is a member of a populous cluster. For this reason, it is likely that S Nor #4 is a cluster member rather than a gravitationally bound companion. Two further Cepheids (S Mus and R Cru) have X-ray emission that might be produced by either the Cepheid or the candidate resolved companion. A subsequent Chandra observation of S Mus shows that the X-rays are at the location of the Cepheid/spectroscopic binary. R Cru and also V659 Cen (also X-ray bright) have possible companions closer than 5″ (the limit for this study) which are the likely sources of X-rays. One final X-ray detection (V473 Lyr) has no known optical companion, so the prime suspect is the Cepheid itself. It is a unique Cepheid with a variable amplitude. The 14 stars that we observed with XMM constitute 36% of the 39 Cepheids found to have candidate companions in our HST/WFC3 optical survey. No young probable binary companions were found with separations of ≥5″ or 4000 au

  17. Resolved Companions of Cepheids: Testing the Candidates with X-Ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan; Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.

    2016-04-01

    We have made XMM-Newton observations of 14 Galactic Cepheids that have candidate resolved (≥5″) companion stars based on our earlier HST Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) imaging survey. Main-sequence stars that are young enough to be physical companions of Cepheids are expected to be strong X-ray producers in contrast to field stars. XMM-Newton exposures were set to detect essentially all companions hotter than spectral type M0 (corresponding to 0.5 M⊙). The large majority of our candidate companions were not detected in X-rays, and hence are not confirmed as young companions. One resolved candidate (S Nor #4) was unambiguously detected, but the Cepheid is a member of a populous cluster. For this reason, it is likely that S Nor #4 is a cluster member rather than a gravitationally bound companion. Two further Cepheids (S Mus and R Cru) have X-ray emission that might be produced by either the Cepheid or the candidate resolved companion. A subsequent Chandra observation of S Mus shows that the X-rays are at the location of the Cepheid/spectroscopic binary. R Cru and also V659 Cen (also X-ray bright) have possible companions closer than 5″ (the limit for this study) which are the likely sources of X-rays. One final X-ray detection (V473 Lyr) has no known optical companion, so the prime suspect is the Cepheid itself. It is a unique Cepheid with a variable amplitude. The 14 stars that we observed with XMM constitute 36% of the 39 Cepheids found to have candidate companions in our HST/WFC3 optical survey. No young probable binary companions were found with separations of ≥5″ or 4000 au. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and the USA (NASA).

  18. Characterization of a pulsed x-ray source for fluorescent lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankespoor, S.C.; Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.; Rossington, C.S.; Ito, M.; Oba, K.

    1994-01-01

    To search for new, fast, inorganic scintillators, the authors have developed a bench-top pulsed x-ray source for determining fluorescent lifetimes and wavelengths of compounds in crystal or powdered form. This source uses a light-excited x-ray tube which produces x-rays when light from a laser diode strikes its photocathode. The x-ray tube has a tungsten anode, a beryllium exit window, a 30 kV maximum tube bias, and a 50 μA maximum average cathode current. The laser produces 3 x 10 7 photons at 650 nm per ∼100 ps pulse, with up to 10 7 pulses/sec. The time spread for the laser diode, x-ray tube, and a microchannel plate photomultiplier tube is less than 120 ps fwhm. The mean x-ray energy at tube biases of 20, 25, and 30 kV is 9.4, 10.3, and 11.1 keV, respectively. The authors measured 140, 230, and 330 x-ray photons per laser diode pulse per steradian, at tube biases of 20, 25, and 30 kV, respectively. Background x-rays due to dark current occur at a rate of 1 x 10 6 and 3 x 10 6 photons/sec/steradian at biases of 25 and 30 kV, respectively. Data characterizing the x-ray output with an aluminum filter in the x-ray beam are also presented

  19. Applications of synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence technique in materials science-possibilities at INDUS-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Manoj K.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy has seen remarkable progress over the last few decades. Numerous applications in basic and applied sciences demonstrate its importance. Various advantages of XRF technique have motivated us to construct a microfocus XRF beamline (BL-16) on Indus-2 national synchrotron radiation facility. The BL-16 beamline offers a wide range of usages - both from research laboratories and industries; and for researchers working in diverse fields. Apart from the fields of pure sciences like physics and chemistry, the beamline provides an attractive platform to exercise material science applications, interdisciplinary applied sciences like medical, forensic and environmental studies etc. In addition to micro-XRF characterization, BL-16 beamline allows a user to perform studies using other advanced synchrotron based experimental methodologies, viz; grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXRF) analysis, chemical speciation, near-edge absorption spectroscopy and X-ray reflectivity studies of thin layered materials etc. The combined XRR-GIXRF analysis feature of the BL-16 beamline offers a novel capability to perform GIXRF assisted depth resolved X-ray studies to investigate chemical state and electronic structure of the thin nano-structured materials. The design aspects and various salient features of the BL-16 beamline X-ray reflectometer will be presented along with the measured performance. (author)

  20. Application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Applicability of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry for trace elemental analysis of rainwater samples was studied. The study was used to develop these samples as rainwater standards by the National University of Singapore (NUS). Our laboratory was one of the participants to use TXRF for this study.

  1. Fluorescent x-ray computed tomography to visualize specific material distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Hoshino, Atsunori; Akiba, Masahiro; Uchida, Akira; Kazama, Masahiro; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Akatsuka, Takao; Itai, Yuji

    1997-10-01

    Fluorescent x-ray computed tomography (FXCT) is being developed to detect non-radioactive contrast materials in living specimens. The FXCT systems consists of a silicon channel cut monochromator, an x-ray slit and a collimator for detection, a scanning table for the target organ and an x-ray detector for fluorescent x-ray and transmission x-ray. To reduce Compton scattering overlapped on the K(alpha) line, incident monochromatic x-ray was set at 37 keV. At 37 keV Monte Carlo simulation showed almost complete separation between Compton scattering and the K(alpha) line. Actual experiments revealed small contamination of Compton scattering on the K(alpha) line. A clear FXCT image of a phantom was obtained. Using this system the minimal detectable dose of iodine was 30 ng in a volume of 1 mm3, and a linear relationship was demonstrated between photon counts of fluorescent x-rays and the concentration of iodine contrast material. The use of high incident x-ray energy allows an increase in the signal to noise ratio by reducing the Compton scattering on the K(alpha) line.

  2. Time-resolved protein nano-crystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; Fromme, Petra; Fromme, Raimund; Grotjohann, Ingo; Doak, R. Bruce; Kirian, Richard A.; Schmidt, Kevin E.; Wang, Xiaoyu; Weierstall, Uwe; Spence, John C.H.; White, Thomas A.; Caleman, Carl; DePonte, Daniel P.; Fleckenstein, Holger; Gumprecht, Lars; Liang, Mengning; Martin, Andrew V.; Schulz, Joachim; Stellato, Francesco; Stern, Stephan; Barty, Anton; Andreasson, Jakob; Davidsson, Jan; Hajdu, Janos; Maia, Filipe R.N.C.; Seibert, M. Marvin; Timneanu, Nicusor; Arnlund, David; Johansson, Linda; Malmerberg, Erik; Neutze, Richard; Bajt, Sasa; Barthelmess, Miriam; Graafsma, Heinz; Hirsemann, Helmut; Wunderer, Cornelia; Barends, Thomas R.M.; Foucar, Lutz; Krasniqi, Faton; Lomb, Lukas; Rolles, Daniel; Schlichting, Ilme; Schmidt, Carlo; Bogan, Michael J.; Hampton, Christina Y.; Sierra, Raymond; Starodub, Dmitri; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Williams, Garth J.; Bottin, Herve

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of an X-ray free electron laser synchronized with an optical pump laser to obtain X-ray diffraction snapshots from the photo-activated states of large membrane protein complexes in the form of nano-crystals flowing in a liquid jet. Light-induced changes of Photosystem I-Ferredoxin co-crystals were observed at time delays of 5 to 10 μs after excitation. The result correlates with the microsecond kinetics of electron transfer from Photosystem I to ferredoxin. The undocking process that follows the electron transfer leads to large rearrangements in the crystals that will terminally lead to the disintegration of the crystals. We describe the experimental setup and obtain the first time resolved femtosecond serial X-ray crystallography results from an irreversible photo-chemical reaction at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This technique opens the door to time-resolved structural studies of reaction dynamics in biological systems. (authors)

  3. In vivo x-ray fluorescence of lead and other toxic trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chettle, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    The first in vivo x-ray fluorescence measurements of lead in bone used y-rays from a 57 Co source to excite Pb K x-rays. Later systems used γ-rays from 109 Cd to excite Pb K x-rays or polarized x-rays to excite Ph L x-rays. All three approaches involve an extremely low effective dose to the subject. Of the two K x-ray techniques, 109 Cd is more precise and more flexible in choice of measurement site. Pb L x-ray fluorescence (L-XRF) effectively samples lead at bone surfaces, whereas Ph K x-ray fluorescence (K-XRF) samples through the bulk of a bone. Both the polarized L-XRF and 109 Cd K-XRF achieve similar precision. Renal mercury has recently been determined using a polarized x-ray source, Both renal and hepatic cadmium can be measured using polarized x-rays in conjunction with a Si(Li) detector. Platinum and gold have been measured both by radioisotopic source excitation and by using polarized x-rays, but the latter is to be preferred. Applications of Pb K-XRF have shown that measured bone lead relates strongly to cumulative lead exposure. Secondly, biological half lives of lead in different bone types have been estimated from limited longitudinal data sets and from some cross sectional surveys. Thirdly, the effect of bone lead as an endogenous source of lead has been demonstrated and it has been shown that a majority of circulating blood lead can be mobilized from bone, rather than deriving from new exposure, in some retired lead workers. 35 refs., 5 tabs

  4. Micro-beam X-ray fluorescence and absorption imaging techniques at the IAEA Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzynek, Dariusz; Markowicz, A.; Bamford, S.; Chinea-Cano, E.; Bogovac, M.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray tube based, micro-beam X-ray fluorescence scanning spectrometer has been equipped with two energy dispersive X-ray detectors. The two-detector configuration allows for simultaneous collection of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and transmitted X-ray beam signals with a spatial resolution in the range of 10-50 μm, depending on the X-ray focussing element in use. The XRF signal is collected with a standard, liquid nitrogen cooled Si(Li) detector. The X-ray beam transmitted through the sample is acquired with a thermoelectrically cooled, silicon drift (SD) detector. The data acquisition is carried out in a fully automatic way under control of the SPECTOR-LOCATOR software. The software controls the scanning procedure and X-ray spectra acquisition during the scan. The energy dispersive X-ray spectra collected at every 'pixel' are stored for off-line processing. For selected regions of interest (ROI's), the element maps are constructed and displayed on-line. The spectrometer has been used for mapping elemental distributions and for performing 2D- and 3D-tomograpic imaging of minute objects in X-ray absorption and in X-ray fluorescence mode. A unique feature of the described system is simultaneous utilization of the two detectors, Si(Li) and SD, which adds new options for quantitative analysis and data interpretation. Examples of elemental mapping and 3D tomographic imaging as well as the advanced features of the SPECTOR-LOCATOR measurement control and data acquisition software are presented in this work

  5. Simultaneous analysis of gaseous and particulate sulphur in the atmosphere by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yatsuka; Mamuro, Tetsuo

    1975-01-01

    An analytical technique for the simultaneous measurements of the atmospheric concentrations of SO 2 gas and sulphur absorbed by aerosol particles has been developed. Aerosol particles are collected on membrane filter and at the same time SO 2 gas is captured on alkali impregnated filter. The sulphur content in each filter is measured by an energy dispersive X -ray fluorescence spectrometer consisting of a Si(Li) semiconductor detector connected to a multi-channel pulse height analyzer and an excitation source of 55 Fe. Two methods are acceptable for the determination of the sulphur content in impregnated filter by X-ray fluorescence analysis. In the first method X-ray fluorescence analysis is made after the collected sulphur gas diffused and distributed uniformly enough throughout the filter, and in the second method X-ray fluorescence analysis gas to be finished before the diffusion of the collected sulphur becomes appreciable. (author)

  6. Sweeping total reflection X-ray fluorescence optimisation to monitor the metallic contamination into IC manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borde, Yannick; Danel, Adrien; Roche, Agnes; Veillerot, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Among the methods available on the market today to control as metallic contamination in integrated circuit manufacturing, Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence mode appears a very good method, providing fast and entire wafer mapping. With the goal of a pertinent use of Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence in advanced Integrated Circuit manufacturing this work discusses how acceptable levels of contamination specified by the production (low levels to be detected) can be taken into account. The relation between measurement results (surface coverage, throughput, low limit of detection, limit of quantification, quantification of localized contamination) and Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence parameters (number of measurement points and integration time per point) is presented in details. In particular, a model is proposed to explain the mismatch between actual surface contamination in a localized spot on wafer and Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence reading. Both calibration and geometric issues have been taken into account

  7. Forensic application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for elemental characterization of ink samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhara, Sangita; Misra, N.L.; Maind, S.D.; Kumar, Sanjukta A.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of applying Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for qualitative and quantitative differentiation of documents printed with rare earth tagged and untagged inks has been explored in this paper. For qualitative differentiation, a very small amount of ink was loosened from the printed documents by smoothly rubbing with a new clean blade without destroying the manuscript. 50 μL of Milli-Q water was put on this loose powder, on the manuscript, and was agitated by sucking and releasing the suspension two to three times with the help of a micropipette. The resultant dispersion was deposited on quartz sample support for Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectrum of tagged and untagged inks could be clearly differentiated. In order to see the applicability of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for quantitative determinations of rare earths and also to countercheck such determinations in ink samples, the amounts of rare earth in painted papers with single rare earth tagged inks were determined by digesting the painted paper in HNO 3 /HClO 4 , mixing this solution with the internal standard and recording their Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectra after calibration of the instrument. The results thus obtained were compared with those obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and were found in good agreement. The average precision of the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determinations was 5.5% (1σ) and the average deviation of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determined values with that of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry was 7.3%. These studies have shown that Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence offers a promising and potential application in forensic work of this nature.

  8. Determination of silver in ancient coins by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pairatana, C.

    1976-01-01

    45 coins of late Ayudhaya and Bangkok periods was analyzed quantitatively by x-ray fluorescence technique using radioisotopic sources Pm - 147/A1 and Am - 241. The fluorescence x-rays were detected by Lithium drifted silicon detector and 1024 channels pulse height analyzer. The procedure was laid a stress on non-destructive methods which could be utilized for analysing various kinds of antiquities and work of arts such as metals, alloys, pottery, ceramics, paper, textile, wood etc

  9. Certification of reference materials by energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Leif Højslet; Heydorn, Kaj

    1985-01-01

    This paper studies the precision and accuracy that can be achieved using energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the determination of total sulphur content in BCR 38 Fly Ash issued by the European Community Bureau of Reference.......This paper studies the precision and accuracy that can be achieved using energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the determination of total sulphur content in BCR 38 Fly Ash issued by the European Community Bureau of Reference....

  10. Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis of components of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Havranek, E.; Dejmkova, E.

    1983-12-01

    The physical foundations and methodology are described of radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis. The sources are listed of air, water and soil pollution, and the transfer of impurities into biological materials is described. A detailed description is presented of the sampling of air, soil and biological materials and their preparation for analysis. Greatest attention is devoted to radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis of the components of the environment. (ES)

  11. Forensic application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for elemental characterization of ink samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhara, Sangita [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Misra, N.L., E-mail: nlmisra@barc.gov.i [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Maind, S.D. [NAA Unit of Central Forensic Science Laboratory Hyderabad at Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kumar, Sanjukta A. [Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Chattopadhyay, N. [NAA Unit of Central Forensic Science Laboratory Hyderabad at Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Aggarwal, S.K. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2010-02-15

    The possibility of applying Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for qualitative and quantitative differentiation of documents printed with rare earth tagged and untagged inks has been explored in this paper. For qualitative differentiation, a very small amount of ink was loosened from the printed documents by smoothly rubbing with a new clean blade without destroying the manuscript. 50 muL of Milli-Q water was put on this loose powder, on the manuscript, and was agitated by sucking and releasing the suspension two to three times with the help of a micropipette. The resultant dispersion was deposited on quartz sample support for Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectrum of tagged and untagged inks could be clearly differentiated. In order to see the applicability of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for quantitative determinations of rare earths and also to countercheck such determinations in ink samples, the amounts of rare earth in painted papers with single rare earth tagged inks were determined by digesting the painted paper in HNO{sub 3}/HClO{sub 4}, mixing this solution with the internal standard and recording their Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectra after calibration of the instrument. The results thus obtained were compared with those obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and were found in good agreement. The average precision of the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determinations was 5.5% (1sigma) and the average deviation of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determined values with that of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry was 7.3%. These studies have shown that Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence offers a promising and potential application in forensic work of this nature.

  12. ISS Ammonia Leak Detection Through X-Ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan; Barthelmy, Scott; Skinner, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia leaks are a significant concern for the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS has external transport lines that direct liquid ammonia to radiator panels where the ammonia is cooled and then brought back to thermal control units. These transport lines and radiator panels are subject to stress from micrometeorites and temperature variations, and have developed small leaks. The ISS can accommodate these leaks at their present rate, but if the rate increased by a factor of ten, it could potentially deplete the ammonia supply and impact the proper functioning of the ISS thermal control system, causing a serious safety risk. A proposed ISS astrophysics instrument, the Lobster X-Ray Monitor, can be used to detect and localize ISS ammonia leaks. Based on the optical design of the eye of its namesake crustacean, the Lobster detector gives simultaneously large field of view and good position resolution. The leak detection principle is that the nitrogen in the leaking ammonia will be ionized by X-rays from the Sun, and then emit its own characteristic Xray signal. The Lobster instrument, nominally facing zenith for its astrophysics observations, can be periodically pointed towards the ISS radiator panels and some sections of the transport lines to detect and localize the characteristic X-rays from the ammonia leaks. Another possibility is to use the ISS robot arm to grab the Lobster instrument and scan it across the transport lines and radiator panels. In this case the leak detection can be made more sensitive by including a focused 100-microampere electron beam to stimulate X-ray emission from the leaking nitrogen. Laboratory studies have shown that either approach can be used to locate ammonia leaks at the level of 0.1 kg/day, a threshold rate of concern for the ISS. The Lobster instrument uses two main components: (1) a microchannel plate optic (also known as a Lobster optic) that focuses the X-rays and directs them to the focal plane, and (2) a CCD (charge

  13. Method for detecting binding events using micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P.; Havrilla, George J.; Mann, Grace

    2010-12-28

    Method for detecting binding events using micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Receptors are exposed to at least one potential binder and arrayed on a substrate support. Each member of the array is exposed to X-ray radiation. The magnitude of a detectable X-ray fluorescence signal for at least one element can be used to determine whether a binding event between a binder and a receptor has occurred, and can provide information related to the extent of binding between the binder and receptor.

  14. LCLS in—photon out: fluorescence measurement of neon using soft x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, Razib; Buth, Christian; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Beerwerth, Randolf; Holmes, Michael; Aldrich, Jeff; Lin, Ming-Fu; Minitti, Michael; Osipov, Timur; Schlotter, William; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.; Fritzsche, Stephan; Berrah, Nora

    2018-02-01

    We measured the fluorescence photon yield of neon upon soft x-ray ionization (∼1200 eV) from the x-ray free-electron laser at Linac Coherent Light Source, and demonstrated the usage of a grazing incidence spectrometer with a variable line spacing grating to perform x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy on a gas phase system. Our measurements also allowed us to estimate the focal size of the beam from the theoretical description developed, in terms of the rate equation approximation accounting for photoionization shake off of neutral neon and double auger decay of single core holes.

  15. The application of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to prospecting potential gold deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Fengjun; Wang Haixia; Zhou Rongsheng

    2001-01-01

    The fieldwork high-sensitivity X-ray fluorescence analysis (FXFA) adopting miniaturized X-ray tube, Si-PIN detector with peltier cooler and notebook PC spectrometry is presented. Using this system, the authors carried out a preliminary research of its application to some gold mine in Sichuan. According to the close relationship between the high-grade element arsenic and gold in ore-forming components, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry can be used to reveal the existence of potential gold mineralization in fields rapidly. This is of great significance in guiding the field geological collection

  16. Multiple X-ray tomography using transmitted, scattered and fluorescent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A.; Golosio, B.; Lopes, R.T.; Barroso, R.C.; Donativi, M.; Castellano, A.; Quarta, S.

    2003-01-01

    A multiple CT-scanner is described, which contemporaneously uses transmitted, scattered and fluorescent X-rays for Imaging. The scanner is characterized by a small size X-ray tube and by four detectors: a ''pencil'' X-ray NaI(Tl) for transmitted tomography, a larger size NaI(Tl) for 90 C o Compton tomography, a thermoelectrically cooled Si-PIN or CdZnTe for fluorescent imaging and a CdZnTe for Rayleigh (or diffraction) tomography. Examples of applications are shown

  17. X-ray fluorescence holography: A different approach to data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busetto, E.; Kopecky, M.; Lausi, A.; Menk, R.H.; Miculin, M.; Savoia, A.

    2000-01-01

    The images of nearest neighbors of gallium atoms in a GaAs crystal were obtained by the x-ray fluorescence holography technique. The fluorescence from gallium atoms was selected by means of a thin zinc foil filter that made possible the use of an x-ray silicon photodiode detector without energy resolution. This method makes possible the detection of a much higher signal with respect to all previous experiments, thus reducing drastically measuring times, that is a basic and essential step from contemporary demonstration experiments to possible practical applications of x-ray holography in structure analysis

  18. Provenance study of Gothic paintings from North-East Slovakia by handheld x-ray fluorescence, microscopy and x-ray microdiffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hradil, David; Hradilová, J.; Bezdička, Petr; Švarcová, Silvie

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 4 (2008), s. 376-382 ISSN 0049-8246 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/07/1324 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Gothic paintings * X-ray fluorescence * X-ray microdiffraction Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.390, year: 2008

  19. Determining grain resolved stresses in polycrystalline materials using three-dimensional X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Schmidt, Søren; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for characterization of the grain resolved (type II) stress states in a polycrystalline sample based on monochromatic X-ray diffraction data. The algorithm is a robust 12-parameter-per-grain fit of the centre-of-mass grain positions, orientations and stress tensors...

  20. X-ray fluorescence in Member States (Italy): Full field X-ray fluorescence imaging with high-energy and high-spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, F. P.; Masini, N.; Pappalardo, L., E-mail: romanop@lns.infn.it [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Cosentino, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Rizzo, F. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    A full field X-ray camera for the X-Ray Fluorescence imaging of materials with high-energy and high-spatial resolution was designed and developed. The system was realized by coupling a pinhole collimator with a positionsensitive CCD detector. X-Ray fluorescence is induced on the samples by irradiation with an external X-ray tube. The characteristic X-ray spectra of the investigated materials are obtained by using a multi-frames acquisition in single-photon counting. The energy resolution measured at the Fe-Kα line was 157 eV. The spatial resolution of the system was determined by the analysis of a sharp-edge at different magnification values; it was estimated to be 90 μm at a magnification value of 3.2x and 190 μm at 0.8x. The present set-up of the system is suited to analyze samples with dimensions up to 5x4 cm{sup 2}. Typical measurement time is in the range between 1h to 4 h. (author)

  1. Scoria analysis by X-ray fluorescence with briquet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, G.R. da; Albert, P.E.

    1987-01-01

    The sample of scoria is triturated, using boric acid as agglomerative. The briquets are analyzed by X-ray quantometry, establishing the proportions of SiO 2 , P 2 O 5 , S, Cr 2 O 3 , V 2 O 5 , TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Mg O, Ca O, FeO and their basicity. The calibration curves are prepared with standard scoria samples, by chemical analysis. (C.G.C.) [pt

  2. Time-resolved and position-resolved X-ray spectrometry with a pixelated detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, Peter

    2012-12-07

    show a good agreement. Up to now the measurements of impinging spectra with a Timepix detector have been performed in radiation fields with a relatively high fluence. To cope with the requirement of measuring in radiation fields with a low fluence, there had to be changes in the method of analysis compared to those performed formerly. An important improvement in this context was the employment of the Bayesian deconvolution method. The spectra reconstructed with this method were then compared to the results of two different and established detection systems. Firstly, the shape of the deconvolved spectrum was compared to the one measured with a hpGe detector. Secondly, the calculated value of the kerma rate was compared to the one measured with an ionization chamber. This gave an estimate on the correctness of the absolute number of photons. Both comparisons have shown a good agreement and thus I was able to validate that the method delivers precise results. Compared to the formerly used spectrum-stripping method the Bayesian deconvolution turned out to be very stable and reliable. This robustness of the deconvolution method and the development of a pixel-by-pixel energy calibration were the keys towards position-resolved spectrometry. With such a precise energy calibration the energy resolution was enhanced by up to 45%. This improved accuracy in the measurement has been very demanding on the improvements of the simulation of the response matrix needed for deconvolution. Both this enhanced simulation and a pixel-by-pixel calibrated detector opened the possibility of measuring the anode heel effect. Not only the relative angular dependency of the spectrum emitted but also the change in the absolute photon fluence were measured. Furthermore, it is possible to even use small ROIs down to 4x4 pixels to evaluate a spectrum. This was then applied for the spectrometry of small focal spots of a miniature X-ray source used in therapeutics. Furthermore, the robustness and the

  3. Time-resolved and position-resolved X-ray spectrometry with a pixelated detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievers, Peter

    2012-01-01

    show a good agreement. Up to now the measurements of impinging spectra with a Timepix detector have been performed in radiation fields with a relatively high fluence. To cope with the requirement of measuring in radiation fields with a low fluence, there had to be changes in the method of analysis compared to those performed formerly. An important improvement in this context was the employment of the Bayesian deconvolution method. The spectra reconstructed with this method were then compared to the results of two different and established detection systems. Firstly, the shape of the deconvolved spectrum was compared to the one measured with a hpGe detector. Secondly, the calculated value of the kerma rate was compared to the one measured with an ionization chamber. This gave an estimate on the correctness of the absolute number of photons. Both comparisons have shown a good agreement and thus I was able to validate that the method delivers precise results. Compared to the formerly used spectrum-stripping method the Bayesian deconvolution turned out to be very stable and reliable. This robustness of the deconvolution method and the development of a pixel-by-pixel energy calibration were the keys towards position-resolved spectrometry. With such a precise energy calibration the energy resolution was enhanced by up to 45%. This improved accuracy in the measurement has been very demanding on the improvements of the simulation of the response matrix needed for deconvolution. Both this enhanced simulation and a pixel-by-pixel calibrated detector opened the possibility of measuring the anode heel effect. Not only the relative angular dependency of the spectrum emitted but also the change in the absolute photon fluence were measured. Furthermore, it is possible to even use small ROIs down to 4x4 pixels to evaluate a spectrum. This was then applied for the spectrometry of small focal spots of a miniature X-ray source used in therapeutics. Furthermore, the robustness and the

  4. Development of a fluorescent x-ray source for medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyofuku, F.; Tokumori, K.; Nishimura, K.; Saito, T.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Hyodo, K.; Ando, M.; Endo, M.; Naito, H.; Uyama, C.

    1995-02-01

    A fluorescent x-ray source for medical imaging, such as K-edge subtraction angiography and monochromatic x-ray CT, has been developed. Using a 6.5 GeV accumulation ring in Tsukuba, fluorescent x rays, which range from about 30 to 70 keV are generated by irradiating several target materials. Measurements have been made of output intensities and energy spectra for different target angles and extraction angles. The intensities of fluorescent x rays at a 30 mA beam current are on the order of 1-3×106 photons/mm2/s at 30 cm from the local spot where the incident beam is collimated to 1 mm2. A phantom which contains three different contrast media (iodine, barium, gadolinium) was used for the K-edge energy subtraction, and element selective CT images were obtained.

  5. X-ray fluorescence analysis of thin films at glancing-incident and -takeoff angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, K.; Sato, S.; Hirokawa, K.

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a new analytical method, Glancing-Incidence and -Takeoff X-Ray Fluorescence (GIT-XRF) method for the first time. Here, we present an idea for a thin-film analysis and a surface analysis by the GIT-XRF method. In this method, the dependence of the fluorescent x-ray intensity on takeoff angle is measured at various incident angles of the primary x-ray. Compared with a total reflection x-ray fluorescence method, the GIT-XRF method allows a detailed thin-film analysis, because the thin film is cross-checked by many experimental curves. Moreover, a surface-sensitive analysis is also possible by the GIT-XRF method. (author)

  6. Time-resolved soft x-ray spectra from laser-produced Cu plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cone, K.V.; Dunn, J.; Baldis, H.A.; May, M.J.; Purvis, M.A.; Scott, H.A.; Schneider, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    The volumetric heating of a thin copper target has been studied with time resolved x-ray spectroscopy. The copper target was heated from a plasma produced using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terrawatt (COMET) laser. A variable spaced grating spectrometer coupled to an x-ray streak camera measured soft x-ray emission (800-1550 eV) from the back of the copper target to characterize the bulk heating of the target. Radiation hydrodynamic simulations were modeled in 2-dimensions using the HYDRA code. The target conditions calculated by HYDRA were post-processed with the atomic kinetics code CRETIN to generate synthetic emission spectra. A comparison between the experimental and simulated spectra indicates the presence of specific ionization states of copper and the corresponding electron temperatures and ion densities throughout the laser-heated copper target.

  7. Element-resolved x-ray ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boero, G; Mouaziz, S; Rusponi, S; Bencok, P; Nolting, F; Stepanow, S; Gambardella, P

    2008-01-01

    We report on the measurement of element-specific magnetic resonance spectra at gigahertz frequencies using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). We investigate the ferrimagnetic precession of Gd and Fe ions in Gd-substituted yttrium iron garnet, showing that the resonant field and linewidth of Gd precisely coincide with Fe up to the nonlinear regime of parametric excitations. The opposite sign of the Gd x-ray magnetic resonance signal with respect to Fe is consistent with dynamic antiferromagnetic alignment of the two ionic species. Further, we investigate a bilayer metal film, Ni 80 Fe 20 (5 nm)/Ni(50 nm), where the coupled resonance modes of Ni and Ni 80 Fe 20 are separately resolved, revealing shifts in the resonance fields of individual layers but no mutual driving effects. Energy-dependent dynamic XMCD measurements are introduced, combining x-ray absorption and magnetic resonance spectroscopies

  8. Multi-scale mechanics of granular solids from grain-resolved X-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, R. C.; Hall, S. A.; Wright, J. P.

    2017-11-01

    This work discusses an experimental technique for studying the mechanics of three-dimensional (3D) granular solids. The approach combines 3D X-ray diffraction and X-ray computed tomography to measure grain-resolved strains, kinematics and contact fabric in the bulk of a granular solid, from which continuum strains, grain stresses, interparticle forces and coarse-grained elasto-plastic moduli can be determined. We demonstrate the experimental approach and analysis of selected results on a sample of 1099 stiff, frictional grains undergoing multiple uniaxial compression cycles. We investigate the inter-particle force network, elasto-plastic moduli and associated length scales, reversibility of mechanical responses during cyclic loading, the statistics of microscopic responses and microstructure-property relationships. This work serves to highlight both the fundamental insight into granular mechanics that is furnished by combined X-ray measurements and describes future directions in the field of granular materials that can be pursued with such approaches.

  9. Microbialite Biosignature Analysis by Mesoscale X-ray Fluorescence (μXRF) Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Michael M; Quezergue, Kimbra; Pope, Michael C

    2017-11-01

    As part of its biosignature detection package, the Mars 2020 rover will carry PIXL, the Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry, a spatially resolved X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) spectrometer. Understanding the types of biosignatures detectable by μXRF and the rock types μXRF is most effective at analyzing is therefore an important goal in preparation for in situ Mars 2020 science and sample selection. We tested mesoscale chemical mapping for biosignature interpretation in microbialites. In particular, we used μXRF to identify spatial distributions and associations between various elements ("fluorescence microfacies") to infer the physical, biological, and chemical processes that produced the observed compositional distributions. As a test case, elemental distributions from μXRF scans of stromatolites from the Mesoarchean Nsuze Group (2.98 Ga) were analyzed. We included five fluorescence microfacies: laminated dolostone, laminated chert, clotted dolostone and chert, stromatolite clast breccia, and cavity fill. Laminated dolostone was formed primarily by microbial mats that trapped and bound loose sediment and likely precipitated carbonate mud at a shallow depth below the mat surface. Laminated chert was produced by the secondary silicification of microbial mats. Clotted dolostone and chert grew as cauliform, cryptically laminated mounds similar to younger thrombolites and was likely formed by a combination of mat growth and patchy precipitation of early-formed carbonate. Stromatolite clast breccias formed as lag deposits filling erosional scours and interstromatolite spaces. Cavities were filled by microquartz, Mn-rich dolomite, and partially dolomitized calcite. Overall, we concluded that μXRF is effective for inferring genetic processes and identifying biosignatures in compositionally heterogeneous rocks. Key Words: Stromatolites-Biosignatures-Spectroscopy-Archean. Astrobiology 17, 1161-1172.

  10. Time-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques for the study of interfacial charge dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neppl, Stefan, E-mail: sneppl@lbl.gov; Gessner, Oliver

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Ultrafast interfacial charge transfer is probed with atomic site specificity. • Femtosecond X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using a free electron laser. • Efficient and flexible picosecond X-ray photoelectron pump–probe scheme using synchrotron radiation. - Abstract: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is one of the most powerful techniques to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition and electronic structure of surfaces and interfaces in a non-destructive fashion. Extending this technique into the time domain has the exciting potential to shed new light on electronic and chemical dynamics at surfaces by revealing transient charge configurations with element- and site-specificity. Here, we describe prospects and challenges that are associated with the implementation of picosecond and femtosecond time-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at third-generation synchrotrons and X-ray free-electron lasers, respectively. In particular, we discuss a series of laser-pump/X-ray-probe photoemission experiments performed on semiconductor surfaces, molecule-semiconductor interfaces, and films of semiconductor nanoparticles that demonstrate the high sensitivity of time-resolved XPS to light-induced charge carrier generation, diffusion and recombination within the space charge layers of these materials. Employing the showcase example of photo-induced electronic dynamics in a dye-sensitized semiconductor system, we highlight the unique possibility to probe heterogeneous charge transfer dynamics from both sides of an interface, i.e., from the perspective of the molecular electron donor and the semiconductor acceptor, simultaneously. Such capabilities will be crucial to improve our microscopic understanding of interfacial charge redistribution and associated chemical dynamics, which are at the heart of emerging energy conversion, solar fuel generation, and energy storage technologies.

  11. Resolving hot spot microstructure using x-ray penumbral imaging (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, B.; Hilsabeck, T.; Field, J.; Masters, N.; Reed, C.; Pardini, T.; Rygg, J. R.; Alexander, N.; Benedetti, L. R.; Döppner, T.; Forsman, A.; Izumi, N.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Nagel, S.; Patel, P.; Spears, B.; Landen, O. L.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed and fielded x-ray penumbral imaging on the National Ignition Facility in order to enable sub-10 μm resolution imaging of stagnated plasma cores (hot spots) of spherically shock compressed spheres and shell implosion targets. By utilizing circular tungsten and tantalum apertures with diameters ranging from 20 μm to 2 mm, in combination with image plate and gated x-ray detectors as well as imaging magnifications ranging from 4 to 64, we have demonstrated high-resolution imaging of hot spot plasmas at x-ray energies above 5 keV. Here we give an overview of the experimental design criteria involved and demonstrate the most relevant influences on the reconstruction of x-ray penumbral images, as well as mitigation strategies of image degrading effects like over-exposed pixels, artifacts, and photon limited source emission. We describe experimental results showing the advantages of x-ray penumbral imaging over conventional Fraunhofer and photon limited pinhole imaging and showcase how internal hot spot microstructures can be resolved.

  12. Resolving hot spot microstructure using x-ray penumbral imaging (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, B., E-mail: bachmann2@llnl.gov; Field, J.; Masters, N.; Pardini, T.; Rygg, J. R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Döppner, T.; Izumi, N.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Nagel, S.; Patel, P.; Spears, B.; Landen, O. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hilsabeck, T.; Reed, C.; Alexander, N.; Forsman, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We have developed and fielded x-ray penumbral imaging on the National Ignition Facility in order to enable sub-10 μm resolution imaging of stagnated plasma cores (hot spots) of spherically shock compressed spheres and shell implosion targets. By utilizing circular tungsten and tantalum apertures with diameters ranging from 20 μm to 2 mm, in combination with image plate and gated x-ray detectors as well as imaging magnifications ranging from 4 to 64, we have demonstrated high-resolution imaging of hot spot plasmas at x-ray energies above 5 keV. Here we give an overview of the experimental design criteria involved and demonstrate the most relevant influences on the reconstruction of x-ray penumbral images, as well as mitigation strategies of image degrading effects like over-exposed pixels, artifacts, and photon limited source emission. We describe experimental results showing the advantages of x-ray penumbral imaging over conventional Fraunhofer and photon limited pinhole imaging and showcase how internal hot spot microstructures can be resolved.

  13. Versatile, reprogrammable area pixel array detector for time-resolved synchrotron x-ray applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruner, Sol [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The final technical report for DOE grant DE-SC0004079 is presented. The goal of the grant was to perform research, development and application of novel imaging x-ray detectors so as to effectively utilize the high intensity and brightness of the national synchrotron radiation facilities to enable previously unfeasible time-resolved x-ray research. The report summarizes the development of the resultant imaging x-ray detectors. Two types of detector platforms were developed: The first is a detector platform (called a Mixed-Mode Pixel Array Detector, or MM-PAD) that can image continuously at over a thousand images per second while maintaining high efficiency for wide dynamic range signals ranging from 1 to hundreds of millions of x-rays per pixel per image. Research on an even higher dynamic range variant is also described. The second detector platform (called the Keck Pixel Array Detector) is capable of acquiring a burst of x-ray images at a rate of millions of images per second.

  14. Resolving hot spot microstructure using x-ray penumbral imaging (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, B; Hilsabeck, T; Field, J; Masters, N; Reed, C; Pardini, T; Rygg, J R; Alexander, N; Benedetti, L R; Döppner, T; Forsman, A; Izumi, N; LePape, S; Ma, T; MacPhee, A G; Nagel, S; Patel, P; Spears, B; Landen, O L

    2016-11-01

    We have developed and fielded x-ray penumbral imaging on the National Ignition Facility in order to enable sub-10 μm resolution imaging of stagnated plasma cores (hot spots) of spherically shock compressed spheres and shell implosion targets. By utilizing circular tungsten and tantalum apertures with diameters ranging from 20 μm to 2 mm, in combination with image plate and gated x-ray detectors as well as imaging magnifications ranging from 4 to 64, we have demonstrated high-resolution imaging of hot spot plasmas at x-ray energies above 5 keV. Here we give an overview of the experimental design criteria involved and demonstrate the most relevant influences on the reconstruction of x-ray penumbral images, as well as mitigation strategies of image degrading effects like over-exposed pixels, artifacts, and photon limited source emission. We describe experimental results showing the advantages of x-ray penumbral imaging over conventional Fraunhofer and photon limited pinhole imaging and showcase how internal hot spot microstructures can be resolved.

  15. Resolving hot spot microstructure using x-ray penumbral imaging (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, B.; Field, J.; Masters, N.; Pardini, T.; Rygg, J. R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Döppner, T.; Izumi, N.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Nagel, S.; Patel, P.; Spears, B.; Landen, O. L.; Hilsabeck, T.; Reed, C.; Alexander, N.; Forsman, A.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed and fielded x-ray penumbral imaging on the National Ignition Facility in order to enable sub-10 μm resolution imaging of stagnated plasma cores (hot spots) of spherically shock compressed spheres and shell implosion targets. By utilizing circular tungsten and tantalum apertures with diameters ranging from 20 μm to 2 mm, in combination with image plate and gated x-ray detectors as well as imaging magnifications ranging from 4 to 64, we have demonstrated high-resolution imaging of hot spot plasmas at x-ray energies above 5 keV. Here we give an overview of the experimental design criteria involved and demonstrate the most relevant influences on the reconstruction of x-ray penumbral images, as well as mitigation strategies of image degrading effects like over-exposed pixels, artifacts, and photon limited source emission. We describe experimental results showing the advantages of x-ray penumbral imaging over conventional Fraunhofer and photon limited pinhole imaging and showcase how internal hot spot microstructures can be resolved.

  16. Elemental Composition of Mars Return Samples Using X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging at the National Synchrotron Light Source II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, J.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Schoonen, M. A.; Fogelqvist, E.; Gregerson, J.; Farley, K. A.; Sherman, S.; Hill, J.

    2018-04-01

    NSLS-II at BNL provides a unique and critical capability to perform assessments of the elemental composition and the chemical state of Mars returned samples using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  17. Characterization of a confocal three-dimensional micro X-ray fluorescence facility based on polycapillary X-ray optics and Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Tianxi; Ding Xunliang; Liu Zhiguo; Zhu Guanghua; Li Yude; Wei Xiangjun; Chen Dongliang; Xu Qing; Liu Quanru; Huang Yuying; Lin Xiaoyan; Sun Hongbo

    2008-01-01

    A new confocal three-dimensional micro X-ray fluorescence (3D micro-XRF) facility based on polycapillary X-ray optics in the detection channel and Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors in the excitation channel is designed. The lateral resolution (l x , l y ) of this confocal three-dimensional micro-X-ray fluorescence facility is 76.3(l x ) and 53.4(l y ) μm respectively, and its depth resolution d z is 77.1 μm at θ = 90 o . A plant sample (twig of B. microphylla) and airborne particles are analyzed

  18. Development of a portable system of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantuano, Andrea; Crisostomo, Jose V.V.; Barros, Mariana J.; Oliveira, Luis F.; Barroso, Regina C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a compact and portable spectrometry system that will be used at the Laboratory of Applied Physics to the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences of the Institute of Physics/UERJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The laboratory both prepares the samples and develops the X-ray spectrometry techniques. The techniques of X-ray diffraction and fluorescence on various samples (biological, industrial and environmental) are used, attending to pos-graduation and graduation students, with multidisciplinary characteristics. The Mini-X system consists of X-ray mini tube MINI-X from Amptek with tungsten (W) target, and a compact spectrometer X123, also from Amptek that includes a detector, pre-amplifier, digital pulse processor, and multichannel. All the system is controlled by dedicated microprocessor. This work will present both a methodology for alignment and calibration of the system as far the first measurements performed using the X-ray fluorescence technique on standard samples. The multi elementary analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is based on the measurements of the characteristic X-ray intensity emitted by the chemical elements components of the samples when excited. Therefore, from the development of this compact and versatile system it will be possible to obtain the fluorescent intensities of the analysed samples at the Laboratory, not only at the research area but at the teaching area. Besides, new laboratory practices are being developed for the discipline of medical physics

  19. Characteristics of X-ray fluorescence of nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seunghoon; Kwak, Sung-Woo; Shin, Jung-Ki; Park, Uk-Rayng; Jung, Heejun [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    LED is a technique of determination of uranium concentration as a continuous X-ray energy beams transmit a uranium liquid sample for safeguards. Compared to K-edge densitometer, due to relatively lower energy (L-edge energy is 17.17 keV) of Uranium L series energy than K-series energy, L-edge densitometer does not require high purity germanium detector with liquid nitride cooling. Therefore, the Ledge densitometer is appropriate for portable equipment for on-site nuclear material inspection and safeguards at facility sites. XRF combined with LED is a technique of finding of nuclear materials from reflected characteristic X-ray photons. In this study, characteristics of XRF of nuclear materials are simulated Monte Carlo method (Geant4) for feasibility of the system for determination of concentration of nuclear species. The analysis method of uranium concentration or minor actinides is applied using combination of linear extrapolation from jump of L-edge of sample and ratio between uranium and minor actinide from XRF measurement. In this study, The XRF ch aracteristics was simulated from Monte Carlo method. The peaks were obtained from nuclear material mixture. The estimated nuclear material concentration is low due to the volume effect of the sample. The correction factor or minimization of the effect is required.

  20. Automatic energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysing apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, J.C.; Carey, R.; Chopra, V.K.

    1983-01-01

    The invention discloses a number of improvements for an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system having computer supervised data collection, display and processing. The systems with which the improved circuitry and methods may be used include a dual interlocking bus structure so that the analyzer and computer functions communicate directly with each other and the user has immediate keyboard control of both. Such a system normally includes a system base control, a control console and a display console. The portions of the system which have been improved include a new type of ratemeter which gives a voltage output proportional to the intensity of the energy window or windows under consideration, an output which is an absolute digital representation of the intensity count rate, circuitry for input multiplexing and multiple output voltage buffering of the ratemeter to accomodate multiple single channel signals, and a new dead time correction to enable meaningful single channel intensity data to be handled by the system. An extension of the ratemeter is also disclosed for use in conjunction with X-ray mapping, enabling enhancements to be made on mapping SCA data

  1. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence analysis in environmental and earth sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams F.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared to other microscopic analytical tools X-ray microscopy techniques have the advantage that the large penetration depth of X-rays in matter allows one to investigate the interior of an object without destructive sample preparation. In combination with X-ray fluorescence tomography, analytical information from inside of a specimen can be obtained. Different X-ray analytical techniques can be used to produce contrast, X-ray absorption, fluorescence, and diffraction, to yield chemical, elemental, and structural information about the sample. Scanning microscopy on the basis of various lens systems in synchrotron radiation sources provides a routine spatial resolution of now about 100 nanometer but in the foreseeable future a 10–20 nanometer spatial resolution can be expected. X-ray absorption spectrometry can also provide chemical (speciation information on the sample. All this makes X-ray microscopy attractive to many fields of science. In this paper the techniques are briefly reviewed and a number of applications in the earth, planetary and cosmos sciences are illustrated with state-of-the art examples, while applications in the environmental sciences and biology are also briefly discussed.

  2. Time-resolved hard x-ray studies using third-generation synchrotron radiation sources (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The third-generation, high-brilliance, synchrotron radiation sources currently under construction will usher in a new era of x-ray research in the physical, chemical, and biological sciences. One of the most exciting areas of experimentation will be the extension of static x-ray scattering and diffraction techniques to the study of transient or time-evolving systems. The high repetition rate, short-pulse duration, high-brilliance, variable spectral bandwidth, and large particle beam energies of these sources make them ideal for hard x-ray, time-resolved studies. The primary focus of this presentation will be on the novel instrumentation required for time-resolved studies such as optics which can increase the flux on the sample or disperse the x-ray beam, detectors and electronics for parallel data collection, and methods for altering the natural time structure of the radiation. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, BES-Materials Science, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38

  3. X-ray fluorescence analysis of neodymium oxide/oxalate for rare earth impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandola, L.C.; Mohile, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    An X-ray fluorescence method for the determination of cesium, praseodymium, samarium, europium and gadolinium in pure neodymium oxide and oxalate is described. The oxide sample is converted to oxalate and mixed with a binder (boric acid) to obtain a pressed circular pellet. The amount of sample needed for analysis is reduced by making use of the double layer pellet technique. A tungsten target X-ray tube is employed to irradiate the sample and a Philips PW 1220 semiautomatic X-ray spectrometer with a LiF (200) crystal is used to analyse the fluorescent X-rays. The minimum determination limit is 0.01 percent for all rare earths determined except for europium for which the limit is 0.005 percent. Three sigma detection limits have been calculated. (author)

  4. Fundamental parameters method for quantitative energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirel, H.; Zararsiz, A.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, the requirement of the standart material in photon excited energy distributed X-ray fluorescence analysis has been removed. The interaction of X-rays with matter has been taken into account. A computer program has been developed by using the fundamental parameters of X-ray fluorescence technique and the spectral intensity 'K' of pure elements at saturation thickness has been obtained. For experimental purpose a convenient source-target-detector geometry has been designed. In order to excite the samples,Cd-109 radioisotope source has been used. The peak intensities has been obtained in a vacum chamber by counting the emitted X-rays. The calculation of concentration has been performed for double mixed samples correcting the effects of absorption and enchancement factors. The results were in conformity with their certificate values. (author)

  5. Integrated image presentation of transmission and fluorescent X-ray CT using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeniya, T.; Takeda, T. E-mail: ttakeda@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Yu, Q.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hyodo, K.; Yuasa, T.; Hiranaka, Y.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T

    2001-07-21

    We have developed a computed tomography (CT) system with synchrotron radiation (SR) to detect fluorescent X-rays and transmitted X-rays simultaneously. Both SR transmission X-ray CT (SR-TXCT) and SR fluorescent X-ray CT (SR-FXCT) can describe cross-sectional images with high spatial and contrast resolutions as compared to conventional CT. TXCT gives morphological information and FXCT gives functional information of organs. So, superposed display system for SR-FXCT and SR-TXCT images has been developed for clinical diagnosis with higher reliability. Preliminary experiment with brain phantom was carried out and the superposition of both images was performed. The superposed SR-CT image gave us both functional and morphological information easily with high reliability, thus demonstrating the usefulness of this system.

  6. Integrated image presentation of transmission and fluorescent X-ray CT using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeniya, T.; Takeda, T.; Yu, Q.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hyodo, K.; Yuasa, T.; Hiranaka, Y.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T.

    2001-07-01

    We have developed a computed tomography (CT) system with synchrotron radiation (SR) to detect fluorescent X-rays and transmitted X-rays simultaneously. Both SR transmission X-ray CT (SR-TXCT) and SR fluorescent X-ray CT (SR-FXCT) can describe cross-sectional images with high spatial and contrast resolutions as compared to conventional CT. TXCT gives morphological information and FXCT gives functional information of organs. So, superposed display system for SR-FXCT and SR-TXCT images has been developed for clinical diagnosis with higher reliability. Preliminary experiment with brain phantom was carried out and the superposition of both images was performed. The superposed SR-CT image gave us both functional and morphological information easily with high reliability, thus demonstrating the usefulness of this system.

  7. X-ray fluorescence analysis of erbium oxide/oxalate for rare earth impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandola, L.C.; Khanna, P.P.; Thomas, A.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the determination of Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm, Yb, Lu and Y oxides in Er 2 O 3 is described. 450 mg sample in the oxalate form is mixed with 150 mg boric acid binding material and pressed into a 1.25 inch diameter pellet over a supporting pellet of boric acid. The sample is then irradiated by X-rays from a tungsten tube and the fluorescent X-rays are dispersed by a LiF (200) crystal in a Philips PW 1220 semiautomatic X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The intensities of characteristic X-rays of the impurity elements are measured by a flow proportional counter for all elements except yttrium for which the intensities are measured by a scintillation counter. The lowest determination limit is 0.005% for all impurities except for Yb for which it is 0.01%. Calculations for theoretical detection limit are given. (author)

  8. X-ray fluorescence analysis of ytterbium oxide/oxalate for rare earth impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandola, L.C.; Khanna, P.P.; Thomas, A.

    1982-01-01

    An XRF method for the determination of Ho, Er, Tm, Lu and Y oxides in Yb 2 O 3 is described. 450 mg sample in the oxalate form is mixed with 150 mg boric acid binding material and pressed into 1.25 inch diameter pellet over a supporting pellet of boric acid. The sample is irradiated by X-rays from a tungsten tube and the fluorescent X-rays are dispersed by a LiF(200) crystal in a Philips PW 1220 semiautomatic X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The intensities of characteristic X-rays of the impurity elements are measured by a flow proportional counter or a scintillation counter. The lowest determination limit is 0.005% for Ho, Er, Tm and Y and 0.01% for Lu. Calculations for theoretical detection limit, standard deviation and uncertainty are done and presented. (author)

  9. X-ray fluorescence hologram data collection with a cooled avalanche photodiode

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, K; Matsubara, E I; Kishimoto, S; Mori, T; Tanaka, M

    2002-01-01

    A high counting rate X-ray detector with an appropriate energy resolution is desired for high quality X-ray fluorescence hologram measurements because a holographic pattern is detected as extremely small intensity variations of X-ray fluorescence on a large intensity background. A cooled avalanche photodiode (APD), which has about 10% energy resolution and is designed for a high counting rate, fits the above requirements. Reconstructed atomic images from experimental holograms using the APD system provide us a clear view of the first and second neighbor atoms around an emitter. The present result proved that a combination of this APD system and a synchrotron X-ray source enables us to measure a high quality hologram for a reasonable measurement time.

  10. Viability of exploiting L-shell fluorescence for X-ray polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisskopf, M C; Elsner, R F; Ramsey, B D [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL (USA). Space Sciences Lab.; Sutherland, P G [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    1985-05-15

    It has been suggested that one may build an X-ray polarimeter by exploiting the polarization dependence of the angular distribution of L-shell fluorescence photons. In this paper we examine, theoretically, the sensitivity of this approach to polarimetry. We apply our calculations to several detection schemes using imaging proportional counters that would have direct application in X-ray astronomy. We find, however, that the sensitivity of this method for measuring X-ray polarization is too low to be of use for other than laboratory applications.

  11. On the viability of exploiting L-shell fluorescence for X-ray polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisskopf, M C; Elsner, R F; Ramsey, B D; Sutherland, P G

    1985-05-15

    It has been suggested that one may build an X-ray polarimeter by exploiting the polarization dependence of the angular distribution of L-shell fluorescence photons. In this paper we examine, theoretically, the sensitivity of this approach to polarimetry. We apply our calculations to several detection schemes using imaging proportional counters that would have direct application in X-ray astronomy. We find, however, that the sensitivity of this method for measuring X-ray polarization is too low to be of use for other than laboratory applications. (orig.).

  12. Elemental analysis of air particulate samples in Jakarta area by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumiarti; Yusuf, M.; Mellawati, June; Menry, Yulizon; Surtipanti S

    1998-01-01

    Determination of elements in air particulate samples collected from Jakarta, especially from industrial area Pulo Gadung, also from residence, office, and recreation sites had been carried out. The samples collected periodically from August through December 1996. The elements were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry method. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were done using QXAS AXIL (Quantitative X-ray Analysis System of x-ray Spectra by Iterative Least squares fitting) and QAES (Quantitative Analyses of Environmental Samples) package program. Results of the analyses showed that the content of heavy metal elements in air particulate samples from all areas studied were still below the maximum permissible concentration. (authors)

  13. Quantitative schemes in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence implemented in AXIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchantchane, A.; Benamar, M.A.; Tobbeche, S.

    1995-01-01

    E.D.X.R.F (Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence) has long been used for quantitative analysis of many types of samples including environment samples. the software package AXIL (Analysis of x-ray spectra by iterative least quares) is extensively used for the spectra analysis and the quantification of x-ray spectra. It includes several methods of quantitative schemes for evaluating element concentrations. We present the general theory behind each scheme implemented into the software package. The spectra of the performance of each of these quantitative schemes. We have also investigated their performance relative to the uncertainties in the experimental parameters and sample description

  14. Fluorescence detection of white-beam X-ray absorption anisotropy: towards element-sensitive projections of local atomic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korecki, P.; Tolkiehn, M.; Dąbrowski, K. M.; Novikov, D. V.

    2011-01-01

    A method for a direct measurement of X-ray projections of the atomic structure is described. Projections of the atomic structure around Nb atoms in a LiNbO 3 single crystal were obtained from a white-beam X-ray absorption anisotropy pattern detected using Nb K fluorescence. Projections of the atomic structure around Nb atoms in a LiNbO 3 single crystal were obtained from a white-beam X-ray absorption anisotropy (XAA) pattern detected using Nb K fluorescence. This kind of anisotropy results from the interference of X-rays inside a sample and, owing to the short coherence length of a white beam, is visible only at small angles around interatomic directions. Consequently, the main features of the recorded XAA corresponded to distorted real-space projections of dense-packed atomic planes and atomic rows. A quantitative analysis of XAA was carried out using a wavelet transform and allowed well resolved projections of Nb atoms to be obtained up to distances of 10 Å. The signal of nearest O atoms was detected indirectly by a comparison with model calculations. The measurement of white-beam XAA using characteristic radiation indicates the possibility of obtaining element-sensitive projections of the local atomic structure in more complex samples

  15. Energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence techniques in water pollution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holynska, B.

    1980-01-01

    Advantages and limitations of energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence methods for analysis of pollutants in water are discussed. The necessary equipment for X-ray measurement of insoluble and dissolved trace metals in water is described. Different techniques of enrichment of trace metals are presented: ion exchange on selective Chelex-100 exchanger, precipitation with chelating agents DDTC and APDC, and adsorption on activated carbon. Some results obtained using different preconcentration methods for trace metals determination in different waters are presented. (author)

  16. Correction for interelement effect in X-Ray fluorescence analysis of trace elements in geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Behay, A.Z.; Attawiya, M.Y.; Khattab, F.M.

    1984-01-01

    In a trial to obtain accurate results from X-ray fluorescence technique for the analysis of trace elements in geological materials, two corrections were used for the obtained data, namely, correction for the observed x-ray intensities for absorption and/or enhancement effects due to the presence of other elements in the system and correction for spectral deconvolution to account for the overlapping lines. Significant improvement in the precision and accuracy was obtained and evaluated

  17. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; White, Thomas G.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Rack, Alexander; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Scintillator performance in time-resolved, hard, indirect detection X-ray studies on the sub-microsecond timescale at synchrotron light sources is reviewed, modelled and examined experimentally. LYSO:Ce is found to be the only commercially available crystal suitable for these experiments. The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits)

  18. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; White, Thomas G. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Drakopoulos, Michael [Diamond Light Source, I12 Joint Engineering, Environmental, Processing (JEEP) Beamline, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Rack, Alexander [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Eakins, Daniel E., E-mail: d.eakins@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-24

    Scintillator performance in time-resolved, hard, indirect detection X-ray studies on the sub-microsecond timescale at synchrotron light sources is reviewed, modelled and examined experimentally. LYSO:Ce is found to be the only commercially available crystal suitable for these experiments. The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits)

  19. Application of the nuclear x-ray fluorescence method to prospecting for gold in-situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Xie, T.; Zhou, S.; Ge, L.

    1989-01-01

    Arsenic and chalcophile elements are often associated with gold, and can be considered indicator elements when prospecting for gold deposits. The nuclear geophysics X-ray fluorescence method can be used to search for hidden gold deposits by measuring fluorescence intensities of the indicator elements in situ. The method can speed geologic investigation and reduce exploration cost. Three types of portable radioisotope X-ray fluorescence analyzers, designed and manufactured by Chengdu College of Geology and Chongqing Geological Instrument Factory, are briefly introduced. These analyzers are widely used in different stages of geologic investigation for gold in China. In the two case histories presented five anomalous zones of X-ray fluorescence intensity related to gold mineralization are located and one hidden gold deposit is discovered with gold content of 23 g/t

  20. Disparity in formulations used for fluorescent X-ray intensity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Raj; Gupta, Sheenu

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a problem in computations of X-ray fluorescence cross-sections, shell/sub-shell fluorescence yields, Coster-Kronig yields, vacancy alignment, etc. from X-ray fluorescence (XRF) studies. While using barn/atom as a unit for cross-sections if the atomic masses are not considered it causes a discrepancy in the measured cross-section, yield and alignment values. Most of the earlier publications are being quoted where such an oversight has occurred and discrepancy is evident. - Highlights: → Manuscript gives basic formulation for measurements of fluorescent X-ray intensities. → Most publications ignored the fact that use of barn/atom units for cross-sections requires atomic masses. → Published experimental results higher by a factor ≥2 or less by factor 1/M K . → Inspection of published data on XRF parameters needed.

  1. Determination of chlorine in coal by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marek, S.; Bojarska, K. [Central Mining Institute, Katowice (Poland). Dept. of Environmental Monitoring

    1997-12-31

    Determination of chlorine contents in coal is essential for both environmental protection and its technological use. The existing method of chlorine determination in coal are titration methods which have considerable errors particularly in the low concentration range. The elaborated method with the use of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in a comparison to the other methods is much faster and has better precision and accuracy. The principle of the method lies in the measurement of X-ray fluorescence radiation intensity which is emitted by chlorine in a sample and its comparison with standards. The calibration of the elaborated XRF method is based on natural coals having various concentrations of chlorine within the whole range of its occurrence in Polish coals. Concentrations for the calibration purpose were obtained by the determination of chlorine contents in selected coals by atomic absorption spectrometry method. The procedure of sample preparation for direct X-ray measurements, instrumental measuring conditions and the way of calibration curve preparation are described in the paper. All X-ray measurements were done with a Phillips sequential X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. A double anode Cr-Au X-ray tube with maximum power 3000 MW was used as the excitation source. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Novel technique for spatially resolved imaging of molecular bond orientations using x-ray birefringence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, John P., E-mail: john.sutter@diamond.ac.uk; Dolbnya, Igor P.; Collins, Stephen P. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Harris, Kenneth D. M., E-mail: HarrisKDM@cardiff.ac.uk; Edwards-Gau, Gregory R.; Kariuki, Benson M. [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Palmer, Benjamin A. [Department of Structural Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl St., Rehovot 7610001 (Israel)

    2016-07-27

    Birefringence has been observed in anisotropic materials transmitting linearly polarized X-ray beams tuned close to an absorption edge of a specific element in the material. Synchrotron bending magnets provide X-ray beams of sufficiently high brightness and cross section for spatially resolved measurements of birefringence. The recently developed X-ray Birefringence Imaging (XBI) technique has been successfully applied for the first time using the versatile test beamline B16 at Diamond Light Source. Orientational distributions of the C–Br bonds of brominated “guest” molecules within crystalline “host” tunnel structures (in thiourea or urea inclusion compounds) have been studied using linearly polarized incident X-rays near the Br K-edge. Imaging of domain structures, changes in C–Br bond orientations associated with order-disorder phase transitions, and the effects of dynamic averaging of C–Br bond orientations have been demonstrated. The XBI setup uses a vertically deflecting high-resolution double-crystal monochromator upstream from the sample and a horizontally deflecting single-crystal polarization analyzer downstream, with a Bragg angle as close as possible to 45°. In this way, the ellipticity and rotation angle of the polarization of the beam transmitted through the sample is measured as in polarizing optical microscopy. The theoretical instrumental background calculated from the elliptical polarization of the bending-magnet X-rays, the imperfect polarization discrimination of the analyzer, and the correlation between vertical position and photon energy introduced by the monochromator agrees well with experimental observations. The background is calculated analytically because the region of X-ray phase space selected by this setup is sampled inefficiently by standard methods.

  3. Assembly of positioner of automated two-dimensional scan coupled to X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Leonardo Santiago Melgaço

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the design and assembling of a prototype automated positioner two-dimensional scanning coupled to X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The work aims to achieve a portable and easy to use, device of broad utility in the analysis of samples by X-ray fluorescence area of expertise and research. The two-dimensional scanning of the positioner is by means of two stepper motors controlled by a microcontroller PIC 16F877A, encoder and optical sensors. The user interacts with the XY table through an interface program for the Windows operating system, which communicates with the microcontroller through the serial port. The system of Fluorescence Spectroscopy incorporated into the positioner consists of a system commercially available system from the company AMPTEK, where the primary source of excitation of the sample was a source of 241 Am of 59.5 KeV emissions. Resolution and accuracy of tests were performed in the XY scanning process and reproducibility of the same kit with the fluorescence spectrometry X-ray. Qualitative tests by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in samples were performed to demonstrate the applicability and versatility of the project. It follows that the prototype illustrates a possible adequately to portable device for X-ray spectrometry of two-dimensional. (author)

  4. Investigation of elemental distribution in lung samples by X-ray fluorescence microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Gabriela R.; Rocha, Henrique S.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2007-01-01

    X-Ray Fluorescence Microtomography (XRFCT) is a suitable technique to find elemental distributions in heterogeneous samples. While x-ray transmission microtomography provides information about the linear attenuation coefficient distribution, XRFCT allows one to map the most important elements in the sample. The x-ray fluorescence tomography is based on the use of the X-ray fluorescence emitted from the elements contained in a sample so as to give additional information to characterize the object under study. In this work a rat lung and two human lung tissue samples have been investigated in order to verify the efficiency of the system in determination of the internal distribution of detected elements in these kinds of samples and to compare the elemental distribution in the lung tissue of an old human and a fetus. The experiments were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence beamline (XRF) of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source (LNLS), Campinas, Brazil. A white beam was used for the excitation of the elements and the fluorescence photons have been detected by a HPGe detector. All the tomographies have been reconstructed using a filtered-back projection algorithm. It was possible to visualize the distribution of high atomic number elements on both, artificial and tissues samples. It was compared the quantity of Zn, Cu and Fe for the lung human tissue samples and verify that these elements have a higher concentration on the fetus tissue sample than the adult tissue sample. (author)

  5. Chemical Characterization of Nuclear Materials: Development a New Combined X-Ray Fluorescence and Raman Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szaloki, I.; Gerenyi, A.

    2015-01-01

    New mobile analytical device based on combination of X-ray fluorescence and Raman spectrometer has been developed for prompt and quantitative characterization of chemical component from Al to U in nuclear waste or undeclared materials. The excitation source of the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is an air-cooled X-ray tube with Ag transmission anode. For collection of secondary X-ray photons and data processing, a compact Amptek X-ray detector system is applied with silicon drift X-ray detector. The XRF system operates in confocal mode with focal volume around 1-4 mm 3 . Varying the geometrical position and orientation of the sample optional part of its surface can be analyzed. The Raman unit includes thermoelectrically cooled laser source having 500 mW power at wavelength 785 nm. In order to obtain spectral information from sample surface a reflection-type probe is connected by optical fibres to the Raman spectrometer. A mini focusing optics is set up to the sensor-fibre that provides the system to operate as confocal optical device in reflection mode. The XRF spectrometer with X-ray detector, Raman probe and X-ray tube are mechanically fixed and hermetically connected to an aluminium chamber, which can be optionally filled with helium. The chamber is mounted on a vertical stage that provides moving it to the sample surface. A new model and computer code have been developed for XRF quantitative analysis which describes the mathematical relationship between the concentration of sample elements and their characteristic X-ray intensities. For verification of the calculations standard reference alloy samples were measured. The results was in good agreement with certified concentrations in range of 0.001-100 w%. According to these numerical results this new method is successfully applicable for quick and non-destructive quantitative analysis of waste materials without using standard samples. (author)

  6. Project Title: Radiochemical Analysis by High Sensitivity Dual-Optic Micro X-ray Fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havrilla, George J.; Gao, Ning

    2002-01-01

    A novel dual-optic micro X-ray fluorescence instrument will be developed to do radiochemical analysis of high-level radioactive wastes at DOE sites such as Savannah River Site and Hanford. This concept incorporates new X-ray optical elements such as monolithic polycapillaries and double bent crystals, which focus X-rays. The polycapillary optic can be used to focus X-rays emitted by the X-ray tube thereby increasing the X-ray flux on the sample over 1000 times. Polycapillaries will also be used to collect the X-rays from the excitation site and screen the radiation background from the radioactive species in the specimen. This dual-optic approach significantly reduces the background and increases the analyte signal thereby increasing the sensitivity of the analysis. A doubly bent crystal used as the focusing optic produces focused monochromatic X-ray excitation, which eliminates the bremsstrahlung background from the X-ray source. The coupling of the doubly bent crystal for monochromatic excitation with a polycapillary for signal collection can effectively eliminate the noise background and radiation background from the specimen. The integration of these X-ray optics increases the signal-to-noise and thereby increases the sensitivity of the analysis for low-level analytes. This work will address a key need for radiochemical analysis of high-level waste using a non-destructive, multi-element, and rapid method in a radiation environment. There is significant potential that this instrumentation could be capable of on-line analysis for process waste stream characterization at DOE sites

  7. A system for time-resolved x-ray diffraction and its application to muscle contraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Hashizume, Hiroo.

    1979-01-01

    A data-collection system has been built which permits time-resolved studies of X-ray diffraction diagrams obtained from contracting muscle on millisecond time scale. The system consists of a linear delay-line position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC), a special data transfer unit and an on-line computer. The PSPC used with a mirror-monochromator camera can detect equatorial reflections from stimulated muscle in a total exposure time of a few seconds. Time-resolved data-collection is achieved by stimulating muscle at a regular time interval, dividing a complete cycle of muscle contraction into many successive time slices and accumulating in computer memory X-ray data for each time slice from many repeated cycles of stimulation. The performances of the system have been demonstrated by recording equatorial reflections from frog skeletal muscle during isometric and isotonic twitch with a time resolution of 25 ms. (author)

  8. Time-resolved x-ray laser induced photoelectron spectroscopy of isochoric heated copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.J.; Dunn, J.; Hunter, J.; Widmann, K.

    2005-01-01

    Time-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to probe the nonsteady-state evolution of the valence band electronic structure of laser heated ultrathin (50 nm) copper. A metastable phase is studied using a 527 nm wavelength 400 fs laser pulse containing 0.1-2.5 mJ laser energy focused in a large 500x700 μm 2 spot to create heated conditions of 0.07-1.8x10 12 W cm -2 intensity. Valence band photoemission spectra are presented showing the changing occupancy of the Cu 3d level with heating are presented. These picosecond x-ray laser induced time-resolved photoemission spectra of laser-heated ultrathin Cu foil show dynamic changes in the electronic structure. The ultrafast nature of this technique lends itself to true single-state measurements of shocked and heated materials

  9. Confocal total reflection X-ray fluorescence technology based on an elliptical monocapillary and a parallel polycapillary X-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Wang, Yabing; Sun, Tianxi; Sun, Xuepeng; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Yufei; Zhang, Fengshou

    2018-07-01

    A total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer based on an elliptical monocapillary X-ray lens (MXRL) and a parallel polycapillary X-ray lens (PPXRL) was designed. This TXRF instrument has micro focal spot, low divergence and high intensity of incident X-ray beam. The diameter of the focal spot of MXRL was 16.5 µm, and the divergence of the incident X-ray beam was 3.4 mrad. We applied this TXRF instrument to the micro analysis of a single-layer film containing Ni deposited on a Si substrate by metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a micro-X-ray fluorescence system based on polycapillary X-ray optics for non-destructive analysis of archaeological objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lin; Ding, Xunliang; Liu, Zhiguo; Pan, Qiuli; Chu, Xuelian

    2007-08-01

    A new micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) system based on rotating anode X-ray generator and polycapillary X-ray optics has been set up in XOL Lab, BNU, China, in order to be used for analysis of archaeological objects. The polycapillary X-ray optics used here can focus the primary X-ray beam down to tens of micrometers in diameter that allows for non-destructive and local analysis of sub-mm samples with minor/trace level sensitivity. The analytical characteristics and potential of this micro-XRF system in archaeological research are discussed. Some described uses of this instrument include studying Chinese ancient porcelain.

  11. Development of a micro-X-ray fluorescence system based on polycapillary X-ray optics for non-destructive analysis of archaeological objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lin [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing, 100875 (China)], E-mail: chenglin@bnu.edu.cn; Ding Xunliang; Liu Zhiguo; Pan Qiuli; Chu Xuelian [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing, 100875 (China)

    2007-08-15

    A new micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) system based on rotating anode X-ray generator and polycapillary X-ray optics has been set up in XOL Lab, BNU, China, in order to be used for analysis of archaeological objects. The polycapillary X-ray optics used here can focus the primary X-ray beam down to tens of micrometers in diameter that allows for non-destructive and local analysis of sub-mm samples with minor/trace level sensitivity. The analytical characteristics and potential of this micro-XRF system in archaeological research are discussed. Some described uses of this instrument include studying Chinese ancient porcelain.

  12. 3-D Cellular Ultrastructure Can Be Resolved by X-ray Microscopy | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray microscopy (XRM) is more rapid than cryoelectron tomography or super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and could fill an important gap in current technologies used to investigate in situ three-dimensional structure of cells. New XRM methods developed by first author Gerd Schneider, Ph.D., working with James McNally. Ph.D., and a team of colleagues, is capable of revealing full cellular ultrastructure without requiring fixation, staining, or sectioning.

  13. Time-resolved measurements of supersonic fuel sprays using synchrotron x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C.F.; Yue, Y.; Poola, R.; Wang, J.

    2000-11-01

    A time-resolved radiographic technique has been developed for probing the fuel distribution close to the nozzle of a high-pressure single-hole diesel injector. The measurement was made using X-ray absorption of monochromatic synchrotron-generated radiation, allowing quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in this optically impenetrable region with a time resolution of better than 1 μs. These quantitative measurements constitute the most detailed near-nozzle study of a fuel spray to date

  14. Time-resolved measurements of supersonic fuel sprays using synchrotron X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C F; Yue, Y; Poola, R; Wang, J

    2000-11-01

    A time-resolved radiographic technique has been developed for probing the fuel distribution close to the nozzle of a high-pressure single-hole diesel injector. The measurement was made using X-ray absorption of monochromatic synchrotron-generated radiation, allowing quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in this optically impenetrable region with a time resolution of better than 1 micros. These quantitative measurements constitute the most detailed near-nozzle study of a fuel spray to date.

  15. X-ray spectrometer having 12 000 resolving power at 8 keV energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, John F.; Hudson, Lawrence T.; Henins, Albert; Feldman, Uri

    2017-10-01

    An x-ray spectrometer employing a thin (50 μm) silicon transmission crystal was used to record high-resolution Cu Kα spectra from a laboratory x-ray source. The diffraction was from the (331) planes that were at an angle of 13.26° to the crystal surface. The components of the spectral lines resulting from single-vacancy (1s) and double-vacancy (1s and 3d) transitions were observed. After accounting for the natural lifetime widths from reference double-crystal spectra and the spatial resolution of the image plate detector, the intrinsic broadening of the transmission crystal was measured to be as small as 0.67 eV and the resolving power 12 000, the highest resolving power achieved by a compact (0.5 m long) spectrometer employing a single transmission crystal operating in the hard x-ray region. By recording spectra with variable source-to-crystal distances and comparing to the calculated widths from various geometrical broadening mechanisms, the primary contributions to the intrinsic crystal broadening were found to be the source height at small distances and the crystal apertured height at large distances. By reducing these two effects, using a smaller source size and vignetting the crystal height, the intrinsic crystal broadening is then limited by the crystal thickness and the rocking curve width and would be 0.4 eV at 8 keV energy (20 000 resolving power).

  16. Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugh, M. J.; Jacoby, K. D.; Wu, M.; Loisel, G. P.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a double crystal diffractometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed

  17. Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugh, M. J., E-mail: haughmj@nv.doe.gov; Jacoby, K. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Wu, M.; Loisel, G. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a double crystal diffractometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

  18. Surface characterization of selected polymer thin films by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and x-ray reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innis, Vallerie Ann A.

    2006-01-01

    Development of available x-ray characterizations tools for grazing incidence techniques was done to be able to probe nano-size thin films. Alignment of a Philips x-ray powder diffractometer was improved to let it perform as an x-ray reflectometer. X-ray reflectometry was coupled with total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Evaluation of the performance of this grazing incidence techniques was done by preparing polymer thin films of carboxymethylcellulose, carrageenan and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The thickness of the films were varied by varying the process parameters such as concentration, spin speed and spin time. Angle-dispersive total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy profiles of three films showed film formation only in carrageenan and PVP. For both carrageenan and PVP, an increase in concentration yielded a corresponding increase in intensity of the fluorescent or scattered peaks. XRR profiles of carrageenan thin films yielded a mean value for the critical angle close to quartz substrate. Thickness measurements of the prepared carrageenan thin films showed that concentration was the main determinant for final film thickness over the other process parameters. Sulfur fluorescent intensity derived from the TXRF measurement showed a linear relationship with the measured thickness by XRR. For PVP, measured critical angle is lower than quartz. Poor adhesion of the polymer onto the substrate yielded a limited number of thickness measurements made from the XRR profiles. (Author)

  19. Basic design of on-line analyzer for sheet paper using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rony Djokorayono; Ahmad Suntoro; Ikhsan Shobari; Usep Setia Gunawan

    2016-01-01

    Basic design of on-line analyzer for sheet paper using X-ray fluorescence technique has been carried out. Compared with sampling technique, this X-ray fluorescence technique has some advantages in term of analysis accuracy and time. The design activities performed including the establishment of design requirements, functional requirements, technical requirements, technical specification, detection sub-system design, data acquisition sub-system design, and operator computer console design. This program will use silicon drift or CdTe X-ray detector to detect X-ray fluorescence emitted by elements in sheet paper due to X-ray interaction of a X-ray source, 55 Fe (Ferro-55).This basic design of on-line analyzer for sheet paper using X-ray fluorescence technique should be followed up with the development of detailed design, prototype construction, and field testing. (author)

  20. Determination of fission products in irradiated fuel by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogensen, M.; Als-Nielsen, J.; Hessel Andersen, N.

    1986-08-01

    X-ray fluorescence is a well established analytical tool for measuring elemental composition of fairly large (approximately 5 cm 2 ) ''cold'' samples. A version of this technique has been developed for analysis of radial distribution of fission products Xe, Cs and Ba in irradiated UO 2 fuel samples. About 0.1 mm thin slices of fuel pellets (full cross sections) are irradiated by 50 keV X-rays. The intensity of the Xe (Cs, Ba) K α fluorescence radiation generated is measured by means of a Ge detector fitted with a collimator. The slit is 0.5 mm wide in the scanning direction and 2 mm long. The measured Xe K α X-ray intensities are converted to absolute concentrations by comparing to the intensity from a Xe gas standard. In the case of Cs and Ba solid standards may be used. The X-ray fluorescence analysis is compared to other techniques used to obtain radial fission product profiles. It is shown how a combination of X-ray fluorescence and electron probe micro analysis is able to reveal the amount of Xe in the grain boundary porosities. (author)

  1. TU-G-207-03: High Spatial Resolution and High Sensitivity X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, L.

    2015-01-01

    Last few years has witnessed the development of novel of X-ray imaging modalities, such as spectral CT, phase contrast CT, and X-ray acoustic/fluorescence/luminescence imaging. This symposium will present the recent advances of these emerging X-ray imaging modalities and update the attendees with knowledge in various related topics, including X-ray photon-counting detectors, X-ray physics underlying the emerging applications beyond the traditional X-ray imaging, image reconstruction for the novel modalities, characterization and evaluation of the systems, and their practical implications. In addition, the concept and practical aspects of X-ray activatable targeted nanoparticles for molecular X-ray imaging will be discussed in the context of X-ray fluorescence and luminescence CT. Learning Objectives: Present background knowledge of various emerging X-ray imaging techniques, such as spectral CT, phase contrast CT and X-ray fluorescence/luminescence CT. Discuss the practical need, technical aspects and current status of the emerging X-ray imaging modalities. Describe utility and future impact of the new generation of X-ray imaging applications

  2. Choice of excitation source for determination of rare earth elements with radioisotope excited X ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Quanshi; Chang Yongfu

    2000-01-01

    The comparisons of two radioisotope source ( 241 Am and 238 Pu) which are the most available in the radioisotope excited X Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis technique and two characteristic X ray series (KX and LX) analyzed for the determination of the rare-earth (RE) elements were investigated in detail. According to the principle of emission and detection of X ray , the relative excitation efficiencies were calculated by the some fundamental physical parameters including the photoelectric mass attenuation coefficient, the fluorescent yield, the absorption jump factor, the emission probability of the detected fluorescent line with reference to other liens of the same series etc., The advantages and disadvantages of the two conditions are discussed. These results may determine the optimal excitation and detection conditions for different rare-earth elements. The experimental results with nine rare-earth elements (Ce, Nd, Sm, Tb, Tm, Ho, Er, Yb and Lu) are in agreement with the results of theoretical calculations

  3. Analysis of eight argonne premium coal samples by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J.R.; Sellers, G.A.; Johnson, R.G.; Vivit, D.V.; Kent, J.

    1990-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometric methods were used in the analysis of eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples. Trace elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, and Ce) in coal ash were determined by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry; major elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe) in coal ash and trace elements (Cl and P) in whole coal were determined by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The results of this study will be used in a geochemical database compiled for these materials from various analytical techniques. The experimental XRF methods and procedures used to determine these major and trace elements are described.

  4. Analysis of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence: Quantitative approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Ruiz, R.; Garcia-Heras, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the quantitative methodologies developed for the compositional characterization of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence at two levels. A first quantitative level which comprises an acid leaching procedure, and a second selective level, which seeks to increase the number of detectable elements by eliminating the iron present in the acid leaching procedure. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been compared, at a quantitative level, with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in order to test its applicability to the study of this kind of materials. The combination of a solid chemical homogenization procedure previously reported with the quantitative methodologies here presented allows the total-reflection X-ray fluorescence to analyze 29 elements with acceptable analytical recoveries and accuracies

  5. An engineering development of fluoroscopic X-ray medical equipment based-on fluorescent screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferry Suyatno; I Putu Susila; Djoko Sukmono

    2011-01-01

    Fluoroscopic x-ray medical equipment uses fluorescent screen to capture structural image of organs. Unlike conventional x-ray equipment which uses film, in the fluoroscopic x-ray, the resulting image is visualized on the fluorescent screen and directly observed by physicians in the patients' rooms. In this study, we developed an image capture system that transforms the image on the fluorescent screen into digital data, which is then transferred to computer for visualization and further processing. By using this system, the observation of the resulting image can be done on a computer that is placed in the control room. The image can also be stored easily and at low cost compared to conventional film. The experiment shows that the system could be used to capture image of the object. However, its quality needs to be improved. In the future, the system will be modified and tested with different types of cameras to obtain better results. (author)

  6. Analysis of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence: Quantitative approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ruiz, R. [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Modulo C-9, Laboratorio de TXRF, Crta. Colmenar, Km 15, Cantoblanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: ramon.fernandez@uam.es; Garcia-Heras, M. [Grupo de Arqueometria de Vidrios y Materiales Ceramicos, Instituto de Historia, Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, C/ Albasanz, 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    This paper reports the quantitative methodologies developed for the compositional characterization of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence at two levels. A first quantitative level which comprises an acid leaching procedure, and a second selective level, which seeks to increase the number of detectable elements by eliminating the iron present in the acid leaching procedure. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been compared, at a quantitative level, with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in order to test its applicability to the study of this kind of materials. The combination of a solid chemical homogenization procedure previously reported with the quantitative methodologies here presented allows the total-reflection X-ray fluorescence to analyze 29 elements with acceptable analytical recoveries and accuracies.

  7. Exploration in vivo by X-ray fluorescence (thyroid-brain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delcroix, V.; Allemand, R.; Laval, M.; Dipaola, M.; Tubiana, M.

    1975-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence methods of medical exploration avoid the use of radioactive tracers and hence reduce the total dose received by the patient. In addition the collimation to the excitation source and detector respectively produces a tomographic effect which improves the spatial resolution of the system and even allows organs to be charted. The physical principles involved in X-ray fluorescence are outlined, with emphasis on the fact that the only elements useful for such applications are those of high enough atomic number to emit a fluorescence radiation of energy sufficient to pass through the tissues. The apparatus used, the excitation sources (radioactive source or X-ray tube), the detector and the measurement equipment are described. The experimental results obtained are given in two fields: measurement of blood flow in the tissues; thyroid imagery [fr

  8. Simultaneous determination of actinides by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, V.H.

    1990-01-01

    The x-ray spectrometric simultaneous determination of uranium and plutonium in simulated Purex Process solutions is described. The method is accomplished by intensity measurements of the L α sub(1) lines. The thin film technique for sample preparation and thorium as an internal standard had been used. An evaporation technique had been also tested for low concentration uranium solutions. In the measurement range 0,05 - 130 U g/L, 0,5 - 20 Pu g/L linear calibration curves were effected. The standard deviation in the concentration range 10 to 130 g/L was 3,5%, 4% in the 1 to 10 g/L and 13% in 0,05 to 1 g/L for uranium determination and 4% for plutonium determination in the range of 1 to 20 g/L. The sensitivity of the method was about 3,62 μg to U and 3,95 μg to Pu. Uranium and plutonium do not reciprocally interfere with one another until U/Pu ≅ 90 m/m. The fission product as interfering elements were also verified. Finally, uranium and plutonium were determined in simulated Purex Process solutions within the requested accuracy for control method. (author)

  9. Determination of plutonium in nitric acid solutions using energy dispersive L X-ray fluorescence with a low power X-ray generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Py, J. [Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, UMR CNRS 6249, Université de Franche-Comté, 16 route de Gray, F-25030 Besançon (France); Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique, Centre de Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Groetz, J.-E., E-mail: jegroetz@univ-fcomte.fr [Laboratoire Chrono-Environnement, UMR CNRS 6249, Université de Franche-Comté, 16 route de Gray, F-25030 Besançon (France); Hubinois, J.-C.; Cardona, D. [Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique, Centre de Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2015-04-21

    This work presents the development of an in-line energy dispersive L X-ray fluorescence spectrometer set-up, with a low power X-ray generator and a secondary target, for the determination of plutonium concentration in nitric acid solutions. The intensity of the L X-rays from the internal conversion and gamma rays emitted by the daughter nuclei from plutonium is minimized and corrected, in order to eliminate the interferences with the L X-ray fluorescence spectrum. The matrix effects are then corrected by the Compton peak method. A calibration plot for plutonium solutions within the range 0.1–20 g L{sup −1} is given.

  10. Calculating the X-Ray Fluorescence from the Planet Mercury Due to High-Energy Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbine, T. H.; Trombka, J. I.; Bergstrom, P. M., Jr.; Christon, S. P.

    2005-01-01

    The least-studied terrestrial planet is Mercury due to its proximity to the Sun, which makes telescopic observations and spacecraft encounters difficult. Our lack of knowledge about Mercury should change in the near future due to the recent launching of MESSENGER, a Mercury orbiter. Another mission (BepiColombo) is currently being planned. The x-ray spectrometer on MESSENGER (and planned for BepiColombo) can characterize the elemental composition of a planetary surface by measuring emitted fluorescent x-rays. If electrons are ejected from an atom s inner shell by interaction with energetic particles such as photons, electrons, or ions, electrons from an outer shell can transfer to the inner shell. Characteristic x-rays are then emitted with energies that are the difference between the binding energy of the ion in its excited state and that of the ion in its ground state. Because each element has a unique set of energy levels, each element emits x-rays at a unique set of energies. Electrons and ions usually do not have the needed flux at high energies to cause significant x-ray fluorescence on most planetary bodies. This is not the case for Mercury where high-energy particles were detected during the Mariner 10 flybys. Mercury has an intrinsic magnetic field that deflects the solar wind, resulting in a bow shock in the solar wind and a magnetospheric cavity. Electrons and ions accelerated in the magnetosphere tend to follow its magnetic field lines and can impact the surface on Mercury s dark side Modeling has been done to determine if x-ray fluorescence resulting from the impact of high-energy electrons accelerated in Mercury's magnetosphere can be detected by MESSENGER. Our goal is to understand how much bulk chemical information can be obtained from x-ray fluorescence measurements on the dark side of Mercury.

  11. Time-resolved X-ray transmission microscopy on magnetic microstructures; Zeitaufloesende Roentgentransmissionsmikroskopie an magnetischen Mikrostrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puzic, Aleksandar

    2007-10-23

    Three excitation schemes were designed for stroboscopic imaging of magnetization dynamics with time-resolved magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy (TR-MTXM). These techniques were implemented into two types of X-ray microscopes, namely the imaging transmission X-ray microscope (ITXM) and the scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM), both installed at the electron storage ring of the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, USA. Circular diffraction gratings (Fresnel zone plates) used in both microscopes as focusing and imaging elements presently allow for lateral resolution down to 30 nm. Magnetic imaging is performed by using the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) as element specific contrast mechanism. The developed methods have been successfully applied to the experimental investigation of magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic microstructures. A temporal resolution well below 100 ps was achieved. A conventional pump-probe technique was implemented first. The dynamic response of the magnetization excited by a broadband pulsed magnetic field was imaged spatially resolved using focused X-ray flashes. As a complementary method, the spatially resolved ferromagnetic resonance (SR-FMR) technique was developed for experimental study of magnetization dynamics in the frequency domain. As a third excitation mode, the burst excitation was implemented. The performance and efficiency of the developed methods have been demonstrated by imaging the local magnetization dynamics in laterally patterned ferromagnetic thin-film elements and three-layer stacks. The existence of multiple eigenmodes in the excitation spectra of ferromagnetic microstructures has been verified by using the pump-probe technique. Magnetostatic spin waves were selectively excited and detected with a time resolution of 50 ps using the SR-FMR technique. Thorough analysis of 20 in most cases independently prepared samples has verified that vortices which exhibit a low-amplitude switching of their core

  12. Time-resolved X-ray transmission microscopy on magnetic microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puzic, Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Three excitation schemes were designed for stroboscopic imaging of magnetization dynamics with time-resolved magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy (TR-MTXM). These techniques were implemented into two types of X-ray microscopes, namely the imaging transmission X-ray microscope (ITXM) and the scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM), both installed at the electron storage ring of the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley, USA. Circular diffraction gratings (Fresnel zone plates) used in both microscopes as focusing and imaging elements presently allow for lateral resolution down to 30 nm. Magnetic imaging is performed by using the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) as element specific contrast mechanism. The developed methods have been successfully applied to the experimental investigation of magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic microstructures. A temporal resolution well below 100 ps was achieved. A conventional pump-probe technique was implemented first. The dynamic response of the magnetization excited by a broadband pulsed magnetic field was imaged spatially resolved using focused X-ray flashes. As a complementary method, the spatially resolved ferromagnetic resonance (SR-FMR) technique was developed for experimental study of magnetization dynamics in the frequency domain. As a third excitation mode, the burst excitation was implemented. The performance and efficiency of the developed methods have been demonstrated by imaging the local magnetization dynamics in laterally patterned ferromagnetic thin-film elements and three-layer stacks. The existence of multiple eigenmodes in the excitation spectra of ferromagnetic microstructures has been verified by using the pump-probe technique. Magnetostatic spin waves were selectively excited and detected with a time resolution of 50 ps using the SR-FMR technique. Thorough analysis of 20 in most cases independently prepared samples has verified that vortices which exhibit a low-amplitude switching of their core

  13. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols using Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence and Fe K-edge total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near-edge structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fittschen, U.E.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: ursula.fittschen@chemie.uni-hamburg.de; Meirer, F. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: fmeirer@ati.ac.at; Streli, C. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: streli@ati.ac.at; Wobrauschek, P. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: wobi@ati.ac.at; Thiele, J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Julian.Thiele@gmx.de; Falkenberg, G. [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: falkenbe@mail.desy.de; Pepponi, G. [ITC-irst, Via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy)], E-mail: pepponi@itc.it

    2008-12-15

    In this study a new procedure using Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) to characterize elemental amounts in atmospheric aerosols down to particle sizes of 0.015 um is presented. The procedure was thoroughly evaluated regarding bounce off effects and blank values. Additionally the potential of total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near edge structure (SR-TXRF-XANES) for speciation of FeII/III down to amounts of 34 pg in aerosols which were collected for 1 h is shown. The aerosols were collected in the city of Hamburg with a low pressure Berner impactor on Si carriers covered with silicone over time periods of 60 and 20 min each. The particles were collected in four and ten size fractions of 10.0-8.0 {mu}m, 8.0-2.0 {mu}m, 2.0-0.13 {mu}m 0.13-0.015 {mu}m (aerodynamic particle size) and 15-30 nm, 30-60 nm, 60-130 nm, 130-250 nm, 250-500 nm, 0.5-1 {mu}m, 1-2 {mu}m, 2-4 {mu}m, 4-8 {mu}m, 8-16 {mu}m. Prior to the sampling 'bounce off' effects on Silicone and Vaseline coated Si carriers were studied with total reflection X-ray fluorescence. According to the results silicone coated carriers were chosen for the analysis. Additionally, blank levels originating from the sampling device and the calibration procedure were studied. Blank levels of Fe corresponded to 1-10% of Fe in the aerosol samples. Blank levels stemming from the internal standard were found to be negligible. The results from the Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of the aerosols showed that 20 min of sampling time gave still enough sample material for elemental determination of most elements. For the determination of the oxidation state of Fe in the aerosols different Fe salts were prepared as a reference from suspensions in isopropanol. The results from the Fe K-edge Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis of the aerosol samples showed that mainly Fe(III) was present in

  14. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols using Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence and Fe K-edge total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near-edge structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fittschen, U.E.A.; Meirer, F.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Thiele, J.; Falkenberg, G.; Pepponi, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this study a new procedure using Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) to characterize elemental amounts in atmospheric aerosols down to particle sizes of 0.015 um is presented. The procedure was thoroughly evaluated regarding bounce off effects and blank values. Additionally the potential of total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near edge structure (SR-TXRF-XANES) for speciation of FeII/III down to amounts of 34 pg in aerosols which were collected for 1 h is shown. The aerosols were collected in the city of Hamburg with a low pressure Berner impactor on Si carriers covered with silicone over time periods of 60 and 20 min each. The particles were collected in four and ten size fractions of 10.0-8.0 μm, 8.0-2.0 μm, 2.0-0.13 μm 0.13-0.015 μm (aerodynamic particle size) and 15-30 nm, 30-60 nm, 60-130 nm, 130-250 nm, 250-500 nm, 0.5-1 μm, 1-2 μm, 2-4 μm, 4-8 μm, 8-16 μm. Prior to the sampling 'bounce off' effects on Silicone and Vaseline coated Si carriers were studied with total reflection X-ray fluorescence. According to the results silicone coated carriers were chosen for the analysis. Additionally, blank levels originating from the sampling device and the calibration procedure were studied. Blank levels of Fe corresponded to 1-10% of Fe in the aerosol samples. Blank levels stemming from the internal standard were found to be negligible. The results from the Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of the aerosols showed that 20 min of sampling time gave still enough sample material for elemental determination of most elements. For the determination of the oxidation state of Fe in the aerosols different Fe salts were prepared as a reference from suspensions in isopropanol. The results from the Fe K-edge Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis of the aerosol samples showed that mainly Fe(III) was present in all particle size fractions

  15. Abstracts of the 8th Conference on total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis and related methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobrauschek, P.

    2000-01-01

    The 8. conference on total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis and related methods held from 25.9 to 29.9.2000 contains 79 abstracts about x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) as a powerful tool used for industrial production, geological prospecting and for environmental control. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is also a tool used for chemical analysis in medicine, industry and research. (E.B.)

  16. X-Ray fluorescence determination of the mobile forms of toxic elements in meadow chernozems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belikov, K.N.; Blank, A.B.; Shevtsov, N.I.

    1997-01-01

    An X-ray fluorescence method for determining mobile forms of Mn, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, and Pb in meadow chernozems was developed. It is based on the extraction of analytes with an acetate-ammonia buffer solution and the evaporation of the obtained filtrate with carbon powder followed by the X-ray fluorescence analysis of the dry residue. The effect of concomitants on the analytical signals of elements under determination was examined. It was suggested to spike samples with barium in order to decrease analytical errors. (author)

  17. X-ray fluorescence analysis of thulium oxide/oxalate for rare earth impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandola, L.C.; Khanna, P.P.

    1986-01-01

    An X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method for the analysis of thulium oxide is described. For the analysis, the sample in oxalate form is mixed with boric acid binding material and pressed into a pellet over a supporting pellet of boric acid. A wavelength dispersive Philips PW 1220 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is used for the experiments; the minimum determination limits are 0.002per cent for Ho, Lu and Y, 0.005per cent for Dy and Er and 0.01per cent for Yb. Calculations for theoretical minimum detection limits and percent standard deviation at each concentration of the standard are carried out. (author)

  18. X-ray fluorescence analysis of lutetium oxide/oxalate for rare earth impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandola, L.C.; Khanna, P.P.

    1985-01-01

    An X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method for the analysis of lutetium oxide is described. The sample in the oxalate form is mixed with boric acid binding material and pressed into a pellet over supporting pellet of boric acid. A Philips PW 1220 wavelength dispersive semiautomatic X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is used for the analysis. The minimum determination limit is 0.002 percent for Y, Er and Yb and 0.005 percent for Tm. Calculations for theoretical minimum detection limits and percent standard deviations at each concentration of the standard are carried out. (author)

  19. Improvement of graphite crystal analyzer for light elements on X-ray fluorescence holography measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happo, Naohisa; Hada, Takuma; Kubota, Atsushi; Ebisu, Yoshihiro; Hosokawa, Shinya; Kimura, Koji; Tajiri, Hiroo; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Kouichi

    2018-05-01

    Using a graphite crystal analyzer, focused monochromatic fluorescent X-rays can be obtained on an X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) measurement. To measure the holograms of elements lighter than Ti, we improved a cylindrical-type crystal analyzer and constructed a small C-shaped analyzer. Using the constructed C-shaped analyzer, a Ca Kα hologram of a fluorite single crystal was obtained, from which we reconstructed a clear atomic image. The XFH measurements for the K, Ca, and Sc elements become possible using the presently constructed analyzer.

  20. X-ray fluorescence analysis of bimetallic complexes on the basis of tantalocene trihydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shurupova, T.I.; Sokolova, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    Methods of X-ray fluorescence determination of metals in tantalocene trihydride complexes of Cp 2 TaH 3 ·nMeHalm composition where Me=Cu, Mg, Hal=Cl, I, n=1 or 2, m=1 or 2 are developed. To obtain the form, stable in relation to the air oxygen and water vapours, the complexes were burut off up to metal oxides. Possibility of direct X-ray fluorescent determination is tested taking the most stable iodide copper-containing complex as an example

  1. Improving accuracy and capabilities of X-ray fluorescence method using intensity ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garmay, Andrey V., E-mail: andrew-garmay@yandex.ru; Oskolok, Kirill V.

    2017-04-15

    An X-ray fluorescence analysis algorithm is proposed which is based on a use of ratios of X-ray fluorescence lines intensities. Such an analytical signal is more stable and leads to improved accuracy. Novel calibration equations are proposed which are suitable for analysis in a broad range of matrix compositions. To apply the algorithm to analysis of samples containing significant amount of undetectable elements a use of a dependence of a Rayleigh-to-Compton intensity ratio on a total content of these elements is suggested. The technique's validity is shown by analysis of standard steel samples, model metal oxides mixture and iron ore samples.

  2. The MicroAnalysis Toolkit: X-ray Fluorescence Image Processing Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    The MicroAnalysis Toolkit is an analysis suite designed for the processing of x-ray fluorescence microprobe data. The program contains a wide variety of analysis tools, including image maps, correlation plots, simple image math, image filtering, multiple energy image fitting, semi-quantitative elemental analysis, x-ray fluorescence spectrum analysis, principle component analysis, and tomographic reconstructions. To be as widely useful as possible, data formats from many synchrotron sources can be read by the program with more formats available by request. An overview of the most common features will be presented.

  3. X-ray fluorescence analysis and optical emission spectrometry of an roman mirror from Tomis, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belc, M.; Bogoi, M.; Ionescu, D.; Guita, D.; Caiteanu, S.; Caiteanu, D.

    2000-01-01

    The miscellaneous population of Roman Empire, their diverse cultural tradition, their ability to assimilate the roman civilization spirits, had determined a permanent reassessment superimposed upon the roman contribution. Analysis was undertaken using optical emission spectrometry and non-destructive X-ray fluorescence. X-ray fluorescence analysis is a well-established method and is often used in archaeometry and other work dealing with valuable objects pertaining to the history of art and civilization. Roman mirror analysed has been found not to be made of speculum (a high tin bronze). (authors)

  4. Analysis of selected elements in tobacco by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid method for the determination of 16 elements in tobacco by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been developed. The method is accurate and precise, and requires only 9 min per sample for quantitation. Sample preparation consists of placing a portion of dried, ground tobacco in a sample cup, and pressing at 25 tons pressure to make a compressed pellet. This pellet is then automatically analyzed by X-ray fluorescence for 16 elements. The results are stored on a computer disk for future recall and report generation. The elements are: Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Si, Sr, Ti and Zn

  5. The measurement of X-rays radiation temperature with a new developed filter-fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chuanfei; Lin Libin; Lou Fuhong; Peng Taiping

    2001-01-01

    The author introduces how to measure the energy spectra of X-rays by filter-fluorescence spectroscopy. The design principle and structure of new-developed double diaphragms and filter-fluorescence spectroscopy with 5 channels are depicted. The parameters of optimized spectroscopy by numerical method are given. The filter-fluorescence spectroscopy designed according as Rousseau balance principle improves signal-noises ratio

  6. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction with accelerator- and laser-plasma-based X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoul, Matthieu

    2010-01-01

    Femtosecond X-ray pulses are a powerful tool to investigate atomic motions triggered by femtosecond pump pulses. This thesis is dedicated to the production of such pulses and their use in optical pump - X-ray probe measurement. This thesis describes the laser-plasma-based sources available at the University of Duisburg-Essen. Part of it consists of the description of the design, built-up and characterization of a new ''modular'' X-ray source dedicated to optimize the X-ray flux onto the sample under investigation. The acoustic wave generation in femtosecond optically excited semiconductor (gallium arsenide) and metal (gold) was performed using the sources of the University of Duisburg-Essen. The physical answer of the material was modeled by a simple strain model for the semiconductor, pressure model for the metal, in order to gain information on the interplay of the electronic and thermal pressures rising after excitation. Whereas no reliable information could be obtain in gallium arsenide (principally due to the use of a bulk), the model for gold achieved very good agreement, providing useful information. The relaxation time of the electron to lattice energy was found to be (5.0±0.3) ps, and the ratio of the Grueneisen parameters was found to be γ e / γ i = (0.5±0.1). This thesis also describes the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) which existed at the (formally) Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, an accelerator-based X-ray source, and two measurements performed with it. The first one is the detailed investigation of the phonon softening of the A 1g mode launch in bismuth upon fluence excitation. Detailed information concerning the new equilibrium position and phonon frequency were obtained over extended laser pump fluences. The second measurement concerned the study of the liquid phase dynamics in a newly formed liquid phase following ultrafast melting in indium antimonide. The formation of the liquid phase and its development for excitations close to the

  7. Time-resolved X-ray diffraction with accelerator- and laser-plasma-based X-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoul, Matthieu

    2010-09-01

    Femtosecond X-ray pulses are a powerful tool to investigate atomic motions triggered by femtosecond pump pulses. This thesis is dedicated to the production of such pulses and their use in optical pump - X-ray probe measurement. This thesis describes the laser-plasma-based sources available at the University of Duisburg-Essen. Part of it consists of the description of the design, built-up and characterization of a new ''modular'' X-ray source dedicated to optimize the X-ray flux onto the sample under investigation. The acoustic wave generation in femtosecond optically excited semiconductor (gallium arsenide) and metal (gold) was performed using the sources of the University of Duisburg-Essen. The physical answer of the material was modeled by a simple strain model for the semiconductor, pressure model for the metal, in order to gain information on the interplay of the electronic and thermal pressures rising after excitation. Whereas no reliable information could be obtain in gallium arsenide (principally due to the use of a bulk), the model for gold achieved very good agreement, providing useful information. The relaxation time of the electron to lattice energy was found to be (5.0{+-}0.3) ps, and the ratio of the Grueneisen parameters was found to be {gamma}{sub e} / {gamma}{sub i} = (0.5{+-}0.1). This thesis also describes the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) which existed at the (formally) Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, an accelerator-based X-ray source, and two measurements performed with it. The first one is the detailed investigation of the phonon softening of the A{sub 1g} mode launch in bismuth upon fluence excitation. Detailed information concerning the new equilibrium position and phonon frequency were obtained over extended laser pump fluences. The second measurement concerned the study of the liquid phase dynamics in a newly formed liquid phase following ultrafast melting in indium antimonide. The formation of the liquid phase

  8. Developments in time-resolved x-ray research at APS beamline 7ID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walko, D. A., E-mail: d-walko@anl.gov; Adams, B. W.; Doumy, G.; Dufresne, E. M.; Li, Yuelin; March, A. M.; Sandy, A. R.; Wang, Jin; Wen, Haidan; Zhu, Yi [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    The 7ID beamline of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is dedicated to time-resolved research using x-ray imaging, scattering, and spectroscopy techniques. Time resolution is achieved via gated detectors and/or mechanical choppers in conjunction with the time structure of the x-ray beam. Three experimental hutches allow for a wide variety of experimental setups. Major areas of research include atomic, molecular, and optical physics; chemistry; condensed matter physics in the bulk, thin film, and surface regimes; and fluid-spray dynamics. Recent developments in facilities at 7ID include a high-power, high-repetition-rate picosecond laser to complement the 1 kHz ultrafast laser. For the ultrafast laser, a newly commissioned optical parametric amplifier provides pump wavelength from 0.2 to 15 µm with energy per pulse up to 200 µJ. A nanodiffraction station has also been commissioned, using Fresnel zone-plate optics to achieve a focused x-ray spot of 300 nm. This nanoprobe is not only used to spatially resolve the evolution of small features in samples after optical excitation, but also has been combined with an intense THz source to study material response under ultrafast electric fields.

  9. X-ray fluorescence in IAEA Member States: Peru[X-ray fluorescence in the IAEA and its Member States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivera, P [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lab. de Fluorescencia de Rayos X, Lima (Peru)

    2005-12-15

    The application of the XRF technique performed in our laboratories in the field of archaeology began in 1994. It started with the analysis of different samples, as an incisive tooth, a fragment of occipital, a rib fragment, a segment of dorsal vertebra and small glasses found in the internal surface of a Nazca Culture mummy. In the paleopathological study performed by Dr. Guido Lombardi a {sup 109}Cd excitation source and an X ray spectrometry system were used. The elemental concentrations of Ca, Fe, Zn, and Sr were determined for the paleonutricion studies by using the relationships of Zn/Ca and Sr/Ca. The XRF technique also contributed to the mycobacterium tuberculosis detection in a mummy, supplementing other non destructive tests carried out previously. In recent years, 29 right clavicles belonging to mature individuals were analyzed out of 143 found in the Villa El Salvador area. Sr and Zn concentrations were used to determine the relative proportion of vegetable and animal foods in the population's diet under study. It was concluded that the old residents of this town manifested an omnivorous feeding with carnivorous tendency, due to consumption of products of marine origin. Ceramics have also been analyzed to determine the chemical composition of the paste which was used in the production process. 39 fragments of ceramic from the place called Lomo de Corvina of Villa El Salvador, low valley in Lurin town were analyzed. Thalysis of these samples was focused on quantitative determination of Ti, Fe, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Nb, to complement the results obtained by neutron activation analysis. Identification of the pigments used for production of art objects is of great importance for its characterization, authentication and/or restoration. For this reason, we are currently working on identification of pigments used in the decoration of archaeological ceramics. This work started from construction of a portable XRF spectrometer based on a small size, low power X ray

  10. Application of x-ray fluorescence to the measurement of additives in paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchnea, A.; McNelles, L.A.; Sinclair, A.H.; Hewitt, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Titanium dioxide content in paper was measured by x-ray fluorescence analysis using an 55 Fe source and an x-ray proportional counter to determine the feasibility of an on-line instrument. X-ray calibration curves for 60- and 100-g/m 2 paper samples were obtained using neutron activation to measure the titanium dioxide concentration. The predictions of a simple model were in good agreement with the experimental calibration curves. The measurements and calculations were extended to investigate the effects of clay and moisture. The presence of clay has a significant effect on the x-ray fluorescence determination of the titanium dioxide concentration; however, this can be well accounted for by the model. The calculations indicated that the effect of typical moisture levels on the titanium dioxide determination was small and can be ignored. It is not possible to measure the clay content by x-ray fluorescence; however, preliminary results for the determination of calcium carbonate concentration are promising

  11. Analysis of kiwi fruit (Accented deliciosa) by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ana Claudia S.; Oliveira, Marcia L. de; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Arthur, Valter; Almeida, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    The search for a healthy life has led consumers to eat fruits and vegetables in place of manufactured products, however, the demand for minimally processed products has evolved rapidly. The kiwi has at least eight nutrients beneficial to health: calcium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, iron, potassium, sodium and has also high vitamin C, which has wide acceptance in consumer markets. Energy dispersive spectroscopy X-ray (EDX) is the analytical technique used for elemental analysis or chemical characterization of a sample. It is a variant of fluorescence spectroscopy X-ray based on the sample through an investigation of interactions between electromagnetic radiation and matter, analyzing X-rays emitted by matter in response to being struck by charged particles. The aim of this study were to determine potassium, calcium, iron and bromine (K, Ca, Fe and Br, respectively) present in kiwifruit using the technique of fluorescence X-ray energy dispersive (EDXRF). Kiwifruit were peeled, washed and cut into slices and freeze-dried. After drying the sample was held digestion and subsequent reading of the same equipment in the X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive (EDXRF). The results indicated that the contents of potassium, calcium, iron and bromine are present in kiwifruit as expected when compared to Brazilian Table of Food Composition. (author)

  12. Visualizing a protein quake with time-resolved X-ray scattering at a free-electron laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnlund, David; Johansson, Linda C.; Wickstrand, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method to measure ultrafast protein structural changes using time-resolved wide-angle X-ray scattering at an X-ray free-electron laser. We demonstrated this approach using multiphoton excitation of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center, observing an ultrafast glob...

  13. Watching proteins function with time-resolved x-ray crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šrajer, Vukica; Schmidt, Marius

    2017-01-01

    Macromolecular crystallography was immensely successful in the last two decades. To a large degree this success resulted from use of powerful third generation synchrotron x-ray sources. An expansive database of more than 100 000 protein structures, of which many were determined at resolution better than 2 Å, is available today. With this achievement, the spotlight in structural biology is shifting from determination of static structures to elucidating dynamic aspects of protein function. A powerful tool for addressing these aspects is time-resolved crystallography, where a genuine biological function is triggered in the crystal with a goal of capturing molecules in action and determining protein kinetics and structures of intermediates (Schmidt et al 2005a Methods Mol. Biol . 305 115–54, Schmidt 2008 Ultrashort Laser Pulses in Biology and Medicine (Berlin: Springer) pp 201–41, Neutze and Moffat 2012 Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol . 22 651–9, Šrajer 2014 The Future of Dynamic Structural Science (Berlin: Springer) pp 237–51). In this approach, short and intense x-ray pulses are used to probe intermediates in real time and at room temperature, in an ongoing reaction that is initiated synchronously and rapidly in the crystal. Time-resolved macromolecular crystallography with 100 ps time resolution at synchrotron x-ray sources is in its mature phase today, particularly for studies of reversible, light-initiated reactions. The advent of the new free electron lasers for hard x-rays (XFELs; 5–20 keV), which provide exceptionally intense, femtosecond x-ray pulses, marks a new frontier for time-resolved crystallography. The exploration of ultra-fast events becomes possible in high-resolution structural detail, on sub-picosecond time scales (Tenboer et al 2014 Science 346 1242–6, Barends et al 2015 Science 350 445–50, Pande et al 2016 Science 352 725–9). We review here state-of-the-art time-resolved crystallographic experiments both at synchrotrons and XFELs

  14. Watching proteins function with time-resolved x-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šrajer, Vukica; Schmidt, Marius

    2017-09-01

    Macromolecular crystallography was immensely successful in the last two decades. To a large degree this success resulted from use of powerful third generation synchrotron x-ray sources. An expansive database of more than 100 000 protein structures, of which many were determined at resolution better than 2 Å, is available today. With this achievement, the spotlight in structural biology is shifting from determination of static structures to elucidating dynamic aspects of protein function. A powerful tool for addressing these aspects is time-resolved crystallography, where a genuine biological function is triggered in the crystal with a goal of capturing molecules in action and determining protein kinetics and structures of intermediates (Schmidt et al 2005a Methods Mol. Biol. 305 115-54, Schmidt 2008 Ultrashort Laser Pulses in Biology and Medicine (Berlin: Springer) pp 201-41, Neutze and Moffat 2012 Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 22 651-9, Šrajer 2014 The Future of Dynamic Structural Science (Berlin: Springer) pp 237-51). In this approach, short and intense x-ray pulses are used to probe intermediates in real time and at room temperature, in an ongoing reaction that is initiated synchronously and rapidly in the crystal. Time-resolved macromolecular crystallography with 100 ps time resolution at synchrotron x-ray sources is in its mature phase today, particularly for studies of reversible, light-initiated reactions. The advent of the new free electron lasers for hard x-rays (XFELs; 5-20 keV), which provide exceptionally intense, femtosecond x-ray pulses, marks a new frontier for time-resolved crystallography. The exploration of ultra-fast events becomes possible in high-resolution structural detail, on sub-picosecond time scales (Tenboer et al 2014 Science 346 1242-6, Barends et al 2015 Science 350 445-50, Pande et al 2016 Science 352 725-9). We review here state-of-the-art time-resolved crystallographic experiments both at synchrotrons and XFELs. We also outline

  15. Watching proteins function with time-resolved x-ray crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šrajer, Vukica; Schmidt, Marius

    2017-08-22

    Macromolecular crystallography was immensely successful in the last two decades. To a large degree this success resulted from use of powerful third generation synchrotron x-ray sources. An expansive database of more than 100 000 protein structures, of which many were determined at resolution better than 2 Å, is available today. With this achievement, the spotlight in structural biology is shifting from determination of static structures to elucidating dynamic aspects of protein function. A powerful tool for addressing these aspects is time-resolved crystallography, where a genuine biological function is triggered in the crystal with a goal of capturing molecules in action and determining protein kinetics and structures of intermediates (Schmidt et al 2005a Methods Mol. Biol. 305 115–54, Schmidt 2008 Ultrashort Laser Pulses in Biology and Medicine (Berlin: Springer) pp 201–41, Neutze and Moffat 2012 Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 22 651–9, Šrajer 2014 The Future of Dynamic Structural Science (Berlin: Springer) pp 237–51). In this approach, short and intense x-ray pulses are used to probe intermediates in real time and at room temperature, in an ongoing reaction that is initiated synchronously and rapidly in the crystal. Time-resolved macromolecular crystallography with 100 ps time resolution at synchrotron x-ray sources is in its mature phase today, particularly for studies of reversible, light-initiated reactions. The advent of the new free electron lasers for hard x-rays (XFELs; 5–20 keV), which provide exceptionally intense, femtosecond x-ray pulses, marks a new frontier for time-resolved crystallography. The exploration of ultra-fast events becomes possible in high-resolution structural detail, on sub-picosecond time scales (Tenboer et al 2014 Science 346 1242–6, Barends et al 2015 Science 350 445–50, Pande et al 2016 Science 352 725–9). We review here state-of-the-art time-resolved crystallographic experiments both at synchrotrons and XFELs. We

  16. An iterative method for unfolding time-resolved soft x-ray spectra of laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yongjian; Shen Kexi; Xu Hepin

    1991-01-01

    Dante-recorded temporal waveforms have been unfolded by using Fast Fourier transformation (FFT) and the inverted convolution theorem of Fourier analysis. The conversion of the signals to time-dependent soft x-ray spectra is accomplished on the IBM-PC/XT-286 microcomputer system with the code DTSP including SAND II reported by W.N.Mcelory et al.. An amplitude-limited iterative and periodic smoothing technique has been developed in the code DTSP. Time-resolved soft x-ray spectra with sixteen time-cell, and time-dependent radiation, [T R (t)], have been obtained for hohlraum targets irradiated with laser beams (λ = 1.06 μm) on LF-12 in 1989

  17. Three dimensional subsurface elemental identification of minerals using confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence and micro-X-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, Nikolaus L.; Seshadri, Srivatsan; Havrilla, George J.; Yuan, Xiaoli; Feser, Michael; Patterson, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    Current non-destructive elemental characterization methods, such as scanning electron microscopy-based energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS) and micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (MXRF), are limited to either elemental identification at the surface (SEM–EDS) or suffer from an inability to discriminate between surface or depth information (MXRF). Thus, a non-destructive elemental characterization of individual embedded particles beneath the surface is impossible with either of these techniques. This limitation can be overcome by using laboratory-based 3D confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (confocal MXRF). This technique utilizes focusing optics on the X-ray source and detector which allows for spatial discrimination in all three dimensions. However, the voxel-by-voxel serial acquisition of a 3D elemental scan can be very time-intensive (~ 1 to 4 weeks) if it is necessary to locate individual embedded particles of interest. As an example, if each point takes a 5 s measurement time, a small volume of 50 × 50 × 50 pixels leads to an acquisition time of approximately 174 h, not including sample stage movement time. Initially screening the samples for particles of interest using micro-X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) can significantly reduce the time required to spatially locate these particles. Once located, these individual particles can be elementally characterized with confocal MXRF. Herein, we report the elemental identification of high atomic number surface and subsurface particles embedded in a mineralogical matrix by coupling micro-CT and confocal MXRF. Synergistically, these two X-ray based techniques first rapidly locate and then elementally identify individual subsurface particles. - Highlights: • Coupling of confocal X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray computed tomography • Qualitative elemental identification of surface and subsurface mineral particles • Non-destructive particle size measurements • Utilization of

  18. Three dimensional subsurface elemental identification of minerals using confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence and micro-X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, Nikolaus L., E-mail: ncordes@lanl.gov [Polymers and Coatings Group, Material Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Seshadri, Srivatsan, E-mail: srivatsan.seshadri@zeiss.com [Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy, Inc., Pleasanton, CA 94588 (United States); Havrilla, George J. [Chemical Diagnostics and Engineering, Chemistry Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Yuan, Xiaoli [Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre, University of Queensland, Indooroopilly, Brisbane, QLD 4068 (Australia); Feser, Michael [Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy, Inc., Pleasanton, CA 94588 (United States); Patterson, Brian M. [Polymers and Coatings Group, Material Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Current non-destructive elemental characterization methods, such as scanning electron microscopy-based energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS) and micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (MXRF), are limited to either elemental identification at the surface (SEM–EDS) or suffer from an inability to discriminate between surface or depth information (MXRF). Thus, a non-destructive elemental characterization of individual embedded particles beneath the surface is impossible with either of these techniques. This limitation can be overcome by using laboratory-based 3D confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (confocal MXRF). This technique utilizes focusing optics on the X-ray source and detector which allows for spatial discrimination in all three dimensions. However, the voxel-by-voxel serial acquisition of a 3D elemental scan can be very time-intensive (~ 1 to 4 weeks) if it is necessary to locate individual embedded particles of interest. As an example, if each point takes a 5 s measurement time, a small volume of 50 × 50 × 50 pixels leads to an acquisition time of approximately 174 h, not including sample stage movement time. Initially screening the samples for particles of interest using micro-X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) can significantly reduce the time required to spatially locate these particles. Once located, these individual particles can be elementally characterized with confocal MXRF. Herein, we report the elemental identification of high atomic number surface and subsurface particles embedded in a mineralogical matrix by coupling micro-CT and confocal MXRF. Synergistically, these two X-ray based techniques first rapidly locate and then elementally identify individual subsurface particles. - Highlights: • Coupling of confocal X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray computed tomography • Qualitative elemental identification of surface and subsurface mineral particles • Non-destructive particle size measurements • Utilization of

  19. Diagnostics of underwater electrical wire explosion through a time- and space-resolved hard x-ray source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftman, D; Shafer, D; Efimov, S; Gruzinsky, K; Gleizer, S; Krasik, Ya E

    2012-10-01

    A time- and space-resolved hard x-ray source was developed as a diagnostic tool for imaging underwater exploding wires. A ~4 ns width pulse of hard x-rays with energies of up to 100 keV was obtained from the discharge in a vacuum diode consisting of point-shaped tungsten electrodes. To improve contrast and image quality, an external pulsed magnetic field produced by Helmholtz coils was used. High resolution x-ray images of an underwater exploding wire were obtained using a sensitive x-ray CCD detector, and were compared to optical fast framing images. Future developments and application of this diagnostic technique are discussed.

  20. Single atom spectroscopy: Decreased scattering delocalization at high energy losses, effects of atomic movement and X-ray fluorescence yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizei, Luiz H G; Iizumi, Yoko; Okazaki, Toshiya; Nakanishi, Ryo; Kitaura, Ryo; Shinohara, Hisanori; Suenaga, Kazu

    2016-01-01

    Single atom localization and identification is crucial in understanding effects which depend on the specific local environment of atoms. In advanced nanometer scale materials, the characteristics of individual atoms may play an important role. Here, we describe spectroscopic experiments (electron energy loss spectroscopy, EELS, and Energy Dispersed X-ray spectroscopy, EDX) using a low voltage transmission electron microscope designed towards single atom analysis. For EELS, we discuss the advantages of using lower primary electron energy (30 keV and 60 keV) and higher energy losses (above 800 eV). The effect of atomic movement is considered. Finally, we discuss the possibility of using atomically resolved EELS and EDX data to measure the fluorescence yield for X-ray emission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Single atom spectroscopy: Decreased scattering delocalization at high energy losses, effects of atomic movement and X-ray fluorescence yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tizei, Luiz H.G.; Iizumi, Yoko; Okazaki, Toshiya; Nakanishi, Ryo; Kitaura, Ryo; Shinohara, Hisanori; Suenaga, Kazu

    2016-01-01

    Single atom localization and identification is crucial in understanding effects which depend on the specific local environment of atoms. In advanced nanometer scale materials, the characteristics of individual atoms may play an important role. Here, we describe spectroscopic experiments (electron energy loss spectroscopy, EELS, and Energy Dispersed X-ray spectroscopy, EDX) using a low voltage transmission electron microscope designed towards single atom analysis. For EELS, we discuss the advantages of using lower primary electron energy (30 keV and 60 keV) and higher energy losses (above 800 eV). The effect of atomic movement is considered. Finally, we discuss the possibility of using atomically resolved EELS and EDX data to measure the fluorescence yield for X-ray emission.

  2. The application of a microstrip gas counter to energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, J.F.C.A.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Conde, C.A.N.

    1996-01-01

    Performance characteristics of a microstrip gas counter operated as a x-ray fluorescence spectrometer are reported. Gas amplification as a function of microstrip anode-cathode voltage was measured, and the breakdown threshold voltage was determined in pure xenon. The detector temporal stability and the effect of gas purity were assessed. Energy resolution and linearity, detection efficiency, and uniformity of spatial response in the 2- to 60-keV x-ray energy range were determined from the pulse-height distributions of the fluorescence x-ray spectra induced in a variety of single- and multi-element sample materials. Energy resolution similar to conventional proportional counters was achieved at 6 keV

  3. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of Austrian wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, X. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Kregsamer, P. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Wobrauschek, P. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Streli, C. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: streli@ati.ac.at

    2006-11-15

    The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in Austrian wine was determined by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using gallium as internal standard. A multi-elemental analysis was possible by pipetting 6 {mu}l of wine directly on the reflector and drying. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed with Atomika EXTRA II A (Cameca) X-rays from a Mo tube with a high-energy cut-off at 20 keV in total-reflection geometry. The results showed that it was possible to identify only by the elemental analysis as fingerprint the vineyards and year of vintage among 11 different wines.

  4. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of Austrian wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, X.; Kregsamer, P.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in Austrian wine was determined by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using gallium as internal standard. A multi-elemental analysis was possible by pipetting 6 μl of wine directly on the reflector and drying. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed with Atomika EXTRA II A (Cameca) X-rays from a Mo tube with a high-energy cut-off at 20 keV in total-reflection geometry. The results showed that it was possible to identify only by the elemental analysis as fingerprint the vineyards and year of vintage among 11 different wines

  5. Characterization of LiF-based soft X-ray imaging detectors by confocal fluorescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfigli, F; Gaudio, P; Lupelli, I; Nichelatti, E; Richetta, M; Vincenti, M A; Montereali, R M

    2010-01-01

    X-ray microscopy represents a powerful tool to obtain images of samples with very high spatial resolution. The main limitation of this technique is represented by the poor spatial resolution of standard imaging detectors. We proposed an innovative high-performance X-ray imaging detector based on the visible photoluminescence of colour centres in lithium fluoride. In this work, a confocal microscope in fluorescence mode was used to characterize LiF-based imaging detectors measuring CC integrated visible fluorescence signals of LiF crystals and films (grown on several kinds of substrates) irradiated by soft X-rays produced by a laser plasma source in different exposure conditions. The results are compared with the CC photoluminescence spectra measured on the same samples and discussed.

  6. Picosecond time-resolved laser pump/X-ray probe experiments using a gated single-photon-counting area detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejdrup, T.; Lemke, H.T.; Haldrup, Martin Kristoffer

    2009-01-01

    The recent developments in X-ray detectors have opened new possibilities in the area of time-resolved pump/probe X-ray experiments; this article presents the novel use of a PILATUS detector to achieve X-ray pulse duration limited time-resolution at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), USA...... limited time-resolution of 60 ps using the gated PILATUS detector. This is the first demonstration of X-ray pulse duration limited data recorded using an area detector without the use of a mechanical chopper array at the beamline........ The capability of the gated PILATUS detector to selectively detect the signal from a given X-ray pulse in 24 bunch mode at the APS storage ring is demonstrated. A test experiment performed on polycrystalline organic thin films of [alpha]-perylene illustrates the possibility of reaching an X-ray pulse duration...

  7. Broadband time-resolved elliptical crystal spectrometer for X-ray spectroscopic measurements in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rui-Rong; Jia Guo; Fang Zhi-Heng; Wang Wei; Meng Xiang-Fu; Xie Zhi-Yong; Zhang Fan

    2014-01-01

    The X-ray spectrometer used in high-energy-density plasma experiments generally requires both broad X-ray energy coverage and high temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions for overcoming the difficulties imposed by the X-ray background, debris, and mechanical shocks. By using an elliptical crystal together with a streak camera, we resolve this issue at the SG-II laser facility. The carefully designed elliptical crystal has a broad spectral coverage with high resolution, strong rejection of the diffuse and/or fluorescent background radiation, and negligible source broadening for extended sources. The spectra that are Bragg reflected (23° < θ < 38°) from the crystal are focused onto a streak camera slit 18 mm long and about 80 μm wide, to obtain a time-resolved spectrum. With experimental measurements, we demonstrate that the quartz(1011) elliptical analyzer at the SG-II laser facility has a single-shot spectral range of (4.64–6.45) keV, a typical spectral resolution of E/ΔE = 560, and an enhanced focusing power in the spectral dimension. For titanium (Ti) data, the lines of interest show a distribution as a function of time and the temporal variations of the He-α and Li-like Ti satellite lines and their spatial profiles show intensity peak red shifts. The spectrometer sensitivity is illustrated with a temporal resolution of better than 25 ps, which satisfies the near-term requirements of high-energy-density physics experiments. (atomic and molecular physics)

  8. Proton induced X-Ray fluorescence study as a tool trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kady, Ahmed A.

    1978-01-01

    Usefulness and limitations of trace elemental analysis by high energy charged particles and photon induced X-ray have been discussed. Comparison with the well established neutron activation analysis technique is also given. Back-ground radiation due to bremsstrahlung from secondary electrons and due to charged particle bremsstrahlung have been reviewed for different projectiles. The sensitivity of elemental analysis by proton induced X-ray fluorescence have been examined by measuring the characteristic X-ray emission cross section for K and L transitions of many elements and for different proton energies and compared with theroretical values. The discussion given in this report show that with suitable proton generator and a high resolution X-ray detector, proton X-ray fluorescence technique is capable of analyzing many elements simultaneously at the part per million level and offers a rapid and reliable method for trace element analysis. Data on water, blood and tissue samples given in this report are few examples of many possible applications

  9. Development of an X-ray fluorescence holographic measurement system for protein crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato-Tomita, Ayana, E-mail: ayana.sato@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: shibayam@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: hayashi.koichi@nitech.ac.jp; Shibayama, Naoya, E-mail: ayana.sato@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: shibayam@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: hayashi.koichi@nitech.ac.jp; Okabe, Takahiro [Division of Biophysics, Department of Physiology, Jichi Medical University, Yakushiji, Shimotsuke 329-0498 (Japan); Happo, Naohisa [Department of Computer and Network Engineering, Graduate School of Information Sciences, Hiroshima City University, Asa-Minami-Ku, Hiroshima 731-3194 (Japan); Kimura, Koji [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Matsushita, Tomohiro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), SPring-8, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Park, Sam-Yong [Drug Design Laboratory, Department of Medical Life Science, Yokohama City University, Suehiro, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Sasaki, Yuji C. [Department of Advanced Material Science, Graduate School of Frontier Science, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8561 (Japan); Hayashi, Kouichi, E-mail: ayana.sato@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: shibayam@jichi.ac.jp, E-mail: hayashi.koichi@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Frontier Research Institute for Materials Science, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Experimental procedure and setup for obtaining X-ray fluorescence hologram of crystalline metalloprotein samples are described. Human hemoglobin, an α{sub 2}β{sub 2} tetrameric metalloprotein containing the Fe(II) heme active-site in each chain, was chosen for this study because of its wealth of crystallographic data. A cold gas flow system was introduced to reduce X-ray radiation damage of protein crystals that are usually fragile and susceptible to damage. A χ-stage was installed to rotate the sample while avoiding intersection between the X-ray beam and the sample loop or holder, which is needed for supporting fragile protein crystals. Huge hemoglobin crystals (with a maximum size of 8 × 6 × 3 mm{sup 3}) were prepared and used to keep the footprint of the incident X-ray beam smaller than the sample size during the entire course of the measurement with the incident angle of 0°-70°. Under these experimental and data acquisition conditions, we achieved the first observation of the X-ray fluorescence hologram pattern from the protein crystals with minimal radiation damage, opening up a new and potential method for investigating the stereochemistry of the metal active-sites in biomacromolecules.

  10. Development of an X-ray fluorescence holographic measurement system for protein crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato-Tomita, Ayana; Shibayama, Naoya; Okabe, Takahiro; Happo, Naohisa; Kimura, Koji; Matsushita, Tomohiro; Park, Sam-Yong; Sasaki, Yuji C.; Hayashi, Kouichi

    2016-01-01

    Experimental procedure and setup for obtaining X-ray fluorescence hologram of crystalline metalloprotein samples are described. Human hemoglobin, an α_2β_2 tetrameric metalloprotein containing the Fe(II) heme active-site in each chain, was chosen for this study because of its wealth of crystallographic data. A cold gas flow system was introduced to reduce X-ray radiation damage of protein crystals that are usually fragile and susceptible to damage. A χ-stage was installed to rotate the sample while avoiding intersection between the X-ray beam and the sample loop or holder, which is needed for supporting fragile protein crystals. Huge hemoglobin crystals (with a maximum size of 8 × 6 × 3 mm"3) were prepared and used to keep the footprint of the incident X-ray beam smaller than the sample size during the entire course of the measurement with the incident angle of 0°-70°. Under these experimental and data acquisition conditions, we achieved the first observation of the X-ray fluorescence hologram pattern from the protein crystals with minimal radiation damage, opening up a new and potential method for investigating the stereochemistry of the metal active-sites in biomacromolecules.

  11. Chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence, of niobium in high-strength plate steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iozzi, F.B.; Dias, M.J.P.

    1981-01-01

    The use of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in quantitative analysis of niobium in steels, as an alternative solution for optical emission spectrometry, in the rapid chemical control of steel fabrication by LD type converters, is presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. Precision evaluation of pressed pastille preparation different methods for X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Raquel Franco de Souza; Melo Junior, Germano; Sa, Jaziel Martins

    1997-01-01

    This work relates the comparison between the results obtained with the two different methods of preparing pressed pastilles from the crushed sample. In this study, the reproductivity is evaluated, aiming to define the method that furnishes a better analytic precision. These analyses were realized with a X-ray fluorescence spectrometer at the Geology Department of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte

  13. Analysis of River sediments from the Tigre river (Venezuela) by radioisotope excited x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Rosales, P.A.; Schorin, H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes qualitative elemental scans by both energy dispersive (radioisotope excited) and conventional wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence of different grain size fractions of river sediments. An internal standard thin-film technique was used. The precision of Rb, Sr, Y and Zr determination for SY-3 standard reference rock and one real sample for five independently prepared samples is demonstrated

  14. Rapid extraction and x-ray fluorescence determination of gold in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobanov, F.I.; Logunova, S.A.; Popov, A.M.; Krasnopevtseva, E.V.

    1994-01-01

    The optimal conditions for gold extractional recovery by melts of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids mixtures (C ≥ 16) with additions of di-2-ethylhexyldithiophosphoric acid, di-n-oxtylsulfide and alkylaniline were determined. A rapid method of extraction and X-ray fluorescence detection of gold in the presence of considerable amounts of Fe, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn and Bi was developed

  15. Microanalysis of old violin varnishes by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bohlen, Alex; Meyer, Friedrich

    1997-07-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence was used to characterize elements (with Z>13) contained in varnishes applied by prominent violin makers during the last five centuries. Direct analyses of small flakes with masses varnish. Higher amounts of Fe, As and Pb were found in old products, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn and Pb were used in more recent varnishes.

  16. X-ray fluorescence analysis of ancient and medieval brass artifacts from south Moravia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hložek, M.; Komoróczy, Balázs; Trojek, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 70 (2012), s. 1250-1253 ISSN 0969-8043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80010507 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : x-ray fluorescence analysis * brass * Moravia Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.179, year: 2012

  17. Confirmation of molecular formulas of metallic complexes through X-ray fluorescence quantitative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filgueiras, C.A.L.; Marques, E.V.; Machado, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry was employed to determined the metal content in a series of five transition element complexes (Mn, Ti, Zn, V). The results confirmed the molecular formulas of these complexes, already proposed on the basis of elemental microanalysis, solution condutimetry and other analytical methods. (C.L.B.) [pt

  18. X-ray fluorescence determination of cobalt in iron-manganese oceanic concretions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, V.V.; Kustov, V.N.; Metelev, A.Yu.; Rakita, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    A method was developed for resolution of weak analytical lines for elements determined by radionuclide-excited X-ray fluorescence multi-element analysis. The method was used aboart for determining cobalt and some other commercially valuable elements in iron-manganese concretions of Pacific ocean 109 Cd was used as an ionizing radiation source

  19. Some applications of x-ray fluorescence spectrography to the determination of uranium and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.W.

    1959-04-01

    Several methods for the determination of uranium and thorium by X-ray fluorescence spectrography are described. In pure solutions the sensitivity for these elements is 5-10 ppm. For solutions containing gross concentrations of impurities, strontium is added as an internal standard. Precision and accuracy of the determinations are about 1% when working in the optimum concentration range. (author)

  20. Comparative analysis of toxic elements in snuff by analytical techniques of X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, Mario; Olivera, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Six samples of different commercial brands of cigarettes expended in the Peruvian market have been analyzed along with two IAEA certified reference material using the technique of X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive. The results obtained in the study showed the presence of toxic metals such as Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn.

  1. The X-ray fluorescent method for determination of total sulphur in bituminous coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widowska-Kusmierska, J.; Siess, K.

    1979-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescent technique for the determination of total sulphur covering concentrations from 0,1 to 10% has been applied for bituminous coals showing a great variability in qualitative and quantitative composition of mineral matter (ash). The described method is a quick one giving results during one hour. The obtained good accuracy of determinations gives prospects for wide industrial application. (author)

  2. Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry: A Long Overdue Addition to the Chemistry Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Peter T.

    2011-01-01

    Portable Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyzers have undergone significant improvements over the past decade. Salient advantages of XRF for elemental analysis include minimal sample preparation, multielement analysis capabilities, detection limits in the low parts per million (ppm) range, and analysis times on the order of 1 min.…

  3. Photon induced x-ray fluorescence analysis using energy dispersive detector and dichotomous sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaklevic, J.M.; Loo, B.W.; Goulding, F.S.

    1976-01-01

    Operating experience in using the photon-excited energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis system has demonstrated the applicability of this technique to large-scale air-sampling networks. This experience has shown that it is possible to perform automatic sampling and analysis of aerosol particulates at a sensitivity and accuracy more than adequate for most air pollution studies

  4. Fast, versatile x-ray fluorescence method for measuring tin in impregnated wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabæk, I.; Christensen, Leif Højslet

    1985-01-01

    The present paper describes an energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence method for measuring tin in bis(tri-n-butyl)tin-oxide impregnated wood. The proposed method is of the backscatter/fundamental parameter type. Its versatility, precision, and accuracy is demonstrated by analyses of eleven samples...

  5. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation applied to biological and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simabuco, S.M.; Matsumoto, E.; Jesus, E.F.O.; Lopes, R.T.; Perez, C.; Nascimento Filho, V.F.; Costa, R.S.S.; Tavares do Carmo, M.G.; Saunders, C.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence has been applied for trace elements in water and aqueous solutions, environmental samples and biological materials after sample preparation and to surface analysis of silicon wafers. The present paper shows some results of applications for rainwater, atmospheric particulate material, colostrum and nuclear samples. (author)

  6. X-ray fluorescence analysis study. Final report, December 1, 1970-December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneip, T J; Laurer, G R

    1978-01-01

    This report has described the most significant experiments and the results obtained, during the development of a system for the detection and measurement of Pb in blood using radioisotope-excited x-ray fluorescence analysis, over the contract period. Briefly, the report described: detector selection; source selection; source-sample-detector geometry; sample preparation; system calibration; and separation technique. (PSB)

  7. X-ray fluorescence in some rare earth and high Z elements excited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    section and X-ray fluorescence yield values for different elements at various photoion- ization energies ... In the present method, the K-shell vacancies are created by photons and filled by outer electrons leading to ... The well type detector pro-.

  8. Determination of rhenium in molybdenite by X-ray fluorescence: A combined chemical-spectrometric technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solt, M W; Wahlberg, J S; Myers, A T

    1969-01-01

    Rhenium in molybdenite is separated from molybdenum by distillation of rhenium heptoxide from a perchloric-sulphuric acid mixture. It is concentrated by precipitation of the sulphide and then determined by X-ray fluorescence. From 3 to 1000 microg of rhenium can be measured with a precision generally within 2%. The procedure tolerates larger amounts of molybdenum than the usual colorimetric methods.

  9. Determination of rhenium in molybdenite by X-ray fluorescence. A combined chemical-spectrometric technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solt, M.W.; Wahlberg, J.S.; Myers, A.T.

    1969-01-01

    Rhenium in molybdenite is separated from molybdenum by distillation of rhenium heptoxide from a perchloric-sulphuric acid mixture. It is concentrated by precipitation of the sulphide and then determined by X-ray fluorescence. From 3 to 1000 ??g of rhenium can be measured with a precision generally within 2%. The procedure tolerates larger amounts of molybdenum than the usual colorimetric methods. ?? 1969.

  10. X-ray fluorescence activities at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) system was developed to analyse alloys by exposing them directly under the tube bremsstrahlung .... A detailed description of the analysis of these data is given in [11]. ..... samples were first dried, ground in an agate mortar with pestle, and if necessary, mixed with a binder to make pellets in a ...

  11. Some aspects of detectors and electronics for x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, F.S.

    1976-08-01

    Some of the less recognized and potentially important parameters of the electronics and detectors used in X-ray fluorescence spectrometers are discussed. Detector factors include window (dead-layer) effects, time-dependent background and excess background. Noise parameters of field-effect transistors and time-variant pulse shaping are also discussed

  12. X-ray fluorescence camera for imaging of iodine media in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Manabu; Sato, Eiichi; Osawa, Akihiro; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Nagao, Jiro; Abderyim, Purkhet; Aizawa, Katsuo; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Ehara, Shigeru; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

    2009-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is useful for measuring density distributions of contrast media in vivo. An XRF camera was developed for carrying out mapping for iodine-based contrast media used in medical angiography. Objects are exposed by an X-ray beam from a cerium target. Cerium K-series X-rays are absorbed effectively by iodine media in objects, and iodine fluorescence is produced from the objects. Next, iodine Kalpha fluorescence is selected out by use of a 58-microm-thick stannum filter and is detected by a cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector. The Kalpha rays are discriminated out by a multichannel analyzer, and the number of photons is counted by a counter card. The objects are moved and scanned by an x-y stage in conjunction with a two-stage controller, and X-ray images obtained by iodine mapping are shown on a personal computer monitor. The scan pitch of the x and y axes was 2.5 mm, and the photon counting time per mapping point was 2.0 s. We carried out iodine mapping of non-living animals (phantoms), and iodine Kalpha fluorescence was produced from weakly remaining iodine elements in a rabbit skin cancer.

  13. Modelling of a total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The simulation of the different stages involved in x-ray fluorescence emissions was carried out by writing a suite of computer programs using FORTRAN programming language. These computer simulated XRF stages were then integrated together to generate a general robust model which was run with the digital visual ...

  14. Determination of Fe and Zn in healing plants by radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harangozo, M.; Toelgyessy, J.; Tomecek, O.; Ruzicka, I.; Cejpek, K.

    1999-01-01

    Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence method was used for the determination of Fe and Zn in healing plants (Sage, Peppermint, Stinging, Common Agrimony, Milfoil, Ribwort, Tansy, White Dead-Nettle). 238 Pu exciting source and Si/Li semiconductor detector were used for the determination. (author)

  15. Study Of Soot Growth And Nucleation By A Time-Resolved Synchrotron Radiation Based X-Ray Absorption Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Judith I

    2001-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking University of Rennes I as follows: The contractor will perform a study of soot growth and nucleation by a time-resolved synchrotron radiation based x-ray absorption method...

  16. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction techniques for bulk polycrystalline materials under dynamic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, P. K.; Hustedt, C. J.; Zhao, M.; Ananiadis, A. G.; Hufnagel, T. C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Vecchio, K. S. [Department of NanoEngineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Huskins, E. L. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Maryland 21005 (United States); Casem, D. T. [US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, Maryland 21005 (United States); Gruner, S. M. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Tate, M. W.; Philipp, H. T.; Purohit, P.; Weiss, J. T. [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Woll, A. R. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kannan, V.; Ramesh, K. T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Kenesei, P.; Okasinski, J. S.; Almer, J. [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    We have developed two techniques for time-resolved x-ray diffraction from bulk polycrystalline materials during dynamic loading. In the first technique, we synchronize a fast detector with loading of samples at strain rates of ∼10{sup 3}–10{sup 4} s{sup −1} in a compression Kolsky bar (split Hopkinson pressure bar) apparatus to obtain in situ diffraction patterns with exposures as short as 70 ns. This approach employs moderate x-ray energies (10–20 keV) and is well suited to weakly absorbing materials such as magnesium alloys. The second technique is useful for more strongly absorbing materials, and uses high-energy x-rays (86 keV) and a fast shutter synchronized with the Kolsky bar to produce short (∼40 μs) pulses timed with the arrival of the strain pulse at the specimen, recording the diffraction pattern on a large-format amorphous silicon detector. For both techniques we present sample data demonstrating the ability of these techniques to characterize elastic strains and polycrystalline texture as a function of time during high-rate deformation.

  17. Novel energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablant, N. A.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bitter, M.; Brandstetter, S.; Eikenberry, E.; Ellis, R.; Hill, K. W.; Hofer, P.; Schneebeli, M.

    2012-10-01

    A new energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera has been recently installed on Alcator C-Mod. This diagnostic is capable of 1D or 2D imaging with a spatial resolution of ≈1 cm, an energy resolution of ≈1 keV in the range of 3.5-15 keV and a maximum time resolution of 5 ms. A novel use of a Pilatus 2 hybrid-pixel x-ray detector [P. Kraft et al., J. Synchrotron Rad. 16, 368 (2009), 10.1107/S0909049509009911] is employed in which the lower energy threshold of individual pixels is adjusted, allowing regions of a single detector to be sensitive to different x-ray energy ranges. Development of this new detector calibration technique was done as a collaboration between PPPL and Dectris Ltd. The calibration procedure is described, and the energy resolution of the detector is characterized. Initial data from this installation on Alcator C-Mod is presented. This diagnostic provides line-integrated measurements of impurity emission which can be used to determine impurity concentrations as well as the electron energy distribution.

  18. X-ray fluorescence in some medium-Z elements excited by 59.5 keV photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, I.; Shahin, M.; Demir, L.; Narmanli, E.

    2010-01-01

    K X-ray fluorescence parameters cross sections and average shell fluorescence yields) for selected ten elements in the atomic range 42 ≤ Z ≤ 66 have been experimentally determined at photon excitation energy of 59.5 keV. K X-rays emitted from the samples have been counted by a Si (Li) detector. The K spectra for investigated elements have been derived from the measured K shell X-ray spectra by peak fitting process. Experimental results of K X-ray fluorescence parameters have been compared with theory. In general there is an agreement within the standard uncertainties of the experimental and theoretical values

  19. MCNP calculation for calibration curve of X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chunming; Wu Zhifang; Guo Xiaojing; Xing Guilai; Wang Zhentao

    2011-01-01

    Due to the compositional variation of the sample, linear relationship between the element concentration and fluorescent intensity will not be well maintained in most X-ray fluorescence analysis. To overcome this, we use MCNP program to simulate fluorescent intensity of Fe (0∼100% concentration range) within binary mixture of Cr and O which represent typical strong absorption and weak absorption conditions respectively. The theoretic calculation shows that the relationship can be described as a curve determined by parameter p and value of p can be obtained with given absorption coefficient of substrate elements and element under detection. MCNP simulation results are consistent with theoretic calculation. Our research reveals that MCNP program can calculate the Calibration Curve of X-ray fluorescence very well. (authors)

  20. Improving x-ray fluorescence signal for benchtop polychromatic cone-beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography by incident x-ray spectrum optimization: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Nivedh; Jones, Bernard L; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2014-10-01

    To develop an accurate and comprehensive Monte Carlo (MC) model of an experimental benchtop polychromatic cone-beam x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT) setup and apply this MC model to optimize incident x-ray spectrum for improving production/detection of x-ray fluorescence photons from gold nanoparticles (GNPs). A detailed MC model, based on an experimental XFCT system, was created using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code. The model was validated by comparing MC results including x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scatter photon spectra with measured data obtained under identical conditions using 105 kVp cone-beam x-rays filtered by either 1 mm of lead (Pb) or 0.9 mm of tin (Sn). After validation, the model was used to investigate the effects of additional filtration of the incident beam with Pb and Sn. Supplementary incident x-ray spectra, representing heavier filtration (Pb: 2 and 3 mm; Sn: 1, 2, and 3 mm) were computationally generated and used with the model to obtain XRF/scatter spectra. Quasimonochromatic incident x-ray spectra (81, 85, 90, 95, and 100 keV with 10 keV full width at half maximum) were also investigated to determine the ideal energy for distinguishing gold XRF signal from the scatter background. Fluorescence signal-to-dose ratio (FSDR) and fluorescence-normalized scan time (FNST) were used as metrics to assess results. Calculated XRF/scatter spectra for 1-mm Pb and 0.9-mm Sn filters matched (r ≥ 0.996) experimental measurements. Calculated spectra representing additional filtration for both filter materials showed that the spectral hardening improved the FSDR at the expense of requiring a much longer FNST. In general, using Sn instead of Pb, at a given filter thickness, allowed an increase of up to 20% in FSDR, more prominent gold XRF peaks, and up to an order of magnitude decrease in FNST. Simulations using quasimonochromatic spectra suggested that increasing source x-ray energy, in the investigated range of 81-100 ke

  1. High resolution time- and 2-dimensional space-resolved x-ray imaging of plasmas at NOVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landen, O.L.

    1992-01-01

    A streaked multiple pinhole camera technique, first used by P. Choi et al. to record time- and 2-D space-resolved soft X-ray images of plasma pinches, has been implemented on laser plasmas at NOVA. The instrument is particularly useful for time-resolved imaging of small sources ( 2.5 key imaging, complementing the existing 1--3 key streaked X-ray microscope capabilities at NOVA

  2. High resolution x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy - a new technique for site- and spin-selectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin

    1996-12-01

    X-ray spectroscopy has long been used to elucidate electronic and structural information of molecules. One of the weaknesses of x-ray absorption is its sensitivity to all of the atoms of a particular element in a sample. Through out this thesis, a new technique for enhancing the site- and spin-selectivity of the x-ray absorption has been developed. By high resolution fluorescence detection, the chemical sensitivity of K emission spectra can be used to identify oxidation and spin states; it can also be used to facilitate site-selective X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and site-selective Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The spin polarization in K fluorescence could be used to generate spin selective XANES or spin-polarized EXAFS, which provides a new measure of the spin density, or the nature of magnetic neighboring atoms. Finally, dramatic line-sharpening effects by the combination of absorption and emission processes allow observation of structure that is normally unobservable. All these unique characters can enormously simplify a complex x-ray spectrum. Applications of this novel technique have generated information from various transition-metal model compounds to metalloproteins. The absorption and emission spectra by high resolution fluorescence detection are interdependent. The ligand field multiplet model has been used for the analysis of Kα and Kβ emission spectra. First demonstration on different chemical states of Fe compounds has shown the applicability of site selectivity and spin polarization. Different interatomic distances of the same element in different chemical forms have been detected using site-selective EXAFS

  3. Full Field X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging Using Micro Pore Optics for Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D. F.; Gailhanou, M.; Walter, P.; Schyns, E.; Marchis, F.; Thompson, K.; Bristow, T.

    2016-01-01

    Many planetary surface processes leave evidence as small features in the sub-millimetre scale. Current planetary X-ray fluorescence spectrometers lack the spatial resolution to analyse such small features as they only provide global analyses of areas greater than 100 mm(exp 2). A micro-XRF spectrometer will be deployed on the NASA Mars 2020 rover to analyse spots as small as 120m. When using its line-scanning capacity combined to perpendicular scanning by the rover arm, elemental maps can be generated. We present a new instrument that provides full-field XRF imaging, alleviating the need for precise positioning and scanning mechanisms. The Mapping X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer - "Map-X" - will allow elemental imaging with approximately 100µm spatial resolution and simultaneously provide elemental chemistry at the scale where many relict physical, chemical and biological features can be imaged in ancient rocks. The arm-mounted Map-X instrument is placed directly on the surface of an object and held in a fixed position during measurements. A 25x25 mm(exp 2) surface area is uniformly illuminated with X-rays or alpha-particles and gamma-rays. A novel Micro Pore Optic focusses a fraction of the emitted X-ray fluorescence onto a CCD operated at a few frames per second. On board processing allows measuring the energy and coordinates of each X-ray photon collected. Large sets of frames are reduced into 2d histograms used to compute higher level data products such as elemental maps and XRF spectra from selected regions of interest. XRF spectra are processed on the ground to further determine quantitative elemental compositions. The instrument development will be presented with an emphasis on the characterization and modelling of the X-ray focussing Micro Pore Optic. An outlook on possible alternative XRF imaging applications will be discussed.

  4. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Michael E; Chapman, David J; White, Thomas G; Drakopoulos, Michael; Rack, Alexander; Eakins, Daniel E

    2016-05-01

    The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits).

  5. Particle tracking during Ostwald ripening using time-resolved laboratory X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werz, T., E-mail: thomas.werz@uni-ulm.de [Ulm University, Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, 89081 (Germany); Baumann, M. [Ulm University, Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, 89081 (Germany); Wolfram, U. [Ulm University, Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics, Helmholtzstrasse 14, 89081 (Germany); Krill, C.E. [Ulm University, Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, 89081 (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Laboratory X-ray microtomography is investigated as a method for obtaining time-resolved images of microstructural coarsening of the semisolid state of Al–5 wt.% Cu samples during Ostwald ripening. Owing to the 3D imaging capability of tomography, this technique uniquely provides access to the growth rates of individual particles, thereby not only allowing a statistical characterization of coarsening—as has long been possible by conventional metallography—but also enabling quantification of the influence of local environment on particle boundary migration. The latter information is crucial to understanding growth kinetics during Ostwald ripening at high volume fractions of the coarsening phase. Automated image processing and segmentation routines were developed to close gaps in the network of particle boundaries and to track individual particles from one annealing step to the next. The particle tracking success rate places an upper bound of only a few percent on the likelihood of segmentation errors for any given particle. The accuracy of particle size trajectories extracted from the time-resolved tomographic reconstructions is correspondingly high. Statistically averaged coarsening data and individual particle growth rates are in excellent agreement with the results of prior experimental studies and with computer simulations of Ostwald ripening. - Highlights: • Ostwald ripening in Al–5 wt.% Cu measured by laboratory X-ray microtomography • Time-resolved measurement of individual particle growth • Automated segmentation routines developed to close gaps in particle boundary network • Particle growth/shrinkage rates deviate from LSW model prediction.

  6. Atomic motion of resonantly vibrating quartz crystal visualized by time-resolved X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Shinobu; Osawa, Hitoshi; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Takeda, Shoichi; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Transient atomic displacements during a resonant thickness-shear vibration of AT-cut α-quartz are revealed by time-resolved X-ray diffraction under an alternating electric field. The lattice strain resonantly amplified by the alternating electric field is ∼10 4 times larger than that induced by a static electric field. The resonantly amplified lattice strain is achieved by fast displacements of oxygen anions and collateral resilient deformation of Si−O−Si angles bridging rigid SiO 4 tetrahedra, which efficiently transduce electric energy into elastic energy

  7. X-ray fluorescence analysis for trace element determination in foodstuff chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildanger, W.

    The physical fundamentals of X-ray fluorescence analysis are given and the routine spectrometers described. The basic principles are given of analytical methods used in qualitative and quantitative fluorescence analyses. Examples are given of the use of the method in a number of fields and the possibility and usefulness is discussed for the determination of trace elements in foodstuffs. The preparation of samples, preliminary concentration of components and calibration methods are discussed. (M.K.)

  8. Fluorescence imaging as a diagnostic of M-band x-ray drive condition in hohlraum with fluorescent Si targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qi; Hu, Zhimin; Yao, Li; Huang, Chengwu; Yuan, Zheng; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Gang; Qing, Bo; Lv, Min; Zhu, Tuo; Deng, Bo; Li, Jin; Wei, Minxi; Zhan, Xiayu; Li, Jun; Yang, Yimeng; Su, Chunxiao; Yang, Guohong; Zhang, Jiyan; Li, Sanwei

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging of surrogate Si-doped CH targets has been used to provide a measurement for drive condition of high-energy x-ray (i.e. M-band x-ray) drive symmetry upon the capsule in hohlraum on Shenguang-II laser facility. A series of experiments dedicated to the study of photo-pumping and fluorescence effect in Si-plasma are presented. To investigate the feasibility of fluorescence imaging in Si-plasma, an silicon plasma in Si-foil target is pre-formed at ground state by the soft x-ray from a half-hohlraum, which is then photo-pumped by the K-shell lines from a spatially distinct laser-produced Si-plasma. The resonant Si photon pump is used to improve the fluorescence signal and cause visible image in the Si-foil. Preliminary fluorescence imaging of Si-ball target is performed in both Si-doped and pure Au hohlraum. The usual capsule at the center of the hohlraum is replaced with a solid Si-doped CH-ball (Si-ball). Since the fluorescence is proportional to the photon pump upon the Si-plasma, high-energy x-ray drive symmetry is equal to the fluorescence distribution of the Si-ball. (paper)

  9. X-ray fluorescence spectrometers: a comparison of wavelength and energy dispersive instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slates, R.V.

    1977-11-01

    Wavelength dispersive and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometers are compared. Separate sections are devoted to principles of operation, sample excitation, spectral resolution, and x-ray detection. Tabulated data from the literature are cited in the comparison of accuracy, precision, and detection limits. Spectral interferences and distortions are discussed. Advantages and limitations are listed for simultaneous wavelength dispersive spectrometers, sequential wavelength dispersive spectrometers, and Si(Li) energy dispersive spectrometers. Accuracy, precision, and detection limits are generally superior for wavelength dispersive spectrometers

  10. SAVLOC, computer program for automatic control and analysis of X-ray fluorescence experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    A program for a PDP-15 computer is presented which provides for control and analysis of trace element determinations by using X-ray fluorescence. The program simultaneously handles data accumulation for one sample and analysis of data from previous samples. Data accumulation consists of sample changing, timing, and data storage. Analysis requires the locating of peaks in X-ray spectra, determination of intensities of peaks, identification of origins of peaks, and determination of a real density of the element responsible for each peak. The program may be run in either a manual (supervised) mode or an automatic (unsupervised) mode.

  11. Analysis of siliceous geologic materials by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.; Bayon, A.

    1987-01-01

    The determination of the elements Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn and Fe in siliceous geologic samples by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence is investigated using the most adequate excitation conditions: direct excitation mode (rhodium anode X-ray tube) for the former two elements, and the secondary targets titanium for K and Ca, and germanium for Ti, Cr, Mn and Fe. For the correction of matrix effects the use of ratio methods has been tested. Procedure files have been defined allowing the automatic simultaneous acquisition and processing of spectra. (author)

  12. Surface extended x-ray absorption fine structure of low-Z absorbates using fluorescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoehr, J.; Kollin, E.B.; Fischer, D.A.; Hastings, J.B.; Zaera, F.; Sette, F.

    1985-05-01

    Comparison of x-ray fluorescence yield (FY) and electron yield surface extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectra above the S K-edge for c(2 x 2) S on Ni(100) reveals an order of magnitude higher sensitivity of the FY technique. Using FY detection, thiophene (C 4 H 4 S) chemisorption on Ni(100) is studied with S coverages down to 0.08 monolayer. The molecule dissociates at temperatures as low as 100K by interaction with fourfold hollow Ni sites. Blocking of these sites by oxygen leaves the molecule intact

  13. X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. II. Determination of Uranium in ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermudez Polonio, J.; Crus Castillo, F. de la; Fernandez Cellini, R.

    1961-01-01

    A method of analysis of uranium in ores by X-ray spectrometry was developed, using the internal standard technique. Strontium was found to be the most suitable internal standard for general use. A Norelco Philips X-ray fluorescent spectrometer was used in this work, equipped with a lithium fluoride crystal acting as a diffraction grating analyzer. The intensity of the uranium-L α 1 spectral line is calculated and related to corresponding strontium-K α spectral line, both detected with a Scintillation Counter. (Author) 31 refs

  14. Using Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Microprobes in the Study of Metal Homeostasis in Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punshon, T.; Guerinot, M.; Lanzirotti, A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims: This Botanical Briefing reviews the application of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobes to the plant sciences; how the technique has expanded our knowledge of metal(loid) homeostasis, and how it can be used in the future. Scope: The use of SXRF microspectroscopy and microtomography in research on metal homeostasis in plants is reviewed. The potential use of SXRF as part of the ionomics toolbox, where it is able to provide fundamental information on the way that plants control metal homeostasis, is recommended. Conclusions: SXRF is one of the few techniques capable of providing spatially resolved in-vivo metal abundance data on a sub-micrometre scale, without the need for chemical fixation, coating, drying or even sectioning of samples. This gives researchers the ability to uncover mechanisms of plant metal homeostasis that can potentially be obscured by the artefacts of sample preparation. Further, new generation synchrotrons with smaller beam sizes and more sensitive detection systems will allow for the imaging of metal distribution within single living plant cells. Even greater advances in our understanding of metal homeostasis in plants can be gained by overcoming some of the practical boundaries that exist in the use of SXRF analysis.

  15. Determination of Fission Products in Irradiated Fuel by X-Ray Fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Andersen, Niels Hessel

    X-ray fluorescence i s a well e s t a b l i s h e d analytical tool for measuring elemental composition of fairly large (~ 5 cm2) "cold" samples. A version of t h i s technique has been developed for a n a l y s i s of radial d i s t r i b u t i o n of f i s s i o n products Xe, Cs and Ba...... in the scanning d i rection and 2 mm long. The measured Xe Ko x-ray i n t e n s i t i e s are converted to absolute concentrations by comparing to the intens i t y from a Xe gas standard. In the case of Cs and Ba s o l id standards may be used. The X-ray fluorescence analysis i s compared to other techniques used...... to obtain radial f i s s i o n product profiles, i t i s shown how a combination of X-ray fluorescence and electron probe micro a n a l y s i s i s able to reveal the amount of Xe in the grain boundary porosities....

  16. X-ray fluorescence analysis of terbium oxide for rare earth impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandola, L.C.; Machado, I.J.; Mohile, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    A method for the determination of Sm 2 O 3 , Eu 2 O 3 , Gd 2 O 3 , Dy 2 O 3 , Ho 2 O 3 and Y 2 O 3 in terbium oxide is described. The sample is converted to terbium oxalate, mixed with boric acid binder in the ratio 2:1, pelleted at a pressure of 20 tons over a boric acid backing pellet and irradiated with x-rays from a tungsten tube operated by Philips PW 1140 generator. The secondary x-rays thus generated are analysed by a LiF (200) crystal in Philips PW 1220 x-ray fluorescence spectrometer using suitable detectors. The minimum determination limit (MDL) is 0.01% for all rare earth oxides determined except for Y 2 O 3 for which it is 0.005%. (author)

  17. Optimizing Monocapillary Optics for Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction, Fluorescence Imaging, and Spectroscopy Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilderback, Donald H.; Kazimirov, Alexander; Gillilan, Richard; Cornaby, Sterling; Woll, Arthur; Zha, Chang-Sheng; Huang Rong

    2007-01-01

    A number of synchrotron x-ray applications such as powder diffraction in diamond anvil cells, microbeam protein crystallography, x-ray fluorescence imaging, etc. can benefit from using hollow glass monocapillary optics to improve the flux per square micron on a sample. We currently draw glass tubing into the desired elliptical shape so that only one-bounce under total reflection conditions is needed to bring the x-ray beam to a focus at a 25 to 50 mm distance beyond the capillary tip. For modest focal spot sizes of 10 to 20 microns, we can increase the intensity per square micron by factors of 10 to 1000. We show some of the results obtained at CHESS and Hasylab with capillaries focusing 5 to 40 keV radiation, their properties, and how even better the experimental results could be if more ideal capillaries were fabricated in the future

  18. Determination of Ti, Cr, Cu and Ta in niobium oxide by X-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, R.M.; Deshpande, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    An x-ray fluorescence method for the determination of Ti, Cr, Cu and Ta in niobium oxide has been developed. Samples/standards in powder form are mixed with boric acid in the proportion of 1:1 (400 mg. each). Double layer pellets are prepared by pressing this mixture over a primary boric acid pellet. Philips PW-1220, a semiautomatic x-ray spectrometer with tungsten target x-ray tube for excitation and LiF (200) crystal for dispersion have been used. The determination range is from 0.005 to 0.1per cent for Ti and Cr, 0.01 to 0.1per cent for Cu and 0.05 to 1per cent for Ta. (author)

  19. X-ray specular reflection and fluorescence study of nano-films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheludeva, S.; Novikova, N.

    2001-01-01

    The techniques that combine the advantages of high-resolution structure sensitive x-ray methods with spectroscopic selectivity of data obtained are shown to be extremely promising for characterization of organic and inorganic nano films and nano structures. Fluorescence yield angular dependences exited by complicated evanescent wave / x-ray standing wave pattern at total reflection and glancing incidence can be used to detect structure position of different ions in organic systems and alien interfacial layers in inorganic multilayers;, to get information about interdiffusion at the interfaces of Langmuir- Blodgett (L-B) films and artificial inorganic - x-ray mirrors; to study ion permeation through L-B nano structures - models of biomembrans; to obtain nano - film thickness and density; to get precisely the parameters of small d-space multilayer mirrors, ets

  20. Dosage of silicon in a soluble silicate using an x-ray-fluorescence radioisotopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasilewska, M.; Robert, A.

    1969-01-01

    A description is given of a spectrometer for X ray fluorescence analysis having a radio active excitation source. It has been applied to the analysis of the silicon contained in an industrial soluble silicate. A theoretical study has been made for this analysis of the operational conditions such as: the effect of the particle size, the dilution of the sample, the sensitivity as a function of the X ray excitation energy. It is possible to obtain a relative accuracy of 0,87 per cent for the silicon determination, for one standard deviation. A comparison is made of the sensitivity obtained using this apparatus for the Si determination with that which can be obtained using a conventional apparatus fitted with an X ray tube. (author) [fr

  1. Application of X-ray fluorescence analytical techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Scancar, Janez; Jacimovic, Radojko; Simcic, Jurij; Pelicon, Primoz; Budnar, Milos; Jeran, Zvonka; Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Vogel-Mikus, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs the use of higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Progress in the field is however handicapped by limited knowledge of the biological processes involved in plant metal uptake, translocation, tolerance and plant-microbe-soil interactions; therefore a better understanding of the basic biological mechanisms involved in plant/microbe/soil/contaminant interactions would allow further optimization of phytoremediation technologies. In view of the needs of global environmental protection, it is important that in phytoremediation and plant biology studies the analytical procedures for elemental determination in plant tissues and soil should be fast and cheap, with simple sample preparation, and of adequate accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this study was therefore to present the main characteristics, sample preparation protocols and applications of X-ray fluorescence-based analytical techniques (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry-EDXRF, total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry-TXRF and micro-proton induced X-ray emission-micro-PIXE). Element concentrations in plant leaves from metal polluted and non-polluted sites, as well as standard reference materials, were analyzed by the mentioned techniques, and additionally by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of X-ray fluorescence-based techniques in phytoremediation and plant biology studies. It is the EDXRF, which is recommended as suitable to be used in the analyses of a large number of samples, because it is multi-elemental, requires only simple preparation of sample material, and it is analytically comparable to the most frequently used instrumental chemical techniques. The TXRF is compatible to FAAS in sample preparation, but relative to AAS it is fast, sensitive and

  2. Fission times studies of the Z=124 superheavy nucleus by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airiau, Maud

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1960's nuclear structure model have predicted the existence of an island of stability of superheavy elements. It should be located around the next magic numbers expected at N=172 or 184 and between Z=114 and 126 depending on the model. Very high fission barrier of a few MeV are predicted to be generated by microscopic effects for those nuclei for which large fission times distributions extended to very high fission times are induced. Fission time measurements of the superheavy element Z=124 have been made by us using the X-ray fluorescence technique, a method based on the filling of inner-shell electronic vacancies created during the collision leading to the formation of the compound nucleus. The aim of this experiment was to detect in coincidence both fission fragments and characteristic X-rays from the Z=124, created by the reaction 238 U+ 70,76 Ge. The main difficulty was to identify those X-rays due to the fact that gamma-rays from fission fragments were emitted in the same energy range, which affected our photon multiplicities for any fragment selection. This new difficulty brings an important limitation to the study of some particular superheavy elements by the X-ray fluorescence method. K X-rays spectra have been simulated using MCDF (Multi-Configuration-Dirac-Fock) and then compared to the experimental ones in order to get a maximal K X-ray multiplicity compatible with our data. The extracted results were about 6-7% for 76 Ge and from 12 to 14% for 70 Ge. Those values remain compatible with the experimental signature of long lifetime component observed for the same system but using a blocking technique in single crystals. (author) [fr

  3. Soft-x-ray fluorescence study of buried silicides in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, J.A.; Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Multilayer films made by alternate deposition of two materials play an important role in electronic and optical devices such as quantum-well lasers and x-ray mirrors. In addition, novel phenomena like giant magnetoresistance and dimensional crossover in superconductors have emerged from studies of multilayers. While sophisticated x-ray techniques are widely used to study the morphology of multilayer films, progress in studying the electronic structure has been slower. The short mean-free path of low-energy electrons severely limits the usefulness of photoemission and related electron free path of low-energy electrons severely limit spectroscopies for multilayer studies. Soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) is a bulk-sensitive photon-in, photon-out method to study valence band electronic states. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) measured with partial photon yield can give complementary bulk-sensitive information about unoccupied states. Both these methods are element-specific since the incident x-ray photons excite electrons from core levels. By combining NEXAFS and SXF measurements on buried layers in multilayers and comparing these spectra to data on appropriate reference compounds, it is possible to obtain a detailed picture of the electronic structure. Results are presented for a study of a Fe/Si multilayer system.

  4. X-ray fluorescence from the element with atomic number Z=120

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fregeau, M.O.; Morjean, M.; Bonnet, E.; Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J.D.; Jacquet, D.; Rivet, M.F.; Tassan-Got, L.; Dechery, F.; Drouart, A.; Nalpas, L.; Ledoux, X.; Parlog, M.; Parlog, M.; Ciortea, C.; Dumitriu, D.; Fluerasu, D.; Gugiu, M.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V.L.; Marchi, T.; Marchi, T.; Fabris, D.; Corsi, A.; Barlini, S.

    2012-01-01

    An atomic clock based on x-ray fluorescence yields has been used to estimate the mean characteristic time for fusion followed by fission in reactions 238 U + 64 Ni at 6.6 MeV/A. Inner shell vacancies are created during the collisions in the electronic structure of the possibly formed Z = 120 compound nuclei. The filling of these vacancies accompanied by a x-ray emission with energies characteristic of Z = 120 can take place only if the atomic transitions occur before nuclear fission. Therefore, the x-ray yield characteristic of the united atom with 120 protons is strongly related to the fission time and to the vacancy lifetimes. K x rays from the element with Z = 120 have been unambiguously identified from a coupled analysis of the involved nuclear reaction mechanisms and of the measured photon spectra. A minimum mean fission time τ f = 2.5 * 10 -18 s has been deduced for Z = 120 from the measured x-ray multiplicity. (authors)

  5. Sub-micron Hard X-ray Fluorescence Imaging of Synthetic Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P.; Aryal, Baikuntha P.; Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Paunesku, Tatjana; Lai, Barry; Vogt, Stefan; Woloschak, Gayle E.

    2013-01-01

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (SXFM) using hard X-rays focused into sub-micron spots is a powerful technique for elemental quantification and mapping, as well as microspectroscopic measurement such as μ-XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure). We have used SXFM to image and simultaneously quantify the transuranic element plutonium at the L3 or L2 edge as well as lighter biologically essential elements in individual rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells after exposure to the long-lived plutonium isotope 242Pu. Elemental maps reveal that plutonium localizes principally in the cytoplasm of the cells and avoids the cell nucleus, which is marked by the highest concentrations of phosphorus and zinc, under the conditions of our experiments. The minimum detection limit under typical acquisition conditions for an average 202 μm2 cell is 1.4 fg Pu/cell or 2.9 × 10−20 moles Pu/μm2, which is similar to the detection limit of K-edge SXFM of transition metals at 10 keV. Copper electron microscopy grids were used to avoid interference from gold X-ray emissions, but traces of strontium present in naturally occurring calcium can still interfere with plutonium detection using its Lα X-ray emission. PMID:22444530

  6. X-ray fluorescence analysis of low concentrations metals in geological samples and technological products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoida, I. A.; Trushin, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    For the past several years many nuclear physics methods of quantitative elemental analysis have been designed. Many of these methods have applied in different devices which have become useful and effective instrument in many industrial laboratories. Methods of a matter structure analysis are based on the intensity detection of the X-ray radiation from the nuclei of elements which are excited by external X-ray source. The production of characteristic X-rays involves transitions of the orbital electrons of atoms in the target material between allowed orbits, or energy states, associated with ionization of the inner atomic shells. One of these methods is X-ray fluorescence analysis, which is widespread in metallurgical and processing industries and is used to identify and measure the concentration of the elements in ores and minerals on a conveyor belt. Samples of copper ore with known concentrations of elements, were taken from the Ural deposit. To excite the characteristic X-rays radionuclide sources 109Cd, with half-life 461.4 days were used. After finding the calibration coefficients, control measurements of samples and averaging of overall samples were made. The measurement error did not exceed 3%.

  7. Soft-x-ray fluorescence study of buried silicides in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlisle, J.A.; Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Multilayer films made by alternate deposition of two materials play an important role in electronic and optical devices such as quantum-well lasers and x-ray mirrors. In addition, novel phenomena like giant magnetoresistance and dimensional crossover in superconductors have emerged from studies of multilayers. While sophisticated x-ray techniques are widely used to study the morphology of multilayer films, progress in studying the electronic structure has been slower. The short mean-free path of low-energy electrons severely limits the usefulness of photoemission and related electron free path of low-energy electrons severely limit spectroscopies for multilayer studies. Soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) is a bulk-sensitive photon-in, photon-out method to study valence band electronic states. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) measured with partial photon yield can give complementary bulk-sensitive information about unoccupied states. Both these methods are element-specific since the incident x-ray photons excite electrons from core levels. By combining NEXAFS and SXF measurements on buried layers in multilayers and comparing these spectra to data on appropriate reference compounds, it is possible to obtain a detailed picture of the electronic structure. Results are presented for a study of a Fe/Si multilayer system

  8. Development of confocal X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy at the Cornell high energy synchrotron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woll, A.R.; Huang, R.; Mass, J.; Bisulca, C.; Bilderback, D.H.; Gruner, S.; Gao, N.

    2006-01-01

    A confocal X-ray fluorescence microscope was built at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) to obtain compositional depth profiles of historic paintings. The microscope consists of a single-bounce, borosilicate monocapillary optic to focus the incident beam onto the painting and a commercial borosilicate polycapillary lens to collect the fluorescent X-rays. The resolution of the microscope was measured by scanning a variety of thin metal films through this confocal volume while monitoring the fluorescence signal. The capabilities of the technique were then probed using test paint microstructures with up to four distinct layers, each having a thickness in the range of 10-80 microns. Results from confocal XRF were compared with those from stand-alone XRF and visible light microscopy of the paint cross-sections. A large area, high-resolution scanner is currently being built to perform 3D scans on moderately sized paintings. (orig.)

  9. The complex ion structure of warm dense carbon measured by spectrally resolved x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, D.; Barbrel, B.; Falcone, R. W. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Vorberger, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Straße 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Helfrich, J.; Frydrych, S.; Ortner, A.; Otten, A.; Roth, F.; Schaumann, G.; Schumacher, D.; Siegenthaler, K.; Wagner, F.; Roth, M. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Gericke, D. O.; Wünsch, K. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Bachmann, B.; Döppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bagnoud, V.; Blažević, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2015-05-15

    We present measurements of the complex ion structure of warm dense carbon close to the melting line at pressures around 100 GPa. High-pressure samples were created by laser-driven shock compression of graphite and probed by intense laser-generated x-ray sources with photon energies of 4.75 keV and 4.95 keV. High-efficiency crystal spectrometers allow for spectrally resolving the scattered radiation. Comparing the ratio of elastically and inelastically scattered radiation, we find evidence for a complex bonded liquid that is predicted by ab-initio quantum simulations showing the influence of chemical bonds under these conditions. Using graphite samples of different initial densities we demonstrate the capability of spectrally resolved x-ray scattering to monitor the carbon solid-liquid transition at relatively constant pressure of 150 GPa. Showing first single-pulse scattering spectra from cold graphite of unprecedented quality recorded at the Linac Coherent Light Source, we demonstrate the outstanding possibilities for future high-precision measurements at 4th Generation Light Sources.

  10. Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy: Watching atoms dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Chris J.; Pham, Van-Thai; Gawelda, Wojciech; van der Veen, Renske M.; El Nahhas, Amal; Johnson, Steven L.; Beaud, Paul; Ingold, Gerhard; Lima, Frederico; Vithanage, Dimali A.; Benfatto, Maurizio; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia; Kaiser, Maik; Hauser, Andreas; Abela, Rafael; Bressler, Christian; Chergui, Majed

    2009-11-01

    The introduction of pump-probe techniques to the field of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has allowed the monitoring of both structural and electronic dynamics of disordered systems in the condensed phase with unprecedented accuracy, both in time and in space. We present results on the electronically excited high-spin state structure of an Fe(II) molecular species, [FeII(bpy)3]2+, in aqueous solution, resolving the Fe-N bond distance elongation as 0.2 Å. In addition an analysis technique using the reduced χ2 goodness of fit between FEFF EXAFS simulations and the experimental transient absorption signal in energy space has been successfully tested as a function of excited state population and chemical shift, demonstrating its applicability in situations where the fractional excited state population cannot be determined through other measurements. Finally by using a novel ultrafast hard x-ray 'slicing' source the question of how the molecule relaxes after optical excitation has been successfully resolved using femtosecond XANES.

  11. Study of properties of chemically modified samples of halloysite mineral with X-ray fluorescence and X-ray powder diffraction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaś, D.; Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.; Wudarczyk-Moćko, J.; Czech, K.; Garnuszek, M.; Słomkiewicz, P.; Szczepanik, B.

    2013-01-01

    Elemental and chemical composition of raw and activated samples of halloysite mineral using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF), total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) methods were determined. As the result, it has been shown that application of the complementary X-ray spectrometry techniques allows very precise observation of changes in composition of halloysite mineral samples caused by its chemical modifications. Sample preparation procedure and usability of the research methods applied are described in details. Procedure of activation of raw halloysite mineral samples by etching them in sulfuric acid of various concentrations has been described and discussed. The ability of the samples to adsorb lead from intentionally contaminated water was tested and confirmed. - Author-Highlights: • We measured elemental and chemical composition of raw and activated halloysite mineral samples. • We showed that X-ray techniques allow precise study of changes in the sample composition. • We describe procedure of activation of the samples by etching them in sulfuric acid. • We tested ability of halloysite mineral to absorb lead from contaminated water

  12. ROVIBRATIONALLY RESOLVED DIRECT PHOTODISSOCIATION THROUGH THE LYMAN AND WERNER TRANSITIONS OF H2 FOR FUV/X-RAY-IRRADIATED ENVIRONMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, C. D.; Porter, R. L.; Stancil, P. C.; Abel, N. P.; Ferland, G. J.; Shaw, G.; Van Hoof, P. A. M.; Williams, R. J. R.

    2012-01-01

    Using ab initio potential curves and dipole transition moments, cross-section calculations were performed for the direct continuum photodissociation of H 2 through the B 1 Σ + u 1 Σ + g (Lyman) and C 1 Π u 1 Σ + g (Werner) transitions. Partial cross-sections were obtained for wavelengths from 100 Å to the dissociation threshold between the upper electronic state and each of the 301 bound rovibrational levels v''J'' within the ground electronic state. The resulting cross-sections are incorporated into three representative classes of interstellar gas models: diffuse clouds, photon-dominated regions, and X-ray-dominated regions (XDRs). The models, which used the CLOUDY plasma/molecular spectra simulation code, demonstrate that direct photodissociation is comparable to fluorescent dissociation (or spontaneous radiative dissociation, the Solomon process) as an H 2 destruction mechanism in intense far-ultraviolet or X-ray-irradiated gas. In particular, changes in H 2 rotational column densities are found to be as large as 20% in the XDR model with the inclusion of direct photodissociation. The photodestruction rate from some high-lying rovibrational levels can be enhanced by pumping from H Lyβ due to a wavelength coincidence with cross-section resonances resulting from quasi-bound levels of the upper electronic states. Given the relatively large size of the photodissociation data set, a strategy is described to create truncated, but reliable, cross-section data consistent with the wavelength resolving power of typical observations.

  13. Developments in time-resolved high pressure x-ray diffraction using rapid compression and decompression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Lin, Chuanlong; Rod, Eric; Bai, Ligang; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-01-01

    Complementary advances in high pressure research apparatus and techniques make it possible to carry out time-resolved high pressure research using what would customarily be considered static high pressure apparatus. This work specifically explores time-resolved high pressure x-ray diffraction with rapid compression and/or decompression of a sample in a diamond anvil cell. Key aspects of the synchrotron beamline and ancillary equipment are presented, including source considerations, rapid (de)compression apparatus, high frequency imaging detectors, and software suitable for processing large volumes of data. A number of examples are presented, including fast equation of state measurements, compression rate dependent synthesis of metastable states in silicon and germanium, and ultrahigh compression rates using a piezoelectric driven diamond anvil cell

  14. Study of uranium contamination of ground water in Punjab using X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alrakabi, Muhanad; Singh, Gurjeet; Bhalla, Atul; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Sanjeev; Rai, Bimal; Singh, N.; Shahi, J.S.; Mehta, D.; Srivastava, Alok

    2010-01-01

    A number of reports have appeared in public media about uranium ingestion being a possible cause for cancer and increased birth rate abnormalities among children in the Malwa region of Punjab state in India. These reports link problems like cancer and Autism, with the presence of uranium in the ground waters of Malwa region. The concentration of uranium in drinking water from sources as varied as ground water, canal water supply and reverse osmosis system have been investigated using X-ray fluorescence technique. Samples from the thermal power plants in the regions and nearby ground waters were also analyzed to identify the source of contamination. The samples were collected with assistance of the officials from the Government of Punjab. More than half a litre of each of the water samples was dried at 60 deg-80 deg in an oven. Residue was collected using larger quantities of water samples in case of RO water samples. The elemental analysis of the residue was carried out using the Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer consisting of an 42 Mo-anode X-ray tube (Panalytical, 2.5 kW) as an excitation source and a Si(Li) detector. A combination of selective absorbers of 30 Zn, 38 Sr, and 39 Y was used in the incident beam for improving the detection limit for Uranium by reducing the background and removing the 42 Mo K X-rays. The detection limit in ppb/litre depends upon the amount of residue

  15. Synchrotron radiation microbeam X-ray fluorescence analysis of zinc concentration in remineralized enamel in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Tsunenori; Ishizaki, Hidetaka; Tanabe, Shuji; Hayashi, Yoshihiko

    2009-05-01

    Remineralization is an indispensable phenomenon during the natural healing process of enamel decay. The incorporation of zinc (Zn) into enamel crystal could accelerate this remineralization. The present study was designed to investigate the concentration and distribution of Zn in remineralized enamel after gum chewing. The experiment was performed at the Photon Factory. Synchrotron radiation was monochromatized and X-rays were focused into a small beam spot. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) from the sample was detected with a silicon (Si) (lithium (Li)) detector. X-ray beam energy was tuned to detect Zn. The examined samples were small enamel fragments remineralized after chewing calcium phosphate-containing gum in situ. The incorporation of Zn atom into hydroxyapatite (OHAP), the main component of enamel, was measured using Zn K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) with fluorescence mode at the SPring-8. A high concentration of Zn was detected in a superficial area 10-microm deep of the sectioned enamel after gum chewing. This concentration increased over that in the intact enamel. The atomic distance between Zn and O in the enamel was calculated using the EXAFS data. The analyzed atomic distances between Zn and O in two sections were 0.237 and 0.240 nm. The present experiments suggest that Zn is effectively incorporated into remineralized enamel through the physiological processes of mineral deposition in the oral cavity through gum-chewing and that Zn substitution probably occurred at the calcium position in enamel hydroxyapatite.

  16. Multi-elemental analysis of marine sediments of Sorsogon Bay using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, Ralph Roly A.; Quirit, Leni L.; Rosales, Colleen Marciel F.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Sta Maria, Efren J.

    2011-01-01

    Metal composition and nutrient loadings of our bodies of water, when uncontrolled, may cause harmful bacterial contamination and pose threats in aquatic and human life. Toxic and trace element inputs in Sorsogon Bay sediments were determined using nuclear analytical techniques, more specifically, x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, in this study. Pre-treated marine sediment samples from Sorsogon Bay were homogenized using SPEX # 8000 mixer/mill and agate mortar and pestle, pelletized into 31-mm flat discs using SPEX 3630 X-Press and analyzed using PAN Analytical Epsilon 5 EDX X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer with the emission and transmission method using silver and germanium secondary targets. Spectrum fitting performed using AXIL (Analysis of X-ray Spectra by Iterative Least-Squares Fitting), a subprogram in Quantitative X-ray Analysis System developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency and Quantitative Analysis of Environmental Samples program, was used for quantification of results. Results indicate generally moderate to high metal enrichment, specifically manganese, lead, cadmium, zinc and copper. Mercury and iron level enrichment are found to be low, marking an improvement from previous studies indicating high enrichment of these metals. (author)

  17. Analyses of archaeological pottery samples using X-ray fluorescence technique for provenance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamilarasu, S.; Swain, K.K.; Singhal, R.K; Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.; Velraj, G.

    2015-01-01

    Archaeological artifacts reveal information on past human activities, artifact preparation technology, art and possible trade. Ceramics are the most stable and abundant material in archaeological context. Pottery is the most abundant tracers in all archaeological excavations. Compared to major elements, elements present at trace concentrations levels are source specific and they maintain same concentration levels in source clay as well as finished products e.g., fired clay potteries. As it is difficult to find out exact source or origin, provenance study is carried out first to establish whether objects under study are from the same or different sources/origin. Various analytical techniques like instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), Ion beam analysis (IBA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) have been used for obtaining elemental concentrations in archaeological potteries. Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometry provides a non-destructive means for elemental characterization of a wide range of archaeological materials. Ten archaeological pottery samples were collected from Kottapuram, Kerala under the supervision of archaeological survey of India. Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometry using a handheld Olympus Innov-X Delta XRF device, ACD BARC, has been used for chemical characterization of the pottery samples. The instrument is equipped with the Delta Rhodium (Rh) anode X-Ray tube and uses a Silicon Drift Detector (resolution <200 eV at 5.95 keV Mn Kα X-ray). NIST 2781 SRM was analyzed for quality control purpose. Ten elements namely Fe, Ti, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb, Zr, Mo and Se were chosen for cluster analysis and their concentration values were utilized for multivariate statistical analysis using WinSTAT 9.0

  18. Monitoring the mass of UF6 gas and uranium deposits in aluminium pipes using X-ray fluorescence and X-ray transmission gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, T.W.; Smith, S.M.

    1984-12-01

    In order to determine the enrichment of UF 6 gas in centrifuge plant pipework it is necessary to measure the mass of the gas (pressure) and the mass per unit area of any uranium deposited on the pipe. This paper shows that it is possible to determine the pressure of the UF 6 gas in pipes 120 mm in diameter using an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Results are also given of transmission measurements made using a low power X-ray generator operated at two different applied voltages. A method of using the two measurements to determine the mass per unit area of deposited uranium is described. (author)

  19. A low cost multi-purpose experimental arrangement for variants in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento Filho, V.F.; Silva, R.M.C.; Moraes, L.M.B.; Parreira, P.S.; Appoloni, R.C.; Silva, R.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Based in an X-ray tower with four exits (two line and two point beams) experimental conditions were arranged to carry out variants in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis: (1) the conventional one (EDXRF), with excitation/detection of thin and thick samples, under vacuum and air atmosphere, (2) the X-ray energy dispersive micro- fluorescence analysis(μ-EDXRF), with 2D mapping, using a quartz capillar, (3) the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), under He and air atmosphere, and (4) secondary target/polarized X-ray fluorescence (P-EDXRF). It was possible to use a Cu, Mo or W target on the X-ray tube, with or without filter (V, Fe, Ni and Zr), and Si(Li) or Si-PIN semicondutor detectors coupled to a multichannel analyzer. In addition, it was possible to use the point beam to carry out experiments on (5) X-ray radiography and (6) X-ray absorption, and the line beam on (7) X-ray diffractometry studies.

  20. Energy dispersive detector for white beam synchrotron x-ray fluorescence imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Matthew D., E-mail: Matt.Wilson@stfc.ac.uk; Seller, Paul; Veale, Matthew C. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Campus,UK (United Kingdom); Connolley, Thomas [Diamond Light Source, I12 Beamline, Harwell Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Dolbnya, Igor P.; Malandain, Andrew; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source, B16 Beamline, Harwell Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Grant, Patrick S.; Liotti, Enzo; Lui, Andrew [Department of Materials, University of Oxford Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    A novel, “single-shot” fluorescence imaging technique has been demonstrated on the B16 beamline at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron using the HEXITEC energy dispersive imaging detector. A custom made furnace with 200µm thick metal alloy samples was positioned in a white X-ray beam with a hole made in the furnace walls to allow the transmitted beam to be imaged with a conventional X-ray imaging camera consisting of a 500 µm thick single crystal LYSO scintillator, mirror and lens coupled to an AVT Manta G125B CCD sensor. The samples were positioned 45° to the incident beam to enable simultaneous transmission and fluorescence imaging. The HEXITEC detector was positioned at 90° to the sample with a 50 µm pinhole 13 cm from the sample and the detector positioned 2.3m from pinhole. The geometric magnification provided a field of view of 1.1×1.1mm{sup 2} with one of the 80×80 pixels imaging an area equivalent to 13µm{sup 2}. Al-Cu alloys doped with Zr, Ag and Mo were imaged in transmission and fluorescence mode. The fluorescence images showed that the dopant metals could be simultaneously imaged with sufficient counts on all 80x80 pixels within 60 s, with the X-ray flux limiting the fluorescence imaging rate. This technique demonstrated that it is possible to simultaneously image and identify multiple elements on a spatial resolution scale ~10µm or higher without the time consuming need to scan monochromatic energies or raster scan a focused beam of X-rays. Moving to high flux beamlines and using an array of detectors could improve the imaging speed of the technique with element specific imaging estimated to be on a 1 s timescale.

  1. Energetic electron processes fluorescence effects for structured nanoparticles X-ray analysis and nuclear medicine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taborda, A.; Desbrée, A. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-HOM/SDI/LEDI, BP-17, 31, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Carvalho, A. [IEQUALTECS, Lda, Rua Dr. Francisco Sá Carneiro, 36, 2500-065 S. Gregório CLD (Portugal); Chaves, P.C. [C" 2TN, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, EN10 km 139.7, 2685-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Reis, M.A., E-mail: mareis@ctn.tecnico.ulisboa.pt [IEQUALTECS, Lda, Rua Dr. Francisco Sá Carneiro, 36, 2500-065 S. Gregório CLD (Portugal); C" 2TN, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, EN10 km 139.7, 2685-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2016-08-15

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles are widely used as contrast agents for nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and can be modified for improved imaging or to become tissue-specific or even protein-specific. The knowledge of their detailed elemental composition characterisation and potential use in nuclear medicine applications, is, therefore, an important issue. X-ray fluorescence techniques such as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), can be used for elemental characterisation even in problematic situations where very little sample volume is available. Still, the fluorescence coefficient of Fe is such that, during the decay of the inner-shell ionised atomic structure, keV Auger electrons are produced in excess to X-rays. Since cross-sections for ionisation induced by keV electrons, for low atomic number atoms, are of the order of 10{sup 3} barn, care should be taken to account for possible fluorescence effects caused by Auger electrons, which may lead to the wrong quantification of elements having atomic number lower than the atomic number of Fe. Furthermore, the same electron processes will occur in iron oxide nanoparticles containing {sup 57}Co, which may be used for nuclear medicine therapy purposes. In the present work, simple approximation algorithms are proposed for the quantitative description of radiative and non-radiative processes associated with Auger electrons cascades. The effects on analytical processes and nuclear medicine applications are quantified for the case of iron oxide nanoparticles, by calculating both electron fluorescence emissions and energy deposition on cell tissues where the nanoparticles may be embedded.

  2. Energy dispersive detector for white beam synchrotron x-ray fluorescence imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Matthew D.; Seller, Paul; Veale, Matthew C.; Connolley, Thomas; Dolbnya, Igor P.; Malandain, Andrew; Sawhney, Kawal; Grant, Patrick S.; Liotti, Enzo; Lui, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A novel, “single-shot” fluorescence imaging technique has been demonstrated on the B16 beamline at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron using the HEXITEC energy dispersive imaging detector. A custom made furnace with 200µm thick metal alloy samples was positioned in a white X-ray beam with a hole made in the furnace walls to allow the transmitted beam to be imaged with a conventional X-ray imaging camera consisting of a 500 µm thick single crystal LYSO scintillator, mirror and lens coupled to an AVT Manta G125B CCD sensor. The samples were positioned 45° to the incident beam to enable simultaneous transmission and fluorescence imaging. The HEXITEC detector was positioned at 90° to the sample with a 50 µm pinhole 13 cm from the sample and the detector positioned 2.3m from pinhole. The geometric magnification provided a field of view of 1.1×1.1mm"2 with one of the 80×80 pixels imaging an area equivalent to 13µm"2. Al-Cu alloys doped with Zr, Ag and Mo were imaged in transmission and fluorescence mode. The fluorescence images showed that the dopant metals could be simultaneously imaged with sufficient counts on all 80x80 pixels within 60 s, with the X-ray flux limiting the fluorescence imaging rate. This technique demonstrated that it is possible to simultaneously image and identify multiple elements on a spatial resolution scale ~10µm or higher without the time consuming need to scan monochromatic energies or raster scan a focused beam of X-rays. Moving to high flux beamlines and using an array of detectors could improve the imaging speed of the technique with element specific imaging estimated to be on a 1 s timescale.

  3. Precision scan-imaging for paperboard quality inspection utilizing X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlin, B.; Reza, S.; Fröjdh, C.; Nordin, T.

    2018-01-01

    Paperboard is typically made up of a core of cellulose fibers [C6H10O5] and a coating layer of [CaCO3]. The uniformity of these layers is a critical parameter for the printing quality. Current quality control methods include chemistry based visual inspection methods as well as X-ray based methods to measure the coating thickness. In this work we combine the X-ray fluorescence signals from the Ca atoms (3.7 keV) in the coating and from a Cu target (8.0 keV) placed behind the paper to simultaneously measure both the coating and the fibers. Cu was selected as the target material since its fluorescence signal is well separated from the Ca signal while its fluorescence's still are absorbed sufficiently in the paper. A laboratory scale setup is built using stepper motors, a silicon drift detector based spectrometer and a collimated X-ray beam. The spectroscopic image is retrieved by scanning the paperboard surface and registering the fluorescence signals from Ca and Cu. The exposure time for this type of setups can be significantly improved by implementing spectroscopic imaging sensors. The material contents in the layers can then be retrieved from the absolute and relative intensities of these two signals.

  4. Determination of rare-earth elements in rocks by isotope-excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, Helmar; Wollenberg, H.A.

    1970-01-01

    Isotope-excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometry furnishes a rapid determination of rare-earth elements in unprepared rock samples. The samples are excited by 241Am γ-rays, generating X-ray spectra on a multichannel pulse-height analyser. Gaussian peaks of the Kα and Kβ X-ray energies are treated ......-ray spectrometric scan of a longitudinally sliced drill core showed a close correlation between rare-earth abundances and appropriate minerals.......Isotope-excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometry furnishes a rapid determination of rare-earth elements in unprepared rock samples. The samples are excited by 241Am γ-rays, generating X-ray spectra on a multichannel pulse-height analyser. Gaussian peaks of the Kα and Kβ X-ray energies are treated...

  5. Determinations of elements in pepperbush standard reference material by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Yoshihiko; Okada, Takayuki; Tatsumi, Toshiya; Kusakabe, Toshio; Katsurayama, Kousuke; Iwata, Shiro.

    1988-01-01

    Elemental contents in Pepperbush standard reference material have been determined by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analyses. The standard samples of orchard leaves, tomato leaves, pine needles and Kale are used for the experiment. In the neutron activation analysis, gamma-ray spectra of nuclei produced by (n,γ) reaction on Pepperbush and standard samples are measured with Ge detectors. In the X-ray fluorescence analysis, the samples are excited with X-rays from X-ray tube with rhodium anode, and the characteristic X-rays from samples are measured with a proportional counter or NaI(Tl) detector. From the gamma- and X-ray intensities, the elemental contents in Pepperbush are determined. As a result, the contents of seventeen elements, such as sodium, calcium, iron, etc., in Pepperbush are determined. (author)

  6. Investigation of radiation absorption and X-ray fluorescence properties of medical imaging scintillators by Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolopoulos, D.; Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D.; Valais, I.; Linardatos, D.; Michail, C.; David, S.; Gaitanis, A.; Nomicos, C.; Louizi, A.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray absorption and X-ray fluorescence properties of medical imaging scintillating screens were studied by Monte Carlo methods as a function of the incident photon energy and screen-coating thickness. The scintillating materials examined were Gd 2 O 2 S (GOS) Gd 2 SiO 5 (GSO) YAlO 3 (YAP), Y 3 Al 5 O 12 (YAG), LuSiO 5 (LSO), LuAlO 3 (LuAP) and ZnS. Monoenergetic photon exposures were modeled in the range from 10 to 100 keV. The corresponding ranges of coating thicknesses of the investigated scintillating screens ranged up to 200 mg cm -2 . Results indicated that X-ray absorption and X-ray fluorescence are affected by the incident photon energy and the screen's coating thickness. Regarding incident photon energy, this X-ray absorption and fluorescence was found to exhibit very intense changes near the corresponding K edge of the heaviest element in the screen's scintillating material. Regarding coating thickness, thicker screens exhibited higher X-ray absorption and X-ray fluorescence. Results also indicated that a significant fraction of the generated X-ray fluorescent quanta escape from the scintillating screen. This fraction was found to increase with screen's coating thickness. At the energy range studied, most of the incident photons were found to be absorbed via one-hit photoelectric effect. As a result, the reabsorption of scattered radiation was found to be of rather minor importance; nevertheless this was found to increase with the screen's coating thickness. Differences in X-ray absorption and X-ray fluorescence were found among the various scintillators studied. LSO scintillator was found to be the most attractive material for use in many X-ray imaging applications, exhibiting the best absorption properties in the largest part of the energy range studied. Y-based scintillators were also found to be of significant absorption performance within the low energy ranges

  7. Guest–Host Interactions Investigated by Time-Resolved X-ray Spectroscopies and Scattering at MHz Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Martin Kristoffer; Vanko, G.; Gawelda, W.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the photoinduced low spin (LS) to high spin (HS) conversion of [Fe(bipy)3]2+ in aqueous solution. In a laser pump/X-ray probe synchrotron setup permitting simultaneous, time-resolved X-ray diffuse scattering (XDS) and X-ray spectroscopic measurements at a 3.26 MHz repetition rate...... lifetime, allowing the detection of an ultrafast change in bulk solvent density. An analysis approach directly utilizing the spectroscopic data in the XDS analysis effectively reduces the number of free parameters, and both combined permit extraction of information about the ultrafast structural dynamics...

  8. Probing symmetry and symmetry breaking in resonant soft-x-ray fluorescence spectra of molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glans, P.; Gunnelin, K.; Guo, J. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Conventional non-resonant soft X-ray emission brings about information about electronic structure through its symmetry and polarization selectivity, the character of which is governed by simple dipole rules. For centro-symmetric molecules with the emitting atom at the inversion center these rules lead to selective emission through the required parity change. For the more common classes of molecules which have lower symmetry or for systems with degenerate core orbitals (delocalized over identical sites), it is merely the local symmetry selectivity that provides a probe of the local atomic orbital contribution to the molecular orbital. For instance, in X-ray spectra of first row species the intensities essentially map the p-density at each particular atomic site, and, in a molecular orbital picture, the contribution of the local p-type atomic orbitals in the LCAO description of the molecular orbitals. The situation is different for resonant X-ray fluorescence spectra. Here strict parity and symmetry selectivity gives rise to a strong frequency dependence for all molecules with an element of symmetry. In addition to symmetry selectivity the strong frequency dependence of resonant X-ray emission is caused by the interplay between the shape of a narrow X-ray excitation energy function and the lifetime and vibrational broadenings of the resonantly excited core states. This interplay leads to various observable effects, such as linear dispersion, resonance narrowing and emission line (Stokes) doubling. Also from the point of view of polarization selectivity, the resonantly excited X-ray spectra are much more informative than the corresponding non-resonant spectra. Examples are presented for nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide molecules.

  9. Imaging performance of a hybrid x-ray computed tomography-fluorescence molecular tomography system using priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Angelique; Schulz, Ralf B; Sarantopoulos, Athanasios; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2010-05-01

    The performance is studied of two newly introduced and previously suggested methods that incorporate priors into inversion schemes associated with data from a recently developed hybrid x-ray computed tomography and fluorescence molecular tomography system, the latter based on CCD camera photon detection. The unique data set studied attains accurately registered data of high spatially sampled photon fields propagating through tissue along 360 degrees projections. Approaches that incorporate structural prior information were included in the inverse problem by adding a penalty term to the minimization function utilized for image reconstructions. Results were compared as to their performance with simulated and experimental data from a lung inflammation animal model and against the inversions achieved when not using priors. The importance of using priors over stand-alone inversions is also showcased with high spatial sampling simulated and experimental data. The approach of optimal performance in resolving fluorescent biodistribution in small animals is also discussed. Inclusion of prior information from x-ray CT data in the reconstruction of the fluorescence biodistribution leads to improved agreement between the reconstruction and validation images for both simulated and experimental data.

  10. Introducing a standard method for experimental determination of the solvent response in laser pump, x-ray probe time-resolved wide-angle x-ray scattering experiments on systems in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kasper Skov; Brandt van Driel, Tim; Kehres, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In time-resolved laser pump, X-ray probe wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments on systems in solution the structural response of the system is accompanied by a solvent response. The solvent response is caused by reorganization of the bulk solvent following the laser pump event, and in order...... response-the solvent term-experimentally when applying laser pump, X-ray probe time-resolved wide-angle X-ray scattering. The solvent term describes difference scattering arising from the structural response of the solvent to changes in the hydrodynamic parameters: pressure, temperature and density. We...... is demonstrated to exhibit first order behaviour with respect to the amount of energy deposited in the solution. We introduce a standardized method for recording solvent responses in laser pump, X-ray probe time-resolved X-ray wide-angle scattering experiments by using dye mediated solvent heating. Furthermore...

  11. Observation of X-ray shadings in synchrotron radiation-total reflection X-ray fluorescence using a color X-ray camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fittschen, Ursula Elisabeth Adriane, E-mail: ursula.fittschen@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [Institut für Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Menzel, Magnus [Institut für Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Scharf, Oliver [IfG Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Radtke, Martin; Reinholz, Uwe; Buzanich, Günther [BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany); Lopez, Velma M.; McIntosh, Kathryn [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Streli, Christina [Atominstitut, TU Wien, Vienna (Austria); Havrilla, George Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Absorption effects and the impact of specimen shape on TXRF analysis has been discussed intensively. Model calculations indicated that ring shaped specimens should give better results in terms of higher counts per mass signals than filled rectangle or circle shaped specimens. One major reason for the difference in signal is shading effects. Full field micro-XRF with a color X-ray camera (CXC) was used to investigate shading, which occurs when working with small angles of excitation as in TXRF. The device allows monitoring the illuminated parts of the sample and the shaded parts at the same time. It is expected that sample material hit first by the primary beam shade material behind it. Using the CXC shading could be directly visualized for the high concentration specimens. In order to compare the experimental results with calculation of the shading effect the generation of controlled specimens is crucial. This was achieved by “drop on demand” technology. It allows generating uniform, microscopic deposits of elements. The experimentally measured shadings match well with those expected from calculation. - Highlights: • Use of a color X-ray camera and drop on demand printing to diagnose X-ray shading • Specimens were obtained uniform and well-defined in shape and concentration by printing. • Direct visualization and determination of shading in such specimens using the camera.

  12. Observation of X-ray shadings in synchrotron radiation-total reflection X-ray fluorescence using a color X-ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fittschen, Ursula Elisabeth Adriane; Menzel, Magnus; Scharf, Oliver; Radtke, Martin; Reinholz, Uwe; Buzanich, Günther; Lopez, Velma M.; McIntosh, Kathryn; Streli, Christina; Havrilla, George Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Absorption effects and the impact of specimen shape on TXRF analysis has been discussed intensively. Model calculations indicated that ring shaped specimens should give better results in terms of higher counts per mass signals than filled rectangle or circle shaped specimens. One major reason for the difference in signal is shading effects. Full field micro-XRF with a color X-ray camera (CXC) was used to investigate shading, which occurs when working with small angles of excitation as in TXRF. The device allows monitoring the illuminated parts of the sample and the shaded parts at the same time. It is expected that sample material hit first by the primary beam shade material behind it. Using the CXC shading could be directly visualized for the high concentration specimens. In order to compare the experimental results with calculation of the shading effect the generation of controlled specimens is crucial. This was achieved by “drop on demand” technology. It allows generating uniform, microscopic deposits of elements. The experimentally measured shadings match well with those expected from calculation. - Highlights: • Use of a color X-ray camera and drop on demand printing to diagnose X-ray shading • Specimens were obtained uniform and well-defined in shape and concentration by printing. • Direct visualization and determination of shading in such specimens using the camera

  13. X-ray fluorescence/Auger-electron coincidence spectroscopy of vacancy cascades in atomic argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arp, U.

    1996-01-01

    Argon L 2.3 -M 2.3 M 2.3 Auger-electron spectra were measured in coincidence with Kα fluorescent x-rays in studies of Ar K-shell vacancy decays at several photon energies above the K-threshold and on the 1s-4p resonance in atomic argon. The complex spectra recorded by conventional electron spectroscopy are greatly simplified when recorded in coincidence with fluorescent x-rays, allowing a more detailed analysis of the vacancy cascade process. The resulting coincidence spectra are compared with Hartree-Fock calculations which include shake-up transitions in the resonant case. Small energy shifts of the coincidence electron spectra are attributed to post-collision interaction with 1s photoelectrons

  14. Rapid analysis of molybdenum contents in molybdenum master alloys by X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tongkong, P.

    1985-01-01

    Determination of molybdenum contents in molybdenum master alloy had been performed using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDX) technique where analysis were made via standard additions and calibration curves. Comparison of EDX technique with other analyzing techniques, i.e., wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence, neutron activation analysis and inductive coupled plasma spectrometry, showed consistency in the results. This technique was found to yield reliable results when molybdenum contents in master alloys were in the range of 13 to 50 percent using HPGe detector or proportional counter. When the required error was set at 1%, the minimum analyzing time was found to be 30 and 60 seconds for Fe-Mo master alloys with molybdenum content of 13.54 and 49.09 percent respectively. For Al-Mo master alloys, the minimum times required were 120 and 300 seconds with molybdenum content of 15.22 and 47.26 percent respectively

  15. Envelope method for background elimination from X-ray fluorescence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monakhov, V.V.; Naumenko, P.A.; Chashinskaya, O.A.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the background noise caused by Bremsstrahlung on the accuracy of the envelope method at x-ray fluorescence spectra processing is studied. This is carried out by the example of model spectra at different forms of Bremsstrahlung noise as well as at the presence of background noise in spectra. The interpolation by parabolic splines is used for the estimation of the error of the envelope method for the elimination of continuos background noise. It is found out that the error of the proposed method constitutes decimal parts of percent. It is shown that the envelope method is the effective technique for the elimination of the continuous Bremsstrahlung from x-ray fluorescence spectra of the first order [ru

  16. Nondestructive analysis of silver in gold foil using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasamatsu, Masaaki; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Nakanishi, Toshio; Shimoda, Osamu; Nishiwaki, Yoshinori; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    Small particles of gold foil detached from an indoor decoration might be important evidence to associate a suspect with a crime scene. We have investigated the application of elemental analysis using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to discriminate small particles of gold foil. Eight kinds of gold foil samples collected in Japan were used in the experiments. As a result of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, only two elements, gold and silver, were detected from all gold foil samples. The intensity ratios of AgK α /AuL α showed good correlation with the content ratios of Ag/Au. The variation of intensity ratio within a same sample was sufficiently small compared with those of different samples. Therefore the comparison of this intensity ratio can be an effective method to discriminate small particles originating from different types of gold foil. (author)

  17. Trace elements determination in red and white wines using total-reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, M.J.; Lopes, R.T.; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Moreira, S.; Barroso, R.C.; Castro, C.R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Several wines produced in different regions from south of Brazil and available in markets in Rio de Janeiro were analyzed for their contents of elements such as: P, S, Cl, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. Multi-element analysis was possible with simple sample preparation and subsequent analysis by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation. The measurement was carried at the X-ray fluorescence beamline in the Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory in Campinas, Brazil. The levels of the various elements obtained were lower in the Brazilian wines than the values generally found in the literature. The present study indicates the capability of multi-element analysis for determining the contents of various elements present in wines coming from Brazil vineyards by using a simple, sensitive and precise method

  18. Role of importance of X-ray fluorescence analysis of forensic samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Shailendra; Sharma, M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In the field of forensic science, it is very important to investigate the evidential samples obtained at various crime scenes. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is used widely in forensic science [1]. Its main strength is its non-destructive nature, thus preserving evidence [2, 3]. In this paper, we report the application of XRF to examine the evidences like purity gold and silver jewelry (Indian Ornaments), remnants of glass pieces and paint chips recovered from crime scenes. The experimental measurements on these samples have been made using X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (LAB Center XRF-1800) procured from Shimazdu Scientific Inst., USA. The results are explained in terms of quantitative/ qualitative analysis of trace elements. (author)

  19. Single particle transfer for quantitative analysis with total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Esaka, Konomi T.; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The technique of single particle transfer was applied to quantitative analysis with total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry. The technique was evaluated by performing quantitative analysis of individual Cu particles with diameters between 3.9 and 13.2 μm. The direct quantitative analysis of the Cu particle transferred onto a Si carrier gave a discrepancy between measured and calculated Cu amounts due to the absorption effects of incident and fluorescent X-rays within the particle. By the correction for the absorption effects, the Cu amounts in individual particles could be determined with the deviation within 10.5%. When the Cu particles were dissolved with HNO 3 solution prior to the TXRF analysis, the deviation was improved to be within 3.8%. In this case, no correction for the absorption effects was needed for quantification

  20. Beer analysis by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.; Zucchi, Orgheda L.D.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn and Br in twenty-nine brands of national and international beers were determined by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF). The results were compared with the limits established by the Brazilian Legislation and the nutritive values established by National Agricultural Library (NAL). The measurements were performed at the X-ray Fluorescence Beamline at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, in Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using a polychromatic beam for excitation. A small volume of 5 μL of sample beers containing just an internal standard, used to correct geometry effects, were analyzed without any pre-treatment. The measuring time was 100 s and the detection limits obtained varied from 1μg.L -1 for Mn and Fe to 15μg.L -1 for P. (author)

  1. Determination of copper in geological materials by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.; Bayon, A.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence has been applied to the determination of copper content of geological materials in the concentration range of 0.01 to % CuO. A molybdenum target tube Is used, samples being presented in finely-ground powder form. Various methods for the correction for background and Instrumental copper interferences have been considered. To correct for matrix effects different tube scattered primary radiations have been tested as references or internal standards. MoK(41 - (C) provides the most suitable results. The use of influence empirical coefficients for the effect of iron on copper and of mass absorption coefficients has also been considered. For samples with a high content of lead, several procedures to correct for I t s influence have been investigated. Comparison between data obtained by X-ray fluorescence and wet-chemical techniques indicated good agreement. (Author) 6 refs

  2. Multielement characterization of atmospheric pollutants by x-ray fluorescence analysis and instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancitelli, L.A.; Tanner, T.M.

    1976-01-01

    The simultaneous measurement of a wide spectrum of elements in aerosols collected on air filters and in rainwater can yield information on the origin, transport, and removal of atmospheric pollutants. In order to determine the elemental content of these aerosols, a pair of highly sensitive, precise and complementing instrumental techniques, x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis, have been developed and employed. Data are presented on the results of combined x-ray fluorescence and activation analysis of aerosols collected in a number of urban areas of the USA and from the 80th median sampling network in March 1972. From a comparison of these ratios in granite and diabase with those of filters placed in urban areas, it is evident that Zn, Se, Sb, Hg, and Pb levels have been increased by as much as several orders of magnitude. Al, Co, La, Fe, Eu, Sm, Tb, Ta, Hf, and Th appear to exist at levels compatible with an earth's crust origin

  3. Determination of small amounts of aluminum in iron and steel by x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Minao; Sato, Shoki; Narita, Masanao

    1981-01-01

    The accuracy of X-ray fluorescence analysis for determining aluminum in steel is generally poor when the aluminum content is below 0.1%. In this study, it is confirmed that the existence of inhomogeneous acid-insoluble aluminum causes the poor accuracy of X-ray fluorescence analysis. The accuracy can be improved by adding granular ferro-zirconium to molten steel when sampling. By using this method, the accuracy of determining aluminum was 0.0024% for low alloy steels and 0.0022% for stainless steels as the standard deviation obtained for a series of differences between an analytical result and a standard value. Corrections for overlapping of the chromium spectrum, and for absorption and enhancement effects of co-existent elements are not necessary for the analysis of low alloy steels, whereas these corrections are necessary for the analysis of stainless steels. (author)

  4. Application of the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique to trace elements determination in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Zarazua, G.; Avila-Perez, P.; Navarrete, M.; Tejeda, S.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have identified an important number of toxic elements along with organic carcinogen molecules and radioactive isotopes in tobacco. In this work we have analyzed by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence 9 brands of cigarettes being manufactured and distributed in the Mexican market. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology standards and a blank were equally treated at the same time. Results show the presence of some toxic elements such as Pb and Ni. These results are compared with available data for some foreign brands, while their implications for health are discussed. It can be confirmed that the Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence method provides precise (reproducible) and accuracy (trueness) data for 15 elements concentration in tobacco samples

  5. Sample analysis using gamma ray induced fluorescent X-ray emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sood, B S; Allawadhi, K L; Gandhi, R; Batra, O P; Singh, N [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Nuclear Science Labs.

    1983-01-01

    A non-destructive method for the analysis of materials using gamma ray-induced fluorescent x-ray emission has been developed. In this method, special preparation of very thin samples in which the absorption of the incident gamma rays and the emitted fluorescent x-rays is negligible, is not needed, and the absorption correction is determined experimentally. A suitable choice of the incident gamma ray energies is made to minimise enhancement effects through selective photoionization of the elements in the sample. The method is applied to the analysis of a typical sample of the soldering material using 279 keV and 59.5 keV gamma rays from /sup 203/Hg and /sup 241/Am radioactive sources respectively. The results of the analysis are found to agree well with those obtained from the chemical analysis.

  6. Application of the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique to trace elements determination in tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Zarazua, G.; Avila-Perez, P.; Navarrete, M.; Tejeda, S.

    2008-12-01

    Many studies have identified an important number of toxic elements along with organic carcinogen molecules and radioactive isotopes in tobacco. In this work we have analyzed by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence 9 brands of cigarettes being manufactured and distributed in the Mexican market. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology standards and a blank were equally treated at the same time. Results show the presence of some toxic elements such as Pb and Ni. These results are compared with available data for some foreign brands, while their implications for health are discussed. It can be confirmed that the Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence method provides precise (reproducible) and accuracy (trueness) data for 15 elements concentration in tobacco samples.

  7. Beer analysis by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.D.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In this work the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn and Br in twenty-nine brands of national and international beers were determined by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF). The results were compared with the limits established by the Brazilian Legislation and the nutritive values established by National Agricultural Library (NAL). The measurements were performed at the X-ray Fluorescence Beamline at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, in Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using a polychromatic beam for excitation. A small volume of 5 {mu}L of sample beers containing just an internal standard, used to correct geometry effects, were analyzed without any pre-treatment. The measuring time was 100 s and the detection limits obtained varied from 1{mu}g.L{sup -1} for Mn and Fe to 15{mu}g.L{sup -1} for P. (author)

  8. Quantitative analysis by X-ray fluorescence using first principles for matrix correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulett, L.D.; Dunn, H.W.; Tarter, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The quantitative interpretation of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) data is often difficult because of matrix effects. The intensity of fluorescence measured for a given element is not only dependent on the element's concentration, but also on the mass absorption coefficients of the sample for the excitation and fluorescence radiation. Also, there are interelement effects in which high-energy fluorescence from heavier elements is absorbed by lighter elements with a resulting enhancement of their fluorescence. Recent theoretical treatments of this problem have shown that X-ray fluorescence data can be corrected for these matrix effects by calculations based on first principles. Fundamental constants, available in atomic physics data tables, are the only parameters needed. It is not necessary to make empirical calibrations. The application of this correctional procedure to alloys and alumina-supported catalysts is described. A description is given of a low-background spectrometer which uses monochromatic Ag Ksub(α) radiation for excitation. Matrix corrections by first principles can be easily applied to data from instruments of this type because fluorescence excitation cross-sections and mass absorption coefficients can be accurately defined for monochromatic radiation. (author)

  9. Static and time-resolved 10-1000 keV x-ray imaging detector options for NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landen, O.L.; Bell, P.M.; McDonald, J.W.; Park, H.-S.; Weber, F.; Moody, J.D.; Lowry, M.E.; Stewart, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    High energy (>10 keV) x-ray self-emission imaging and radiography will be essential components of many NIF high energy density physics experiments. In preparation for such experiments, we have evaluated the pros and cons of various static [x-ray film, bare charge-coupled device (CCD), and scintillator + CCD] and time-resolved (streaked and gated) 10-1000 keV detectors

  10. Determination of rare-earth elements in rocks by isotope-excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, Helmar; Wollenberg, H.A.

    1970-01-01

    Isotope-excited X-ray fluorescence spectrometry furnishes a rapid determination of rare-earth elements in unprepared rock samples. The samples are excited by 241Am γ-rays, generating X-ray spectra on a multichannel pulse-height analyser. Gaussian peaks of the Kα and Kβ X-ray energies are treated......-ray spectrometric scan of a longitudinally sliced drill core showed a close correlation between rare-earth abundances and appropriate minerals....

  11. Diagnosis of laser ablated carbon particles measured by time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Atsumi; Yoda, Osamu; Ohyanagi, T.; Murakami, K.

    1995-01-01

    The time and space resolved properties of laser ablated carbon particles were measured by X-ray absorption spectroscopy using LPX as an X-ray source. The energy density of the irradiation laser on the sample was in the range of 0.5-20J/cm 2 and the time delay was varied between 0 and 120ns. The absorption spectra exhibited several peaks originated from level to level transitions and an intense broad absorption in the energy range of C-K edge. At a delay time of 120ns, the absorption peak from 1s→2p transition of neutral carbon atom (C 0 ), C - , C + and C 2+ ions were observed. The absorption peak from C 0 was stronger as the probing position was closer to the sample surface and decreased rapidly with distance from the sample surface. The absorption peak C 2+ ion was observed only at comparatively distant positions from surface. The maximum speeds of highly charged ions were faster than that of neutral atoms and negative charged ions. The neutral atom and lower charged ions were emitted from the sample even after laser irradiation. The spatial distributions of the laser ablated carbon particles in the localized helium gas environment were measured. In the helium gas environment, the ablation plume was depressed by the helium cloud generated on the top of ablation plume. (author)

  12. Time-Resolved Soft X-ray Diffraction Reveals Transient Structural Distortions of Ternary Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Mann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Home-based soft X-ray time-resolved scattering experiments with nanosecond time resolution (10 ns and nanometer spatial resolution were carried out at a table top soft X-ray plasma source (2.2–5.2 nm. The investigated system was the lyotropic liquid crystal C16E7/paraffin/glycerol/formamide/IR 5. Usually, major changes in physical, chemical, and/or optical properties of the sample occur as a result of structural changes and shrinking morphology. Here, these effects occur as a consequence of the energy absorption in the sample upon optical laser excitation in the IR regime. The liquid crystal shows changes in the structural response within few hundred nanoseconds showing a time decay of 182 ns. A decrease of the Bragg peak diffracted intensity of 30% and a coherent macroscopic movement of the Bragg reflection are found as a response to the optical pump. The Bragg reflection movement is established to be isotropic and diffusion controlled (1 μs. Structural processes are analyzed in the Patterson analysis framework of the time-varying diffraction peaks revealing that the inter-lamellar distance increases by 2.7 Å resulting in an elongation of the coherently expanding lamella crystallite. The present studies emphasize the possibility of applying TR-SXRD techniques for studying the mechanical dynamics of nanosystems.

  13. Space resolved x-ray diffraction measurements of the supercooled state of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Shinya; Nishida, Akira; Mina, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    In order to measure an ordering process of polymers, the supercooled state near the crystallizing surface was observed by a space resolved X-ray diffraction method at Photon Factory (PF). Using temperature slope crystallization, low density polyethylene and even-number paraffins were examined during crystallization from the melt state. The results indicate that polyethylene shows a sharp b-axis orientation where the lamellar normal and crystalline c-axis are perpendicular to the temperature slope. The crystalline lamellae are well-developed with lamellar thickness of 180 A. The supercooled melt state just above the crystallizing plane shows some diffraction in the small angle region without any crystalline reflection in the wide angle. This fact suggests that a long-range ordering (lamellar structure) appears prior to the short-range one (crystalline structure). The in-situ crystallizing surface was observed by an optical microscope connected to a TV system. The crystallizing surface of even-number paraffins moves to upwards in the temperature slope. In-situ X-ray measurements at PF revealed that the crystalline c-axis and lamellar normal of the even number paraffins are parallel to the temperature slope. From these results, the crystalline ordering and the surface movement of even number paraffins are explained using special nucleation mechanism including a screw dislocation. (author)

  14. A set-up of micro-X-ray fluorescence system based on polycapillary X-ray optics and applications for archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Pan Qiuli; Ding Xunliang; Liu Zhiguo

    2008-01-01

    The paper concerns in the structures, performances and characteristics and applications for archaeology of a new micro-X-ray fluorescence system based on rotating anode X-ray generator and polycapillary X-ray optics. The polycapillary X-ray optics used here can focus the primary X-ray beam down to some tens of micrometers in diameters that allows for non-destructive and local analysis of sub-mm samples with minor/ trace level sensitivity. In order to prove the potentials of this instrument used in archaeology, a piece of Chinese ancient blue and white porcelain produced in Ming Dynasty was analyzed. The results show that intensities of Mn-Kα, Co-Kα are variable in agree with the thick of blue glaze. The correlation analysis indicates the Mn and Co have the best correlations. So, the concentrations or ratios of Mn and Co are crucial to determine the provenance and identify from a fake one of Chinese ancient blue and white porcelain. (authors)

  15. Non-scanning x-ray fluorescence microscope: application to real time micro-imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, K.; Eba, H.

    2000-01-01

    So far, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) micro-imaging has been performed by a 2D positional scan of a sample against a collimated beam. Obtaining information on specific elements in a nondestructive manner is an attractive prospect for many scientific applications. Furthermore, a synchrotron micro-beam can enhance the spatial resolution down to 0.1 μm. However, the total measuring time becomes quite long (a few hours to a half day), since one needs a number of scanning points in order to obtain a high-quality image. It is possible to obtain an x-ray image with 1 M pixels and with 20 μm resolution in a very short time of 20 sec - 3 min using a non-scanning XRF microscope, which is based on completely different concept. In the present report, we discuss the application of this technique to real time micro-imaging. The experiments were carried out at BL-4A, Photon Factory, Tsukuba, Japan. We employed a grazing-incidence arrangement to make primary x-rays illuminate the whole sample surface. We adopted parallel-beam optics and extremely-close-geometry in order to detect x-ray fluorescence with a CCD camera. The selective-excitation capability of tunable monochromatic synchrotron radiation is a feasible method for distinguishing the elements of interest. One can obtain an image of each element by differentiating the images obtained above and below the absorption edges of interest. The growth of metallic dendrites from a solution dropped on a substrate was studied successfully. Several different growth patterns, corresponding to concentration and other conditions for diffusion, were observed as x-ray images. Since the present technique requires only 40 sec for each shot, it is possible to record a growing process through repeated exposures like a movie. The authors would like to thank Prof. A. Iida (Photon Factory) for his valuable comments. (author)

  16. A gas microstrip X-ray detector for soft energy fluorescence EXAFS

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, A D; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Lipp, J; Spill, E J; Stephenson, R

    2001-01-01

    Gas microstrip detectors have been previously developed by the particle physics community, where their robustness, compactness and high counting speed have been recognised. These features are particularly attractive to synchrotron radiation use. In this paper, we describe a gas microstrip detector employing multi-element readout and specifically developed for high count rate fluorescence EXAFS at soft X-ray energies below 4 keV.

  17. Determination of cesium and selenium in cultivated mushrooms using radionuclide X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, L.; Bumbalova, A.; Harangozo, M.; Toelgyessy, J.; Tomecek, O.

    2000-01-01

    Cesium and selenium intake of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), with these elements previously added to culture medium, has been examined from the viewpoint of health- and environmental protection. The process of measuring has been carried out by the radionuclide X-ray fluorescence technique. Treatments of the elementary substance with Se salt appears to influence the Se content of the mushrooms to a significant extent. Cs intake is of considerable importance, as this element is accumulated by mushrooms. (author)

  18. Determination of low concentrations of thorium in geological materials by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.; Bayon, A.

    1981-01-01

    An X-ray fluorescence method for the determination of thorium in geological samples down to 2 ppm ThO 2 has been developed. To achieve this determination limit an exposed area of the sample 42.5 mm in diameter is used, working with a molybdenum target tube operated at 90 kV and 30 m A. Corrections for background and line interference of the Rb Kα radiation have been carefully considered and empirical correction coefficients calculated. (Author) 3 refs

  19. Applications of total reflection X-ray fluorescence in multi-element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, W.; Prange, A.; Knoth, J.

    1985-01-01

    Although Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (TXRF) became available for practical applications and routine measurements only few years ago, the number of programmes that make use of this method is increasing rapidly. The scope of work is widespread over environmental research and monitoring, mineralogy, mineral exploration, oceanography, biology, medicine and biochemistry. The present paper gives a brief survey of these applications and summarizes some of them which are typical for quite different matrices. (orig.)

  20. Synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) for evaluation of food contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, A.E.S.; Brienza, S.M.B.; Moreira, S.; Zucchi, O.L.A.; Nascimento Filho, V.F.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF) for the determination of metals and other elements in food available to the population in commercial establishments, in order to evaluate the risks of contamination by these products. The analyzed species were vegetables, leafy vegetables, fruits, cereal and grain. The results indicated that some species were contaminated by Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb with concentrations much higher than the reference values. (author)

  1. Zinc content determination in rice and other agriproducts by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis Alpizar, Otoniel; Diaz Rizo, Oscar

    2009-01-01

    The Zn content in regular consumption foodstuff (rice, some vegetables and roots) in Cuba is reported. Concentrations are determined by X-Ray Fluorescence analysis using a set of organic standards doped with Zn. The accuracy of the analytical procedure was validated using the Certified Reference Materials IAEA 393 and y MA-B-3/TM. The obtained results show rice as the major Zn bioaccumulator of the studied agriproducts and the main Zn source in Cuban human diet. (author)

  2. Zinc content determination in rice and other agricultural products by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis Alpizar, Otoniel; Diaz Rizo, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    The Zn content in regular consumption foodstuff (rice, some vegetables and roots) in Cuba is reported. Concentrations are determined by X-Ray Fluorescence analysis using a set of organic standards doped with Zn. The accuracy of the analytical procedure was validated using the Certified Reference Materials IAEA 393 and y MA-B-3/TM. The obtained results show rice as the major Zn bioaccumulator of the studied agricultural products and the main Zn source in Cuban human diet. (author)

  3. Radioisotope induced X-ray fluorescence analysis of cereal grains and flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toeroek, Sz.; Szoekefalvi-Nagy, Z.

    1982-06-01

    Radioisotope-induced X-ray fluorescence analysis is a rather simple and easy method for investigating ashed plant material. In order to reduce matrix effects thin samples of 2 mg/cm 2 are analysed to obtain a reasonable compromise between maximum sensitivity and the lowest possible absorption effects. Concentrations are determined by standard addition method. An accuracy of 6-8% can be achieved. As an application analytical results are given for whole grains of several sorts of wheat. (author)

  4. Analysis of trace elements in medicinal plants with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekinci, N.; Polat, R.; Budak, G.; Ekinci, R.

    2004-01-01

    Mankind still depend on traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases and ailments. Elemental composition and concentration of medicinal plants have been investigated by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The elements present in medicinal plants are P, Cl, K, Ca, S, Al, Ti, V, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Mo, In, Sn, I and Ce. The physical basis of the used analytical method, the experimental set up and the procedure of sample preparation are presented. (author)

  5. Criteria to stablish an absolute semiquantitative analytic method by x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverria, Fernando.

    1990-01-01

    This work had been developed by fluorescence x-ray laboratory of Nuclear Studies Centre form Ecuador, it pretent to stablish an appropiate discernement of a FRX spectrum to know the concentration range form sample elements, minerals principaly, submit to a FRX. The study tries to stablish the best way to calibration the instruments like the adecuate samples preparation to do the analysis by FRX

  6. Quantitative determination of uranium in organic solution by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyt, D.V. de; Colangelo, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    An X-ray fluorescent method for the determination of uranium in tributilphosphate-kerosene-nitriacid solution has been developed. Chemical properties of the matrix elements were studied in order to select a convenient procedure to determine samples and standards on the same way. The method avoids the destruction of the organic material and has proved to be very useful for the fast control of uranium concentration. (Author) [es

  7. Development of unified X-ray fluorescent analysis to determine rhenium content in multicomponent oxide compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobot, D.V.; Belyaev, A.V.; Kutvitskij, V.A.; Rysev, A.P.

    1999-01-01

    A procedure to prepare rhenium-containing glass-like specimens on the basis of bismuth and boron oxides is proposed. The glasses produced are studied by X-ray fluorescent analysis and routine spectrometric thiocyanate analysis. The results make it possible to determine rhenium in oxide mixtures in the range of its content 0.01 - 10% with S r = 0.03 [ru

  8. Ferro-metry and X-ray fluorescence to measure wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catherin, J.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The determination of wear of metallic structures is carried out by measuring metallic particles in the lubricating oil. This method is routinely used by SNCF, the French railroad company to control the motors of the high speed trains (TGV). Four methods, plasma emission spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence analysis, ferro-metry and magnetometry are used. The field of application and advantage of each method is described. (C.B.)

  9. X-ray fluorescence microscopy reveals the role of selenium in spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kehr, Sebastian; Malinouski, Mikalai; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Labunskyy, Vyacheslav M.; Kasaikina, Marina V.; Carlson, Bradley A.; Zhou, You; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2009-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a trace element with important roles in human health. Several selenoproteins have essential functions in development. However, the cellular and tissue distribution of Se remains largely unknown because of the lack of analytical techniques that image this element with sufficient sensitivity and resolution. Herein, we report that X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) can be used to visualize and quantify the tissue, cellular and subcellular topography of Se. We applied this techn...

  10. X-ray fluorescence analysis of metal concentration in an alloy electroplating bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, R.A.

    1980-06-01

    An energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis system has been developed for rapid, simultaneous analysis of gold and copper concentrations in an aqueous electroplating bath. The speed and repeatability of the system make it well suited for in-process control. Data collection and reduction are automatic. The analysis requires less than 10 minutes from taking the sample to printing the gold and copper concentrations

  11. 3D Synchrotron μ-x-ray fluorescence analysis on human bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoeger, N.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.; Chinea-Cano, E.; Wegrzynek, D.; Roschger, P.; Simon, R.; Staub, S.; Falkenberg, G.

    2004-01-01

    A comparison between μ-x-ray fluorescence tomography and confocal μ-x-ray fluorescence analysis (μ-XRF) will be presented. These techniques were used to study the three dimensional (3D) elemental distribution in human bone. Since bone shows very strong inhomogeneities in structure as well as in distribution of the chemical elements, two dimensional (2D) analysis (element mapping) of the samples always led to difficulties in interpreting the results and assigning elemental distributions to microscopic structures. Tomography scans in fluorescence and absorption mode have been carried out simultaneously at the fluo-topo beamline at ANKA, Karlsruhe, to determine the distribution of the elements over the depth of the previously prepared sample from human patella. A monochromatized x-ray beam (17 keV) from a bending magnet station focused by a compound refractive lens to a beamsize of 10 x 5 μm was used to perform the measurements. The transmitted beam signal measured with the SD detector was utilized to apply a simplified absorption correction to XRF tomographic images. Based on the XRF sinograms the elemental distribution within the object cross-section was reconstructed by means of filtered backprojection. The same section of human bone has been analyzed by confocal μ-XRF at HASYLAB, Hamburg, Germany beamline L. With this experiment two polycapillary half lenses were used; one for focusing the previously monochromatized primary x-ray beam onto the sample and the second half lens in front of a Si(Li) detector to get a small inspected area. By overlapping the two foci of the lenses a very well defined volume of investigation could be defined. Scanning the sample up- and downstream it was possible to determine the elemental distribution in depth of the sample. An absorption correction has been applied to get a corrected fluorescence image of the sample. Both methods showed consistent results and allowed a precise localization of the elements of interest. (author)

  12. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of cerium in ferrosilicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marbec, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    The cerium was determined in ferrosilicon samples by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques (XRF) techniques, with a secondary target of gadolinium. The methods employed were: comparison and linear regression with reference materials with cerium concentration between 0.4 and 1.0%. The samples were prepared in the form of pellets and the analytical results are reported as an average of five determinations with a confidence limits at 95% probability. (Author) [es

  13. Determination of calcium and iron in limestone by X-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovtsova, M.K.

    1977-01-01

    The results of determining calcium and iron content in limestone by X-ray fluorescence method are described. The 109 Cd isotape was chosen as a source for excitation, as it permited to reduce the concentration degeneration in the range of large Ca contents due to the larger energy of the primary radiation. The root-mean-square deviation from the data of chemical analysis was +-0.02%FeO and +-0.22%CaO

  14. Multielemental analysis of surface sediments in Havana bay (Cuba) using X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelen, A.; Corrales, Y.; Lopez, N.; Manso Guevara, M. V.; Casanova, A. O.; Alessandro, K. D'; Diaz, O.; Espen, P. Van; Beltran, J.; Soto, J.

    2006-01-01

    Multielemental Analysis was performed in Superficial Sediments in Havana Bay. Twenty one samples were analysed by Dispersive Energy X- Ray Fluorescence using an spectrometer based on Si (Li) semiconductor detector an a 109 Cd source. The results showed a similar behaviour in the levels of contamination related with neutron activation analysis. The data suggest that an anthropogenic input into the bay from domestic sewage and industries occurred. (Full text)

  15. Analysis of noble metal on automotive exhaust catalysts by radioisotope-induce x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgart, M.F.

    1976-01-01

    A technique was developed for the in-situ analysis of noble metals deposited on monolithic automotive exhaust catalysts. This technique is based on radioisotope-induced x-ray fluorescence, and provides a detailed picture of the distribution of palladium and platinum on catalyst samples. The experimental results for the cross section of a monolithic exhaust catalyst, analyzed in increments of 0.2 cm 3 , are compared with analyses for palladium and platinum obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis

  16. Determination of potassium concentration in organic samples by means of x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Moran, R.L.; Szgedi, S.

    1993-01-01

    By means of x-ray fluorescence analysis and the inner standard method using KH 2 PO 4 as the added chemical compound, potassium concentration of roots, stems , leaf, flowers and grains from Quinua (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd). which was previously treated with a nitrogen ed fertilizers has been determined taking into account the increasing effect the average atomic number due to used standard. Experimental errors are lower than 10 %

  17. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis with synchrotron radiation monochromatized by multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieder, R.; Wobrauschek, P.; Ladisich, W.; Streli, C.; Aiginger, H.; Garbe, S.; Gaul, G.; Knoechel, A.; Lechtenberg, F.

    1995-01-01

    To achieve lowest detection limits in total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) synchrotron radiation has been monochromatized by a multilayer structure to obtain a relative broad energy band compared to Bragg single crystals for an efficient excitation. The energy has been set to 14 keV, 17.5 keV, 31 keV and about 55 keV. Detection limits of 20 fg and 150 fg have been achieved for Sr and Cd, respectively. ((orig.))

  18. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence analysis in art pieces investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panczyk, E.; Kierzek, J.; Walis, L.; Ligeza, M.

    1996-01-01

    The application of instrumental neutron activation analysis have been shown for the trace element identification in dyes of old painting and other art objects. The recognition of their composition is a important measure for attribution. Also the X-ray fluorescence analysis has been frequently used for examination of art objects. The age determination of the old chinese porcelain is a good example described in the paper. 20 refs, 4 figs

  19. OI Fluorescent Line Contamination in Soft X-Ray Diffuse Background Obtained with Suzaku/XIS

    OpenAIRE

    Sekiya, Norio; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Takei, Yoh

    2014-01-01

    The quantitative measurement of OVII line intensity is a powerful method for understanding the soft X-ray diffuse background. By systematically analyzing the OVII line intensity in 145 high-latitude Suzaku/XIS observations, the flux of OI fluorescent line in the XIS spectrum, contaminating the OVII line, is found to have an increasing trend with time especially after 2011. For these observations, the OVII line intensity would be overestimated unless taking into consideration the OI fluorescen...

  20. New x-ray optical system for fluorescence beamline at Hasylab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkenberg, G.; Tschentscher, T.

    2000-01-01

    Beamline L at HASYLAB/DESY is actually dedicated to micro x-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) experiments using the white beam from a bending magnet of the storage ring DORIS III. To extend the applicability of beamline L to other x-ray fluorescence techniques, such as synchrotron radiation total reflection x-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) and micro x-ray absorption near edge structures in fluorescence mode (μ-XANES), new x-ray optics have been designed and are under installation at the moment. The suitability of beamline L for SR-TXRF experiments has been shown previously in a number of studies using temporary setups for beam monochromatization and collimation. The new optical system comprises a slit system, a pair of x-ray mirrors for focussing, collimation and high energy cut-off (12 keV and 30 keV), a double multilayer monochromator for broad bandpass applications (TXRF) and a double perfect-crystal monochromator for spectroscopy (XANES, speciation). The multilayer monochromator will utilize a pair of NiC with a spacing of 4.0 nm for the energy range 2-10 keV and a second pair of WB 4 C with a spacing of 3.0 nm for the range 4-30 keV. To extend the energy range for broad bandpass applications to higher photon energies SiGe gradient crystals are foreseen (ΔE/E ∼ 10 -3 ). For the perfect-crystal monochromator we have chosen a pair of Ge 111 crystals for the energy range 2-10 keV and Si 111 crystals for 7-90 keV. To enable the use of low photon energies down to 2 keV the monochromator vessel is sealed to the ring vacuum by a 25 μm thick carbon window. The mirrors and monochromators deflect the beam vertically and can be moved out of the beam independently. Fixed exit geometry permits the illumination of the same sample spot with different wavelength and energy bands. All optical elements accept the full vertical beam opening in order to enable both vertical and horizontal geometries for sample and detector. (author)

  1. X-ray fluorescence analysis of ancient and medieval brass artifacts from south Moravia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hložek, M.; Komoróczy, B.; Trojek, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with an investigation of archeological finds using X-ray fluorescence analysis and microanalysis. The main aim of the investigation was to prove the production of brass in the South Moravian Region (part of the Czech Republic) in former times. The probable brass production technology is described. Various objects dating back to Antiquity and to the Middle Ages were investigated using two X-ray fluorescence systems, and the results of the analyses are discussed. The measurements showed, e.g., that fragments of Roman scale armor and a belt fitting dating back to Antiquity were made of brass. Brass was also identified on the surfaces of various ancient and medieval molds and melting pots. - Highlights: ► Semiquantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of archeological finds. ► Two different gilding techniques of a brass belt terminal found in Brno. ► Use of brass before the Great Moravian period. ► Evidence of brass casting in the 12th century in Brno.

  2. Kα resonance fluorescence in Al, Ti, Cu and potential applications for X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Sultana N.; Pradhan, Anil K.

    2015-04-01

    The Kα resonance fluorescence (RFL) effect via photoabsorptions of inner shell electrons as the element goes through multiple ionization states is studied. We demonstrate that the resonances observed recently in Kα (1s-2p) fluorescence in aluminum plasmas by using a high-intensity X-ray free-electron laser [1] are basically K-shell resonances in hollow atoms going through multiple ionization states at resonant energies as predicted earlier for gold and iron ions [2]. These resonances are formed below the K-shell ionization edge and shift toward higher energies with ionization states, as observed. Fluorescence emission intensities depend on transition probabilities for each ionization stage of the given element for all possible Kα (1 s → 2 p) transition arrays. The present calculations for resonant photoabsorptions of Kα photons in Al have reproduced experimentally observed features. Resonant cross sections and absorption coefficients are presented for possible observation of Kα RFL in the resonant energy ranges of 4.5-5.0 keV for Ti ions and 8.0-8.7 keV for Cu ions respectively. We suggest that theoretically the Kα RFL process may be driven to enhance the Auger cycle by a twin-beam monochromatic X-ray source, tuned to the K-edge and Kα energies, with potential applications such as the development of narrow-band biomedical X-ray devices.

  3. X-ray fluorescence analysis of ancient and medieval brass artifacts from south Moravia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlozek, M. [Methodical Centre of Conservation-Technical Museum in Brno, Purkynova 105, 612 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Komoroczy, B. [Institute of Archeology of the Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Kralovopolska 147, 612 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Trojek, T., E-mail: tomas.trojek@fjfi.cvut.cz [Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Czech Technical University in Prague, Brehova 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-15

    This paper deals with an investigation of archeological finds using X-ray fluorescence analysis and microanalysis. The main aim of the investigation was to prove the production of brass in the South Moravian Region (part of the Czech Republic) in former times. The probable brass production technology is described. Various objects dating back to Antiquity and to the Middle Ages were investigated using two X-ray fluorescence systems, and the results of the analyses are discussed. The measurements showed, e.g., that fragments of Roman scale armor and a belt fitting dating back to Antiquity were made of brass. Brass was also identified on the surfaces of various ancient and medieval molds and melting pots. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semiquantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of archeological finds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two different gilding techniques of a brass belt terminal found in Brno. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of brass before the Great Moravian period. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence of brass casting in the 12th century in Brno.

  4. A method of measuring gold nanoparticle concentrations by x-ray fluorescence for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Di; Li Yuhua; Wong, Molly D.; Liu Hong [Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: This paper reports a technique that enables the quantitative determination of the concentration of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) through the accurate detection of their fluorescence radiation in the diagnostic x-ray spectrum. Methods: Experimentally, x-ray fluorescence spectra of 1.9 and 15 nm GNP solutions are measured using an x-ray spectrometer, individually and within chicken breast tissue samples. An optimal combination of excitation and emission filters is determined to segregate the fluorescence spectra at 66.99 and 68.80 keV from the background scattering. A roadmap method is developed that subtracts the scattered radiation (acquired before the insertion of GNP solutions) from the signal radiation acquired after the GNP solutions are inserted. Results: The methods effectively minimize the background scattering in the spectrum measurements, showing linear relationships between GNP solutions from 0.1% to 10% weight concentration and from 0.1% to 1.0% weight concentration inside a chicken breast tissue sample. Conclusions: The investigation demonstrated the potential of imaging gold nanoparticles quantitatively in vivo for in-tissue studies, but future studies will be needed to investigate the ability to apply this method to clinical applications.

  5. Development of suitable plastic standards for X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mans, Christian [University of Applied Sciences Muenster, Department of Chemical Engineering, Advanced Analytical Chemistry, Stegerwaldstr. 39, 48565 Steinfurt (Germany)], E-mail: c.mans@fh-muenster.de; Hanning, Stephanie [University of Applied Sciences Muenster, Department of Chemical Engineering, Advanced Analytical Chemistry, Stegerwaldstr. 39, 48565 Steinfurt (Germany)], E-mail: hanning@fh-muenster.de; Simons, Christoph [University of Applied Sciences Muenster, Department of Chemical Engineering, Advanced Analytical Chemistry, Stegerwaldstr. 39, 48565 Steinfurt (Germany)], E-mail: simons@fh-muenster.de; Wegner, Anne [University of Applied Sciences Muenster, Department of Chemical Engineering, Advanced Analytical Chemistry, Stegerwaldstr. 39, 48565 Steinfurt (Germany)], E-mail: awegner@fh-muenster.de; Janssen, Anton [University of Applied Sciences Muenster, Department of Chemical Engineering, Advanced Analytical Chemistry, Stegerwaldstr. 39, 48565 Steinfurt (Germany)], E-mail: janssena@fh-muenster.de; Kreyenschmidt, Martin [University of Applied Sciences Muenster, Department of Chemical Engineering, Advanced Analytical Chemistry, Stegerwaldstr. 39, 48565 Steinfurt (Germany)], E-mail: martin.kreyenschmidt@fh-muenster.de

    2007-02-15

    For the adoption of the EU directive 'Restriction on use of certain Hazardous Substances' and 'Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment' using X-ray fluorescence analysis suitable standard materials are required. Plastic standards based on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer, containing the regulated elements Br, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb were developed and produced as granulates and solid bodies. The calibration materials were not generated as a dilution from one master batch but rather the element concentrations were distributed over nine independent calibration samples. This was necessary to enable inter-elemental corrections and empirical constant mass absorption coefficients. The produced standard materials are characterized by a homogenous element distribution, which is more than sufficient for X-ray fluorescence analysis. Concentrations for all elements except for Br could be determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy after microwave assisted digestion. The concentration of Br was determined by use of Neutron Activation Analysis at Hahn-Meitner-Institute in Berlin, Germany. The correlation of the X-ray fluorescence analysis measurements with the values determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy and Neutron Activation Analysis showed a very good linearity.

  6. Chromosome translocations in chinese medical X-ray workers analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuanming; Li Jin; Wang Qin; Tang Weisheng; Wang Zhiquan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study long-term radiation effect in occupational workers exposed to low dose X-rays using the method of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Method: Chromosome translocations of 25 medical X-ray workers were analyzed by FISH with chromosome No. 4 and No. 7 probes according to PAINT (The Protocol for Aberration Identification and Nomenclature Terminology) system. Results: The frequency of genome translocation in X-ray workers was (13.14 ± 1.23)/1000 cells. The rate of complete and incomplete translocation was 1:1.7. According to the calendar year of entry before/after the year of 1965 as the border, the data showed that the incomplete translocation of the after 1965 group was obviously higher than those of the controls (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion: The chromosome translocation in early Chinese medical X-ray workers is mainly the incomplete one, the frequency of translocation does not dependent on chromosomal DNA content, and incomplete and complete ones increase along with prolongation of working years in their position

  7. Analysis of metals in organic compounds by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, Marcelino J.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de

    2000-01-01

    Using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis with an X-ray tube filtered with Ti. It was possible to determine the concentration of the elements at ppm level of several elements: K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Pb in two types of organic compound enough used in the agriculture: organic compound of urban garbage (Fertilurb) and aviary bed (birds manure). The experimental setup is composed of: x-ray tube (Oxford, 30 kV, 50 μA and W anode), an ORTEC Si-Li detector, with an energy resolution of about 180 eV at 5.9 keV and an ORTEC multichannel-analyser. The X-ray beam is quasi- monochromatic by using Ti filter. The samples were prepared in pellet form with superficial density in the range of 100 mg/cm 2 . The fundamental parameter method was used in order to verify the elemental concentration. The radiation transmission method was going used to the radiation absorption effects correction in the samples. (author)

  8. LabVIEW control software for scanning micro-beam X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Pawel; Czyzycki, Mateusz; Furman, Leszek; Kolasinski, Krzysztof; Lankosz, Marek; Mrenca, Alina; Samek, Lucyna; Wegrzynek, Dariusz

    2012-05-15

    Confocal micro-beam X-ray fluorescence microscope was constructed. The system was assembled from commercially available components - a low power X-ray tube source, polycapillary X-ray optics and silicon drift detector - controlled by an in-house developed LabVIEW software. A video camera coupled to optical microscope was utilized to display the area excited by X-ray beam. The camera image calibration and scan area definition software were also based entirely on LabVIEW code. Presently, the main area of application of the newly constructed spectrometer is 2-dimensional mapping of element distribution in environmental, biological and geological samples with micrometer spatial resolution. The hardware and the developed software can already handle volumetric 3-D confocal scans. In this work, a front panel graphical user interface as well as communication protocols between hardware components were described. Two applications of the spectrometer, to homogeneity testing of titanium layers and to imaging of various types of grains in air particulate matter collected on membrane filters, were presented. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. X-ray optics for scanning fluorescence microscopy and other applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryon, R.W.; Warburton, W.K.

    1992-05-01

    Scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy is analogous to scanning electron microscopy. Maps of chemical element distribution are produced by scanning with a very small x-ray beam. Goal is to perform such scanning microscopy with resolution in the range of <1 to 10 μm, using standard laboratory x-ray tubes. We are investigating mirror optics in the Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) configuration. K-B optics uses two curved mirrors mounted orthogonally along the optical axis. The first mirror provides vertical focus, the second mirror provides horizontal focus. We have used two types of mirrors: synthetic multilayers and crystals. Multilayer mirrors are used with lower energy radiation such as Cu Kα. At higher energies such as Ag Kα, silicon wafers are used in order to increase the incidence angles and thereby the photon collection efficiency. In order to increase the surface area of multilayers which reflects x-rays at the Bragg angle, we have designed mirrors with the spacing between layers graded along the optic axis in order to compensate for the changing angle of incidence. Likewise, to achieve a large reflecting surface with silicon, the wafers are placed on a specially designed lever arm which is bent into a log spiral by applying force at one end. In this way, the same diffracting angle is maintained over the entire surface of the wafer, providing a large solid angle for photon collection

  10. Determinations of silicon and phosphorus in Pepperbush standard reference material by neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Yoshihiko; Nishio, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kusakabe, Toshio; Iwata, Shiro.

    1987-01-01

    Silicon and phosphorus contents in Pepperbush standard reference material were determined by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence methods. In neutron activation analysis, β-ray spectra of 32 P produced by 31 P(n,γ) 32 P reaction on Pepperbush and standard samples were measured by a low background β-ray spectrometer. In X-ray fluorescence analysis, the standard samples were prepared by mixing the Pepperbush powder with silicon dioxide and diammonium hydrogenphosphate. Characteristic X-rays from the samples were analyzed by a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. From the β and X-ray intensities, silicon and phosphorus contents in Pepperbush were determined to be 1840 ± 80 and 1200 ± 50 μg g -1 , respectively. (author)

  11. Direct Observation of Insulin Association Dynamics with Time-Resolved X-ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimmerman, Dolev [Department; Leshchev, Denis [Department; Hsu, Darren J. [Department; Hong, Jiyun [Department; Kosheleva, Irina [Center; Chen, Lin X. [Department; Chemical

    2017-09-05

    Biological functions frequently require protein-protein interactions that involve secondary and tertiary structural perturbation. Here we study protein-protein dissociation and reassociation dynamics in insulin, a model system for protein oligomerization. Insulin dimer dissociation into monomers was induced by a nanosecond temperature-jump (T-jump) of ~8 °C in aqueous solution, and the resulting protein and solvent dynamics were tracked by time-resolved X-ray solution scattering (TRXSS) on time scales of 10 ns to 100 ms. The protein scattering signals revealed the formation of five distinguishable transient species during the association process that deviate from simple two state kinetics. Our results show that the combination of T-jump pump coupled to TRXSS probe allows for direct tracking of structural dynamics in nonphotoactive proteins.

  12. Structure-activity relationships of heterogeneous catalysts from time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ressler, T.; Jentoft, R.E.; Wienold, J.; Girgsdies, F.; Neisius, T.; Timpe, O.

    2003-01-01

    Knowing the composition and the evolution of the bulk structure of a heterogeneous catalyst under working conditions (in situ) is a pre-requisite for understanding structure-activity relationships. X-ray absorption spectroscopy can be employed to study a catalytically active material in situ. In addition to steady-state investigations, the technique permits experiments with a time-resolution in the sub-second range to elucidate the solid-state kinetics of the reactions involved. Combined with mass spectrometry, the evolution of the short-range order structure of a heterogeneous catalyst, the average valence of the constituent metals, and the phase composition can be obtained. Here we present results obtained from time-resolved studies on the reduction of MoO 3 in propene and in propene and oxygen

  13. Spatially and temporally resolved x-ray emission from imploding laser fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, D.T.; Coleman, L.W.; Boyle, M.J.; Phillion, D.W.; Swain, J.E.; Manes, K.R.; Larsen, J.T.

    1976-09-01

    The Livermore 15 psec x-ray streak camera has been used in conjunction with 6 μm diameter pinholes to record well resolved implosion histories of DT filled laser fusion targets. The space-time compression data provide clearly identified implosion velocities, typically 3 x 10 7 cm/sec for two-sided clamshell irradiation of a 70 μm/sup D/, .5 μm wall DT filled glass microshell. Single-sided irradiation results show hydrodynamic convergence at the target center, followed by an asymmetric but two-sided target disassembly. These experiments were performed at the two arm Janus Laser facility, which typically delivered a total of 0.4 TW in a 70 psec pulse for these experiments

  14. Excitation-resolved cone-beam x-ray luminescence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Liao, Qimei; Wang, Hongkai; Yan, Zhuangzhi

    2015-07-01

    Cone-beam x-ray luminescence computed tomography (CB-XLCT), as an emerging imaging technique, plays an important role in in vivo small animal imaging studies. However, CB-XLCT suffers from low-spatial resolution due to the ill-posed nature of reconstruction. We improve the imaging performance of CB-XLCT by using a multiband excitation-resolved imaging scheme combined with principal component analysis. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the physical phantom experiment is performed with a custom-made XLCT/XCT imaging system. The experimental results validate the feasibility of the method, where two adjacent nanophosphors (with an edge-to-edge distance of 2.4 mm) can be located.

  15. Application of the X-ray fluorescence analysis and X-ray diffraction in geochemical studies of the Pleistocene tills from Holy Cross Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Ludwikowska-Kedzia, M.; Banaś, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.; Wudarczyk-Moćko, J.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis methods (wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (WDXRF) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF)) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) have been applied in complementary geochemical studies of the Pleistocene till samples. The XRPD technique gave information about the mineral composition of the analyzed samples while the WDXRF and TXRF studies allowed the fast elemental analysis. The till samples were collected from different regions of Holy Cross Mountains (located in central Poland) which are still not unambiguously described in the context of the geochemical studies of the Quaternary sediments. The analysis was concentrated on the geochemical composition of the till samples both for materials occurring on the surface (characterized by continuous weathering processes) and for samples taken from core borehole. The overriding purpose of these studies is determination of the local lithotype of the tills and its lithologic and petrographic diagnostic properties, including the chemical composition of clay and minerals found in the clay. In the presented work the experimental sets up, sample preparation procedure and measurements programme will be discussed in details. Finally, the elemental and mineral compositions will be presented for studied different groups of the samples. - Highlights: • XRF analysis and X-ray diffraction used in studies of the till samples. • The till samples were collected from different regions of Holy Cross Mountains. • The analysis concentrates both on the samples from surface and from core borehole. • The purpose is determination of the local lithotype of the tills. • The experimental setup, sample preparation, measurements and results are discussed

  16. Use of planar HPGe detector as a part of X-ray fluorescent spectrometer for educational purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verenchikova, M.S.; Kalinin, V.N.; Mikhajlov, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    This work shows the possibility of use of the nondedicated gamma and X-ray detection head on the basis of planar HPGe detector with a big sensitive area equal to 2000 mm''2 as a part of X-ray fluorescent spectrometer during students' practicum.

  17. Simulation study of two-energy X-ray fluorescence holograms reconstruction algorithm to remove twin images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Honglan; Hu Wen; Luo Hongxin; Deng Biao; Du Guohao; Xue Yanling; Chen Rongchang; Shi Shaomeng; Xiao Tiqiao

    2008-01-01

    Unlike traditional outside-source holography, X-ray fluorescence holography is carded out with fluorescent atoms in a sample as source light for holographic imaging. With the method, three-dimensional arrangement of atoms into crystals can be observed obviously. However, just like traditional outside-source holography, X-ray fluorescence holography suffers from the inherent twin-image problem, too. With a 27-Fe-atoms cubic lattice as model, we discuss in this paper influence of the photon energy of incident source in removing twin images in reconstructed atomic images by numerical simulation and reconstruction with two-energy X-ray fluorescence holography. The results indicate that incident X-rays of nearer energies have better effect of removing twin images. In the detector of X-ray holography, minimum difference of the two incident energies depends on energy resolution of the monochromator and detector, and for inside source X-ray holography, minimum difference of the two incident energies depends on difference of two neighboring fluorescent energies emitting from the element and energy resolution of detector. The spatial resolution of atomic images increases with the incident energies. This is important for experiments of X-ray fluorescence holography, which is being developed on Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. (authors)

  18. Characterization of uranium in bituminized radioactive waste drums by self-induced X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, Patrick; Perot, Bertrand

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports the experimental qualification of an original uranium characterization method based on fluorescence X rays induced by the spontaneous gamma emission of bituminized radioactive waste drums. The main 661.7 keV gamma ray following the 137 Cs decay produces by Compton scattering in the bituminized matrix an intense photon continuum around 100 keV, i.e. in the uranium X-ray fluorescence region. 'Self-induced' X-rays produced without using an external source allow a quantitative assessment of uranium as 137 Cs and uranium are homogeneously mixed and distributed in the bituminized matrix. The paper presents the experimental qualification of the method with real waste drums, showing a detection limit well below 1 kg of uranium in 20 min acquisitions while the usual gamma rays of 235 U (185 keV) or 238 U (1001 keV of 234m Pa in the radioactive decay chain) are not detected. The relative uncertainty on the uranium mass assessed by self-induced X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) is about 50%, with a 95% confidence level, taking into account the correction of photon attenuation in the waste matrix. This last indeed contains high atomic numbers elements like uranium, but also barium, in quantities which are not known for each drum. Attenuation is estimated thanks to the peak-to-Compton ratio to limit the corresponding uncertainty. The SXRF uranium masses measured in the real drums are in good agreement with long gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements (1001 keV peak) or with radiochemical analyses. (authors)

  19. Feasibility study for the in vivo measurement of lead in bone using L-x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielopolski, L.; Slatkin, D.N.; Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1980-01-01

    Lead deposits in bone were detected by x-ray fluorescence using x-rays from either a 125 I or a 109 Cd source. Measurements were taken from tibia in intact human legs, post-mortem. On the basis of preliminary measurements, it was concluded that an exposure of one rad is adequate for determination of lead in bone. Both the advantages and the disadvantages of L-x-rays, used in the technique developed for this study, are compared with those of K-x-rays

  20. Analysis of Precious Stones Deposited in Various Rock Samples of Mogok Region by energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyi Kyi San; Soe Lwin; Win Win Thar; Sein Htoon

    2004-06-01

    The analysis of precious stones deposited in various rock samples of Mogok region were investigated by the energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique. The x-ray machine with Rh target was used to excite the characteristic x-ray from the sample. X-rays emitted from the sample were measured by a high resolution, cooled Si (Li) detector. The calibration was made by the measurement of minerals which composed in each kind of precious stones. The kind of precious stone deposited in the rocks sample was determined by the measurement of minerals from the rock samples compared with those obtained from each kind of precious stones

  1. A note on the assay of special nuclear materials in solution by x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada, T.R.; Hsue, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a formulation that allows empirical results of the ''internal standard'' approach to be understood in a quantifiable manner, and suggests an alternative measurement procedure that removes many of the technique's undesirable features while maintaining those that add to instrumental accuracy. Assumes that the reader is familiar with x-ray fluorescence (XRF) technology. Promises a more detailed presentation, including proof-of-principle experimental results, in the future. Points out that practical applications of this approach may be achieved with both K- and L-x-ray fluorescence. Concludes that the formulation and alternative measurement procedure suggested indicates that the ''internal standard'' approach may be improved by making measurements at one or more additional x-ray energies of the element to be assayed. Effects of solution acidity variations and the relative concentrations of plutonium and uranium may be avoided. Because of the inherent stability of ratio techniques, little or no modification to this formulation is anticipated for cylindrical near-field geometries

  2. Dose distribution calculation for in-vivo X-ray fluorescence scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, R. G.; Lozano, E.; Valente, M.

    2013-01-01

    In-vivo X-ray fluorescence constitutes a useful and accurate technique, worldwide established for constituent elementary distribution assessment. Actually, concentration distributions of arbitrary user-selected elements can be achieved along sample surface with the aim of identifying and simultaneously quantifying every constituent element. The method is based on the use of a collimated X-ray beam reaching the sample. However, one common drawback for considering the application of this technique for routine clinical examinations was the lack of information about associated dose delivery. This work presents a complete study of the dose distribution resulting from an in-vivo X-ray fluorescence scanning for quantifying biohazard materials on human hands. Absorbed dose has been estimated by means of dosimetric models specifically developed to this aim. In addition, complete dose distributions have been obtained by means of full radiation transport calculations in based on stochastic Monte Carlo techniques. A dedicated subroutine has been developed using the Penelope 2008 main code also integrated with dedicated programs -Mat Lab supported- for 3 dimensional dose distribution visualization. The obtained results show very good agreement between approximate analytical models and full descriptions by means of Monte Carlo simulations. (Author)

  3. Determination of minor and trace elements in kidney stones by x-ray fluorescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anjali; Heisinger, Brianne J.; Sinha, Vaibhav; Lee, Hyong-Koo; Liu, Xin; Qu, Mingliang; Duan, Xinhui; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2014-03-01

    The determination of accurate material composition of a kidney stone is crucial for understanding the formation of the kidney stone as well as for preventive therapeutic strategies. Radiations probing instrumental activation analysis techniques are excellent tools for identification of involved materials present in the kidney stone. In particular, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) can be very useful for the determination of minor and trace materials in the kidney stone. The X-ray fluorescence measurements were performed at the Radiation Measurements and Spectroscopy Laboratory (RMSL) of department of nuclear engineering of Missouri University of Science and Technology and different kidney stones were acquired from the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Presently, experimental studies in conjunction with analytical techniques were used to determine the exact composition of the kidney stone. A new type of experimental set-up was developed and utilized for XRF analysis of the kidney stone. The correlation of applied radiation source intensity, emission of X-ray spectrum from involving elements and absorption coefficient characteristics were analyzed. To verify the experimental results with analytical calculation, several sets of kidney stones were analyzed using XRF technique. The elements which were identified from this techniques are Silver (Ag), Arsenic (As), Bromine (Br), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Gallium (Ga), Germanium (Ge), Molybdenum (Mo), Niobium (Nb), Rubidium (Rb), Selenium (Se), Strontium (Sr), Yttrium (Y), Zirconium (Zr). This paper presents a new approach for exact detection of accurate material composition of kidney stone materials using XRF instrumental activation analysis technique.

  4. A new method for x-ray fluorescence analysis of contaminated material. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzins, Lee; Niland, John

    2002-01-01

    Niton has successfully completed the objectives of the Phase II program to build a hand-held, x-ray fluorescent analyzer optimized for DOE decontamination and decommissioning activities in the field. A two-pound x-ray fluorescence analyzer was developed that contains 3 radioactive sources, emitting 3 widely spaced monochromatic x-rays, to give the lowest detection limits for the full range of toxic elements, from chromium to plutonium. A rapid, fundamental- parameters algorithm was developed that yields quantitative results in less than 1 second. High-resolution silicon drift detectors and silicon PIN diodes give excellent efficiency and speed. These results from Phase II have been introduced into the XL 300, 700 and 800 commercial products series. More than 800 of these instruments, yielding revenues of more than $20 million dollars, have been sold since the first 3-source instrument was introduced in 1998. A direct consequence of the Phase II funding has been the growth of Niton from 20 people to its present size of 60

  5. Fluorescent X-ray computed tomography using synchrotron radiation for imaging nonradioactive tracer materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, Masahiro; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Uchida, Akira; Akatsuka, Takao [Yamagata Univ., Yonezawa (Japan). Electrical and Information of Engineering; Takeda, Tohoru; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Itai, Yuji

    1997-09-01

    We describe a system of fluorescent X-ray computed tomography using synchrotron radiation (SR-FXCT) to image nonradioactive contrast materials. The system operates on the basis of computed tomography (CT) scanned by the pencil beam. In the previous experiment, we have imaged an acrylic cylindrical phantom with cross-shaped channel, filled with a diluted iodine-based tracer material of 200 {mu}g/ml. This research is aimed to improve image quality, to select the optimum energy of the incident X-ray, to confirm quantitative evaluation of the image, and to demonstrate FXCT image for living body. First, we simulated output energy profile by the Monte Carlo simulation and confirmed to predetermine the incident X-ray energy at 37 keV, in order to separate the fluorescent photons from background scattering components. Next, the imaging experiment was performed by using conventional CT algorithm under the optimum parameter at the Tristan Accumulation Ring, KEK, Japan. An acrylic phantom containing five paraxial channels of 5 and 4 mm in diameter, could be imaged; where each channel was respectively filled with diluted iodine-based contrast materials of 50, 100, 200 and 500 {mu}g/ml. From the reconstructed image, we confirmed quantitativity in the FXCT image. Finally, a rat`s brain was imaged in vitro by FXCT and monochromatic transmission CT. The comparison between these results showed that the iodine-rich region in the FXCT image corresponded with that in the monochromatic transmission CT image. (author)

  6. A new method for x-ray fluorescence analysis of contaminated material. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grodzins, Lee; Niland, John

    2002-05-23

    Niton has successfully completed the objectives of the Phase II program to build a hand-held, x-ray fluorescent analyzer optimized for DOE decontamination and decommissioning activities in the field. A two-pound x-ray fluorescence analyzer was developed that contains 3 radioactive sources, emitting 3 widely spaced monochromatic x-rays, to give the lowest detection limits for the full range of toxic elements, from chromium to plutonium. A rapid, fundamental- parameters algorithm was developed that yields quantitative results in less than 1 second. High-resolution silicon drift detectors and silicon PIN diodes give excellent efficiency and speed. These results from Phase II have been introduced into the XL 300, 700 and 800 commercial products series. More than 800 of these instruments, yielding revenues of more than $20 million dollars, have been sold since the first 3-source instrument was introduced in 1998. A direct consequence of the Phase II funding has been the growth of Niton from 20 people to its present size of 60.

  7. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy technology applied to the materials elementary characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marambio A, Cristian Gilberto.

    1997-01-01

    A thorough study of the different applications of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry is presented, using different excitation sources and measurement geometries. The adaptation of these systems focuses on the analytical solution for different sample types by studying distinct parameters such as: volume of saturation for liquid samples, inter elemental effects from the matrix and the interferences associated with the measurement reading statistical parameters: as reproducibility, precision and detection limits. The application of the technique using radioisotopic sources gave satisfactory results in the analysis of geologic samples, in analytical control of concentration processes for rare earths and for the manufacturing of fuel elements. In the case of a system with an x-ray generator two measurement geometries were studied: 45 deg geometry and total reflection. There were major results in the analysis of polymer impurities and alloy impurities, aluminums and thin semiconductor films, respectively, after non destructive in situ analysis of the material. The results show that x-ray fluorescence spectrometry is a powerful tool for analysis and process control, with prospects for the solution of analytical problems in the materials area. (author)

  8. Measurement of plutonium in spent nuclear fuel by self-induced x-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Andrew S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rudy, Cliff R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Steve J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Charlton, William S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stafford, A [TEXAS A& M; Strohmeyer, D [TEXAS A& M; Saavadra, S [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Direct measurement of the plutonium content in spent nuclear fuel is a challenging problem in non-destructive assay. The very high gamma-ray flux from fission product isotopes overwhelms the weaker gamma-ray emissions from plutonium and uranium, making passive gamma-ray measurements impossible. However, the intense fission product radiation is effective at exciting plutonium and uranium atoms, resulting in subsequent fluorescence X-ray emission. K-shell X-rays in the 100 keV energy range can escape the fuel and cladding, providing a direct signal from uranium and plutonium that can be measured with a standard germanium detector. The measured plutonium to uranium elemental ratio can be used to compute the plutonium content of the fuel. The technique can potentially provide a passive, non-destructive assay tool for determining plutonium content in spent fuel. In this paper, we discuss recent non-destructive measurements of plutonium X-ray fluorescence (XRF) signatures from pressurized water reactor spent fuel rods. We also discuss how emerging new technologies, like very high energy resolution microcalorimeter detectors, might be applied to XRF measurements.

  9. Application of X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF): thickness and chemical composition determination of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Valdirene de Oliveira.

    2004-01-01

    In this work a procedure is described for thickness and quantitative chemical composition of thin films by wavelength dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) using Fundamental Parameters method. This method was validated according to quality assurance standard and applied sample Al, Cr, TiO2, Ni, ZrO2 (single thickness) and Ni/Cr (double thickness) on glass; Ni on steel and metallic zinc and TiO2 on metallic iron (single thickness), all the sample were prepared for physical deposition of vapor (PVD). The thickness had been compared with Absorption (FRX-A) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) methods; the result showed good efficiency of the fundamental parameters method. Sample structural characteristics analyzed by X ray diffraction (XRD) showed any influence in the thickness determinations. (author)

  10. The studies of post-medieval glass by multivariate and X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kierzek, J.; Kunicki-Goldfinger, J.

    2002-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis of the results obtained by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis has been used in the study of baroque vessel glasses originated from central Europe. X-ray spectrometry can be applied as a completely non-destructive, non-sampling and multi-element method. It is very useful in the studies of valuable historical artefacts. For the last years, multivariate statistical analysis has been developed as an important tool for the archaeometric purposes. Cluster, principal component and discriminant analysis were applied for the classification of the examined objects. The obtained results show that these statistical tools are very useful and complementary in the studies of historical objects. (author)

  11. Metals determination in wood treated by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel da Silva; Tomazello Filho, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the use of X-Ray fluorescence analysis for distribution and quantification of metals in the hardwood (Eucalyptus sp) and softwood (Pinus sp) treated with CCA (copper-chromium-arsenic). The sapwood/heartwood for hardwood sample and the growth-rings for softwood sample were analyzed. The samples were scanned in 320 mm steps in the vertical direction. For excitation of the elements a white beam synchrotron radiation of ∼ 320 x 180 mm was employed and for the X-ray detection a Si(Li) semiconductor detector. The elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn and As were determined. Fundamental parameters were used to quantify the elements concentrations. (author)

  12. Thin coating thickness determination using radioisotope-excited x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Castillo, Lorena A.; Calix, Virginia S.

    2001-01-01

    Three different approaches on thin coating thickness determination using a radioisotope-excited x-ray fluorescence spectrometry were demonstrated and results were compared. A standard of thin layer of gold (Au) on a nickel (Ni) substrate from the US National Bureau of Standards (with a nominal thickness of 0.300505 microns of at least 99.9% Au electrodeposited over 2 nils of Ni) on low carbon steel (1010) was analyzed using a Cd 109-excited XRF system. Au thickness computations were done using the (a) thin standard approach, (b) thick standard approach, and (c) x-ray absorption method (ASTM A754-79 1982). These three methods yielded results within the limit set by the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM), which is +/-3%. Of the three methods, the thick standard yielded the best result with 0.124% error. (Author)

  13. Physical aspects of quantitative particles analysis by X-ray fluorescence and electron microprobe techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowicz, A.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present both physical fundamentals and recent advances in quantitative particles analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and electron microprobe (EPXMA) techniques. A method of correction for the particle-size effect in XRF analysis is described and theoretically evaluated. New atomic number- and absorption correction procedures in EPXMA of individual particles are proposed. The applicability of these two correction methods is evaluated for a wide range of elemental composition, X-ray energy and sample thickness. Also, a theoretical model for composition and thickness dependence of Bremsstrahlung background generated in multielement bulk specimens as well as thin films and particles are presented and experimantally evaluated. Finally, the limitations and further possible improvements in quantitative particles analysis by XFR and EPXMA are discussed. 109 refs. (author)

  14. Determination of low concentrations of thorium in granites using X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, H.M.; Sato, I.M.; Iyer, S.S.

    1981-03-01

    An analytical method for the accurate determination of low concentrations of thorium in rocks using X-ray fluorescence technique, was developed. A tungsten tube was utilized for the production of X-rays. The samples were prepared in the form of double layer pressed pellets using boric acid as a binding agent. The concentration of thorium was determined by measuring the intensity of the characteristic first order Th L α line. The calibration was carried out with USGS rock standards AGV-1, GSP-1 and G-2. Seven granite rocks samples from Granite Mountains of Wyoming, USA, supplied by Dr. Stuckless. Also were analysed. The results obtained were compared with values obtained in others laboratories using different analytical methods. The analyses show that the thorium is concentrated in accessory minerals and presented a non-uniform distribution, making sampling an important factor in the analysis of thorium. A discussion of the precision and accuracy of the method is presented. (Author) [pt

  15. Elemental investigation on Spanish dinosaur bones by x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetti, Antonio; Golosio, Bruno; Stegel, Giovanni; Piga, Giampaolo; Lasio, Barbara; Oliva, Piernicola; Enzo, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine the chemical composition results obtained on a collection of 18 dinosaur fossil bones from Spain studied using a portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer together with a reverse Monte Carlo numerical technique of data analysis. This approach is applied to the hypothesis of arbitrarily rough surfaces in order to account for the influence of the surface state of specimens on the chemical content evaluation. It is confirmed that the chemical content of elements is essential for understanding the changes brought about by diagenetic and taphonomic processes. However, for precise knowledge of what changes fossil bones have undergone after animal life and burial, it is necessary to use a multi-technique approach making use of other instruments like x-ray diffraction in order to describe accurately the transformations undergone by the mineralogical and bioinorganic phases and the properties of specific molecular groups. (paper)

  16. A wavelet-based Gaussian method for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a wavelet-based Gaussian method (WGM for the peak intensity estimation of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF. The relationship between the parameters of Gaussian curve and the wavelet coefficients of Gaussian peak point is firstly established based on the Mexican hat wavelet. It is found that the Gaussian parameters can be accurately calculated by any two wavelet coefficients at the peak point which has to be known. This fact leads to a local Gaussian estimation method for spectral peaks, which estimates the Gaussian parameters based on the detail wavelet coefficients of Gaussian peak point. The proposed method is tested via simulated and measured spectra from an energy X-ray spectrometer, and compared with some existing methods. The results prove that the proposed method can directly estimate the peak intensity of EDXRF free from the background information, and also effectively distinguish overlap peaks in EDXRF spectrum.

  17. Metals determination in wood treated by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Silva, Richard Maximiliano da Cunha [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: maxcunha@cena.usp.br; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel da Silva; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]. E-mail: jeangm@esalq.usp.br; mtomazel@esalq.usp.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Barroso, Regina Cely [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2005-07-01

    The paper describes the use of X-Ray fluorescence analysis for distribution and quantification of metals in the hardwood (Eucalyptus sp) and softwood (Pinus sp) treated with CCA (copper-chromium-arsenic). The sapwood/heartwood for hardwood sample and the growth-rings for softwood sample were analyzed. The samples were scanned in 320 mm steps in the vertical direction. For excitation of the elements a white beam synchrotron radiation of {approx} 320 x 180 mm was employed and for the X-ray detection a Si(Li) semiconductor detector. The elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn and As were determined. Fundamental parameters were used to quantify the elements concentrations. (author)

  18. Radiography imaging of cultural heritage obtained with a modified portable X-Ray Fluorescence System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Cuevas, Ariadna; Velazquez Maldonado, Luis Ramon

    2011-01-01

    The sufficiency of imaging quality of the radiographies obtained with a modified portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was evaluated for the study of cultural heritage. The proposed instrument use an X-ray tube with Pd anode (2 mm) that allows a maximum voltage and current of 50 kV and 1 mA respectively and a collimation system permit to irradiate a square shape region in the analyzed object by the projection of light beam with the same shape on its surface. The spatial resolution of the obtained radiographic image make possible to localize and well define pentimenti in painting, identify filling materials in a painting under restoration process, the radiogrametry of archaeological bone and the identification of a petrified sphere from an archaeological discovery. The radiographic analysis is proposed for study of physical anthropology in Cuba. (author)

  19. Reverse engineering the ancient ceramic technology based on X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciau, Philippe; Leon, Yoanna; Goudeau, Philippe; Fakra, Sirine C.; Webb, Sam; Mehta, Apurva

    2011-07-06

    We present results of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe analyses of ancient ceramic cross-sections aiming at deciphering the different firing protocols used for their production. Micro-focused XRF elemental mapping, Fe chemical mapping and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy were performed on pre-sigillata ceramics from southern Gaul, and terra Sigillata vessels from Italy and southern Gaul. Pieces from the different workshops and regions showed significant difference in the starting clay material, clay conditioning and kiln firing condition. By contrast, sherds from the same workshop exhibited more subtle differences and possible misfirings. Understanding the precise firing conditions and protocols would allow recreation of kilns for various productions. Furthermore, evolution and modification of kiln design would shed some light on how ancient potters devised solutions to diverse technological problems they encountered.

  20. Quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis at the ESRF ID18F microprobe

    CERN Document Server

    Vekemans, B; Somogyi, A; Drakopoulos, M; Kempenaers, L; Simionovici, A; Adams, F

    2003-01-01

    The new ID18F end-station at the European synchrotron radiation facility (ESRF) in Grenoble (France) is dedicated to sensitive and accurate quantitative micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis at the ppm level with accuracy better than 10% for elements with atomic numbers above 18. For accurate quantitative analysis, given a high level of instrumental stability, major steps are the extraction and conversion of experimental X-ray line intensities into elemental concentrations. For this purpose a two-step quantification approach was adopted. In the first step, the collected XRF spectra are deconvoluted on the basis of a non-linear least-squares fitting algorithm (AXIL). The extracted characteristic line intensities are then used as input for a detailed Monte Carlo (MC) simulation code dedicated to XRF spectroscopy taking into account specific experimental conditions (excitation/detection) as well as sample characteristics (absorption and enhancement effects, sample topology, heterogeneity etc.). The iterative u...