WorldWideScience

Sample records for resolved compact regions

  1. Resolvability of regional density structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonka, A.; Fichtner, A.

    2016-12-01

    Lateral density variations are the source of mass transport in the Earth at all scales, acting as drivers of convectivemotion. However, the density structure of the Earth remains largely unknown since classic seismic observables and gravityprovide only weak constraints with strong trade-offs. Current density models are therefore often based on velocity scaling,making strong assumptions on the origin of structural heterogeneities, which may not necessarily be correct. Our goal is to assessif 3D density structure may be resolvable with emerging full-waveform inversion techniques. We have previously quantified the impact of regional-scale crustal density structure on seismic waveforms with the conclusion that reasonably sized density variations within thecrust can leave a strong imprint on both travel times and amplitudes, and, while this can produce significant biases in velocity and Q estimates, the seismic waveform inversion for density may become feasible. In this study we performprincipal component analyses of sensitivity kernels for P velocity, S velocity, and density. This is intended to establish theextent to which these kernels are linearly independent, i.e. the extent to which the different parameters may be constrainedindependently. Since the density imprint we observe is not exclusively linked to travel times and amplitudes of specific phases,we consider waveform differences between complete seismograms. We test the method using a known smooth model of the crust and seismograms with clear Love and Rayleigh waves, showing that - as expected - the first principal kernel maximizes sensitivity to SH and SV velocity structure, respectively, and that the leakage between S velocity, P velocity and density parameter spaces is minimal in the chosen setup. Next, we apply the method to data from 81 events around the Iberian Penninsula, registered in total by 492 stations. The objective is to find a principal kernel which would maximize the sensitivity to density

  2. Searching for Compact Radio Sources Associated with UCH ii Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masqué, Josep M.; Trinidad, Miguel A.; Rodríguez-Rico, Carlos A. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Guanajuato, Apdo. Postal 144, 36000 Guanajuato, México (Mexico); Rodríguez, Luis F.; Kurtz, Stan; Loinard, Laurent [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58089, México (Mexico); Dzib, Sergio A. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2017-02-10

    Ultra-compact (UC)H ii regions represent a very early stage of massive star formation. The structure and evolution of these regions are not yet fully understood. Interferometric observations showed in recent years that compact sources of uncertain nature are associated with some UCH ii regions. To examine this, we carried out VLA 1.3 cm observations in the A configuration of selected UCH ii regions in order to report additional cases of compact sources embedded in UCH ii regions. With these observations, we find 13 compact sources that are associated with 9 UCH ii regions. Although we cannot establish an unambiguous nature for the newly detected sources, we assess some of their observational properties. According to the results, we can distinguish between two types of compact sources. One type corresponds to sources that are probably deeply embedded in the dense ionized gas of the UCH ii region. These sources are photoevaporated by the exciting star of the region and will last for 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5} years. They may play a crucial role in the evolution of the UCH ii region as the photoevaporated material could replenish the expanding plasma and might provide a solution to the so-called lifetime problem of these regions. The second type of compact sources is not associated with the densest ionized gas of the region. A few of these sources appear resolved and may be photoevaporating objects such as those of the first type, but with significantly lower mass depletion rates. The remaining sources of this second type appear unresolved, and their properties are varied. We speculate on the similarity between the sources of the second type and those of the Orion population of radio sources.

  3. Social Compacts in Regional and Global Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2009-01-01

    the impact of global restructuring on labour and social conditions. Examples of the distributional consequences and resulting inequality, poverty, and unemployment are provided. This process has had an important impact on the emergence of reactive regional social compacts based on various forms of negotiated...

  4. Compact cryogenic Kerr microscope for time-resolved studies of electron spin transport in microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizo, P. J.; Pugzlys, A.; Liu, J.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.; van der Wal, C. H.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.; Pugžlys, A.

    2008-01-01

    A compact cryogenic Kerr microscope for operation in the small volume of high-field magnets is described. It is suited for measurements both in Voigt and Faraday configurations. Coupled with a pulsed laser source, the microscope is used to measure the time-resolved Kerr rotation response of

  5. Infrared study of seven possible compact H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibille, F.; Lunel, M.; Bergeat, J.

    1976-01-01

    We report observations of seven possible compact H II regions in the infrared with the hydrogen spectrum in order to derive extinction and emission measures. The emission measure is compared with available radio data. For two sources, agreement is found between radio and infrared data. Infrared excess is found in four sources, its origin is discussed. Two sources cannot be interpreted as compact H II regions. (orig.) [de

  6. Compact Starburst Galaxies with Fast Outflows: Spatially Resolved Stellar Mass Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sophia; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar; Lipscomb, Charles; Ohene, Senyo; Rines, Josh; Moustakas, John; Sell, Paul; Tremonti, Christy; Coil, Alison; Rudnick, Gregory; Hickox, Ryan C.; Geach, James; Kepley, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    Powerful galactic winds driven by stellar feedback and black hole accretion are thought to play an important role in regulating star formation in galaxies. In particular, strong stellar feedback from supernovae, stellar winds, radiation pressure, and cosmic rays is required by simulations of star-forming galaxies to prevent the vast majority of baryons from cooling and collapsing to form stars. However, it remains unclear whether these stellar processes play a significant role in expelling gas and shutting down star formation in massive progenitors of quiescent galaxies. What are the limits of stellar feedback? We present multi-band photometry with HST/WFC3 (F475W, F814W, F160W) for a dozen compact starburst galaxies at z~0.6 with half-light radii that suggest incredibly large central escape velocities. These massive galaxies are driving fast (>1000 km/s) outflows that have been previously attributed to stellar feedback associated with the compact (r~100 pc) starburst. But how compact is the stellar mass? In the context of the stellar feedback hypothesis, it is unclear whether these fast outflows are being driven at velocities comparable to the escape velocity of an incredibly dense stellar system (as predicted by some models of radiation-pressure winds) or at velocities that exceed the central escape velocity by large factor. Our spatially resolved measurements with HST show that the stellar mass is more extended than the light, and this requires that the physical mechanism responsible for driving the winds must be able to launch gas at velocities that are factors of 5-10 beyond the central escape velocity.

  7. Aperture synthesis observations of recombination lines from compact HII regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorkom, J.H. van.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis describes a continuation of early attempts to attain a high spectral dynamic range in general and to study recombination lines from compact HII regions in particular. These observations are made with the WSRT, until recently, the only instrument with sufficient angular resolution and sensitivity to provide at 6 cm detailed line maps of compact HII regions. An investigation into the spectral stability of the WSRT is described. Chromatic errors were found and their effects on maps are shown. These errors were found in the 80 channel filter spectrometer which was still in use at that time. The advent of the digital line backend (DLB) improved the dynamic range by an order of magnitude. An experiment is described which was partially aimed at testing the spectral stability of the DLB. It concerns a search for HI emission from the high velocity system of NGC 1275. Recombination line observations of the compact components in five giant HII regions are presented. The author discusses the radiative transfer problem in recombination lines and shows that non-LTE effects and pressure broadening can be of importance in compact HII regions. Observations obtained with the DLB are also presented. Because of the much better instrumental quality and improved insight into calibration procedures, mapping the H110α emission of DR21 and both the H110α and H166α emission of W3 was succeeded. (Auth.)

  8. Construction, characterization and applications of a compact mass-resolved low-energy ion beam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, W.M.; Feng, X.; Bello, I.; Sant, S.; Foo, K.K.; Lawson, R.P.W.

    1991-01-01

    A compact mass-resolved low-energy ion beam system has been constructed in which ions are extracted from a Colutron ion source, focused by an einzel lens, mass-selected by a Wien filter, refocused by a second einzel lens into an ultrahigh vacuum target chamber, and finally decelerated with a five-electrode lens. The design of the deceleration lens was assisted by computer simulation including space-charge effects with an ion trajectory software (CHDEN). The system performance has been characterized with a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an energy analyzer along the beam axis. For example, argon ions can be transported at keV and decelerated to 10 eV with an energy spread of ±0.5 eV. The total current measured by a Faraday cage at the exit of the deceleration lens in the energy range of 10-200 eV is about 1-5 μA. The ion current density was higher than 100 μA/cm 2 at 50 eV but decreased to 10-20 μA/cm 2 at 10 eV. The mass resolution was estimated to be 40 under the present operation configuration. The system has been used to produce interesting results in both ion beam etching and deposition. (orig.)

  9. Simulations of the temporal and spatial resolution for a compact time-resolved electron diffractometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Matthew S.; Lane, Paul D.; Wann, Derek A.

    2016-02-01

    A novel compact electron gun for use in time-resolved gas electron diffraction experiments has recently been designed and commissioned. In this paper we present and discuss the extensive simulations that were performed to underpin the design in terms of the spatial and temporal qualities of the pulsed electron beam created by the ionisation of a gold photocathode using a femtosecond laser. The response of the electron pulses to a solenoid lens used to focus the electron beam has also been studied. The simulated results show that focussing the electron beam affects the overall spatial and temporal resolution of the experiment in a variety of ways, and that factors that improve the resolution of one parameter can often have a negative effect on the other. A balance must, therefore, be achieved between spatial and temporal resolution. The optimal experimental time resolution for the apparatus is predicted to be 416 fs for studies of gas-phase species, while the predicted spatial resolution of better than 2 nm-1 compares well with traditional time-averaged electron diffraction set-ups.

  10. Resolving a protracted refugee situation through a regional process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Mitrovic

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Protracted refugee situations are usually a result of political deadlock, and their resolution demands the involvement of a range of actors and a multifaceted approach focused on leveraging political will. Despite its shortcomings, the Regional Process in the Western Balkans offers a number of lessons for resolving such situations.

  11. Site development in the Central Midwest Compact Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lash, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    Illinois and Kentucky, the two members of the Central Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact, are well along in fulfilling their responsibility to provide new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal capacity, which has been delegated to states and regions by federal law. The host state for facilities under the compact will be Illinois, and thus the focus of this paper is on Illinois' siting process. Illinois has both the statutory authority for LLW management and a cabinet-level agency, the Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS), which has the responsibility for implementing the state management act. Based on activities to date, the Central Midwest Region expects to meet the milestones established by the federal Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. Illinois, however, cannot take further progress toward managing and disposing of our LLW for granted. IDNS and the Central Midwest Compact Commission (CMCC) must continue vigorously to press ahead to assure timely development of new disposal capacity. This paper provides background information on (1) the laws under which new facilities will be established in the Central Midwest Region, (2) the activities of IDNS and CMCC, and (3) planned activities by both IDNS and the CMCC

  12. Mixed waste management in Washington and the Northwest Compact Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The state of Washington's concerns about the management of mixed waste have evolved over the past year. One concern that receives increasing attention is the Northwest Compact Region's need to plan for disposal of its own mixed waste. An informal survey of the region's potential mixed waste generators has indicated that mixed waste volumes are low. However, the opening of a disposal facility may result in increased waste volumes. A preliminary proposal for such a facility has been reviewed by the federal and state agencies that dually regulate mixed waste. Initial conclusions reached by the regulators are presented

  13. Risk assessment of soil compaction in Walloon Region (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlotte, Rosiere; Marie-France, Destain; Jean-Claude, Verbrugge

    2010-05-01

    The proposed Soil Framework Directive COM(2006)232 requires Member States to identify areas at risk of erosion, decline in organic matter, salinisation, compaction, sealing and landslides, as well as to set up an inventory of contaminated sites. The present project aims to identify the susceptibility to compaction of soils of the Walloon Region (Belgium) and to recommend good farming practices avoiding soil compaction as far as possible. Within this scope, the concept of precompression stress (Pc) (Horn and Fleige, 2003) was used. Pc is defined as the maximum major principal stress that a soil horizon can withstand against any applied external vertical stress. If applied stress is higher than Pc, the soil enters in a plastic state, not easily reversible. For a given soil, the intensity of soil compaction is mainly due to the applied load which depends on vehicle characteristics (axle load, tyre dimensions, tyre inflation pressure, and vehicle velocity). To determine soil precompression stress, pedotransfert functions of Lebert and Horn (1991) defined at two water suctions (pF 1.8 and 2.5) were used. Parameters required by these functions were found within several databases (Aardewerk and Digital Map of Walloon Soils) and literature. The validation of Pc was performed by measuring stress-strain relationships using automatic oedometers. Stresses of 15.6, 31, 3, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 kPa were applied for 10 min each. In this study, the compaction due to beet harvesters was considered because the axle load can exceed 10 tons and these machines are often used during wet conditions. The compaction at two depth levels was considered: 30 and 50 cm. Compaction of topsoil was not taken into account because, under conventional tillage, the plough depth is lower than 25 cm. Before and after the passage of the machines, following measurements were performed: granulometry, density, soil moisture, pF curve, Atterberg limits, ... The software Soilflex (Keller et al., 2007

  14. Evidence for compact cooperatively rearranging regions in a supercooled liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elenius, M; Dzugutov, M

    2009-01-01

    We examine structural relaxation in a supercooled glass-forming liquid simulated by constant-energy constant-volume (NVE) molecular dynamics. Time correlations of the total kinetic energy fluctuations are used as a comprehensive measure of the system's approach to the ergodic equilibrium. We find that, under cooling, the total structural relaxation becomes delayed as compared with the decay of the component of the intermediate scattering function corresponding to the main peak of the structure factor. This observation can be explained by collective movements of particles preserving many-body structural correlations within compact three-dimensional (3D) cooperatively rearranging regions.

  15. Assessment of waste characteristics and waste management practices for the Midwest Compact Region: Regional Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report has described how the Midwest Compact region's low-level radioactive waste characteristics were determined and has provided assessments of several key characteristics of the waste. Sources of the data used and comments on the validity and uncertainty of both the raw information and the region-wide estimates that have been generated are indicated. The contents and organization of the computerized Midwest Data Base are also presented. This data base is a resource for rational development of the Midwest Compact's Regional Management Plan. The value of the level of detail contained in Midwest Data Base is demonstrated in its use to analyze the viability of LLW treatment alternatives in other aspects of the regional management plan (RAE86). 10 refs., 7 figs., 13 tabs

  16. Time-resolved tomography using acoustic emissions in the laboratory, and application to sandstone compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantut, Nicolas

    2018-02-01

    Acoustic emission and active ultrasonic wave velocity monitoring are often performed during laboratory rock deformation experiments, but are typically processed separately to yield homogenised wave velocity measurements and approximate source locations. Here I present a numerical method and its implementation in a free software to perform a joint inversion of acoustic emission locations together with the three-dimensional, anisotropic P-wave structure of laboratory samples. The data used are the P-wave first arrivals obtained from acoustic emissions and active ultrasonic measurements. The model parameters are the source locations and the P-wave velocity and anisotropy parameter (assuming transverse isotropy) at discrete points in the material. The forward problem is solved using the fast marching method, and the inverse problem is solved by the quasi-Newton method. The algorithms are implemented within an integrated free software package called FaATSO (Fast Marching Acoustic Emission Tomography using Standard Optimisation). The code is employed to study the formation of compaction bands in a porous sandstone. During deformation, a front of acoustic emissions progresses from one end of the sample, associated with the formation of a sequence of horizontal compaction bands. Behind the active front, only sparse acoustic emissions are observed, but the tomography reveals that the P-wave velocity has dropped by up to 15%, with an increase in anisotropy of up to 20%. Compaction bands in sandstones are therefore shown to produce sharp changes in seismic properties. This result highlights the potential of the methodology to image temporal variations of elastic properties in complex geomaterials, including the dramatic, localised changes associated with microcracking and damage generation.

  17. Time-resolved tomography using acoustic emissions in the laboratory, and application to sandstone compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantut, Nicolas

    2018-06-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) and active ultrasonic wave velocity monitoring are often performed during laboratory rock deformation experiments, but are typically processed separately to yield homogenized wave velocity measurements and approximate source locations. Here, I present a numerical method and its implementation in a free software to perform a joint inversion of AE locations together with the 3-D, anisotropic P-wave structure of laboratory samples. The data used are the P-wave first arrivals obtained from AEs and active ultrasonic measurements. The model parameters are the source locations and the P-wave velocity and anisotropy parameter (assuming transverse isotropy) at discrete points in the material. The forward problem is solved using the fast marching method, and the inverse problem is solved by the quasi-Newton method. The algorithms are implemented within an integrated free software package called FaATSO (Fast Marching Acoustic Emission Tomography using Standard Optimisation). The code is employed to study the formation of compaction bands in a porous sandstone. During deformation, a front of AEs progresses from one end of the sample, associated with the formation of a sequence of horizontal compaction bands. Behind the active front, only sparse AEs are observed, but the tomography reveals that the P-wave velocity has dropped by up to 15 per cent, with an increase in anisotropy of up to 20 per cent. Compaction bands in sandstones are therefore shown to produce sharp changes in seismic properties. This result highlights the potential of the methodology to image temporal variations of elastic properties in complex geomaterials, including the dramatic, localized changes associated with microcracking and damage generation.

  18. Low-level radioactive waste facility siting in the Rocky Mountain compact region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, M.

    1983-09-01

    The puprose of the Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact is to develop a regional management system for low-level waste (LLW) generated in the six states eligible for membership: Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming. Under the terms of the compact, any party state generating at least 20% of the region's waste becomes responsible for hosting a regional LLW management facility. However, the compact prescribes no system which the host state must follow to develop a facility, but rather calls on the state to fulfill its responsibility through reliance on its own laws and regulations. Few of the Rocky Mountain compact states have legislation dealing specifically with LLW facility siting. Authority for LLW facility siting is usually obtained from radiation control statutes and solid or hazardous waste statutes. A state-by-state analysis of the siting authorities of each of the Rock Mountain compact states as they pertain to LLW disposal facility siting is presented. Siting authority for LLW disposal facilities in the Rocky Mountain compact region runs from no authority, as in Wyoming, to general statutory authority for which regulations would have to be promulgated, as in Arizona and Nevada, to more detailed siting laws, as in Colorado and New Mexico. Barring an amendment to, or different interpretation of, the Utah Hazardous Waste Facility Siting Act, none of the Rocky Mountain States' LLW facility siting authorities preempt local veto authorities

  19. Plans for dealing with loss of access to the Midwest Compact Regional Disposal Facility: Regional Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report describes events that could lead to the premature closure of a disposal facility and the prospects that the closed facility could eventually be reopened. Possible courses of action leading to disposal outside the Midwest region while the Midwest Compact works to reestablish a regional disposal capability are also discussed. A likely division of responsibilities between the Compact Commission and the individual member states, with emphasis on managing low-level waste after a loss of access when disposal outside the Midwest is not possible is presented. Key elements in an agreement between compacts to accept each other's waste when one compact has experienced an unexpected interruption of its disposal operation are described

  20. Compaction bands in shale revealed through digital volume correlation of time-resolved X-ray tomography scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeck, J.; Kobchenko, M.; Hall, S.; Tudisco, E.; Cordonnier, B.; Renard, F.

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have identified compaction bands primarily within sandstones, and in fewer instances, within other porous rocks and sediments. Using Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) of X-ray microtomography scans, we find evidence of localized zones of high axial contraction that form tabular structures sub-perpendicular to maximum compression, σ1, in Green River shale. To capture in situ strain localization throughout loading, two shale cores were deformed in the HADES triaxial deformation apparatus installed on the X-ray microtomography beamline ID19 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. In these experiments, we increase σ1 in increments of two MPa, with constant confining pressure (20 MPa), until the sample fails in macroscopic shear. After each stress step, a 3D image of the sample inside the rig is acquired at a voxel resolution of 6.5 μm. The evolution of lower density regions within 3D reconstructions of linear attenuation coefficients reveal the development of fractures that fail with some opening. If a fracture produces negligible dilation, it may remain undetected in image segmentation of the reconstructions. We use the DVC software TomoWarp2 to identify undetected fractures and capture the 3D incremental displacement field between each successive pair of microtomography scans acquired in each experiment. The corresponding strain fields reveal localized bands of high axial contraction that host minimal shear strain, and thus match the kinematic definition of compaction bands. The bands develop sub-perpendicular to σ1 in the two samples in which pre-existing bedding laminations were oriented parallel and perpendicular to σ1. As the shales deform plastically toward macroscopic shear failure, the number of bands and axial contraction within the bands increase, while the spacing between the bands decreases. Compaction band development accelerates the rate of overall axial contraction, increasing the mean axial contraction throughout the sample

  1. ISO spectroscopy of compact HII regions in the Galaxy - II. Ionization and elemental abundances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, NL; Peeters, E; Morisset, C; Tielens, AGGM; Cox, P; Roelfsema, PR; Baluteau, JP; Schaerer, D; Mathis, JS; Damour, F; Churchwell, E; Kessler, MF

    Based on the ISO spectral catalogue of compact H II regions by Peeters et al. (2002), we present a first analysis of the hydrogen recombination and atomic fine-structure lines originated in the ionized gas. The sample consists of 34 H II regions located at galactocentric distances between R-Gal = 0

  2. Region-based Image Segmentation by Watershed Partition and DCT Energy Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Man Pun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An image segmentation approach by improved watershed partition and DCT energy compaction has been proposed in this paper. The proposed energy compaction, which expresses the local texture of an image area, is derived by exploiting the discrete cosine transform. The algorithm is a hybrid segmentation technique which is composed of three stages. First, the watershed transform is utilized by preprocessing techniques: edge detection and marker in order to partition the image in to several small disjoint patches, while the region size, mean and variance features are used to calculate region cost for combination. Then in the second merging stage the DCT transform is used for energy compaction which is a criterion for texture comparison and region merging. Finally the image can be segmented into several partitions. The experimental results show that the proposed approach achieved very good segmentation robustness and efficiency, when compared to other state of the art image segmentation algorithms and human segmentation results.

  3. Spatially resolved X-ray spectra of coronal active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catura, R.C.; Acton, L.W.; Joki, E.G.; Rapley, C.G.; Culhane, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    X-ray spectra from a number of coronal active regions were obtained during ATM support rocket flights carried out by the Lockheed group on June 11 and December 19, 1973. Multi-grid collimators were used to provide fields of view of 40ins. diameter and 90ins. diameter for a number of scanning crystal spectrometers and a bent crystal spectrometer which employed a position sensitive proportional counter to register the diffracted spectrum. A solar image was produced on film and on a TV camera on board the rocket with the aid of a 1 A Hα filter. A small part of the X-ray collimator was used to generate a multiple spot diffraction pattern which was superimposed on the Hα image and the composite picture was transmitted to the ground. Pre-launch calibrations allowed the spot corresponding to the X-ray collimator axis to be identified and so the collimator pointing direction on the solar disc was controlled from the ground by means of commands sent to the rocket. (Auth.)

  4. [Rocky Mountain regional low-level waste compact development and establishment of disposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This Compact Issue Study was intended to determine if state institutions in the Rocky Mountain region could reduce low-level radioactive waste shipping and disposal costs through jointly shipping their low-level radioactive wastes. Public institutions in the state of Colorado were used as a test case for this study

  5. Formation of peripheral porosity regions around urania in zirconia-urania mixed oxide powder compact sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, P.; Choudhury, R.

    1992-01-01

    Sintering studies of zirconia-urania mixed oxide powder compacts (in stages of 5% urania up to a maximum of 20% addition) were carried out at temperatures between 1000-1400deg C for various soaking periods. The formation of a peripheral porosity region around comparatively coarser urania particle was a characteristic feature in this mixed oxide sintered compact. At even a higher sintering temperature (1800deg C), where extensive solid solution formation takes place, this porosity region demarcates the solutionized particles from the host zirconia apparently acting as a discontinuity in the system. Relative shrinkage difference between the dissimilar particles probably contributes to the porosity regions around the minor second phase at a lower temperature while at higher temperature generation of 'Kirkendall porosity' may be responsible for such an effect. (orig.)

  6. Optical model calculation for the unresolved/resolved resonance region of Fe-56

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Froehner, F.H.

    1997-03-01

    We have studied optical model fits to total neutron cross sections of structural materials using the accurate data base for {sup 56}Fe existing in the resolved and unresolved resonance region. Averages over resolved resonances were calculated with Lorentzian weighting in Reich-Moore (reduced R matrix) approximation. Starting from the best available optical potentials we found that adjustment of the real and imaginary well depths does not work satisfactorily with the conventional weak linear energy dependence of the well depths. If, however, the linear dependences are modified towards low energies, the average total cross sections can be fitted quite well, from the resolved resonance region up to 20 MeV and higher. (author)

  7. PROPERTIES OF THE COMPACT H II REGION COMPLEX G-0.02-0.07

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, E.; Morris, M. R.; Lang, C. C.; Dong, H.; Wang, Q. D.; Cotera, A.; Stolovy, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    We present new extinction maps and high-resolution Paschen-alpha images of G-0.02-0.07, a complex of compact H II regions located adjacent to the M-0.02-0.07 giant molecular cloud, 6 pc in projection from the center of the Galaxy. These H II regions, which lie in projection just outside the boundary of the Sgr A East supernova remnant, represent one of the most recent episodes of star formation in the central parsecs of the Galaxy. The 1.87 μm extinctions of regions A, B, and C are almost identical, approximately 3.7 mag. Region D, in contrast, has a peak extinction of A 1.87 = 5.9 mag. Adopting an extinction law specific to the Galactic center, we find that these extinctions correspond to visual extinctions of A V = 45 and A V = 71. The similar and uniform extinctions of regions A, B, and C are consistent with that expected for foreground extinction in the direction of the Galactic center, suggesting that they lie at the front side of the M-0.02-0.07 molecular cloud. Region D is more compact, has a higher extinction, and is thus suspected to be younger and embedded in a dense core in a compressed ridge on the western edge of this cloud.

  8. New 20-cm radio-continuum study of the small Magellanic cloud - part III: Compact Hii regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present and discuss a new catalogue of 48 compact Hii regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC and a newly created deep 1420 MHz (λ=20 cm radio-continuum image of the N19 region located in the southwestern part of the SMC. The new images were created by merging 1420 MHz radiocontinuum archival data from the Australian Telescope Compact Array. The majority of these detected radio compact Hii regions have rather flat spectral indices which indicates, as expected, that the dominant emission mechanism is of thermal nature.

  9. Assessment of waste characteristics and waste management practices for the Midwest compact region:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    To define that system and optimize its components, it is necessary to know various characteristics of the LLW generated in the Midwest Compact Region. It must have projections for the annual volumes from the states in the compact to determine the size and lifetimes of waste management facilities. Information on the different volumes of the region's LLW that fall into NRC waste classes will help determine volumes of waste that may need separate disposal. Eventually, licensing a LLW disposal facility will require source terms /emdash/ quantities and concentrations of nuclides placed in the facility /emdash/ in order to conduct performance assessments. To provide the information needed to make informed decisions about the nature and size of the Midwest region's low-level waste management system, information was gathered from a number of sources. The information was placed in a computer data base to preserve it and to facilitate extracton of combinations of data. This report describes how the information was assembled and the nature of the computerized data base. It also provides a baseline characterization of the low-level waste being generated and shipped for disposal from the Midwest region in the late 1980's. 10 refs., 7 figs., 13 tabs

  10. A simple approach to spectrally resolved fluorescence and bright field microscopy over select regions of interest

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlberg, Peter D.; Boughter, Christopher T.; Faruk, Nabil F.; Hong, Lu; Koh, Young Hoon; Reyer, Matthew A.; Shaiber, Alon; Sherani, Aiman; Zhang, Jiacheng; Jureller, Justin E.; Hammond, Adam T.

    2016-01-01

    A standard wide field inverted microscope was converted to a spatially selective spectrally resolved microscope through the addition of a polarizing beam splitter, a pair of polarizers, an amplitude-mode liquid crystal-spatial light modulator, and a USB spectrometer. The instrument is capable of simultaneously imaging and acquiring spectra over user defined regions of interest. The microscope can also be operated in a bright-field mode to acquire absorption spectra of micron scale objects. Th...

  11. A simple approach to spectrally resolved fluorescence and bright field microscopy over select regions of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Peter D; Boughter, Christopher T; Faruk, Nabil F; Hong, Lu; Koh, Young Hoon; Reyer, Matthew A; Shaiber, Alon; Sherani, Aiman; Zhang, Jiacheng; Jureller, Justin E; Hammond, Adam T

    2016-11-01

    A standard wide field inverted microscope was converted to a spatially selective spectrally resolved microscope through the addition of a polarizing beam splitter, a pair of polarizers, an amplitude-mode liquid crystal-spatial light modulator, and a USB spectrometer. The instrument is capable of simultaneously imaging and acquiring spectra over user defined regions of interest. The microscope can also be operated in a bright-field mode to acquire absorption spectra of micron scale objects. The utility of the instrument is demonstrated on three different samples. First, the instrument is used to resolve three differently labeled fluorescent beads in vitro. Second, the instrument is used to recover time dependent bleaching dynamics that have distinct spectral changes in the cyanobacteria, Synechococcus leopoliensis UTEX 625. Lastly, the technique is used to acquire the absorption spectra of CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 perovskites and measure differences between nanocrystal films and micron scale crystals.

  12. A simple approach to spectrally resolved fluorescence and bright field microscopy over select regions of interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Peter D.; Boughter, Christopher T.; Faruk, Nabil F.; Hong, Lu; Koh, Young Hoon; Reyer, Matthew A.; Shaiber, Alon; Sherani, Aiman; Zhang, Jiacheng; Jureller, Justin E.; Hammond, Adam T.

    2016-11-01

    A standard wide field inverted microscope was converted to a spatially selective spectrally resolved microscope through the addition of a polarizing beam splitter, a pair of polarizers, an amplitude-mode liquid crystal-spatial light modulator, and a USB spectrometer. The instrument is capable of simultaneously imaging and acquiring spectra over user defined regions of interest. The microscope can also be operated in a bright-field mode to acquire absorption spectra of micron scale objects. The utility of the instrument is demonstrated on three different samples. First, the instrument is used to resolve three differently labeled fluorescent beads in vitro. Second, the instrument is used to recover time dependent bleaching dynamics that have distinct spectral changes in the cyanobacteria, Synechococcus leopoliensis UTEX 625. Lastly, the technique is used to acquire the absorption spectra of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites and measure differences between nanocrystal films and micron scale crystals.

  13. Analysis Of Ultra Compact Ionized Hydrogen Regions Within The Northern Half Of The Galactic Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, John

    2011-01-01

    From a catalog of 199 candidate ultra compact (UC) HII regions 123 sources included in the the intersection of the GLIMPSE (8 μm),Cornish (6 cm), and Bolocam ( 1.1 mm) galactic plane surveys (BGPS) were analyzed. The sources were sorted based on 6 cm morphology and coincidence with 8 μm bubbles. The 1.1 mm flux attributes were measured and calculations were performed to determine the ionized hydrogen contributions to the 1.1 mm flux. The category averages and frequencies were obtained as well. Significant differences in HII percentages were present among the morphology groups but ranged widely, without apparent distinction, between the bubble forming and triggered source categories.

  14. Observations of the J = 2 → 1 CO line in molecular clouds near compact H+ regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, P.W.; Little, L.T.; Brown, A.T.; Hills, R.E.; Padman, R.; Vizard, D.; Lesurf, J.C.G.; Cronin, N.J.

    1982-01-01

    Observations of the J = 2 → 1 transitions of 12 CO and 13 CO at 230 and 220 GHz in 13 molecular clouds near compact H + regions have been made at UKIRT using an uncooled Schottky diode mixer and a digital auto-correlation spectrometer. The sources were chosen on the basis of their ammonia emission. A comparison between 12 CO and 13 CO spectra reveals a variety of self-absorption effects, ranging from slight asymmetries in the 12 CO profiles relative to their 13 CO counterparts (W43S, S88), to a deep narrow self-absorption dip (S68). The asymmetry observed in six sources out of ten is most easily explained if the clouds are collapsing; there is no clear evidence for expansion. The 13 CO linewidths are systematically wider than those from the NH 3 cores, suggesting that the velocity dispersion in the sources increases with distance from the centre. (author)

  15. ELECTROMAGNETIC AND THERMAL SIMULATIONS FOR THE SWITCH REGION OF A COMPACT PROTON ACCELERATOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L; Caporaso, G J; Sullivan, J S

    2007-01-01

    A compact proton accelerator for medical applications is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The accelerator architecture is based on the dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) concept. One critical area to consider is the switch region. Electric field simulations and thermal calculations of the switch area were performed to help determine the operating limits of rmed SiC switches. Different geometries were considered for the field simulation including the shape of the thin Indium solder meniscus between the electrodes and SiC. Electric field simulations were also utilized to demonstrate how the field stress could be reduced. Both transient and steady steady-state thermal simulations were analyzed to find the average power capability of the switches

  16. FTIR Spectroscopy on Basic Materials in THz Region for Compact FEL-Based Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Cha, H J; Lee, B C; Park, S H

    2005-01-01

    We are making experiments on THz(terahertz) imaging using a compact high power FEL (free-electron laser) which is operating as a users facility at KAERI. The wavelength range of output pulses is 100~1200 μm, which corresponds to 0.3~3 THz in the frequency region. We should select the optimum wavelength for the constituents of specimens to realize the imaging based on the THz FEL. A FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared) spectrometer was modified to measure the optical constants of the specimens in THz region. A polyester film of which thickness is 3.7 μm was used as a beam splitter of the spectrometer. In the case of normal incidence, the transmittance of the film was measured to be more than 90%, and the estimated loss by absorption was approximately 2% at the FEL frequency of 3 THz. Several tens of nanometer-thick-silver was coated on the polyester film to balance both transmission and reflection of THz waves in the beam splitter. We investigated FTIR spectroscopy on air, vapor and liquid water...

  17. CLIMATE, CITIES AND SUSTAINABILITY IN THE ARABIAN REGION: COMPACTNESS AS A NEW PARADIGM IN URBAN DESIGN AND PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Ben Hamouche

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Over centuries, the climate in Arabia has become a major factor that shaped daylife of the local societies and thus, the form of their cities. Old cities were charactrized by their compactness which stemmed from the need for protection from the harsh environment. Urban fabric has been dominated by the building masses, the limited number of enclosed public and outdoor spaces, and the inward-looking architecture. Besides its environmental utility, compactness also provided a physical support to the local community and reflected its strong social structure and complex network of kinships. Nowadays, Gulf cities that are mostly shaped by the modern movement and American life style are in complete negation with their past. An unprecedented sprawl effect is taking place all over the Gulf countries due to the heavy reliance on private transportation, high building technology, powerful air-conditioning systems and private housing. Reconsidering compactness in the present urban planning and design practices, would not only insure a cultural continuity with the rooted urban history of the region, but also meets the recommendations of the recent findings in research on sustainable urban development. Modeling compactness from the study of the old cities into urban indicators and design guidelines would provide an alternative design and planning process to architects, planners and decisionmakers. Far from being exhaustive, the study consists of analyzing some old cities that are located in the hot regions, according to the available documents, and extracting urban indicators that help measuring and applying compactness in planning and design.

  18. Molecular regionalization in the compact brain of the meiofaunal annelid Dinophilus gyrociliatus (Dinophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kerbl

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annelida is a morphologically diverse animal group that exhibits a remarkable variety in nervous system architecture (e.g., number and location of longitudinal cords, architecture of the brain. Despite this heterogeneity of neural arrangements, the molecular profiles related to central nervous system patterning seem to be conserved even between distantly related annelids. In particular, comparative molecular studies on brain and anterior neural region patterning genes have focused so far mainly on indirect-developing macrofaunal taxa. Therefore, analyses on microscopic, direct-developing annelids are important to attain a general picture of the evolutionary events underlying the vast diversity of annelid neuroanatomy. Results We have analyzed the expression domains of 11 evolutionarily conserved genes involved in brain and anterior neural patterning in adult females of the direct-developing meiofaunal annelid Dinophilus gyrociliatus. The small, compact brain shows expression of dimmed, foxg, goosecoid, homeobrain, nk2.1, orthodenticle, orthopedia, pax6, six3/6 and synaptotagmin-1. Although most of the studied markers localize to specific brain areas, the genes six3/6 and synaptotagmin-1 are expressed in nearly all perikarya of the brain. All genes except for goosecoid, pax6 and nk2.2 overlap in the anterior brain region, while the respective expression domains are more separated in the posterior brain. Conclusions Our findings reveal that the expression patterns of the genes foxg, orthodenticle, orthopedia and six3/6 correlate with those described in Platynereis dumerilii larvae, and homeobrain, nk2.1, orthodenticle and synaptotagmin-1 resemble the pattern of late larvae of Capitella teleta. Although data on other annelids are limited, molecular similarities between adult Dinophilus and larval Platynereis and Capitella suggest an overall conservation of molecular mechanisms patterning the anterior neural regions, independent

  19. Emotion Discrimination using spatially Compact Regions of Interest extracted from Imaging EEG Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ivan Padilla-Buritica

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lately, research on computational models of emotion had been getting much attention due to their potential for understanding the mechanisms of emotions and their promising broad range of applications that potentially bridge the gap between human and machine interactions. We propose a new method for emotion classification that relies on features extracted from those active brain areas that are most likely related to emotions. To this end, we carry out the selection of spatially compact regions of interest that are computed using the brain neural activity reconstructed from electroencephalography data. Throughout this study, we consider three representative feature extraction methods widely applied to emotion detection tasks, including Power spectral density, Wavelet, and Hjorth parameters. Further feature selection is carried out using principal component analysis. For validation purpose, these features are used to feed a support vector machine classifier that is trained under the leave-one-out cross-validation strategy. Obtained results on real affective data show that incorporation of the proposed training method in combination with the enhanced spatial resolution provided by the source estimation allows improving the performed accuracy of discrimination in most of the considered emotions, namely: dominance, valence, and linking.

  20. Cortical pitch regions in humans respond primarily to resolved harmonics and are located in specific tonotopic regions of anterior auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman-Haignere, Sam; Kanwisher, Nancy; McDermott, Josh H

    2013-12-11

    Pitch is a defining perceptual property of many real-world sounds, including music and speech. Classically, theories of pitch perception have differentiated between temporal and spectral cues. These cues are rendered distinct by the frequency resolution of the ear, such that some frequencies produce "resolved" peaks of excitation in the cochlea, whereas others are "unresolved," providing a pitch cue only via their temporal fluctuations. Despite longstanding interest, the neural structures that process pitch, and their relationship to these cues, have remained controversial. Here, using fMRI in humans, we report the following: (1) consistent with previous reports, all subjects exhibited pitch-sensitive cortical regions that responded substantially more to harmonic tones than frequency-matched noise; (2) the response of these regions was mainly driven by spectrally resolved harmonics, although they also exhibited a weak but consistent response to unresolved harmonics relative to noise; (3) the response of pitch-sensitive regions to a parametric manipulation of resolvability tracked psychophysical discrimination thresholds for the same stimuli; and (4) pitch-sensitive regions were localized to specific tonotopic regions of anterior auditory cortex, extending from a low-frequency region of primary auditory cortex into a more anterior and less frequency-selective region of nonprimary auditory cortex. These results demonstrate that cortical pitch responses are located in a stereotyped region of anterior auditory cortex and are predominantly driven by resolved frequency components in a way that mirrors behavior.

  1. Central interstate low-level radioactive waste compact region site exclusionary screening study. Phase I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 assigns to the states the responsibility for disposal of the low-level radioactive waste generated within their boundaries. It also provides for regional compacts among states to address their needs on a broader basis and permits restriction of the use of regional disposal facilities after January 1, 1986, to generators of low-level waste within the region. Each state, either individually or as a member of a compact, must therefore consider the establishment of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility within its borders. The states of Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Nebraska, and Oklahoma adopted the Central Interstate Low-Level Waste Compact (CILLWC) and legislation was submitted to Congress for consent in June of 1983 legislation is being reintroduced in the 99th Congress. In August of 1984, the CILLWC selected and contracted Dames and Moore to conduct a Phase I-Site Suitability Screening Study for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in the five-state region. This report presents the results of the Phase I Screening Study. Dames and Moore reported to the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of the CILLWC which provided guidance and comment on work progress and direction

  2. ENDF/B-IV representation of the 238U total neutron cross section in the resolved resonance energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Saussure, G.; Olsen, D.K.; Perez, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    The ENDF/B-IV prescription fails to represent correctly the 238 U total (and scattering) cross section between the levels of the resolved range. It is shown how this representation can be improved by properly accounting for the contribution of levels outside the resolved region to the cross section at energies inside the resolved region, and by substituting the more precise multilevel Breit-Wigner formula for the presently used single-level formula. The importance of computing accurately the minima in the total cross section is illustrated by comparing values of the self-shielded capture resonance integral computed with ENDF/B-IV and with a more accurate cross section model

  3. Structural changes in latosols of the cerrado region: II - soil compressive behavior and modeling of additional compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Costa Severiano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently in Brazil, as in other parts of the world, the concern is great with the increase of degraded agricultural soil, which is mostly related to the occurrence of soil compaction. Although soil texture is recognized as a very important component in the soil compressive behaviors, there are few studies that quantify its influence on the structural changes of Latosols in the Brazilian Cerrado region. This study aimed to evaluate structural changes and the compressive behavior of Latosols in Rio Verde, Goiás, through the modeling of additional soil compaction. The study was carried out using five Latosols with very different textures, under different soil compaction levels. Water retention and soil compression curves, and bearing capacity models were determined from undisturbed samples collected on the B horizons. Results indicated that clayey and very clayey Latosols were more susceptible to compression than medium-textured soils. Soil compression curves at density values associate with edaphic functions were used to determine the beneficial pressure (σ b , i.e., pressure with optimal water retention, and critical pressure (σcrMAC, i.e., pressure with macroporosity below critical levels. These pressure values were higher than the preconsolidation pressure (σp, and therefore characterized as additional compaction. Based on the compressive behavior of these Latosols, it can be concluded that the combined preconsolidation pressure, beneficial pressure and critical pressure allow a better understanding of compression processes of Latosols.

  4. A GMOS-N IFU study of the central H II region in the blue compact dwarf galaxy NGC 4449: kinematics, nebular metallicity and star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Nimisha; James, Bethan L.; Irwin, Mike J.

    2017-10-01

    We use integral field spectroscopic (IFS) observations from the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph North (GMOS-N) to study the central H II region in a nearby blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy NGC 4449. The IFS data enable us to explore the variation of physical and chemical conditions of the star-forming region and the surrounding gas on spatial scales as small as 5.5 pc. Our kinematical analysis shows possible signatures of shock ionization and shell structures in the surroundings of the star-forming region. The metallicity maps of the region, created using direct Te and indirect strong line methods (R23, O3N2 and N2), do not show any chemical variation. From the integrated spectrum of the central H II region, we find a metallicity of 12 + log(O/H) = 7.88 ± 0.14 ({˜ }0.15^{+0.06}_{-0.04} Z⊙) using the direct method. Comparing the central H II region metallicity derived here with those of H II regions throughout this galaxy from previous studies, we find evidence of increasing metallicity with distance from the central nucleus. Such chemical inhomogeneities can be due to several mechanisms, including gas loss via supernova blowout, galactic winds or metal-poor gas accretion. However, we find that the localized area of decreased metallicity aligns spatially with the peak of star-forming activity in the galaxy, suggesting that gas accretion may be at play here. Spatially resolved IFS data for the entire galaxy are required to confirm the metallicity inhomogeneity found in this study and determine its possible cause.

  5. Asteroid (21) Lutetia: Disk-resolved photometric analysis of Baetica region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselmann, P. H.; Barucci, M. A.; Fornasier, S.; Leyrat, C.; Carvano, J. M.; Lazzaro, D.; Sierks, H.

    2016-03-01

    (21) Lutetia has been visited by Rosetta mission on July 2010 and observed with a phase angle ranging from 0.15° to 156.8°. The Baetica region, located at the north pole has been extensively observed by OSIRIS cameras system. Baetica encompass a region called North Pole Crater Cluster (NPCC), shows a cluster of superposed craters which presents signs of variegation at the small phase angle images. For studying the location, we used 187 images distributed throughout 14 filter recorded by the NAC (Narrow Angle Camera) and WAC (Wide Angle Camera) of the OSIRIS system on-board Rosetta taken during the fly-by. Then, we photometrically modeled the region using Minnaert disk-function and Akimov phase function to obtain a resolved spectral slope map at phase angles of 5 ° and 20 ° . We observed a dichotomy between Gallicum and Danuvius-Sarnus Labes in the NPCC, but no significant phase reddening (- 0.04 ± 0.045 % μm-1deg-1). In the next step, we applied the Hapke (Hapke, B. [2008]. Icarus 195, 918-926; Hapke, B. [2012]. Theory of Reflectance and Emittance Spectroscopy, second ed. Cambridge University Press) model for the NAC F82+F22 (649.2 nm), WAC F13 (375 nm) and WAC F17 (631.6 nm) and we obtained normal albedo maps and Hapke parameter maps for NAC F82+F22. On Baetica, at 649.2 nm, the geometric albedo is 0.205 ± 0.005 , the average single-scattering albedo is 0.181 ± 0.005 , the average asymmetric factor is - 0.342 ± 0.003 , the average shadow-hiding opposition effect amplitude and width are 0.824 ± 0.002 and 0.040 ± 0.0007 , the average roughness slope is 11.45 ° ± 3 ° and the average porosity is 0.85 ± 0.002 . We are unable to confirm the presence of coherent-backscattering mechanism. In the NPCC, the normal albedo variegation among the craters walls reach 8% brighter for Gallicum Labes and 2% fainter for Danuvius Labes. The Hapke parameter maps also show a dichotomy at the opposition effect coefficients, single-scattering albedo and asymmetric factor

  6. Issue update: a regional settlement proposal to resolve the Washington Nuclear Plant No. 3 lawsuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) announced on August 2, 1985, that a number of substantive changes suggested by public comment on the Washington Nuclear Plant No. 3 settlement had been agreed to in principle by BPA and four private utilities. Since that date the details of these changes have been resolved, and the proposed settlement is now being offered for public review and comment

  7. Plasma polarization spectroscopy. Time resolved spectroscopy in soft x-ray region on recombining plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Hasuo, Masahiro; Atake, Makoto; Hasegawa, Noboru; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    We present an experimental study of polarization of emission radiations from recombining plasmas generated by the interaction of 60 fs ultra-short laser pulses with a gas jet. Time-resolved spectroscopy with a temporal resolution of 5 ps with repetitive accumulation is used to follow the recombination time histories. (author)

  8. The effectiveness of 28S and 16S molecular regions in resolving phylogeny of Malaysian microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuki, Ameyra Aman; Mohammed, Muhamad Azmi; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir; Yaakop, Salmah

    2018-04-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of Microgastrinae remains unclear though some studies have been conducted to resolve it. The function of Microgastrinae as endoparasitoids of Lepidopteran larvae makes this subfamily an ideal and potential species to be applied as biological control agent of infesting crops. In this study, a total of 13 microgastrine samples under 13 genera were collected from nine localities throughout Peninsular Malaysia. Two molecular regions, 28S nuclear marker and 16S mitochondrial marker were utilized in this study to examine the effectiveness of those regions in resolving the relationships within Microgastrinae. Total of 36 sequences were implemented in the analyses of NJ, MP and Bayesian for both markers. Results obtained from this study were supported by morphological and biological characters. Henceforth, the outcome from this study provides a proof of effectiveness of 28S and 16S molecular markers in studying the phylogenetic relationships of Microgastrinae from Malaysia exclusively and Oriental generally.

  9. Steps being taken to resolve questions on natural gas use for power generation in the New England region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulick, C.

    1995-01-01

    Steps being taken to resolve questions on natural gas use for power generation in the New England Region are outlined. The following topics are discussed: bridging the gap, gas/electric discussion group, energy consumption by fuel, NEPOOL energy mix forecast, the players and their needs, pipelines serving New England, evaluation of pipeline reliability, industry survey, summary of survey conclusions, communications, operational differences, recommended red alert information sequence, handling a crisis, and major accomplishments to date

  10. Management of low-level radioactive waste in the Southeast Compact Region: Volume 2, Management plan: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    The Southeast Compact Commission for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management has begun the development of a regional low-level radioactive waste management plan. They have reviewed and analyzed existing data on current low-level radioactive waste volumes shipped for disposal by generators in the Southeast region and have supplemented existing data by direct contact with State regulatory personnel, disposal site operators, and individual generators. The Commission has also projected the amounts and types of waste expected to require offsite disposal. This characterized data base and the projections of waste volumes and types through 1996 are included in this volume. Alternative disposal and treatment technologies were evaluated for management of the waste in the region. This evaluation consisted of a review of the literature concerning the several technologies in low level radioactive waste management. This information is summarized in Appendix A. 72 refs., 28 figs., 30 tabs

  11. Reich-Moore and Adler-Adler representations of the 235U cross sections in the resolved resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Saussure, G.; Leal, L.C.; Perez, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    In the first part of this paper, a reevaluation of the low-energy neutron cross sections of 235 U is described. This reevaluation was motivated by the discrepancy between the measured and computed temperature coefficients of reactivity and is based on recent measurements of the fission cross section and of η in the thermal and subthermal neutron energy regions. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the conversion of the Reich-Moore resonance parameters, describing the neutron cross sections of 235 U in the resolved resonance region, into equivalent Adler-Adler resonance parameters and into equivalent momentum space multipole resonance parameters. 25 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Reich-Moore and Adler-Adler representations of the 235U cross sections in the resolved resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saussure, G. de; Leal, L.C.; Perez, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    In the first part of this paper, a reevaluation of the low-energy neutron cross sections of 235 U is described. This reevaluation was motivated by the discrepancy between the measured and computed temperature coefficients of reactivity and is based on recent measurements of the fission cross section and of η in the thermal and subthermal neutron energy regions. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the conversion of the Reich-Moore resonance parameters, describing the neutron cross sections of 235 U in the resolved resonance region, into equivalent Adler-Adler resonance parameters and into equivalent momentum space multipole resonance parameters

  13. Study of the molecular and ionized gas in a possible precursor of an ultra-compact H II region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M. E.; Paron, S.; Giacani, E.; Celis Peña, M.; Rubio, M.; Petriella, A.

    2017-10-01

    Aims: We aim to study the molecular and the ionized gas in a possible precursor of an ultra-compact H II region to contribute to the understanding of how high-mass stars build-up their masses once they have reached the zero-age main sequence. Methods: We carried out molecular observations toward the position of the Red MSX source G052.9221-00.4892, using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE; Chile) in the 12CO J = 3-2, 13CO J = 3-2, C18O J = 3-2, and HCO+J = 4-3 lines with an angular resolution of about 22''. We also present radio continuum observations at 6 GHz carried out with the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA; USA) interferometer with a synthesized beam of 4.8 arcsec × 4.1 arcsec. The molecular data were used to study the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas, while the radio continuum data were used to characterize the ionized gas in the region. Combining these observations with public infrared data allowed us to inquire about the nature of the source. Results: The analysis of the molecular observations reveals the presence of a kinetic temperature and H2 column density gradients across the molecular clump in which the Red MSX source G052.9221-00.4892 is embedded, with the hotter and less dense gas in the inner region. The 12CO J = 3-2 emission shows evidence of misaligned massive molecular outflows, with the blue lobe in positional coincidence with a jet-like feature seen at 8 μm. The radio continuum emission shows a slightly elongated compact radio source, with a flux density of about 0.9 mJy, in positional coincidence with the Red MSX source. The polar-like morphology of this compact radio source perfectly matches the hourglass-like morphology exhibited by the source in the Ks band. Moreover, the axes of symmetry of the radio source and the near-infrared nebula are perfectly aligned. Thus, based on the presence of molecular outflows, the slightly elongated morphology of the compact radio source matching the hourglass

  14. ZUT, Resonance Integrals in Resolved Region at Various Temperature, Escape Probability Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuncir, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: ZUT computes resonance integrals from resonance parameters for a wide variety of temperatures, compositions, and geometries for the resolved resonances. 2 - Method of solution: The form used permits specification of escape probability as a function of the lump dimension and the mean free path. The absorber term may be treated by the integral method, the narrow resonance or the infinite mass approximation. Moderator terms may be represented either by the full integral method (IM) or the asymptotic (NR) form

  15. Sub-nanometrically resolved chemical mappings of quantum-cascade laser active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantzas, Konstantinos; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Patriarche, Gilles; Largeau, Ludovic; Mauguin, Olivia; Sagnes, Isabelle; Pegolotti, Giulia; Vasanelli, Angela; Calvar, Ariane; Amanti, Maria; Sirtori, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    A procedure that produces sub-nanometrically resolved chemical mappings of MOCVD-grown InGaAs/InAlAs/InP quantum cascade lasers is presented. The chemical mappings reveal that, although the structure is lattice-matched to InP, the InAlAs barriers do not attain the nominal aluminum content—48%—and are, in fact, InGaAlAs quaternaries. This information is used to adjust the aluminum precursor flow and fine-tune the composition of the barriers, resulting in a significant improvement of the fabricated lasers. (paper)

  16. Radiative and magnetic properties of solar active regions. II. Spatially resolved analysis of O V 62.97 nm transition region emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fludra, A.; Warren, H.

    2010-11-01

    Context. Global relationships between the photospheric magnetic flux and the extreme ultraviolet emission integrated over active region area have been studied in a previous paper by Fludra & Ireland (2008, A&A, 483, 609). Spatially integrated EUV line intensities are tightly correlated with the total unsigned magnetic flux, and yet these global power laws have been shown to be insufficient for accurately determining the coronal heating mechanism owing to the mathematical ill-conditioning of the inverse problem. Aims: Our aim is to establish a relationship between the EUV line intensities and the photospheric magnetic flux density on small spatial scales in active regions and investigate whether it provides a way of identifying the process that heats the coronal loops. Methods: We compare spatially resolved EUV transition region emission and the photospheric magnetic flux density. This analysis is based on the O V 62.97 nm line recorded by the SOHO Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) and SOHO MDI magnetograms for six solar active regions. The magnetic flux density ϕ is converted to a simulated O V intensity using a model relationship I(ϕ, L) = Cϕδ Lλ, where the loop length L is obtained from potential magnetic field extrapolations. This simulated spatial distribution of O V intensities is convolved with the CDS instrument's point spread function and compared pixel by pixel with the observed O V line intensity. Parameters δ and λ are derived to give the best fit for the observed and simulated intensities. Results: Spatially-resolved analysis of the transition region emission reveals the complex nature of the heating processes in active regions. In some active regions, particularly large, local intensity enhancements up to a factor of five are present. When areas with O V intensities above 3000 erg cm-2 s-1 sr-1 are ignored, a power law has been fitted to the relationship between the local O V line intensity and the photospheric magnetic flux density in each

  17. Compact galaxies in the region with the center coordinates 07sup(h)59sup(m)+54 deg 44'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerngen, F.; Kalloglyan, A.T.

    1980-01-01

    A list of 70 compact galaxies is presented, galaxies being found in the metagalactic field in the region with center coordinates αsub(1950)=07sup(h)59sup(m), deltasub(1950)54 deg 44'. The selection of objects have been carried out on negatives obtained in the Schmidt focus of the two-meter universal telescope of Tautenburg observatory in the colour B and V system. Galaxies of the highest surface brightness and of spherical configuration have been included. Only in some cases slightly elongated objects have been included due to their very high surface brightness. The coordinates, B and V stellar values of all objects have been measured. The maps of their identification are presented

  18. SPATIALLY RESOLVED HCN ABSORPTION FEATURES IN THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR REGION OF NGC 1052

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada-Satoh, Satoko [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-12 Hoshigaoka-cho, Mizusawa-ku, Oshu, Iwate 023-0861 (Japan); Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Oh, Se-Jin; Lee, Sang-Sung; Byun, Do-Young; Yeom, Jae-Hwan; Jung, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Hyo-Ryoung; Hwang, Ju-Yeon [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Kameno, Seiji, E-mail: satoko.ss@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: sss@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107 Vitacura, Santiago 763 0355 (Chile)

    2016-10-10

    We present the first VLBI detection of HCN molecular absorption in the nearby active galactic nucleus NGC 1052. Utilizing the 1 mas resolution achieved by the Korean VLBI Network, we have spatially resolved the HCN absorption against a double-sided nuclear jet structure. Two velocity features of HCN absorption are detected significantly at the radial velocity of 1656 and 1719 km s{sup −1}, redshifted by 149 and 212 km s{sup −1} with respect to the systemic velocity of the galaxy. The column density of the HCN molecule is estimated to be 10{sup 15}–10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}, assuming an excitation temperature of 100–230 K. The absorption features show high optical depth localized on the receding jet side, where the free–free absorption occurred due to the circumnuclear torus. The size of the foreground absorbing molecular gas is estimated to be on approximately one-parsec scales, which agrees well with the approximate size of the circumnuclear torus. HCN absorbing gas is likely to be several clumps smaller than 0.1 pc inside the circumnuclear torus. The redshifted velocities of the HCN absorption features imply that HCN absorbing gas traces ongoing infall motion inside the circumnuclear torus onto the central engine.

  19. Compact vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Losano, L.; Marques, M.A.; Zafalan, I. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    We study a family of Maxwell-Higgs models, described by the inclusion of a function of the scalar field that represent generalized magnetic permeability. We search for vortex configurations which obey first-order differential equations that solve the equations of motion. We first deal with the asymptotic behavior of the field configurations, and then implement a numerical study of the solutions, the energy density and the magnetic field. We work with the generalized permeability having distinct profiles, giving rise to new models, and we investigate how the vortices behave, compared with the solutions of the corresponding standard models. In particular, we show how to build compact vortices, that is, vortex solutions with the energy density and magnetic field vanishing outside a compact region of the plane. (orig.)

  20. Resolving regional conflicts and public opinion: The Nigerian experience in Liberian crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami, B.O.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria played an important role which led to the resolution of the Liberian crisis between 1990 and 1997. But between 1990 and 1993 towards the end of General Ibrahim Babangida’s regime (1985-1993, Nigeria’s role in the Liberian peace process became a major issue which preoccupied Nigeria’s external relations within the West African Sub-region. This paper examines in how public opinion influences government attitude and posture towards the Liberian situation.

  1. THE OFF-CENTERED SEYFERT-LIKE COMPACT EMISSION IN THE NUCLEAR REGION OF NGC 3621

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, R. B.; Steiner, J. E.; Silva, Patricia da, E-mail: robertobm@astro.iag.usp.br [Instituto de Astronomia Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP CEP 05508-090 (Brazil)

    2016-02-01

    We analyze an optical data cube of the nuclear region of NGC 3621, taken with the integral field unit of the Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph. We found that the previously detected central line emission in this galaxy actually comes from a blob, located at a projected distance of 2.″14 ± 0.″08 (70.1 ± 2.6 pc) from the stellar nucleus. Only diffuse emission was detected in the rest of the field of view, with a deficit of emission at the position of the stellar nucleus. Diagnostic diagram analysis reveals that the off-centered emitting blob has a Seyfert 2 spectrum. We propose that the line-emitting blob may be a “fossil” emission-line region or a light “echo” from an active galactic nucleus (AGN), which was significantly brighter in the past. Our estimates indicate that the bolometric luminosity of the AGN must have decreased by a factor of ∼13–500 during the past ∼230 yr. A second scenario to explain the morphology of the line-emitting areas in the nuclear region of NGC 3621 involves no decrease of the AGN bolometric luminosity and establishes that the AGN is highly obscured toward the observer but not toward the line-emitting blob. The third scenario proposed here assumes that the off-centered line-emitting blob is a recoiling supermassive black hole, after the coalescence of two black holes. Finally, an additional hypothesis is that the central X-ray source is not an AGN, but an X-ray binary. This idea is consistent with all the scenarios we proposed.

  2. Region and cell-type resolved quantitative proteomic map of the human heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Sophia; Dreßen, Martina; Geyer, Philipp E

    2017-01-01

    The heart is a central human organ and its diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide, but an in-depth knowledge of the identity and quantity of its constituent proteins is still lacking. Here, we determine the healthy human heart proteome by measuring 16 anatomical regions and three major...... cardiac cell types by high-resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics. From low microgram sample amounts, we quantify over 10,700 proteins in this high dynamic range tissue. We combine copy numbers per cell with protein organellar assignments to build a model of the heart proteome at the subcellular...

  3. THE RESOLVED STELLAR POPULATION IN 50 REGIONS OF M83 FROM HST/WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwihyun; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Whitmore, Bradley C.; Mutchler, Max; Bond, Howard E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chandar, Rupali [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Saha, Abhijit [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Kaleida, Catherine C. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Serena (Chile); Calzetti, Daniela [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); O' Connell, Robert W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Balick, Bruce [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Carollo, Marcella [Department of Physics, ETH-Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland); Disney, Michael J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Dopita, Michael A. [Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frogel, Jay A. [Galaxies Unlimited, 1 Tremblant Court, Lutherville, MD 21093 (United States); Hall, Donald N. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Holtzman, Jon A. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Kimble, Randy A. [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McCarthy, Patrick J., E-mail: hwihyun.kim@asu.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101-1292 (United States); and others

    2012-07-01

    We present a multi-wavelength photometric study of {approx}15,000 resolved stars in the nearby spiral galaxy M83 (NGC 5236, D = 4.61 Mpc) based on Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 observations using four filters: F336W, F438W, F555W, and F814W. We select 50 regions (an average size of 260 pc by 280 pc) in the spiral arm and inter-arm areas of M83 and determine the age distribution of the luminous stellar populations in each region. This is accomplished by correcting for extinction toward each individual star by comparing its colors with predictions from stellar isochrones. We compare the resulting luminosity-weighted mean ages of the luminous stars in the 50 regions with those determined from several independent methods, including the number ratio of red-to-blue supergiants, morphological appearance of the regions, surface brightness fluctuations, and the ages of clusters in the regions. We find reasonably good agreement between these methods. We also find that young stars are much more likely to be found in concentrated aggregates along spiral arms, while older stars are more dispersed. These results are consistent with the scenario that star formation is associated with the spiral arms, and stars form primarily in star clusters and then disperse on short timescales to form the field population. The locations of Wolf-Rayet stars are found to correlate with the positions of many of the youngest regions, providing additional support for our ability to accurately estimate ages. We address the effects of spatial resolution on the measured colors, magnitudes, and age estimates. While individual stars can occasionally show measurable differences in the colors and magnitudes, the age estimates for entire regions are only slightly affected.

  4. The Resolved Stellar Population in 50 Regions of M83 from HST/WFC3 Early Release Science Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwihyun; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Chandar, Rupali; Saha, Abhijit; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Mutchler, Max; Cohen, Seth H.; Calzetti, Daniela; O’Connell, Robert W.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength photometric study of approximately 15,000 resolved stars in the nearby spiral galaxy M83 (NGC 5236, D = 4.61 Mpc) based on Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 observations using four filters: F336W, F438W, F555W, and F814W. We select 50 regions (an average size of 260 pc by 280 pc) in the spiral arm and inter-arm areas of M83 and determine the age distribution of the luminous stellar populations in each region. This is accomplished by correcting for extinction toward each individual star by comparing its colors with predictions from stellar isochrones.We compare the resulting luminosity-weighted mean ages of the luminous stars in the 50 regions with those determined from several independent methods, including the number ratio of red-to-blue supergiants, morphological appearance of the regions, surface brightness fluctuations, and the ages of clusters in the regions. We find reasonably good agreement between these methods. We also find that young stars are much more likely to be found in concentrated aggregates along spiral arms, while older stars are more dispersed. These results are consistent with the scenario that star formation is associated with the spiral arms, and stars form primarily in star clusters and then disperse on short timescales to form the field population. The locations ofWolf-Rayet stars are found to correlate with the positions of many of the youngest regions, providing additional support for our ability to accurately estimate ages. We address the effects of spatial resolution on the measured colors, magnitudes, and age estimates. While individual stars can occasionally show measurable differences in the colors and magnitudes, the age estimates for entire regions are only slightly affected.

  5. THE RESOLVED STELLAR POPULATION IN 50 REGIONS OF M83 FROM HST/WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwihyun; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Mutchler, Max; Bond, Howard E.; Chandar, Rupali; Saha, Abhijit; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Calzetti, Daniela; O'Connell, Robert W.; Balick, Bruce; Carollo, Marcella; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength photometric study of ∼15,000 resolved stars in the nearby spiral galaxy M83 (NGC 5236, D = 4.61 Mpc) based on Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 observations using four filters: F336W, F438W, F555W, and F814W. We select 50 regions (an average size of 260 pc by 280 pc) in the spiral arm and inter-arm areas of M83 and determine the age distribution of the luminous stellar populations in each region. This is accomplished by correcting for extinction toward each individual star by comparing its colors with predictions from stellar isochrones. We compare the resulting luminosity-weighted mean ages of the luminous stars in the 50 regions with those determined from several independent methods, including the number ratio of red-to-blue supergiants, morphological appearance of the regions, surface brightness fluctuations, and the ages of clusters in the regions. We find reasonably good agreement between these methods. We also find that young stars are much more likely to be found in concentrated aggregates along spiral arms, while older stars are more dispersed. These results are consistent with the scenario that star formation is associated with the spiral arms, and stars form primarily in star clusters and then disperse on short timescales to form the field population. The locations of Wolf-Rayet stars are found to correlate with the positions of many of the youngest regions, providing additional support for our ability to accurately estimate ages. We address the effects of spatial resolution on the measured colors, magnitudes, and age estimates. While individual stars can occasionally show measurable differences in the colors and magnitudes, the age estimates for entire regions are only slightly affected.

  6. Spatially Resolved Circumnuclear Dust in Centaurus A

    OpenAIRE

    Karovska, Margarita; Marengo, Massimo; Elvis, Martin; Fazio, Giovanni; Hora, Joseph; Hinz, Philip; Hoffmann, William; Meyer, Michael; Mamajek, Eric

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present results from our exploratory mid-IR study of Centaurus A circumnuclear environment using high-angular resolution imaging at the Magellan 6.5m telescope with the MIRAC/BLINC camera. We detected emission from a compact region surrounding the nuclear source, and obtained photometry at 8.8 microns and in the N band. Our analysis suggests that the nuclear region is resolved with a size of approximately 3 pc. The mid-IR emission from this region is likely associated with co...

  7. An improved anisotropy-resolving subgrid-scale model for flows in laminar–turbulent transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Masahide; Abe, Ken-ichi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An anisotropy-resolving subgrid-scale model, covering a wide range of grid resolutions, is improved. • The new model enhances its applicability to flows in the laminar-turbulent transition region. • A mixed-timescale subgrid-scale model is used as the eddy viscosity model. • The proposed model successfully predicts the channel flows at transitional Reynolds numbers. • The influence of the definition of the grid-filter width is also investigated. - Abstract: Some types of mixed subgrid-scale (SGS) models combining an isotropic eddy-viscosity model and a scale-similarity model can be used to effectively improve the accuracy of large eddy simulation (LES) in predicting wall turbulence. Abe (2013) has recently proposed a stabilized mixed model that maintains its computational stability through a unique procedure that prevents the energy transfer between the grid-scale (GS) and SGS components induced by the scale-similarity term. At the same time, since this model can successfully predict the anisotropy of the SGS stress, the predictive performance, particularly at coarse grid resolutions, is remarkably improved in comparison with other mixed models. However, since the stabilized anisotropy-resolving SGS model includes a transport equation of the SGS turbulence energy, k SGS , containing a production term proportional to the square root of k SGS , its applicability to flows with both laminar and turbulent regions is not so high. This is because such a production term causes k SGS to self-reproduce. Consequently, the laminar–turbulent transition region predicted by this model depends on the inflow or initial condition of k SGS . To resolve these issues, in the present study, the mixed-timescale (MTS) SGS model proposed by Inagaki et al. (2005) is introduced into the stabilized mixed model as the isotropic eddy-viscosity part and the production term in the k SGS transport equation. In the MTS model, the SGS turbulence energy, k es , estimated by

  8. Effects of expanding compact H II regions upon molecular clouds: Molecular dissociation waves, shock waves, and carbon ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.K.; Hollenbach, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of young expanding compact H II regions upon their molecular environments are studied, emphasizing the simultaneous evolution of the molecular hydrogen dissociation front and the shocked shell of gas surrounding the nebula. For H II regions powered by 05 stars embedded in molecular clouds of ambient density 10 3 -10 4 cm -3 the dissociation wave initially travels outward much more rapidly than the shock, but later decelerates and is swept up by the shock about 10 5 yr after the expansion begins. The 21 cm line of atomic hydrogen will be optically thick in both the preshock and postshock gas for most of this period. The most important coolant transitions are the [O I] 63 μm line and, for t> or approx. =10 5 yr, the rotational transitions of H 2 and/or the rotational transitions of CO. The vibrational transitions of H 2 are excited predominantly by ultraviolet pumping. We estimate the preshock and postshock carbon recombination-line emission measures

  9. Development of capability for microtopography-resolving simulations of hydrologic processes in permafrost affected regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, S.; Moulton, J. D.; Berndt, M.; Coon, E.; Garimella, R.; Lewis, K. C.; Manzini, G.; Mishra, P.; Travis, B. J.; Wilson, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The frozen soils of the Arctic and subarctic regions contain vast amounts of stored organic carbon. This carbon is vulnerable to release to the atmosphere as temperatures warm and permafrost degrades. Understanding the response of the subsurface and surface hydrologic system to degrading permafrost is key to understanding the rate, timing, and chemical form of potential carbon releases to the atmosphere. Simulating the hydrologic system in degrading permafrost regions is challenging because of the potential for topographic evolution and associated drainage network reorganization as permafrost thaws and massive ground ice melts. The critical process models required for simulating hydrology include subsurface thermal hydrology of freezing/thawing soils, thermal processes within ice wedges, mechanical deformation processes, overland flow, and surface energy balances including snow dynamics. A new simulation tool, the Arctic Terrestrial Simulator (ATS), is being developed to simulate these coupled processes. The computational infrastructure must accommodate fully unstructured grids that track evolving topography, allow accurate solutions on distorted grids, provide robust and efficient solutions on highly parallel computer architectures, and enable flexibility in the strategies for coupling among the various processes. The ATS is based on Amanzi (Moulton et al. 2012), an object-oriented multi-process simulator written in C++ that provides much of the necessary computational infrastructure. Status and plans for the ATS including major hydrologic process models and validation strategies will be presented. Highly parallel simulations of overland flow using high-resolution digital elevation maps of polygonal patterned ground landscapes demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. Simulations coupling three-phase subsurface thermal hydrology with a simple thaw-induced subsidence model illustrate the strong feedbacks among the processes. D. Moulton, M. Berndt, M. Day, J

  10. Polarization-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing of CdS nanocrystals in a nonresonant region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, S.M.; Seo, J.T.; Yang, Q.; Creemore, L.; Battle, R.; Tabibi, B.; Yu, W.

    2006-01-01

    The third-order susceptibilities of various concentrations of TOPO-passivated CdS nanocrystals (NCs) with the size near the Bohr radius were investigated using polarization-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) in a nonresonant excitation region with 532 nm wavelength and 8 ns pulse width. The second hyperpolarizabilities left angle γ h xxxx right angle and left angle γ h xyyx right angle of the CdS NCs were ∝1.25 x 10 -42 m 5 /V 2 and ∝3.66 x 10 -43 m 5 /V 2 , respectively. The ratio (left angle γ h xyyx right angle / left angle γ h xxxx right angle) of the hyperpolarizabilities was ∝0.29 that indicated a large contribution of electronic polarization process to the third-order nonlinearity of CdS NCs. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Local cytokine changes in complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I) resolve after 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Melanie; Uçeyler, Nurcan; Frettlöh, Jule; Höffken, Oliver; Krumova, Elena K; Lissek, Silke; Reinersmann, Annika; Sommer, Claudia; Stude, Philipp; Waaga-Gasser, Ana M; Tegenthoff, Martin; Maier, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that inflammatory processes are involved in at least the early phase of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). We compared a panel of pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines in skin blister fluids and serum from patients with CRPS and patients with upper-limb pain of other origin (non-CRPS) in the early stage (CRPS patients compared to non-CRPS patients. Neither group showed side differences. After 6 months under analgesic treatment, protein levels of all measured cytokines in CRPS patients, except for IL-6, significantly changed bilaterally to the level of non-CRPS patients. These changes were not related to treatment outcome. In serum, only IL-8, TNF-α, eotaxin, MCP-1, and MIP-1β were detectable without intergroup differences. Blister fluid of CRPS patients showed a bilateral proinflammatory cytokine profile. This profile seems to be relevant only at the early stage of CRPS. Almost all measured cytokine levels were comparable to those of non-CRPS patients after 6 months of analgesic treatment and were not related to treatment outcome. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. RESOLVING THE PLANET-HOSTING INNER REGIONS OF THE LkCa 15 DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thalmann, C.; Garufi, A.; Quanz, S. P.; Daemgen, S.; Engler, N. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Astronomy, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Janson, M. [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Boccaletti, A. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UPMC Paris 6, Sorbonne Université, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon CEDEX (France); Sissa, E.; Gratton, R.; Desidera, S. [INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Salter, G.; Langlois, M. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Benisty, M.; Bonnefoy, M.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Lannier, J. [Université Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Dominik, C. [Anton Pannekoek Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Feldt, M.; Henning, T., E-mail: thalmann@phys.ethz.ch [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); and others

    2016-09-10

    LkCa 15 hosts a pre-transitional disk as well as at least one accreting protoplanet orbiting in its gap. Previous disk observations have focused mainly on the outer disk, which is cleared inward of ∼50 au. The planet candidates, on the other hand, reside at orbital radii around 15 au, where disk observations have been unreliable until recently. Here, we present new J -band imaging polarimetry of LkCa 15 with SPHERE IRDIS, yielding the most accurate and detailed scattered-light images of the disk to date down to the planet-hosting inner regions. We find what appear to be persistent asymmetric structures in the scattering material at the location of the planet candidates, which could be responsible at least for parts of the signals measured with sparse-aperture masking. These images further allow us to trace the gap edge in scattered light at all position angles and search the inner and outer disks for morphological substructure. The outer disk appears smooth with slight azimuthal variations in polarized surface brightness, which may be due to shadowing from the inner disk or a two-peaked polarized phase function. We find that the near-side gap edge revealed by polarimetry matches the sharp crescent seen in previous ADI imaging very well. Finally, the ratio of polarized disk to stellar flux is more than six times larger in the J -band than in the RI bands.

  13. Contribution of resolved and unresolved harmonic regions to brainstem speech-evoked responses in quiet and in background noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laroche

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Speech auditory brainstem responses (speech ABR reflect activity that is phase-locked to the harmonics of the fundamental frequency (F0 up to at least the first formant (F1. Recent evidence suggests that responses at F0 in the presence of noise are more robust than responses at F1, and are also dissociated in some learning-impaired children. Peripheral auditory processing can be broadly divided into resolved and unresolved harmonic regions. This study investigates the contribution of these two regions to the speech ABR, and their susceptibility to noise. We recorded, in quiet and in background white noise, evoked responses in twelve normal hearing adults in response to three variants of a synthetic vowel: i Allformants, which contains all first three formants, ii F1Only, which is dominated by resolved harmonics, and iii F2&F3Only, which is dominated by unresolved harmonics. There were no statistically significant differences in the response at F0 due to the three variants of the stimulus in quiet, nor did the noise affect this response with the Allformants and F1Only variants. On the other hand, the response at F0 with the F2&F3Only variant was significantly weaker in noise than with the two other variants (p<0.001. With the response at F1, there was no difference with the Allformants and F1Only variants in quiet, but was expectedly weaker with the F2&F3Only variant (p<0.01. The addition of noise significantly weakened the response at F1 with the F1Only variant (p<0.05, but this weakening only tended towards significance with the Allformants variant (p=0.07. The results of this study indicate that resolved and unresolved harmonics are processed in different but interacting pathways that converge in the upper brainstem. The results also support earlier work on the differential susceptibility of responses at F0 and F1 to added noise.

  14. Line profile studies of hydrodynamical models of cometary compact H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Feng-Yao; Zhu, Qing-Feng

    2015-01-01

    We simulate the evolution of cometary H II regions based on several champagne flow models and bow shock models, and calculate the profiles of the [Ne II] fine-structure line at 12.81 μm, the H30α recombination line and the [Ne III] fine-structure line at 15.55 μm for these models at different inclinations of 0°, 30° and 60°. We find that the profiles in the bow shock models are generally different from those in the champagne flow models, but the profiles in the bow shock models with lower stellar velocity (≤ 5 km s −1 ) are similar to those in the champagne flow models. In champagne flow models, both the velocity of peak flux and the flux weighted central velocities of all three lines point outward from molecular clouds. In bow shock models, the directions of these velocities depend on the speed of stars. The central velocities of these lines are consistent with the stellar motion in the high stellar speed cases, but they are opposite directions from the stellar motion in the low speed cases. We notice that the line profiles from the slit along the symmetrical axis of the projected 2D image of these models are useful for distinguishing bow shock models from champagne flow models. It is also confirmed by the calculation that the flux weighted central velocity and the line luminosity of the [Ne III] line can be estimated from the [Ne II] line and the H30α line. (paper)

  15. Dated Plant Phylogenies Resolve Neogene Climate and Landscape Evolution in the Cape Floristic Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Hoffmann

    Full Text Available In the context of molecularly-dated phylogenies, inferences informed by ancestral habitat reconstruction can yield valuable insights into the origins of biomes, palaeoenvironments and landforms. In this paper, we use dated phylogenies of 12 plant clades from the Cape Floristic Region (CFR in southern Africa to test hypotheses of Neogene climatic and geomorphic evolution. Our combined dataset for the CFR strengthens and refines previous palaeoenvironmental reconstructions based on a sparse, mostly offshore fossil record. Our reconstructions show remarkable consistency across all 12 clades with regard to both the types of environments identified as ancestral, and the timing of shifts to alternative conditions. They reveal that Early Miocene land surfaces of the CFR were wetter than at present and were dominated by quartzitic substrata. These conditions continue to characterize the higher-elevation settings of the Cape Fold Belt, where they have fostered the persistence of ancient fynbos lineages. The Middle Miocene (13-17 Ma saw the development of perennial to weakly-seasonal arid conditions, with the strongly seasonal rainfall regime of the west coast arising ~6.5-8 Ma. Although the Late Miocene may have seen some exposure of the underlying shale substrata, the present-day substrate diversity of the CFR lowlands was shaped by Pliocene-Pleistocene events. Particularly important was renewed erosion, following the post-African II uplift episode, and the reworking of sediments on the coastal platform as a consequence of marine transgressions and tectonic uplift. These changes facilitated adaptive radiations in some, but not all, lineages studied.

  16. Efficient method for the solution of the energy dependent integral Boltzmann transport equation in the resolved resonance energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenk, G.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The calculation of neutron-nuclei reaction rates in the lower resolved resonance region (167 eV - 1.855 eV) is considered in this dissertation. Particular emphasis is placed on the calculation of these reaction rates for tight lattices where their accuracy is most important. The results of the continuous energy Monte Carlo code, VIM, are chosen as reference values for this study. The primary objective of this work is to develop a method for calculating resonance reaction rates which agree well with the reference solution, yet is efficient enough to be used by nuclear reactor fuel cycle designers on a production basis. A very efficient multigroup solution of the two spatial region energy dependent integral transport equation is developed. This solution, denoted the Broad Group Integral Method (BGIM), uses escape probabilities to obtain the spatial coupling between regions and uses an analytical flux shape within a multigroup to obtain weighted cross sections which account for the rapidly varying resonance cross sections. The multigroup lethargy widths chosen for the numerical integration of the two region energy-dependent neutron continuity equations can be chosen much wider (a factor of 30 larger) than in the direct numerical integration methods since the analytical flux shape is used to account for fine structure effects. The BGIM solution is made highly efficient through the use of these broad groups. It is estimated that for a 10 step unit cell fuel cycle depletion calculation, the computer running time for a production code such as EPRI-LEOPARD would be increased by only 6% through the use of the more accurate and intricate BGIM method in the lower resonance energy region

  17. Compact magnetic fusin reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    Compact, high-power-density approaches to fusion power represent alternatives to main-line fusion concepts, Tokamaks and mirrors. If technological issues are resolved, theses approaches would yield small, low-cost fusion power plants. This survey reviews the principal physics and technology employed by leading compact magnetic fusion plants. (Author)

  18. Effect of Cement and Compaction on the Physicochemical Behavior of a Material in the Region of Sidi Bel Abbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Ikhlef

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil treatment describes the procedure under which a soil acquires certain characteristics that did not originally have. This paper is focused in the field of road earthworks and the treatment of a material found in the region of Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria. This material has poor characteristics that do not meet the standards used in road geotechnics. To remedy this, firstly, the Proctor Standard characteristics of this material were improved using mechanical treatment that increased the compaction energy. Then a chemical treatment was employed, adding some cement dosages, and results show that the material classified in the A1h class, for an increased maximum dry density and a reduction in water content. A comparative study is made on the optimal properties of the material between the two modes of treatment. On the other hand, after treatment, one finds a decrease in the plasticity index and the methylene blue value. This material exhibits a change of class. Therefore, soil class CL turned into a soil class CL-ML (silt of low plasticity. This observation allows the material to be used as backfill or subgrade.

  19. WEAK AND COMPACT RADIO EMISSION IN EARLY HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS. I. VLA OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosero, V.; Hofner, P. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Pl., Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Claussen, M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Rd., Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S.; Carrasco-González, C.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Loinard, L. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58090, México (Mexico); Cesaroni, R. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Araya, E. D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F. [Max-Planck-Institute für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ellingsen, S. P. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)

    2016-12-01

    We present a high-sensitivity radio continuum survey at 6 and 1.3 cm using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array toward a sample of 58 high-mass star-forming regions. Our sample was chosen from dust clumps within infrared dark clouds with and without IR sources (CMC–IRs and CMCs, respectively), and hot molecular cores (HMCs), with no previous, or relatively weak radio continuum detection at the 1 mJy level. Due to the improvement in the continuum sensitivity of the Very Large Array, this survey achieved map rms levels of ∼3–10  μ Jy beam{sup −1} at sub-arcsecond angular resolution. We extracted 70 continuum sources associated with 1.2 mm dust clumps. Most sources are weak, compact, and prime candidates for high-mass protostars. Detection rates of radio sources associated with the millimeter dust clumps for CMCs, CMC–IRs, and HMCs are 6%, 53%, and 100%, respectively. This result is consistent with increasing high-mass star formation activity from CMCs to HMCs. The radio sources located within HMCs and CMC–IRs occur close to the dust clump centers, with a median offset from it of 12,000 au and 4000 au, respectively. We calculated 5–25 GHz spectral indices using power-law fits and obtained a median value of 0.5 (i.e., flux increasing with frequency), suggestive of thermal emission from ionized jets. In this paper we describe the sample, observations, and detections. The analysis and discussion will be presented in Paper II.

  20. Creating interstate compacts for low level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The implementation of the 1980 Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (LLRWPA) depends on the creation of interstate compacts. Compact formation is a public goods problem. Formation may be impeded by opposition from elements in the federal government, the inability of state governments to resolve problems of conflicting political interests, and the possiblity of extensive and unfruitful negotiations. These obstacles my be overcome if fortuitous circumstances exist and entrepreneurial behavior is applied. Guidelines that entrepreneurs may use to facilitate compact formation are relying on the exclusive character of incentives, forming compacts with a small number of members, taking advantage of inequality of interests among prospective members, using solidary incentives to promote cooperation, relying on existing regional organizations to build support, employing a game metaphor to understand the stakes of the participants, and making each party subject to an agreement feel as if it were a winner. (author)

  1. Evaluated 182,183,184,186W Neutron Cross Sections and Covariances in the Resolved Resonance Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigni, Marco T; Leal, Luiz C

    2015-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has recently completed the resonance parameter evaluation of four tungsten isotopes, i.e., 182,183,184,186 W, in the neutron energy range of thermal up to several keV. This nuclear data work was performed with support from the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) in an effort to provide improved tungsten cross section and covariance data for criticality safety analyses. The evaluation methodology uses the Reich-Moore approximation of the R-matrix formalism of the code SAMMY to fit high-resolution measurements performed in 2010 and 2012 at the Geel linear accelerator facility (GELINA), as well as other experimental data sets on natural tungsten available in the EXFOR library. In the analyzed energy range, this work nearly doubles the resolved resonance region (RRR) present in the latest US nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.1. In view of the interest in tungsten for distinct types of nuclear applications and the relatively homogeneous distribution of the isotopic tungsten - namely, 182 W(26.5%), 183 W(14.31%), 184 W(30.64%), and 186 W(28.43%) - the completion of these four evaluations represents a significant contribution to the improvement of the ENDF library. This paper presents an overview of the evaluated resonance parameters and related covariances for total and capture cross sections on the four tungsten isotopes.

  2. A Coupled fcGCM-GCE Modeling System: A 3D Cloud Resolving Model and a Regional Scale Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2005-01-01

    Recent GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) model comparison projects have indicated that cloud-resolving models (CRMs) agree with observations better than traditional single-column models in simulating various types of clouds and cloud systems from different geographic locations. Current and future NASA satellite programs can provide cloud, precipitation, aerosol and other data at very fine spatial and temporal scales. It requires a coupled global circulation model (GCM) and cloud-scale model (termed a super-parameterization or multi-scale modeling framework, MMF) to use these satellite data to improve the understanding of the physical processes that are responsible for the variation in global and regional climate and hydrological systems. The use of a GCM will enable global coverage, and the use of a CRM will allow for better and ore sophisticated physical parameterization. NASA satellite and field campaign cloud related datasets can provide initial conditions as well as validation for both the MMF and CRMs. The Goddard MMF is based on the 2D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model and the Goddard finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM), and it has started production runs with two years results (1998 and 1999). Also, at Goddard, we have implemented several Goddard microphysical schemes (21CE, several 31CE), Goddard radiation (including explicity calculated cloud optical properties), and Goddard Land Information (LIS, that includes the CLM and NOAH land surface models) into a next generation regional scale model, WRF. In this talk, I will present: (1) A Brief review on GCE model and its applications on precipitation processes (microphysical and land processes), (2) The Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), and preliminary results (the comparison with traditional GCMs), (3) A discussion on the Goddard WRF version (its developments and applications), and (4) The characteristics of the four-dimensional cloud data

  3. A Coupled GCM-Cloud Resolving Modeling System, and a Regional Scale Model to Study Precipitation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2007-01-01

    Recent GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) model comparison projects have indicated that cloud-resolving models (CRMs) agree with observations better than traditional single-column models in simulating various types of clouds and cloud systems from different geographic locations. Current and future NASA satellite programs can provide cloud, precipitation, aerosol and other data at very fine spatial and temporal scales. It requires a coupled global circulation model (GCM) and cloud-scale model (termed a superparameterization or multi-scale modeling framework, MMF) to use these satellite data to improve the understanding of the physical processes that are responsible for the variation in global and regional climate and hydrological systems. The use of a GCM will enable global coverage, and the use of a CRM will allow for better and more sophisticated physical parameterization. NASA satellite and field campaign cloud related datasets can provide initial conditions as well as validation for both the MMF and CRMs. The Goddard MMF is based on the 2D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model and the Goddard finite volume general circulation model (fvGCM), and it has started production runs with two years results (1998 and 1999). Also, at Goddard, we have implemented several Goddard microphysical schemes (2ICE, several 31CE), Goddard radiation (including explicitly calculated cloud optical properties), and Goddard Land Information (LIS, that includes the CLM and NOAH land surface models) into a next generatio11 regional scale model, WRF. In this talk, I will present: (1) A brief review on GCE model and its applications on precipitation processes (microphysical and land processes), (2) The Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), and preliminary results (the comparison with traditional GCMs), and (3) A discussion on the Goddard WRF version (its developments and applications).

  4. Long-term ecology resolves the timing, region of origin and process of establishment for a disputed alien tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmshurst, Janet M; McGlone, Matt S; Turney, Chris S M

    2015-08-26

    Alien plants are a pervasive environmental problem, particularly on islands where they can rapidly transform unique indigenous ecosystems. However, often it is difficult to confidently determine whether a species is native or alien, especially if establishment occurred before historical records. This can present a management challenge: for example, should such taxa be eradicated or left alone until their region of origin and status are clarified? Here we show how combining palaeoecological and historical records can help resolve such dilemmas, using the tree daisy Olearia lyallii on the remote New Zealand subantarctic Auckland Islands as a case study. The status of this tree as native or introduced has remained uncertain for the 175 years since it was first discovered on the Auckland Islands, and its appropriate management is debated. Elsewhere, O. lyallii has a highly restricted distribution on small sea bird-rich islands within a 2° latitudinal band south of mainland New Zealand. Analysis of palaeoecological and historical records from the Auckland Islands suggest that O. lyallii established there c. 1807 when these islands were first exploited by European sealers. Establishment was facilitated by anthropogenic burning and clearing and its subsequent spread has been slow, limited in distribution and probably human-assisted. Olearia lyallii has succeeded mostly in highly disturbed sites which are also nutrient enriched from nesting sea birds, seals and sea spray. This marine subsidy has fuelled the rapid growth of O. lyallii and allowed this tree to be competitive against the maritime communities it has replaced. Although endemic to the New Zealand region, our evidence suggests that O. lyallii is alien to the Auckland Islands. Although such 'native' aliens can pose unique management challenges on islands, in this instance we suggest that ongoing monitoring with no control is an appropriate management action, as O. lyallii appears to pose minimal risk to

  5. MULTI-EPOCH VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE COMPACT WIND-COLLISION REGION IN THE QUADRUPLE SYSTEM Cyg OB2 no. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent; Ortiz-Leon, Gisela N.; Araudo, Anabella T. [Centro de Radiostronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia 58089 (Mexico); Mioduszewski, Amy J., E-mail: s.dzib@crya.unam.mx [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present multi-epoch Very Long Base Array observations of the compact wind-collision region in the Cyg OB2 no. 5 system. These observations confirm the arc-shaped morphology of the emission reported earlier. The total flux as a function of time is roughly constant when the source is 'on', but falls below the detection limit as the wind-collision region approaches periastron in its orbit around the contact binary at the center of the system. In addition, at one of the 'on' epochs, the flux drops to about a fifth of its average value. We suggest that this apparent variation could result from the inhomogeneity of the wind that hides part of the flux rather than from an intrinsic variation. We measured a trigonometrical parallax, for the most compact radio emission of 0.61 {+-} 0.22 mas, corresponding to a distance of 1.65 {sup +0.96} {sub -0.44} kpc, in agreement with recent trigonometrical parallaxes measured for objects in the Cygnus X complex. Using constraints on the total mass of the system and orbital parameters previously reported in the literature, we obtain two independent indirect measurements of the distance to the Cyg OB2 no. 5 system, both consistent with 1.3-1.4 kpc. Finally, we suggest that the companion star responsible for the wind interaction, yet undetected, is of spectral type between B0.5 and O8.

  6. MULTI-EPOCH VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE COMPACT WIND-COLLISION REGION IN THE QUADRUPLE SYSTEM Cyg OB2 no. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzib, Sergio A.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent; Ortiz-León, Gisela N.; Araudo, Anabella T.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    We present multi-epoch Very Long Base Array observations of the compact wind-collision region in the Cyg OB2 no. 5 system. These observations confirm the arc-shaped morphology of the emission reported earlier. The total flux as a function of time is roughly constant when the source is 'on', but falls below the detection limit as the wind-collision region approaches periastron in its orbit around the contact binary at the center of the system. In addition, at one of the 'on' epochs, the flux drops to about a fifth of its average value. We suggest that this apparent variation could result from the inhomogeneity of the wind that hides part of the flux rather than from an intrinsic variation. We measured a trigonometrical parallax, for the most compact radio emission of 0.61 ± 0.22 mas, corresponding to a distance of 1.65 +0.96 –0.44 kpc, in agreement with recent trigonometrical parallaxes measured for objects in the Cygnus X complex. Using constraints on the total mass of the system and orbital parameters previously reported in the literature, we obtain two independent indirect measurements of the distance to the Cyg OB2 no. 5 system, both consistent with 1.3-1.4 kpc. Finally, we suggest that the companion star responsible for the wind interaction, yet undetected, is of spectral type between B0.5 and O8.

  7. The diagnostic value of component-resolved diagnostics in peanut allergy in children attending a Regional Paediatric Allergology Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Leonieke N; Heron, Michiel; Batstra, Manou; van Haard, Paul M M; de Groot, Hans

    2016-06-02

    To date, diagnosing food allergies in children still presents a diagnostic dilemma, leading to uncertainty concerning the definite diagnosis of peanut allergy, as well as to the need for strict diets and the potential need for adrenalin auto-injectors. This uncertainty in particular is thought to contribute to a lower quality of life. In the diagnostic process double-blind food challenges are considered the gold standard, but they are time-consuming as well as potentially hazardous. Other diagnostic tests have been extensively studied and among these component-resolved diagnostics appeared to present a promising alternative: Ara h2, a peanut storage protein in previous studies showed to have a significant predictive value. Sixty-two out of 72 children, with suspected peanut allergy were analyzed using serum specific IgE and/or skin prick tests and specific IgE to several components of peanut (Ara h 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 9). Subsequently, double-blind food challenges were performed. The correlation between the various diagnostic tests and the overall outcome of the double-blind food challenges were studied, in particular the severity of the reaction and the eliciting dose. The double-blind provocation with peanut was positive in 33 children (53 %). There was no relationship between the eliciting dose and the severity of the reaction. A statistically significant relationship was found between the skin prick test, specific IgE directed to peanut, Ara h 1, Ara h 2 or Ara h 6, and the outcome of the food challenge test, in terms of positive or negative (P food challenge. This study shows that component-resolved diagnostics is not superior to specific IgE to peanut extract or to skin prick testing. At present, it cannot replace double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges for determination of the eliciting dose or the severity of the peanut allergy in our patient group.

  8. Compact NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemich, Bernhard; Haber-Pohlmeier, Sabina; Zia, Wasif [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie (ITMC)

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the most popular method for chemists to analyze molecular structures, while Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic tool for medical doctors that provides high-contrast images of biological tissue. In both applications, the sample (or patient) is positioned inside a large, superconducting magnet to magnetize the atomic nuclei. Interrogating radio-frequency pulses result in frequency spectra that provide the chemist with molecular information, the medical doctor with anatomic images, and materials scientist with NMR relaxation parameters. Recent advances in magnet technology have led to a variety of small permanent magnets to allow compact and low-cost instruments. The goal of this book is to provide an introduction to the practical use of compact NMR at a level nearly as basic as the operation of a smart phone.

  9. Management of low-level radioactive waste in the southeast compact region: Final report: Volume 3, Siting methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    This report is a part of the designation process and provides technical criteria and procedures for use in the designation process. It also provides information related to data sources and methodology for applying the criteria. As part of the designation process, the Commissioners will weight the recommended criteria to reflect the relative importance of the various considerations to the goal of providing facilities that will allow for the safe, environmentally sound, and cost-effective management of low-level radioactive waste in the Southeast Region. One possible method for accomplishing this weighting is described in this report

  10. Compact stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez-Delgado, Gabino; Estevez-Delgado, Joaquin

    2018-05-01

    An analysis and construction is presented for a stellar model characterized by two parameters (w, n) associated with the compactness ratio and anisotropy, respectively. The reliability range for the parameter w ≤ 1.97981225149 corresponds with a compactness ratio u ≤ 0.2644959374, the density and pressures are positive, regular and monotonic decrescent functions, the radial and tangential speed of sound are lower than the light speed, moreover, than the plausible stability. The behavior of the speeds of sound are determinate for the anisotropy parameter n, admitting a subinterval where the speeds are monotonic crescent functions and other where we have monotonic decrescent functions for the same speeds, both cases describing a compact object that is also potentially stable. In the bigger value for the observational mass M = 2.05 M⊙ and radii R = 12.957 Km for the star PSR J0348+0432, the model indicates that the maximum central density ρc = 1.283820319 × 1018 Kg/m3 corresponds to the maximum value of the anisotropy parameter and the radial and tangential speed of the sound are monotonic decrescent functions.

  11. A Regional Model for Malaria Vector Developmental Habitats Evaluated Using Explicit, Pond-Resolving Surface Hydrology Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ohene Asare

    Full Text Available Dynamical malaria models can relate precipitation to the availability of vector breeding sites using simple models of surface hydrology. Here, a revised scheme is developed for the VECTRI malaria model, which is evaluated alongside the default scheme using a two year simulation by HYDREMATS, a 10 metre resolution, village-scale model that explicitly simulates individual ponds. Despite the simplicity of the two VECTRI surface hydrology parametrization schemes, they can reproduce the sub-seasonal evolution of fractional water coverage. Calibration of the model parameters is required to simulate the mean pond fraction correctly. The default VECTRI model tended to overestimate water fraction in periods subject to light rainfall events and underestimate it during periods of intense rainfall. This systematic error was improved in the revised scheme by including the a parametrization for surface run-off, such that light rainfall below the initial abstraction threshold does not contribute to ponds. After calibration of the pond model, the VECTRI model was able to simulate vector densities that compared well to the detailed agent based model contained in HYDREMATS without further parameter adjustment. Substituting local rain-gauge data with satellite-retrieved precipitation gave a reasonable approximation, raising the prospects for regional malaria simulations even in data sparse regions. However, further improvements could be made if a method can be derived to calibrate the key hydrology parameters of the pond model in each grid cell location, possibly also incorporating slope and soil texture.

  12. A Regional Model for Malaria Vector Developmental Habitats Evaluated Using Explicit, Pond-Resolving Surface Hydrology Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Ernest Ohene; Tompkins, Adrian Mark; Bomblies, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Dynamical malaria models can relate precipitation to the availability of vector breeding sites using simple models of surface hydrology. Here, a revised scheme is developed for the VECTRI malaria model, which is evaluated alongside the default scheme using a two year simulation by HYDREMATS, a 10 metre resolution, village-scale model that explicitly simulates individual ponds. Despite the simplicity of the two VECTRI surface hydrology parametrization schemes, they can reproduce the sub-seasonal evolution of fractional water coverage. Calibration of the model parameters is required to simulate the mean pond fraction correctly. The default VECTRI model tended to overestimate water fraction in periods subject to light rainfall events and underestimate it during periods of intense rainfall. This systematic error was improved in the revised scheme by including the a parametrization for surface run-off, such that light rainfall below the initial abstraction threshold does not contribute to ponds. After calibration of the pond model, the VECTRI model was able to simulate vector densities that compared well to the detailed agent based model contained in HYDREMATS without further parameter adjustment. Substituting local rain-gauge data with satellite-retrieved precipitation gave a reasonable approximation, raising the prospects for regional malaria simulations even in data sparse regions. However, further improvements could be made if a method can be derived to calibrate the key hydrology parameters of the pond model in each grid cell location, possibly also incorporating slope and soil texture.

  13. Climate change impact assessment in Veneto and Friuli Plain groundwater. Part II: a spatially resolved regional risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, S; Torresan, S; Rizzi, J; Zabeo, A; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2012-12-01

    Climate change impact assessment on water resources has received high international attention over the last two decades, due to the observed global warming and its consequences at the global to local scale. In particular, climate-related risks for groundwater and related ecosystems pose a great concern to scientists and water authorities involved in the protection of these valuable resources. The close link of global warming with water cycle alterations encourages research to deepen current knowledge on relationships between climate trends and status of water systems, and to develop predictive tools for their sustainable management, copying with key principles of EU water policy. Within the European project Life+ TRUST (Tool for Regional-scale assessment of groundwater Storage improvement in adaptation to climaTe change), a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed in order to identify impacts from climate change on groundwater and associated ecosystems (e.g. surface waters, agricultural areas, natural environments) and to rank areas and receptors at risk in the high and middle Veneto and Friuli Plain (Italy). Based on an integrated analysis of impacts, vulnerability and risks linked to climate change at the regional scale, a RRA framework complying with the Sources-Pathway-Receptor-Consequence (SPRC) approach was defined. Relevant impacts on groundwater and surface waters (i.e. groundwater level variations, changes in nitrate infiltration processes, changes in water availability for irrigation) were selected and analyzed through hazard scenario, exposure, susceptibility and risk assessment. The RRA methodology used hazard scenarios constructed through global and high resolution model simulations for the 2071-2100 period, according to IPCC A1B emission scenario in order to produce useful indications for future risk prioritization and to support the addressing of adaptation measures, primarily Managed Artificial Recharge (MAR) techniques. Relevant

  14. Toward Process-resolving Synthesis and Prediction of Arctic Climate Change Using the Regional Arctic System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowski, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) has been developed to better understand the operation of Arctic System at process scale and to improve prediction of its change at a spectrum of time scales. RASM is a pan-Arctic, fully coupled ice-ocean-atmosphere-land model with marine biogeochemistry extension to the ocean and sea ice models. The main goal of our research is to advance a system-level understanding of critical processes and feedbacks in the Arctic and their links with the Earth System. The secondary, an equally important objective, is to identify model needs for new or additional observations to better understand such processes and to help constrain models. Finally, RASM has been used to produce sea ice forecasts for September 2016 and 2017, in contribution to the Sea Ice Outlook of the Sea Ice Prediction Network. Future RASM forecasts, are likely to include increased resolution for model components and ecosystem predictions. Such research is in direct support of the US environmental assessment and prediction needs, including those of the U.S. Navy, Department of Defense, and the recent IARPC Arctic Research Plan 2017-2021. In addition to an overview of RASM technical details, selected model results are presented from a hierarchy of climate models together with available observations in the region to better understand potential oceanic contributions to polar amplification. RASM simulations are analyzed to evaluate model skill in representing seasonal climatology as well as interannual and multi-decadal climate variability and predictions. Selected physical processes and resulting feedbacks are discussed to emphasize the need for fully coupled climate model simulations, high model resolution and sensitivity of simulated sea ice states to scale dependent model parameterizations controlling ice dynamics, thermodynamics and coupling with the atmosphere and ocean.

  15. Recommendations for a first Core Outcome Measurement set for complex regional PAin syndrome Clinical sTudies (COMPACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Sharon; Perez, Roberto SGM; Birklein, Frank; Brunner, Florian; Bruehl, Stephen; Harden R, Norman; Packham, Tara; Gobeil, Francois; Haigh, Richard; Holly, Janet; Terkelsen, Astrid; Davies, Lindsay; Lewis, Jennifer; Thomassen, Ilona; Connett, Robyn; Worth, Tina; Vatine, Jean-Jacques; McCabe, Candida S

    2017-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is a persistent pain condition that remains incompletely understood and challenging to treat. Historically, a wide range of different outcome measures have been used to capture the multidimensional nature of CRPS. This has been a significant limiting factor in the advancement of our understanding of the mechanisms and management of CRPS. In 2013, an international consortium of patients, clinicians, researchers and industry representatives was established, to develop and agree on a minimum core set of standardised outcome measures for use in future CRPS clinical research, including but not limited to clinical trials within adult populations The development of a core measurement set was informed through workshops and supplementary work, using an iterative consensus process. ‘What is the clinical presentation and course of CRPS, and what factors influence it?’ was agreed as the most pertinent research question that our standardised set of patient-reported outcome measures should be selected to answer. The domains encompassing the key concepts necessary to answer the research question were agreed as: pain, disease severity, participation and physical function, emotional and psychological function, self efficacy, catastrophizing and patient's global impression of change. The final core measurement set included the optimum generic or condition-specific patient-reported questionnaire outcome measures, which captured the essence of each domain, and one clinician reported outcome measure to capture the degree of severity of CRPS. The next step is to test the feasibility and acceptability of collecting outcome measure data using the core measurement set in the CRPS population internationally. PMID:28178071

  16. SPATIALLY RESOLVED KINEMATICS OF THE CENTRAL REGIONS OF M83: HIDDEN MASS SIGNATURES AND THE ROLE OF SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piqueras Lopez, J.; Colina, L. [Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC (Spain); Davies, R.; Orban de Xivry, G., E-mail: piqueraslj@cab.inta-csic.es [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, 85741 Garching (Germany)

    2012-06-10

    The barred grand-design spiral M83 (NGC 5236) is one of the most studied galaxies given its proximity, orientation, and particular complexity. Nonetheless, many aspects of the central regions remain controversial, conveying our limited understanding of the inner gas and stellar kinematics, and ultimately of the nucleus evolution. In this work, we present AO VLT-SINFONI data of its central {approx}235 Multiplication-Sign 140 pc with an unprecedented spatial resolution of {approx}0.2 arcsec, corresponding to {approx}4 pc. We have focused our study on the distribution and kinematics of the stars and the ionized and molecular gas by studying the Pa{alpha} and Br{gamma} emission in detail, the H{sub 2} 1-0S(1) line at 2.122 {mu}m, and the [Fe II] line at 1.644 {mu}m, together with the CO absorption bands at 2.293 {mu}m and 2.323 {mu}m. Our results reveal a complex situation where the gas and stellar kinematics are totally unrelated. Supernova explosions play an important role in shaping the gas kinematics, dominated by shocks and inflows at scales of tens of parsecs that make them unsuitable to derive general dynamical properties. We propose that the location of the nucleus of M83 is unlikely to be related to the off-center 'optical nucleus'. The study of the stellar kinematics reveals that the optical nucleus is a gravitationally bound massive star cluster with M{sub dyn} = (1.1 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }, formed by a past starburst. The kinematic and photometric analysis of the cluster yield that the stellar content of the cluster is well described by an intermediate age population of log T(yr) = 8.0 {+-} 0.4, with a mass of M* {approx_equal} (7.8 {+-} 2.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }.

  17. A review of low-level radioactive waste compacts on a national level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenneman, F.N.

    1985-01-01

    Since the 1950s, increased quantities of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) have been produced in the United States as a result of the use of radioactive materials in medical diagnoses and treatment, research, industrial processes, and electrical power generation by nuclear plants. With increasing volumes of commercially generated waste, the private sector was encouraged to develop LLW disposal facilities, to be licensed by the AEC or by AEC Agreement states. In 1962, the commercially operated Beaty, Nevada low-level waste facility was opened. During the ensuing nine years, five additional low-level waste disposal facilities opened, resulting, although not planned, in a regional distribution of such facilities. A number of technical and regulatory issues were raised over a period of two years by states and federal agencies, and, for the most part, were resolved. The NRC, DOE, and DOT reviewed and commented on the compacts throughout the drafting of compact language. Comments addressed the scope of the compacts (''management'' vs. ''disposal''), inspection of NRC licensees, regulatory roles of compact commissions, and regulatory requirements inconsistent with federal regulations, to name a few. Among those unresolved issues in some compacts is the definition of LLW, which varies among the compacts. Those in PL96-573 and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 were both used, with and without variations. The definition of transuranic waste and those concentrations allowable at the disposal facilities are not uniform in the compacts

  18. POX 186: the ultracompact blue compact dwarf galaxy reveals its nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doublier, V.; Kunth, D.; Courbin, F.; Magain, P.

    2000-01-01

    High resolution, ground based R and I band observations of the ultra compact dwarf galaxy POX 186 are presented. The data, obtained with the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT), are analyzed using a new deconvolution algorithm which allows one to resolve the innermost regions of this stellar-like object into three Super-Star Clusters (SSC). Upper limits to both masses (M ~ 105 Msun) and physical sizes (<=60pc) of the SSCs are set. In addition, and maybe most importantly, extended light emission underlying the compact star-forming region is clearly detected in both bands. The R-I color rules out nebular Hα contamination and is consistent with an old stellar population. This casts doubt on the hypothesis that Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies (BCDG) are young galaxies. based on observations carried out at NTT in La Silla, operated by the European Southern Observatory, during Director's Discretionary Time.

  19. SEISMOLOGICAL OBSERVATORY AT QUINDIO UNIVERSITY (O.S.Q.: A FIRM LONG-TERM STEP TOWARD RESOLVING REGIONAL SEISMICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monsalve Jaramillo Hugo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El Eje Cafetero (zona central de Colombia, cultivada con café, y en particular, el departamento del Quindío es constantemente golpeada por sismos de diferentes magnitudes. Los sismos son el resultado de la compleja tectónica regional debido a la interacción entre las placa Nazca, Caribe y Sur América. La convergencia de estas placas es responsable de la formación de los Andes. Por estas razones, el OSQ (Observatorio Sismológico del Quindío e INGEOMINAS, como las entidades estatales encargadas de monitorear la actividad sísmica, han de contribuir, a si como los centros regionales de investigación, al desarrollo de los estudios sismológicos y el análisis de la actividad tectónica local, para así obtener nuevos conocimientos a cerca de los desastres naturales que amenazan a las comunidades en la región y entender mejor la estructura interna de la corteza en la región del Eje Cafetero.La combinación de diferentes modelos de velocidad para la región del Eje Cafetero ha permitido la definición de elementos clave para tener una mejor percepción de la estructura de la corteza. En consecuencia, la determinación de un modelo de velocidades mejorado para la región cafetera ha ayudado a localizar mejor los sismos y a determinar con mayor precisión los espesores de la corteza y la estructura del manto superior entre los terrenos adyacentes que fueron generados en diferentes períodos geológicos.La magnitud ML fue determinada para los campos cercanos e intermedios y usando el modelo presentado en este articulo, el problema del rango dinámico de saturación de los sismógrafos durante sismos relevantes en campo cercano es solucionado. La magnitud local de algunos sismos superficiales fue calculada usando sismos con distancias epicentrales entre 10Km y 300Km asi como las magnitudes de algunos sismos profundos con distancias hipocentrales entre 100 Km y 600 Km.La evaluación del potencial sísmico en la región del Eje Cafetero empieza

  20. Water-soluble multidentate polymers compactly coating Ag2S quantum dots with minimized hydrodynamic size and bright emission tunable from red to second near-infrared region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Rijun; Wan, Ajun; Liu, Xifeng; Yuan, Wen; Jin, Hui

    2014-05-21

    Hydrodynamic size-minimized quantum dots (QDs) have outstanding physicochemical properties for applications in multicolor molecular and cellular imaging at the level of single molecules and nanoparticles. In this study, we have reported the aqueous synthesis of Ag2S QDs by using thiol-based multidentate polymers as capping reagents. By regulating the composition of the precursors (AgNO3 and sulfur-N2H4·H2O complex) and multidentate polymers (poly(acrylic acid)-graft-cysteamine-graft-ethylenediamine), as well as the reaction time, Ag2S QDs (2.6-3.7 nm) are prepared, displaying tunable photoluminescence (PL) emission from red to the second near-infrared region (687-1096 nm). The small hydrodynamic thickness (1.6-1.9 nm) of the multidentate polymers yields a highly compact coating for the QDs, which results in the bright fluorescent QDs with high PL quantum yields (QYs: 14.2-16.4%). Experimental results confirm that the QDs have high PL stability and ultralow cytotoxicity, as well as high PLQYs and small hydrodynamic sizes (4.5-5.6 nm) similar to fluorescent proteins (27-30 kDa), indicating the feasibility of highly effective PL imaging in cells and living animals.

  1. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. X. PROPERTIES OF ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS IN THE M87, M49, AND M60 REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chengze [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hong-Xin [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Gwyn, Stephen; Blakeslee, John P. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Jordán, Andrés; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Puzia, Thomas H. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Mihos, J. Christopher [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lançon, Ariane [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg and CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l’Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [CEA/IRFU/SAp, Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Boselli, Alessandro [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Durrell, Patrick R., E-mail: czliu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: peng@pku.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, One University Plaza, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); and others

    2015-10-10

    We use imaging from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS) to present a comparative study of ultra-compact dwarf (UCD) galaxies associated with three prominent Virgo sub-clusters: those centered on the massive red-sequence galaxies M87, M49, and M60. We show how UCDs can be selected with high completeness using a combination of half-light radius and location in color–color diagrams (u*iK{sub s} or u*gz). Although the central galaxies in each of these sub-clusters have nearly identical luminosities and stellar masses, we find large differences in the sizes of their UCD populations, with M87 containing ∼3.5 and 7.8 times more UCDs than M49 and M60, respectively. The relative abundance of UCDs in the three regions scales in proportion to sub-cluster mass, as traced by X-ray gas mass, total gravitating mass, number of globular clusters (GCs), and number of nearby galaxies. We find that the UCDs are predominantly blue in color, with ∼85% of the UCDs having colors similar to blue GCs and stellar nuclei of dwarf galaxies. We present evidence that UCDs surrounding M87 and M49 may follow a morphological sequence ordered by the prominence of their outer, low surface brightness envelope, ultimately merging with the sequence of nucleated low-mass galaxies, and that envelope prominence correlates with distance from either galaxy. Our analysis provides evidence that tidal stripping of nucleated galaxies is an important process in the formation of UCDs.

  2. (U) Influence of Compaction Model Form on Planar and Cylindrical Compaction Geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carney, Theodore Clayton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fichtl, Christopher Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ramsey, Scott D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-05

    The dynamic compaction response of CeO2 is examined within the frameworks of the Ramp and P-a compaction models. Hydrocode calculations simulating the dynamic response of CeO2 at several distinct pressures within the compaction region are investigated in both planar and cylindrically convergent geometries. Findings suggest additional validation of the compaction models is warranted under complex loading configurations.

  3. Group cross sections in the resolved resonance region calculated for a CANDU-PHW reactor operating on closed thorium-uranium and thorium-plutonium-uranium fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, D.; Wilkin, G.B.

    1979-09-01

    Group cross sections in the resolved resonance region are commonly computed for each nuclide independently of other resonance nuclides present in the fuel mixture. While this technique is usually entirely adequate for uranium fuel cycles, it is necessary to establish its legitimacy for closed thorium fuel cycles topped with fissile uranium or plutonium by analysis of a number of representative cases. At the same time cross sections originating from WIMS (Winfrith Improved Multigroup Scheme) calculations are compared with values computed in this study. In this context, particular attention is paid to the adequacy of the lower boundary for the WIMS resonance treatment. All calculations are based on heavy nuclide cross sections from the ENDF/B-IV data compilaton (Evaluated Nuclear Data File). Appreciable interaction effects have been determined for all nuclides except for 232 Th. In most cases, these are due to the strong 232 Th resonance doublet at 21.8 eV and 23.5 eV but some effects also result from resonances of 234 U (5.19 eV, 48.75 eV), 236 U (5.45 eV), 242 Pu (2.67 eV) and others. The influence of mutual interaction on the infinite lattice multiplicaton factor is very small in comparison to the effects of self-shielding. WIMS cross sections do not always compare well with the values computed in the study, but discrepancies are in most cases related to the different sources of data. Interaction effects are not explicitly taken into account in WIMS. Several nuclides ( 233 Pa, 233 U, 240 Pu, 242 Pu) show appreciable self-shielding below the WIMS resonance region and are therefore not treated adequately. The impact of these discrepancies on the multiplication factor is relatively small, however, because of error cancellation. (author)

  4. High time-resolved elemental components in fine and coarse particles in the Pearl River Delta region of Southern China: Dynamic variations and effects of meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengzhen; Davy, Perry K; Wang, Xuemei; Cohen, Jason Blake; Liang, Jiaquan; Huang, Minjuan; Fan, Qi; Chen, Weihua; Chang, Ming; Ancelet, Travis; Trompetter, William J

    2016-12-01

    Hourly-resolved PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5 samples were collected in the industrial city Foshan in the Pearl River Delta region, China. The samples were subsequently analyzed for elemental components and black carbon (BC). A key purpose of the study was to understand the composition of particulate matter (PM) at high-time resolution in a polluted urban atmosphere to identify key components contributing to extreme PM concentration events and examine the diurnal chemical concentration patterns for air quality management purposes. It was found that BC and S concentrations dominated in the fine mode, while elements with mostly crustal and oceanic origins such as Si, Ca, Al and Cl were found in the coarse size fraction. Most of the elements showed strong diurnal variations. S did not show clear diurnal variations, suggesting regional rather than local origin. Based on empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) method, 3 forcing factors were identified contributing to the extreme events of PM 2.5 and selected elements, i.e., urban direct emissions, wet deposition and a combination of coarse mode sources. Conditional probability functions (CPF) were performed using wind profiles and elemental concentrations. The CPF results showed that BC and elemental Cl, K, Fe, Cu and Zn in the fine mode were mostly from the northwest, indicating that industrial emissions and combustion were the main sources. For elements in the coarse mode, Si, Al, K, Ca, Fe and Ti showed similar patterns, suggesting same sources such as local soil dust/construction activities. Coarse elemental Cl was mostly from the south and southeast, implying the influence of marine aerosol sources. For other trace elements, we found vanadium (V) in fine PM was mainly from the sources located to the southeast of the measuring site. Combined with CPF results of S and V in fine PM, we concluded shipping emissions were likely an important elemental emission source. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Pharmaceutical powder compaction technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Çelik, Metin

    2011-01-01

    ... through the compaction formulation process and application. Compaction of powder constituents both active ingredient and excipients is examined to ensure consistent and reproducible disintegration and dispersion profiles...

  6. Water-level altitudes 2015 and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and compaction 1973-2014 in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, Houston-Galveston region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Ramage, Jason K.; Houston, Natalie A.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Schmidt, Tiffany S.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the land-surface subsidence in the Houston-Galveston region, Texas, has occurred as a direct result of groundwater withdrawals for municipal supply, commercial and industrial use, and irrigation that depressured and dewatered the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, thereby causing compaction of the aquifer sediments, mostly in the fine-grained silt and clay layers. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District, City of Houston, Fort Bend Subsidence District, Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, and Brazoria County Groundwater Conservation District, is one in an annual series of reports depicting water-level altitudes and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and measured cumulative compaction of subsurface sediments in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston-Galveston region. The report contains regional-scale maps depicting approximate 2015 water-level altitudes (represented by measurements made during December 2014–March 2015) for the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers; maps depicting 1-year (2014–15) water-level changes for each aquifer; maps depicting approximate contoured 5-year (2010–15) water-level changes for each aquifer; maps depicting approximate contoured long-term (1990–2015 and 1977–2015) water-level changes for the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers; a map depicting approximate contoured long-term (2000–15) water-level changes for the Jasper aquifer; a map depicting locations of borehole-extensometer sites; and graphs depicting measured cumulative compaction of subsurface sediments at the borehole extensometers during 1973–2014. Three tables listing the water-level data used to construct each water-level map for each aquifer and a table listing the measured cumulative compaction data for each extensometer site and graphs are included.

  7. Quantitative analyses of the 3D nuclear landscape recorded with super-resolved fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Volker J; Cremer, Marion; Cremer, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Recent advancements of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy have revolutionized microscopic studies of cells, including the exceedingly complex structural organization of cell nuclei in space and time. In this paper we describe and discuss tools for (semi-) automated, quantitative 3D analyses of the spatial nuclear organization. These tools allow the quantitative assessment of highly resolved different chromatin compaction levels in individual cell nuclei, which reflect functionally different regions or sub-compartments of the 3D nuclear landscape, and measurements of absolute distances between sites of different chromatin compaction. In addition, these tools allow 3D mapping of specific DNA/RNA sequences and nuclear proteins relative to the 3D chromatin compaction maps and comparisons of multiple cell nuclei. The tools are available in the free and open source R packages nucim and bioimagetools. We discuss the use of masks for the segmentation of nuclei and the use of DNA stains, such as DAPI, as a proxy for local differences in chromatin compaction. We further discuss the limitations of 3D maps of the nuclear landscape as well as problems of the biological interpretation of such data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Water-level altitudes 2014 and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and compaction 1973-2013 in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, Houston-Galveston region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Ramage, Jason K.

    2014-01-01

    Most of the land-surface subsidence in the Houston-Galveston region, Texas, has occurred as a direct result of groundwater withdrawals for municipal supply, commercial and industrial use, and irrigation that depressured and dewatered the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, thereby causing compaction of the aquifer sediments, mostly in the fine-grained clay and silt layers. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District, City of Houston, Fort Bend Subsidence District, Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, and Brazoria County Groundwater Conservation District, is one in an annual series of reports depicting water-level altitudes and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and measured compaction of subsurface sediments in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston-Galveston region. The report contains maps depicting approximate 2014 water-level altitudes (represented by measurements made during December 2013–March 2014) for the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers; maps depicting 1-year (2013–14) water-level changes for each aquifer; maps depicting contoured 5-year (2009–14) water-level changes for each aquifer; maps depicting contoured long-term (1990–2014 and 1977–2014) water-level changes for the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers; a map depicting contoured long-term (2000–14) water-level changes for the Jasper aquifer; a map depicting locations of borehole-extensometer sites; and graphs depicting measured cumulative compaction of subsurface sediments at the borehole extensometers during 1973–2013. Tables listing the data used to construct each water-level map for each aquifer and the compaction graphs are included.

  9. Water-level altitudes 2013 and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and compaction 1973--2012 in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, Houston-Galveston region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Ramage, Jason K.

    2013-01-01

    Most of the subsidence in the Houston-Galveston region, Texas, has occurred as a direct result of groundwater withdrawals for municipal supply, commercial and industrial use, and irrigation that depressured and dewatered the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, thereby causing compaction mostly in the clay and silt layers of the aquifer sediments. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District, City of Houston, Fort Bend Subsidence District, Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, and Brazoria County Groundwater Conservation District, is one in an annual series of reports depicting water-level altitudes and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and measured compaction of subsurface sediments in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston-Galveston region. The report contains maps depicting approximate water-level altitudes for 2013 (represented by measurements made during December 2012-February 2013) for the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers; maps depicting 1-year (2012-13) water-level changes for each aquifer; maps depicting 5-year (2008--13) water-level changes for each aquifer; maps depicting long-term (1990-2013 and 1977-2013) water-level changes for the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers; a map depicting long-term (2000-13) water-level changes for the Jasper aquifer; a map depicting locations of borehole-extensometer sites; and graphs depicting measured compaction of subsurface sediments at the extensometers during 1973-2012. Tables listing the data used to construct each water-level map for each aquifer and the compaction graphs are included.

  10. Water-level altitudes 2012 and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and compaction 1973-2011 in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, Houston-Galveston region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Ramage, Jason K.

    2012-01-01

    Most of the subsidence in the Houston–Galveston region, Texas, has occurred as a direct result of groundwater withdrawals for municipal supply, commercial and industrial use, and irrigation that depressured and dewatered the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers and caused compaction of the clay layers of the aquifer sediments. This report—prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Harris– Galveston Subsidence District, City of Houston, Fort Bend Subsidence District, Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, and Brazoria County Groundwater Conservation District—is one in an annual series of reports depicting water-level altitudes and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and compaction in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston–Galveston region. The report contains maps showing approximate water-level altitudes for 2012 (calculated from measurements of water levels in wells made during December 2011–February 2012) for the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers; maps showing 1-year (2011–12) water-level-altitude changes for each aquifer; maps showing 5-year (2007–12) water-levelaltitude changes for each aquifer; maps showing long-term (1990–2012 and 1977–2012) water-level-altitude changes for the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers; a map showing long-term (2000–12) water-level-altitude change for the Jasper aquifer; a map showing locations of borehole extensometer sites; and graphs showing measured compaction of subsurface sediments at the extensometers from 1973 (or later) through 2011. Tables listing the data that were used to construct each water-level map for each aquifer and the cumulative compaction graphs are included.

  11. Water-level altitudes 2009 and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper Aquifers and compaction 1973-2008 in the Chicot and Evangeline Aquifers, Houston-Galveston Region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Houston, Natalie A.; Ramage, Jason K.

    2009-01-01

    This report, done in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District, the City of Houston, the Fort Bend Subsidence District, and the Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, is one in an annual series of reports that depicts water-level altitudes and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers, and compaction in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston-Galveston region, Texas. The report (excluding appendixes) contains 16 sheets and 15 tables: 3 sheets are maps showing current-year (2009) water-level altitudes for each aquifer, respectively; 3 sheets are maps showing 1-year (2008-09) water-level changes for each aquifer, respectively; 3 sheets are maps showing 5-year (2004-09) water-level changes for each aquifer, respectively; 4 sheets are maps showing long-term (1990-2009 and 1977-2009) water-level changes for the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, respectively; 1 sheet is a map showing long-term (2000-2009) water-level change for the Jasper aquifer; 1 sheet is a map showing site locations of borehole extensometers; and 1 sheet comprises graphs showing measured compaction of subsurface material at the sites from 1973 or later through 2008, respectively. Tables listing the data used to construct the aquifer-data maps and the compaction graphs are included.

  12. Water-level altitudes 2016 and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and compaction 1973–2015 in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, Houston-Galveston region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Ramage, Jason K.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2016-10-07

    Most of the land-surface subsidence in the Houston-Galveston region, Texas, has occurred as a direct result of groundwater withdrawals for municipal supply, commercial and industrial use, and irrigation that depressured and dewatered the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, thereby causing compaction of the aquifer sediments, mostly in the fine-grained silt and clay layers. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District, City of Houston, Fort Bend Subsidence District, Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, and Brazoria County Groundwater Conservation District, is one in an annual series of reports depicting water-level altitudes and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and measured cumulative compaction of subsurface sediments in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston-Galveston region. The report contains regional-scale maps depicting approximate 2016 water-level altitudes (represented by measurements made during December 2015–March 2016) for the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers; maps depicting 1-year (2015–16) water-level changes for each aquifer; maps depicting approximate contoured 5-year (2011–16) water-level changes for each aquifer; maps depicting approximate contoured long-term (1990–2016 and 1977–2016) water-level changes for the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers; a map depicting approximate contoured long-term (2000–16) water-level changes for the Jasper aquifer; a map depicting locations of borehole-extensometer sites; and graphs depicting measured long-term cumulative compaction of subsurface sediments at the extensometers during 1973–2015. Tables listing the water-level data used to construct each water-level map for each aquifer and the measured long-term cumulative compaction data for each extensometer site are included. Graphs depicting water-level measurement data also are included; these graphs can be used to approximate

  13. Strange matter in compact stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klähn, Thomas; Blaschke, David B.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss possible scenarios for the existence of strange matter in compact stars. The appearance of hyperons leads to a hyperon puzzle in ab-initio approaches based on effective baryon-baryon potentials but is not a severe problem in relativistic mean field models. In general, the puzzle can be resolved in a natural way if hadronic matter gets stiffened at supersaturation densities, an effect based on the quark Pauli quenching between hadrons. We explain the conflict between the necessity to implement dynamical chiral symmetry breaking into a model description and the conditions for the appearance of absolutely stable strange quark matter that require both, approximately masslessness of quarks and a mechanism of confinement. The role of strangeness in compact stars (hadronic or quark matter realizations) remains unsettled. It is not excluded that strangeness plays no role in compact stars at all. To answer the question whether the case of absolutely stable strange quark matter can be excluded on theoretical grounds requires an understanding of dense matter that we have not yet reached.

  14. Strange matter in compact stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klähn Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss possible scenarios for the existence of strange matter in compact stars. The appearance of hyperons leads to a hyperon puzzle in ab-initio approaches based on effective baryon-baryon potentials but is not a severe problem in relativistic mean field models. In general, the puzzle can be resolved in a natural way if hadronic matter gets stiffened at supersaturation densities, an effect based on the quark Pauli quenching between hadrons. We explain the conflict between the necessity to implement dynamical chiral symmetry breaking into a model description and the conditions for the appearance of absolutely stable strange quark matter that require both, approximately masslessness of quarks and a mechanism of confinement. The role of strangeness in compact stars (hadronic or quark matter realizations remains unsettled. It is not excluded that strangeness plays no role in compact stars at all. To answer the question whether the case of absolutely stable strange quark matter can be excluded on theoretical grounds requires an understanding of dense matter that we have not yet reached.

  15. In vitro activity of doripenem and other carbapenems against contemporary Gram-negative pathogens isolated from hospitalised patients in the Asia-Pacific region: results of the COMPACT Asia-Pacific Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, K J; Ip, M; Ker, H B; Mendoza, M; Hsu, L; Kiratisin, P; Chongthaleong, A; Redjeki, I S; Quintana, A; Flamm, R; Garcia, J; Cassettari, M; Cooper, D; Okolo, P; Morrissey, I

    2010-12-01

    The Comparative Activity of Carbapenems Testing (COMPACT) Study was designed to determine the in vitro potency of doripenem compared with imipenem and meropenem against a large number of contemporary Gram-negative pathogens from more than 100 centres across Europe and the Asia-Pacific region and to assess the reliability of Etest methodology for doripenem minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination against these pathogens. Data from eight countries within the Asia-Pacific region, which collected 1612 bacterial isolates, are presented here. Etest methodology was found to be a reliable method for MIC determination. Doripenem showed in vitro activity similar to or better than meropenem and at least four-fold better than imipenem against Enterobacteriaceae. Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, doripenem was also the most active of the three carbapenems in vitro. However, in vitro results do not necessarily correlate with clinical outcome. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-Compacting Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Okamura, Hajime; Ouchi, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    Self-compacting concrete was first developed in 1988 to achieve durable concrete structures. Since then, various investigations have been carried out and this type of concrete has been used in practical structures in Japan, mainly by large construction companies. Investigations for establishing a rational mix-design method and self-compactability testing methods have been carried out from the viewpoint of making self-compacting concrete a standard concrete.

  17. Compact Polarimetry Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong-Loi, My-Linh; Dubois-Fernandez, Pascale; Pottier, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to show the potential of a compact-pol SAR system for vegetation applications. Compact-pol concept has been suggested to minimize the system design while maximize the information and is declined as the ?/4, ?/2 and hybrid modes. In this paper, the applications such as biomass and vegetation height estimates are first presented, then, the equivalence between compact-pol data simulated from full-pol data and compact-pol data processed from raw data as such is shown. Finally, a calibration procedure using external targets is proposed.

  18. Pharmaceutical powder compaction technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Çelik, Metin

    2011-01-01

    "Revised to reflect modern pharmaceutical compacting techniques, this Second Edition guides pharmaceutical engineers, formulation scientists, and product development and quality assurance personnel...

  19. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  20. Water-level altitudes 2011 and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and compaction 1973-2010 in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, Houston-Galveston region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michaela R.; Ramage, Jason K.; Kasmarek, Mark C.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the subsidence in the Houston–Galveston region has occurred as a direct result of groundwater withdrawals for municipal supply, industrial use, and irrigation that depressured and dewatered the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers causing compaction of the clay layers of the aquifer sediments. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Harris–Galveston Subsidence District, City of Houston, Fort Bend Subsidence District, and Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, is one in an annual series of reports depicting water-level altitudes and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and compaction in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston–Galveston region. The report contains maps showing 2011 water-level altitudes for the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers; maps showing 1-year (2010–11) water-level-altitude changes for each aquifer; maps showing 5-year (2006–11) water-level-altitude changes for each aquifer; maps showing long-term (1990–2011 and 1977–2011) water-level-altitude changes for the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers; a map showing long-term (2000–11) water-level-altitude change for the Jasper aquifer; a map showing locations of borehole extensometer sites; and graphs showing measured compaction of subsurface material at the extensometers from 1973, or later, through 2010. Tables listing the data used to construct each aquifer-data map and the compaction graphs are included.Water levels in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers were measured during December 2010–February 2011. In 2011, water-level-altitude contours for the Chicot aquifer ranged from 200 feet below North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (hereinafter, datum) in a small area in southwestern Harris County to 200 feet above datum in central to southwestern Montgomery County. Water-level-altitude changes in the Chicot aquifer ranged from a 40-foot decline to a 33-foot rise (2010–11), from a 10-foot

  1. Water-level altitudes 2010 and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and compaction 1973-2009 in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, Houston-Galveston region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Ramage, Jason K.

    2010-01-01

    Most of the subsidence in the Houston-Galveston region has occurred as a direct result of groundwater withdrawals for municipal supply, industrial use, and irrigation that depressured and dewatered the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers causing compaction of the clay layers of the aquifer sediments. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District, City of Houston, Fort Bend Subsidence District, and Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, is one in an annual series of reports depicting water-level altitudes and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and compaction in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston-Galveston region. The report contains maps showing 2010 water-level altitudes for the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers, respectively; maps showing 1-year (2009-10) water-level-altitude changes for each aquifer; maps showing 5-year (2005-10) water-level-altitude changes for each aquifer; maps showing long-term (1990-2010 and 1977-2010) water-level-altitude changes for the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers; a map showing long-term (2000-10) water-level-altitude change for the Jasper aquifer; a map showing locations of borehole extensometer sites; and graphs showing measured compaction of subsurface material at the extensometers from 1973, or later, through 2009. Tables listing the data used to construct each aquifer-data map and the compaction graphs are included. Water levels in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers were measured during December 2009-March 2010. In 2010, water-level-altitude contours for the Chicot aquifer ranged from 200 feet below National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 or North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (hereinafter, datum) in a small area in southwestern Harris County to 200 feet above datum in central to southwestern Montgomery County. Water-level-altitude changes in the Chicot aquifer ranged from a 49-foot decline to a 67

  2. Water-level altitudes 2017 and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper Aquifers and compaction 1973–2016 in the Chicot and Evangeline Aquifers, Houston-Galveston region, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Ramage, Jason K.

    2017-08-16

    Most of the land-surface subsidence in the Houston-Galveston region, Texas, has occurred as a direct result of groundwater withdrawals for municipal supply, commercial and industrial use, and irrigation that depressured and dewatered the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, thereby causing compaction of the aquifer sediments, mostly in the fine-grained silt and clay layers. This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Subsidence District, City of Houston, Fort Bend Subsidence District, Lone Star Groundwater Conservation District, and Brazoria County Groundwater Conservation District, is one in an annual series of reports depicting water-level altitudes and water-level changes in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and measured cumulative compaction of subsurface sediments in the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston-Galveston region. This report contains regional-scale maps depicting approximate 2017 water-level altitudes (represented by measurements made during December 2016 through March 2017) and long-term water-level changes for the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers; a map depicting locations of borehole-extensometer (hereinafter referred to as “extensometer”) sites; and graphs depicting measured long-term cumulative compaction of subsurface sediments at the extensometers during 1973–2016.In 2017, water-level-altitude contours for the Chicot aquifer ranged from 200 feet (ft) below the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (hereinafter referred to as “datum”) in two localized areas in southwestern and northwestern Harris County to 200 ft above datum in west-central Montgomery County. The largest water-level-altitude decline (120 ft) depicted by the 1977–2017 water-level-change contours for the Chicot aquifer was in northwestern Harris County. A broad area where water-level altitudes declined in the Chicot aquifer extends from northwestern, north-central, and southwestern Harris County

  3. Uniaxial backfill block compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinen, V.

    2012-05-01

    The main parts of the project were: to make a literature survey of the previous uniaxial compaction experiments; do uniaxial compaction tests in laboratory scale; and do industrial scale production tests. Object of the project was to sort out the different factors affecting the quality assurance chain of the backfill block uniaxial production and solve a material sticking to mould problem which appeared during manufacturing the blocks of bentonite and cruched rock mixture. The effect of mineralogical and chemical composition on the long term functionality of the backfill was excluded from the project. However, the used smectite-rich clays have been tested for mineralogical consistency. These tests were done in B and Tech OY according their SOPs. The objective of the Laboratory scale tests was to find right material- and compaction parameters for the industrial scale tests. Direct comparison between the laboratory scale tests and industrial scale tests is not possible because the mould geometry and compaction speed has a big influence for the compaction process. For this reason the selected material parameters were also affected by the previous compaction experiments. The industrial scale tests were done in summer of 2010 in southern Sweden. Blocks were done with uniaxial compaction. A 40 tons of the mixture of bentonite and crushed rock blocks and almost 50 tons of Friedland-clay blocks were compacted. (orig.)

  4. Compaction properties of isomalt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Gerad K.; Engelhart, Jeffrey J. P.; Eissens, Anko C.

    Although other polyols have been described extensively as filler-binders in direct compaction of tablets, the polyol isomalt is rather unknown as pharmaceutical excipient, in spite of its description in all the main pharmacopoeias. In this paper the compaction properties of different types of

  5. Model Compaction Equation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The currently proposed model compaction equation was derived from data sourced from the. Niger Delta and it relates porosity to depth for sandstones under hydrostatic pressure condition. The equation is useful in predicting porosity and compaction trend in hydrostatic sands of the. Niger Delta. GEOLOGICAL SETTING OF ...

  6. Stabilization of compactible waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, E.M.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of series of experiments performed to determine the feasibility of stabilizing compacted or compactible waste with polymers. The need for this work arose from problems encountered at disposal sites attributed to the instability of this waste in disposal. These studies are part of an experimental program conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) investigating methods for the improved solidification/stabilization of DOE low-level wastes. The approach taken in this study was to perform a series of survey type experiments using various polymerization systems to find the most economical and practical method for further in-depth studies. Compactible dry bulk waste was stabilized with two different monomer systems: styrene-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and polyester-styrene, in laboratory-scale experiments. Stabilization was accomplished by wetting or soaking compactible waste (before or after compaction) with monomers, which were subsequently polymerized. Three stabilization methods are described. One involves the in-situ treatment of compacted waste with monomers in which a vacuum technique is used to introduce the binder into the waste. The second method involves the alternate placement and compaction of waste and binder into a disposal container. In the third method, the waste is treated before compaction by wetting the waste with the binder using a spraying technique. A series of samples stabilized at various binder-to-waste ratios were evaluated through water immersion and compression testing. Full-scale studies were conducted by stabilizing two 55-gallon drums of real compacted waste. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the integrity of compacted waste forms can be readily improved to ensure their long-term durability in disposal environments. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Mouse Embryo Compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M D; Bissiere, S; Alvarez, Y D; Plachta, N

    2016-01-01

    Compaction is a critical first morphological event in the preimplantation development of the mammalian embryo. Characterized by the transformation of the embryo from a loose cluster of spherical cells into a tightly packed mass, compaction is a key step in the establishment of the first tissue-like structures of the embryo. Although early investigation of the mechanisms driving compaction implicated changes in cell-cell adhesion, recent work has identified essential roles for cortical tension and a compaction-specific class of filopodia. During the transition from 8 to 16 cells, as the embryo is compacting, it must also make fundamental decisions regarding cell position, polarity, and fate. Understanding how these and other processes are integrated with compaction requires further investigation. Emerging imaging-based techniques that enable quantitative analysis from the level of cell-cell interactions down to the level of individual regulatory molecules will provide a greater understanding of how compaction shapes the early mammalian embryo. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Hα line forming region of AB Aurigae spatially resolved at sub-AU with the VEGA/CHARA spectro-interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselet-Perraut, K.; Benisty, M.; Mourard, D.; Rajabi, S.; Bacciotti, F.; Bério, Ph.; Bonneau, D.; Chesneau, O.; Clausse, J. M.; Delaa, O.; Marcotto, A.; Roussel, A.; Spang, A.; Stee, Ph.; Tallon-Bosc, I.; McAlister, H.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N.; Farrington, C.; Goldfinger, P. J.

    2010-06-01

    Context. A crucial issue in star formation is to understand the physical mechanism by which mass is accreted onto and ejected by a young star. To derive key constraints on the launching point of the jets and on the geometry of the winds, the visible spectro-polarimeter VEGA installed on the CHARA optical array can be an efficient means of probing the structure and the kinematics of the hot circumstellar gas at sub-AU. Aims: For the first time, we observed the Herbig Ae star AB Aur in the Hα emission line, using the VEGA low spectral resolution (R = 1700) on two baselines of the array. Methods: We computed and calibrated the spectral visibilities of AB Aur between 610 nm and 700 nm in spectral bands of 20.4 nm. To simultaneously reproduce the line profile and the inferred visibility around Hα, we used a 1D radiative transfer code (RAMIDUS/PROFILER) that calculates level populations for hydrogen atoms in a spherical geometry and that produces synthetic spectro-interferometric observables. Results: We clearly resolved AB Aur in the Hα line and in a part of the continuum, even at the smallest baseline of 34 m. The small P-Cygni absorption feature is indicative of an outflow but could not be explained by a spherical stellar wind model. Instead, it favors a magneto-centrifugal X-disk or disk-wind geometry. The fit of the spectral visibilities from 610 to 700 nm could not be accounted for by a wind alone, so another component inducing a visibility modulation around Hα needed to be considered. We thus considered a brightness asymmetry possibly caused by large-scale nebulosity or by the known spiral structures. Conclusions: Thanks to the unique capabilities of VEGA, we managed to simultaneously record for the first time a spectrum at a resolution of 1700 and spectral visibilities in the visible range on a target as faint as mV = 7.1. It was possible to rule out a spherical geometry for the wind of AB Aur and provide realistic solutions to account for the Hα emission

  9. Ultrafast photodynamics of pyrazine in the vacuum ultraviolet region studied by time-resolved photoelectron imaging using 7.8-eV pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horio, Takuya; Suzuki, Yoshi-ichi; Suzuki, Toshinori, E-mail: suzuki@kuchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-Ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2016-07-28

    The ultrafast electronic dynamics of pyrazine (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) were studied by time-resolved photoelectron imaging (TRPEI) using the third (3ω, 4.7 eV) and fifth harmonics (5ω, 7.8 eV) of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (ω). Although the photoionization signals due to the 5ω − 3ω and 3ω − 5ω pulse sequences overlapped near the time origin, we have successfully extracted their individual TRPEI signals using least squares fitting of the observed electron kinetic energy distributions. When the 5ω pulses preceded the 3ω pulses, the 5ω pulses predominantly excited the S{sub 4} (ππ{sup *}, {sup 1}B{sub 1u}+{sup 1}B{sub 2u}) state. The photoionization signal from the S{sub 4} state generated by the time-delayed 3ω pulses was dominated by the D{sub 3}({sup 2}B{sub 2g})←S{sub 4} photoionization process and exhibited a broad electron kinetic energy distribution, which rapidly downshifted in energy within 100 fs. Also observed were the photoionization signals for the 3s, 3p{sub z}, and 3p{sub y} members of the Rydberg series converging to D{sub 0}({sup 2}A{sub g}). The Rydberg signals appeared immediately within our instrumental time resolution of 27 fs, indicating that these states are directly photoexcited from the ground state or populated from S{sub 4} within 27 fs. The 3s, 3p{sub z}, and 3p{sub y} states exhibited single exponential decay with lifetimes of 94 ± 2, 89 ± 2, and 58 ± 1 fs, respectively. With the reverse pulse sequence of 3ω − 5ω, the ultrafast internal conversion (IC) from S{sub 2}(ππ{sup *}) to S{sub 1}(nπ{sup *}) was observed. The decay associated spectrum of S{sub 2} exhibited multiple bands ascribed to D{sub 0}, D{sub 1}, and D{sub 3}, in agreement with the 3ω-pump and 6ω-probe experiment described in our preceding paper [T. Horio et al., J. Chem. Phys. 145, 044306 (2016)]. The electron kinetic energy and angular distributions from S{sub 1} populated by IC from S{sub 2} are also discussed.

  10. Small Valdivia compact spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kubi's, W; Kubi\\'s, Wieslaw; Michalewski, Henryk

    2005-01-01

    We prove a preservation theorem for the class of Valdivia compact spaces, which involves inverse sequences of ``simple'' retractions. Consequently, a compact space of weight $\\loe\\aleph_1$ is Valdivia compact iff it is the limit of an inverse sequence of metric compacta whose bonding maps are retractions. As a corollary, we show that the class of Valdivia compacta of weight at most $\\aleph_1$ is preserved both under retractions and under open 0-dimensional images. Finally, we characterize the class of all Valdivia compacta in the language of category theory, which implies that this class is preserved under all continuous weight preserving functors.

  11. A utility perspective on the proposed Northeast interstate compact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keating, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The proposed Northeast Compact on Low-Level Radioactive Waste appears to be stalled in its present form. The Low-Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 encourages states to enter into regional waste compacts where practicable. The Northeast Region, which includes eleven states made up of the six New England states plus New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland, is the largest proposed compact region from the standpoint of low-level radioactive waste volumes. There is also wide variation in volumes among the states. Four states in the region have ratified the Northeast Compact, but the remaining seven states, including the three largest generating states, have not ratified to date. The large states are pivotal in determining whether the compact will move forward. The prime concerns of these large volume generating states appear to be host state selection and responsibility issues, as well as some of the proposed powers and authority of the Regional Commission

  12. Clastic compaction unit classification based on clay content and integrated compaction recovery using well and seismic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Hong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Compaction correction is a key part of paleo-geomorphic recovery methods. Yet, the influence of lithology on the porosity evolution is not usually taken into account. Present methods merely classify the lithologies as sandstone and mudstone to undertake separate porosity-depth compaction modeling. However, using just two lithologies is an oversimplification that cannot represent the compaction history. In such schemes, the precision of the compaction recovery is inadequate. To improve the precision of compaction recovery, a depth compaction model has been proposed that involves both porosity and clay content. A clastic lithological compaction unit classification method, based on clay content, has been designed to identify lithological boundaries and establish sets of compaction units. Also, on the basis of the clastic compaction unit classification, two methods of compaction recovery that integrate well and seismic data are employed to extrapolate well-based compaction information outward along seismic lines and recover the paleo-topography of the clastic strata in the region. The examples presented here show that a better understanding of paleo-geomorphology can be gained by applying the proposed compaction recovery technology.

  13. Compact turbidity meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    Proposed monitor that detects back-reflected infrared radiation makes in situ turbidity measurements of lakes, streams, and other bodies of water. Monitor is compact, works well in daylight as at night, and is easily operated in rough seas.

  14. Preparing research on optimized construction of sustainable human living environment in regions where people of a certain ethnic group live in compact communities in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Junyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the poor transport system, remoteness and few channels to access to information from the outside world in most minority-inhabited areas in China, buildings in these areas are well preserved. In particular, dwellings in these places show low-tech and ecological features. Different types and the natural environment of the plateau where Shangri-La lies provide people with a variety of living resources. As living environments vary in different areas, different inhabitation forms have been formed. Tibetan people adjust measures to local conditions and excel at using local materials and appropriate technologies to build houses. In this paper, a case study is made of traditional dwellings in Tibetan-inhabited areas in Shangri-La, to analyze low-tech and ecological strategies for traditional dwellings in Tibetan-inhabited areas in Shangri-La, from three aspects: regional environment measures, building technologies and the spatial order system.

  15. Reference-free spectroscopic determination of fat and protein in milk in the visible and near infrared region below 1000nm using spatially resolved diffuse reflectance fiber probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Andrey; Belikova, Valeria; Galyanin, Vladislav; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Meyer, Hans

    2017-05-15

    New technique of diffuse reflectance spectroscopic analysis of milk fat and total protein content in the visible (Vis) and adjacent near infrared (NIR) region (400-995nm) has been developed and tested. Sample analysis was performed through a probe having eight 200-µm fiber channels forming a linear array. One of the end fibers was used for the illumination and other seven - for the spectroscopic detection of diffusely reflected light. One of the detection channels was used as a reference to normalize the spectra and to convert them into absorbance-equivalent units. The method has been tested experimentally using a designed sample set prepared from industrial raw milk standards with widely varying fat and protein content. To increase the modelling robustness all milk samples were measured in three different homogenization degrees. Comprehensive data analysis has shown the advantage of combining both spectral and spatial resolution in the same measurement and revealed the most relevant channels and wavelength regions. The modelling accuracy was further improved using joint variable selection and preprocessing optimization method based on the genetic algorithm. The root mean-square errors of different validation methods were below 0.10% for fat and below 0.08% for total protein content. Based on the present experimental data, it was computationally shown that the full-spectrum analysis in this method can be replaced by a sensor measurement at several specific wavelengths, for instance, using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for illumination. Two optimal sensor configurations have been suggested: with nine LEDs for the analysis of fat and seven - for protein content. Both simulated sensors exhibit nearly the same component determination accuracy as corresponding full-spectrum analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. TIME-RESOLVED EMISSION FROM BRIGHT HOT PIXELS OF AN ACTIVE REGION OBSERVED IN THE EUV BAND WITH SDO/AIA AND MULTI-STRANDED LOOP MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajfirouze, E.; Reale, F.; Petralia, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 (Italy); Testa, P., E-mail: aastex-help@aas.org [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of small amounts of very hot plasma has been found in active regions and might be an indication of impulsive heating released at spatial scales smaller than the cross-section of a single loop. We investigate the heating and substructure of coronal loops in the core of one such active region by analyzing the light curves in the smallest resolution elements of solar observations in two EUV channels (94 and 335 Å) from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We model the evolution of a bundle of strands heated by a storm of nanoflares by means of a hydrodynamic 0D loop model (EBTEL). The light curves obtained from a random combination of those of single strands are compared to the observed light curves either in a single pixel or in a row of pixels, simultaneously in the two channels, and using two independent methods: an artificial intelligent system (Probabilistic Neural Network) and a simple cross-correlation technique. We explore the space of the parameters to constrain the distribution of the heat pulses, their duration, their spatial size, and, as a feedback on the data, their signatures on the light curves. From both methods the best agreement is obtained for a relatively large population of events (1000) with a short duration (less than 1 minute) and a relatively shallow distribution (power law with index 1.5) in a limited energy range (1.5 decades). The feedback on the data indicates that bumps in the light curves, especially in the 94 Å channel, are signatures of a heating excess that occurred a few minutes before.

  17. HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF THE HL/XZ TAU REGION: MAPPING THE 50 AU PROTOPLANETARY DISK AROUND HL TAU AND RESOLVING XZ TAU S INTO A 13 AU BINARY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco-Gonzalez, Carlos; Anglada, Guillem; RodrIguez, Luis F.; Curiel, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    We present new 7 mm and archive 1.3 cm high angular resolution observations of the HL/XZ Tau region made with the Very Large Array. At 7 mm, the emission from HL Tau seems to arise in a clumpy disk with radius of the order of 25 AU. The 1.3 cm emission from XZ Tau shows the emission from a binary system with 0.''3 (42 AU) separation, known from previous optical/IR observations. However, at 7 mm, the southern radio component resolves into a binary with 0.''09 (13 AU) separation, suggesting that XZ Tau is actually a triple star system. We suggest that the remarkable ejection of gas from the XZ Tau system observed with the Hubble Space Telescope may be related to a periastron passage of this newly discovered close binary system.

  18. U.S. regional greenhouse gas emissions analysis comparing highly resolved vehicle miles traveled and CO2 emissions: mitigation implications and their effect on atmospheric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, D. L.; Gurney, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most abundant anthropogenic greenhouse gas and projections of fossil fuel energy demand show CO2 concentrations increasing indefinitely into the future. After electricity production, the transportation sector is the second largest CO2 emitting economic sector in the United States, accounting for 32.3% of the total U.S. emissions in 2002. Over 80% of the transport sector is composed of onroad emissions, with the remainder shared by the nonroad, aircraft, railroad, and commercial marine vessel transportation. In order to construct effective mitigation policy for the onroad transportation sector and more accurately predict CO2 emissions for use in transport models and atmospheric measurements, analysis must incorporate the three components that determine the CO2 onroad transport emissions: vehicle fleet composition, average speed of travel, and emissions regulation strategies. Studies to date, however, have either focused on one of these three components, have been only completed at the national scale, or have not explicitly represented CO2 emissions instead relying on the use of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) as an emissions proxy. National-level projections of VMT growth is not sufficient to highlight regional differences in CO2 emissions growth due to the heterogeneity of vehicle fleet and each state’s road network which determines the speed of travel of vehicles. We examine how an analysis based on direct CO2 emissions and an analysis based on VMT differ in terms of their emissions and mitigation implications highlighting potential biases introduced by the VMT-based approach. This analysis is performed at the US state level and results are disaggregated by road and vehicle classification. We utilize the results of the Vulcan fossil fuel CO2 emissions inventory which quantified emissions for the year 2002 across all economic sectors in the US at high resolution. We perform this comparison by fuel type,12 road types, and 12 vehicle types

  19. Study of the performance of a compact sandwich calorimeter for the instrumentation of the very forward region of a future linear collider detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghenescu, V., E-mail: veta.ghenescu@cern.ch [Institute of Space Science, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Benhammou, Y. [Tel Aviv University, TelAviv (Israel)

    2017-02-11

    The FCAL collaboration is preparing large scale prototypes of special calorimeters to be used in the very forward region at a future linear electron positron collider for a precise and fast luminosity measurement and beam-tuning. These calorimeters are designed as sensor-tungsten calorimeters with very thin sensor planes to keep the Moliere radius small and dedicated FE electronics to match the timing and dynamic range requirements. A partially instrumented prototype was investigated in the CERN PS T9 beam in 2014 and at the DESY-II Synchrotron in 2015. It was operated in a mixed particle beam (electrons, muons and hadrons) of 5 GeV from PS facilities and with secondary electrons of 5 GeV energy from DESY-II. The results demonstrated a very good performance of the full readout chain. The high statistics data were used to study the response to different particles, perform sensor alignment and measure the longitudinal shower development in the sandwich. In addition, Geant4 MC simulations were done, and compared to the data.

  20. Compaction of FGD-gypsum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, B.T.J.; Larbi, J.A.; Heijnen, W.M.M.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that it is possible to produce compacted gypsum with a low porosity and a high strength on a laboratory scale by uniaxial compaction of flue gas desulphurization (FGD-) gypsum powder. Compacted FGD-gypsum cylinders were produced at a compaction pres-sure between 50 and 500 MPa yielding

  1. Compactness of the difference between the porous thermoelastic semigroup and its decoupled semigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mustapha Ait Benhassi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Under suitable assumptions, we prove the compactness of the difference between the porous thermoelastic semigroup and its decoupled one. This will be achieved by proving the norm continuity of this difference and the compactness of the difference between the resolvents of their generators. Applications to porous thermoelastic systems are given.

  2. Physically detached 'compact groups'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernquist, Lars; Katz, Neal; Weinberg, David H.

    1995-01-01

    A small fraction of galaxies appear to reside in dense compact groups, whose inferred crossing times are much shorter than a Hubble time. These short crossing times have led to considerable disagreement among researchers attempting to deduce the dynamical state of these systems. In this paper, we suggest that many of the observed groups are not physically bound but are chance projections of galaxies well separated along the line of sight. Unlike earlier similar proposals, ours does not require that the galaxies in the compact group be members of a more diffuse, but physically bound entity. The probability of physically separated galaxies projecting into an apparent compact group is nonnegligible if most galaxies are distributed in thin filaments. We illustrate this general point with a specific example: a simulation of a cold dark matter universe, in which hydrodynamic effects are included to identify galaxies. The simulated galaxy distribution is filamentary and end-on views of these filaments produce apparent galaxy associations that have sizes and velocity dispersions similar to those of observed compact groups. The frequency of such projections is sufficient, in principle, to explain the observed space density of groups in the Hickson catalog. We discuss the implications of our proposal for the formation and evolution of groups and elliptical galaxies. The proposal can be tested by using redshift-independent distance estimators to measure the line-of-sight spatial extent of nearby compact groups.

  3. Inhomogeneous compact extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronnikov, K.A. [Center of Gravity and Fundamental Metrology, VNIIMS, 46 Ozyornaya st., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation); Budaev, R.I.; Grobov, A.V.; Dmitriev, A.E.; Rubin, Sergey G., E-mail: kb20@yandex.ru, E-mail: buday48@mail.ru, E-mail: alexey.grobov@gmail.com, E-mail: alexdintras@mail.ru, E-mail: sergeirubin@list.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-01

    We show that an inhomogeneous compact extra space possesses two necessary features— their existence does not contradict the observable value of the cosmological constant Λ{sub 4} in pure f ( R ) theory, and the extra dimensions are stable relative to the 'radion mode' of perturbations, the only mode considered. For a two-dimensional extra space, both analytical and numerical solutions for the metric are found, able to provide a zero or arbitrarily small Λ{sub 4}. A no-go theorem has also been proved, that maximally symmetric compact extra spaces are inconsistent with 4D Minkowski space in the framework of pure f ( R ) gravity.

  4. A compact high resolution ion mobility spectrometer for fast trace gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Ansgar T; Allers, Maria; Cochems, Philipp; Langejuergen, Jens; Zimmermann, Stefan

    2013-09-21

    Drift tube ion mobility spectrometers (IMS) are widely used for fast trace gas detection in air, but portable compact systems are typically very limited in their resolving power. Decreasing the initial ion packet width improves the resolution, but is generally associated with a reduced signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) due to the lower number of ions injected into the drift region. In this paper, we present a refined theory of IMS operation which employs a combined approach for the analysis of the ion drift and the subsequent amplification to predict both the resolution and the SNR of the measured ion current peak. This theoretical analysis shows that the SNR is not a function of the initial ion packet width, meaning that compact drift tube IMS with both very high resolution and extremely low limits of detection can be designed. Based on these implications, an optimized combination of a compact drift tube with a length of just 10 cm and a transimpedance amplifier has been constructed with a resolution of 183 measured for the positive reactant ion peak (RIP(+)), which is sufficient to e.g. separate the RIP(+) from the protonated acetone monomer, even though their drift times only differ by a factor of 1.007. Furthermore, the limits of detection (LODs) for acetone are 180 pptv within 1 s of averaging time and 580 pptv within only 100 ms.

  5. Characterization of ceramic powder compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, K.; Ishimoto, S.; Kubo, T.; Ito, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Hayashi, H.

    1995-01-01

    UO 2 and Al 2 O 3 powder packing structures in cylindrical powder compacts are observed by scanning electron microscopy using polished cross sections of compacts fixed by low viscosity epoxy resin. Hard aggregates which are not destroyed during powder compaction are observed in some of the UO 2 powder compacts. A technique to measure local density in powder compacts is developed based on counting characteristic X-ray intensity by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The local density of the corner portion of the powder compact fabricated by double-acting dry press is higher than that of the inner portion. ((orig.))

  6. Resolved resonance parameters for 236Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morogovskij, G.B.; Bakhanovich, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    Multilevel Breit-Wigner parameters were obtained for fission cross-section representation in the 0.01-33 eV energy region from evaluation of a 236 Np experimental fission cross-section in the resolved resonance region. (author)

  7. Compact Intracloud Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    In November of 1993, mysterious signals recorded by a satellite-borne broadband VHF radio science experiment called Blackboard led to a completely unexpected discovery. Prior to launch of the ALEXIS satellite, it was thought that its secondary payload, Blackboard, would most often detect the radio emissions from lightning when its receiver was not overwhelmed by noise from narrowband communication carriers. Instead, the vast majority of events that triggered the instrument were isolated pairs of pulses that were one hundred times more energetic than normal thunderstorm electrical emissions. The events, which came to be known as TIPPs (for transionospheric pulse pairs), presented a true mystery to the geophysics community. At the time, it was not even known whether the events had natural or anthropogenic origins. After two and one half years of research into the unique signals, two ground-based receiver arrays in New Mexico first began to detect and record thunderstorm radio emissions that were consistent with the Blackboard observations. On two occasions, the ground-based systems and Blackboard even recorded emissions that were produced by the same exact events. From the ground based observations, it has been determined that TIPP events areproduced by brief, singular, isolated, intracloud electrical discharges that occur in intense regions of thunderstorms. These discharges have been dubbed CIDS, an acronym for compact intracloud discharges. During the summer of 1996, ground-based receiver arrays were used to record the electric field change signals and broadband HF emissions from hundreds of CIDS. Event timing that was accurate to within a few microseconds made possible the determination of source locations using methods of differential time of arrival. Ionospheric reflections of signals were recorded in addition to groundwave/line-of-sight signals and were used to determine accurate altitudes for the discharges. Twenty-four CIDS were recorded from three

  8. Challenges: a state and compact perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.

    1987-01-01

    The challenges facing states and compacts in their efforts to implement the Low-Level Waste Policy Amendments Act are described. Institutional challenges include: small-volume sites; compact maintenance; shifting agencies and changing personnel; and timing of progress. The technical challenge lies in the enormous number of plans, procedures, and regulations that have to be developed over the next four years. There are two main fiscal challenges: funding of day-to-day operations of compact commissions; and financing the siting and construction of new disposal sites. There are also two main regulatory challenges: host states must develop regulations for siting and selection of technology; and all states have to await federal regulations to be completed. The final challenge is political: whether a region can overcome public opposition and actually site a facility

  9. Weakly compact operators and interpolation

    OpenAIRE

    Maligranda, Lech

    1992-01-01

    The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. In this survey, we have collected and ordered some of this (partly very new) knowledge. We have also included some comments, remarks and examples. The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. I...

  10. Compact stellarators as reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, J.F.; Valanju, P.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Hirshman, S.; Spong, D.A.; Strickler, D.; Williamson, D.E.; Ware, A.

    2001-01-01

    Two types of compact stellarators are examined as reactors: two- and three-field-period (M=2 and 3) quasi-axisymmetric devices with volume-average =4-5% and M=2 and 3 quasi-poloidal devices with =10-15%. These low-aspect-ratio stellarator-tokamak hybrids differ from conventional stellarators in their use of the plasma-generated bootstrap current to supplement the poloidal field from external coils. Using the ARIES-AT model with B max =12T on the coils gives Compact Stellarator reactors with R=7.3-8.2m, a factor of 2-3 smaller R than other stellarator reactors for the same assumptions, and neutron wall loadings up to 3.7MWm -2 . (author)

  11. Compact torsatron reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, J.F.; Carreras, B.A.; Lynch, V.E.; Tolliver, J.S.; Sviatoslavsky, I.N.

    1988-05-01

    Low-aspect-ratio torsatron configurations could lead to compact stellarator reactors with R 0 = 8--11m, roughly one-half to one-third the size of more conventional stellarator reactor designs. Minimum-size torsatron reactors are found using various assumptions. Their size is relatively insensitive to the choice of the conductor parameters and depends mostly on geometrical constraints. The smallest size is obtained by eliminating the tritium breeding blanket under the helical winding on the inboard side and by reducing the radial depth of the superconducting coil. Engineering design issues and reactor performance are examined for three examples to illustrate the feasibility of this approach for compact reactors and for a medium-size (R 0 ≅ 4 m,/bar a/ /approx lt/ 1 m) copper-coil ignition experiment. 26 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Compact Spreader Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.

    2014-07-25

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  13. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  14. Compact nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.V.; Churakov, Yu.A.; Danchenko, Yu.V.; Bylkin, B.K.; Tsvetkov, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    Different constructions of racks for compact storage of spent fuel assemblies (FA) in ''coolin''g pools (CP) of NPPs with the BWR and PWR type reactors are described. Problems concerning nuclear and radiation safety and provision of necessary thermal conditions arising in such rack design are discussed. It is concluded that the problem of prolonged fuel storage at NPPs became Very actual for many countries because of retapdation of the rates of fuel reprocessing centers building. Application of compact storage racks is a promising solution of the problem of intermediate FA storage at NPPs. Such racks of stainless boron steel and with neutron absorbers in the from of boron carbide panels enable to increase the capacity of the present CP 2-2.6 times, and the period of FA storage in them up to 5-10 years

  15. Analysis of laboratory compaction methods of roller compacted concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtík, Tomáš; Chylík, Roman; Bílý, Petr; Fládr, Josef

    2017-09-01

    Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) is an ordinary concrete poured and compacted with machines typically used for laying of asphalt road layers. One of the problems connected with this technology is preparation of representative samples in the laboratory. The aim of this work was to analyse two methods of preparation of RCC laboratory samples with bulk density as the comparative parameter. The first method used dynamic compaction by pneumatic hammer. The second method of compaction had a static character. The specimens were loaded by precisely defined force in laboratory loading machine to create the same conditions as during static rolling (in the Czech Republic, only static rolling is commonly used). Bulk densities obtained by the two compaction methods were compared with core drills extracted from real RCC structure. The results have shown that the samples produced by pneumatic hammer tend to overestimate the bulk density of the material. For both compaction methods, immediate bearing index test was performed to verify the quality of compaction. A fundamental difference between static and dynamic compaction was identified. In static compaction, initial resistance to penetration of the mandrel was higher, after exceeding certain limit the resistance was constant. This means that the samples were well compacted just on the surface. Specimens made by pneumatic hammer actively resisted throughout the test, the whole volume was uniformly compacted.

  16. Compaction of cereal grain

    OpenAIRE

    Wychowaniec, J.; Griffiths, I.; Gay, A.; Mughal, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on simple shaking experiments to measure the compaction of a column of Firth oat grain. Such grains are elongated anisotropic particles with a bimodal polydispersity. In these experiments, the particle configurations start from an initially disordered, low-packing-fraction state and under vertical shaking evolve to a dense state with evidence of nematic-like structure at the surface of the confining tube. This is accompanied by an increase in the packing fraction of the grain.

  17. Compact nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juric, S.I.

    1975-01-01

    A compact nuclear reactor of the pressurized-water variety is described which has two separate parts separably engageable for ease of inspection, maintenance and repair. One of the parts is a pressure vessel having an active core and the other of the parts is a closure adapted on its lower surface with an integral steam generator. An integral pump, external pressurizer and control rods are provided which communicate with the active core when engaged to form a total unit. (U.S.)

  18. Compact power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetch, J.R.; Dieckamp, H.M.; Wilson, L.A.

    1978-01-01

    There is disclosed a small compact nuclear reactor operating in the epithermal neutron energy range for supplying power at remote locations, as for a satellite. The core contains fuel moderator elements of Zr hydride with 7 w/o of 93% enriched uranium alloy. The core has a radial beryllium reflector and is cooled by liquid metal coolant such as NaK. The reactor is controlled and shut down by moving portions of the reflector

  19. CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The milestone workshops on LHC experiments in Aachen in 1990 and at Evian in 1992 provided the first sketches of how LHC detectors might look. The concept of a compact general-purpose LHC experiment based on a solenoid to provide the magnetic field was first discussed at Aachen, and the formal Expression of Interest was aired at Evian. It was here that the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) name first became public. Optimizing first the muon detection system is a natural starting point for a high luminosity (interaction rate) proton-proton collider experiment. The compact CMS design called for a strong magnetic field, of some 4 Tesla, using a superconducting solenoid, originally about 14 metres long and 6 metres bore. (By LHC standards, this warrants the adjective 'compact'.) The main design goals of CMS are: 1 - a very good muon system providing many possibilities for momentum measurement (physicists call this a 'highly redundant' system); 2 - the best possible electromagnetic calorimeter consistent with the above; 3 - high quality central tracking to achieve both the above; and 4 - an affordable detector. Overall, CMS aims to detect cleanly the diverse signatures of new physics by identifying and precisely measuring muons, electrons and photons over a large energy range at very high collision rates, while also exploiting the lower luminosity initial running. As well as proton-proton collisions, CMS will also be able to look at the muons emerging from LHC heavy ion beam collisions. The Evian CMS conceptual design foresaw the full calorimetry inside the solenoid, with emphasis on precision electromagnetic calorimetry for picking up photons. (A light Higgs particle will probably be seen via its decay into photon pairs.) The muon system now foresaw four stations. Inner tracking would use silicon microstrips and microstrip gas chambers, with over 10 7 channels offering high track finding efficiency. In the central CMS barrel, the tracking elements are

  20. Compact Information Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-02

    Department of Defense, Executive Services, Directorate (0704-0188).   Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person...which lies in the mission of AFOSR. 15.  SUBJECT TERMS sparse sampling , principal components analysis 16.  SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...approved for public release Contents 1 Training for Ph.D. Students and Postdoc Researchers 2 2 Papers 2 3 Summary of Proposed Research: Compact

  1. Compact torus compression of microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, D.W.; Langdon, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility that a compact torus (CT) might be accelerated to large velocities has been suggested by Hartman and Hammer. If this is feasible one application of these moving CTs might be to compress microwaves. The proposed mechanism is that a coaxial vacuum region in front of a CT is prefilled with a number of normal electromagnetic modes on which the CT impinges. A crucial assumption of this proposal is that the CT excludes the microwaves and therefore compresses them. Should the microwaves penetrate the CT, compression efficiency is diminished and significant CT heating results. MFE applications in the same parameters regime have found electromagnetic radiation capable of penetrating, heating, and driving currents. We report here a cursory investigation of rf penetration using a 1-D version of a direct implicit PIC code

  2. Effects of compaction pressure and particle shape on the porosity and compression mechanical properties of sintered Ti6Al4V powder compacts for hard tissue implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güden, Mustafa; Celik, Emrah; Hizal, Alpay; Altindiş, Mustafa; Cetiner, Sinan

    2008-05-01

    Sintered Ti6Al4V powder compacts potentially to be used in implant applications were prepared using commercially available spherical and angular powders (100-200 mum) within the porosity range of 34-54%. Cylindrical green powder compacts were cold compacted at various pressures and then sintered at 1200 degrees C for 2 h. The final percent porosity and mean pore sizes were determined as functions of the applied compaction pressure and powder type. The mechanical properties were investigated through compression testing. Results have shown that yield strength of the powder compacts of 40-42% porosity was comparable with that of human cortical bone. As compared with previously investigated Ti powder compacts, Ti6Al4V powder compacts showed higher strength at similar porosity range. Microscopic observations on the failed compact samples revealed that failure occurred primarily by the separation of interparticle bond regions in the planes 45 degrees to the loading axis. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. H.R. 1083: a bill to amend the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act to improve procedures for the implementation of compacts providing for the establishment and operation of regional disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste, and for other purposes. Introduced in the US House of Representatives, Ninety-Nineth Congress, First Session, February 7, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The main purpose of H.R. 1083 is to amend the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Act to improve the procedures for establishing regional disposal facilities. The bill defines several terms affecting compacts between states and the federal government. It also outlines state and federal responsibilities for disposing of low-level radioactive wastes, establishes procedures for Congressional review of each compact every five years, and designates the limitations of regional facilities for accepting wastes. The bill concludes with requirements for adequate financing of waste disposal facilities and both technical and financial assistance to states. Implementation of this Act will be the cooperative responsibility of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Secretary of Energy, and Secretary of Transportation

  4. X-ray spectrometer having 12 000 resolving power at 8 keV energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, John F.; Hudson, Lawrence T.; Henins, Albert; Feldman, Uri

    2017-10-01

    An x-ray spectrometer employing a thin (50 μm) silicon transmission crystal was used to record high-resolution Cu Kα spectra from a laboratory x-ray source. The diffraction was from the (331) planes that were at an angle of 13.26° to the crystal surface. The components of the spectral lines resulting from single-vacancy (1s) and double-vacancy (1s and 3d) transitions were observed. After accounting for the natural lifetime widths from reference double-crystal spectra and the spatial resolution of the image plate detector, the intrinsic broadening of the transmission crystal was measured to be as small as 0.67 eV and the resolving power 12 000, the highest resolving power achieved by a compact (0.5 m long) spectrometer employing a single transmission crystal operating in the hard x-ray region. By recording spectra with variable source-to-crystal distances and comparing to the calculated widths from various geometrical broadening mechanisms, the primary contributions to the intrinsic crystal broadening were found to be the source height at small distances and the crystal apertured height at large distances. By reducing these two effects, using a smaller source size and vignetting the crystal height, the intrinsic crystal broadening is then limited by the crystal thickness and the rocking curve width and would be 0.4 eV at 8 keV energy (20 000 resolving power).

  5. Diffusion through statically compacted clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C.L.; Shebl, M.A.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents experimental work on the effect of compaction on contaminant flow through clay liners. The experimental program included evaluation of soil properties, compaction, permeability and solute diffusion. A permeameter was built of non reactive materials to test samples compacted at different water contents and compactive efforts. The flow of a permeating solute, LiCl, was monitored. Effluent samples were collected for solute concentration measurements. The concentrations were measured by performing atomic adsorption tests. The analyzed results showed different diffusion characteristics when compaction conditions changed. At each compactive effort, permeability decreased as molding water content increased. Consequently, transit time (measured at relative concentration 50%) increased and diffusivity decreased. As compactive effort increased for soils compacted dry of optimum, permeability and diffusion decreased. On the other hand, as compactive effort increased for soils compacted wet of optimum, permeability and diffusivity increased. Tortuosity factor was indirectly measured from the diffusion and retardation rate. Tortuosity factor also decreased as placement water content was increased from dry of optimum to wet of optimum. Then decreases were more pronounced for low compactive effort tests. 27 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Operation: Inherent Resolve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Larsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet giver læseren indsigt i den internationale koalitions engagement mod IS igennem Operaton Inherent Resolve; herunder koalitionens strategi i forhold til IS strategi, ligesom det belyser kampagnens legalitet og folkeretlige grundlag, ligesom det giver et bud på overvejelser om kampagnens...

  7. Analysis of central and upwind compact schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, T.K.; Ganeriwal, G.; De, S.

    2003-01-01

    Central and upwind compact schemes for spatial discretization have been analyzed with respect to accuracy in spectral space, numerical stability and dispersion relation preservation. A von Neumann matrix spectral analysis is developed here to analyze spatial discretization schemes for any explicit and implicit schemes to investigate the full domain simultaneously. This allows one to evaluate various boundary closures and their effects on the domain interior. The same method can be used for stability analysis performed for the semi-discrete initial boundary value problems (IBVP). This analysis tells one about the stability for every resolved length scale. Some well-known compact schemes that were found to be G-K-S and time stable are shown here to be unstable for selective length scales by this analysis. This is attributed to boundary closure and we suggest special boundary treatment to remove this shortcoming. To demonstrate the asymptotic stability of the resultant schemes, numerical solution of the wave equation is compared with analytical solution. Furthermore, some of these schemes are used to solve two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation and a computational acoustic problem to check their ability to solve problems for long time. It is found that those schemes, that were found unstable for the wave equation, are unsuitable for solving incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. In contrast, the proposed compact schemes with improved boundary closure and an explicit higher-order upwind scheme produced correct results. The numerical solution for the acoustic problem is compared with the exact solution and the quality of the match shows that the used compact scheme has the requisite DRP property

  8. Hot exozodiacal dust resolved around Vega with IOTA/IONIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrère, D.; Absil, O.; Augereau, J.-C.; di Folco, E.; Berger, J.-P.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Kervella, P.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Lebreton, J.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Monnier, J. D.; Olofsson, J.; Traub, W.

    2011-10-01

    Context. Although debris discs have been detected around a significant number of main-sequence stars, only a few of them are known to harbour hot dust in their inner part where terrestrial planets may have formed. Thanks to infrared interferometric observations, it is possible to obtain a direct measurement of these regions, which are of prime importance for preparing future exo-Earth characterisation missions. Aims: We resolve the exozodiacal dust disc around Vega with the help of infrared stellar interferometry and estimate the integrated H-band flux originating from the first few AUs of the debris disc. Methods: Precise H-band interferometric measurements were obtained on Vega with the 3-telescope IOTA/IONIC interferometer (Mount Hopkins, Arizona). Thorough modelling of both interferometric data (squared visibility and closure phase) and spectral energy distribution was performed to constrain the nature of the near-infrared excess emission. Results: Resolved circumstellar emission within ~6 AU from Vega is identified at the 3-σ level. The most straightforward scenario consists in a compact dust disc producing a thermal emission that is largely dominated by small grains located between 0.1 and 0.3 AU from Vega and accounting for 1.23 ± 0.45% of the near-infrared stellar flux for our best-fit model. This flux ratio is shown to vary slightly with the geometry of the model used to fit our interferometric data (variations within ± 0.19%). Conclusions: The presence of hot exozodiacal dust in the vicinity of Vega, initially revealed by K-band CHARA/FLUOR observations, is confirmed by our H-band IOTA/IONIC measurements. Whereas the origin of the dust is still uncertain, its presence and the possible connection with the outer disc suggest that the Vega system is currently undergoing major dynamical perturbations.

  9. MECHANICS OF DYNAMIC POWDER COMPACTION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Nurettin YAVUZ

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, interest in dynamic compaction methods of metal powders has increased due to the need to improve compaction properties and to increase production rates of compacts. In this paper, review of dynamic and explosive compaction of metal powders are given. An attempt is made to get a better understanding of the compaction process with the mechanicis of powder compaction.

  10. Compact neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavi, V.; Phatak, P.R.; Bahadur, C.; Bayala, A.K.; Jakati, R.K.; Sathian, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A compact size neutron flux monitor has been developed incorporating standard boards developed for smart radiation monitors. The sensitivity of the monitors is 0.4cps/nV. It has been tested up to 2075 nV flux with standard neutron sources. It shows convincing results even in high flux areas like 6m away from the accelerator in RMC (Parel) for 106/107 nV. These monitors have a focal and remote display, alarm function with potential free contacts for centralized control and additional provision of connectivity via RS485/Ethernet. This paper describes the construction, working and results of the above flux monitor

  11. Compact ignition experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, A.; Coppi, B.; Nassi, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on high magnetic field experiments which can be designed to investigate D-T ignition conditions based on present-day experimental results and theoretical understanding of plasma phenomena. The key machine elements are: large plasma currents, compact dimensions, tight aspect ratios, moderate elongations and significant triangularities of the plasma column. High plasma densities, strong ohmic heating, the needed degree of energy confinement, good plasma purity and robust stability against ideal and resistive instabilities can be achieved simultaneously. The Ignitor design incorporates all these characteristics and involves magnet technology developments, started with the Alcator experiment, that use cryogenically cooled normal conductors

  12. Compact LINAC for deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurennoy, S.S.; O'Hara, J.F.; Rybarcyk, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a compact deuteron-beam accelerator up to the deuteron energy of a few MeV based on room-temperature inter-digital H-mode (IH) accelerating structures with the transverse beam focusing using permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQ). Combining electromagnetic 3-D modeling with beam dynamics simulations and thermal-stress analysis, we show that IHPMQ structures provide very efficient and practical accelerators for light-ion beams of considerable currents at the beam velocities around a few percent of the speed of light. IH-structures with PMQ focusing following a short RFQ can also be beneficial in the front end of ion linacs.

  13. Compact electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    There have been many recent developments in the area of compact storage rings. Such rings would have critical wavelengths of typically 10 A, achieved with beam energies of several hundreds of MeV and superconducting dipole fields of around 5 Tesla. Although the primary motivation for progress in this area is that of commercial x-ray lithography, such sources might be an attractive source for college campuses to operate. They would be useful for many programs in materials science, solid state, x-ray microscopy and other biological areas. We discuss the properties of such sources and review developments around the world, primarily in the USA, japan and W. Germany

  14. Compact synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, N.; Wang, T.; Tian, J.; Lin, Y.; Chen, S.; He, W.; Hu, Y.; Li, Q.

    1985-01-01

    A compact 800 MeV synchrotron radiation source is discussed. The storage ring has a circumference of 30.3 m, two 90 degree and four 45 degree bending magnet sections, two long straight sections and four short straight sections. The radius of the bending magnet is 2.224m. The critical wave length is 24A. The injector is a 15 Mev Microtron Electrons are accelerated from 15 Mev to 800 Mev by ramping the field of the ring. The expected stored current will be around 100 ma

  15. LASL Compact Torus Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Armstrong, W.T.; Bartsch, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Compact Torus (CT) concept includes any axisymmetric toroidal plasma configuration, which does not require the linking of any material through the hole in the torus. Thus, the magnet coils, vacuum vessel, etc., have a simple cylindrical or spherical geometry instead of the toroidal geometry required for Tokamaks and RFP's. This simplified geometry results in substantial engineering advantages in CT reactor embodiments while retaining the good confinement properties afforded by an axisymmetric toroidal plasma-field geometry. CT's can be classified into three major types by using the ion gyro radius rho/sub i/ and the magnitude of the maximum toroidal field B/sub tm/

  16. Compact Q-balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D., E-mail: bazeia@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Losano, L.; Marques, M.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58297-000 Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58109-970 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Rocha, R. da [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André (Brazil)

    2016-07-10

    In this work we deal with non-topological solutions of the Q-ball type in two space–time dimensions, in models described by a single complex scalar field that engenders global symmetry. The main novelty is the presence of stable Q-balls solutions that live in a compact interval of the real line and appear from a family of models controlled by two distinct parameters. We find analytical solutions and study their charge and energy, and show how to control the parameters to make the Q-balls classically and quantum mechanically stable.

  17. Selecting the recommended waste management system for the midwest compact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, A.A.; Robertson, B.C.; Drobny, N.L.

    1987-01-01

    One of the early important steps in the evolution of a low-level waste Compact is the development of a Regional Management Plan. Part of the Regional Management Plan is a description of the waste management system that indicates what kinds of facilities that will be available within the compact's region. The facilities in the waste management system can include those for storage, treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The Regional Management Plan also describes the number of facilities that will be operated simultaneously. This paper outlines the development of the recommended waste management system for the Midwest Compact. It describes the way a data base on low-level radioactive waste from the Compact was collected and placed into a computerized data base management system, and how that data base was subsequently used to analyze various options for treatment and disposal of low-level radioactive waste within the Midwest Compact. The paper indicates the thought process that led to the definition of four recommended waste management systems. Six methods for reducing the volume of waste to be disposed of in the Midwest Compact were considered. Major attention was focused on the use of regional compaction or incineration facilities. Seven disposal technologies, all different from the shallow land burial currently practiced, were also considered for the waste management system. After evaluating the options available, the Compact Commissioners recommended four waste disposal technologies--above-ground vaults, below-ground vaults, concrete canisters placed above ground, and concrete canisters placed below ground--to the host state that will be chosen in 1987. The Commissioners did not recommend use of a regional waste treatment facility

  18. General Relativity and Compact Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, Norman K.

    2005-01-01

    Compact stars--broadly grouped as neutron stars and white dwarfs--are the ashes of luminous stars. One or the other is the fate that awaits the cores of most stars after a lifetime of tens to thousands of millions of years. Whichever of these objects is formed at the end of the life of a particular luminous star, the compact object will live in many respects unchanged from the state in which it was formed. Neutron stars themselves can take several forms--hyperon, hybrid, or strange quark star. Likewise white dwarfs take different forms though only in the dominant nuclear species. A black hole is probably the fate of the most massive stars, an inaccessible region of spacetime into which the entire star, ashes and all, falls at the end of the luminous phase. Neutron stars are the smallest, densest stars known. Like all stars, neutron stars rotate--some as many as a few hundred times a second. A star rotating at such a rate will experience an enormous centrifugal force that must be balanced by gravity or else it will be ripped apart. The balance of the two forces informs us of the lower limit on the stellar density. Neutron stars are 10 14 times denser than Earth. Some neutron stars are in binary orbit with a companion. Application of orbital mechanics allows an assessment of masses in some cases. The mass of a neutron star is typically 1.5 solar masses. They can therefore infer their radii: about ten kilometers. Into such a small object, the entire mass of our sun and more, is compressed

  19. Scalable Nonlinear Compact Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debojyoti [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Constantinescu, Emil M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Brown, Jed [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we focus on compact schemes resulting in tridiagonal systems of equations, specifically the fifth-order CRWENO scheme. We propose a scalable implementation of the nonlinear compact schemes by implementing a parallel tridiagonal solver based on the partitioning/substructuring approach. We use an iterative solver for the reduced system of equations; however, we solve this system to machine zero accuracy to ensure that no parallelization errors are introduced. It is possible to achieve machine-zero convergence with few iterations because of the diagonal dominance of the system. The number of iterations is specified a priori instead of a norm-based exit criterion, and collective communications are avoided. The overall algorithm thus involves only point-to-point communication between neighboring processors. Our implementation of the tridiagonal solver differs from and avoids the drawbacks of past efforts in the following ways: it introduces no parallelization-related approximations (multiprocessor solutions are exactly identical to uniprocessor ones), it involves minimal communication, the mathematical complexity is similar to that of the Thomas algorithm on a single processor, and it does not require any communication and computation scheduling.

  20. Compact magnetic fusion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, R.K.

    1983-12-01

    If the core (first wall, blanket, shield, and magnet coils) of fusion reactor systems could be made smaller in mass and volume for a given net electric power output than is usually predicted for the mainline tokamak/sup 1/ and mirror concepts, the cost of the technological development of the core and the construction of power plants might be significantly reduced. Although progress in plasma physics and engineering approaches should continue to yield improvements in reactor designs, certain physics features of the mainline concepts may prevent major reductions in the size of the core without straining the limits of technology. However, more than a factor of ten reduction in volume and mass of the core, at constant output power, may be possible for a class of toroidal confinement concepts in which the confining magnetic fields are supported more by currents flowing in the plasma than those in the external coils. In spite of this dramatic increase in power density (ratio of total thermal output power to the volume of the core), the design of compact systems need not rely on any materials requirements that are qualitatively more difficult than those proposed for the lower-power-density mainline fusion concepts. In some respects compact systems require less of an extension of existing technology, e.g. magnetics.

  1. Compact magnetic fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    If the core (first wall, blanket, shield, and magnet coils) of fusion reactor systems could be made smaller in mass and volume for a given net electric power output than is usually predicted for the mainline tokamak 1 and mirror concepts, the cost of the technological development of the core and the construction of power plants might be significantly reduced. Although progress in plasma physics and engineering approaches should continue to yield improvements in reactor designs, certain physics features of the mainline concepts may prevent major reductions in the size of the core without straining the limits of technology. However, more than a factor of ten reduction in volume and mass of the core, at constant output power, may be possible for a class of toroidal confinement concepts in which the confining magnetic fields are supported more by currents flowing in the plasma than those in the external coils. In spite of this dramatic increase in power density (ratio of total thermal output power to the volume of the core), the design of compact systems need not rely on any materials requirements that are qualitatively more difficult than those proposed for the lower-power-density mainline fusion concepts. In some respects compact systems require less of an extension of existing technology, e.g. magnetics

  2. Diffusion in compacted betonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Rantanen, J.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this report is to collect the literature bearing on the diffusion in compacted betonite, which has been suggested as possible buffer material for the disposal of spent fuel. Diffusion in a porous, water-saturated material is usually described as diffusion in the pore-water where sorption on the solid matter can delay the migration in the instationary state. There are also models which take into consideration that the sorbed molecules can also move while being sorbed. Diffusion experiments in compacted bentonite have been reported by many authors. Gases, anions, cations and actinides have been used as diffusing molecules. The report collects the results and the information on the measurement methods. On the basis of the results can be concluded that different particles possibly follow different diffusion mechanisms. The parameters which affect the diffusion seem to be for example the size, the electric charge and the sorption properties of the diffusing molecule. The report also suggest the parameters to be used in the diffusion calculation of the safety analyses of spent fuel disposal. (author)

  3. Compact Infrasonic Windscreen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Shams, Qamar A.; Sealey, Bradley S.; Comeaux, Toby

    2005-01-01

    A compact windscreen has been conceived for a microphone of a type used outdoors to detect atmospheric infrasound from a variety of natural and manmade sources. Wind at the microphone site contaminates received infrasonic signals (defined here as sounds having frequencies <20 Hz), because a microphone cannot distinguish between infrasonic pressures (which propagate at the speed of sound) and convective pressure fluctuations generated by wind turbulence. Hence, success in measurement of outdoor infrasound depends on effective screening of the microphone from the wind. The present compact windscreen is based on a principle: that infrasound at sufficiently large wavelength can penetrate any barrier of practical thickness. Thus, a windscreen having solid, non-porous walls can block convected pressure fluctuations from the wind while transmitting infrasonic acoustic waves. The transmission coefficient depends strongly upon the ratio between the acoustic impedance of the windscreen and that of air. Several materials have been found to have impedance ratios that render them suitable for use in constructing walls that have practical thicknesses and are capable of high transmission of infrasound. These materials (with their impedance ratios in parentheses) are polyurethane foam (222), space shuttle tile material (332), balsa (323), cedar (3,151), and pine (4,713).

  4. Compact electrostatic comb actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Burg, Michael S.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.; Barnes, Stephen M.

    2000-01-01

    A compact electrostatic comb actuator is disclosed for microelectromechanical (MEM) applications. The actuator is based upon a plurality of meshed electrostatic combs, some of which are stationary and others of which are moveable. One or more restoring springs are fabricated within an outline of the electrostatic combs (i.e. superposed with the moveable electrostatic combs) to considerably reduce the space required for the actuator. Additionally, a truss structure is provided to support the moveable electrostatic combs and prevent bending or distortion of these combs due to unbalanced electrostatic forces or external loading. The truss structure formed about the moveable electrostatic combs allows the spacing between the interdigitated fingers of the combs to be reduced to about one micron or less, thereby substantially increasing the number of active fingers which can be provided in a given area. Finally, electrostatic shields can be used in the actuator to substantially reduce unwanted electrostatic fields to further improve performance of the device. As a result, the compact electrostatic comb actuator of the present invention occupies only a fraction of the space required for conventional electrostatic comb actuators, while providing a substantial increase in the available drive force (up to one-hundred times).

  5. Development task of compact reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurushima, Morihiro

    1982-01-01

    In the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, studies proceed on the usage of compact medium and small LWRs. As such, the reactors from 100 to 200 MW may meet varieties of demands in scale and kind in view of the saving of petroleum and the economy of nuclear power. In this case, the technology of light water reactors with already established safety will be suitable for the development of compact reactors. The concept of ''nuclear power community'' using the compact reactors in local society and industrial zones was investigated. The following matters are described: need for the introduction of compact reactors, the survey on the compact reactor systems, and the present status and future problems for compact reactor usage. (J.P.N.)

  6. The United Nations Global Compact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Waddock, Sandra; McIntosh, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the interdisciplinary literature on the UN Global Compact. The review identifies three research perspectives, which scholars have used to study the UN Global Compact so far: a historical perspective discussing the Global Compact in the context of UN-business relations...... key empirical as well as conceptual scholarly contributions. The remainder of this article contains focused summaries of the articles selected for this Special Issue. All articles are introduced and evaluated against the background of the three research perspectives....

  7. Compact particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2017-08-29

    A compact particle accelerator having an input portion configured to receive power to produce particles for acceleration, where the input portion includes a switch, is provided. In a general embodiment, a vacuum tube receives particles produced from the input portion at a first end, and a plurality of wafer stacks are positioned serially along the vacuum tube. Each of the plurality of wafer stacks include a dielectric and metal-oxide pair, wherein each of the plurality of wafer stacks further accelerate the particles in the vacuum tube. A beam shaper coupled to a second end of the vacuum tube shapes the particles accelerated by the plurality of wafer stacks into a beam and an output portion outputs the beam.

  8. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  9. Compact vacuum insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  10. The Compact Ignition Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses his lab's plan for completing the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) conceptual design during calendar year 1987. Around July 1 they froze the subsystem envelopes on the device to continue with the conceptual design. They did this by formalizing a general requirements document. They have been developing the management plan and submitted a version to the DOE July 10. He describes a group of management activities. They released the vacuum vessel Request For Proposals (RFP) on August 5. An RFP to do a major part of the system engineering on the device is being developed. They intend to assemble the device outside of the test cell, then move it into the the test cell, install it there, and bring to the test cell many of the auxiliary facilities from TFTR, for example, power supplies

  11. Compact cryocooler heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, J.; Frederking, T.H.K.

    1991-01-01

    Compact heat exchangers are subject to different constraints as a room temperature gas is cooled down by a cold stream returning from a JT valve (or a similar cryoprocess component). In particular, the optimization of exchangers for liquid helium systems has to cover a wide range in temperature and density of the fluid. In the present work we address the following thermodynamic questions: 1. The optimization of intermediate temperatures which optimize stage operation (a stage is assumed to have a constant cross section); 2. The optimum temperature difference available for best overall economic performance values. The results are viewed in the context of porous media concepts applied to rather low speeds of fluid flow in narrow passages. In this paper examples of fluid/solid constraints imposed in this non-classical low temperature area are presented

  12. Compact semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Siyuan; Lourtioz, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together in a single volume a unique contribution by the top experts around the world in the field of compact semiconductor lasers to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of the current status as well as future directions in the field of micro- and nano-scale semiconductor lasers. It is organized according to the various forms of micro- or nano-laser cavity configurations with each chapter discussing key technical issues, including semiconductor carrier recombination processes and optical gain dynamics, photonic confinement behavior and output coupling mechanisms, carrier transport considerations relevant to the injection process, and emission mode control. Required reading for those working in and researching the area of semiconductors lasers and micro-electronics.

  13. Solid targetry for compact cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comor, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation authors present experimental results of solid targetry for compact cyclotrons. It is concluded: Solid targetry is not restricted to large accelerator centers anymore; Small and medium scale radioisotope production is feasible with compact cyclotrons; The availability of versatile solid target systems is expected to boost the radiochemistry of 'exotic' positron emitters

  14. Roller-compacted concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) gets its name from the heavy vibratory steel drum and rubber-tired rollers used to help compact it into its final form. RCC has similar strength properties and consists of the same basic ingredients as conventional con...

  15. Machine for compacting solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.

    1981-11-01

    Machine for compacting solid residues, particularly bulky radioactive residues, constituted of a horizontally actuated punch and a fixed compression anvil, in which the residues are first compacted horizontally and then vertically. Its salient characteristic is that the punch and the compression anvil have embossments on the compression side and interpenetrating plates in the compression position [fr

  16. Compact toroid formation, compression, and acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degnan, J.H.; Peterkin, R.E. Jr.; Baca, G.P.; Beason, J.D.; Bell, D.E.; Dearborn, M.E.; Dietz, D.; Douglas, M.R.; Englert, S.E.; Englert, T.J.; Hackett, K.E.; Holmes, J.H.; Hussey, T.W.; Kiuttu, G.F.; Lehr, F.M.; Marklin, G.J.; Mullins, B.W.; Price, D.W.; Roderick, N.F.; Ruden, E.L.; Sovinec, C.R.; Turchi, P.J.; Bird, G.; Coffey, S.K.; Seiler, S.W.; Chen, Y.G.; Gale, D.; Graham, J.D.; Scott, M.; Sommars, W.

    1993-01-01

    Research on forming, compressing, and accelerating milligram-range compact toroids using a meter diameter, two-stage, puffed gas, magnetic field embedded coaxial plasma gun is described. The compact toroids that are studied are similar to spheromaks, but they are threaded by an inner conductor. This research effort, named MARAUDER (Magnetically Accelerated Ring to Achieve Ultra-high Directed Energy and Radiation), is not a magnetic confinement fusion program like most spheromak efforts. Rather, the ultimate goal of the present program is to compress toroids to high mass density and magnetic field intensity, and to accelerate the toroids to high speed. There are a variety of applications for compressed, accelerated toroids including fast opening switches, x-radiation production, radio frequency (rf) compression, as well as charge-neutral ion beam and inertial confinement fusion studies. Experiments performed to date to form and accelerate toroids have been diagnosed with magnetic probe arrays, laser interferometry, time and space resolved optical spectroscopy, and fast photography. Parts of the experiment have been designed by, and experimental results are interpreted with, the help of two-dimensional (2-D), time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations. When not driven by a second discharge, the toroids relax to a Woltjer--Taylor equilibrium state that compares favorably to the results of 2-D equilibrium calculations and to 2-D time-dependent MHD simulations. Current, voltage, and magnetic probe data from toroids that are driven by an acceleration discharge are compared to 2-D MHD and to circuit solver/slug model predictions. Results suggest that compact toroids are formed in 7--15 μsec, and can be accelerated intact with material species the same as injected gas species and entrained mass ≥1/2 the injected mass

  17. Theories of magnetospheres around accreting compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasyliunas, V.M.

    1979-01-01

    A wide class of galactic X-ray sources are believed to be binary systems where mass is flowing from a normal star to a companion that is a compact object, such as a neutron star. The strong magnetic fields of the compact object create a magnetosphere around it. We review the theoretical models developed to describe the properties of magnetospheres in such accreting binary systems. The size of the magnetosphere can be estimated from pressure balance arguments and is found to be small compared to the over-all size of the accretion region but large compared object if the latter is a neutron star. In the early models the magnetosphere was assumed to have open funnels in the polar regions, through which accreting plasma could pour in. Later, magnetically closed models were developed, with plasma entry made possible by instabilities at the magnetosphere boundary. The theory of plasma flow inside the magnetosphere has been formulated in analogy to a stellar wind with reversed flow; a complicating factor is the instability of the Alfven critical point for inflow. In the case of accretion via a well-defined disk, new problems if magnetospheric structure appear, in particular the question to what extent and by what process the magnetic fields from the compact object can penetrate into the acretion disk. Since the X-ray emission is powered by the gravitational energy released in the accretion process, mass transfer into the magnetosphere is of fundamental importance; the various proposed mechanisms are critically examined. (orig.)

  18. Considerations for evaluating proposed low-level radioactive waste compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    Thirty-nine States have enacted legislation related to this Act, and five compacts have been submitted to Congress for consent. Other compacts are being negotiated, one in the West and several in the Midwest and Northeast. The Department of Energy has identified a number of items, which if included in the congressional review of each compact, would be likely to increase the possibility that new disposal sites will be developed and properly supported. The Department is providing additional perspectives that have not been previously included in testimony or reports. By suggesting examination of several general elements of a compact proposal, the Department hopes to provide a common focus that may be useful to the Congress in integrating all available information. The Department believes that the Congress should consider the following key items when reviewing the compacts: Commitments that assure the provision of new disposal capacity in the form of a host-State and site selection process with schedules and a target date for new sites to be opened; Commitments that provide short-term measures for storage, treatment, or disposal during an interim period when such new capacity may not be available; Consistency of definitions with 10 CFR Part 61 to assure the compact plan presents a total solution for all low-level waste generated within the region; Periodic review of the compacts by the Congress to examine concerns that are more easily assessed after a compact becomes operational, e.g., economic viability and long-term institutional control; and Economic viability of a compact, when reviewed in the future, in terms of the benefits and the costs specific to that region

  19. A gas puff experiment for partial simulation of compact toroid formation on MARAUDER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, S.E.; Englert, T.J.; Degnan, J.H.; Gahl, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary results will be reported of a single valve gas puff experiment to determine spatial and spectral distribution of a gas during the early ionization stages. This experiment has been developed as a diagnostic test-bed for partial simulation of compact toroid formation on MARAUDER. The manner in which the experimental hardware has been designed allows for a wide range of diagnostic access to evaluate early time evolution of the ionization process. This evaluation will help contribute to a clearer understanding of the initial conditions for the formation stage of the compact toroid in the MARAUDER experiment, where 60 of the same puff valves are used. For the experiment, a small slice of the MARAUDER cylindrical gas injection and expansion region geometry have been re-created but in cartesian coordinates. All of the conditions in the experiment adhere as closely as possible to the MARAUDER experiment. The timing, current rise time, capacitance, resistance and inductance are appropriate to both the simulation of one of the 60 puff valves and current delivery to the load. Both time-resolved images and spectral data have been gathered for visible light emission of the plasma. Processed images reveal characteristics of spatial distribution of the current. Spectral data provide information with respect to electron temperature and density, and entrainment of contaminants

  20. Highly resolving computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, B.; Petersen, D.; Walter, E.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of highly-resolving devices for computerized tomography, CT diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column has gained increasing importance. As an ambulatory, non-invasive method it has proved in comparative studies to be at least equivalent to myelography in the detection of dislocations of inter-vertebral disks (4,6,7,15). Because with modern devices not alone the bones, but especially the spinal soft part structures are clearly and precisely presented with a resolution of distinctly below 1 mm, a further improvement of the results is expected as experience will increase. The authors report on the diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column with the aid of a modern device for computerized tomography and wish to draw particular attention to the possibility of doing this investigation as a routine, and to the diagnostic value of secondary reconstructions. (BWU) [de

  1. Highly resolving computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, B.; Petersen, D.; Walter, E.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of highly-resolving devices for computerized tomography, CT diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column has gained increasing importance. As an ambulatory, non-invasive method it has proved in comparative studies to be at least equivalent to myelography in the detection of dislocations of inter-vertebral disks (4,6,7,15). Because with modern devices not alone the bones, but especially the spinal soft part structures are clearly and precisely presented with a resolution of distinctly below 1 mm, a further improvement of the results is expected as experience will increase. The authors report on the diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column with the aid of a modern device for computerized tomography and wish to draw particular attention to the possibility of doing this investigation as a routine, and to the diagnostic value of secondary reconstructions.

  2. Compact radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altschuler, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-seven compact radio sources were monitored between 1971 and 1974 with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory interferometer. Both flux density and polarization were measured at intervals of about one month at wavelengths of 3.7 and 11.1 cms. Forty-four sources showed definite variability in their total and/or polarized flux density. The variations in polarization were of a shorter time scale than the corresponding flux density variations. Some of the qualitative features of an expanding source model were observed. The data suggest that some form of injection of relativistic electrons is taking place. The absence of significant depolarization in the variable sources indicates that only a small fraction of the mass of the radio outburst is in the form of non-relativistic plasma. Some of the objects observed belong to the BL-Lacertal class. It is shown that this class is very inhomogeneous in its radio properties. For the violently variable BL-Lacertal type objects the spectrum, flux variations and polarization data strongly suggest that these are very young objects

  3. Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

  4. Compact stellarator coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomphrey, N.; Berry, L.A.; Boozer, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental devices to study the physics of high-beta (β>∼4%), low aspect ratio (A<∼4.5) stellarator plasmas require coils that will produce plasmas satisfying a set of physics goals, provide experimental flexibility, and be practical to construct. In the course of designing a flexible coil set for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment, we have made several innovations that may be useful in future stellarator design efforts. These include: the use of Singular Value Decomposition methods for obtaining families of smooth current potentials on distant coil winding surfaces from which low current density solutions may be identified; the use of a Control Matrix Method for identifying which few of the many detailed elements of the stellarator boundary must be targeted if a coil set is to provide fields to control the essential physics of the plasma; the use of Genetic Algorithms for choosing an optimal set of discrete coils from a continuum of potential contours; the evaluation of alternate coil topologies for balancing the tradeoff between physics objective and engineering constraints; the development of a new coil optimization code for designing modular coils, and the identification of a 'natural' basis for describing current sheet distributions. (author)

  5. Compact neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui

    2005-03-22

    A compact neutron generator has at its outer circumference a toroidal shaped plasma chamber in which a tritium (or other) plasma is generated. A RF antenna is wrapped around the plasma chamber. A plurality of tritium ion beamlets are extracted through spaced extraction apertures of a plasma electrode on the inner surface of the toroidal plasma chamber and directed inwardly toward the center of neutron generator. The beamlets pass through spaced acceleration and focusing electrodes to a neutron generating target at the center of neutron generator. The target is typically made of titanium tubing. Water is flowed through the tubing for cooling. The beam can be pulsed rapidly to achieve ultrashort neutron bursts. The target may be moved rapidly up and down so that the average power deposited on the surface of the target may be kept at a reasonable level. The neutron generator can produce fast neutrons from a T-T reaction which can be used for luggage and cargo interrogation applications. A luggage or cargo inspection system has a pulsed T-T neutron generator or source at the center, surrounded by associated gamma detectors and other components for identifying explosives or other contraband.

  6. Compact tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, A.J.; Wiley, J.C.; Edmonds, P.H.; Ross, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    The possible use of tokamaks for thermonuclear power plants is discussed, in particular tokamaks with low aspect ratio and copper toroidal field coils. Three approaches are presented. First, the existing literature is reviewed and summarized. Second, using simple analytic estimates, the size of the smallest tokamak to produce an ignited plasma is derived. This steady state energy balance analysis is then extended to determine the smallest tokamaks power plant, by including the power required to drive the toroidal field and by considering two extremes of plasma current drive efficiency. Third, the analytic results are augmented by a numerical calculation that permits arbitrary plasma current drive efficiency and different confinement scaling relationships. Throughout, the importance of various restrictions is emphasized, in particular plasma current drive efficiency, plasma confinement, plasma safety factor, plasma elongation, plasma beta, neutron wall loading, blanket availability and recirculation of electric power. The latest published reactor studies show little advantage in using low aspect ratios to obtain a more compact device (and a low cost of electricity) unless either remarkably high efficiency plasma current drive and low safety factor are combined, or unless confinement (the H factor), the permissible elongation and the permissible neutron wall loading increase as the aspect ratio is reduced. These results are reproduced with the analytic model. (author). 22 refs, 3 figs

  7. High resolving power spectrometer for beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshammer, H.W.; Spencer, J.E.

    1992-03-01

    We describe a system designed to analyze the high energy, closely spaced bunches from individual RF pulses. Neither a large solid angle nor momentum range is required so this allows characteristics that appear useful for other applications such as ion beam lithography. The spectrometer is a compact, double-focusing QBQ design whose symmetry allows the Quads to range between F or D with a correspondingly large range of magnifications, dispersion and resolving power. This flexibility insures the possibility of spatially separating all of the bunches along the focal plane with minimal transverse kicks and bending angle for differing input conditions. The symmetry of the system allows a simple geometric interpretationof the resolving power in terms of thin lenses and ray optics. We discuss the optics and the hardware that is proposed to measure emittance, energy, energy spread and bunch length for each bunch in an RF pulse train for small bunch separations. We also discuss how to use such measurements for feedback and feedforward control of these bunch characteristics as well as maintain their stability. 2 refs

  8. The compaction of fused silica resulting from ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.M.; Ridgway, M.C. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); Leech, P.L. [Telstra Research Laboratories, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Ion implantation of fused silica results in compaction and consequently an increase in refractive index. This method of modifying the near-surface region has been shown as a potential means for fabricating single mode channel waveguides. This study has measured the compaction of the implanted regions for Si implantations as a function of dose (2x10{sup 12} - 6x10{sup l6} ions/cm{sup 2}), energy (1-9 MeV) and post-implantation annealing temperature (200-900 degree C). For a given energy, a dose-dependence of the step height (depth of compacted region) is observed for doses less than {approx}10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. At higher doses the step height saturates. For a given dose, a linear trend is evident for the step height as a function of energy suggesting that the major mechanism for this compaction is electronic stopping. As the annealing temperature increases, the step height gradually decreases from {approx}0.1-0.2 {mu} to -10-20% of the original value. From the annealing data, it is possible to extract an activation energy of 0.08 eV associated with the thermal removal of the compacted region. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  9. The compaction of fused silica resulting from ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C M; Ridgway, M C [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); Leech, P L [Telstra Research Laboratories, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Ion implantation of fused silica results in compaction and consequently an increase in refractive index. This method of modifying the near-surface region has been shown as a potential means for fabricating single mode channel waveguides. This study has measured the compaction of the implanted regions for Si implantations as a function of dose (2x10{sup 12} - 6x10{sup l6} ions/cm{sup 2}), energy (1-9 MeV) and post-implantation annealing temperature (200-900 degree C). For a given energy, a dose-dependence of the step height (depth of compacted region) is observed for doses less than {approx}10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. At higher doses the step height saturates. For a given dose, a linear trend is evident for the step height as a function of energy suggesting that the major mechanism for this compaction is electronic stopping. As the annealing temperature increases, the step height gradually decreases from {approx}0.1-0.2 {mu} to -10-20% of the original value. From the annealing data, it is possible to extract an activation energy of 0.08 eV associated with the thermal removal of the compacted region. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Compact Holographic Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T. H.; Reyes, G. F.; Zhou, H.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's future missions would require massive high-speed onboard data storage capability to Space Science missions. For Space Science, such as the Europa Lander mission, the onboard data storage requirements would be focused on maximizing the spacecraft's ability to survive fault conditions (i.e., no loss in stored science data when spacecraft enters the 'safe mode') and autonomously recover from them during NASA's long-life and deep space missions. This would require the development of non-volatile memory. In order to survive in the stringent environment during space exploration missions, onboard memory requirements would also include: (1) survive a high radiation environment (1 Mrad), (2) operate effectively and efficiently for a very long time (10 years), and (3) sustain at least a billion write cycles. Therefore, memory technologies requirements of NASA's Earth Science and Space Science missions are large capacity, non-volatility, high-transfer rate, high radiation resistance, high storage density, and high power efficiency. JPL, under current sponsorship from NASA Space Science and Earth Science Programs, is developing a high-density, nonvolatile and rad-hard Compact Holographic Data Storage (CHDS) system to enable large-capacity, high-speed, low power consumption, and read/write of data in a space environment. The entire read/write operation will be controlled with electrooptic mechanism without any moving parts. This CHDS will consist of laser diodes, photorefractive crystal, spatial light modulator, photodetector array, and I/O electronic interface. In operation, pages of information would be recorded and retrieved with random access and high-speed. The nonvolatile, rad-hard characteristics of the holographic memory will provide a revolutionary memory technology meeting the high radiation challenge facing the Europa Lander mission. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Compact instantaneous water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Jorge G.W.; Machado, Antonio R.; Ferraz, Andre D.; Rocha, Ivan C.C. da; Konishi, Ricardo [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Lehmkuhl, Willian A.; Francisco Jr, Roberto W.; Hatanaka, Ricardo L.; Pereira, Fernando M.; Oliveira, Amir A.M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of combustion in an inert porous medium in a liquid heating device application. This project aims to increase efficiency in the application of natural gas in residential and commercial sectors with the use of advanced combustion and heat transfer. The goal is to facilitate the development of a high performance compact water heater allowing hot water supply for up to two simultaneous showers. The experiment consists in a cylindrical porous burner with an integrated annular water heat exchanger. The reactants were injected radially into the burner and the flame stabilizes within the porous matrix. The water circulates in a coiled pipe positioned at the center of the burner. This configuration allows for heat transfer by conduction and radiation from the solid matrix to the heat exchanger. This article presented preliminary experimental results of a new water heater based on an annular porous burner. The range of equivalence ratios tested varied from 0.65 to 0.8. The power range was varied from 3 to 5 kW. Increasing the equivalence ratio or decreasing the total power input of the burner resulted in increased thermal efficiencies of the water heater. Thermal efficiencies varying from 60 to 92% were obtained. The condition for the goal of a comfortable bath was 20 deg C for 8-12 L/min. This preliminary prototype has achieved water temperature of 11deg C for 5 L/min. Further optimizations will be necessary in order to achieve intense heating with high thermal efficiency. (author)

  12. Compact Stars with Sequential QCD Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Mark; Sedrakian, Armen

    2017-10-01

    Compact stars may contain quark matter in their interiors at densities exceeding several times the nuclear saturation density. We explore models of such compact stars where there are two first-order phase transitions: the first from nuclear matter to a quark-matter phase, followed at a higher density by another first-order transition to a different quark-matter phase [e.g., from the two-flavor color-superconducting (2SC) to the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase]. We show that this can give rise to two separate branches of hybrid stars, separated from each other and from the nuclear branch by instability regions, and, therefore, to a new family of compact stars, denser than the ordinary hybrid stars. In a range of parameters, one may obtain twin hybrid stars (hybrid stars with the same masses but different radii) and even triplets where three stars, with inner cores of nuclear matter, 2SC matter, and CFL matter, respectively, all have the same mass but different radii.

  13. What Is Business's Social Compact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avishai, Bernard

    1994-01-01

    Under the "new" social compact, businesses must focus on continuous learning and thus have both an obligation to support teaching and an opportunity to profit from it. Learning organizations must also be teaching organizations. (SK)

  14. Collapse settlement in compacted soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, AR

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into collapse settlement in compacted soils is described, with special reference to recent cases in Southern Africa where collapse settlement occurred in road embankments following wetting of the soil. The laboratory work described...

  15. Collective bads: The case of low-level radioactive waste compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, M.V.

    1994-01-01

    In low-level radioactive waste (LLW) compact development, policy gridlock and intergovernmental conflict between states has been the norm. In addition to the not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) phenomenon, LLW compacts must content with myriad political and ethical dilemmas endemic to a particular collective bad. This paper characterizes the epistemology of collective bads, and reviews how LLW compacts deal with such bads. In addition, using data from survey questionnaires and interviews, this paper assesses the cooperative nature of LLW compacts in terms of their levels of regional autonomy, regional efficacy, allocation of costs and benefits, and their technocentric orientation

  16. Resolving inventory differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.H.; Clark, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Determining the cause of an inventory difference (ID) that exceeds warning or alarm limits should not only involve investigation into measurement methods and reexamination of the model assumptions used in the calculation of the limits, but also result in corrective actions that improve the quality of the accountability measurements. An example illustrating methods used by Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel to resolve an ID is presented that may be useful to other facilities faced with a similar problem. After first determining that no theft or diversion of material occurred and correcting any accountability calculation errors, investigation into the IDs focused on volume and analytical measurements, limit of error of inventory difference (LEID) modeling assumptions, and changes in the measurement procedures and methods prior to the alarm. There had been a gradual gain trend in IDs prior to the alarm which was reversed by the alarm inventory. The majority of the NM in the facility was stored in four large tanks which helped identify causes for the alarm. The investigation, while indicating no diversion or theft, resulted in changes in the analytical method and in improvements in the measurement and accountability that produced a 67% improvement in the LEID

  17. Time-resolved studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    When new or more powerful probes become available that offer both shorter data-collection times and the opportunity to apply innovative approaches to established techniques, it is natural that investigators consider the feasibility of exploring the kinetics of time-evolving systems. This stimulating area of research not only can lead to insights into the metastable or excited states that a system may populate on its way to a ground state, but can also lead to a better understanding of that final state. Synchrotron radiation, with its unique properties, offers just such a tool to extend X-ray measurements from the static to the time-resolved regime. The most straight-forward application of synchrotron radiation to the study of transient phenomena is directly through the possibility of decreased data-collection times via the enormous increase in flux over that of a laboratory X-ray system. Even further increases in intensity can be obtained through the use of novel X-ray optical devices. Widebandpass monochromators, e.g., that utilize the continuous spectral distribution of synchrotron radiation, can increase flux on the sample several orders of magnitude over conventional X-ray optical systems thereby allowing a further shortening of the data-collection time. Another approach that uses the continuous spectral nature of synchrotron radiation to decrease data-collection times is the open-quote parallel data collectionclose quotes method. Using this technique, intensities as a function of X-ray energy are recorded simultaneously for all energies rather than sequentially recording data at each energy, allowing for a dramatic decrease in the data-collection time

  18. Compaction wave profiles: Simulations of gas gun experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2001-01-01

    Mesoscale simulations of a compaction wave in a granular bed of HMX have been performed. The grains are fully resolved in order that the compaction, i.e., the porosity behind the wave front, is determined by the elastic-plastic response of the grains rather than by an empirical law for the porosity as a function of pressure. Numerical wave profiles of the pressure and velocity are compared with data from a gas gun experiment. The experiment used an initial porosity of 36%, and the wave had a pressure comparable to the yield strength of the grains. The profiles are measured at the front and back of the granular bed. The transit time for the compaction wave to propagate between the gauges determines the wave speed. The wave speed depends on the porosity behind the wave and is affected by the strength model. The yield strength needed to match the experimental wave speed is discussed. Analysis of the lead wave through the granular bed, based on impedance matches using the Hugoniot loci, indicates that the compaction wave triggers a small amount of burn, less than 1% mass fraction, on the microsecond time scale of the experiment. copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  19. Finite-dimensional approximations of the resolvent of an infinite band matrix and continued fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrios, Dolores; Lopez, Guillermo L; Martinez-Finkelshtein, A; Torrano, Emilio

    1999-01-01

    The approximability of the resolvent of an operator induced by a band matrix by the resolvents of its finite-dimensional sections is studied. For bounded perturbations of self-adjoint matrices a positive result is obtained. The convergence domain of the sequence of resolvents can be described in this case in terms of matrices involved in the representation. This result is applied to tridiagonal complex matrices to establish conditions for the convergence of Chebyshev continued fractions on sets in the complex domain. In the particular case of compact perturbations this result is improved and a connection between the poles of the limit function and the eigenvalues of the tridiagonal matrix is established

  20. Summary of Self-compacting Concrete Workability

    OpenAIRE

    GUO Gui-xiang; Duan Hong-jun

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of a large number of domestic and foreign literature, situation and development of self-compacting concrete is introduced. Summary of the compacting theory of self-compacting concrete. And some of the factors affecting the workability of self-compacting concrete were discussed and summarized to a certain extent. Aims to further promote the application and research of self-compacting concrete

  1. Clustering of near clusters versus cluster compactness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Gao; Yipeng Jing

    1989-01-01

    The clustering properties of near Zwicky clusters are studied by using the two-point angular correlation function. The angular correlation functions for compact and medium compact clusters, for open clusters, and for all near Zwicky clusters are estimated. The results show much stronger clustering for compact and medium compact clusters than for open clusters, and that open clusters have nearly the same clustering strength as galaxies. A detailed study of the compactness-dependence of correlation function strength is worth investigating. (author)

  2. Compact magnetic confinement fusion: Spherical torus and compact torus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The spherical torus (ST and compact torus (CT are two kinds of alternative magnetic confinement fusion concepts with compact geometry. The ST is actually a sub-category of tokamak with a low aspect ratio; while the CT is a toroidal magnetic configuration with a simply-connected geometry including spheromak and field reversed pinch. The ST and CT have potential advantages for ultimate fusion reactor; while at present they can also provide unique fusion science and technology contributions for mainstream fusion research. However, some critical scientific and technology issues should be extensively investigated.

  3. Professional Windows Embedded Compact 7

    CERN Document Server

    Phung, Samuel; Joubert, Thierry; Hall, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Learn to program an array of customized devices and solutions As a compact, highly efficient, scalable operating system, Windows Embedded Compact 7 (WEC7) is one of the best options for developing a new generation of network-enabled, media-rich, and service-oriented devices. This in-depth resource takes you through the benefits and capabilities of WEC7 so that you can start using this performance development platform today. Divided into several major sections, the book begins with an introduction and then moves on to coverage of OS design, application development, advanced application developm

  4. Modeling of compact loop antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baity, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    A general compact loop antenna model which treats all elements of the antenna as lossy transmission lines has been developed. In addition to capacitively-tuned resonant double loop (RDL) antennas the model treats stub-tuned resonant double loop antennas. Calculations using the model have been compared with measurements on full-scale mockups of resonant double loop antennas for ATF and TFTR in order to refine the transmission line parameters. Results from the model are presented for RDL antenna designs for ATF, TFTR, Tore Supra, and for the Compact Ignition Tokamak

  5. Compact accelerator for medical therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Hawkins, Steven A.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Paul, Arthur C.

    2010-05-04

    A compact accelerator system having an integrated particle generator-linear accelerator with a compact, small-scale construction capable of producing an energetic (.about.70-250 MeV) proton beam or other nuclei and transporting the beam direction to a medical therapy patient without the need for bending magnets or other hardware often required for remote beam transport. The integrated particle generator-accelerator is actuable as a unitary body on a support structure to enable scanning of a particle beam by direction actuation of the particle generator-accelerator.

  6. Compact toroid refueling of reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouge, M.J.; Hogan, J.T.; Milora, S.L.; Thomas, C.E.

    1988-04-01

    The feasibility of refueling fusion reactors and devices such as the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER) with high-velocity compact toroids is investigated. For reactors with reasonable limits on recirculating power, it is concluded that the concept is not economically feasible. For typical ITER designs, the compact toroid fueling requires about 15 MW of electrical power, with about 5 MW of thermal power deposited in the plasma. At these power levels, ideal ignition (Q = ∞) is not possible, even for short-pulse burns. The pulsed power requirements for this technology are substantial. 6 ref., 1 figs

  7. Co-compact Gabor Systems on Locally Compact Abelian Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mads Sielemann; Lemvig, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    In this work we extend classical structure and duality results in Gabor analysis on the euclidean space to the setting of second countable locally compact abelian (LCA) groups. We formulate the concept of rationally oversampling of Gabor systems in an LCA group and prove corresponding characteriz...

  8. Isometric coactions of compact quantum groups on compact ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a compact quantum metric space in the framework of Rieffel, where the ... This problem can be formulated and studied in various settings. ... The spaces we are interested in this paper are metric spaces, both classical and quantum. ... He has given a definition for a quantum symmetry of a classical ...... by the construction of I.

  9. Cable TV For the Neighborhood and For the Region. The Job of the Governor and the Minnesota Legislature in Resolving the Four Key Issues of Interconnection, Coverage, Franchising and Programming...In 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulver, John W.

    Cable television can dramatically increase the existing television offerings and open up important new services for the public. It offers a double potential: one for general service within a limited geographic part of the region and one for highly selective service all across the region. As a result, television will no longer have to be everything…

  10. Compact Radiative Control Structures for Millimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ari D.; Chuss, David T.; Chervenak, James A.; Henry, Ross M.; Moseley, s. Harvey; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested compact radiative control structures, including antireflection coatings and resonant absorbers, for millimeter through submillimeter wave astronomy. The antireflection coatings consist of micromachined single crystal silicon dielectric sub-wavelength honeycombs. The effective dielectric constant of the structures is set by the honeycomb cell geometry. The resonant absorbers consist of pieces of solid single crystal silicon substrate and thin phosphorus implanted regions whose sheet resistance is tailored to maximize absorption by the structure. We present an implantation model that can be used to predict the ion energy and dose required for obtaining a target implant layer sheet resistance. A neutral density filter, a hybrid of a silicon dielectric honeycomb with an implanted region, has also been fabricated with this basic approach. These radiative control structures are scalable and compatible for use large focal plane detector arrays.

  11. Compaction dynamics of crunchy granular material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillard François

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compaction of brittle porous material leads to a wide variety of densification patterns. Static compaction bands occurs naturally in rocks or bones, and have important consequences in industry for the manufacturing of powder tablets or metallic foams for example. Recently, oscillatory compaction bands have been observed in brittle porous media like snow or cereals. We will discuss the great variety of densification patterns arising during the compaction of puffed rice, including erratic compaction at low velocity, one or several travelling compaction bands at medium velocity and homogeneous compaction at larger velocity. The conditions of existence of each pattern are studied thanks to a numerical spring lattice model undergoing breakage and is mapped to the phase diagram of the patterns based on dimensionless characteristic quantities. This also allows to rationalise the evolution of the compaction behaviour during a single test. Finally, the localisation of compaction bands is linked to the strain rate sensitivity of the material.

  12. Compaction dynamics of crunchy granular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillard, François; Golshan, Pouya; Shen, Luming; Valdès, Julio R.; Einav, Itai

    2017-06-01

    Compaction of brittle porous material leads to a wide variety of densification patterns. Static compaction bands occurs naturally in rocks or bones, and have important consequences in industry for the manufacturing of powder tablets or metallic foams for example. Recently, oscillatory compaction bands have been observed in brittle porous media like snow or cereals. We will discuss the great variety of densification patterns arising during the compaction of puffed rice, including erratic compaction at low velocity, one or several travelling compaction bands at medium velocity and homogeneous compaction at larger velocity. The conditions of existence of each pattern are studied thanks to a numerical spring lattice model undergoing breakage and is mapped to the phase diagram of the patterns based on dimensionless characteristic quantities. This also allows to rationalise the evolution of the compaction behaviour during a single test. Finally, the localisation of compaction bands is linked to the strain rate sensitivity of the material.

  13. Biochar impact on water infiltration and water quality through a compacted subsoil layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soils in the SE USA Coastal Plain region frequently have a compacted subsoil layer (E horizon), which is a barrier for water infiltration. Four different biochars were evaluated to increase water infiltration through a compacted horizon from a Norfolk soil (fine-loamy, kaolinitic...

  14. Atomically resolved tissue integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Johan; Sundell, Gustav; Thuvander, Mattias; Andersson, Martin

    2014-08-13

    In the field of biomedical technology, a critical aspect is the ability to control and understand the integration of an implantable device in living tissue. Despite the technical advances in the development of biomaterials, the elaborate interplay encompassing materials science and biology on the atomic level is not very well understood. Within implantology, anchoring a biomaterial device into bone tissue is termed osseointegration. In the most accepted theory, osseointegration is defined as an interfacial bonding between implant and bone; however, there is lack of experimental evidence to confirm this. Here we show that atom probe tomography can be used to study the implant-tissue interaction, allowing for three-dimensional atomic mapping of the interface region. Interestingly, our analyses demonstrated that direct contact between Ca atoms and the implanted titanium oxide surface is formed without the presence of a protein interlayer, which means that a pure inorganic interface is created, hence giving experimental support to the current theory of osseointegration. We foresee that this result will be of importance in the development of future biomaterials as well as in the design of in vitro evaluation techniques.

  15. Compact objects and accretion disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blandford, Roger; Agol, Eric; Broderick, Avery; Heyl, Jeremy; Koopmans, Leon; Lee, Hee-Won

    2002-01-01

    Recent developments in the spectropolarimetric study of compact objects, specifically black holes (stellar and massive) and neutron stars are reviewed. The lectures are organized around five topics: disks, jets, outflows, neutron stars and black holes. They emphasize physical mechanisms and are

  16. Engineering aspects of compact stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.E.; Benson, R.D.; Brooks, A.

    2003-01-01

    Compact stellarators could combine the good confinement and high beta of a tokamak with the inherently steady state, disruption-free characteristics of a stellarator. Two U.S. compact stellarator facilities are now in the conceptual design phase: the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) and the Quasi- Poloidal Stellarator (QPS). NCSX has a major radius of 1.4 m and a toroidal field up to 2 T. The primary feature of both NCSX and QPS is the set of modular coils that provide the basic magnetic configuration. These coils represent a major engineering challenge due to the complex shape, precise geometric accuracy, and high current density of the windings. The winding geometry is too complex for conventional hollow copper conductor construction. Instead, the modular coils will be wound with flexible, multi strand cable conductor that has been compacted to a 75% copper packing fraction. Inside the NCSX coil set and surrounding the plasma is a highly contoured vacuum vessel. The vessel consists of three identical, 120 deg. segments that are bolted together at double sealed joints. The QPS device has a major radius of 0.9 m, a toroidal field of 1 T, and an aspect ratio of only 2.7. Instead of an internal vacuum vessel, the QPS modular coils will operate in an external vacuum tank. (author)

  17. Compact Circuit Preprocesses Accelerometer Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Compact electronic circuit transfers dc power to, and preprocesses ac output of, accelerometer and associated preamplifier. Incorporated into accelerometer case during initial fabrication or retrofit onto commercial accelerometer. Made of commercial integrated circuits and other conventional components; made smaller by use of micrologic and surface-mount technology.

  18. Compaction and relaxation of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, R.

    2015-06-18

    Operation of membrane systems for water treatment can be seriously hampered by biofouling. A better characterization of biofilms in membrane systems and their impact on membrane performance may help to develop effective biofouling control strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence, extent and timescale of biofilm compaction and relaxation (decompaction), caused by permeate flux variations. The impact of permeate flux changes on biofilm thickness, structure and stiffness was investigated in situ and non-destructively with optical coherence tomography using membrane fouling monitors operated at a constant crossflow velocity of 0.1 m s−1 with permeate production. The permeate flux was varied sequentially from 20 to 60 and back to 20 L m−2 h−1. The study showed that the average biofilm thickness on the membrane decreased after elevating the permeate flux from 20 to 60 L m−2 h−1 while the biofilm thickness increased again after restoring the original flux of 20 L m−2 h−1, indicating the occurrence of biofilm compaction and relaxation. Within a few seconds after the flux change, the biofilm thickness was changed and stabilized, biofilm compaction occurred faster than the relaxation after restoring the original permeate flux. The initial biofilm parameters were not fully reinstated: the biofilm thickness was reduced by 21%, biofilm stiffness had increased and the hydraulic biofilm resistance was elevated by 16%. Biofilm thickness was related to the hydraulic biofilm resistance. Membrane performance losses are related to the biofilm thickness, density and morphology, which are influenced by (variations in) hydraulic conditions. A (temporarily) permeate flux increase caused biofilm compaction, together with membrane performance losses. The impact of biofilms on membrane performance can be influenced (increased and reduced) by operational parameters. The article shows that a (temporary) pressure increase leads to more

  19. WFIRST: Resolving the Milky Way Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalirai, Jason; Conroy, Charlie; Dressler, Alan; Geha, Marla; Levesque, Emily; Lu, Jessica; Tumlinson, Jason

    2018-01-01

    WFIRST will yield a transformative impact in measuring and characterizing resolved stellar populations in the Milky Way. The proximity and level of detail that such populations need to be studied at directly map to all three pillars of WFIRST capabilities - sensitivity from a 2.4 meter space based telescope, resolution from 0.1" pixels, and large 0.3 degree field of view from multiple detectors. In this poster, we describe the activities of the WFIRST Science Investigation Team (SIT), "Resolving the Milky Way with WFIRST". Notional programs guiding our analysis include targeting sightlines to establish the first well-resolved large scale maps of the Galactic bulge aand central region, pockets of star formation in the disk, benchmark star clusters, and halo substructure and ultra faint dwarf satellites. As an output of this study, our team is building optimized strategies and tools to maximize stellar population science with WFIRST. This will include: new grids of IR-optimized stellar evolution and synthetic spectroscopic models; pipelines and algorithms for optimal data reduction at the WFIRST sensitivity and pixel scale; wide field simulations of Milky Way environments including new astrometric studies; and strategies and automated algorithms to find substructure and dwarf galaxies in the Milky Way through the WFIRST High Latitude Survey.

  20. Rate type isotach compaction of consolidated sandstone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, J.A. de; Thienen-Visser, K. van; Pruiksma, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on samples from a consolidated sandstone reservoir are presented that demonstrate rate type compaction behaviour similar to that observed on unconsolidated sands and soils. Such rate type behaviour can have large consequences for reservoir compaction, surface subsidence and

  1. Siting actions in compacts and nonmember states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullis, J.

    1986-05-01

    This paper examines the status of siting actions in those compacts and states currently progressing with siting studies. The efforts of the Central Compact Commission, Texas, California, Colorado and Illinois are highlighted to illustrate progress, methodology, and problems encountered

  2. Time resolved techniques: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.C.; Tischler, J.Z.

    1990-06-01

    Synchrotron sources provide exceptional opportunities for carrying out time-resolved x-ray diffraction investigations. The high intensity, high angular resolution, and continuously tunable energy spectrum of synchrotron x-ray beams lend themselves directly to carrying out sophisticated time-resolved x-ray scattering measurements on a wide range of materials and phenomena. When these attributes are coupled with the pulsed time-structure of synchrotron sources, entirely new time-resolved scattering possibilities are opened. Synchrotron beams typically consist of sub-nanosecond pulses of x-rays separated in time by a few tens of nanoseconds to a few hundred nanoseconds so that these beams appear as continuous x-ray sources for investigations of phenomena on time scales ranging from hours down to microseconds. Studies requiring time-resolution ranging from microseconds to fractions of a nanosecond can be carried out in a triggering mode by stimulating the phenomena under investigation in coincidence with the x-ray pulses. Time resolution on the picosecond scale can, in principle, be achieved through the use of streak camera techniques in which the time structure of the individual x-ray pulses are viewed as quasi-continuous sources with ∼100--200 picoseconds duration. Techniques for carrying out time-resolved scattering measurements on time scales varying from picoseconds to kiloseconds at present and proposed synchrotron sources are discussed and examples of time-resolved studies are cited. 17 refs., 8 figs

  3. Powder compaction in systems of bimodal distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, A. K.; Whittemore, O. J., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The compaction of mixtures involving different particle sizes is discussed. The various stages of the compaction process include the rearrangement of particles, the filling of the interstices of the large particles by the smaller ones, and the change in particle size and shape upon further densification through the application of pressure. Experimental approaches and equipment used for compacting material are discussed together with the theoretical relations of the compacting process.

  4. UV written compact broadband optical couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivero, Massimo; Svalgaard, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the first demonstration of compact asymmetric directional couplers made by UV writing is presented. The combined performance in terms bandwidth, loss and compactness exceeds that reported using other, more elaborate fabrication techniques.......In this paper the first demonstration of compact asymmetric directional couplers made by UV writing is presented. The combined performance in terms bandwidth, loss and compactness exceeds that reported using other, more elaborate fabrication techniques....

  5. Fuel consolidation and compaction and storage of NFBC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuierer, T.

    1992-01-01

    Rochester Gas and Electric Corporation (RG ampersand E) has been involved in two separate fuel consolidation demonstration programs. One of those programs resulted in identifying some problems that may be resolved in consolidation hardware compaction and storage in order for consolidation to be attractive. In conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), a study was recently performed on hardware compaction and storage. Consolidation is probably not a commercial alternative at this point in time because there are still several problems that must be resolved. There are some potential advantages of fuel consolidation. Consolidation has attractive economics and can minimize the institutional impacts of expanding spent fuel storage by internalizing spent fuel storage operations. The licensing effort is fairly simple. Consolidation may be less likely to have public intervention since the storage expansion will occur inside the plant. Consolidation can be subcontracted and the equipment is temporary. It can be used in conjunction with other storage expansion technologies such as dry storage. Fewer dry storage casks would be needed to store consolidated fuel than would be necessary for intact spent fuel

  6. COMPLEX GAS KINEMATICS IN COMPACT, RAPIDLY ASSEMBLING STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorin, R.; Vilchez, J. M.; Perez-Montero, E. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia S/N, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Haegele, G. F.; Firpo, V. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad de la Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Papaderos, P., E-mail: amorin@iaa.es [Centro de Astrofisica and Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-08-01

    Deep, high-resolution spectroscopic observations have been obtained for six compact, strongly star-forming galaxies at redshift z {approx} 0.1-0.3, most of them also known as green peas. Remarkably, these galaxies show complex emission-line profiles in the spectral region including H{alpha}, [N II] {lambda}{lambda}6548, 6584, and [S II] {lambda}{lambda}6717, 6731, consisting of the superposition of different kinematical components on a spatial extent of few kiloparsecs: a very broad line emission underlying more than one narrower component. For at least two of the observed galaxies some of these multiple components are resolved spatially in their two-dimensional spectra, whereas for another one a faint detached H{alpha} blob lacking stellar continuum is detected at the same recessional velocity {approx}7 kpc away from the galaxy. The individual narrower H{alpha} components show high intrinsic velocity dispersion ({sigma} {approx} 30-80 km s{sup -1}), suggesting together with unsharped masking Hubble Space Telescope images that star formation proceeds in an ensemble of several compact and turbulent clumps, with relative velocities of up to {approx}500 km s{sup -1}. The broad underlying H{alpha} components indicate in all cases large expansion velocities (full width zero intensity {>=}1000 km s{sup -1}) and very high luminosities (up to {approx}10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}), probably showing the imprint of energetic outflows from supernovae. These intriguing results underline the importance of green peas for studying the assembly of low-mass galaxies near and far.

  7. Invariant subsets under compact quantum group actions

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huichi

    2012-01-01

    We investigate compact quantum group actions on unital $C^*$-algebras by analyzing invariant subsets and invariant states. In particular, we come up with the concept of compact quantum group orbits and use it to show that countable compact metrizable spaces with infinitely many points are not quantum homogeneous spaces.

  8. Equationally Compact Acts : Coproducts / Peeter Normak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Normak, Peeter

    1998-01-01

    In this article equational compactness of acts and its generalizations are discussed. As equational compactness does not carry over to coproducts a slight generalization of c-equational campactness is introduced. It is proved that a coproduct of acts is c-equationally compact if and only if all components are c-equationally campact

  9. Formation and evolution of compact binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, Marcel Vincent van der

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the formation and evolution of compact binaries. Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the formation of luminous, ultra-compact X-ray binaries in globular clusters. We show that the proposed scenario of magnetic capture produces too few ultra-compact X-ray binaries to explain

  10. Compaction shock dissipation in low density granular explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Pratap T.; Gonthier, Keith A., E-mail: gonthier@me.lsu.edu; Chakravarthy, Sunada [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2016-06-14

    The microstructure of granular explosives can affect dissipative heating within compaction shocks that can trigger combustion and initiate detonation. Because initiation occurs over distances that are much larger than the mean particle size, homogenized (macroscale) theories are often used to describe local thermodynamic states within and behind shocks that are regarded as the average manifestation of thermodynamic fields at the particle scale. In this paper, mesoscale modeling and simulation are used to examine how the initial packing density of granular HMX (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}N{sub 8}O{sub 8}) C{sub 4}H{sub 8}N{sub 8}O{sub 8} having a narrow particle size distribution influences dissipation within resolved, planar compaction shocks. The model tracks the evolution of thermomechanical fields within large ensembles of particles due to pore collapse. Effective shock profiles, obtained by averaging mesoscale fields over space and time, are compared with those given by an independent macroscale compaction theory that predicts the variation in effective thermomechanical fields within shocks due to an imbalance between the solid pressure and a configurational stress. Reducing packing density is shown to reduce the dissipation rate within shocks but increase the integrated dissipated work over shock rise times, which is indicative of enhanced sensitivity. In all cases, dissipated work is related to shock pressure by a density-dependent power law, and shock rise time is related to pressure by a power law having an exponent of negative one.

  11. Compact sources for eyesafe illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, Nadia; Pu, Rui; Stebbins, Kenneth; Bystryak, Ilya; Rayno, Michael; Ezzo, Kevin; DePriest, Christopher

    2018-02-01

    Q-peak has demonstrated a compact, pulsed eyesafe laser architecture operating with >10 mJ pulse energies at repetition rates as high as 160 Hz. The design leverages an end-pumped solid-state laser geometry to produce adequate eyesafe beam quality (M2˜4), while also providing a path toward higher-density laser architectures for pulsed eyesafe applications. The baseline discussed in this paper has shown a unique capability for high-pulse repetition rates in a compact package, and offers additional potential for power scaling based on birefringence compensation. The laser consists of an actively Q-switched oscillator cavity producing pulse widths designed to fit within a volume of 3760 cm3. We will discuss details of the optical system design, modeled thermal effects and stress-induced birefringence, as well as experimental advantages of the end-pumped laser geometry, along with proposed paths to higher eyesafe pulse energies.

  12. Magnetohydrodynamical processes near compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisnovatyi Kogan, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamical processes near compact objects are reviewed in this paper. First the accretion of the magnetized matter into a single black hole and spectra of radiation are considered. Then the magnetic-field phenomena in the disk accretion, when the black hole is in a pair are discussed. Furthermore, the magnetohydrodynamics phenomena during supernova explosion are considered. Finally the magnetohydrodynamics in the accretion of a neutron star is considered in connection With x-ray sources

  13. Compact toroids with Alfvenic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhehui; Tang, X.Z.

    2004-01-01

    The Chandrasekhar equilibria form a class of stationary ideal magnetohydrodynamics equilibria stabilized by magnetic-field-aligned Alfvenic flows. Analytic solutions of the Chandrasekhar equilibria are explicitly constructed for both field-reversed configurations and spheromaks. Favorable confinement property of nested closed flux surfaces and the ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability of the compact toroids are of interest for both magnetic trapping of high energy electrons in astrophysics and confinement of high temperature plasmas in laboratory

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Time-resolved ESR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckert, D.

    1986-06-01

    The time-resolved ESR spectroscopy is one of the modern methods in radiospectroscopy and plays an important role in solving various problems in chemistry and biology. Proceeding from the basic ideas of time-resolved ESR spectroscopy the experimental equipment is described generally including the equipment developed at the Central Institute of Isotope and Radiation Research. The experimental methods applied to the investigation of effects of chemically induced magnetic polarization of electrons and to kinetic studies of free radicals in polymer systems are presented. The theory of radical pair mechanism is discussed and theoretical expressions are summarized in a computer code to compute the theoretical polarization for each pair of the radicals

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Durability of Self Compacting Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benmarce, A.; Boudjehem, H.; Bendjhaiche, R.

    2011-01-01

    Self compacting concrete (SCC) seem to be a very promising materials for construction thanks to their properties in a fresh state. Studying of the influence of the parameters of specific designed mixes to their mechanical, physical and chemical characteristics in a state hardened is an important stage so that it can be useful for new-to-the-field researchers and designers (worldwide) beginning studies and work involving self compacting concrete. The objective of this research is to study the durability of self compacting concrete. The durability of concrete depends very much on the porosity; the latter determines the intensity of interactions with aggressive agents. The pores inside of concrete facilitate the process of damage, which began generally on the surface. We are interested to measure the porosity of concrete on five SCC with different compositions (w/c, additives) and vibrated concrete to highlight the influence of the latter on the porosity, thereafter on the compressive strength and the transfer properties (oxygen permeability, chloride ion diffusion, capillary absorption). (author)

  18. Comminution circuits for compact itabirites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ferreira Pinto

    Full Text Available Abstract In the beneficiation of compact Itabirites, crushing and grinding account for major operational and capital costs. As such, the study and development of comminution circuits have a fundamental importance for feasibility and optimization of compact Itabirite beneficiation. This work makes a comparison between comminution circuits for compact Itabirites from the Iron Quadrangle. The circuits developed are: a crushing and ball mill circuit (CB, a SAG mill and ball mill circuit (SAB and a single stage SAG mill circuit (SSSAG. For the SAB circuit, the use of pebble crushing is analyzed (SABC. An industrial circuit for 25 million tons of run of mine was developed for each route from tests on a pilot scale (grinding and industrial scale. The energy consumption obtained for grinding in the pilot tests was compared with that reported by Donda and Bond. The SSSAG route had the lowest energy consumption, 11.8kWh/t and the SAB route had the highest energy consumption, 15.8kWh/t. The CB and SABC routes had a similar energy consumption of 14.4 kWh/t and 14.5 kWh/t respectively.

  19. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T{sub e} < 100 eV are achieved by a 2971 l/mm VPH grating and measurements T{sub e} > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated ({approx}2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides {approx}45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  20. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scatteringa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2012-10-01

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of Te VPH grating and measurements Te > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (˜2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ˜45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  1. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2012-01-01

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T e e > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (∼2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ∼45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  2. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbeck, N L; Schlossberg, D J; Dowd, A S; Fonck, R J; Winz, G R

    2012-10-01

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T(e) VPH grating and measurements T(e) > 100 eV by a 2072 l∕mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (~2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ~45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  3. Summary report, low-level radioactive waste management activities in the states and compacts. Vol. 4. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    'Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Activities in the States and Compacts' is a supplement to 'LLW Notes' and is distributed periodically by Afton Associates, Inc. to state, compact and federal officials that receive 'LLW Notes'. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  4. Summary report. Low-level radioactive waste management activities in the states and compacts. Volume 4, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    'Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Activities in the States and Compacts' is a supplement to 'LLW Notes' and is distributed periodically by Afton Associates, Inc. to state, compact and federal officials that receive 'LLW Notes'. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low- Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  5. Response Of Lowland Rice To Soil Compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idawati; Haryanto

    2000-01-01

    Soil compaction, as a new tillage practice for paddy soil, is to substitute pudding in order to reduce land preparation cost. To study response of lowland rice to soil compaction, a pot experiment has been conducted which took place in the greenhouse of P3TIR-BATAN. Soil for experiment was taken from pusakanegara. Two factors (degree of soil compaction and rice variety) were combined. Degree of compaction was split into 3 levels (DI = normal; D215% more compact than normal; 30 % more compact than normal), and rice variety into 2 levels (IR64 and Atomita IV). KH 2 32 PO 4 solution was injected into the soil surrounding rice clump to test the root activity at blooming stage of rice plant. Data resulted from this experiment is presented together with additional data from some other experiments of fertilization in the research s erie to study soil compaction. Some information's from experiment results are as following. Both rice varieties tested gave the same response to soil compaction. Root activity, according to data of 32 P absorbed by plant, was not harmed by soil compaction at the degree tested in the experiment. This prediction is supported by the growth by rice observed at generative growth stage, in pot experiment as well as in field experiment, which showed that soil compaction tested did not decrease rice yield but in opposite in tended to increase the yield. In practising soil compaction in land preparation, fertilizers should be applied by deep placement to have higher increasing is rice yield

  6. Prediction of reservoir compaction and surface subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Waal, J.A.; Smits, R.M.M.

    1988-06-01

    A new loading-rate-dependent compaction model for unconsolidated clastic reservoirs is presented that considerably improves the accuracy of predicting reservoir rock compaction and surface subsidence resulting from pressure depletion in oil and gas fields. The model has been developed on the basis of extensive laboratory studies and can be derived from a theory relating compaction to time-dependent intergranular friction. The procedure for calculating reservoir compaction from laboratory measurements with the new model is outlined. Both field and laboratory compaction behaviors appear to be described by one single normalized, nonlinear compaction curve. With the new model, the large discrepancies usually observed between predictions based on linear compaction models and actual (nonlinear) field behavior can be explained.

  7. Diverse Formation Mechanisms for Compact Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Ah; Paudel, Sanjaya; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2018-01-01

    Compact, quenched galaxies such as M32 are unusual ones located off the mass - size scaling relation defined by normal galaxies. Still, their formation mechanisms remain unsolved. Here we investigate the evolution of ~100 compact, quenched galaxies at z = 0 identified in the Illustris cosmological simulation. We identify three ways for a galaxy to become a compact one and, often, multiple mechanisms operate in a combined manner. First, stripping is responsible for making about a third of compact galaxies. Stripping removes stars from galaxies, usually while keeping their sizes intact. About one third are galaxies that cease their growth early on after entering into more massive, gigantic halos. Finally, about half of compact galaxies, ~ 35 % of which turn out to undergo stripping, experience the compaction due to the highly centrally concentrated star formation. We discuss the evolutionary path of compact galaxies on the mass – size plane for each mechanism in a broader context of dwarf galaxy formation and evolution.

  8. Time-resolved quantitative phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verano-Braga, Thiago; Schwämmle, Veit; Sylvester, Marc

    2012-01-01

    proteins involved in the Ang-(1-7) signaling, we performed a mass spectrometry-based time-resolved quantitative phosphoproteome study of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) treated with Ang-(1-7). We identified 1288 unique phosphosites on 699 different proteins with 99% certainty of correct peptide...

  9. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokmakoff, Andrei [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Champion, Paul [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Heilweil, Edwin J. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Nelson, Keith A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ziegler, Larry [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2009-05-14

    This document contains the Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, which was held in Meredith, NH from May 9-14, 2009. The study of molecular dynamics in chemical reaction and biological processes using time-resolved spectroscopy plays an important role in our understanding of energy conversion, storage, and utilization problems. Fundamental studies of chemical reactivity, molecular rearrangements, and charge transport are broadly supported by the DOE's Office of Science because of their role in the development of alternative energy sources, the understanding of biological energy conversion processes, the efficient utilization of existing energy resources, and the mitigation of reactive intermediates in radiation chemistry. In addition, time-resolved spectroscopy is central to all fiveof DOE's grand challenges for fundamental energy science. The Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy conference is organized biennially to bring the leaders in this field from around the globe together with young scientists to discuss the most recent scientific and technological advances. The latest technology in ultrafast infrared, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy and the scientific advances that these methods enable were covered. Particular emphasis was placed on new experimental methods used to probe molecular dynamics in liquids, solids, interfaces, nanostructured materials, and biomolecules.

  10. Resolving Ethical Issues at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninga, Jacques S.

    2013-01-01

    Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

  11. Self-compacting concrete (SCC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    In many aspects Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC, “Self-Consolidating Concrete” in North America) can be considered the concrete of the future. SCC is a family of tailored concretes with special engineered properties in the fresh state. SCC flows into the formwork and around even complicated...... reinforcement arrangements under its own weight. Thus, SCC is not vibrated like conventional concrete. This drastically improves the working environment during construction, the productivity, and potentially improves the homogeneity and quality of the concrete. In addition SCC provides larger architectural...

  12. Portable compact multifunction IR calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, C.L.; Jacobsen, L.; Steed, A.

    1988-01-01

    A compact portable multifunction calibrator designed for future sensor systems is described which enables a linearity calibration for all detectors simultaneously using a near small-area source, a high-resolution mapping of the focal plane with 10 microrad setability and with a blur of less than 100 microrad, system spectral response calibration (radiometer) using a Michelson interferometer source, relative spectral response (spectrometer) using high-temperature external commercial blackbody simulators, and an absolute calibration using an internal low-temperature extended-area source. 5 references

  13. Thermal evolution of compact stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaab, C.; Glendenning, N.K.

    1996-01-01

    A collection of modern, field-theoretical equations of state is applied to the investigation of cooling properties of compact stars. These comprise neutron stars as well as hypothetical strange-matter stars, made up of absolutely stable 3-flavor strange-quark matter. Various uncertainties in the behavior of matter at supernuclear densities, e.g., hyperonic degrees of freedom, behavior of coupling strengths in matter, pion and meson condensation, superfluidity, transition to quark matter, absolute stability of strange-quark matter, and last but not least the many-body technique itself are tested against the body of observed cooling data. (orig.)

  14. Shock compaction of molybdenum powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Kostka, D.; Vreeland, T., Jr.; Schwarz, R. B.; Kasiraj, P.

    1983-01-01

    Shock recovery experiments which were carried out in the 9 to 12 GPa range on 1.4 distension Mo and appear adequate to compact to full density ( 45 (SIGMA)m) powders were examined. The stress levels, however, are below those calculated to be from 100 to approx. 22 GPa which a frictional heating model predicts are required to consolidate approx. 10 to 50 (SIGMA)m particles. The model predicts that powders that have a distension of m=1.6 shock pressures of 14 to 72 GPa are required to consolidate Mo powders in the 50 to 10 (SIGMA)m range.

  15. Simplified compact containment BWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heki, H.; Nakamaru, M.; Tsutagawa, M.; Hiraiwa, K.; Arai, K.; Hida, T.

    2004-01-01

    The reactor concept considered in this paper has a small power output, a compact containment and a simplified BWR configuration with comprehensive safety features. The Compact Containment Boiling Water Reactor (CCR), which is being developed with matured BWR technologies together with innovative systems/components, is expected to prove attractive in the world energy markets due to its flexibility in regard to both energy demands and site conditions, its high potential for reducing investment risk and its safety features facilitating public acceptance. The flexibility is achieved by CCR's small power output of 300 MWe class and capability of long operating cycle (refueling intervals). CCR is expected to be attractive from view point of investment due to its simplification/innovation in design such as natural circulation core cooling with the bottom located short core, internal upper entry control rod drives (CRDs) with ring-type dryers and simplified ECCS system with high pressure containment concept. The natural circulation core eliminates recirculation pumps and the maintenance of such pumps. The internal upper entry CRDs reduce the height of the reactor vessel (RPV) and consequently reduce the height of the primary containment vessel (PCV). The safety features mainly consist of large water inventory above the core without large penetration below the top of the core, passive cooling system by isolation condenser (IC), passive auto catalytic recombiner and in-vessel retention (IVR) capability. The large inventory increases the system response time in the case of design-base accidents, including loss of coolant accidents. The IC suppresses PCV pressure by steam condensation without any AC power. The recombiner decreases hydrogen concentration in the PCV in the case of a severe accident. Cooling the molten core inside the RPV if the core should be damaged by loss of core coolability could attain the IVR. The feasibility of CCR safety system has been confirmed by LOCA

  16. Porewater chemistry in compacted bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muurinen, A.; Lehikoinen, J. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    In this study, the porewater chemistry in compacted bentonite, considered as an engineered barrier in the repository of spent fuel, has been studied in interaction experiments. Many parameters, like the composition and density of bentonite, composition of the solution, bentonite-to-water ratio (B/W), surrounding conditions and experimental time have been varied in the experiments. At the end of the interaction the equilibrating solution, the porewaters squeezed out of the bentonite samples, and bentonites themselves were analyzed to give information for the interpretation and modelling of the interaction. Equilibrium modelling was performed with the HYDRAQL/CE computer code 33 refs.

  17. Compact inertial confinement multireactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergrass, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) commercial-applications plant-optimum driver pulse repetition rates may exceed reactor pulse-repetition-rate capabilities. Thus, more than one reactor may be required for low-cost production of electric power, process heat, fissionable fuels, etc., in ICF plants. Substantial savings in expensive reactor containment cells and blankets can be realized by placing more than one reactor in a cell and by surrounding more than one reactor cavity with a single blanket system. There are also some potential disadvantages associated with close coupling in compact multicavity blankets and multireactor cells. Tradeoffs associated with several scenarios have been studied

  18. Minimum resolvable power contrast model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shuai; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    Signal-to-noise ratio and MTF are important indexs to evaluate the performance of optical systems. However,whether they are used alone or joint assessment cannot intuitively describe the overall performance of the system. Therefore, an index is proposed to reflect the comprehensive system performance-Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast (MRP) model. MRP is an evaluation model without human eyes. It starts from the radiance of the target and the background, transforms the target and background into the equivalent strips,and considers attenuation of the atmosphere, the optical imaging system, and the detector. Combining with the signal-to-noise ratio and the MTF, the Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast is obtained. Finally the detection probability model of MRP is given.

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Spectrometers for compact neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, J.; Böhm, S.; Dabruck, J. P.; Rücker, U.; Gutberlet, T.; Brückel, T.

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the potential for neutron spectrometers at novel accelerator driven compact neutron sources. Such a High Brilliance Source (HBS) relies on low energy nuclear reactions, which enable cryogenic moderators in very close proximity to the target and neutron optics at comparably short distances from the moderator compared to existing sources. While the first effect aims at increasing the phase space density of a moderator, the second allows the extraction of a large phase space volume, which is typically requested for spectrometer applications. We find that competitive spectrometers can be realized if (a) the neutron production rate can be synchronized with the experiment repetition rate and (b) the emission characteristics of the moderator can be matched to the phase space requirements of the experiment. MCNP simulations for protons or deuterons on a Beryllium target with a suitable target/moderator design yield a source brightness, from which we calculate the sample fluxes by phase space considerations for different types of spectrometers. These match closely the figures of todays spectrometers at medium flux sources. Hence we conclude that compact neutron sources might be a viable option for next generation neutron sources.

  2. Manufacturability of compact synchrotron mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Gary M.

    1997-11-01

    While many of the government funded research communities over the years have put their faith and money into increasingly larger synchrotrons, such as Spring8 in Japan, and the APS in the United States, a viable market appears to exist for smaller scale, research and commercial grade, compact synchrotrons. These smaller, and less expensive machines, provide the research and industrial communities with synchrotron radiation beamline access at a portion of the cost of their larger and more powerful counterparts. A compact synchrotron, such as the Aurora-2D, designed and built by Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. of japan (SHI), is a small footprint synchrotron capable of sustaining 20 beamlines. Coupled with a Microtron injector, with 150 MeV of injection energy, an entire facility fits within a 27 meter [88.5 ft] square floorplan. The system, controlled by 2 personal computers, is capable of producing 700 MeV electron energy and 300 mA stored current. Recently, an Aurora-2D synchrotron was purchased from SHI by the University of Hiroshima. The Rocketdyne Albuquerque Operations Beamline Optics Group was approached by SHI with a request to supply a group of 16 beamline mirrors for this machine. These mirrors were sufficient to supply 3 beamlines for the Hiroshima machine. This paper will address engineering issues which arose during the design and manufacturing of these mirrors.

  3. Compact Visualisation of Video Summaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko Ćalić

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a system for compact and intuitive video summarisation aimed at both high-end professional production environments and small-screen portable devices. To represent large amounts of information in the form of a video key-frame summary, this paper studies the narrative grammar of comics, and using its universal and intuitive rules, lays out visual summaries in an efficient and user-centered way. In addition, the system exploits visual attention modelling and rapid serial visual presentation to generate highly compact summaries on mobile devices. A robust real-time algorithm for key-frame extraction is presented. The system ranks importance of key-frame sizes in the final layout by balancing the dominant visual representability and discovery of unanticipated content utilising a specific cost function and an unsupervised robust spectral clustering technique. A final layout is created using an optimisation algorithm based on dynamic programming. Algorithm efficiency and robustness are demonstrated by comparing the results with a manually labelled ground truth and with optimal panelling solutions.

  4. FINAL REPORT FOR MOISTURE EFFECTS ON COMPACTION OF FIBERBOARD IN A 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefek, T.; Daugherty, W.; Estochen, E.

    2013-09-17

    Compaction of lower layers in the fiberboard assembly has been observed in 9975 packages that contain elevated moisture. Lab testing has resulted in a better understanding of the relationship between the fiberboard moisture level and compaction of the lower fiberboard assembly, and the behavior of the fiberboard during transport. In laboratory tests of cane fiberboard, higher moisture content has been shown to correspond to higher total compaction, greater rate of compaction, and continued compaction over a longer period of time. In addition, laboratory tests have shown that the application of a dynamic load results in higher fiberboard compaction compared to a static load. The test conditions and sample geometric/loading configurations were chosen to simulate the regulatory requirements for 9975 package input dynamic loading. Dynamic testing was conducted to acquire immediate and cumulative changes in geometric data for various moisture levels. Two sample sets have undergone a complete dynamic test regimen, one set for 27 weeks, and the second set for 47 weeks. The dynamic input, data acquisition, test effects on sample dynamic parameters, and results from this test program are summarized and compared to regulatory specifications for dynamic loading. Compaction of the bottom fiberboard layers due to the accumulation of moisture is one possible cause of an increase in the axial gap at the top of the package. The net compaction of the bottom layers will directly add to the axial gap. The moisture which caused this compaction migrated from the middle region of the fiberboard assembly (which is typically the hottest). This will cause the middle region to shrink axially, which will also contribute directly to the axial gap. Measurement of the axial gap provides a screening tool for identifying significant change in the fiberboard condition. The data in this report provide a basis to evaluate the impact of moisture and fiberboard compaction on 9975 package performance

  5. Prediction for swelling characteristics of compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, H.; Ogata, N.

    1996-01-01

    Compacted bentonites are attracting greater attention as back-filling (buffer) materials for high-level nuclear waste repositories. For this purpose, it is very important to quantitatively evaluate the swelling characteristics of compacted bentonite. New equations for evaluating the relationship between the swelling deformation of compacted bentonite and the distance between two montmorillonite layers are derived. New equations for evaluating the ion concentration of pore water and the specific surface of bentonite, which significantly influence the swelling characteristics of compacted bentonite, are proposed. Furthermore, a prediction method for the swelling characteristics of compacted bentonite is presented by combining the new equations with the well-known theoretical equations of repulsive and attractive forces between two montmorillonite layers. The applicability of this method was investigated by comparing the predicted results with laboratory test results on the swelling deformation and swelling pressure of compacted bentonites. (author) 31 refs., 8 tabs., 12 figs

  6. A compact, high resolution Michelson interferometer for atmospheric spectroscopy in the near ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Stanley P.; Cageao, Richard P.; Friedl, Randall R.

    1993-01-01

    A new, compact Fourier Transform Michelson interferometer (FTUV) with an apodized resolving power greater than 300,000 at 300 nm, high throughput and wide spectral coverage has been developed. The objectives include atmospheric spectroscopy (direct solar absorption and solar scattering) and laboratory spectroscopy of transient species. In this paper, we will briefly describe the prototype FTUV instrument and the results of preliminary laboratory investigations of OH and ClO spectra in emission and absorption.

  7. The Effect of Quantum Fluctuations in Compact Star Observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pósfay, P.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Jakovác, A.

    2018-05-01

    Astrophysical measurements regarding compact stars are just ahead of a big evolution jump, since the NICER experiment deployed on ISS on 2017 June 14. This will provide soon data that would enable the determination of compact star radius with less than 10% error. This can be further constrained by the new observation of gravitational waves originated from merging neutron stars, GW170817. This poses new challenges to nuclear models aiming to explain the structure of super dense nuclear matter found in neutron stars. Detailed studies of the QCD phase diagram show the importance of bosonic quantum fluctuations in the cold dense matter equation of state. Here we used a demonstrative model with one bosonic and one fermionic degree of freedom coupled by Yukawa coupling, we show the effect of bosonic quantum fluctuations on compact star observables such as mass, radius, and compactness. We have also calculated the difference in the value of compressibility which is caused by quantum fluctuations. The above-mentioned quantities are calculated in the mean field, one-loop, and in high order many loop approximation. The results show that the magnitude of these effects is in the range of 4-5%, which place it into the region where modern measurements may detect it. This forms a base for further investigations that how these results carry over to more complicated models.

  8. Homogenization of compacted blends of Ni and Mo powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanam, R.D.; Yeh, F.C.H.; Rovsek, J.E.; Smith, D.W.; Heckel, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    The homogenization behavior of compacted blends of Ni and Mo powders was studied primarily as a function of temperature, mean compact composition, and Mo powder particle size. All compact compositions were in the Ni-rich terminal solid-solution range; temperatures were between 950 and 1200 0 C (in the region of the phase diagram where only the Mo--Ni intermediate phase forms); average Mo particle sizes ranged from 8.4 mu m to 48 mu m. Homogenization was characterized in terms of the rate of decrease of the amounts of the Mo-rich terminal solid-solution phase and the Mo--Ni intermediate phase. The experimental results were compared to predictions based upon the three-phase, concentric-sphere homogenization model. In general, agreement between experimental data and model predictions was fairly good for high-temperature treatments and for compact compositions which were not close to the solubility limit of Mo in Ni. Departures from the model are discussed in terms of surface diffusion contributions to homogenization and non-uniform mixing effects. (U.S.)

  9. The Future Concrete: Self-Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Iureş

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the characteristics of the self-compacting concretes, their advantages and disadvantages when they are used in buildings. Due to its properties and composition, the self-compacting concrete is described here as being one of the future friendly enviromental material for buildings. Tests concerning to obtaining a self-compacting concrete, together with the specific fresh concrete properties tests, are described.

  10. Starbursts in Blue compact dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuan, T.X.

    1987-01-01

    We summarize all the arguments for a bursting mode of star formation in blue compact dwarf galaxies. We show in particular how spectral synthesis of far ultraviolet spectra of Blue compact dwarf galaxy constitutes a powerful way for studying the star formation history in these galaxies. Blue compact dwarf galaxy luminosity functions show jumps and discontinuities. These jumps act like fossil records of the star-forming bursts, helping us to count and date the bursts

  11. Effect of slash on forwarder soil compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy P. McDonald; Fernando Seixas

    1997-01-01

    A study of the effect of slash on forwarder soil compaction was carried out. The level of soil compaction at two soil moisture contents, three slash densities (0, 10, and 20 kg/m2), and two levels of traffic (one and five passes) were measured. Results indicated that, on dry, loamy sand soils, the presence of slash did not decrease soil compaction after one forwarder...

  12. The Future Concrete: Self-Compacting Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Iureş, Liana; Bob, Corneliu

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the characteristics of the self-compacting concretes, their advantages and disadvantages when they are used in buildings. Due to its properties and composition, the self-compacting concrete is described here as being one of the future friendly enviromental material for buildings. Tests concerning to obtaining a self-compacting concrete, together with the specific fresh concrete properties tests, are described.

  13. Compact approach to fusion power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Miller, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) for development into an efficient, compact, copper-coil fusion reactor has been quantified by comprehensive parametric tradeoff studies. These compact systems promise to be competitive in size, power density, and cost to alternative energy sources. Conceptual engineering designs that largely substantiate these promising results have since been completed. This 1000-MWe(net) design is described along with a detailed rationale and physics/technology assessment for the compact approach to fusion

  14. State compacts and low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.

    1984-01-01

    In 1979, for the first time, low-level waste (LLW) was brought to the attention of policy makers in most states. For several decades, technical personnel had regulated and managed LLW, but elected officials and their staff had been largely ignorant of the origins and destination of low-level radioactive materials. Events in the fall of 1979 set in motion a sequence of events that has compelled the continuing attention of policy makers in every state in the nation. In December 1979, the Executive Committee of the National Governors' Association appointed an eight-member task force, chaired by Governor Bruce Babbitt of Arizona, to review low-level waste management and to formulate state policy by July 1980. The principal findings were as follows: 1. LLW could be managed most efficiently, both technically and politically, at the state level. 2. Each state should take responsibility for its own waste. 3. The creation of a regional waste management system by means of interstate compacts offered the best promise of creating new disposal capacity. 4. Regions should be allowed to exclude waste generated outside their borders after a specified date

  15. Soil compaction and growth of woody plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, T.T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science, Policy and Management

    1999-07-01

    Although soil compaction in the field may benefit or inhibit the growth of plants, the harmful effects are much more common. This paper emphasizes the deleterious effects of predominantly high levels of soil compaction on plant growth and yield. High levels of soil compaction are common in heavily used recreation areas, construction sites, urban areas, timber harvesting sites, fruit orchards, agroforestry systems and tree nurseries. Compaction can occur naturally by settling or slumping of soil or may be induced by tillage tools, heavy machinery, pedestrian traffic, trampling by animals and fire. Compaction typically alters soil structure and hydrology by increasing soil bulk density; breaking down soil aggregates; decreasing soil porosity, aeration and infiltration capacity; and by increasing soil strength, water runoff and soil erosion. Appreciable compaction of soil leads to physiological dysfunctions in plants. Often, but not always, reduced water absorption and leaf water deficits develop. Soil compaction also induces changes in the amounts and balances of growth hormones in plants, especially increases in abscisic acid and ethylene. Absorption of the major mineral nutrients is reduced by compaction of both surface soils and subsoils. The rate of photosynthesis of plants growing in very compacted soil is decreased by both stomatal and non-stomatal inhibition. Total photosynthesis is reduced as a result of smaller leaf areas. As soils become increasingly compacted respiration of roots shifts toward an anaerobic state. Severe soil compaction adversely influences regeneration of forest stands by inhibiting seed germination and growth of seedlings, and by inducing seedling mortality. Growth of woody plants beyond the seedling stage and yields of harvestable plant products also are greatly decreased by soil compaction because of the combined effects of high soil strength, decreased infiltration of water and poor soil aeration, all of which lead to a decreased

  16. Peculiarities of powder brittle media compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perel'nam, V.E.; Aristarkhov, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    The paper is concerned with theoretical and practical aspects of the compaction process for powders of almost unstrained materials. Consideration from the standpoint of compressible body strain mechanics shows that such porous media may have a certain ''threshold'' density. Ductile characteristics of the porous material compacted up to this extent are identical with properties of compacrat bodies, i.e. there is a theoretically substantiated ban on a possibility of their further compaction without changing the state of the powder particle material. Theoretical conclusions are confirmed by results of experimental studies in compaction of titanium- containing ceramics [ru

  17. Soil compaction and growth of woody plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, T.T.

    1999-01-01

    Although soil compaction in the field may benefit or inhibit the growth of plants, the harmful effects are much more common. This paper emphasizes the deleterious effects of predominantly high levels of soil compaction on plant growth and yield. High levels of soil compaction are common in heavily used recreation areas, construction sites, urban areas, timber harvesting sites, fruit orchards, agroforestry systems and tree nurseries. Compaction can occur naturally by settling or slumping of soil or may be induced by tillage tools, heavy machinery, pedestrian traffic, trampling by animals and fire. Compaction typically alters soil structure and hydrology by increasing soil bulk density; breaking down soil aggregates; decreasing soil porosity, aeration and infiltration capacity; and by increasing soil strength, water runoff and soil erosion. Appreciable compaction of soil leads to physiological dysfunctions in plants. Often, but not always, reduced water absorption and leaf water deficits develop. Soil compaction also induces changes in the amounts and balances of growth hormones in plants, especially increases in abscisic acid and ethylene. Absorption of the major mineral nutrients is reduced by compaction of both surface soils and subsoils. The rate of photosynthesis of plants growing in very compacted soil is decreased by both stomatal and non-stomatal inhibition. Total photosynthesis is reduced as a result of smaller leaf areas. As soils become increasingly compacted respiration of roots shifts toward an anaerobic state. Severe soil compaction adversely influences regeneration of forest stands by inhibiting seed germination and growth of seedlings, and by inducing seedling mortality. Growth of woody plants beyond the seedling stage and yields of harvestable plant products also are greatly decreased by soil compaction because of the combined effects of high soil strength, decreased infiltration of water and poor soil aeration, all of which lead to a decreased

  18. Development of compact size penning ion source for compact neutron generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Basanta Kumar; Shyam, Anurag

    2008-12-01

    For long-life operation, easy to mount and compact in size penning type ion sources are widely used in different fields of research such as neutron generators, material research, and surface etching. One penning type ion source has been developed in our laboratory. Applying high voltage of 2 kV between two oppositely biased electrodes and using permanent magnet of 500 gauss magnetic field along the axis, we had produced the glow discharge in the plasma region. The performance of this source was investigated using nitrogen gas. Deuterium ions were produced and extracted on the basis of chosen electrodes and the angle of extraction. Using a single aperture plasma electrode, the beam was extracted along the axial direction. The geometry of plasma electrode is an important factor for the efficient extraction of the ions from the plasma ion source. The extracted ion current depends upon the shape of the plasma meniscus. A concave shaped plasma meniscus produces converged ion beam. The convergence of extracted ions is related to the extraction electrode angle. The greater the angle, the more the beam converges. We had studied experimentally this effect with a compact size penning ion source. The detailed comparison among the different extraction geometry and different electrode angle are discussed in this paper.

  19. Acceleration of a compact torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, C.W.; Eddleman, J.L.; Hammer, J.H.; Kusse, B.

    1987-01-01

    The authors report the first results of a study of acceleration of spheromak-type compact toruses in the RACE experiment (plasma Ring ACceleration Experiment). The RACE apparatus consists of (1) a magnetized, coaxial plasma gun 50 cm long, 35 cm OD, 20 cm ID, (2) 600 cm long coaxial acceleration electrodes 50 cm OD, 20 cm ID, (3) a 250 kJ electrolytic capacitor bank to drive the gun solenoid for initial magnetization, (4) a 200 kJ gun bank, (5) a 260 kJ accelerator bank, and (6) magnetic probes and other diagnostics, and vacuum apparatus. To outer acceleration electrode is an extension, at larger OD, of the gun outer electrode, and the inner acceleration electrode is supported and fed by a coaxial insert in the gun center electrode as shown

  20. Experimental studies of compact toroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Berkeley Compact Toroid Experiment (BCTX) device is a plasma device with a Marshall-gun generated, low aspect ratio toroidal plasma. The device is capable of producing spheromak-type discharges and may, with some modification, produce low-aspect ratio tokamak configurations. A unique aspect of this experimenal devie is its large lower hybrid (LH) heating system, which consists of two 450MHz klystron tubes generating 20 megawatts each into a brambilla-type launching structure. Successful operation with one klystron at virtually full power (18 MW) has been accomplished with 110 μs pulse length. A second klystron is currently installed in its socket and magnet but has not been added to the RF drive system. This report describes current activities and accomplishments and describes the anticipated results of next year's activity

  1. Quasistatic evolution of compact toroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgro, A.G.; Spencer, R.L.; Lilliequist, C.

    1981-01-01

    Some results are presented of simulations of the post formation evolution of compact toroids. The simulations were performed with a 1-1/2 D transport code. Such a code makes explicit use of the fact that the shapes of the flux surfaces in the plasma change much more slowly than do the profiles of the physical variables across the flux surfaces. Consequently, assuming that the thermodynamic variables are always equilibrated on a flux surface, one may calculate the time evolution of these profiles as a function of a single variable that labels the flux surfaces. Occasionally, during the calculation these profiles are used to invert the equilibrium equation to update the shapes of the flux surfaces. In turn, these shapes imply certain geometric cofficients, such as A = 2 >, which contain the geometric information required by the 1-D equations

  2. Compact RFID Enabled Moisture Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. H. Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a novel, low-cost RFID tag sensor antenna implemented using commercially available Kodak photo-paper. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of stable, RFID centric communication under varying moisture levels. Variation in the frequency response of the RFID tag in presence of moisture is used to detect different moisture levels. Combination of unique jaw shaped contours and T-matching network is used for impedance matching which results in compact size and minimal ink consumption. Proposed tag is 1.4 × 9.4 cm2 in size and shows optimum results for various moisture levels upto 45% in FCC band with a bore sight read range of 12.1 m.

  3. COMPACTION STUDIES OF TORREFIED WILLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Rejdak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies of torrefied willow (Salix viminalis L. compaction. Densification tests were performed using a hydraulic press with a maximum pressure of 216 MPa. The effect of basic parameters of the briquetting process (pressure and temperature on mechanical parameters of manufactured briquettes were determined. On the basis of the research, it was found that the increase in pressure and temperature of the densification process increases the density and strength of pressed briquettes. The positive effect of temperature is particularly noticeable at lower pressing pressures (36 MPa – 72 MPa. In the case of a temperature of 300 °C, the increase in a pressure from 144 MPa to 216 MPa resulted in the decrease in the density and strength of the briquette. It was also found that the briquettes manufactured at this temperature are characterized by lower density and strength than the briquettes obtained at a temperature of 200 °C.

  4. A compact mobile neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changgeng; Li Yan; Hu Yonghong; Lou Benchao; Wu Chunlei

    2007-06-01

    Through fitting the high voltage terminal from introducing overseas and pulse system et al. from oneself developing together, a compact mobile neutron generator is established. The length and weight of this neutron generator are 2 500 mm and less than 1 t, respectively. It can be expediently moved to the location which is required by experimental people. It is consisted of RF ion source, acceleration tube, high voltage generator, focus device, microsecond pulse system, gas leak system, control system, vacuum system and experimental target. It can produce 150 μA continuous deuterium ion beam current, also can produce the pulse deuterium ion beam current. The pulse widths are 10-100 μs and frequencies 10 Hz, 1 000 Hz, 10 000 Hz. The D-T neutron yields of the neutron generator may arrive 1.5 x 10 10 s -1 . The working principle and the structure of the main parts of this neutron generator are described. (authors)

  5. Anisotropic models for compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K.; Dayanandan, Baiju [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Jaypee Institute of Information Technology University, Department of Mathematics, Noida, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2015-05-15

    In the present paper we obtain an anisotropic analog of the Durgapal and Fuloria (Gen Relativ Gravit 17:671, 1985) perfect fluid solution. The methodology consists of contraction of the anisotropic factor Δ with the help of both metric potentials e{sup ν} and e{sup λ}. Here we consider e{sup λ} the same as Durgapal and Fuloria (Gen Relativ Gravit 17:671, 1985) did, whereas e{sup ν} is as given by Lake (Phys Rev D 67:104015, 2003). The field equations are solved by the change of dependent variable method. The solutions set mathematically thus obtained are compared with the physical properties of some of the compact stars, strange star as well as white dwarf. It is observed that all the expected physical features are available related to the stellar fluid distribution, which clearly indicates the validity of the model. (orig.)

  6. Compact oleic acid in HAMLET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Jonas; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Nilsson, Hanna; Svanborg, Catharina; Akke, Mikael; Linse, Sara

    2005-11-07

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a complex between alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid that induces apoptosis in tumor cells, but not in healthy cells. Heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the structure of 13C-oleic acid in HAMLET, and to study the 15N-labeled protein. Nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy shows that the two ends of the fatty acid are in close proximity and close to the double bond, indicating that the oleic acid is bound to HAMLET in a compact conformation. The data further show that HAMLET is a partly unfolded/molten globule-like complex under physiological conditions.

  7. Studies of accelerated compact toruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, C.W.; Eddleman, J.; Hammer, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    In an earlier publication we considered acceleration of plasma rings (Compact Torus). Several possible accelerator configurations were suggested and the possibility of focusing the accelerated rings was discussed. In this paper we consider one scheme, acceleration of a ring between coaxial electrodes by a B/sub theta/ field as in a coaxial rail-gun. If the electrodes are conical, a ring accelerated towards the apex of the cone undergoes self-similar compression (focusing) during acceleration. Because the allowable acceleration force, F/sub a/ = kappaU/sub m//R where (kappa - 2 , the accelerating distance for conical electrodes is considerably shortened over that required for coaxial electrodes. In either case, however, since the accelerating flux can expand as the ring moves, most of the accelerating field energy can be converted into kinetic energy of the ring leading to high efficiency

  8. Magnetohydodynamics stability of compact stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, G.Y.; Ku, L.P.; Cooper, W.A.; Hirshman, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    Recent stability results of external kink modes and vertical modes in compact stellarators are presented. The vertical mode is found to be stabilized by externally generated poloidal flux. A simple stability criterion is derived in the limit of large aspect ratio and constant current density. For a wall at infinite distance from the plasma, the amount of external flux needed for stabilization is given by Fi = (k2 minus k)=(k2 + 1), where k is the axisymmetric elongation and Fi is the fraction of the external rotational transform. A systematic parameter study shows that the external kink mode in QAS can be stabilized at high beta (approximately 5%) without a conducting wall by magnetic shear via 3D shaping. It is found that external kinks are driven by both parallel current and pressure gradient. The pressure contributes significantly to the overall drive through the curvature term and the Pfirsch-Schluter current

  9. A Compact UWB Diversity Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact printed ultrawideband (UWB diversity antenna with a size of 30 mm × 36 mm operating at a frequency range of 3.1–10.6 GHz is proposed. The antenna is composed of two semielliptical monopoles fed by two microstrip lines. Two semicircular slots, two rectangular slots, and one stub are introduced in the ground plane to adjust the impedance bandwidth of the antenna and improve the isolation between two feeding ports. The simulated and measured results show that impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna can cover the whole UWB band with a good isolation of < −15 dB. The radiation patterns, peak antenna gain, and envelope correlation coefficient are also measured and discussed. The measured results show that the proposed antenna can be a good candidate for some portable MIMO/diversity UWB applications.

  10. Compact Digital High Voltage Charger

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ge

    2005-01-01

    The operation of classical resonant circuit developed for the pulse energizing is investigated. The HV pulse or generator is very compact by a soft switching circuit made up of IGBT working at over 30 kHZ. The frequencies of macro pulses andμpulses can be arbitrarily tuned below resonant frequency to digitalize the HV pulse power. Theμpulses can also be connected by filter circuit to get the HVDC power. The circuit topology is given and its novel control logic is analyzed by flowchart. The circuit is part of a system consisting of a AC or DC LV power supply, a pulse transformer, the pulse generator implemented by LV capacitor and leakage inductance of the transformer, a HV DC or pulse power supply and the charged HV capacitor of the modulators.

  11. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  12. Optimal shapes of compact strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maritan, A.; Micheletti, C.; Trovato, A.; Banavar, J.R.

    2000-07-01

    Optimal geometrical arrangements, such as the stacking of atoms, are of relevance in diverse disciplines. A classic problem is the determination of the optimal arrangement of spheres in three dimensions in order to achieve the highest packing fraction; only recently has it been proved that the answer for infinite systems is a face-centred-cubic lattice. This simply stated problem has had a profound impact in many areas, ranging from the crystallization and melting of atomic systems, to optimal packing of objects and subdivision of space. Here we study an analogous problem-that of determining the optimal shapes of closely packed compact strings. This problem is a mathematical idealization of situations commonly encountered in biology, chemistry and physics, involving the optimal structure of folded polymeric chains. We find that, in cases where boundary effects are not dominant, helices with a particular pitch-radius ratio are selected. Interestingly, the same geometry is observed in helices in naturally-occurring proteins. (author)

  13. Physics of Compact Advanced Stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnstorff, M.C.; Berry, L.A.; Brooks, A.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.-Y.; Hirshman, S.; Hudson, S.; Ku, L.-P.; Lazarus, E.; Mikkelsen, D.; Monticello, D.; Neilson, G.H.; Pomphrey, N.; Reiman, A.; Spong, D.; Strickler, D.; Boozer, A.; Cooper, W.A.; Goldston, R.; Hatcher, R.; Isaev, M.; Kessel, C.; Lewandowski, J.; Lyon, J.; Merkel, P.; Mynick, H.; Nelson, B.E.; Nuehrenberg, C.; Redi, M.; Reiersen, W.; Rutherford, P.; Sanchez, R.; Schmidt, J.; White, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Compact optimized stellarators offer novel solutions for confining high-beta plasmas and developing magnetic confinement fusion. The 3-D plasma shape can be designed to enhance the MHD stability without feedback or nearby conducting structures and provide drift-orbit confinement similar to tokamaks. These configurations offer the possibility of combining the steady-state low-recirculating power, external control, and disruption resilience of previous stellarators with the low-aspect ratio, high beta-limit, and good confinement of advanced tokamaks. Quasi-axisymmetric equilibria have been developed for the proposed National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) with average aspect ratio 4-4.4 and average elongation of approximately 1.8. Even with bootstrap-current consistent profiles, they are passively stable to the ballooning, kink, vertical, Mercier, and neoclassical-tearing modes for beta > 4%, without the need for external feedback or conducting walls. The bootstrap current generates only 1/4 of the magnetic rotational transform at beta = 4% (the rest is from the coils), thus the equilibrium is much less nonlinear and is more controllable than similar advanced tokamaks. The enhanced stability is a result of ''reversed'' global shear, the spatial distribution of local shear, and the large fraction of externally generated transform. Transport simulations show adequate fast-ion confinement and thermal neoclassical transport similar to equivalent tokamaks. Modular coils have been designed which reproduce the physics properties, provide good flux surfaces, and allow flexible variation of the plasma shape to control the predicted MHD stability and transport properties

  14. Compact autonomous navigation system (CANS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Y. C.; Ying, L.; Xiong, K.; Cheng, H. Y.; Qiao, G. D.

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous navigation of Satellite and constellation has series of benefits, such as to reduce operation cost and ground station workload, to avoid the event of crises of war and natural disaster, to increase spacecraft autonomy, and so on. Autonomous navigation satellite is independent of ground station support. Many systems are developed for autonomous navigation of satellite in the past 20 years. Along them American MANS (Microcosm Autonomous Navigation System) [1] of Microcosm Inc. and ERADS [2] [3] (Earth Reference Attitude Determination System) of Honeywell Inc. are well known. The systems anticipate a series of good features of autonomous navigation and aim low cost, integrated structure, low power consumption and compact layout. The ERADS is an integrated small 3-axis attitude sensor system with low cost and small volume. It has the Earth center measurement accuracy higher than the common IR sensor because the detected ultraviolet radiation zone of the atmosphere has a brightness gradient larger than that of the IR zone. But the ERADS is still a complex system because it has to eliminate many problems such as making of the sapphire sphere lens, birefringence effect of sapphire, high precision image transfer optical fiber flattener, ultraviolet intensifier noise, and so on. The marginal sphere FOV of the sphere lens of the ERADS is used to star imaging that may be bring some disadvantages., i.e. , the image energy and attitude measurements accuracy may be reduced due to the tilt image acceptance end of the fiber flattener in the FOV. Besides Japan, Germany and Russia developed visible earth sensor for GEO [4] [5]. Do we have a way to develop a cheaper/easier and more accurate autonomous navigation system that can be used to all LEO spacecraft, especially, to LEO small and micro satellites? To return this problem we provide a new type of the system—CANS (Compact Autonomous Navigation System) [6].

  15. Kinematic equations for resolved-rate control of an industrial robot arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, L. K.

    1983-01-01

    An operator can use kinematic, resolved-rate equations to dynamically control a robot arm by watching its response to commanded inputs. Known resolved-rate equations for the control of a particular six-degree-of-freedom industrial robot arm and proceeds to simplify the equations for faster computations are derived. Methods for controlling the robot arm in regions which normally cause mathematical singularities in the resolved-rate equations are discussed.

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Mediation for resolving family disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamenecka-Usova M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the understanding of the institute of marriage and its importance in the society has changed. Marriage is no longer assumed to be a commitment for a lifetime. As the principle of equality has replaced hierarchy as the guiding principle of family law it gave more grounds for family disputes and it became socially acceptable to leave marriages that are intolerable or merely unfulfilling. The aim of this article is to suggest an alternative dispute resolution method-mediation as a worthy option for resolving family conflicts.

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Validating firn compaction model with remote sensing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, S. B.; Stenseng, Lars; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg

    A comprehensive understanding of firn processes is of outmost importance, when estimating present and future changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Especially, when remote sensing altimetry is used to assess the state of ice sheets and their contribution to global sea level rise, firn compaction...... models have been shown to be a key component. Now, remote sensing data can also be used to validate the firn models. Radar penetrating the upper part of the firn column in the interior part of Greenland shows a clear layering. The observed layers from the radar data can be used as an in-situ validation...... correction relative to the changes in the elevation of the surface observed with remote sensing altimetry? What model time resolution is necessary to resolved the observed layering? What model refinements are necessary to give better estimates of the surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet from...

  13. Super-resolved terahertz microscopy by knife-edge scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giliberti, V.; Flammini, M.; Ciano, C.; Pontecorvo, E.; Del Re, E.; Ortolani, M.

    2017-08-01

    We present a compact, all solid-state THz confocal microscope operating at 0.30 THz that achieves super-resolution by using the knife-edge scan approach. In the final reconstructed image, a lateral resolution of 60 μm ≍ λ/17 is demonstrated when the knife-edge is deep in the near-field of the sample surface. When the knife-edge is lifted up to λ/4 from the sample surface, a certain degree of super-resolution is maintained with a resolution of 0.4 mm, i.e. more than a factor 2 if compared to the diffraction-limited scheme. The present results open an interesting path towards super-resolved imaging with in-depth information that would be peculiar to THz microscopy systems.

  14. Resolvent-based feedback control for turbulent friction drag reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagoe, Aika; Nakashima, Satoshi; Luhar, Mitul; Fukagata, Koji

    2017-11-01

    Suboptimal control for turbulent friction drag reduction has been studied extensively. Nakashima et al. (accepted) extended resolvent analysis to suboptimal control, and for the control where the streamwise wall shear stress is used as an input (Case ST), they revealed the control effect across spectral space is mixed: there are regions of drag increase as well as reduction. This suggests that control performance may be improved if the control is applied for selective wavelengths, or if a new law is designed to suppress the spectral region leading to drag increase. In the present study, we first assess the effect of suboptimal control for selective wavelengths via DNS. The friction Reynolds number is set at 180. For Case ST, resolvent analysis predicts drag reduction at long streamwise wavelengths. DNS with control applied only for this spectral region, however, did not result in drag reduction. Then, we seek an effective control law using resolvent analysis and propose a new law. DNS results for this law are consistent with predictions from resolvent analysis, and about 10% drag reduction is attained. Further, we discuss how this law reduces the drag from a dynamical and theoretical point of view. This work was supported through Grant-in-Aid for Scientic Research (C) (No. 25420129) by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

  15. RESOLUTION OF THE COMPACT RADIO CONTINUUM SOURCES IN Arp220

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batejat, Fabien; Conway, John E.; Hurley, Rossa; Parra, Rodrigo; Diamond, Philip J.; Lonsdale, Colin J.; Lonsdale, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    We present 2 cm and 3.6 cm wavelength very long baseline interferometry images of the compact radio continuum sources in the nearby ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Arp220. Based on their radio spectra and variability properties, we confirm these sources to be a mixture of supernovae (SNe) and supernova remnants (SNRs). Of the 17 detected sources we resolve 7 at both wavelengths. The SNe generally only have upper size limits. In contrast all the SNRs are resolved with diameters ≥0.27 pc. This size limit is consistent with them having just entered their Sedov phase while embedded in an interstellar medium (ISM) of density 10 4 cm -3 . These objects lie on the diameter-luminosity correlation for SNRs (and so also on the diameter-surface brightness relation) and extend these correlations to very small sources. The data are consistent with the relation L∝D -9/4 . Revised equipartition arguments adjusted to a magnetic field to a relativistic particle energy density ratio of 1% combined with a reasonable synchrotron-emitting volume filling factor of 10% give estimated magnetic field strengths in the SNR shells of ∼15-50 mG. The SNR shell magnetic fields are unlikely to come from compression of ambient ISM fields and must instead be internally generated. We set an upper limit of 7 mG for the ISM magnetic field. The estimated energy in relativistic particles, 2%-20% of the explosion kinetic energy, is consistent with estimates from models that fit the IR-radio correlation in compact starburst galaxies.

  16. On compact multipliers of topological algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, N.

    1994-08-01

    It is shown that if the maximal ideal space Δ(A) of a semisimple commutative complete metrizable locally convex algebra contains no isolated points, then every compact multiplier is trivial. Particularly, compact multipliers on semisimple commutative Frechet algebras whose maximal ideal space has no isolated points are identically zero. (author). 5 refs

  17. Compaction Characteristics of Igumale Shale | Iorliam | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the outcome of an investigation into the effect of different compactive energies on the compaction characteristics of Igumale shale, to ascertain its suitability as fill material in highway ... The study showed that Igumale shale is not suitable for use as base, subbase and filling materials in road construction.

  18. Compact Process Development at Babcock & Wilcox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Shaber; Jeffrey Phillips

    2012-03-01

    Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of compaction trials have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel at packing fractions exceeding 46% by volume. Results from these trials are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operable using nuclear fuel materials. Final process testing is in progress to certify the process for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts in 2012.

  19. Investigation of pressing of molybdenum powder compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mymrin, S.A.; Kuznetsov, V.Eh.; Yampol'skij, M.L.; Leonov, S.A.; Mikhridinov, R.M.; Korzukhin, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation into pressing of compacts of MCh type molybdenum powders using the industrial equipment are presented. To measure the density of powder molybdenum billets a radioisotopic density meter with cesium-137 is used as radioactive gamma radiation source. The dependence of the produced billet density on the specific compacting pressure at different values of the powder bulk density is ascertained

  20. Compact fuel storage rack for fuel pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parras, F.; Louvat, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    ETS LEMER and FRAMATOME propose a new compact storage rack. This rack permits a considerable increase of the storage capacity of cooling pools. A short description of the structure and the components is presented, to propose racks that are: . Inalterable, . Compact, . Insensitive to earthquakes. Installation in pools already in operation is simplified by their light structure and the bearing device [fr

  1. Quantification of the compactibility of pharmaceutical powders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and to quantify the compactibility of pharmaceutical powders by a simple linear relationship between the diametral compressive strength of tablets and the applied compaction pressure. The mechanical strength of the tablets is characterized as the crushing...

  2. Feature Based Control of Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh

    Two servo control loops are used to keep the Optical Pick-up Unit focused and radially on the information track of the Compact Disc. These control servos have problems handling surface faults on the Compact Disc. In this Ph.D thesis a method is proposed to improve the handling of these surface...

  3. Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    a pair of residuals generated by Compact Disc Player. However, these residuals depend on the performance of position servos in the Compact Disc Player. In other publications of the same authors a pair of decoupled residuals is derived. However, the computation of these alternative residuals has been...

  4. The classification of 2-compact groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    K. S. Andersen, Kasper; Grodal, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    with Moeller and Viruel for p odd, this establishes the full classification of p-compact groups, stating that, up to isomorphism, there is a one-to-one correspondence between connected p-compact groups and root data over the p-adic integers. As a consequence we prove the maximal torus conjecture, giving a one...

  5. Remotely operable compact instruments for measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities at surface monitoring sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Morino

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Remotely operable compact instruments for measuring atmospheric CO2 and CH4 column densities were developed in two independent systems: one utilizing a grating-based desktop optical spectrum analyzer (OSA with a resolution enough to resolve rotational lines of CO2 and CH4 in the regions of 1565–1585 and 1674–1682 nm, respectively; the other is an application of an optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI to obtain the CO2 column density. Direct sunlight was collimated via a small telescope installed on a portable sun tracker and then transmitted through an optical fiber into the OSA or the FFPI for optical analysis. The near infrared spectra of the OSA were retrieved by a least squares spectral fitting algorithm. The CO2 and CH4 column densities deduced were in excellent agreement with those measured by a Fourier transform spectrometer with high resolution. The rovibronic lines in the wavelength region of 1570–1575 nm were analyzed by the FFPI. The I0 and I values in the Beer-Lambert law equation to obtain CO2 column density were deduced by modulating temperature of the FFPI, which offered column CO2 with the statistical error less than 0.2% for six hours measurement.

  6. Correlating particle hardness with powder compaction performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoping; Morganti, Mikayla; Hancock, Bruno C; Masterson, Victoria M

    2010-10-01

    Assessing particle mechanical properties of pharmaceutical materials quickly and with little material can be very important to early stages of pharmaceutical research. In this study, a wide range of pharmaceutical materials were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation. A significant amount of particle hardness and elastic modulus data were provided. Moreover, powder compact mechanical properties of these materials were investigated in order to build correlation between the particle hardness and powder compaction performance. It was found that the materials with very low or high particle hardness most likely exhibit poor compaction performance while the materials with medium particle hardness usually have good compaction behavior. Additionally, the results from this study enriched Hiestand's special case concept on particle hardness and powder compaction performance. This study suggests that the use of AFM nanoindentation can help to screen mechanical properties of pharmaceutical materials at early development stages of pharmaceutical research.

  7. On compact galaxies in the UGC catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogoshvili, N.G.

    1980-01-01

    A problem of separation of compact galaxies in the UGC Catalogue is considered. Value of surface brightness equal to or less than 21sup(m) was used as compactness criterion from a square second of arc. 96 galaxies, which are brighter than 14sup(m)5 satisfy this criterion. Among compact galaxies discovered in the UGC Catalogue 7% are the Zwicky galaxies, 15% belong to the Markarian galaxies and 27% of galaxies are part of a galaxy list with high surface brightness. Considerable divergence in estimates of total share of compact galaxies in the B.A. Worontsov-Veljaminov Morphological Catalogue of Galaxies (MCG) and the UGC Catalogue is noted. This divergence results from systematical underestimation of visible sizes of compact galaxies in the MCG Catalogue as compared with the UGC Catalogue [ru

  8. Evaluation of stable tungsten isotopes in the resolved resonance region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schillebeeckx P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade benchmark experiments and simulations, together with newly obtained neutron cross section data, have pointed out deficiencies in evaluated data files of W isotopes. The role of W as a fundamental structural material in different nuclear applications fully justifies a new evaluation of 182, 183, 184, 186W neutron resonance parameters. In this regard transmission and capture cross section measurements on natural and enriched tungsten samples were performed at the GELINA facility of the EC-JRC-IRMM. A resonance parameter file used as input in the resonance shape analysis was prepared based on the available literature and adjusted in first instance to transmission data.

  9. A Spatially Resolved Study of the GRB 020903 Host Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Mallory D.; Levesque, Emily M.

    2018-03-01

    GRB 020903 is a long-duration gamma-ray burst with a host galaxy close enough and extended enough for spatially resolved observations, making it one of less than a dozen GRBs where such host studies are possible. GRB 020903 lies in a galaxy host complex that appears to consist of four interacting components. Here we present the results of spatially resolved spectroscopic observations of the GRB 020903 host. By taking observations at two different position angles, we were able to obtain optical spectra (3600–9000 Å) of multiple regions in the galaxy. We confirm redshifts for three regions of the host galaxy that match that of GRB 020903. We measure the metallicity of these regions, and find that the explosion site and the nearby star-forming regions both have comparable subsolar metallicities. We conclude that, in agreement with past spatially resolved studies of GRBs, the GRB explosion site is representative of the host galaxy as a whole rather than localized in a metal-poor region of the galaxy.

  10. RESOLVING IONIZATION AND METALLICITY ON PARSEC SCALES ACROSS MRK 71 WITH HST-WFC3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Bethan L.; Auger, Matthew [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Aloisi, Alessandra [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Calzetti, Daniela [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Kewley, Lisa, E-mail: bjames@ast.cam.ac.uk [RSAA, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2016-01-01

    Blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies in the nearby universe provide a means for studying feedback mechanisms and star formation processes in low-metallicity environments in great detail. Owing to their vicinity, these local analogs to primordial young galaxies are well suited for high-resolution studies that are unfeasible for high-redshift galaxies. Here we present Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 observations of one such BCD, Mrk 71, one of the most powerful local starbursts known, in the light of [O ii], He ii, Hβ, [O iii], Hα, and [S ii]. At D ≃ 3.44 Mpc, this extensive suite of emission-line images enables us to explore the chemical and physical conditions of Mrk 71 on ∼2 pc scales. We use emission-line diagnostics to distinguish ionization mechanisms on a pixel-by-pixel basis and show that despite the previously reported hypersonic gas and superbubble blowout, the gas in Mrk 71 is photoionized, with no sign of shock-excited emission. He ii emission line images are used to identify up to six Wolf-Rayet stars, three of which lie on the edge of a blowout region. Using strong-line metallicity diagnostics, we present the first “metallicity image” of a galaxy, revealing chemical inhomogeneity on scales of <50 pc. We additionally demonstrate that while chemical structure can be lost at large scales, metallicity diagnostics can break down on spatial scales smaller than an H ii region. This study highlights not only the benefits of high-resolution spatially resolved observations in assessing the effects of feedback mechanisms but also the potential limitations when employing emission-line diagnostics; these results are particularly relevant as we enter the era of extremely large telescopes.

  11. A High-mass Protobinary System with Spatially Resolved Circumstellar Accretion Disks and Circumbinary Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, S.; Kluska, J.; Kreplin, A.; Bate, M.; Harries, T. J.; Hone, E.; Anugu, A. [School of Physics, Astrophysics Group, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Hofmann, K.-H.; Weigelt, G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Monnier, J. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 311 West Hall, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); De Wit, W. J. [ESO, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 19 (Chile); Wittkowski, M., E-mail: skraus@astro.ex.ac.uk [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2017-01-20

    High-mass multiples might form via fragmentation of self-gravitational disks or alternative scenarios such as disk-assisted capture. However, only a few observational constraints exist on the architecture and disk structure of high-mass protobinaries and their accretion properties. Here, we report the discovery of a close (57.9 ± 0.2 mas = 170 au) high-mass protobinary, IRAS17216-3801, where our VLTI/GRAVITY+AMBER near-infrared interferometry allows us to image the circumstellar disks around the individual components with ∼3 mas resolution. We estimate the component masses to ∼20 and ∼18 M {sub ⊙} and find that the radial intensity profiles can be reproduced with an irradiated disk model, where the inner regions are excavated of dust, likely tracing the dust sublimation region in these disks. The circumstellar disks are strongly misaligned with respect to the binary separation vector, which indicates that the tidal forces did not have time to realign the disks, pointing toward a young dynamical age of the system. We constrain the distribution of the Br γ and CO-emitting gas using VLTI/GRAVITY spectro-interferometry and VLT/CRIRES spectro-astrometry and find that the secondary is accreting at a higher rate than the primary. VLT/NACO imaging shows L ′-band emission on (3–4)× larger scales than the binary separation, matching the expected dynamical truncation radius for the circumbinary disk. The IRAS17216-3801 system is ∼3× more massive and ∼5× more compact than other high-mass multiplies imaged at infrared wavelength and the first high-mass protobinary system where circumstellar and circumbinary dust disks could be spatially resolved. This opens exciting new opportunities for studying star–disk interactions and the role of multiplicity in high-mass star formation.

  12. Novel compact tiltmeter for ocean bottom and other frontier observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamori, Akiteru; Araya, Akito; Kanazawa, Toshihiko; Shinohara, Masanao; Bertolini, Alessandro; DeSalvo, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    Long-term observations conducted with large arrays of tiltmeters deployed in ocean-bottom boreholes, on the seafloor and in other hazardous regions are expected to provide rich information useful in geosciences, social engineering, resource monitoring and other applications. To facilitate such observations, we designed and built a compact, highly sensitive tiltmeter with sufficient performance, comparable to that of much larger instruments that are difficult to operate in the target locations. The new tiltmeter is suitable for observations requiring multiple instruments because its design is optimized for low-cost mass production. This paper describes its key technologies, including a very compact folded pendulum and an optical fiber readout. Preliminary results of test observations conducted using a prototype tiltmeter are compared with a conventional water-tube tiltmeter

  13. Shelterin Protects Chromosome Ends by Compacting Telomeric Chromatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaria, Jigar N.; Qin, Peiwu; Berk, Veysel; Chu, Steven; Yildiz, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Telomeres, repetitive DNA sequences at chromosome ends, are shielded against the DNA damage response (DDR) by the shelterin complex. To understand how shelterin protects telomere ends, we investigated the structural organization of telomeric chromatin in human cells using super-resolution microscopy. We found that telomeres form compact globular structures through a complex network of interactions between shelterin subunits and telomeric DNA, and not by DNA methylation, histone deacetylation or histone trimethylation at telomeres and subtelomeric regions. Mutations that abrogate shelterin assembly or removal of individual subunits from telomeres cause up to a 10-fold increase in telomere volume. Decompacted telomeres become more accessible to telomere-associated proteins and accumulate DDR signals. Recompaction of telomeric chromatin using an orthogonal method displaces DDR signals from telomeres. These results reveal the chromatin remodeling activity of shelterin and demonstrate that shelterin-mediated compaction of telomeric chromatin provides robust protection of chromosome ends against the DDR machinery. PMID:26871633

  14. SPATIALLY RESOLVED [Fe II] 1.64 μm EMISSION IN NGC 5135: CLUES FOR UNDERSTANDING THE ORIGIN OF THE HARD X-RAYS IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colina, L.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Arribas, S.; Bedregal, A. G.

    2012-01-01

    Spatially resolved near-IR and X-ray imaging of the central region of the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) NGC 5135 is presented. The kinematical signatures of strong outflows are detected in the [Fe II] 1.64 μm emission line in a compact region at 0.9 kpc from the nucleus. The derived mechanical energy release is consistent with a supernova rate of 0.05-0.1 yr –1 . The apex of the outflowing gas spatially coincides with the strongest [Fe II] emission peak and with the dominant component of the extranuclear hard X-ray emission. All these features provide evidence for a plausible direct physical link between supernova-driven outflows and the hard X-ray emitting gas in an LIRG. This result is consistent with model predictions of starbursts concentrated in small volumes and with high thermalization efficiencies. A single high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) as the major source of the hard X-ray emission, although not favored, cannot be ruled out. Outside the active galactic nucleus, the hard X-ray emission in NGC 5135 appears to be dominated by the hot interstellar medium produced by supernova explosions in a compact star-forming region, and not by the emission due to HMXBs. If this scenario is common to (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies, the hard X-rays would only trace the most compact (≤100 pc) regions with high supernova and star formation densities, therefore a lower limit to their integrated star formation. The star formation rate derived in NGC 5135 based on its hard X-ray luminosity is a factor of two and four lower than the values obtained from the 24 μm and soft X-ray luminosities, respectively.

  15. The etching behaviour of silicon carbide compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepps, N.W.; Page, T.F.

    1981-01-01

    A series of microstructural investigations has been undertaken in order to explore the reliability of particular etches in revealing microstructural detail in silicon carbide compacts. A series of specimens has been etched and examined following complete prior microstructural characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry techniques. In particular, the sensitivity of both a molten salt (KOH/KNO 3 ) etch and a commonly-used oxidizing electrolytic 'colour' etch to crystal purity, crystallographic orientation and polytypic structure has been established. The molten salt etch was found to be sensitive to grain boundaries and stacking disorder while the electrolytic etch was found to be primarily sensitive to local purity and crystallographic orientation. Neither etch appeared intrinsically polytype sensitive. Specifically, for the 'colour' etch, the p- or n-type character of impure regions appears critical in controlling etching behaviour; p-type impurities inhibiting, and n-type impurities enhancing, oxidation. The need to interpret etching behaviour in a manner consistent with the results obtained by a variety of other microstructural techniques will be emphasized. (author)

  16. Characterization of a Compact Water Vapor Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ajay; Selina, Rob

    2018-01-01

    We report on laboratory test results of the Compact Water Vapor Radiometer (CWVR) prototype for the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), a five-channel design centered around the 22 GHz water vapor line. Fluctuations in perceptible water vapor cause fluctuations in atmospheric brightness emission, which are assumed to be proportional to phase fluctuations of the astronomical signal seen by an antenna. The design is intended to support empirical radiometric phase corrections for each baseline in the array.The dynamic range, channel isolation, and gain stability of the device were characterized. The device has a useful dynamic range of order 18 dB after calibration, and the CWVR channel isolation requirement of test, the diode detectors were operated in the square-law region, and a K-band noise diode was used as the broadband input power source to the CWVR over a period of 64 hours. Results indicate that the fluctuations in output counts are negatively correlated to the CWVR enclosure ambient temperature, with a change of ~ 405 counts per 1° C change in temperature.A correction for the CWVR ambient temperature makes a considerable improvement in stability for τ > 102.6 sec. With temperature corrections, the single channel and channel difference gain stability per channel is test results indicate that the CWVR meets required specifications for dynamic range, channel isolation, and gain stability in order to proceed with testing on a pair of VLA antennas.

  17. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Thomas; Mialocq, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the evolution in time of light emitted by a molecular system after a brief photo-excitation. The authors first describe fluorescence from a photo-physical point of view and discuss the characterization of the excited state. Then, they explain some basic notions related to fluorescence characterization (lifetime and decays, quantum efficiency, so on). They present the different experimental methods and techniques currently used to study time-resolved fluorescence. They discuss basic notions of time resolution and spectral reconstruction. They briefly present some conventional methods: intensified Ccd cameras, photo-multipliers and photodiodes associated with a fast oscilloscope, and phase modulation. Other methods and techniques are more precisely presented: time-correlated single photon counting (principle, examples, and fluorescence lifetime imagery), streak camera (principle, examples), and optical methods like the Kerr optical effect (principle and examples) and fluorescence up-conversion (principle and theoretical considerations, examples of application)

  18. Cooling of hypernuclear compact stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raduta, Adriana R.; Sedrakian, Armen; Weber, Fridolin

    2018-04-01

    We study the thermal evolution of hypernuclear compact stars constructed from covariant density functional theory of hypernuclear matter and parametrizations which produce sequences of stars containing two-solar-mass objects. For the input in the simulations, we solve the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer gap equations in the hyperonic sector and obtain the gaps in the spectra of Λ, Ξ0, and Ξ- hyperons. For the models with masses M/M⊙ ≥ 1.5 the neutrino cooling is dominated by hyperonic direct Urca processes in general. In the low-mass stars the (Λp) plus leptons channel is the dominant direct Urca process, whereas for more massive stars the purely hyperonic channels (Σ-Λ) and (Ξ-Λ) are dominant. Hyperonic pairing strongly suppresses the processes on Ξ-s and to a lesser degree on Λs. We find that intermediate-mass 1.5 ≤ M/M⊙ ≤ 1.8 models have surface temperatures which lie within the range inferred from thermally emitting neutron stars, if the hyperonic pairing is taken into account. Most massive models with M/M⊙ ≃ 2 may cool very fast via the direct Urca process through the (Λp) channel because they develop inner cores where the S-wave pairing of Λs and proton is absent.

  19. Spherically symmetric charged compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Jaypee Institute of Information Technology University, Department of Mathematics, Noida, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Chowdhury, Sourav Roy [Seth Anandaram Jaipuria College, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2015-08-15

    In this article we consider the static spherically symmetric metric of embedding class 1. When solving the Einstein-Maxwell field equations we take into account the presence of ordinary baryonic matter together with the electric charge. Specific new charged stellar models are obtained where the solutions are entirely dependent on the electromagnetic field, such that the physical parameters, like density, pressure etc. do vanish for the vanishing charge. We systematically analyze altogether the three sets of Solutions I, II, and III of the stellar models for a suitable functional relation of ν(r). However, it is observed that only the Solution I provides a physically valid and well-behaved situation, whereas the Solutions II and III are not well behaved and hence not included in the study. Thereafter it is exclusively shown that the Solution I can pass through several standard physical tests performed by us. To validate the solution set presented here a comparison has also been made with that of the compact stars, like RX J 1856 - 37, Her X - 1, PSR 1937+21, PSRJ 1614-2230, and PSRJ 0348+0432, and we have shown the feasibility of the models. (orig.)

  20. Compact 3D quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Edwar; Deppe, Frank; Renger, Michael; Repp, Daniel; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Pogorzalek, Stefan; Fedorov, Kirill G.; Marx, Achim; Gross, Rudolf

    2018-05-01

    Superconducting 3D microwave cavities offer state-of-the-art coherence times and a well-controlled environment for superconducting qubits. In order to realize at the same time fast readout and long-lived quantum information storage, one can couple the qubit to both a low-quality readout and a high-quality storage cavity. However, such systems are bulky compared to their less coherent 2D counterparts. A more compact and scalable approach is achieved by making use of the multimode structure of a 3D cavity. In our work, we investigate such a device where a transmon qubit is capacitively coupled to two modes of a single 3D cavity. External coupling is engineered so that the memory mode has an about 100 times larger quality factor than the readout mode. Using an all-microwave second-order protocol, we realize a lifetime enhancement of the stored state over the qubit lifetime by a factor of 6 with a fidelity of approximately 80% determined via quantum process tomography. We also find that this enhancement is not limited by fundamental constraints.

  1. Does soil compaction increase floods? A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Abdallah; Rogger, Magdalena; Peth, Stephan; Blöschl, Günter

    2018-02-01

    Europe has experienced a series of major floods in the past years which suggests that flood magnitudes may have increased. Land degradation due to soil compaction from crop farming or grazing intensification is one of the potential drivers of this increase. A literature review suggests that most of the experimental evidence was generated at plot and hillslope scales. At larger scales, most studies are based on models. There are three ways in which soil compaction affects floods at the catchment scale: (i) through an increase in the area affected by soil compaction; (ii) by exacerbating the effects of changes in rainfall, especially for highly degraded soils; and (iii) when soil compaction coincides with soils characterized by a fine texture and a low infiltration capacity. We suggest that future research should focus on better synthesising past research on soil compaction and runoff, tailored field experiments to obtain a mechanistic understanding of the coupled mechanical and hydraulic processes, new mapping methods of soil compaction that combine mechanical and remote sensing approaches, and an effort to bridge all disciplines relevant to soil compaction effects on floods.

  2. Evaluation of automatic vacuum- assisted compaction solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brzeziński

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently on the mould-making machines market the companies like: DiSA, KUENKEL WAGNER, HAFLINGER, HEINRICH WAGNER SINTO, HUNTER, SAVELLI AND TECHNICAL play significant role. These companies are the manufacturers of various solutions in machines and instalations applied in foundry engineering. Automatic foundry machines for compaction of green sand have the major role in mechanisation and automation processes of making the mould. The concept of operation of automatic machines is based on the static and dynamic methods of compacting the green sand. The method which gains the importance is the compacting method by using the energy of the air pressure. It's the initial stage or the supporting process of compacting the green sand. However in the automatic mould making machines using this method it's essential to use the additional compaction of the mass in order to receive the final parameters of the form. In the constructional solutions of the machines there is the additional division which concerns the method of putting the sand into the mould box. This division distinquishes the transport of the sand with simultaneous compaction or the putting of the sand without the pre-compaction. As the solutions of the major manufacturers are often the subject for application in various foundries, the authors of the paper would like/have the confidence to present their own evaluation process confirmed by their own researches and independent analysis of the producers' solutions.

  3. Soil compaction and fertilization in soybean productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beutler Amauri Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction and fertilization affect soybean development. This study evaluated the effects of soil compaction and fertilization on soybean (Glycine max cv. Embrapa 48 productivity in a Typic Haplustox under field conditions in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. A completely randomized design with a 5 x 2 factorial layout (compaction vs. fertilization, with four replications in each treatment, was employed. Each experimental unit (replicate consisted of a 3.6 m² useful area. After the soil was prepared by cultivation, an 11 Mg tractor passed over it a variable number of times to create five levels of compaction. Treatments were: T0= no compaction, T1= one tractor pass, T2= two, T4= four, and T6= six passes, and no fertilizer and fertilizer to give soybean yields of 2.5 to 2.9 Mg ha-1. Soil was sampled at depths of 0.02-0.05, 0.07-0.10, and 0.15-0.18 m to determine macro and microporosity, penetration resistance (PR, and bulk density (Db. After 120 days growing under these conditions, the plants were analyzed in terms of development (plant height, number of pods, shoot dry matter per plant and weight of 100 seeds and seed productivity per hectare. Soil compaction decreased soybean development and productivity, but this effect was decreased by soil fertilization, showing that such fertilization increased soybean tolerance to soil compaction.

  4. The Resolved Stellar Population of Leo A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline

    1996-05-01

    New observations of the resolved stellar population of the extremely metal-poor Magellanic dwarf irregular galaxy Leo A in Thuan-Gunn r, g, i, and narrowband Hα filters are presented. Using the recent Cepheid variable star distance determination to Leo A by Hoessel et al., we are able to create an accurate color-magnitude diagram (CMD). We have used the Bavesian inference method described by Tolstoy & Saha to calculate the likelihood of a Monte Carlo simulation of the stellar population of Leo A being a good match to the data within the well understood errors in the data. The magnitude limits on our data are sensitive enough to look back at ~1 Gyr of star formation history at the distance of Leo A. To explain the observed ratio of red to blue stars in the observed CMD, it is necessary to invoke either a steadily decreasing star formation rate toward the present time or gaps in the star formation history. We also compare the properties of the observed stellar population with the known spatial distribution of the H I gas and H II regions to support the conclusions from CMD modeling. We consider the possibility that currently there is a period of diminished star formation in Leo A, as evidenced by the lack of very young stars in the CMD and the faint H II regions. How the chaotic H I distribution, with no observable rotation, fits into our picture of the evolution of Leo A is as yet unclear.

  5. Topological entropy of continuous actions of compactly generated groups

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Friedrich Martin

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a notion of topological entropy for continuous actions of compactly generated topological groups on compact Hausdorff spaces. It is shown that any continuous action of a compactly generated topological group on a compact Hausdorff space with vanishing topological entropy is amenable. Given an arbitrary compactly generated locally compact Hausdorff topological group $G$, we consider the canonical action of $G$ on the closed unit ball of $L^{1}(G)' \\cong L^{\\infty}(G)$ endowed with...

  6. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, Arlan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  7. 'Crescent'-shaped tokamak for compact ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Reiersen, W.T.

    1985-12-01

    A compact high-beta tokamak configuration with ''crescent''-shaped (or ''boomerang''-shaped) cross-section is proposed as a next-generation ignition machine. This configuration with a small indentation but a large triangularity is more compact than the normal dee-shaped design because of its high-beta characteristics in the first-second transition regime of stability. This may also be a more reliable next-generation compact device than the bean-shaped design with large indentation and small triangularity, because this design dose not rely on the second stability and is easily extendable from the present dee-shaped design. (author)

  8. 'Crescent'-shaped tokamak for compact ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Reiersen, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    A compact high-beta tokamak configuration with ''crescent''-shaped (or ''boomerang''-shaped) cross section is proposed as a next-generation ignition machine. This configuration with a small indentation but a large triangularity is more compact than the normal dee-shaped design because of its high-beta characteristics in the first-second transition regime of stability. This may also be a more reliable next-generation compact device than the bean-shaped design with large indentation and small triangularity, because this design does not rely on the second stability and is easily extendable from the present dee-shaped design. (author)

  9. Generalised model for anisotropic compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Deb, Debabrata [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Department of Physics, Howrah, West Bengal (India)

    2016-12-15

    In the present investigation an exact generalised model for anisotropic compact stars of embedding class 1 is sought with a general relativistic background. The generic solutions are verified by exploring different physical aspects, viz. energy conditions, mass-radius relation, stability of the models, in connection to their validity. It is observed that the model presented here for compact stars is compatible with all these physical tests and thus physically acceptable as far as the compact star candidates RXJ 1856-37, SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS1) and SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS2) are concerned. (orig.)

  10. Ion diffusion in compacted bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehikoinen, J. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-03-01

    In the study, a two-dimensional molecular-level diffusion model, based on a modified form of the Gouy-Chapman (GC) theory of the electrical double layers, for hydrated ionic species in compacted bentonite was developed. The modifications to the GC theory, which forms the very kernel of the diffusion model, stem from various non-conventional features: ionic hydration, dielectric saturation, finite ion-sizes and specific adsorption. The principal objectives of the study were met. With the aid of the consistent diffusion model, it is a relatively simple matter to explain the experimentally observed macroscopic exclusion for anions as well as the postulated, but greatly controversial, surface diffusion for cations. From purely theoretical grounds, it was possible to show that the apparent diffusivities of cations, anions and neutral molecules (i) do not exhibit order-or-magnitude differences, and (ii) are practically independent of the solution ionic strength used and, consequently, of the distribution coefficient, K{sub d}, unless they experience specific binding onto the substrate surface. It was also of interest to investigate the equilibrium anionic concentration distribution in the pore geometry of the GMM model as a function of the solution ionic strength, and to briefly speculate its consequences to diffusion. An explicit account of the filter-plate effect was taken by developing a computerised macroscopic diffusion model, which is based upon the very robust and efficient Laplace Transform Finite-Difference technique. Finally, the inherent limitations as well as the potential fields of applications of the models were addressed. (orig.) 45 refs.

  11. Development of compact nuclear simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Chang Shik; Kwon, Kee Choon; Lyu, Sung Phil; Kim, Jung Taek; Jung, Chul Hwan; Lee, Dong Young; Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Young Gil; Kim, Jung Soo; Park, Won Man

    1988-12-01

    Compact nuclear simulator is designed to carry out the various operational modes as real nuclear power plant, start-up, preoperational test, preheating, hot start-up, cold shutdown, power control and the operational conditions in steady and accident states. It can be used for the fundamental training of the operators, maintenance personnel, inspectors of regulatory body, system or component designers, NSSS designers, safety analysis by transient analysis and for the making questions for an operator qualifying examination and the training of research fellows in the Nuclear Training Center of KAERI. Everyone knows that the TMI accident resulted from the defect of the man-machine interface of main control room and of the quality of the operators. No proper action on the malfunction of small part in a system can cause severe accident like TMI-2 accident, so it is very important urgent to upgrade the operators' capability and to train operators for the understanding of dynamic transient phenomena in plant system. So it is necessary to develop CNS which is very efficient to train operators, operation and maintenance supervisors, maintenance personnel and inspectors of regulation committee to understand the dynamic transient phenomena. This report is the final report of KAERI-CNS project which was designed and manufactured in '85.7-'88.12. This CNS was designed and fabricated in conjunction with STUDSVIK, Sweden and installed at KAERI-NTC, and entitled KAERI-CNS. KAERI and STUDSVIK have developed math. modeling software. Many parts of CNS hardware were supplied by local firms.The followings are major parts of this project performed in '85.7-'88.12. 1.Contract with STUDSVIK for joint design and manufacturing CNS 2.Selection of malfunctions and design and manufacture of console panel 3.Manufacture of interface card and graphic display system 4.Software module development 5.S/W and H/W integration 6.Factory acceptance test and Site acceptance test 7.Running test. (Author)

  12. Ion diffusion in compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehikoinen, J.

    1999-03-01

    In the study, a two-dimensional molecular-level diffusion model, based on a modified form of the Gouy-Chapman (GC) theory of the electrical double layers, for hydrated ionic species in compacted bentonite was developed. The modifications to the GC theory, which forms the very kernel of the diffusion model, stem from various non-conventional features: ionic hydration, dielectric saturation, finite ion-sizes and specific adsorption. The principal objectives of the study were met. With the aid of the consistent diffusion model, it is a relatively simple matter to explain the experimentally observed macroscopic exclusion for anions as well as the postulated, but greatly controversial, surface diffusion for cations. From purely theoretical grounds, it was possible to show that the apparent diffusivities of cations, anions and neutral molecules (i) do not exhibit order-or-magnitude differences, and (ii) are practically independent of the solution ionic strength used and, consequently, of the distribution coefficient, K d , unless they experience specific binding onto the substrate surface. It was also of interest to investigate the equilibrium anionic concentration distribution in the pore geometry of the GMM model as a function of the solution ionic strength, and to briefly speculate its consequences to diffusion. An explicit account of the filter-plate effect was taken by developing a computerised macroscopic diffusion model, which is based upon the very robust and efficient Laplace Transform Finite-Difference technique. Finally, the inherent limitations as well as the potential fields of applications of the models were addressed. (orig.)

  13. Compact Ceramic Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinsohn, Charles [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The objective of the proposed work was to demonstrate the feasibility of a step change in power plant efficiency at a commercially viable cost, by obtaining performance data for prototype, compact, ceramic microchannel heat exchangers. By performing the tasks described in the initial proposal, all of the milestones were met. The work performed will advance the technology from Technology Readiness Level 3 (TRL 3) to Technology Readiness Level 4 (TRL 4) and validate the potential of using these heat exchangers for enabling high efficiency solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) or high-temperature turbine-based power plants. The attached report will describe how this objective was met. In collaboration with The Colorado School of Mines (CSM), specifications were developed for a high temperature heat exchanger for three commercial microturbines. Microturbines were selected because they are a more mature commercial technology than SOFC, they are a low-volume and high-value target for market entry of high-temperature heat exchangers, and they are essentially scaled-down versions of turbines used in utility-scale power plants. Using these specifications, microchannel dimensions were selected to meet the performance requirements. Ceramic plates were fabricated with microchannels of these dimensions. The plates were tested at room temperature and elevated temperature. Plates were joined together to make modular, heat exchanger stacks that were tested at a variety of temperatures and flow rates. Although gas flow rates equivalent to those in microturbines could not be achieved in the laboratory environment, the results showed expected efficiencies, robust operation under significant temperature gradients at high temperature, and the ability to cycle the stacks. Details of the methods and results are presented in this final report.

  14. Authority of compact commission to control import/export for disposal and other purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poling, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    As operational capabilities for radioactive waste disposal expand and as approaching dates for waste exclusion near, the legal question of the authority of compact commissions to control the import and export of low-level radioactive nuclear waste is a legal issue of significance to many regions. This presentation will review the provisions of various compacts and the federal compact approval legislation, consider the interpretation of the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution, and discuss possible interpretive perspectives relating to the authority of compact commissions. The discussion will focus on whether waste exclusion authority is confined in application to imported waste for permanent disposal or extends to transported and imported waste for processing, treatment, or other purposes

  15. Authority of compact commission to control import/export for disposal and other purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poling, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    As operational capabilities for radioactive waste disposal expand and as approaching dates for waste exclusion near, the legal question of the authority of compact commissions to control the import and export of low-level radioactive nuclear waste is a legal issue of significance to many regions. This presentation will review the provisions of various compacts and the federal compact approval legislation, consider the interpretation of the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution, and discuss possible interpretive perspectives relating to the authority of compact commissions. The discussion will focus on whether waste exclusion authority is confined in application to imported waste for permanent disposal or extends to transported and imported waste for processing, treatment, or other purposes.

  16. Myostatin propeptide mutation of the hypermuscular Compact mice decreases the formation of myostatin and improves insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Tamas; Trencsenyi, Gyorgy; Szabo, Kitti; Baan, Julia Aliz; Muller, Geza; Mendler, Luca; Garai, Ildiko; Reinauer, Hans; Deak, Ferenc; Dux, Laszlo; Keller-Pinter, Aniko

    2017-03-01

    The TGFβ family member myostatin (growth/differentiation factor-8) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. The hypermuscular Compact mice carry the 12-bp Mstn(Cmpt-dl1Abc) deletion in the sequence encoding the propeptide region of the precursor promyostatin, and additional modifier genes of the Compact genetic background contribute to determine the full expression of the phenotype. In this study, by using mice strains carrying mutant or wild-type myostatin alleles with the Compact genetic background and nonmutant myostatin with the wild-type background, we studied separately the effect of the Mstn(Cmpt-dl1Abc) mutation or the Compact genetic background on morphology, metabolism, and signaling. We show that both the Compact myostatin mutation and Compact genetic background account for determination of skeletal muscle size. Despite the increased musculature of Compact s, the absolute size of heart and kidney is not influenced by myostatin mutation; however, the Compact genetic background increases them. Both Compact myostatin and genetic background exhibit systemic metabolic effects. The Compact mutation decreases adiposity and improves whole body glucose uptake, insulin sensitivity, and 18 FDG uptake of skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue, whereas the Compact genetic background has the opposite effect. Importantly, the mutation does not prevent the formation of mature myostatin; however, a decrease in myostatin level was observed, leading to altered activation of Smad2, Smad1/5/8, and Akt, and an increased level of p-AS160, a Rab-GTPase-activating protein responsible for GLUT4 translocation. Based on our analysis, the Compact genetic background strengthens the effect of myostatin mutation on muscle mass, but those can compensate for each other when systemic metabolic effects are compared. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Fluid Assisted Compaction and Deformation of Reservoir Lithologies; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, A.K.; Chester, F.M.; Chester, J.S.; Hajash, A.; He, W.; Karner, S.; Lenz, S.

    2002-01-01

    The compaction and diagenesis of sandstones that form reservoirs to hydrocarbons depend on mechanical compaction processes, fluid flow at local and regional scales, and chemical processes of dissolution, precipitation and diffusional solution transport. The compaction and distortional deformation of quartz aggregates exposed to reactive aqueous fluids have been investigated experimentally at varying critical and subcritical stress states and time scales. Pore fluid compositions and reaction rates during deformation have been measured and compared with creep rates. Relative contributions of mechanical and chemical processes to deformation and pore structure evolution have been evaluated using acoustic emission (AE) measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. At the subcritical conditions investigated, creep rates and acoustic emission rates fit transient logarithmic creep laws. Based on AE and SEM observations, we conclude that intragranular cracking and grain rearrangement are the dominant strain mechanisms. Specimens show little evidence of stress-enhanced solution transfer. At long times under wet conditions, the dominant strain mechanism gradually shifts from critical cracking at grain contacts with high stress concentrations to fluid-assisted sub-critical cracking

  18. Diagnostics for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, B.C.; Johnson, D.; Feder, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Neilson, H.; Takahashi, H.; Zarnstorf, M.; Cole, M.; Goranson, P.; Lazarus, E.; Nelson, B.

    2003-01-01

    The status of planning of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) diagnostics is presented, with the emphasis on resolution of diagnostics access issues and on diagnostics required for the early phases of operation

  19. Observing Compact Stars with AstroSat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dipankar Bhattacharya

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... based observatory for compact star research. An account is given of ... unprecedented capability to study such rapid variability simultaneously at all ..... Physical Research Laboratory, University of Leicester and the Canadian ...

  20. Compact Energy Conversion Module, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes such as structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  1. Compact energy conversion module, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes like structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  2. Mappings with closed range and compactness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyahen, S.O.; Umweni, I.

    1985-12-01

    The motivation for this note is the result of E.O. Thorp that a normed linear space E is finite dimensional if and only if every continuous linear map for E into any normed linear space has a closed range. Here, a class of Hausdorff topological groups is introduced; called r-compactifiable topological groups, they include compact groups, locally compact Abelian groups and locally convex linear topological spaces. It is proved that a group in this class which is separable, complete metrizable or locally compact, is necessarily compact if its image by a continuous group homomorphism is necessarily closed. It is deduced then that a Hausdorff locally convex is zero if its image by a continuous additive map is necessarily closed. (author)

  3. Steady state compact toroidal plasma production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William C.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.

  4. Effect of Subsoil Compaction on Hydraulic Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Berisso, Feto Esimo; Schjønning, Per

    Soil compaction is a major threat to sustainable soil quality and is increasing since agricultural machinery is becoming heavier and is used more intensively. Compaction not only reduces pore volume, but also modifies the pore connectivity. The inter-Nordic research project POSEIDON (Persistent...... effects of subsoil compaction on soil ecological services and functions) put forward the hypothesis that due to a decrease in the hydraulic conductivity in the soil matrix, compaction increases the frequency of preferential flow events in macropores and therefore increases the leaching of otherwise....... In the field the near-saturated hydraulic conductivity was measured with a tension infiltrometer in the same treatments at a depth of 30 cm. In the laboratory saturated and near-saturated hydraulic conductivity and the bulk density were measured as well. Also, macropores in the large soil cores were made...

  5. Impact Compaction of a Granular Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Gregg; Asay, Blaine; Todd, Steve; Grady, Dennis

    2017-06-01

    The dynamic behavior of granular materials has importance to a variety of engineering applications. Although, the mechanical behavior of granular materials have been studied extensively for several decades, the dynamic behavior of these materials remains poorly understood. High-quality experimental data are needed to improve our general understanding of granular material compaction physics. This paper describes how an instrumented plunger impact system can be used to measure the compaction process for granular materials at high and controlled strain rates and subsequently used for computational modelling. The experimental technique relies on a gas-gun driven plunger system to generate a compaction wave through a volume of granular material. This volume of material has been redundantly instrumented along the bed length to track the progression of the compaction wave, and the piston displacement is measured with Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). Using the gathered experimental data along with the initial material tap density, a granular material equation of state can be determined.

  6. Compact Positron Tomograph for Prostate Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Derenzo, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is to construct a functioning compact positron tomography, whose geometry is optimized for detecting prostate tumors with molecular tracers such as 11Ccholine (carbon-11 choline...

  7. Compact Positron Tomograph for Prostate Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huber, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project is to construct a functioning compact positron tomograph, whose geometry is optimized for detecting prostate tumors with molecular tracers such as 11Ccholine (carbon-11 choline...

  8. Compact Positron Tomograph for Prostate Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huber, Jennifer S

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project is to construct a functioning compact positron tomograph, whose geometry is optimized for detecting prostate tumors with molecular tracers such as 11Ccholine (carbon-11 choline...

  9. New geometrical compactness measures for zones design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Alfredo Rincón-García

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of compact zones has been studied because of its influence in the creation of zones with regular forms, which are easier to analyze, to investigate or to administer. This paper propose a new method to measure compactness,by means of the transformation of the original geographical spaces, into figures formed with square cells, which are used to measure the similarity between the original zone and an ideal zone with straight forms. The proposed method was applied to design electoral zones, which must satisfy constraints of compactness, contiguity and population balance, in a topographical configuration that favors the creation of twisted and diffuse shapes. The results show that the new method favors the creation of zones with straight forms, without an important effect to the population balance, which are considered zones of high quality. Keywords: Redistricting, compactness, simulated annealing, GIS. Mathematics Subject Classification: 90C59, 90C29, 68T20.

  10. Compaction of amorphous iron–boron powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Mørup, Steen; Koch, Christian

    1993-01-01

    Large scale practical use of bulk amorphous alloys requires the capability of molding the material to a desired design, for instance by compaction of an amorphous powder. This is a difficult task because the sintering temperature is limited by the crystallization temperature of the alloy.1 Here we......, should facilitate a compaction. The passivation layer, however, impedes a compaction. Isostatic pressing at 540 K at a pressure of 200 MPa clearly illustrated this; pellets pressed from passivated powder were much more brittle than pellets pressed from unpassivated powder. The density of the pellets...... was very low ([approximately-equal-to]25% of the density of bulk FeB). We have designed a die for uniaxial pressing in which the compaction can be performed without exposing the powder to air and have obtained densities larger than 60% of that of bulk FeB. We have reported studies of the dependence...

  11. Temperature evolution during compaction of pharmaceutical powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaliangos, Antonios; Galen, Steve; Cunningham, John; Winstead, Denita

    2008-08-01

    A numerical approach to the prediction of temperature evolution in tablet compaction is presented here. It is based on a coupled thermomechanical finite element analysis and a calibrated Drucker-Prager Cap model. This approach is capable of predicting transient temperatures during compaction, which cannot be assessed by experimental techniques due to inherent test limitations. Model predictions are validated with infrared (IR) temperature measurements of the top tablet surface after ejection and match well with experiments. The dependence of temperature fields on speed and degree of compaction are naturally captured. The estimated transient temperatures are maximum at the end of compaction at the center of the tablet and close to the die wall next to the powder/die interface.

  12. Controlled Compact High Voltage Power Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postolati V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays modern overhead transmission lines (OHL constructions having several significant differences from conventional ones are being used in power grids more and more widely. Implementation of compact overhead lines equipped with FACTS devices, including phase angle regulator settings (compact controlled OHL, appears to be one of the most effective ways of power grid development. Compact controlled AC HV OHL represent a new generation of power transmission lines embodying recent advanced achievements in design solutions, including towers and insulation, together with interconnection schemes and control systems. Results of comprehensive research and development in relation to 110–500kV compact controlled power transmission lines together with theoretical basis, substantiation, and methodological approaches to their practical application are presented in the present paper.

  13. Compact 2 Micron Seed Laser, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of new compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass fibers,...

  14. Compact 2 Micron Seed Laser, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of innovative compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass...

  15. Gamma-Rays from Galactic Compact Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2007-04-01

    Recent discoveries have revealed many sources of TeV photons in our Mikly Way galaxy powered by compact objects, either neutron stars or black holes. These objects must be powerful particle accelerators, some with peak energies of at least 100 TeV, and may be neutrino, as well as photon, sources. Future TeV observations will enable us to address key questions concerning particle acceleration by compact objects including the fraction of energy which accreting black holes channel into relativstic jet production, whether the compact object jets are leptonic or hadronic, and the mechanism by which pulsar winds accelerate relativistic particles. We report on work done related to compact Galactic objects in preparation of a White Paper on the status and future of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy requested by the Division of Astrophysics of the American Physical Society.

  16. Compact variable rate laser for space application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will focus on the development and test of high reliable, radiation tolerant, compact laser for planetary mission.  The laser will be able to operate at variable...

  17. Deep Compaction Control of Sandy Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bałachowski Lech

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibroflotation, vibratory compaction, micro-blasting or heavy tamping are typical improvement methods for the cohesionless deposits of high thickness. The complex mechanism of deep soil compaction is related to void ratio decrease with grain rearrangements, lateral stress increase, prestressing effect of certain number of load cycles, water pressure dissipation, aging and other effects. Calibration chamber based interpretation of CPTU/DMT can be used to take into account vertical and horizontal stress and void ratio effects. Some examples of interpretation of soundings in pre-treated and compacted sands are given. Some acceptance criteria for compaction control are discussed. The improvement factors are analysed including the normalised approach based on the soil behaviour type index.

  18. Compaction of PDMS due to proton beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilasi, S.Z.; Huszank, R.; Rajta, I.; Kokavecz, J.

    2011-01-01

    that at low fluences the surface topography does not follow the phase change that corresponds to the irradiation pattern. At higher fluences the surface topography follows the irradiation pattern, i.e. the phase change, quite well but not perfectly. The irradiated regions are compacted significantly but their bottom is not flat. Between the irradiated regions, the unirradiated areas show a regular curved surface. This can be explained with the developed stress caused by compaction due to irradiation. During irradiation the irradiated areas start to shrink while the unirradiated areas try to remain unchanged. The topographical transition between the two phases is not a step function, but it is continuous due to the rubbery nature of PDMS. The PBW technique, that utilizes a focused MeV ion beam, is capable of the production of devices in PDMS, which have curved-edge relatively shallow, a couple of microns deep, structures on the surface. The curvature of the surface and the degree of compaction can be adjusted with the applied ion fluence and with the distance of the structures. By choosing the proper irradiation parameters short or even long range symmetrical surface curvatures can be achieved.

  19. Spatially-resolved measurement of optically stimulated luminescence and time-resolved luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailiff, I.K.; Mikhailik, V.B.

    2003-01-01

    Spatially-resolved measurements of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were performed using a two-dimensional scanning system designed for use with planar samples. The scanning system employs a focused laser beam to stimulate a selected area of the sample, which is moved under the beam by a motorised stage. Exposure of the sample is controlled by an electronic shutter. Mapping of the distribution of OSL using a continuous wave laser source was obtained with sub-millimeter resolution for samples of sliced brick, synthetic single crystal quartz, concrete and dental ceramic. These revealed sporadic emission in the case of brick or concrete and significant spatial variation of emission for quartz and dental ceramic slices. Determinations of absorbed dose were performed for quartz grains within a slice of modern brick. Reconfiguration of the scanner with a pulsed laser source enabled quartz and feldspathic minerals within a ceramic sample to be thinner region. about 6 nm from the extrapolation of themeasuring the time-resolved luminescence spectrum

  20. Flow analysis of an innovative compact heat exchanger channel geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitillo, F.; Cachon, L.; Reulet, F.; Millan, P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative compact heat transfer technology is proposed. • Experimental measurements are shown to validate the CFD model. • CFD simulations show various flow mechanisms. • Flow analysis is performed to study physical phenomena enhancing heat transfer. - Abstract: In the framework of CEA R&D program to develop an industrial prototype of sodium-cooled fast reactor named ASTRID, the present work aims to propose an innovative compact heat exchanger technology to provide solid technological basis for the utilization of a Brayton gas-power conversion system, in order to avoid the energetic sodium–water interaction if a traditional Rankine cycle was used. The aim of the present work is to propose an innovative compact heat exchanger channel geometry to potentially enhance heat transfer in such components. Hence, before studying the innovative channel performance, a solid experimental and numerical database is necessary to perform a preliminary thermal–hydraulic analysis. To do that, two experimental test sections are used: a Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) test section and a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) test section. The acquired experimental database is used to validate the Anisotropic Shear Stress Transport (ASST) turbulence model. Results show a good agreement between LDV, PIV and ASST data for the pure aerodynamic flow. Once validated the numerical model, the innovative channel flow analysis is performed. Principal and secondary flow has been analyzed, showing a high swirling flow in the bend region and demonstrating that mixing actually occurs in the mixing zone. This work has to be considered as a step forward the preposition of a reliable high-performance component for application to ASTRID reactor as well as to any other industrial power plant dealing needing compact heat exchangers.

  1. Compaction of spent nuclear fuel cans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, H.

    1985-01-01

    Hydraulic press apparatus for compacting waste material eg. spent nuclear fuel cans comprises a fixed frame, a movable cross head, a press crown and three groups of piston/cylinder devices; having their pistons connected to the cross head and their cylinders secured to the press crown. A control means connects the first group of devices to hydraulic fluid in a reservoir which is pressurised initially by gas from gas accumulators to move the cross head and a quill secured thereto towards the frame base to compact the waste at a first high rate under a first high loading. Compaction then proceeds at a lower second rate at a lower second loading as the hydraulic fluid in the reservoir is pressurised by a pump. At two subsequent stages of compaction of the waste at which resistance increases causing a pressure rise in cylinders the control means causes hydraulic fluid to be passed to the second group of devices and thence to the third group of devices, the compaction rate reducing at each stage but the compaction force increasing. (author)

  2. Compact Solid State Terahertz Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-09

    by the optical features mnH (L) that could be associated with excitonic transitions in the MQW region of the samples. The notation mnH (L) signifies...originating due to internal electric fields in the samples [1, 2]. In addition to the FKOs, at higher energies, a number of mnH (L) features...associated with the excitonic transitions in the MQW region of the samples are observed. The notation mnH (L) signifies here the transitions between the m

  3. Sobolev Spaces on Locally Compact Abelian Groups: Compact Embeddings and Local Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Górka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We continue our research on Sobolev spaces on locally compact abelian (LCA groups motivated by our work on equations with infinitely many derivatives of interest for string theory and cosmology. In this paper, we focus on compact embedding results and we prove an analog for LCA groups of the classical Rellich lemma and of the Rellich-Kondrachov compactness theorem. Furthermore, we introduce Sobolev spaces on subsets of LCA groups and study its main properties, including the existence of compact embeddings into Lp-spaces.

  4. A compact quadrupole ion filter for helium detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.B.

    1981-01-01

    A compact quadrupole ion filter was conceived and constructed for optimum performance at the mass four region of the mass spectra. It was primarely designed for geological applications in the measurements of helium of soil-gases. The whole ion filter structure is 15 cm long by 3.5 cm diameter, including ion source and collecting plate. The sensitivity to helium is of the order of 10 - 2 A.torr - 1 measured at a total pressure of 6x10 - 6 torr and resolution 6. The system can be easily adapted to work as a dynamic residual gas analyser for other purposes. (Author) [pt

  5. New Evidence for a Black Hole in the Compact Binary Cygnus X-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrader, Chris R.; Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai

    2010-01-01

    The bright and highly variable X-ray and radio source known as Cygnus X-3 was among the first X-ray sources discovered, yet it remains in many ways an enigma. Its known to consist of a massive. Wolf-Rayet primary in an extremely tight orbit with a compact object. Yet one of the most basic of pa.ranietern the mass of the compact object - is not known. Nor is it even clear whether its is a neutron star or a black hole. In this Paper we present our analysis of the broad-band high-energy continua covering a substantial range in luminosity and spectral morphology. We apply these results to a recently identified scaling relationship which has been demonstrated to provide reliable estimates of the compact object mass in a number of accretion powered binaries. This analysis leads us to conclude that the compact object in Cygnus X-3 has a mass greater than 4.2 solar mass thus clearly indicative of a black hole and as such resolving a longstanding issue. The full range of uncertainty in our analysis and from using a. range of recently published distance estimates constrains the compact object mass to lie between 4.2 solar mass and 14.4 solar mass. Our favored estimate, based on a 9.0 kpc distance estimate is approx. l0 solar mass, with the. error margin of 3.2 solar masses. This result may thus pose challenges to shared-envelope evolutionary models of compact binaries. as well as establishing Cygnus X-3 as the first confirmed accretion-powered galactic gamma: ray source.

  6. A compact high resolution flat panel PET detector based on the new 4-side buttable MPPC for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Wen, Jie; Ravindranath, Bosky; O'Sullivan, Andrew W; Catherall, David; Li, Ke; Wei, Shouyi; Komarov, Sergey; Tai, Yuan-Chuan

    2015-09-11

    Compact high-resolution panel detectors using virtual pinhole (VP) PET geometry can be inserted into existing clinical or pre-clinical PET systems to improve regional spatial resolution and sensitivity. Here we describe a compact panel PET detector built using the new Though Silicon Via (TSV) multi-pixel photon counters (MPPC) detector. This insert provides high spatial resolution and good timing performance for multiple bio-medical applications. Because the TSV MPPC design eliminates wire bonding and has a package dimension which is very close to the MPPC's active area, it is 4-side buttable. The custom designed MPPC array (based on Hamamatsu S12641-PA-50(x)) used in the prototype is composed of 4 × 4 TSV-MPPC cells with a 4.46 mm pitch in both directions. The detector module has 16 × 16 lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystal array, with each crystal measuring 0.92 × 0.92 × 3 mm 3 with 1.0 mm pitch. The outer diameter of the detector block is 16.8 × 16.8 mm 2 . Thirty-two such blocks will be arranged in a 4 × 8 array with 1 mm gaps to form a panel detector with detection area around 7 cm × 14 cm in the full-size detector. The flood histogram acquired with Ge-68 source showed excellent crystal separation capability with all 256 crystals clearly resolved. The detector module's mean, standard deviation, minimum (best) and maximum (worst) energy resolution were 10.19%, +/-0.68%, 8.36% and 13.45% FWHM, respectively. The measured coincidence time resolution between the block detector and a fast reference detector (around 200 ps single photon timing resolution) was 0.95 ns. When tested with Siemens Cardinal electronics the performance of the detector blocks remain consistent. These results demonstrate that the TSV-MPPC is a promising photon sensor for use in a flat panel PET insert composed of many high resolution compact detector modules.

  7. DIRECT IMAGING OF A COMPACT MOLECULAR OUTFLOW FROM A VERY LOW LUMINOSITY OBJECT: L1521F-IRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Satoko [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Ohashi, Nagayoshi [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Bourke, Tyler L., E-mail: satoko.takahashi@nao.ac.jp [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Studying the physical conditions of very low luminosity objects (VeLLOs; L{sub bol} < 0.1 L{sub Sun }) is important for understanding the earliest evolutionary stage of protostars and brown dwarfs. We report interferometric observations of the VeLLO L1521F-IRS, in {sup 12}CO (2-1) line emission and the 1.3 mm continuum emission, using the Submillimeter Array. With the {sup 12}CO (2-1) high-resolution observations, we have spatially resolved a compact but poorly collimated molecular outflow associated with L1521F-IRS for the first time. The blueshifted and redshifted lobes are aligned along the east and west side of L1521F-IRS with a lobe size of Almost-Equal-To 1000 AU. The estimated outflow mass, maximum outflow velocity, and outflow force are (9.0-80) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun }, 7.2 km s{sup -1}, and (7.4-66) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} M{sub Sun} km s{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, respectively. The estimated outflow parameters such as size, mass, and momentum rate are similar to values derived for other VeLLOs, and are located at the lower end of values compared to previously studied outflows associated with low- to high-mass star-forming regions. Low-velocity less collimated (1.5 km s{sup -1}/1200 AU) and higher-velocity compact (4.0 km s{sup -1}/920 AU) outflow components are suggested by the data. These velocity structures are not consistent with those expected in the jet-driven or wind-driven outflow models, perhaps suggesting a remnant outflow from the first hydrostatic core as well as an undeveloped outflow from the protostar. Detection of an infrared source and compact millimeter continuum emission suggests the presence of the protostar, while its low bolometric luminosity (0.034-0.07 L{sub Sun }) and small outflow suggests that L1521F is in the earliest protostellar stage (<10{sup 4} yr) and contains a substellar mass object. The bolometric (or internal) luminosity of L1521F-IRS suggests that the current mass accretion rate is an order of

  8. Recent Results on Central Compact Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Gotthelf, E. V.

    2011-09-01

    We will review the latest observational results and theoretical puzzles about the class of central compact objects (CCOs) in supernova remnants (SNRs), 10 isolated neutron stars (NSs) with steady, thermal X-ray emission and absence of a surrounding pulsar wind nebula. Three CCOs have detected X-ray pulsations, with periods of 0.105, 0.112, and 0.424 s. X-ray timing studies reveal that their spin-down rates are extremely small, implying dipole magnetic fields of only 3.e10-1.e11 G, which is unprecedented among the population of young pulsars. In the absence of a stronger magnetic field, it is difficult to explain the high temperatures of their surface hot spots, which may instead require a magnetic field configuration that is different from a centered dipole. While CCOs are inconspicuous relative to ordinary young pulsars and active magnetars, that they are found in SNRs in comparable numbers to other classes of NSs implies that they must represent a significant fraction of NS births. Nevertheless, they fall in a region of the P,P-dot diagram for radio pulsars that is underpopulated, so it is not clear if CCOs are intrinsically radio quiet, and what happens to their descendants, the "orphaned CCOs" whose SNRs have dissipated. It has been speculated that if their magnetic fields were initially strong but were buried by prompt fall-back of supernova debris, then the dipole field may eventually diffuse back to the surface, and CCOs could join the main population of ordinary pulsars. We will also discuss how the absence of detected pulsations from the majority of CCOs makes them difficult to distinguish from magnetars in quiescence, which have X-ray spectra and luminosities similar to those of CCOs. However, they can be distinguished with long-term monitoring, since magnetars are eventually variable, while CCOs are steady X-ray emitters.

  9. A CLUSTER OF COMPACT RADIO SOURCES IN W40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RodrIguez, Luis F.; Rodney, Steven A.; Reipurth, Bo

    2010-01-01

    We present deep 3.6 cm radio continuum observations of the H II region W40 obtained using the Very Large Array (VLA) in its A and B configurations. We detect a total of 20 compact radio sources in a region of 4' x 4', with 11 of them concentrated in a band with 30'' of extent. We also present JHK photometry of the W40 cluster taken with the QUIRC instrument on the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope. These data reveal that 15 of the 20 VLA sources have infrared counterparts, and 10 show radio variability with periods less than 20 days. Based on these combined radio and IR data, we propose that eight of the radio sources are candidate ultracompact H II regions, seven are likely to be young stellar objects, and two may be shocked interstellar gas.

  10. Assessing the environmental impacts of soil compaction in Life Cycle Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoessel, Franziska; Sonderegger, Thomas; Bayer, Peter; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2018-07-15

    Maintaining biotic capacity is of key importance with regard to global food and biomass provision. One reason for productivity loss is soil compaction. In this paper, we use a statistical empirical model to assess long-term yield losses through soil compaction in a regionalized manner, with global coverage and for different agricultural production systems. To facilitate the application of the model, we provide an extensive dataset including crop production data (with 81 crops and corresponding production systems), related machinery application, as well as regionalized soil texture and soil moisture data. Yield loss is modeled for different levels of soil depth (0-25cm, 25-40cm and >40cm depth). This is of particular relevance since compaction in topsoil is classified as reversible in the short term (approximately four years), while recovery of subsoil layers takes much longer. We derive characterization factors quantifying the future average annual yield loss as a fraction of the current yield for 100years and applicable in Life Cycle Assessment studies of agricultural production. The results show that crops requiring enhanced machinery inputs, such as potatoes, have a major influence on soil compaction and yield losses, while differences between mechanized production systems (organic and integrated production) are small. The spatial variations of soil moisture and clay content are reflected in the results showing global hotspot regions especially susceptible to soil compaction, e.g. the South of Brazil, the Caribbean Islands, Central Africa, and the Maharashtra district of India. The impacts of soil compaction can be substantial, with highest annual yield losses in the range of 0.5% (95% percentile) due to one year of potato production (cumulated over 100y this corresponds to a one-time loss of 50% of the present yield). These modeling results demonstrate the necessity for including soil compaction effects in Life Cycle Impact Assessment. Copyright © 2018

  11. ON THE COMPACT H II GALAXY UM 408 AS SEEN BY GMOS-IFU: PHYSICAL CONDITIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagos, Patricio; Telles, Eduardo; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Cuisinier, Francois; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    We present Integral Field Unit GMOS-IFU data of the compact H II galaxy UM 408, obtained at the Gemini South telescope, in order to derive the spatial distribution of emission lines and line ratios, kinematics, plasma parameters, and oxygen abundances as well the integrated properties over an area of 3''x4.''4 equivalent with ∼750 pc x 1100 pc located in the central part of the galaxy. The starburst in this area is resolved into two giant regions of about 1.''5 and 1'' (∼375 and ∼250 pc) diameter, respectively and separated 1.5-2'' (∼500 pc). The extinction distribution concentrate its highest values close but not coincident with the maxima of Hα emission around each one of the detected regions. This indicates that the dust has been displaced from the exciting clusters by the action of their stellar winds. The ages of these two regions, estimated using Hβ equivalent widths, suggest that they are coeval events of ∼5 Myr with stellar masses of ∼10 4 M sun . We have also used [O III]/Hβ and [S II]/Hα ratio maps to explore the excitation mechanisms in this galaxy. Comparing the data points with theoretical diagnostic models, we found that all of them are consistent with excitation by photoionization by massive stars. The Hα emission line was used to measure the radial velocity and velocity dispersion. The heliocentric radial velocity shows an apparent systemic motion where the east part of the galaxy is blueshifted, while the west part is redshifted, with a relative motion of ∼10 km s -1 . The velocity dispersion map shows supersonic values typical for extragalactic H II regions. We derived an integrated oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H) = 7.87 summing over all spaxels in our field of view. An average value of 12+log(O/H) = 7.77 and a difference of Δ(O/H) = 0.47 between the minimum and maximum values (7.58 ± 0.06-8.05 ± 0.04) were found, considering all data points where the oxygen abundance was measured. The spatial distribution of oxygen abundance

  12. The TimBel synchronization board for time resolved experiments at synchrotron SOLEIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricaud, J.P.; Betinelli-Deck, P.; Bisou, J.; Elattaoui, X.; Laulhe, C.; Monteiro, P.; Nadolski, L.S.; Renaud, G.; Ravy, S.; Silly, M.; Sirotti, F.

    2012-01-01

    Time resolved experiments are one of the major services that synchrotrons can provide to scientists. The short, high frequency and regular flashes of synchrotron light are a fantastic tool to study the evolution of phenomena over time. To carry out time resolved experiments, beamlines need to synchronize their devices with these flashes of light with a jitter shorter than the pulse duration. For that purpose, Synchrotron SOLEIL has developed the TimBeL (Timing Beamlines) board fully interfaced to TANGO framework. The TimBeL system is a compact PCI board. It is made of a mother with one daughter board. All functions are performed inside a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) implemented on the mother board. A PLX Technology chip is used to communicate with the compact PCI crate. To enable experiments to remain always synchronous with the same bunch of electrons, the storage ring clock (CLK-SR) and the radio frequency clock (CLK-RF) are provided by the machine to beamlines. These clocks are used inside the FPGA as main clocks for state machines. Because the jitter is too large on the FPGA outputs, a daughter board with a jitter cleaner has been added to the system. This board also provides delay lines for compensating time offsets by 10 ps steps. This paper presents the main features required by time resolved experiments and how we achieved our goals with the TimBeL board

  13. Spatially Resolved Isotopic Source Signatures of Wetland Methane Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, A. L.; Stell, A. C.; Gedney, N.; Comyn-Platt, E.; Hayman, G.; Rigby, M.; Poulter, B.; Hornibrook, E. R. C.

    2018-04-01

    We present the first spatially resolved wetland δ13C(CH4) source signature map based on data characterizing wetland ecosystems and demonstrate good agreement with wetland signatures derived from atmospheric observations. The source signature map resolves a latitudinal difference of 10‰ between northern high-latitude (mean -67.8‰) and tropical (mean -56.7‰) wetlands and shows significant regional variations on top of the latitudinal gradient. We assess the errors in inverse modeling studies aiming to separate CH4 sources and sinks by comparing atmospheric δ13C(CH4) derived using our spatially resolved map against the common assumption of globally uniform wetland δ13C(CH4) signature. We find a larger interhemispheric gradient, a larger high-latitude seasonal cycle, and smaller trend over the period 2000-2012. The implication is that erroneous CH4 fluxes would be derived to compensate for the biases imposed by not utilizing spatially resolved signatures for the largest source of CH4 emissions. These biases are significant when compared to the size of observed signals.

  14. Heat transfer in large compacts of SYNROC powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buykx, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The parameters determining the time required to reach temperature uniformity in a shock heated cylindrical compact of SYNROC powder are identified as the dimensions of the compact and the thermal diffusivity of the material. The effect of shape and size of the compact are discussed, and an experimental study of the factors influencing the thermal diffusivity of compacted SYNROC powder is described

  15. Imposing resolved turbulence in CFD simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, L.; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2011-01-01

    In large‐eddy simulations, the inflow velocity field should contain resolved turbulence. This paper describes and analyzes two methods for imposing resolved turbulence in the interior of the domain in Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations. The intended application of the methods is to impose...

  16. Roller compaction of moist pharmaceutical powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C-Y; Hung, W-L; Miguélez-Morán, A M; Gururajan, B; Seville, J P K

    2010-05-31

    The compression behaviour of powders during roller compaction is dominated by a number of factors, such as process conditions (roll speed, roll gap, feeding mechanisms and feeding speed) and powder properties (particle size, shape, moisture content). The moisture content affects the powder properties, such as the flowability and cohesion, but it is not clear how the moisture content will influence the powder compression behaviour during roller compaction. In this study, the effect of moisture contents on roller compaction behaviour of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, Avicel PH102) was investigated experimentally. MCC samples of different moisture contents were prepared by mixing as-received MCC powder with different amount of water that was sprayed onto the powder bed being agitated in a rotary mixer. The flowability of these samples were evaluated in terms of the poured angle of repose and flow functions. The moist powders were then compacted using the instrumented roller compactor developed at the University of Birmingham. The flow and compression behaviour during roller compaction and the properties of produced ribbons were examined. It has been found that, as the moisture content increases, the flowability of moist MCC powders decreases and the powder becomes more cohesive. As a consequence of non-uniform flow of powder into the compaction zone induced by the friction between powder and side cheek plates, all produced ribbons have a higher density in the middle and lower densities at the edges. For the ribbons made of powders with high moisture contents, different hydration states across the ribbon width were also identified from SEM images. Moreover, it was interesting to find that these ribbons were split into two halves. This is attributed to the reduction in the mechanical strength of moist powder compacts with high moisture contents produced at high compression pressures. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Panchromatic SED modelling of spatially resolved galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel J. B.; Hayward, Christopher C.

    2018-05-01

    We test the efficacy of the energy-balance spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting code MAGPHYS for recovering the spatially resolved properties of a simulated isolated disc galaxy, for which it was not designed. We perform 226 950 MAGPHYS SED fits to regions between 0.2 and 25 kpc in size across the galaxy's disc, viewed from three different sight-lines, to probe how well MAGPHYS can recover key galaxy properties based on 21 bands of UV-far-infrared model photometry. MAGPHYS yields statistically acceptable fits to >99 per cent of the pixels within the r-band effective radius and between 59 and 77 percent of pixels within 20 kpc of the nucleus. MAGPHYS is able to recover the distribution of stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), specific SFR, dust luminosity, dust mass, and V-band attenuation reasonably well, especially when the pixel size is ≳ 1 kpc, whereas non-standard outputs (stellar metallicity and mass-weighted age) are recovered less well. Accurate recovery is more challenging in the smallest sub-regions of the disc (pixel scale ≲ 1 kpc), where the energy balance criterion becomes increasingly incorrect. Estimating integrated galaxy properties by summing the recovered pixel values, the true integrated values of all parameters considered except metallicity and age are well recovered at all spatial resolutions, ranging from 0.2 kpc to integrating across the disc, albeit with some evidence for resolution-dependent biases. These results must be considered when attempting to analyse the structure of real galaxies with actual observational data, for which the `ground truth' is unknown.

  18. Skeletal muscle cellularity and glycogen distribution in the hypermuscular Compact mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kocsis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false HU X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The TGF-beta member myostatin acts as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. The Compact mice were selected for high protein content and hypermuscularity, and carry a naturally occurring 12-bp deletion in the propeptide region of the myostatin precursor. We aimed to investigate the cellular characteristics and the glycogen distribution of the Compact tibialis anterior (TA muscle by quantitative histochemistry and spectrophotometry. We have found that the deficiency in myostatin resulted in significantly increased weight of the investigated hindlimb muscles compared to wild type. Although the average glycogen content of the individual fibers kept unchanged, the total amount of glycogen in the Compact TA muscle increased two-fold, which can be explained by the presence of more fibers in Compact compared to wild type muscle. Moreover, the ratio of the most glycolytic IIB fibers significantly increased in the Compact TA muscle, of which glycogen content was the highest among the fast fibers. In summary, myostatin deficiency caused elevated amount of glycogen in the TA muscle but did not increase the glycogen content of the individual fibers despite the marked glycolytic shift observed in Compact mice.

  19. Aligning laboratory and field compaction practices for asphalt - the influence of compaction temperature on mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, Frank; Miller, Seirgei Rosario; de Bondt, A.H.; Doree, Andries G.

    2015-01-01

    The approach used to identify a compaction temperature in the laboratory, based on binder viscosity, provides a single compaction temperature whereas, on-site, a roller operates within a temperature window. The effect on the density and mechanical properties of rolling during a temperature window

  20. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  1. DNA compaction by azobenzene-containing surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Kopyshev, Alexey; Lomadze, Nino; Santer, Svetlana; Morozova, Elena; Lysyakova, Ludmila; Kasyanenko, Nina

    2011-01-01

    We report on the interaction of cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant with DNA investigated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and atomic force microscopy. The properties of the surfactant can be controlled with light by reversible switching of the azobenzene unit, incorporated into the surfactant tail, between a hydrophobic trans (visible irradiation) and a hydrophilic cis (UV irradiation) configuration. The influence of the trans-cis isomerization of the azobenzene on the compaction process of DNA molecules and the role of both isomers in the formation and colloidal stability of DNA-surfactant complexes is discussed. It is shown that the trans isomer plays a major role in the DNA compaction process. The influence of the cis isomer on the DNA coil configuration is rather small. The construction of a phase diagram of the DNA concentration versus surfactant/DNA charge ratio allows distancing between three major phases: colloidally stable and unstable compacted globules, and extended coil conformation. There is a critical concentration of DNA above which the compacted globules can be hindered from aggregation and precipitation by adding an appropriate amount of the surfactant in the trans configuration. This is because of the compensation of hydrophobicity of the globules with an increasing amount of the surfactant. Below the critical DNA concentration, the compacted globules are colloidally stable and can be reversibly transferred with light to an extended coil state.

  2. Electrical properties of the potassium polytitanate compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffman, V.G.; Gorokhovsky, A.V.; Kompan, M.M.; Tretyachenko, E.V.; Telegina, O.S.; Kovnev, A.V.; Fedorov, F.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Quasi-static permittivity of potassium polytitanates compacts achieves 10 4 –10 5 . • Observed Maxwell–Wagner polarization attributes to layered structure of polytitanates. • The conductivity varies from 5 × 10 −2 to 10 −6 –10 −7 Sm/m in a wide range of temperatures. - Abstract: Titanates of alkali metals are widely applied materials as they are relatively low in cost and might be easily synthesized. They are utilized as adsorbents, catalysts, solid state electrolytes, superconductors. Here we report our results on electrical properties of the compacted amorphous potassium polytitanates powders. The electrical properties of the compacts were studied by means of complex impedance spectroscopy in a wide range of frequencies at different temperatures using two-electrode configuration. The frequency dependences of conductivity for the investigated potassium polytitanates compacts varies in the range from 5 × 10 −2 Sm/m (high frequencies, ion conductivity) up to 10 −6 –10 −7 Sm/m (low frequencies, electron conductivity) for a wide range of temperatures (19–150 °C). According to the results, at low frequencies quasi-static permittivity of the stabilized PPT compacts achieves high values of 10 4 –10 5 . This might be explained by Maxwell–Wagner polarization attributed to the layered structure of the potassium polytitanates particles containing potassium and hydronium ions together with crystallization water in the interlayer and is very promising for solid state electrolyte applications for moderate temperatures

  3. Hydrodynamic modeling and explosive compaction of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenig, C.; Holt, A.; Finger, M.; Kuhl, W.

    1977-01-01

    High-density ceramics with high-strength microstructure were achieved by explosive compaction. Well-characterized Al 2 O 3 , AlN, and boron powders were explosively compacted in both cylindrical and flat plate geometries. In cylindrical geometries compacted densities between 91 and 98 percent of theoretical were achieved. Microhardness measurements indicated that the strength and integrity of the microstructure were comparable to conventionally fabricated ceramics, even though all samples with densities greater than 90 percent theoretical contained macrocracks. Fractured surfaces evaluated by SEM showed evidence of boundary melting. Equation of state data for porous Al 2 O 3 were used to calculate the irreversible work done on the sample as a function of pressure. This was expressed as a percentage of the total sample which could be melted. Calculations show that very little melting can be expected in samples shocked to less than 3 GPa. Significant melting and grain boundary fusion can be expected in samples shocked to pressures greater than 8 GPa. Hydrodynamic modeling of right cylinder compaction with detonation at one end was attempted by using a two-dimensional computer code. The complications of this analysis led to experiments using plane shock waves. Flat-plate compaction assemblies were designed and analyzed by 2-D hydrodynamic codes. The use of porous shock attenuators was evaluated. Experiments were performed on aluminum oxide powders in plane wave geometry. Microstructure evaluations were made as a function of location in the flat plate samples. 11 figures, 1 table

  4. Phased array compaction cell for measurement of the transversely isotropic elastic properties of compacting sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihei, K.T.; Nakagawa, S.; Reverdy, F.; Meyer, L.R.; Duranti, L.; Ball, G.

    2010-12-15

    Sediments undergoing compaction typically exhibit transversely isotropic (TI) elastic properties. We present a new experimental apparatus, the phased array compaction cell, for measuring the TI elastic properties of clay-rich sediments during compaction. This apparatus uses matched sets of P- and S-wave ultrasonic transducers located along the sides of the sample and an ultrasonic P-wave phased array source, together with a miniature P-wave receiver on the top and bottom ends of the sample. The phased array measurements are used to form plane P-waves that provide estimates of the phase velocities over a range of angles. From these measurements, the five TI elastic constants can be recovered as the sediment is compacted, without the need for sample unloading, recoring, or reorienting. This paper provides descriptions of the apparatus, the data processing, and an application demonstrating recovery of the evolving TI properties of a compacting marine sediment sample.

  5. Permeability of highly compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1980-12-01

    The object of the study was the water flow through the bentonite which is caused by hydraulic gradients. The study comprised laboratory tests and theoretical considerations. It was found that high bulk densities reduced the permeability to very low values. It was concluded that practically impervious conditions prevail when the gradients are low. Thus with a regional gradient of 10 -2 and a premeability of 10 -13 m/s the flow rate will not be higher than approximately 1 mm in 30 000 years. (G.B.)

  6. Compaction of Ti–6Al–4V powder using high velocity compaction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Dil Faraz; Yin, Haiqing; Li, He; Qu, Xuanhui; Khan, Matiullah; Ali, Shujaat; Iqbal, M. Zubair

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We compacted Ti–6Al–4V powder by HVC technique. • As impact force rises up, the green density of the compacts increases gradually. • At impact force 1.857 kN relative sintered density of the compacts reaches 99.88%. • Spring back of the green compact’s decreases gradually with increasing impact force. • Mechanical properties of the samples increases with increasing impact force. - Abstract: High velocity compaction technique was applied to the compaction of pre-alloyed, hydride–dehydride Ti–6Al–4V powder. The powder was pressed in single stroke with a compaction speed of 7.10–8.70 ms −1 . When the speed was 8.70 ms −1 , the relative density of the compacts reaches up to 85.89% with a green density of 3.831 g cm −3 . The green samples were sintered at 1300 °C in Ar-gas atmosphere. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine the surface of the sintered samples. Density and mechanical properties such as Vickers micro hardness and bending strength of the powder samples were investigated. Experimental results indicated that with the increase in impact force, the density and mechanical properties of the compacts increased. The sintered compacts exhibited a maximum relative density of 99.88% with a sintered density of 4.415 g cm −3 , hardness of 364–483 HV and the bending strength in the range of 103–126.78 MPa. The springback of the compacts decreased with increasing impact force

  7. JAPC Compact Simulator evolution to latest integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeta, T.; Nakayama, Y.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of JAPC compact simulator from the first installation in 1988 until recent integration with SIMULATE-3 engineering code core model and extended simulation for Mid-loop operation and severe accidents. JAPC Compact Simulator has an advanced super compact rotating panel design. Three plants, Tokai 2 (GE BWR 5), Tsuruga 1 (GE BWR 2), Tsuruga 2 (MHI PWR 4-Loop) are simulated. The simulator has been used for training of operator and engineering personnel, and has continuously been upgraded to follow normal plant modifications as well as development in modeling and computer technology. The integration of SIMULATE-3 core model is, to our knowledge, the first integration of a real design code into a training simulator. SIMULATE-3 has been successfully integrated into the simulator and run in real time, without compromising the accuracy of SIMULATE-3. The code has been modified to also handle mid-loop operation and severe accidents. (author)

  8. Design study of the compact ERL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajima, Ryoichi; Nakamura, Norio; Sakanaka, Shogo; Kobayashi, Yukinori

    2008-02-01

    Energy-recovery linac (ERL) is a promising device for future X-ray light sources, which can produce coherent X-rays and femto-second X-ray pulses. In Japan, we have organized a collaboration team, consisting of the members of KEK, JAEA, ISSP and other laboratories, toward realization of future ERL light sources, and started R and D efforts to establish accelerator technologies relevant to the ERL light source. In order to demonstrate all the accelerator technologies working together, we have decided to build a small facility, the Compact ERL. This report presents a design study of the Compact ERL, which includes R and D issues for each accelerator component, studies on the beam dynamics, performance of the Compact ERL as a light source of THz and X-ray. (author)

  9. Coherent states for quantum compact groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurco, B.; Stovicek, P.; CTU, Prague

    1996-01-01

    Coherent states are introduced and their properties are discussed for simple quantum compact groups A l , B l , C l and D l . The multiplicative form of the canonical element for the quantum double is used to introduce the holomorphic coordinates on a general quantum dressing orbit. The coherent state is interpreted as a holomorphic function on this orbit with values in the carrier Hilbert space of an irreducible representation of the corresponding quantized enveloping algebra. Using Gauss decomposition, the commutation relations for the holomorphic coordinates on the dressing orbit are derived explicitly and given in a compact R-matrix formulation (generalizing this way the q-deformed Grassmann and flag manifolds). The antiholomorphic realization of the irreducible representations of a compact quantum group (the analogue of the Borel-Weil construction) is described using the concept of coherent state. The relation between representation theory and non-commutative differential geometry is suggested. (orig.)

  10. Coherent states for quantum compact groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurco, B. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Stovicek, P. [Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Mathematics]|[CTU, Prague (Czech Republic). Doppler Inst.

    1996-12-01

    Coherent states are introduced and their properties are discussed for simple quantum compact groups A{sub l}, B{sub l}, C{sub l} and D{sub l}. The multiplicative form of the canonical element for the quantum double is used to introduce the holomorphic coordinates on a general quantum dressing orbit. The coherent state is interpreted as a holomorphic function on this orbit with values in the carrier Hilbert space of an irreducible representation of the corresponding quantized enveloping algebra. Using Gauss decomposition, the commutation relations for the holomorphic coordinates on the dressing orbit are derived explicitly and given in a compact R-matrix formulation (generalizing this way the q-deformed Grassmann and flag manifolds). The antiholomorphic realization of the irreducible representations of a compact quantum group (the analogue of the Borel-Weil construction) is described using the concept of coherent state. The relation between representation theory and non-commutative differential geometry is suggested. (orig.)

  11. Coherent states for quantum compact groups

    CERN Document Server

    Jurco, B

    1996-01-01

    Coherent states are introduced and their properties are discussed for all simple quantum compact groups. The multiplicative form of the canonical element for the quantum double is used to introduce the holomorphic coordinates on a general quantum dressing orbit and interpret the coherent state as a holomorphic function on this orbit with values in the carrier Hilbert space of an irreducible representation of the corresponding quantized enveloping algebra. Using Gauss decomposition, the commutation relations for the holomorphic coordinates on the dressing orbit are derived explicitly and given in a compact R--matrix formulation (generalizing this way the q--deformed Grassmann and flag manifolds). The antiholomorphic realization of the irreducible representations of a compact quantum group (the analogue of the Borel--Weil construction) are described using the concept of coherent state. The relation between representation theory and non--commutative differential geometry is suggested.}

  12. May compact storage facilities be licensed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleim, A.; Winter, G.

    1980-01-01

    The authors examine as potential statements fo fact for licensing so-called compact storage facilities for spent fuel elements Sec. 6 to 9c of the German Atomic Energy Act and Sec. 4 of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. They find that none of these provisions were applicable to compact stroage facilities. In particular, the storage of spent fuel elements was no storage of nuclear fuels licensable under Sec. 6 of the Atomic Energy Act, because Sec. 6 did not cover spent fuel elements. Also in the other wording of the Atomic Energy Act there was no provision, which could be used as a statement of fact for licensing compact storage facilities. Such facilities could not be licensed and, for that reason, were not permitted. (IVR) [de

  13. Powder and compaction characteristics of pregelatinized starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, J; Uribe, Y; Zuluaga, A

    2012-06-01

    Pregelatinized starch is widely used as a pharmaceutical aid, especially as a filler-binder. It is known that the tableting performance of excipients could be affected by their source. The aim of this study was to evaluate the powder and tableting properties of pregelatinized starches obtained from yucca, corn and rice and compare those properties with those of Starch 1500. This material had the lowest particle size, and porosity and largest density and best flow. However, yucca starch and corn starch showed an irregular granule morphology, better compactibility and compressibility than Starch 1500. Their onset of plastic deformation and their strain rate sensitivity was comparable to that of Starch 1500. These two materials showed compact disintegration slower that Starch 1500. Conversely, rice starch showed a high elasticity, and friability, low compactibility, which are undesirable for direct compression. This study demonstrated the potential use of pregelatinized starches, especially those obtained from yucca and corn as direct compression filler-binders.

  14. Optical absorption in compact and extended dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supritz, C.; Engelmann, A.; Reineker, P.

    2005-01-01

    Dendrimers are highly branched molecules, which are expected to be useful, for example, as efficient artificial light harvesting systems, in nano-technological or in medical applications. There are two different classes of dendrimers: compact dendrimers with constant distance between neighboring branching points throughout the macromolecule and extended dendrimers, where this distance increases from the system periphery to the center. We investigate the linear optical absorption spectra of these dendrimer types using the Frenkel exciton concept. The electron-phonon interaction is taken into account by introducing a heat bath that interacts with the exciton in a stochastic manner. We discuss compact dendrimers with equal excitation energies at all molecules, dendrimers with a functionalized core as well as with a whole branch functionalized. Furthermore the line shape of a compact dendrimer is discussed when neighboring molecules at the periphery interact and when all molecules have randomly distributed excitation energies due to disorder. Finally, we discuss two models for extended dendrimers

  15. Compaction and sedimentary basin analysis on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabasova, Leila R.; Kite, Edwin S.

    2018-03-01

    Many of the sedimentary basins of Mars show patterns of faults and off-horizontal layers that, if correctly understood, could serve as a key to basin history. Sediment compaction is a possible cause of these patterns. We quantified the possible role of differential sediment compaction for two Martian sedimentary basins: the sediment fill of Gunjur crater (which shows concentric graben), and the sediment fill of Gale crater (which shows outward-dipping layers). We assume that basement topography for these craters is similar to the present-day topography of complex craters that lack sediment infill. For Gunjur, we find that differential compaction produces maximum strains consistent with the locations of observed graben. For Gale, we were able to approximately reproduce the observed layer orientations measured from orbiter image-based digital terrain models, but only with a >3 km-thick donut-shaped past overburden. It is not immediately obvious what geologic processes could produce this shape.

  16. Activation analysis of the compact ignition tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcow, E.C.

    1986-01-01

    The US fusion program has completed the conceptual design of a compact tokamak device that achieves ignition. The high neutron wall loadings associated with this compact deuterium-tritium-burning device indicate that radiation-related issues may be significant considerations in the overall system design. Sufficient shielding will be requied for the radiation protection of both reactor components and occupational personnel. A close-in igloo shield has been designed around the periphery of the tokamak structure to permit personnel access into the test cell after shutdown and limit the total activation of the test cell components. This paper describes the conceptual design of the igloo shield system and discusses the major neutronic concerns related to the design of the Compact Ignition Tokamak

  17. Explaining compact groups as change alignments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamon, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The physical nature of the apparently densest groups of galaxies, known as compact groups is a topic of some recent controversy, despite the detailed observations of a well-defined catalog of 100 isolated compact groups compiled by Hickson (1982). Whereas many authors have espoused the view that compact groups are bound systems, typically as dense as they appear in projection on the sky (e.g., Williams ampersand Rood 1987; Sulentic 1987; Hickson ampersand Rood 1988), others see them as the result of chance configurations within larger systems, either in 1D (chance alignments: Mamon 1986; Walke ampersand Mamon 1989), or in 3D (transient cores: Rose 1979). As outlined in the companion review to this contribution (Mamon, in these proceedings), the implication of Hickson's compact groups (HCGs) being dense bound systems is that they would then constitute the densest isolated systems of galaxies in the Universe and the privileged site for galaxy interactions. In a previous paper (Mamon 1986), the author reviewed the arguments given for the different theories of compact groups. Since then, a dozen papers have been published on the subject, including a thorough and perceptive review by White (1990), thus more than doubling the amount written on the subject. Here, the author first enumerates the arguments that he brought up in 1986 substantiating the chance alignment hypothesis, then he reviews the current status of the numerous recent arguments arguing against chance alignments and/or for the bound dense group hypothesis (both for the majority of HCGs but not all of them), and finally he reconsiders each one of these anti-chance alignment arguments and shows that, rather than being discredited, the chance alignment hypothesis remains a fully consistent explanation for the nature of compact groups

  18. Observational properties of compact groups of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickson, P.

    1990-01-01

    Compact groups are small, relatively isolated, systems of galaxies with projected separations comparable to the diameters of the galaxies themselves. Two well-known examples are Stephan's Quintet (Stephan, 1877) and Seyfert's Sextet (Seyfert 1948a,b). In groups such as these, the apparent space density of galaxies approaches 10(exp 6) Mpc(sub -3), denser even than the cores of rich clusters. The apparent unlikeliness of the chance occurrence of such tight groupings lead Ambartsumyan (1958, 1975) to conclude that compact groups must be physically dense systems. This view is supported by clear signs of galaxy interactions that are seen in many groups. Spectroscopic observations reveal that typical relative velocities of galaxies in the groups are comparable to their internal stellar velocities. This should be conducive to strong gravitational interactions - more so than in rich clusters, where galaxy velocities are typically much higher. This suggests that compact groups could be excellent laboratories in which to study galaxy interactions and their effects. Compact groups often contain one or more galaxies whose redshift differs greatly from those of the other group members. If these galaxies are at the same distance as the other members, either entire galaxies are being ejected at high velocities from these groups, or some new physical phenomena must be occurring. If their redshifts are cosmological, we must explain why so many discordant galaxies are found in compact groups. In recent years much progress has been made in addressing these questions. Here, the author discusses the current observational data on compact groups and their implications

  19. Compact, low-cost, and high-resolution interrogation unit for optical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesel, Peter; Schmidt, Oliver; Mohta, Setu; Johnson, Noble; Malzer, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Compact wavelength detectors that resolve wavelength changes in the subpicometer range over a broad spectral range are presented. A photodiode array or position sensor device is coated with a linear variable filter that converts the wavelength of the incident light into a spatial intensity distribution. The centroid of the spatial distribution is determined by a differential readout of the two elements of the photodiode array or the position sensor device. The device can interrogate any optical sensor that produces a wavelength shift in response to a stimulus. The potential of this device was tested by interrogating fiber-Bragg-grating sensors

  20. Determination of quenching coefficients by time resolved emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gans, T.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Doebele, H.F. [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Laser- und Plasmaphysik

    2001-07-01

    Capacitively coupled RF discharges (CCRF discharges) at 13.56 MHz in hydrogen exhibit a field reversal phase of about 10 ns during which an intense electron current provides collisional excitation, within the sheath region. After this strongly dominant short pulsed electron impact excitation, it is possible to determine quenching coefficients from the lifetime of the fluorescence at various pressures by time resolved OES even for high energy levels and without any restrictions of optical selection rules. This novel technique allows the measurement of quenching coefficients for atomic and molecular emission lines of hydrogen itself, as well as for emission lines of small admixtures (e.g. noble gases) to the hydrogen discharge, since with a fast gate-able ICCD camera operating at 13.56 MHz it is possible to measure even faint emission lines temporally resolved.

  1. Determination of quenching coefficients by time resolved emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, T.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Doebele, H.F.

    2001-01-01

    Capacitively coupled RF discharges (CCRF discharges) at 13.56 MHz in hydrogen exhibit a field reversal phase of about 10 ns during which an intense electron current provides collisional excitation, within the sheath region. After this strongly dominant short pulsed electron impact excitation, it is possible to determine quenching coefficients from the lifetime of the fluorescence at various pressures by time resolved OES even for high energy levels and without any restrictions of optical selection rules. This novel technique allows the measurement of quenching coefficients for atomic and molecular emission lines of hydrogen itself, as well as for emission lines of small admixtures (e.g. noble gases) to the hydrogen discharge, since with a fast gate-able ICCD camera operating at 13.56 MHz it is possible to measure even faint emission lines temporally resolved

  2. Travelling water waves with compactly supported vorticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatah, Jalal; Walsh, Samuel; Zeng, Chongchun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we prove the existence of two-dimensional, travelling, capillary-gravity, water waves with compactly supported vorticity. Specifically, we consider the cases where the vorticity is a δ-function (a point vortex), or has small compact support (a vortex patch). Using a global bifurcation theoretic argument, we construct a continuum of finite-amplitude, finite-vorticity solutions for the periodic point vortex problem. For the non-periodic case, with either a vortex point or patch, we prove the existence of a continuum of small-amplitude, small-vorticity solutions. (paper)

  3. Simulation of the metallic powders compaction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, J.M.; Riera, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    The simulation by means of finite elements of the forming processes of mechanical components is a very useful tool for their design and validation. In this work, the simulation of the compaction of a metal powder is presented. The finite element software ABAQUS is used together with the modified CAM-clay plasticity model in order to represent the elastoplastic behaviour of the material. Density distributions are obtained and therefore the motion of the compaction punches which improve this distribution can be found. Stress distribution in the different parts of the mould can also be determined. (Author) 9 refs

  4. Ultra-compact Ku band rectenna

    OpenAIRE

    Takacs , Alexandru; Aubert , Hervé; Charlot , Samuel

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper addresses an innovative and ultra-compact rectenna designed for energy harvesting or wireless power transfer applications. The presented rectenna uses a printed cross dipoles antenna array and a rectifier implemented with only one silicon Schottky diode. Experimental results show that 1.15 mW of DC power can be obtained for an optimal load impedance of 500 Ω using a compact rectenna (2.5 cm 2 or 0.6 square wavelength) illuminated by an electric field of 60 V...

  5. Spherical conformal models for compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takisa, P.M.; Maharaj, S.D.; Manjonjo, A.M.; Moopanar, S. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa)

    2017-10-15

    We consider spherical exact models for compact stars with anisotropic pressures and a conformal symmetry. The conformal symmetry condition generates an integral relationship between the gravitational potentials. We solve this condition to find a new anisotropic solution to the Einstein field equations. We demonstrate that the exact solution produces a relativistic model of a compact star. The model generates stellar radii and masses consistent with PSR J1614-2230, Vela X1, PSR J1903+327 and Cen X-3. A detailed physical examination shows that the model is regular, well behaved and stable. The mass-radius limit and the surface red shift are consistent with observational constraints. (orig.)

  6. Compacted dimensions and singular plasmonic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, J. B.; Huidobro, Paloma Arroyo; Luo, Yu; Galiffi, Emanuele

    2017-11-01

    In advanced field theories, there can be more than four dimensions to space, the excess dimensions described as compacted and unobservable on everyday length scales. We report a simple model, unconnected to field theory, for a compacted dimension realized in a metallic metasurface periodically structured in the form of a grating comprising a series of singularities. An extra dimension of the grating is hidden, and the surface plasmon excitations, though localized at the surface, are characterized by three wave vectors rather than the two of typical two-dimensional metal grating. We propose an experimental realization in a doped graphene layer.

  7. A radio continuum and infrared study of Galactic HII regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, NL; van der Hulst, JM; Tielens, AGGM

    We present observations of the 4.8 and 8.6 GHz continuum emission towards 11 southern H II regions made with the Australian Telescope Compact Array. The observed objects were selected from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) spectral catalogue of compact H II regions (Peeters et al. 2002b). The

  8. Soil properties and aspen development five years after compaction and forest floor removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas M. Stone; John D. Elioff

    1998-01-01

    Forest management activities that decrease soil porosity and remove organic matter have been associated with declines in site productivity. In the northern Lake States region, research is in progress in the aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. and P. grandidentata Michx.) forest type to determine effects of soil compaction and organic...

  9. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley

    2010-01-01

    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  10. First-order signals in compact QED with monopole suppressed boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippert, T.; Schilling, K.; Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH

    1995-01-01

    Pure gauge compact QED on hypercubic lattices is considered with periodically closed monopole currents suppressed. We compute observables on sublattices which are nested around the centre of the lattice in order to locate regions where translation symmetry is approximately recovered. Our Monte Carlo simulations on 24 4 -lattices give indications for a first-order nature of the U(1) phase transition. ((orig.))

  11. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  12. A compact design for monochromatic OSL measurements in the wavelength range 380-1020 NM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Poolton, N.R.J.; Willumsen, F.

    1994-01-01

    automated Riso TL/OSL dating apparatus, thus allowing for either routine scanning or more detailed thermo-optical investigations. The high throughput efficiency of the unit means that the existing 75 W tungsten-halogen lamp can be directly used for such measurements on both quartz and feldspar samples......The development and performance of a compact module is described that allows for the monochromatic illumination of samples in the wavelength range 380-1020 nm, enabling the measurement of energy-resolved optically stimulated luminescence. The unit is designed to couple directly to the existing....... The design allows for rapid spectral scanning with a choice of resolution of anywhere between 10 and 80 nm: stray light levels are less than 0.01%. The unit can equally be used for recording wavelength-resolved emission spectra, whether photo-excited or thermally stimulated; the capabilities of the system...

  13. Resolved Hapke parameter maps of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H.; Robinson, M. S.; Hapke, B.; Denevi, B. W.; Boyd, A. K.

    2014-08-01

    We derived spatially resolved near-global Hapke photometric parameter maps of the Moon from 21 months of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) multispectral observations using a novel "tile-by-tile method" (1° latitude by 1° longitude bins). The derived six parameters (w,b,c,BS0,hS, andθ¯p) for each tile were used to normalize the observed reflectance (standard angles i = g = 60°, e = 0° instead of the traditional angles i = g = 30°, e = 0°) within each tile, resulting in accurate normalization optimized for the local photometric response. Each pixel in the seven-color near-global mosaic (70°S to 70°N and 0°E to 360°E) was computed by the median of normalized reflectance from large numbers of repeated observations (UV: ˜50 and visible: ˜126 on average). The derived mosaic exhibits no significant artifacts with latitude or along the tile boundaries, demonstrating the quality of the normalization procedure. The derived Hapke parameter maps reveal regional photometric response variations across the lunar surface. The b, c (Henyey-Greenstein double-lobed phase function parameters) maps demonstrate decreased backscattering in the maria relative to the highlands (except 321 nm band), probably due to the higher content of both SMFe (submicron iron) and ilmenite in the interiors of back scattering agglutinates in the maria. The hS (angular width of shadow hiding opposition effect) map exhibits relatively lower values in the maria than the highlands and slightly higher values for immature highland crater ejecta, possibly related to the variation in a grain size distribution of regolith.

  14. Anisotropic Material Behavior of Uni-axially Compacted Graphite Matrix for HTGR Fuel Compact Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Woo; Yeo, Seunghwan; Yoon, Ji-Hae; Cho, Moon Sung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In developing the fuel compact fabrication technology, and fuel graphite material to meet the required material properties, it is essential to investigate the relationship among the process parameters of the matrix graphite powder preparation, the fabrication parameters of fuel element green compact and the heat treatments conditions and the material properties of fuel element. It was observed, during this development, that the pressing technique employed for the compaction fabrication prior to the two successive heat treatments (carbonization and final high temperature heat treatment) was of extreme importance in determining the material properties of the final compact product. In this work, the material behavior of the uni-axially pressed graphite matrix during the carbonization and final heat treatment are evaluated and summarized along the different directions, viz., perpendicular and parallel directions to pressing direction. In this work, the dimensional variations and variations in thermal expansion, thermal conductivity and Vickers hardness of the graphite matrix compact samples in the axial and radial directions prepared by uni-axial pressing are evaluated, and compared with those of samples prepared by cold isostatic pressing with the available data. From this work, the followings are observed. 1) Dimensional changes of matrix graphite green compacts during carbonization show that the difference in radial and axial variations shows a large anisotropic behavior in shrinkage. The radial variation is very small while the axial variation is large. During carbonization, the stresses caused by the force would be released in to the axial direction together with the phenolic resin vapor. 2) Dimensional variation of compact samples in perpendicular and parallel directions during carbonization shows a large difference in behavior when compact sample is prepared by uni-axial pressing. However, when compact sample is prepared by cold isostatic pressing, there is

  15. Anisotropic Material Behavior of Uni-axially Compacted Graphite Matrix for HTGR Fuel Compact Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young-Woo; Yeo, Seunghwan; Yoon, Ji-Hae; Cho, Moon Sung

    2016-01-01

    In developing the fuel compact fabrication technology, and fuel graphite material to meet the required material properties, it is essential to investigate the relationship among the process parameters of the matrix graphite powder preparation, the fabrication parameters of fuel element green compact and the heat treatments conditions and the material properties of fuel element. It was observed, during this development, that the pressing technique employed for the compaction fabrication prior to the two successive heat treatments (carbonization and final high temperature heat treatment) was of extreme importance in determining the material properties of the final compact product. In this work, the material behavior of the uni-axially pressed graphite matrix during the carbonization and final heat treatment are evaluated and summarized along the different directions, viz., perpendicular and parallel directions to pressing direction. In this work, the dimensional variations and variations in thermal expansion, thermal conductivity and Vickers hardness of the graphite matrix compact samples in the axial and radial directions prepared by uni-axial pressing are evaluated, and compared with those of samples prepared by cold isostatic pressing with the available data. From this work, the followings are observed. 1) Dimensional changes of matrix graphite green compacts during carbonization show that the difference in radial and axial variations shows a large anisotropic behavior in shrinkage. The radial variation is very small while the axial variation is large. During carbonization, the stresses caused by the force would be released in to the axial direction together with the phenolic resin vapor. 2) Dimensional variation of compact samples in perpendicular and parallel directions during carbonization shows a large difference in behavior when compact sample is prepared by uni-axial pressing. However, when compact sample is prepared by cold isostatic pressing, there is

  16. Time-resolved absorption measurements on OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaanimagi, P.A.; DaSilva, L.; Delettrez, J.; Gregory, G.G.; Richardson, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    Time-resolved measurements of the incident laser light that is scattered and/or refracted from targets irradiated by the 24 uv-beam OMEGA laser at LLE, have provided some interesting features related to time-resolved absorption. The decrease in laser absorption characteristic of irradiating a target that implodes during the laser pulse has been observed. The increase in absorption expected as the critical density surface moves from a low to a high Z material in the target has also been noted. The detailed interpretation of these results is made through comparisons with simulation using the code LILAC, as well as with streak data from time-resolved x-ray imaging and spectroscopy. In addition, time and space-resolved imaging of the scattered light yields information on laser irradiation uniformity conditions on the target. The report consists of viewgraphs

  17. Knowledge Extraction from Atomically Resolved Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlcek, Lukas; Maksov, Artem; Pan, Minghu; Vasudevan, Rama K; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2017-10-24

    Tremendous strides in experimental capabilities of scanning transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) over the past 30 years made atomically resolved imaging routine. However, consistent integration and use of atomically resolved data with generative models is unavailable, so information on local thermodynamics and other microscopic driving forces encoded in the observed atomic configurations remains hidden. Here, we present a framework based on statistical distance minimization to consistently utilize the information available from atomic configurations obtained from an atomically resolved image and extract meaningful physical interaction parameters. We illustrate the applicability of the framework on an STM image of a FeSe x Te 1-x superconductor, with the segregation of the chalcogen atoms investigated using a nonideal interacting solid solution model. This universal method makes full use of the microscopic degrees of freedom sampled in an atomically resolved image and can be extended via Bayesian inference toward unbiased model selection with uncertainty quantification.

  18. Time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy of radiation-chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, G.N.R.

    1983-01-01

    A tunable pulsed laser Raman spectrometer for time resolved Raman studies of radiation-chemical processes is described. This apparatus utilizes the state of art optical multichannel detection and analysis techniques for data acquisition and electron pulse radiolysis for initiating the reactions. By using this technique the resonance Raman spectra of intermediates with absorption spectra in the 248-900 nm region, and mean lifetimes > 30 ns can be examined. This apparatus can be used to time resolve the vibrational spectral overlap between transients absorbing in the same region, and to follow their decay kinetics by monitoring the well resolved Raman peaks. For kinetic measurements at millisecond time scale, the Raman technique is preferable over optical absorption method where low frequency noise is quite bothersome. A time resolved Raman study of the pulse radiolytic oxidation of aqueous tetrafluorohydroquinone and p-methoxyphenol is briefly discussed. 15 references, 5 figures

  19. Transient analysis for resolving safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, J.; Layman, W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC) has a Generic Safety Analysis Program to help resolve high priority generic safety issues. This paper describes several high priority safety issues considered at NSAC and how they were resolved by transient analysis using thermal hydraulics and neutronics codes. These issues are pressurized thermal shock (PTS), anticipated transients without scram (ATWS), steam generator tube rupture (SGTR), and reactivity transients in light of the Chernobyl accident

  20. EPRI compact analyzer: A compact, interactive and color-graphics based simulator for power plant analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipakchi, A.; Khadem, M.; Chen, H.; Colley, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an EPRI sponsored project (RP2395-2) for design and development of an interactive, and color graphics based simulator for power plant analysis. The system is called Compact Analyzer and can be applied to engineering and training applications in the utility industry. The Compact Analyzer's software and system design are described. Results of two demonstration system for a nuclear plant, and a fossil plant are presented, and the applications of the Compact Analyzer to operating procedures evaluation are discussed

  1. A compact magnetic detector for μ+-μ/sup /minus// asymmetry measurements and longitudinal polarization utilization at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camerini, U.; Cline, D.B.; Learned, J.G.; Resvanis, L.K.; Wanderer, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    A compact-spherically symmetric detector designed to observe single and dimuon final states is described. The detector is sufficiently compact to fit into the interaction region for which longitudinally and transversely polarized beams will be available. The usefulness of the detector to successfully search for asymmetry resulting from weak-electromagnetic interference and from higher order electromagnetic processes is studied with Monte Carlo simulated experimental data. 6 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Time-resolved spectroscopy in synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehn, V.; Stanford Univ., CA

    1980-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) from large-diameter storage rings has intrinsic time structure which facilitates time-resolved measurements form milliseconds to picoseconds and possibly below. The scientific importance of time-resolved measurements is steadily increasing as more and better techniques are discovered and applied to a wider variety of scientific problems. This paper presents a discussion of the importance of various parameters of the SR facility in providing for time-resolved spectroscopy experiments, including the role of beam-line optical design parameters. Special emphasis is placed on the requirements of extremely fast time-resolved experiments with which the effects of atomic vibrational or relaxation motion may be studied. Before discussing the state-of-the-art timing experiments, we review several types of time-resolved measurements which have now become routine: nanosecond-range fluorescence decay times, time-resolved emission and excitation spectroscopies, and various time-of-flight applications. These techniques all depend on a short SR pulse length and a long interpulse period, such as is provided by a large-diameter ring operating in a single-bunch mode. In most cases, the pulse shape and even the stability of the pulse shape is relatively unimportant as long as the pulse length is smaller than the risetime of the detection apparatus, typically 1 to 2 ns. For time resolution smaller than 1 ns, the requirements on the pulse shape become more stringent. (orig./FKS)

  3. The compact simulator for Tihange nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueben, M.

    1982-01-01

    After an introduction about the simulators for nuclear plants, a description is given of the compact simulator for the Tihange nuclear power plant as well as the simulated circuits and equipments such as the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The extent of simulation, the functions used by the instructor, the use of the simulator, the formation programme and construction planning are described. (AF)

  4. Development of a compact solar combisystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Within the frame of the project REBUS, “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”, which is financed by Nordic Energy Research, a new type of compact solar combisystem with high degree of prefabrication was developed. A hydraulic and control concept was designed with the goal...

  5. Form Filling with Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a newly started Ph.D. project with the aim of simulating the form filling ability of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) taking into account the form geometry, reinforcement configuration, casting technique, and the rheological properties of the concrete. Comparative studies...

  6. Compactly supported frames for decomposition spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann

    2012-01-01

    In this article we study a construction of compactly supported frame expansions for decomposition spaces of Triebel-Lizorkin type and for the associated modulation spaces. This is done by showing that finite linear combinations of shifts and dilates of a single function with sufficient decay in b...

  7. Compact range for variable-zone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, Walter D.; Rudduck, Roger C.; Yu, Jiunn S.

    1988-08-02

    A compact range for testing antennas or radar targets includes a source for directing energy along a feedline toward a parabolic reflector. The reflected wave is a spherical wave with a radius dependent on the distance of the source from the focal point of the reflector.

  8. Self Compacting Concrete with Chalk Filler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    2007-01-01

    Utilisation of Danish chalk filler has been investigated as a means to produce self compacting concrete (SCC) at lower strength levels for service in non aggressive environments. Stable SCC mixtures were prepared at chalk filler contents up to 60% by volume of binder to yield compressive strengths...

  9. Self-compacting fibre-reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunewald, S.; Walraven, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The project 'self-compacting fibre-reinforced concrete (SCFRC)' is part of the Dutch STW/PPM program - 'cement-bonded materials' - DCT.4010. Subproject III to which the project ,SCFRC' belongs deals with the development of new high performance concretes. The project 'SCFRC' aims at investigating the

  10. Compact Tactile Sensors for Robot Fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Toby B.; Lussy, David; Gaudiano, Frank; Hulse, Aaron; Diftler, Myron A.; Rodriguez, Dagoberto; Bielski, Paul; Butzer, Melisa

    2004-01-01

    Compact transducer arrays that measure spatial distributions of force or pressure have been demonstrated as prototypes of tactile sensors to be mounted on fingers and palms of dexterous robot hands. The pressure- or force-distribution feedback provided by these sensors is essential for the further development and implementation of robot-control capabilities for humanlike grasping and manipulation.

  11. Compact lattice QED with Wilson fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoferichter, A.

    1994-08-01

    We study the phase structure and the chiral limit of 4d compact lattice QED with Wilson fermions (both dynamical and quenched). We use the standard Wilson gauge action and also a modified one suppressing lattice artifacts. Different techniques and observables to locate the chiral limit are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Ultra-high gradient compact accelerator developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, G.J.H.; Wiel, van der M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Continued development of relatively compact, although not quite 'table-top', lasers with peak powers in the range up to 100 TW has enabled laser-plasma-based acceleration experiments with amazing gradients of up to 1 TV/m. In order to usefully apply such gradients to 'controlled' acceleration,

  13. Vacuum magnetic field structure of compact torii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobehart, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    A new class of axisymmetric vacuum field solutions of the Grad--Shafranov equation, which is suitable for describing the field external to a compact torus equilibrium, is presented. In particular, solutions that match straight field lines at infinity are studied

  14. Two-dimensional FIR compaction filter design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijayakumar, N.; Prabhu, K.M.M.

    2001-01-01

    The design of signal-adapted multirate filter banks has been an area of research interest. The authors present the design of a 2-D finite impulse response (FIR) compaction filter followed by a 2-D FIR filter bank that packs the maximum energy of the input process into a few subbands. The energy

  15. Baking process of thin plate carbonaceous compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Shimada, Toyokazu

    1987-06-27

    As a production process of a thin plate carbonaceous compact for separator of phosphoric acid fuel cell, there is a process to knead carbonaceous powder and thermosetting resin solution, to form and harden the kneaded material and then to bake, carbonize and graphitize it. However in this baking and carbonization treatment, many thin plate compacts are set in a compiled manner within a heating furnace and receive a heat treatment from their circumference. Since the above compacts to be heated tend generally to be heated from their peripheries, their baked conditions are not homogeneous easily causing the formation of cracks, etc.. As a process to heat and bake homogeneously by removing the above problematical points, this invention offers a process to set in a heating furnace a laminate consisting of the lamination of thin plate carbonaceous compacts and the heat resistant soaking plates which hold the upper and lower ends of the above lamination, to fill the upper and under peripheries of the laminate above with high heat conductive packing material and its side periphery with low heat conductive packing material respectively and to heat and sinter it. In addition, the invention specifies the high and low heat conductive packing materials respectively. (1 fig, 2 tabs)

  16. Analytic vortex solutions on compact hyperbolic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, Rafael; Manton, Nicholas S

    2015-01-01

    We construct, for the first time, abelian Higgs vortices on certain compact surfaces of constant negative curvature. Such surfaces are represented by a tessellation of the hyperbolic plane by regular polygons. The Higgs field is given implicitly in terms of Schwarz triangle functions and analytic solutions are available for certain highly symmetric configurations. (paper)

  17. Stochastic Beamforming via Compact Antenna Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrabadi, Osama; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the average beamforming (BF) gain of compact antenna arrays when statistical channel knowledge is available. The optimal excitation (precoding vector) and impedance termination that maximize the average BF gain are a compromise between the ones that maximize the array...

  18. Simulation of HMA compaction by using FEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huerne, H.L.; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; van de Ven, M.F.C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a simulation tool for the compaction process of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) using a roller under varying external conditions. The focus is on the use of the Finite Element Model (FEM) with code DiekA, on its necessary requirements and on the presentation of simulation results. The

  19. Understanding asphalt compaction: An action research strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, Seirgei Rosario; ter Huerne, Henderikus L.; Doree, Andries G.; Amaratunga, Dilanthi

    2007-01-01

    In Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) construction, rollers provide the compaction energy required to produce a specified density. However, little is known about the heuristics used by the roller operators. This study forms part of a larger action research project focussing on the improvement of the HMA paving

  20. Effect of surface energy on powder compactibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, Frauke; Mahlin, Denny; Welch, Ken; Gaisford, Simon; Alderborn, Göran

    2008-12-01

    The influence of surface energy on the compactibility of lactose particles has been investigated. Three powders were prepared by spray drying lactose solutions without or with low proportions of the surfactant polysorbate 80. Various powder and tablet characterisation procedures were applied. The surface energy of the powders was characterized by Inverse Gas Chromatography and the compressibility of the powders was described by the relationship between tablet porosity and compression pressure. The compactibility of the powders was analyzed by studying the evolution of tablet tensile strength with increasing compaction pressure and porosity. All powders were amorphous and similar in particle size, shape, and surface area. The compressibility of the powders and the microstructure of the formed tablets were equal. However, the compactibility and dispersive surface energy was dependent of the composition of the powders. The decrease in tablet strength correlated to the decrease in powder surface energy at constant tablet porosities. This supports the idea that tablet strength is controlled by formation of intermolecular forces over the areas of contact between the particles and that the strength of these bonding forces is controlled by surface energy which, in turn, can be altered by the presence of surfactants.

  1. Compact stellar X-ray sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewin, W.H.G.; van der Klis, M.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray astronomy is the prime available window on astrophysical compact objects: black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs. In the last ten years new observational opportunities have led to an explosion of knowledge in this field. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the astrophysics of

  2. Pathway to a compact SASE FEL device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattoli, G.; Di Palma, E.; Petrillo, V.; Rau, Julietta V.; Sabia, E.; Spassovsky, I.; Biedron, S. G.; Einstein, J.; Milton, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    Newly developed high peak power lasers have opened the possibilities of driving coherent light sources operating with laser plasma accelerated beams and wave undulators. We speculate on the combination of these two concepts and show that the merging of the underlying technologies could lead to new and interesting possibilities to achieve truly compact, coherent radiator devices.

  3. The structure of Valdivia compact lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalenda, O.F.K.; Kubiś, Wieslaw

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 7 (2010), s. 1142-1151 ISSN 0166-8641 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : valdivia compact line * increasing map * retraction Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.447, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166864110000374

  4. The Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy IZw18

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musella, I.; Marconi, M.; Fiorentino, G.; Clementini, G.; Aloisi, A.; Annibali, F.; Contreras, R.; Saha, A.; Tosi, M.; van der Marel, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results obtained for the Blue compact galaxy IZw18 on the basis of ACS HST data obtained from our group. In particular, we discuss the stellar population and the variable stars content of this galaxy to get information about its star formation history and distance.

  5. Trust and compactness in social network groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meo, Pasquale; Ferrara, Emilio; Rosaci, Domenico; Sarné, Giuseppe M L

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the dynamics behind group formation and evolution in social networks is considered an instrumental milestone to better describe how individuals gather and form communities, how they enjoy and share the platform contents, how they are driven by their preferences/tastes, and how their behaviors are influenced by peers. In this context, the notion of compactness of a social group is particularly relevant. While the literature usually refers to compactness as a measure to merely determine how much members of a group are similar among each other, we argue that the mutual trustworthiness between the members should be considered as an important factor in defining such a term. In fact, trust has profound effects on the dynamics of group formation and their evolution: individuals are more likely to join with and stay in a group if they can trust other group members. In this paper, we propose a quantitative measure of group compactness that takes into account both the similarity and the trustworthiness among users, and we present an algorithm to optimize such a measure. We provide empirical results, obtained from the real social networks EPINIONS and CIAO, that compare our notion of compactness versus the traditional notion of user similarity, clearly proving the advantages of our approach.

  6. Compact, Lightweight Servo-Controllable Brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovchik, Christopher S.; Townsend, William; Guertin, Jeffrey; Matsuoka, Yoky

    2010-01-01

    Compact, lightweight servo-controllable brakes capable of high torques are being developed for incorporation into robot joints. A brake of this type is based partly on the capstan effect of tension elements. In a brake of the type under development, a controllable intermediate state of torque is reached through on/off switching at a high frequency.

  7. Acceleration radiation in a compact space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.; Davies, P.C.W.; Hinton, K.

    1984-01-01

    The response is studied of a uniformly accelerated model particle detector in a spacetime with compact spatial sections. The basic thermal character of the response re-emerges, in spite of the fact that the spacetime does not possess event horizons. The model also permits a study of detector response to twisted field states. (author)

  8. Materials needs for compact fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The economic prospects for magnetic fusion energy can be dramatically improved if for the same total power output the fusion neutron first-wall (FW) loading and the system power density can be increased by factors of 3 to 5 and 10 to 30, respectively. A number of compact fusion reactor embodiments have been proposed, all of which would operate with increased FW loadings, would use thin (0.5 to 0.6 m) blankets, and would confine quasi-steady-state plasma with resistive, water-cooled copper or aluminum coils. Increased system power density (5 to 15 MWt/m 3 versus 0.3 to 0.5 MW/m 3 ), considerably reduced physical size of the fusion power core (FPC), and appreciably reduced economic leverage exerted by the FPC and associated physics result. The unique materials requirements anticipated for these compact reactors are outlined against the well documented backdrop provided by similar needs for the mainline approaches. Surprisingly, no single materials need that is unique to the compact systems is identified; crucial uncertainties for the compact approaches must also be addressed by the mainline approaches, particularly for in-vacuum components (FWs, limiters, divertors, etc.)

  9. Compact flow diagrams for state sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, Kevin; Buchin, Maike; Gudmundsson, Joachim; Horton, Michael; Sijben, Stef

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the concept of using a flow diagram to compactly represent the segmentation of a large number of state sequences according to a set of criteria. We argue that this flow diagram representation gives an intuitive summary that allows the user to detect patterns within the segmentations. In

  10. Compact flow diagrams for state sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, K.A.; Buchin, M.E.; Gudmundsson, J.; Horton, M.J.; Sijben, S.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the concept of compactly representing a large number of state sequences, e.g., sequences of activities, as a flow diagram. We argue that the flow diagram representation gives an intuitive summary that allows the user to detect patterns among large sets of state sequences. Simplified,

  11. Robust control of a compact disc mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbuch, M.; Schootstra, G.; Bosgra, O.H.; Levine, W.S.

    1995-01-01

    A compact disc (CD) player is an optical decoding device that reproduces high-quality audio from a digitally coded signal recorded as a spiral-shaped track on a reflective disc. Apart from the audio application, other optical data systems (CD-ROM, optical data drive) and combined audio/video

  12. Pathway to a compact SASE FEL device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattoli, G., E-mail: giuseppe.dattoli@enea.it [ENEA – Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Di Palma, E. [ENEA – Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Petrillo, V. [Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Rau, Julietta V. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, ISM-CNR, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100-00133 Rome (Italy); Sabia, E.; Spassovsky, I. [ENEA – Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Biedron, S.G.; Einstein, J.; Milton, S.V. [CSU – Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Newly developed high peak power lasers have opened the possibilities of driving coherent light sources operating with laser plasma accelerated beams and wave undulators. We speculate on the combination of these two concepts and show that the merging of the underlying technologies could lead to new and interesting possibilities to achieve truly compact, coherent radiator devices.

  13. ROSAT: X ray survey of compact groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorkom, Jacqueline

    1993-01-01

    This is the final technical report on grant NAG5-1954, which was awarded under the NASA ROSAT Guest Investigator Program to Columbia University. This grant was awarded for a number of projects on two rather different topics: (1) an x-ray survey of compact groups of galaxies; and (2) the fate of gas

  14. Compactly supported Wannier functions and algebraic K -theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, N.

    2017-03-01

    In a tight-binding lattice model with n orbitals (single-particle states) per site, Wannier functions are n -component vector functions of position that fall off rapidly away from some location, and such that a set of them in some sense span all states in a given energy band or set of bands; compactly supported Wannier functions are such functions that vanish outside a bounded region. They arise not only in band theory, but also in connection with tensor-network states for noninteracting fermion systems, and for flat-band Hamiltonians with strictly short-range hopping matrix elements. In earlier work, it was proved that for general complex band structures (vector bundles) or general complex Hamiltonians—that is, class A in the tenfold classification of Hamiltonians and band structures—a set of compactly supported Wannier functions can span the vector bundle only if the bundle is topologically trivial, in any dimension d of space, even when use of an overcomplete set of such functions is permitted. This implied that, for a free-fermion tensor network state with a nontrivial bundle in class A, any strictly short-range parent Hamiltonian must be gapless. Here, this result is extended to all ten symmetry classes of band structures without additional crystallographic symmetries, with the result that in general the nontrivial bundles that can arise from compactly supported Wannier-type functions are those that may possess, in each of d directions, the nontrivial winding that can occur in the same symmetry class in one dimension, but nothing else. The results are obtained from a very natural usage of algebraic K -theory, based on a ring of polynomials in e±i kx,e±i ky,..., which occur as entries in the Fourier-transformed Wannier functions.

  15. Compact torus accelerator as a driver for ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, M.T.; Meier, W.R.; Morse, E.C.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have carried out further investigations of the technical issues associated with using a compact torus (CT) accelerator as a driver for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). In a CT accelerator, a magnetically confined, torus-shaped plasma is compressed, accelerated, and focused by two concentric electrodes. After its initial formation, the torus shape is maintained for lifetimes exceeding 1 ms by inherent poloidal and toroidal currents. Hartman suggests acceleration and focusing of such a plasma ring will not cause dissolution within certain constraints. In this study, we evaluated a point design based on an available capacitor bank energy of 9.2 MJ. This accelerator, which was modeled by a zero-dimensional code, produces a xenon plasma ring with a 0.73-cm radius, a velocity of 4.14 x 10 9 cm/s, and a mass of 4.42 μg. The energy of the plasma ring as it leaves the accelerator is 3.8 MJ, or 41% of the capacitor bank energy. Our studies confirm the feasibility of producing a plasma ring with the characteristics required to induce fusion in an ICF target with a gain greater than 50. The low cost and high efficiency of the CT accelerator are particularly attractive. Uncertainties concerning propagation, accelerator lifetime, and power supply must be resolved to establish the viability of the accelerator as an ICF driver

  16. Aspects of simulating the dynamic compaction of a granular ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, John P; Vogler, Tracy J

    2009-01-01

    Mesoscale hydrodynamic calculations have been conducted in order to gain further insight into the dynamic compaction characteristics of granular ceramics. With a mesoscale approach each individual grain, as well as the porosity, is modeled explicitly; the bulk behavior of the porous material can be resolved as a result. From these calculations bulk material characteristics such as shock speed, stress and density have been obtained and compared with experimental results. A parametric study has been conducted in order to explore the variation and sensitivity of the computationally derived dynamic response characteristics to micro-scale material properties such as Poisson's ratio, dynamic yield and tensile failure strength; macro-scale parameters such as volume fraction, particle morphology and size distribution were explored as well. The results indicate that the baseline bulk Hugoniot response under-predicts the experimentally measured response. These results are sensitive to the volume fraction, dynamic yield strength and particle arrangement, somewhat sensitive to failure strength and insensitive to the micro-scale Hugoniot and grain morphology. A discussion as to the shortcomings in the mesoscale modeling technique, as well as future considerations, is included

  17. Investigation of HMA compactability using GPR technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plati, Christina; Georgiou, Panos; Loizos, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    In-situ field density is often regarded as one of the most important controls used to ensure that an asphalt pavement being placed is of high quality. The achieved density results from the effectiveness of the applied compaction mode on the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) layer. It is worthwhile mentioning that the proper compaction of HMA increases pavement fatigue life, decreases the amount of permanent deformation or rutting, reduces the amount of oxidation or aging, decreases moisture damage or stripping, increases strength and internal stability, and may decrease slightly the amount of low-temperature cracking that may occur in the mix. Conventionally, the HMA density in the field is assessed by direct destructive methods, including through the cutting of samples or drilling cores. These methods are characterized by a high accuracy, although they are intrusive and time consuming. In addition, they provide local information, i.e. information only for the exact test location. To overcome these limitations, the use of non-intrusive techniques is often recommended. The Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique is an example of a non-intrusive technique that has been increasingly used for pavement investigations over the years. GPR technology is practical and application-oriented with the overall design concept, as well as the hardware, usually dependent on the target type and the material composing the target and its surroundings. As the sophistication of operating practices increases, the technology matures and GPR becomes an intelligent sensor system. The intelligent sensing deals with the expanded range of GPR applications in pavements such as determining layer thickness, detecting subsurface distresses, estimating moisture content, detecting voids and others. In addition, the practice of using GPR to predict in-situ field density of compacted asphalt mixture material is still under development and research; however the related research findings seem to be promising

  18. Near-Infrared Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy for Tablet Quality Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igne, Benoît; Talwar, Sameer; Feng, Hanzhou; Drennen, James K; Anderson, Carl A

    2015-12-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has become a well-established tool for the characterization of solid oral dosage forms manufacturing processes and finished products. In this work, the utility of a traditional single-point NIR measurement was compared with that of a spatially resolved spectroscopic (SRS) measurement for the determination of tablet assay. Experimental designs were used to create samples that allowed for calibration models to be developed and tested on both instruments. Samples possessing a poor distribution of ingredients (highly heterogeneous) were prepared by under-blending constituents prior to compaction to compare the analytical capabilities of the two NIR methods. The results indicate that SRS can provide spatial information that is usually obtainable only through imaging experiments for the determination of local heterogeneity and detection of abnormal tablets that would not be detected with single-point spectroscopy, thus complementing traditional NIR measurement systems for in-line, and in real-time tablet analysis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  19. Resolving the planetesimal belt of HR 8799 with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Mark; Jordán, Andrés; Casassus, Simon; Hales, Antonio S.; Dent, William R. F.; Faramaz, Virginie; Matrà, Luca; Barkats, Denis; Brahm, Rafael; Cuadra, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The star HR 8799 hosts one of the largest known debris discs and at least four giant planets. Previous observations have found evidence for a warm belt within the orbits of the planets, a cold planetesimal belt beyond their orbits and a halo of small grains. With the infrared data, it is hard to distinguish the planetesimal belt emission from that of the grains in the halo. With this in mind, the system has been observed with ALMA in band 6 (1.34 mm) using a compact array format. These observations allow the inner edge of the planetesimal belt to be resolved for the first time. A radial distribution of dust grains is fitted to the data using an MCMC method. The disc is best fitted by a broad ring between 145^{+12}_{-12} au and 429^{+37}_{-32} au at an inclination of 40^{+5}_{-6}° and a position angle of 51^{+8}_{-8}°. A disc edge at ˜145 au is too far out to be explained simply by interactions with planet b, requiring either a more complicated dynamical history or an extra planet beyond the orbit of planet b.

  20. Electrical properties of the potassium polytitanate compacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goffman, V.G.; Gorokhovsky, A.V. [NanoTechProm Ltd., Saratov (Russian Federation); Saratov State Technical University, Saratov (Russian Federation); Kompan, M.M. [Physico-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tretyachenko, E.V.; Telegina, O.S.; Kovnev, A.V. [NanoTechProm Ltd., Saratov (Russian Federation); Saratov State Technical University, Saratov (Russian Federation); Fedorov, F.S., E-mail: fedorov_fs@daad-alumni.de [NanoTechProm Ltd., Saratov (Russian Federation); Saratov State Technical University, Saratov (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Quasi-static permittivity of potassium polytitanates compacts achieves 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5}. • Observed Maxwell–Wagner polarization attributes to layered structure of polytitanates. • The conductivity varies from 5 × 10{sup −2} to 10{sup −6}–10{sup −7} Sm/m in a wide range of temperatures. - Abstract: Titanates of alkali metals are widely applied materials as they are relatively low in cost and might be easily synthesized. They are utilized as adsorbents, catalysts, solid state electrolytes, superconductors. Here we report our results on electrical properties of the compacted amorphous potassium polytitanates powders. The electrical properties of the compacts were studied by means of complex impedance spectroscopy in a wide range of frequencies at different temperatures using two-electrode configuration. The frequency dependences of conductivity for the investigated potassium polytitanates compacts varies in the range from 5 × 10{sup −2} Sm/m (high frequencies, ion conductivity) up to 10{sup −6}–10{sup −7} Sm/m (low frequencies, electron conductivity) for a wide range of temperatures (19–150 °C). According to the results, at low frequencies quasi-static permittivity of the stabilized PPT compacts achieves high values of 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5}. This might be explained by Maxwell–Wagner polarization attributed to the layered structure of the potassium polytitanates particles containing potassium and hydronium ions together with crystallization water in the interlayer and is very promising for solid state electrolyte applications for moderate temperatures.