WorldWideScience

Sample records for resolve identified barrier

  1. Identifying and overcoming barriers to technology implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, M.; Warren, S.; McCune, M.

    1996-01-01

    In a recent General Accounting Office report, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management was found to be ineffective in integrating their environmental technology development efforts with the cleanup actions. As a result of these findings, a study of remediation documents was performed by the Technology Applications Team within DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) to validate this finding and to understand why it was occurring. A second initiative built on the foundation of the remediation document study and evaluated solutions to the ineffective implementation of improved technologies. The Technology Applications Team examined over 50 remediation documents (17 projects) which included nearly 600 proposed remediation technologies. It was determined that very few technologies are reaching the Records of Decision documents. In fact, most are eliminated in the early stages of consideration. These observations stem from regulators' and stakeholders' uncertainties in cost and performance of the technology and the inability of the technology to meet site specific conditions. The Technology Applications Team also set out to identify and evaluate solutions to barriers to implementing innovative technology into the DOE's environmental management activities. Through the combined efforts of DOE and the Hazardous Waste Action Coalition (HWAC), a full day workshop was conducted at the annual HWAC meeting in June 1995 to solve barriers to innovative technology implementation. Three barriers were identified as widespread throughout the DOE complex and industry. Identified barriers included a lack of verified or certified cost and performance data for innovative technologies; risk of failure to reach cleanup goals using innovative technologies; and communication barriers that are present at virtually every stage of the characterization/remediation process from development through implementation

  2. Identifying barriers to emergency care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannoodt, Luk; Mock, Charles; Bucagu, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to present a review of published evidence of barriers to emergency care, with attention towards both financial and other barriers. With the keywords (financial) accessibility, barriers and emergency care services, citations in PubMed were searched and further selected in the context of the objective of this article. Forty articles, published over a period of 15 years, showed evidence of significant barriers to emergency care. These barriers often tend to persist, despite the fact that the evidence was published many years ago. Several publications stressed the importance of the financial barriers in foregoing or delaying potentially life-saving emergency services, both in poor and rich countries. Other publications report non-financial barriers that prevent patients in need of emergency care (pre-hospital and in-patient care) from seeking care, from arriving in the proper emergency department without undue delay or from receiving proper treatment when they do arrive in these departments. It is clear that timely access to life-saving and disability-preventing emergency care is problematic in many settings. Yet, low-cost measures can likely be taken to significantly reduce these barriers. It is time to make an inventory of these measures and to implement the most cost-effective ones worldwide. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Identifying Food Safety Concerns when Communication Barriers Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jack A.; Dawson, Mary; Madera, Juan M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Students must be prepared to lead a diverse workforce. The objective of this study was to establish a teaching method that helps students identify barriers to food safety while working in a simulated environment with communication barriers. This study employed a perspective taking exercise based upon the principles of social learning…

  4. Resolving the mystery of transport within internal transport barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staebler, G. M.; Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.; Greenfield, C. M.; Lao, L. L.; Smith, S. P. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Kinsey, J. E. [CompX, P.O. Box 2672, Del Mar, California 92014-5672 (United States); Grierson, B. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Chrystal, C. [University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The Trapped Gyro-Landau Fluid (TGLF) quasi-linear model [G. M. Staebler, et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 102508 (2005)], which is calibrated to nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations, is now able to predict the electron density, electron and ion temperatures, and ion toroidal rotation simultaneously for internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges. This is a strong validation of gyrokinetic theory of ITBs, requiring multiple instabilities responsible for transport in different channels at different scales. The mystery of transport inside the ITB is that momentum and particle transport is far above the predicted neoclassical levels in apparent contradiction with the expectation from the theory of suppression of turbulence by E×B velocity shear. The success of TGLF in predicting ITB transport is due to the inclusion of ion gyro-radius scale modes that become dominant at high E×B velocity shear and to improvements to TGLF that allow momentum transport from gyrokinetic turbulence to be faithfully modeled.

  5. Identifying barriers in the diffusion of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleftheriadis, Iordanis M.; Anagnostopoulou, Evgenia G.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid diffusion of renewable energy sources (RES) in the electricity power sector is crucial if the EU wants to fulfill its 2050 CO 2 reduction commitments. For this reason, identifying and alleviating all barriers that hinder the development of RES is necessary to the successful deployment of these technologies. This paper discusses the main barriers in the diffusion of wind and photovoltaic (PV) solar power in the Greek electricity sector by drawing on the literature of technological innovation systems and system functions. Furthermore, we provide an explanation of the different diffusion rates between the two technologies. Inadequate financial resources, low grid capacity, delays in the issuance of building permits, opposition from local communities to the construction of wind farms and the lack of a stable institutional framework are among the most important barriers that inhibit the diffusion of the wind and PV solar power. The nature of the barriers identified in this study calls for policy intervention. - Highlights: • Firms in the Greek wind and solar power sectors assess RES barriers. • Lack of financial resources is the most important RES barrier. • Lack of a stable institutional framework negatively affects RES deployment. • The support of the public sector is crucial to the diffusion of RES. •Wind power faces strong legitimization barriers

  6. Identifying and responding to barriers impacting women educators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing on these reflections, this article explores the notion of academic citizenship as it relates to the status and practice of these five educators who teach at various institutions of higher education in Southern Africa. The article is divided into two parts. a) Part 1 identifies the barriers impacting the participants. It draws on ...

  7. A survey to identify barriers of implementing an antibiotic checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Daalen, F V; Geerlings, S E; Prins, J M; Hulscher, M E J L

    2016-04-01

    A checklist is an effective implementation tool, but addressing barriers that might impact on the effectiveness of its use is crucial. In this paper, we explore barriers to the uptake of an antibiotic checklist that aims to improve antibiotic use in daily hospital care. We performed an online questionnaire survey among medical specialists and residents with various professional backgrounds from nine Dutch hospitals. The questionnaire consisted of 23 statements on anticipated barriers hindering the uptake of the checklist. Furthermore, it gave the possibility to add comments. We included 219 completed questionnaires (122 medical specialists and 97 residents) in our descriptive analysis. The top six anticipated barriers included: (1) lack of expectation of improvement of antibiotic use, (2) lack of expected patients' satisfaction by checklist use, (3) lack of feasibility of the checklist, (4) negative previous experiences with other checklists, (5) the complexity of the antibiotic checklist and (6) lack of nurses' expectation of checklist use. Remarkably, 553 comments were made, mostly (436) about the content of the checklist. These insights can be used to improve the specific content of the checklist and to develop an implementation strategy that addresses the identified barriers.

  8. Identifying barriers to aboriginal renewable energy deployment in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupa, Joel

    2012-01-01

    As one of the largest and wealthiest countries in the world, Canada stands well-positioned to take advantage of ongoing growth in North American demand for primary energy supply by expanding domestic delivery of renewable energy generation to internationally interconnected electric grids across the country. There are myriad benefits of adopting the renewable energy approach to development—as the province of Ontario has acknowledged through the implementation of their 2009 Green Energy Act—including drastic reductions in carbon emissions, the decommissioning of existing fossil fuel power generation that cause serious public health problems, and opportunities for sustainable development at the community level. One group in particular stands poised to shape these debates. In Canada, historically marginalized Aboriginal peoples remain one of the groups with the greatest potential for meeting these enormous renewable energy deployment needs. Aboriginal involvement in renewable energy generation in Canada has been as diverse as Canada's Aboriginal peoples and groups have already adopted a range of different solutions to meet energy supply needs. However, many significant barriers exist that prevent this diverse cultural group from reaching its full potential. The article identifies some of these shortcomings and analyzes their roots. - Highlights: ► Renewable energy is one of the most important sustainable development opportunities today. ► Aboriginal-led renewable development could dramatically increase Canadian supply. ► Surmountable barriers are identified.

  9. Identifying Multilevel Barriers to Tobacco Intervention in Postdoctoral Dental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, David A; Bruzelius, Emilie; Ward, Angela; Gordon, Judith S

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this mixed-methods study were to assess tobacco treatment behaviors among residents and faculty in dental specialty postdoctoral programs and to explore factors in training and practice related to tobacco treatment education. Surveys and focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of participants at three postdoctoral residency programs in New York City. Surveys assessed tobacco cessation training and behaviors. Focus groups explored barriers to implementing tobacco cessation treatment in educational settings. Data were collected between May and December 2013. Among the 160 faculty and residents identified as potentially eligible for the study, 60 were invited by program directors to participate, and 50 subsequently completed the survey and participated in a focus group (response rate of 31.3%). Survey results indicated high levels of asking patients about tobacco use and advising patients to quit. In contrast, specific tobacco cessation assistance and follow-up care occurred less frequently. There were statistically significant differences in tobacco cessation intervention across the specialties surveyed, but not between residents and faculty. Focus group comments were grouped into three broad areas: clinician factors, organizational support, and structural and contextual factors. Focus group results indicated that participants experienced significant organizational and structural barriers to learning about and providing tobacco treatment. Participants from each specialty indicated that multi-level barriers impeded their provision of evidence-based tobacco cessation interventions in postdoctoral educational settings. They suggested that didactic education should be reinforced by organizational- and systems-level changes to facilitate comprehensive tobacco education and effective cessation treatment in future dental practice.

  10. Building America Guidance for Identifying and Overcoming Code, Standard, and Rating Method Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Pamala C.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building America program implemented a new Codes and Standards Innovation (CSI) Team in 2013. The Team’s mission is to assist Building America (BA) research teams and partners in identifying and resolving conflicts between Building America innovations and the various codes and standards that govern the construction of residences. A CSI Roadmap was completed in September, 2013. This guidance document was prepared using the information in the CSI Roadmap to provide BA research teams and partners with specific information and approaches to identifying and overcoming potential barriers to Building America (BA) innovations arising in and/or stemming from codes, standards, and rating methods. For more information on the BA CSI team, please email: CSITeam@pnnl.gov

  11. Regulatory Monitoring of Fortified Foods: Identifying Barriers and Good Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Laura A; Vossenaar, Marieke; Garrett, Greg S

    2015-01-01

    While fortification of staple foods and condiments has gained enormous global traction, poor performance persists throughout many aspects of implementation, most notably around the critical element of regulatory monitoring, which is essential for ensuring foods meet national fortification standards. Where coverage of fortified foods is high, limited nutritional impact of fortification programs largely exists due to regulatory monitoring that insufficiently identifies and holds producers accountable for underfortified products. Based on quality assurance data from 20 national fortification programs in 12 countries, we estimate that less than half of the samples are adequately fortified against relevant national standards. In this paper, we outline key findings from a literature review, key informant interviews with 11 fortification experts, and semi-quantitative surveys with 39 individuals from regulatory agencies and the food fortification industry in 17 countries on the perceived effectiveness of regulatory monitoring systems and barriers to compliance against national fortification standards. Findings highlight that regulatory agencies and industry disagree on the value that enforcement mechanisms have in ensuring compliance against standards. Perceived political risk of enforcement and poorly resourced inspectorate capacity appear to adversely reinforce each other within an environment of unclear legislation to create a major hurdle for improving overall compliance of fortification programs against national standards. Budget constraints affect the ability of regulatory agencies to create a well-trained inspector cadre and improve the detection and enforcement of non-compliant and underfortified products. Recommendations to improve fortification compliance include improving technical capacity; ensuring sustained leadership, accountability, and funding in both the private and the public sectors; and removing political barriers to ensure consistent detection of

  12. A survey to identify barriers of implementing an antibiotic checklist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Daalen, F. V.; Geerlings, S. E.; Prins, J. M.; Hulscher, M. E. J. L.

    2016-01-01

    A checklist is an effective implementation tool, but addressing barriers that might impact on the effectiveness of its use is crucial. In this paper, we explore barriers to the uptake of an antibiotic checklist that aims to improve antibiotic use in daily hospital care. We performed an online

  13. Enhancing regulatory effectiveness by improving the process for identifying and resolving generic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vander Molen, Harold J.

    2001-01-01

    The Generic Issues Program first began formally in response to a Commission directive in October of 1976. In 1983, it became one of the first programs to make successful use of probabilistic risk information to aid in regulatory decision-making. In the 16 years since the program became quantitative, 836 issues have been processed. Of these, 106 reactor safety issues were prioritized as requiring further evaluation to determine the final resolution. Approximately a dozen generic issues remain unresolved. Although there is far less reactor licensing activity than in the 1970s, new issues continue to be identified from research and operational experience. These issues often involve complex and controversial questions of safety and regulation, and an efficient and effective means of addressing these issues is essential for regulatory effectiveness. Issues that involve a significant safety question require swift, effective, enforceable, and cost-effective regulatory actions. Issues that are of little safety significance must be quickly shown to be so and dismissed in an expeditious manner so as to avoid unnecessary expenditure of limited resources and to reduce regulatory uncertainty. Additionally, in the time since the generic issue program began, probabilistic risk assessment techniques have advanced significantly while agency resources have continued to diminish. Accordingly, the paper discusses the steps that have been taken to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the generic issue resolution process. Additionally, four resolved issues are discussed, along with key elements of a proposed new procedure for resolving potential generic issues

  14. Identifiability of location and magnitude of flow barriers in slightly compressible flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahrobaei, S.; Mansoori Habib Abadi, M.; Joosten, G.J.P.; Hof, Van den P.M.J.; Jansen, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Classic identifiability analysis of flow barriers in incompressible single-phase flow reveals that it is not possible to identify the location and permeability of low-permeability barriers from production data (wellbore pressures and rates), and that only averaged reservoir properties in between

  15. Identifiability of location and magnitude of flow barriers in slightly compressible flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahrobaei, S.; Mansoori Habib Abadi, M.; Joosten, G.J.P.; Van den Hof, P.; Jansen, J.D.

    2016-01-01

    Classic identifiability analysis of flow barriers in incompressible single-phase flow reveals that it is not possible to identify the location and permeability of low-permeability barriers from production data (wellbore pressures and rates), and that only averaged reservoir properties in between

  16. Multiphoton STED and FRET in human skin: Resolving the skin barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonescu, Irina; Dreier, Jes; Brewer, Jonathan R.

    intercellular spaces. Characterization of the structural and dynamical processes occurring across the skin barrier is essential for understanding healthy and diseased skin and for designing successful transdermal drug delivery strategies. In this study we use Stimulated emission depletion (STED), two photon...

  17. Identifying barriers to the implementation of nutrition education in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghee; Hong, Youngsun

    2015-01-01

    To improve the nutritional status of children and adolescents, it is critical to identify the barriers to the implementation of nutrition education in schools. We carried out a cross-sectional study by analyzing data from 121 subjects (45 nutrition teachers and 76 school dietitians). Among the personal, environmental and systematic barriers, the top four barriers to the implementation of nutrition education were heavy workload (4.28 points), lack of a systematic curriculum (4.12 points), lack of perception of nutrition education by school administrators and teachers (4.07 points), and lack of continuing education for nutrition teachers and school dietitians (4.05 points). Additionally, poor working conditions, such as low pay, were identified as significant barriers to nutrition education for school dietitians compared with nutrition teachers (4.33 vs 3.47 points, peducation in schools in South Korea.

  18. A qualitative case study to identify possible barriers that limit effective elementary science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Donald Carey

    The purpose of this case study was to identify barriers that limit the effectiveness of elementary teachers in the teaching of science. It is of the utmost urgency that barriers be first identified, so that possible solutions can be explored to bring about the improvement of elementary science education. This urgency has been imposed by the scheduled national testing of students in science by 2007, as mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Using qualitative case study methods, the researcher conducted interviews with 8 elementary teachers from two schools within one school district who taught 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade. These interviews were designed to gain insight into barriers these elementary teachers perceived as factors limiting their effectiveness in teaching science and preparing students for high-stakes testing. Barriers in the areas of teacher background, typical teaching day, curriculum, inservices, and legislative influences were explored. This study concluded that the barriers explored do have a substantial negative affect on the teaching and learning of science in the elementary grades. Specifically, the barriers revealed in this study include the limited science background of elementary teachers, inadequate class time devoted to science, non-comprehensive curriculum, ineffective or lack of inservice training, and pressures from legislated mandates. But it is also clear that these barriers are so intertwined that one cannot remove these barriers one at a time. It will take a collective effort from all involved, including legislators, administrators, teachers, parents, and students, to alleviate these barriers and discover effective solutions to improve elementary science education.

  19. Identifying real and perceived barriers to therapeutic education programs for individuals with inflammatory arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Lorna; Sangrar, Ruheena; Bornstein, Carolyn; Lukmanji, Sara; Hapuhennedige, Sandani; Thorne, Carter; Beattie, Karen A

    2016-09-01

    Therapeutic Education Programs (TEPs) grounded in self-management principles have been shown to improve quality of life of patients with chronic conditions and reduce patient-related healthcare costs. Though these programs are becoming more readily available, patients often experience barriers in participating. This study sought to identify barriers faced by inflammatory arthritis (IA) patients in attending a TEP and understand how patients overcame perceived barriers. A mixed-method study design was used. Questionnaires were distributed to individuals with IA who were invited to attend a TEP between 2010 and 2013. Respondents were those that chose not to attend (group A), individuals who attended ≤4 of 10 sessions (group B), individuals who attended ≥5 of 10 sessions prior to May 2013 (group C), and individuals who attended ≥5 of 10 sessions from June 2013 to November 2013 (group D). Individuals in group D were also invited to participate in focus groups to discuss how they had overcome perceived barriers. Real barriers identified by individuals in groups A and B included time, distance, and cost associated with attendance. Individuals who overcame perceived barriers (groups C and D) discussed strategies they used to do so. Aspects of the overall program experience and access to clinic and program also contributed to patients being able to overcome barriers. Time, distance, and cost are external barriers that prevented individuals from utilizing self-management education opportunities. These barriers were overcome if and when individuals had resources available to them. Readiness for behavior change also influenced commitment to participate in the program.

  20. Identifying and prioritizing barriers to implementation of smart energy city projects in Europe: An empirical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosannenzadeh, Farnaz; Di Nucci, Maria Rosaria; Vettorato, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Successful implementation of smart energy city projects in Europe is crucial for a sustainable transition of urban energy systems and the improvement of quality of life for citizens. We aim to develop a systematic classification and analysis of the barriers hindering successful implementation of smart energy city projects. Through an empirical approach, we investigated 43 communities implementing smart and sustainable energy city projects under the Sixth and Seventh Framework Programmes of the European Union. Validated through literature review, we identified 35 barriers categorized in policy, administrative, legal, financial, market, environmental, technical, social, and information-and-awareness dimensions. We prioritized these barriers, using a novel multi-dimensional methodology that simultaneously analyses barriers based on frequency, level of impact, causal relationship among barriers, origin, and scale. The results indicate that the key barriers are lacking or fragmented political support on the long term at the policy level, and lack of good cooperation and acceptance among project partners, insufficient external financial support, lack of skilled and trained personnel, and fragmented ownership at the project level. The outcome of the research should aid policy-makers to better understand and prioritize implementation barriers to develop effective action and policy interventions towards more successful implementation of smart energy city projects. - Highlights: • A solid empirical study on the implementation of European smart energy city projects. • We found 35 barriers in nine dimensions; e.g. policy, legal, financial, and social. • We suggested a new multi-dimensional methodology to prioritize barriers. • Lacking or fragmented political support on the long term is a key barrier. • We provided insights for action for project coordinators and policy makers.

  1. Local food in Iceland: identifying behavioral barriers to increased production and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ósk Halldórsdóttir, Þórhildur; Nicholas, Kimberly A.

    2016-11-01

    Increased production and consumption of local food may reduce the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts of industrialized and globalized food production. Here we examined potential barriers to increasing production and consumption of food produced in Iceland. First, we developed a new framework to address the behaviors of production and consumption simultaneously, to comprehensively analyze their potential barriers. We examined structural barriers by estimating the food production capacity of Iceland, and cultural and personal barriers through survey data on cultural norms and purchasing behavior from Matís, a research and development company. We found no structural barriers preventing Iceland from increasing production of local cereals, which would compliment current local production of meat and dairy and reduce reliance on imports, currently at 50% of the daily caloric intake. However, if food production became entirely local without changing the current mix of crops grown, there would be a 50% reduction in diversity (from 50 to 25 items in eight out of ten food categories). We did not identify any cultural barriers, as survey results demonstrated that consumers hold generally positive worldviews towards local food, with 88% satisfied with local food they had purchased. More than two-thirds of consumers regarded supporting the local farmer and considerations such as environmentally friendly production, fewer food miles, lower carbon footprint as important. However, they rated the local food they have access to as lower in meeting sustainability criteria, showing that they make justifications for not choosing local food in practice. This is a personal barrier to increased consumption of local food, and implies that marketing strategies and general knowledge connected to local food in Iceland might be improved. Although the results apply to the case of Iceland, the method of identifying behavioral barriers to change is applicable to other countries

  2. Moving Towards Sustainable Food Consumption : Identifying Barriers to Sustainable Student Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Ede, James; Graine, Sophia; Rhodes, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Adopting more sustainable consumption habits has been identified as a necessary step in the progression towards a sustainable society. In the area of sustainable consumption, personal food behaviour represents a strong leverage point. University students have been identified as a strategic audience; habits established during this transformative period can track forward into later life. This study seeks to identify the barriers inhibiting students from eating more sustainably. Perceived benefi...

  3. Building America Guidance for Identifying and Overcoming Code, Standard, and Rating Method Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, P. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, M. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This guidance document was prepared using the input from the meeting summarized in the draft CSI Roadmap to provide Building America research teams and partners with specific information and approaches to identifying and overcoming potential barriers to Building America innovations arising in and/or stemming from codes, standards, and rating methods.

  4. Identifying Barriers in Implementing Outcomes-Based Assessment Program Review: A Grounded Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Marilee J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to identify the typical barriers encountered by faculty and administrators when implementing outcomes-based assessment program review. An analysis of interviews with faculty and administrators at nine institutions revealed a theory that faculty and administrators' promotion, tenure (if applicable),…

  5. Moderated mediation to identify the knowledge stocks, learning flows and barriers at a Dutch telecom operator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Schryver, Tom; Rosendaal, Bas

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the 4I-model of Crossan et al. (1999), we have identified the knowledge stocks, learning flows and barriers at a Dutch telecom operator by means of moderated mediation. In this company, the strategic relevant knowledge stocks move in the same direction and many processes support their

  6. Identifying Facilitators and Barriers to Physical Activity for Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, J.; Shields, N.; Taylor, N. F.; Dodd, K. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adults with Down syndrome are typically sedentary, and many do not participate in the recommended levels of physical activity per week. The aim of this study was to identify the facilitators and barriers to physical activity for this group. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted to elicit the views of adults with Down…

  7. Barriers to installing innovative energy systems in existing housing stock identified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Several barriers to upgrading existing social housing with innovative energy systems (IES) have been identified by a study of eight large-scale renovation projects in the Netherlands. These include a lack of trust between stakeholders, opposition from tenants on grounds of increased costs or delays,

  8. Provider-identified barriers and facilitators to implementing a supported employment program in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Bridget A; Ottomanelli, Lisa; O'Connor, Danielle R; Trainor, John K

    2018-06-01

    In a 5-year study, individual placement and support (IPS) significantly increased employment rate of United States Veterans with spinal cord injury (SCI), a historically underemployed population. In a follow-up study, data on barriers and facilitators to IPS implementation were identified. Over 24 months of implementation, 82 key medical and vocational staff underwent semi-structured interviews (n = 130). Interviews were digitally recorded and qualitatively analyzed (ATLAS.ti v0.7) using a constant comparative method to generate themes. Some barriers to implementation occurred throughout the study, such as Veterans' lack of motivation and providers' difficulty integrating vocational and medical rehabilitation. Other barriers emerged at specific stages, for example, early barriers included a large geographic service area and a large patient caseload, and late barriers included need for staff education. Facilitators were mostly constant throughout implementation and included leadership support and successful integration of vocational staff into the medical care team. Implementation strategies need to be adjusted as implementation progresses and matures. The strategies that succeeded in this setting, which were situated in a real-world context of providing IPS as a part of SCI medical care, may inform implementation of IPS for other populations with physical disabilities. Implications for Rehabilitation Key facilitators to IPS in SCI implementation are integrating vocational staff with expertise in IPS and SCI on clinical rehabilitation teams and providing leadership support. Ongoing barriers to IPS in SCI include patient specific and program administration factors such as caseload size and staffing patterns. Varying implementation strategies are needed to address barriers as they arise and facilitate successful implementation.

  9. Identifying barriers to and facilitators of tuberculosis contact investigation in Kampala, Uganda: a behavioral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayakaka, Irene; Ackerman, Sara; Ggita, Joseph M; Kajubi, Phoebe; Dowdy, David; Haberer, Jessica E; Fair, Elizabeth; Hopewell, Philip; Handley, Margaret A; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Katamba, Achilles; Davis, J Lucian

    2017-03-09

    The World Health Organization recommends routine household tuberculosis contact investigation in high-burden countries but adoption has been limited. We sought to identify barriers to and facilitators of TB contact investigation during its introduction in Kampala, Uganda. We collected cross-sectional qualitative data through focus group discussions and interviews with stakeholders, addressing three core activities of contact investigation: arranging household screening visits through index TB patients, visiting households to screen contacts and refer them to clinics, and evaluating at-risk contacts coming to clinics. We analyzed the data using a validated theory of behavior change, the Capability, Opportunity, and Motivation determine Behavior (COM-B) model, and sought to identify targeted interventions using the related Behavior Change Wheel implementation framework. We led seven focus-group discussions with 61 health-care workers, two with 21 lay health workers (LHWs), and one with four household contacts of newly diagnosed TB patients. We, in addition, performed 32 interviews with household contacts from 14 households of newly diagnosed TB patients. Commonly noted barriers included stigma, limited knowledge about TB among contacts, insufficient time and space in clinics for counselling, mistrust of health-center staff among index patients and contacts, and high travel costs for LHWs and contacts. The most important facilitators identified were the personalized and enabling services provided by LHWs. We identified education, persuasion, enablement, modeling of health-positive behaviors, incentivization, and restructuring of the service environment as relevant intervention functions with potential to alleviate barriers to and enhance facilitators of TB contact investigation. The use of a behavioral theory and a validated implementation framework provided a comprehensive approach for systematically identifying barriers to and facilitators of TB contact

  10. Quantifying family dissemination and identifying barriers to communication of risk information in Australian BRCA families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Emma; Taylor, Natalie; Greening, Sian; Wakefield, Claire E; Warwick, Linda; Williams, Rachel; Tucker, Kathy

    2017-12-01

    PurposeRecommendations for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers to disseminate information to at-risk relatives pose significant challenges. This study aimed to quantify family dissemination, to explain the differences between fully informed families (all relatives informed verbally or in writing) and partially informed families (at least one relative uninformed), and to identify dissemination barriers.MethodsBRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers identified from four Australian hospitals (n=671) were invited to participate in the study. Distress was measured at consent using the Kessler psychological distress scale (K10). A structured telephone interview was used to assess the informed status of relatives, geographical location of relatives, and dissemination barriers. Family dissemination was quantified, and fully versus partially informed family differences were examined. Dissemination barriers were thematically coded and counted.ResultsA total of 165 families participated. Information had been disseminated to 81.1% of relatives. At least one relative had not been informed in 52.7% of families, 4.3% were first-degree relatives, 27.0% were second-degree relatives, and 62.0% were cousins. Partially informed families were significantly larger than fully informed families, had fewer relatives living in close proximity, and exhibited higher levels of distress. The most commonly recorded barrier to dissemination was loss of contact.ConclusionLarger, geographically diverse families have greater difficulty disseminating BRCA mutation risk information to all relatives. Understanding these challenges can inform future initiatives for communication, follow-up and support.

  11. Parent-identified barriers to pediatric health care: a process-oriented model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobo, Elisa J; Seid, Michael; Reyes Gelhard, Leticia

    2006-02-01

    To further understand barriers to care as experienced by health care consumers, and to demonstrate the importance of conjoining qualitative and quantitative health services research. Transcripts from focus groups conducted in San Diego with English- and Spanish-speaking parents of children with special health care needs. Participants were asked about the barriers to care they had experienced or perceived, and their strategies for overcoming these barriers. Using elementary anthropological discourse analysis techniques, a process-based conceptual model of the parent experience was devised. The analysis revealed a parent-motivated model of barriers to care that enriched our understanding of quantitative findings regarding the population from which the focus group sample was drawn. Parent-identified barriers were grouped into the following six temporally and spatially sequenced categories: necessary skills and prerequisites for gaining access to the system; realizing access once it is gained; front office experiences; interactions with physicians; system arbitrariness and fragmentation; outcomes that affect future interaction with the system. Key to the successful navigation of the system was parents' functional biomedical acculturation; this construct likens the biomedical health services system to a cultural system within which all parents/patients must learn to function competently. Qualitative analysis of focus group data enabled a deeper understanding of barriers to care--one that went beyond the traditional association of marker variables with poor outcomes ("what") to reveal an understanding of the processes by which parents experience the health care system ("how,"why") and by which disparities may arise. Development of such process-oriented models furthers the provision of patient-centered care and the creation of interventions, programs, and curricula to enhance such care. Qualitative discourse analysis, for example using this project's widely applicable

  12. IEA Wind Task 32: Wind lidar identifying and mitigating barriers to the adoption of wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clifton, Andrew; Clive, Peter; Gottschall, Julia

    2018-01-01

    IEA Wind Task 32 exists to identify and mitigate barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. It leverages ongoing international research and development activities in academia and industry to investigate site assessment, power performance testing, controls and loads, and complex...... flows. Since its initiation in 2011, Task 32 has been responsible for several recommended practices and expert reports that have contributed to the adoption of ground-based, nacelle-based, and floating lidar by the wind industry. Future challenges include the development of lidar uncertainty models......, best practices for data management, and developing community-based tools for data analysis, planning of lidar measurements and lidar configuration. This paper describes the barriers that Task 32 identified to the deployment of wind lidar in each of these application areas, and the steps that have been...

  13. Knowledge sharing in Chinese hospitals identifying sharing barriers in traditional Chinese and Western medicine collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to identify, understand and qualify barriers to the patient-centred knowledge sharing (KS) in interprofessional practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Western Medicine (WM) healthcare professionals in Chinese hospitals.  This collaboration is particularly crucial and unique to China since, contrary to Western practice, these two types of professionals actually work together complimentary in the same hospital. This study adopted a Grounded Theory approach as the overarching methodology to guide the analysis of the data collected in a single case-study design.  A public hospital in central China was selected as the case-study site, at which 49 informants were interviewed by using semi-structured and evolving interview scripts.  The research findings point to five categories of KS barriers: contextual influences, hospital management, philosophical divergence, Chinese healthcare education and interprofessional training.  Further conceptualising the research findings, it is identifie...

  14. Oculocutaneous albinism: identifying and overcoming barriers to vision care in a Nigerian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeh, N N; Eze, B I; Onwubiko, S N; Arinze, O C; Onwasigwe, E N; Umeh, R E

    2014-06-01

    To assess eye care service utilization, and identify access barriers in a south-eastern Nigerian albino population. The study was a population-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in Enugu state between August, 2011 and January, 2012. Using the data base of the state's Albino Foundation and tailored awareness creation, persons living with albinism were identified and recruited at two study centres. Data on participants' socio-demographics, perception of vision, visual needs, previous eye examination and or low vision assessment, use of glasses or low vision devices were collected. Reasons for non-utilisation of available vision care services were also obtained. Descriptive and comparative statistics were performed. A p low vision assessment and none--0.0% had used low vision device. Of the participants, 82.4% reported previous eye examination, 33.3% had not used spectacles previously, despite the existing need. Ignorance--88.9% and poor access--8.5% were the main barriers to uptake of vision care services. In Enugu, Nigeria, there is poor awareness and low utilization of vision care services among people with albinism. The identified barriers to vision care access are amenable to awareness creation and logistic change in the provision of appropriate vision care services.

  15. IDENTIFYING AND ANALYZING THE TRANSIENT AND PERMANENT BARRIERS FOR BIG DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARFRAZ NAWAZ BROHI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Auspiciously, big data analytics had made it possible to generate value from immense amounts of raw data. Organizations are able to seek incredible insights which assist them in effective decision making and providing quality of service by establishing innovative strategies to recognize, examine and address the customers’ preferences. However, organizations are reluctant to adopt big data solutions due to several barriers such as data storage and transfer, scalability, data quality, data complexity, timeliness, security, privacy, trust, data ownership, and transparency. Despite the discussion on big data opportunities, in this paper, we present the findings of our in-depth review process that was focused on identifying as well as analyzing the transient and permanent barriers for adopting big data. Although, the transient barriers for big data can be eliminated in the near future with the advent of innovative technical contributions, however, it is challenging to eliminate the permanent barriers enduringly, though their impact could be recurrently reduced with the efficient and effective use of technology, standards, policies, and procedures.

  16. IEA Wind Task 32: Wind Lidar Identifying and Mitigating Barriers to the Adoption of Wind Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Clifton

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available IEA Wind Task 32 exists to identify and mitigate barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. It leverages ongoing international research and development activities in academia and industry to investigate site assessment, power performance testing, controls and loads, and complex flows. Since its initiation in 2011, Task 32 has been responsible for several recommended practices and expert reports that have contributed to the adoption of ground-based, nacelle-based, and floating lidar by the wind industry. Future challenges include the development of lidar uncertainty models, best practices for data management, and developing community-based tools for data analysis, planning of lidar measurements and lidar configuration. This paper describes the barriers that Task 32 identified to the deployment of wind lidar in each of these application areas, and the steps that have been taken to confirm or mitigate the barriers. Task 32 will continue to be a meeting point for the international wind lidar community until at least 2020 and welcomes old and new participants.

  17. Identifying non-technical skills and barriers for improvement of teamwork in cardiac arrest teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.O.; Jensen, Michael Kammer; Lippert, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The application of non-technical skills (NTSs) in health care has previously been described in other health-care educational programmes. NTSs are behavioural principles such as leadership, task distribution and communication. The aim of this study was to identify NTSs suitable...... for improving team performance in multi-professional cardiac arrest teams, and to describe barriers to the use and implementation of such NTSs by using a qualitative method. Methods: Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 Danish Advanced Life Support instructors during the period April...... 2006 to November 2006. Interviews were focussed on barriers and recommendations for teamwork in the cardiac arrest team, optimal policy for improvement of resuscitation training and clinical practice, use of cognitive aids and adoption of European Resuscitation Council (ERC) Guidelines 2005. Interviews...

  18. TH-B-BRC-01: How to Identify and Resolve Potential Clinical Errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, I. [NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Radiation treatment consists of a chain of events influenced by the quality of machine operation, beam data commissioning, machine calibration, patient specific data, simulation, treatment planning, imaging and treatment delivery. There is always a chance that the clinical medical physicist may make or fail to detect an error in one of the events that may impact on the patient’s treatment. In the clinical scenario, errors may be systematic and, without peer review, may have a low detectability because they are not part of routine QA procedures. During treatment, there might be errors on machine that needs attention. External reviews of some of the treatment delivery components by independent reviewers, like IROC, can detect errors, but may not be timely. The goal of this session is to help junior clinical physicists identify potential errors as well as the approach of quality assurance to perform a root cause analysis to find and eliminate an error and to continually monitor for errors. A compilation of potential errors will be presented by examples of the thought process required to spot the error and determine the root cause. Examples may include unusual machine operation, erratic electrometer reading, consistent lower electron output, variation in photon output, body parts inadvertently left in beam, unusual treatment plan, poor normalization, hot spots etc. Awareness of the possibility and detection of error in any link of the treatment process chain will help improve the safe and accurate delivery of radiation to patients. Four experts will discuss how to identify errors in four areas of clinical treatment. D. Followill, NIH grant CA 180803.

  19. TH-B-BRC-01: How to Identify and Resolve Potential Clinical Errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, I.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation treatment consists of a chain of events influenced by the quality of machine operation, beam data commissioning, machine calibration, patient specific data, simulation, treatment planning, imaging and treatment delivery. There is always a chance that the clinical medical physicist may make or fail to detect an error in one of the events that may impact on the patient’s treatment. In the clinical scenario, errors may be systematic and, without peer review, may have a low detectability because they are not part of routine QA procedures. During treatment, there might be errors on machine that needs attention. External reviews of some of the treatment delivery components by independent reviewers, like IROC, can detect errors, but may not be timely. The goal of this session is to help junior clinical physicists identify potential errors as well as the approach of quality assurance to perform a root cause analysis to find and eliminate an error and to continually monitor for errors. A compilation of potential errors will be presented by examples of the thought process required to spot the error and determine the root cause. Examples may include unusual machine operation, erratic electrometer reading, consistent lower electron output, variation in photon output, body parts inadvertently left in beam, unusual treatment plan, poor normalization, hot spots etc. Awareness of the possibility and detection of error in any link of the treatment process chain will help improve the safe and accurate delivery of radiation to patients. Four experts will discuss how to identify errors in four areas of clinical treatment. D. Followill, NIH grant CA 180803

  20. Resolving anatomical and functional structure in human brain organization: identifying mesoscale organization in weighted network representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Christian; Bassett, Danielle S; Lim, Kelvin O; Carlson, Jean M

    2014-10-01

    Human brain anatomy and function display a combination of modular and hierarchical organization, suggesting the importance of both cohesive structures and variable resolutions in the facilitation of healthy cognitive processes. However, tools to simultaneously probe these features of brain architecture require further development. We propose and apply a set of methods to extract cohesive structures in network representations of brain connectivity using multi-resolution techniques. We employ a combination of soft thresholding, windowed thresholding, and resolution in community detection, that enable us to identify and isolate structures associated with different weights. One such mesoscale structure is bipartivity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into two partitions with high connectivity between partitions and low connectivity within partitions. A second, complementary mesoscale structure is modularity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into multiple communities with strong connectivity within each community and weak connectivity between communities. Our methods lead to multi-resolution curves of these network diagnostics over a range of spatial, geometric, and structural scales. For statistical comparison, we contrast our results with those obtained for several benchmark null models. Our work demonstrates that multi-resolution diagnostic curves capture complex organizational profiles in weighted graphs. We apply these methods to the identification of resolution-specific characteristics of healthy weighted graph architecture and altered connectivity profiles in psychiatric disease.

  1. Spatially and temporally resolved detection of arsenic in a capillary dielectric barrier discharge by hydride generation high-resolved optical emission spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burhenn, S.; Kratzer, Jan; Svoboda, Milan; Klute, F. D.; Michels, A.; Veža, D.; Franzke, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 90, MAR (2018), s. 3424-3429 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-04329S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : dielectric barrier discharge * optical emission spectroscopy * arsenic hydride Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  2. Spatially and temporally resolved detection of arsenic in a capillary dielectric barrier discharge by hydride generation high-resolved optical emission spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burhenn, S.; Kratzer, Jan; Svoboda, Milan; Klute, F. D.; Michels, A.; Veža, D.; Franzke, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 90, MAR (2018), s. 3424-3429 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-04329S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : dielectric barrier discharge * optical emission spectroscopy * arsenic hydride Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  3. Na+/K+-ATPase α1 identified as an abundant protein in the blood-labyrinth barrier that plays an essential role in the barrier integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The endothelial-blood/tissue barrier is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis. The ear harbors a unique endothelial-blood/tissue barrier which we term "blood-labyrinth-barrier". This barrier is critical for maintaining inner ear homeostasis. Disruption of the blood-labyrinth-barrier is closely associated with a number of hearing disorders. Many proteins of the blood-brain-barrier and blood-retinal-barrier have been identified, leading to significant advances in understanding their tissue specific functions. In contrast, capillaries in the ear are small in volume and anatomically complex. This presents a challenge for protein analysis studies, which has resulted in limited knowledge of the molecular and functional components of the blood-labyrinth-barrier. In this study, we developed a novel method for isolation of the stria vascularis capillary from CBA/CaJ mouse cochlea and provided the first database of protein components in the blood-labyrinth barrier as well as evidence that the interaction of Na(+/K(+-ATPase α1 (ATP1A1 with protein kinase C eta (PKCη and occludin is one of the mechanisms of loud sound-induced vascular permeability increase.Using a mass-spectrometry, shotgun-proteomics approach combined with a novel "sandwich-dissociation" method, more than 600 proteins from isolated stria vascularis capillaries were identified from adult CBA/CaJ mouse cochlea. The ion transporter ATP1A1 was the most abundant protein in the blood-labyrinth barrier. Pharmacological inhibition of ATP1A1 activity resulted in hyperphosphorylation of tight junction proteins such as occludin which increased the blood-labyrinth-barrier permeability. PKCη directly interacted with ATP1A1 and was an essential mediator of ATP1A1-initiated occludin phosphorylation. Moreover, this identified signaling pathway was involved in the breakdown of the blood-labyrinth-barrier resulting from loud sound trauma.The results presented here provide a novel method for

  4. Identifiability analysis of rotational diffusion tensor and electronic transition moments measured in time-resolved fluorescence depolarization experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szubiakowski, Jacek P.

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is studies of the deterministic identifiability of molecular parameters, such as rotational diffusion tensor components and orientation of electronic transition moments, resulting from the time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy experiment. In the most general case considered, a pair of perpendicularly polarized emissions enables the unique determination of all the rotational diffusion tensor's principal components. The influence of the tensor's symmetry and the associated degeneration of its eigenvalues on the identifiability of the electronic transitions moments is systematically investigated. The analysis reveals that independently of the rotational diffusion tensor's symmetry, the transition moments involved in photoselection and emission processes cannot be uniquely identified without a priori information about their mutual orientation or their orientation with respect to the principal axes of the tensor. Moreover, it is shown that increasing the symmetry of the rotational diffusion tensor deteriorates the degree of the transition moments identifiability. To obtain these results analytically, a novel approach to solve bilinear system of equations for Markov parameters is applied. The effect of the additional information, obtained from fluorescence measurements for different molecular mobilities, to improve the identifiability at various levels of analysis is shown. The effectiveness and reliability of the target analysis method for experimental determination of the molecular parameters is also discussed

  5. Identifying Barriers and Pathways to Success for Renewable Energy Development on American Indian Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Necefer, Len Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Jones, Thomas Elisha [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    American Indian tribes possess lands rich with renewable energy (RE) resources. Tribes have great potential and need to develop these resources, yet face a host of barriers that continue to impede development. Understanding these challenges as well as the pathways that can be taken to overcome them may facilitate more economic development to meet community needs and better position tribes to play a role in securing a low-carbon energy future for the United States. This paper presents the results of an expert elicitation of 24 tribal energy experts from federal, tribal, academic, and private industry backgrounds to identify barriers and opportunities for federally recognized tribes in the lower 48 states. Experts identified a number of unique challenges facing tribes including financing and funding, infrastructure, tribal leadership and staff, state-level influence, and partnerships. Cultural factors were seen only to be of concern with large-scale development. Tribal sovereignty is a significant motivation for RE development and has yet to be fully realized. Cultural considerations are critical to the success of future projects; smaller residential and community-scale projects may be a better fit. Improving partnerships between tribes and the private sector can increase RE deployment and overcome historical distrust. States can have a double-ended influence on projects within tribal lands through taxation.

  6. Identifying facilitators and barriers for implementation of interprofessional education: Perspectives from medical educators in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries-Erich, Joy; Reuchlin, Kirsten; de Maaijer, Paul; van de Ridder, J M Monica

    2017-03-01

    Patient care and patient safety can be compromised by the lack of interprofessional collaboration and communication between healthcare providers. Interprofessional education (IPE) should therefore start during medical training and not be postponed until after graduation. This case study explored the current situation in the Dutch context and interviewed experts within medical education and with pioneers of successful best practices to learn more about their experiences with IPE. Data analysis started while new data were still collected, resulting in an iterative, constant comparative process. Using a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis framework, we identified barriers and facilitators such as lack of a collective professional language, insufficient time or budget, stakeholders' resistance, and hierarchy. Opportunities and strengths identified were developing a collective vision, more attention for patient safety, and commitment of teachers. The facilitators and barriers relate to the organisational level of IPE and the educational content and practice. In particular, communication, cohesiveness, and support are influenced by these facilitators. An adequate identification of the SWOT elements in the current situation could prove beneficial for a successful implementation of IPE within the healthcare educational system.

  7. Identifying barriers to chronic disease reporting in Chicago Public Schools: a mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivkina, Victoria; Tapke, David E; Cardenas, Lilliana D; Harvey-Gintoft, Blair; Whyte, Stephanie A; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2014-12-06

    Chronic disease among school-aged children is a public health concern, particularly for asthma and food allergy. In Chicago Public Schools (CPS), rates of asthma and food allergy among students are underreported. The aim of this study was to determine the barriers to chronic disease reporting as experienced by CPS parents and school nurses. A mixed-methods approach included focus groups and key informant interviews with parents and school nurses, and a cross-sectional survey was completed by parents. Qualitative data analysis was performed and survey data were analyzed to determine the significant demographic and knowledge variables associated with successfully completing the reporting process. The three main barriers identified were 1) a lack of parental process knowledge; 2) limited communication from schools; and 3) insufficient availability of school nurses. Parents were significantly more likely to successfully complete the reporting process if they knew about special accommodations for chronic diseases, understood the need for physician verification, and/or knew the school nurse. These findings suggest that increasing parental knowledge of the reporting process will allow schools to better identify and manage their students' chronic conditions. A parent-focused intervention informed by these results has been completed.

  8. Women with physical disability and the mammogram: An observational study to identify barriers and facilitators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulos, Ann; Balandin, Susan; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; McCarthy, Louella; Dark, Leigha

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To identify barriers and facilitators experienced by women with physical disability having a mammogram. Method: Direct observation of the mammography procedure for women with a range of physical disability at screening facilities of BreastScreen NSW Australia. Results: A volunteer sample of 13 women with varying degrees of physical disability participated in the study. The outcomes suggested that many barriers for women with physical disability can be ameliorated by environmental adaptations and guidelines for both radiographers and women. Some women however cannot be screened successfully, or can be screened only with a level of trauma and/or pain which militates against their continuation within the screening program. This study has identified physical limitations which preclude a successful outcome, those which increase the discomfort/pain of the procedure and aspects of the procedure which can be improved to minimise the experience of discomfort/pain. Conclusion: From the outcomes of the study the development of a decision tool is indicated as a method of providing information for women with physical disability and their doctors as to the likelihood of a successful outcome to participation in mammography screening.

  9. Women with physical disability and the mammogram: An observational study to identify barriers and facilitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulos, Ann, E-mail: ann.poulos@sydney.edu.a [University of Sydney, Faculty of Health Sciences, Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Balandin, Susan [University of Sydney, Faculty of Health Sciences, Discipline of Speech Pathology, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Avdeling for helse- og sosialfag, Hogskolen i Molde, Postboks 2110, 6402 Molde (Norway); Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; McCarthy, Louella [University of Sydney, Faculty of Health Sciences, Discipline of Occupational Therapy, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Dark, Leigha [University of Sydney, Faculty of Health Sciences, Discipline of Speech Pathology, PO Box 170, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: To identify barriers and facilitators experienced by women with physical disability having a mammogram. Method: Direct observation of the mammography procedure for women with a range of physical disability at screening facilities of BreastScreen NSW Australia. Results: A volunteer sample of 13 women with varying degrees of physical disability participated in the study. The outcomes suggested that many barriers for women with physical disability can be ameliorated by environmental adaptations and guidelines for both radiographers and women. Some women however cannot be screened successfully, or can be screened only with a level of trauma and/or pain which militates against their continuation within the screening program. This study has identified physical limitations which preclude a successful outcome, those which increase the discomfort/pain of the procedure and aspects of the procedure which can be improved to minimise the experience of discomfort/pain. Conclusion: From the outcomes of the study the development of a decision tool is indicated as a method of providing information for women with physical disability and their doctors as to the likelihood of a successful outcome to participation in mammography screening.

  10. Identifying Communication Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening Adherence among Appalachian Kentuckians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Audrey Smith; Cohen, Elisia L; Collins, Tom; Hatcher, Jennifer; Crosby, Richard; Vanderpool, Robin C

    2017-08-18

    Utilizing data from 40 in-depth interviews, this article identifies both barriers and facilitators to colorectal screening guideline adherence among Appalachian Kentucky adults recruited through a community-based research network. Key findings identify (a) varying levels of knowledge about screening guidelines, (b) reticence to engage in screening processes, and (c) nuanced communication with healthcare providers and family members regarding screening adherence. What participants knew about the screening process was often derived from personal stories or recalled stories from family members about their screening experiences. Reticence to engage in screening processes reflected reports of cumbersome preparation, privacy issues, embarrassment, medical mistrust, fear of receiving a cancer diagnosis, and lack of symptoms. Participants cited many ways to enhance patient-centered communication, and the findings from this study have implications for health communication message design and communication strategies for healthcare practices in Appalachian Kentucky clinics.

  11. Identifying common barriers and facilitators to linkage and retention in chronic disease care in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Rachlis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa is increasingly being challenged in providing care and treatment for chronic diseases, both communicable and non-communicable. In order to address the challenges of linkage to and retention in chronic disease management, there is the need to understand the factors that can influence engagement in care. We conducted a qualitative study to identify barriers and facilitators to linkage and retention in chronic care for HIV, tuberculosis (TB and Hypertension (HTN as part of the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH program in western Kenya. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted July 2012-August 2013. Study participants were purposively sampled from three AMPATH clinics and included patients within the AMPATH program receiving HIV, TB, and HTN care, as well as caregivers of children with HIV, community leaders, and healthcare providers. A set of interview guides were developed to explore perceived barriers and facilitators to chronic disease management, particularly related to linkage to and retention in HIV, TB and HTN care. Data were coded and various themes were identified. We organized the concepts and themes generated using the Andersen-Newman Framework of Health Services Utilization. Results A total of 235 participants including 110 individuals living with HIV (n = 50, TB (n = 39, or HTN (n = 21; 24 caregivers; 10 community leaders; and 62 healthcare providers participated. Barriers and facilitators were categorized as predisposing characteristics, enabling resources and need factors. Many of the facilitators and barriers reported in this study were consistently reported across disease categories including personal drive, patient-provider relationships and the need for social and peer support. Conclusions Our findings provide insight into the individual as well as broader structural factors that can deter or encourage linkage and retention that

  12. Identifying climate risk perceptions, information needs, and barriers to information exchange among public land managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Casey B; Schwartz, Mark W; Lubell, Mark N

    2018-03-01

    Meeting ecosystem management challenges posed by climate change requires building effective communication channels among researchers, planners and practitioners to focus research on management issues requiring new knowledge. We surveyed resource managers within two regions of the western United States regions to better understand perceived risks and vulnerabilities associated with climate change and barriers to obtaining and using relevant climate science information in making ecosystem management decisions. We sought to understand what types of climate science information resource managers find most valuable, and the formats in which they prefer to receive climate science information. We found broad concern among natural resource managers in federal agencies that climate change will make it more difficult for them to achieve their management goals. Primary barriers to incorporating climate science into planning are distributed among challenges identifying, receiving, and interpreting appropriate science and a lack of direction provided by agency leadership needed to meaningfully use this emerging science in resource planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel Active Learning Experiences for Students to Identify Barriers to Independent Living for People with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Polly; Burch, Lillian; Moore, Katherine; Hodges, Mary Sue

    2016-07-01

    This article describes interactive learning about independent living for people with disabilities and features the partnership of the College of Nursing and a Center for Independent Living (CIL). Using qualitative descriptive approach, students' written reflections were analyzed. Through "Xtreme Challenge," 82 undergraduate nursing students participated in aspects of independent living as well as identifying barriers. Students were engaged and learned to consider the person before the disability. Moreover, students valued the activity leaders' openness, which facilitated understanding the point of view of a person with disability. The value of partnership was evident as it allowed students to participate in active learning, which led to growth in the affective domain. Students became aware of potential education resources through the CIL. This article will guide educators in designing experiences that teach nursing care at the individual, family, and community level for people living with disabilities. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  14. The Future of Basic Science in Academic Surgery: Identifying Barriers to Success for Surgeon-scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keswani, Sundeep G; Moles, Chad M; Morowitz, Michael; Zeh, Herbert; Kuo, John S; Levine, Matthew H; Cheng, Lily S; Hackam, David J; Ahuja, Nita; Goldstein, Allan M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the challenges confronting surgeons performing basic science research in today's academic surgery environment. Multiple studies have identified challenges confronting surgeon-scientists and impacting their ability to be successful. Although these threats have been known for decades, the downward trend in the number of successful surgeon-scientists continues. Clinical demands, funding challenges, and other factors play important roles, but a rigorous analysis of academic surgeons and their experiences regarding these issues has not previously been performed. An online survey was distributed to 2504 members of the Association for Academic Surgery and Society of University Surgeons to determine factors impacting success. Survey results were subjected to statistical analyses. We also reviewed publicly available data regarding funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NIH data revealed a 27% decline in the proportion of NIH funding to surgical departments relative to total NIH funding from 2007 to 2014. A total of 1033 (41%) members responded to our survey, making this the largest survey of academic surgeons to date. Surgeons most often cited the following factors as major impediments to pursuing basic investigation: pressure to be clinically productive, excessive administrative responsibilities, difficulty obtaining extramural funding, and desire for work-life balance. Surprisingly, a majority (68%) did not believe surgeons can be successful basic scientists in today's environment, including departmental leadership. We have identified important barriers that confront academic surgeons pursuing basic research and a perception that success in basic science may no longer be achievable. These barriers need to be addressed to ensure the continued development of future surgeon-scientists.

  15. Cosmetic dermatologic surgical training in US dermatology residency programs: identifying and overcoming barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Bruce; Williams, Erin; Stratman, Erik J

    2014-02-01

    The public and other medical specialties expect dermatologists who offer cosmetic dermatology services to provide competent care. There are numerous barriers to achieving cosmetic dermatology competency during residency. Many dermatology residents enter the workforce planning to provide cosmetic services. If a training gap exists, this may adversely affect patient safety. To identify resources available for hands-on cosmetic dermatology training in US dermatology residency training programs and to assess program director (PD) attitudes toward cosmetic dermatology training during residency and strategies, including discounted pricing, used by training programs to overcome barriers related to resident-performed cosmetic dermatology procedures. An online survey in academic dermatology practices among PDs of US dermatology residency programs. Frequency of cosmetic dermatology devices and injectables used for dermatology resident hands-on cosmetic dermatology training, categorizing PD attitudes toward cosmetic dermatology training during residency and describing residency-related discounted pricing models. Responses from PDs were received from 53 of 114 (46%) US dermatology residency programs. All but 3 programs (94%) offered hands-on cosmetic dermatology training using botulinum toxin, and 47 of 53 (89%) provided training with hyaluronic acid fillers. Pulsed dye lasers represented the most common laser use experienced by residents (41 of 52 [79%]), followed by Q-switched Nd:YAG (30 of 52 [58%]). Discounted procedures were offered by 32 of 53 (60%) programs, with botulinum toxin (30 of 32 [94%]) and fillers (27 of 32 [84%]) most prevalent and with vascular lasers (17 of 32 [53%]) and hair removal lasers (12 of 32 [38%]) less common. Various discounting methods were used. Only 20 of 53 (38%) PDs believed that cosmetic dermatology should be a necessary aspect of residency training; 14 of 52 (27%) PDs thought that residents should not be required to perform any cosmetic

  16. GOTHiC, a probabilistic model to resolve complex biases and to identify real interactions in Hi-C data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borbala Mifsud

    Full Text Available Hi-C is one of the main methods for investigating spatial co-localisation of DNA in the nucleus. However, the raw sequencing data obtained from Hi-C experiments suffer from large biases and spurious contacts, making it difficult to identify true interactions. Existing methods use complex models to account for biases and do not provide a significance threshold for detecting interactions. Here we introduce a simple binomial probabilistic model that resolves complex biases and distinguishes between true and false interactions. The model corrects biases of known and unknown origin and yields a p-value for each interaction, providing a reliable threshold based on significance. We demonstrate this experimentally by testing the method against a random ligation dataset. Our method outperforms previous methods and provides a statistical framework for further data analysis, such as comparisons of Hi-C interactions between different conditions. GOTHiC is available as a BioConductor package (http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/GOTHiC.html.

  17. GOTHiC, a probabilistic model to resolve complex biases and to identify real interactions in Hi-C data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifsud, Borbala; Martincorena, Inigo; Darbo, Elodie; Sugar, Robert; Schoenfelder, Stefan; Fraser, Peter; Luscombe, Nicholas M

    2017-01-01

    Hi-C is one of the main methods for investigating spatial co-localisation of DNA in the nucleus. However, the raw sequencing data obtained from Hi-C experiments suffer from large biases and spurious contacts, making it difficult to identify true interactions. Existing methods use complex models to account for biases and do not provide a significance threshold for detecting interactions. Here we introduce a simple binomial probabilistic model that resolves complex biases and distinguishes between true and false interactions. The model corrects biases of known and unknown origin and yields a p-value for each interaction, providing a reliable threshold based on significance. We demonstrate this experimentally by testing the method against a random ligation dataset. Our method outperforms previous methods and provides a statistical framework for further data analysis, such as comparisons of Hi-C interactions between different conditions. GOTHiC is available as a BioConductor package (http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/GOTHiC.html).

  18. Barriers and strategies for identifying and managing risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in levels of preventing, screening, and treating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Azami Aghdash

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are of the main causes of mortality in the world and impose a heavy economic, social, and health burden on society. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the barriers and strategies for identifying and managing risk factors of CVD in levels of preventing, screening, and treating. Methods: During present qualitative study with phenomenological approach, 60 subjects of cardiologists, nurses, patients, and their relatives were selected based on purposive sampling from educational-medical cardiothoracic subspecialty centers. Data were collected using an open-ended questionnaire and was extracted and analyzed with content analysis method. Results: Barriers were divided into three groups of individual barriers (low awareness, delay in referring for treatment and screening, incorrect beliefs, and not caring about health, socio-economic barriers (high costs, lack of resources, mental and psychological pressures, and health care barriers (non-alignment of doctors, being therapy-oriented, managerial and planning weaknesses, and lack of health care facilities. The most important presenting strategies are: providing public educations, improving family physician program, reduction of costs, cooperation of patients, and using functional indices to evaluate and improve the quality of services. Conclusion: Low awareness of people, high costs of services, lack of health care facilities, socio-cultural problems of people, and delay in referring of people, for treatment and screening are of the most important barriers of proper identifying and managing risk factors of CVD. Strategies provided in this study to overcome these barriers could be used.

  19. Identifying the barriers to conducting outcomes research in integrative health care clinic settings - a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Findlay-Reece Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrative health care (IHC is an interdisciplinary blending of conventional medicine and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM with the purpose of enhancing patients' health. In 2006, we designed a study to assess outcomes that are relevant to people using such care. However, we faced major challenges in conducting this study and hypothesized that this might be due to the lack of a research climate in these clinics. To investigate these challenges, we initiated a further study in 2008, to explore the reasons why IHC clinics are not conducting outcomes research and to identify strategies for conducting successful in-house outcomes research programs. The results of the latter study are reported here. Methods A total of 25 qualitative interviews were conducted with key participants from 19 IHC clinics across Canada. Basic content analysis was used to identify key themes from the transcribed interviews. Results Barriers identified by participants fell into four categories: organizational culture, organizational resources, organizational environment and logistical challenges. Cultural challenges relate to the philosophy of IHC, organizational leadership and practitioner attitudes and beliefs. Participants also identified significant issues relating to their organization's lack of resources such as funding, compensation, infrastructure and partnerships/linkages. Environmental challenges such as the nature of a clinic's patient population and logistical issues such as the actual implementation of a research program and the applicability of research data also posed challenges to the conduct of research. Embedded research leadership, integration of personal and professional values about research, alignment of research activities and clinical workflow processes are some of the factors identified by participants that support IHC clinics' ability to conduct outcomes research. Conclusions Assessing and enhancing the broader

  20. Validating the Modified Drug Adherence Work-Up (M-DRAW) Tool to Identify and Address Barriers to Medication Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun; Bae, Yuna H; Worley, Marcia; Law, Anandi

    2017-09-08

    Barriers to medication adherence stem from multiple factors. An effective and convenient tool is needed to identify these barriers so that clinicians can provide a tailored, patient-centered consultation with patients. The Modified Drug Adherence Work-up Tool (M-DRAW) was developed as a 13-item checklist questionnaire to identify barriers to medication adherence. The response scale was a 4-point Likert scale of frequency of occurrence (1 = never to 4 = often). The checklist was accompanied by a GUIDE that provided corresponding motivational interview-based intervention strategies for each identified barrier. The current pilot study examined the psychometric properties of the M-DRAW checklist (reliability, responsiveness and discriminant validity) in patients taking one or more prescription medication(s) for chronic conditions. A cross-sectional sample of 26 patients was recruited between December 2015 and March 2016 at an academic medical center pharmacy in Southern California. A priming question that assessed self-reported adherence was used to separate participants into the control group of 17 "adherers" (65.4%), and into the intervention group of nine "unintentional and intentional non-adherers" (34.6%). Comparable baseline characteristics were observed between the two groups. The M-DRAW checklist showed acceptable reliability (13 item; alpha = 0.74) for identifying factors and barriers leading to medication non-adherence. Discriminant validity of the tool and the priming question was established by the four-fold number of barriers to adherence identified within the self-selected intervention group compared to the control group (4.4 versus 1.2 barriers, p tool will include construct validation.

  1. Validating the Modified Drug Adherence Work-Up (M-DRAW Tool to Identify and Address Barriers to Medication Adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Barriers to medication adherence stem from multiple factors. An effective and convenient tool is needed to identify these barriers so that clinicians can provide a tailored, patient-centered consultation with patients. The Modified Drug Adherence Work-up Tool (M-DRAW was developed as a 13-item checklist questionnaire to identify barriers to medication adherence. The response scale was a 4-point Likert scale of frequency of occurrence (1 = never to 4 = often. The checklist was accompanied by a GUIDE that provided corresponding motivational interview-based intervention strategies for each identified barrier. The current pilot study examined the psychometric properties of the M-DRAW checklist (reliability, responsiveness and discriminant validity in patients taking one or more prescription medication(s for chronic conditions. A cross-sectional sample of 26 patients was recruited between December 2015 and March 2016 at an academic medical center pharmacy in Southern California. A priming question that assessed self-reported adherence was used to separate participants into the control group of 17 “adherers” (65.4%, and into the intervention group of nine “unintentional and intentional non-adherers” (34.6%. Comparable baseline characteristics were observed between the two groups. The M-DRAW checklist showed acceptable reliability (13 item; alpha = 0.74 for identifying factors and barriers leading to medication non-adherence. Discriminant validity of the tool and the priming question was established by the four-fold number of barriers to adherence identified within the self-selected intervention group compared to the control group (4.4 versus 1.2 barriers, p < 0.05. The current study did not investigate construct validity due to small sample size and challenges on follow-up with patients. Future testing of the tool will include construct validation.

  2. Identifying gaps, barriers, and solutions in implementing pressure ulcer prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Irene M; Nadzam, Deborah Morris

    2011-06-01

    Patients continue to suffer from pressure ulcers (PUs), despite implementation of evidence-based pressure ulcer (PU) prevention protocols. In 2009, Joint Commission Resources (JCR) and Hill-Rom created the Nurse Safety Scholar-in-Residence (nurse scholar) program to foster the professional development of expert nurse clinicians to become translators of evidence into practice. The first nurse scholar activity has focused on PU prevention. Four hospitals with established PU programs participated in the PU prevention implementation project. Each hospital's team completed an inventory of PU prevention program components and provided copies of accompanying documentation, along with prevalence and incidence data. Site visits to the four participating hospitals were arranged to provide opportunities for more in-depth analysis and support. Following the initial site visit, the project team at each hospital developed action plans for the top three barriers to PU program implementation. A series of conference calls was held between the site visits. Pressure Ulcer Program Gaps and Recommendations. The four hospitals shared common gaps in terms of limitations in staff education and training; lack of physician involvement; limited involvement of unlicensed nursing staff; lack of plan for communicating at-risk status; and limited quality improvement evaluations of bedside practices. Detailed recommendations were identified for addressing each of these gaps. these Recommendations for eliminating gaps have been implemented by the participating teams to drive improvement and to reduce hospital-acquired PU rates. The nurse scholars will continue to study implementation of best practices for PU prevention.

  3. Tissue plasminogen activator; identifying major barriers related to intravenous injection in ischemic acute cerebral infraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Khorvash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to previous publications, in patients with acute ischemic cerebral infarction, thrombolytic therapy using intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA necessitates precise documentation of symptoms' onset. The aim of this study was to identify major barriers related to the IV-tPA injection in such patients. Materials and Methods: Between the year 2014-2015, patients with definitive diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction (n = 180 who attended the neurology ward located at the Isfahan Alzahra Hospital were studied. To investigate barriers related to door to IV-tPA needle time, personal reasons, and criteria for inclusion or exclusion of patients, three questionnaire forms were designed based on the Food and Drug Administration-approved indications or contraindications. Results: The mean age of males versus females was 60 versus 77.5 years (ranged 23–93 vs. 29–70 years, respectively. Out of total population, only 10.7% transferred to hospital in <4.5 h after the onset of symptoms. Regarding to eligibility for IV-tPA, 68.9% of total population have had criteria for such treatment. Concerning to both items such as transferring to hospital in <4.5 h after the onset of symptoms and eligibility for IV-tPA, only 6.6% of total population met the criteria for such management. There was ignorance or inattention to symptoms in 75% of population studied. There was a mean of 195.92 ± 6.65 min (182.8–209.04 min for door to IV-tPA needle time. Conclusion: Despite the international guidelines for IV-tPA injection within 3–4.5 h of ischemic stroke symptoms' onset, the results of this study revealed that falling time due to ignorance of symptoms, literacy, and living alone might need further attention. As a result, to decrease death and disability, educational programs related to the symptoms' onset by consultant neurologist in Isfahan/Iran seem to be advantageous.

  4. Identifying barriers to glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes after completion of an accredited education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, Chris M; Lantaff, Wendy M; Olenik, Nicole L

    The objective of this study was to identify patient-perceived barriers to achieving A1C targets after receiving instruction in an accredited diabetes education program. Qualitative research using semistructured interviews and thematic analyses. One pharmacist-run diabetes center located within an independent community pharmacy in a suburban region of southern Indiana. A total of 17 participants between the ages of 41-78 were interviewed in March and April 2016. Not applicable. Patient-perceived barriers to attaining glycemic control after completion of a pharmacist-taught diabetes self-management education (DSME) program accredited by the American Association of Diabetes Educators. Participants reported a variety of perceived barriers to glycemic control subsequent to the receipt of structured education. Seven major themes emerged: 1) health care provider factors; 2) self-identified indiscretions; 3) psychological barriers and poor social support; 4) knowledge deficits; 5) personal injury or adverse drug events; 6) time constraints and competing life demands; and 7) financial constraints. Participants reported a variety of perceived barriers to achieving A1C targets after completing DSME. Incorporation of solutions and coping mechanisms to these barriers into diabetes education programs may help patients attain glycemic control. Other factors may require individualized attention outside of DSME in follow-up episodes of diabetes care. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identifying and Overcoming Barriers to Diabetes Management in the Elderly: An Intervention Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Munshi, Medha

    2008-01-01

    .... The interventions are now being implemented with help of a geriatric life specialist (GLS). Intervention by GDT includes focused strategies to overcome barriers in the areas of clinical care, education, social environment, and finances...

  6. Identifying barriers to remaining physically active after rehabilitation: differences in perception between physical therapists and older adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Kathryn; Alt, Carlynn; Arvinen-Barrow, Monna

    2014-06-01

    Cross-sectional study. To describe readiness for change and barriers to physical activity in older adults and to contrast perceptions of physical therapists and patients using the Barriers to Being Active Quiz. Regular physical activity is vital to recovery after discharge from physical therapy. Physical therapists are positioned to support change in physical activity habits for those transitioning to home care. Understanding of readiness for change and barriers to physical activity could optimize recovery. Thirteen physical therapists enrolled in the study and invited patients who met the inclusion criteria to enroll (79 patients enrolled). The physical therapists provided the ICD-9 code, the physical therapist diagnosis, and completed the Barriers to Being Active Quiz as they perceived their patients would. The enrolled patients provided demographics and filled out the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the stages-of-change scale for physical activity, and the Barriers to Being Active Quiz. Patients were predominantly in the early stages of readiness for change. Both patients and physical therapists identified lack of willpower as the primary barrier to physical activity. Patients identified lack of willpower and social influence as critical barriers more often than physical therapists, whereas physical therapists identified fear of injury and lack of time more often than their patients did. Differences between physical therapists and their patients were noted for fear of injury (z = 2.66, P = .008) and lack of time (z = 3.46, P = .001). The stage of change for physical activity impacted perception of social influence (χ2 = 9.64, Pbarriers to physical activity may allow physical therapists to better tailor intervention strategies to impact physical activity behavior change.

  7. Identifying and Overcoming Critical Barriers to Widespread Second Use of PEV Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pesaran, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Both the market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and deployment of grid-connected energy storage systems are presently restricted by the high cost of batteries. Battery second use (B2U) strategies--in which a single battery first serves an automotive application, then is redeployed into a secondary market--could help address both issues by reducing battery costs to the primary (automotive) and secondary (electricity grid) users. This study investigates the feasibility of and major barriers to the second use of lithium-ion PEV batteries by posing and answering the following critical B2U questions: 1. When will used automotive batteries become available, and how healthy will they be? 2. What is required to repurpose used automotive batteries, and how much will it cost? 3. How will repurposed automotive batteries be used, how long will they last, and what is their value? Advanced analysis techniques are employed that consider the electrical, thermal, and degradation response of batteries in both the primary (automotive) and secondary service periods. Second use applications are treated in detail, addressing operational requirements, economic value, and market potential. The study concludes that B2U is viable and could provide considerable societal benefits due to the large possible supply of repurposed automotive batteries and substantial remaining battery life following automotive service. However, the only identified secondary market large enough to consume the supply of these batteries (utility peaker plant replacement) is expected to be a low margin market, and thus B2U is not expected to affect the upfront cost of PEVs.

  8. Securing the Future of Cultural Heritage by Identifying Barriers to and Strategizing Solutions for Preservation under Changing Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fatorić

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change challenges cultural heritage management and preservation. Understanding the barriers that can impede preservation is of paramount importance, as is developing solutions that facilitate the planning and management of vulnerable cultural resources. Using online survey research, we elicited the opinions of diverse experts across southeastern United States, a region with cultural resources that are particularly vulnerable to flooding and erosion from storms and sea level rise. We asked experts to identify the greatest challenges facing cultural heritage policy and practice from coastal climate change threats, and to identify strategies and information needs to overcome those challenges. Using content analysis, we identified institutional, technical and financial barriers and needs. Findings revealed that the most salient barriers included the lack of processes and preservation guidelines for planning and implementing climate adaptation actions, as well as inadequate funding and limited knowledge about the intersection of climate change and cultural heritage. Experts perceived that principal needs to overcome identified barriers included increased research on climate adaptation strategies and impacts to cultural heritage characteristics from adaptation, as well as collaboration among diverse multi-level actors. This study can be used to set cultural heritage policy and research agendas at local, state, regional and national scales.

  9. Identifying the Correlates and Barriers of Future Planning among Parents of Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Meghan; Arnold, Catherine; Owen, Aleksa

    2018-01-01

    Although individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are living longer lives, fewer than half of parents of individuals with IDD conduct future planning. The correlates and barriers to future planning must be identified to develop targeted interventions to facilitate future planning. In this study, 388 parents of individuals…

  10. Identifying Knowledge Sharing Barriers in the Collaboration of Traditional and Western Medicine Professionals in Chinese Hospitals: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lihong; Nunes, Miguel Baptista

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a research project that aims at identifying knowledge sharing (KS) barriers between traditional and western medicine practitioners co-existing and complementing each other in Chinese healthcare organisations. The study focuses on the tacit aspects of patient knowledge, rather than the traditional technical information shared…

  11. Understanding low levels of physical activity in people with intellectual disabilities : A systematic review to identify barriers and facilitators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, Leontien; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities (ID) undertake extremely low levels of physical activity. Aims: To enhance understanding concerning low levels of physical activity in people with ID, this study has three aims: (1) to identify barriers to and facilitators of physical activity in

  12. Time-resolved study of the electron temperature and number density of argon metastable atoms in argon-based dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, E.; Laurent, M.; Durocher-Jean, A.; Laroche, G.; Gherardi, N.; Naudé, N.; Stafford, L.

    2018-01-01

    A combination of optical emission spectroscopy and collisional-radiative modelling is used to determine the time-resolved electron temperature (assuming Maxwellian electron energy distribution function) and number density of Ar 1s states in atmospheric pressure Ar-based dielectric barrier discharges in presence of either NH3 or ethyl lactate. In both cases, T e values were higher early in the discharge cycle (around 0.8 eV), decreased down to about 0.35 eV with the rise of the discharge current, and then remained fairly constant during discharge extinction. The opposite behaviour was observed for Ar 1s states, with cycle-averaged values in the 1017 m-3 range. Based on these findings, a link was established between the discharge ionization kinetics (and thus the electron temperature) and the number density of Ar 1s state.

  13. Identifying the Barriers and Facilitators to Participation in Physical Activity for Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, M.; Shields, N.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many children with Down syndrome do not undertake the recommended amount of daily physical activity. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers and facilitators to physical activity for this group. Methods: Eighteen in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 parents (16 mothers, 4 fathers) of children with Down syndrome aged…

  14. Sustaining Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs in Schools: Needs and Barriers Identified by School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Lesley R.; Brandt, Heather M.; Prince, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background: To reduce teen pregnancy rates, prevention programs must be consistently available to large numbers of youth. However, prevention efforts have been historically conducted with little emphasis on ensuring program sustainability. This study examined the needs and barriers to sustaining teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) programming in…

  15. Developing a questionnaire to identify perceived barriers for implementing the Dutch physical therapy COPD clinical practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wees, Philip J; Zagers, Cor A M; de Die, Sara E; Hendriks, Erik J M; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; de Bie, Rob A

    2013-05-01

    Clinical practice guidelines have been developed to assist healthcare practitioners in clinical decision making. Publication of clinical practice guidelines does not automatically lead to their uptake and barrier identification has been recognized as an important step in implementation planning. This study aimed at developing a questionnaire to identify perceived barriers for implementing the Dutch COPD guideline for physical therapists and its recommended measurement instruments. An overall questionnaire, based on two existing questionnaires, was constructed to identify barriers and facilitators for implementing the COPD guideline. The construct of the questionnaire was assessed in a cross-sectional study among 246 chest physical therapists. Factor analysis was conducted to explore underlying dimensions. Psychometric properties were analyzed using Cronbach's alpha. Barriers and facilitators were assessed using descriptive statistics. Some 139 physical therapists (57%) responded. Factor analysis revealed 4-factor and 5-factor solutions with an explained variance of 36% and 39% respectively. Cronbach's alpha of the overall questionnaire was 0.90, and varied from 0.66 to 0.92 for the different factors. Underlying domains of the 5-factor solution were characterized as: attitude towards using measurement instruments, knowledge and skills of the physical therapist, applicability of the COPD guideline, required investment of time & money, and patient characteristics. Physical therapists showed a positive attitude toward using the COPD guideline. Main barriers for implementation were required time investment and financial constraints. The construct of the questionnaire revealed relevant underlying domains for the identification of barriers and facilitators for implementing the COPD guideline. The questionnaire allowed for tailoring to the target group and may be used across health care professionals as basis for in-depth analysis of barriers to specific recommendations in

  16. Identifying barriers to recovery from work related upper extremity disorders: use of a collaborative problem solving technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, William S; Feuerstein, Michael; Miller, Virginia I; Wood, Patricia M

    2003-08-01

    Improving health and work outcomes for individuals with work related upper extremity disorders (WRUEDs) may require a broad assessment of potential return to work barriers by engaging workers in collaborative problem solving. In this study, half of all nurse case managers from a large workers' compensation system were randomly selected and invited to participate in a randomized, controlled trial of an integrated case management (ICM) approach for WRUEDs. The focus of ICM was problem solving skills training and workplace accommodation. Volunteer nurses attended a 2 day ICM training workshop including instruction in a 6 step process to engage clients in problem solving to overcome barriers to recovery. A chart review of WRUED case management reports (n = 70) during the following 2 years was conducted to extract case managers' reports of barriers to recovery and return to work. Case managers documented from 0 to 21 barriers per case (M = 6.24, SD = 4.02) within 5 domains: signs and symptoms (36%), work environment (27%), medical care (13%), functional limitations (12%), and coping (12%). Compared with case managers who did not receive the training (n = 67), workshop participants identified more barriers related to signs and symptoms, work environment, functional limitations, and coping (p Problem solving skills training may help focus case management services on the most salient recovery factors affecting return to work.

  17. IDENTIFYING AND ANALYZING THE TRANSIENT AND PERMANENT BARRIERS FOR BIG DATA

    OpenAIRE

    SARFRAZ NAWAZ BROHI; MERVAT ADIB BAMIAH; MUHAMMAD NAWAZ BROHI

    2016-01-01

    Auspiciously, big data analytics had made it possible to generate value from immense amounts of raw data. Organizations are able to seek incredible insights which assist them in effective decision making and providing quality of service by establishing innovative strategies to recognize, examine and address the customers’ preferences. However, organizations are reluctant to adopt big data solutions due to several barriers such as data storage and transfer, scalability, data quality, data c...

  18. Communicating with disabled children when inpatients: barriers and facilitators identified by parents and professionals in a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Siobhan; Lloyd, Claire; Tomlinson, Richard; Thomas, Eleanor; Martin, Alice; Logan, Stuart; Morris, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    Communication is a fundamental part of health care, but can be more difficult with disabled children. Disabled children are more frequently admitted to hospital than other children. To explore experiences of ward staff and families to identify barriers and facilitators to effective communication with disabled children whilst inpatients. This was an exploratory qualitative study. We consulted 25 staff working on paediatric wards and 15 parents of disabled children recently admitted to those wards. We had difficulty in recruiting children and evaluating their experiences. Data were collected through interviews and focus groups. A thematic analysis of the data supported by the Framework Approach was used to explore experiences and views about communication. Emerging themes were subsequently synthesised to identify barriers and facilitators to good communication. Barriers to communication included time, professionals not prioritising communication in their role and poor information sharing between parents and professionals. Facilitators included professionals building rapport with a child, good relationships between professionals and parents, professionals having a family-centred approach, and the use of communication aids. Communication with disabled children on the ward was perceived as less than optimal. Parents are instrumental in the communication between their children and professionals. Although aware of the importance of communication with disabled children, staff perceived time pressures and lack of priority given to communicating directly with the child as major barriers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Identifying the barriers and enablers to palliative care nurses' recognition and assessment of delirium symptoms: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosie, Annmarie; Lobb, Elizabeth; Agar, Meera; Davidson, Patricia M; Phillips, Jane

    2014-11-01

    Delirium is underrecognized by nurses, including those working in palliative care settings where the syndrome occurs frequently. Identifying contextual factors that support and/or hinder palliative care nurses' delirium recognition and assessment capabilities is crucial, to inform development of clinical practice and systems aimed at improving patients' delirium outcomes. The aim of the study was to identify nurses' perceptions of the barriers and enablers to recognizing and assessing delirium symptoms in palliative care inpatient settings. A series of semistructured interviews, guided by critical incident technique, were conducted with nurses working in Australian palliative care inpatient settings. A hypoactive delirium vignette prompted participants' recall of delirium and identification of the perceived factors (barriers and enablers) that impacted on their delirium recognition and assessment capabilities. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Thirty participants from nine palliative care services provided insights into the barriers and enablers of delirium recognition and assessment in the inpatient setting that were categorized as patient and family, health professional, and system level factors. Analysis revealed five themes, each reflecting both identified barriers and current and/or potential enablers: 1) value in listening to patients and engaging families, 2) assessment is integrated with care delivery, 3) respecting and integrating nurses' observations, 4) addressing nurses' delirium knowledge needs, and 5) integrating delirium recognition and assessment processes. Supporting the development of palliative care nursing delirium recognition and assessment practice requires attending to a range of barriers and enablers at the patient and family, health professional, and system levels. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Identifying Facilitators and Barriers for Patient Safety in a Medicine Label Design System Using Patient Simulation and Interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Clemmensen, Marianne Hald; Sørensen, Trine Kart

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Medicine label design plays an important role in improving patient safety. This study aimed at identifying facilitators and barriers in a medicine label system to prevent medication errors in clinical use by health care professionals. Methods The study design is qualitative and explora......Objectives Medicine label design plays an important role in improving patient safety. This study aimed at identifying facilitators and barriers in a medicine label system to prevent medication errors in clinical use by health care professionals. Methods The study design is qualitative...... of the system and some inconsistencies (different meaning of colors) posed challenges, when considered with the actual application context, in which there is little time to get familiar with the design features. Conclusions For optimizing medicine labels and obtaining the full benefit of label design features...

  1. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhojit Dey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Globally, breast cancer (BC has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. Methods A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted during May 2013–March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged ≥18–70 years who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop. All FGDs were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were inductively analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Based on emerged codes and categories, thematic analysis was done, and theory was developed using the grounded theory approach. Results Data were analyzed in three major themes: i knowledge and perception about BC; ii barriers faced by women in the early presentation of BC; and iii healthcare-seeking behavior. The findings revealed that shyness, fear, and posteriority were the major behavioral barriers in the early presentation of BC. Erroneously, pain was considered as an initial symptom of BC by most women. Financial constraint was also mentioned as a cause for delay in accessing treatment. Social stigma that breast problems reflect bad character of women also contributed in hiding BC symptoms. Conclusions Lack of BC awareness was prevalent, especially in low socioeconomic class. Women's ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and social and behavioral hurdles should be addressed by BC awareness campaigns appropriately suited for various levels of social class.

  2. Identifying Barriers in the Use of Electronic Health Records in Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamura, Faith D; Hughes, Kira

    2017-01-01

    Hawai‘i faces unique challenges to Electronic Health Record (EHR) adoption due to physician shortages, a widespread distribution of Medically Underserved Areas and Populations (MUA/P), and a higher percentage of small independent practices. However, research on EHR adoption in Hawai‘i is limited. To address this gap, this article examines the current state of EHR in Hawai‘i, the barriers to adoption, and the future of Health Information Technology (HIT) initiatives to improve the health of Hawai‘i's people. Eight focus groups were conducted on Lana‘i, Maui, Hawai‘i Island, Kaua‘i, Moloka‘i, and O‘ahu. In these groups, a total of 51 diverse health professionals were asked about the functionality of EHR systems, barriers to use, facilitators of use, and what EHRs would look like in a perfect world. Responses were summarized and analyzed based on constant comparative analysis techniques. Responses were then clustered into thirteen themes: system compatibility, loss of productivity, poor interface, IT support, hardware/software, patient factors, education/training, noise in the system, safety, data quality concerns, quality metrics, workflow, and malpractice concerns. Results show that every group mentioned system compatibility. In response to these findings, the Health eNet Community Health Record initiative — which allows providers web-based access to patient health information from the patient's provider network— was developed as a step toward alleviating some of the barriers to sharing information between different EHRs. The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) legislation will introduce a new payment model in 2017 that is partially based on EHR utilization. Therefore, more research should be done to understand EHR adoption and how this ruling will affect providers in Hawai‘i. PMID:28435756

  3. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior Among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Subhojit; Sharma, Surabhi; Mishra, Arti; Krishnan, Suneeta; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K

    2016-01-01

    Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013-March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged ≥18-70 years) who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop. All FGDs were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were inductively analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Based on emerged codes and categories, thematic analysis was done, and theory was developed using the grounded theory approach. Data were analyzed in three major themes: i) knowledge and perception about BC; ii) barriers faced by women in the early presentation of BC; and iii) healthcare-seeking behavior. The findings revealed that shyness, fear, and posteriority were the major behavioral barriers in the early presentation of BC. Erroneously, pain was considered as an initial symptom of BC by most women. Financial constraint was also mentioned as a cause for delay in accessing treatment. Social stigma that breast problems reflect bad character of women also contributed in hiding BC symptoms. Lack of BC awareness was prevalent, especially in low socioeconomic class. Women's ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and social and behavioral hurdles should be addressed by BC awareness campaigns appropriately suited for various levels of social class.

  4. Picosecond-resolved FRET on non-amplified DNA for identifying individuals genetically susceptible to type-1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardo, Luca; Tosi, Giovanna; Bondani, Maria; Accolla, Roberto; Andreoni, Alessandra

    2012-06-01

    By tens-of-picosecond resolved fluorescence detection we study Förster resonance energy transfer between a donor and a black-hole-quencher bound at the 5'- and 3'-positions of an oligonucleotide probe matching the highly polymorphic region between codons 51 and 58 of the human leukocyte antigen DQB1 0201 allele, conferring susceptibility to type-1 diabetes. The probe is annealed with non-amplified genomic DNAs carrying either the 0201 sequence or other DQB1 allelic variants. We detect the longest-lived donor fluorescence in the case of hybridization with the 0201 allele and definitely faster and distinct decays for the other allelic variants, some of which are single-nucleotide polymorphic.

  5. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior Among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Subhojit; Sharma, Surabhi; Mishra, Arti; Krishnan, Suneeta; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. Methods A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013–March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted ...

  6. Identifying and intervening on barriers to healthcare access among members of a small Korean community in the southern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Song, Eunyoung; Nam, Sang; Choi, Sarah J; Choi, Seungyong

    2015-04-01

    We used community-based participatory research (CBPR) to explore barriers to healthcare access and utilization and identify potentially effective intervention strategies to increase access among members of the Korean community in North Carolina (NC). Our CBPR partnership conducted 8 focus groups with 63 adult Korean immigrants in northwest NC and 15 individual in-depth interviews and conducted an empowerment-based community forum. We identified 20 themes that we organized into four domains, including practical barriers to health care, negative perceptions about care, contingencies for care, and provider misconceptions about local needs. Forum attendees identified four strategies to improve Korean community health. Despite the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), many Korean community members will continue to remain uninsured, and among those who obtain insurance, many barriers will remain. It is imperative to ensure the health of this highly neglected and vulnerable community. Potential strategies include the development of (1) low-literacy materials to educate members of the Korean community about how to access healthcare services, (2) lay health advisor programs to support navigation of service access and utilization, (3) church-based programming, and (4) provider education to reduce misconceptions about Korean community needs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Identifying the barriers to affirmative action training: Perceptions of affirmative action appointees in Mpumalanga public hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Rankhumise

    2010-11-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this study is to gauge the perceptions about existing barriers in the implementation of affirmative action (AA training interventions at public hospitals in the Mpumalanga Province. Motivations for the study: The research conducted in this study provides valuable information which would enable the Mpumalanga health department and public hospital management to develop improved interventions associated with AA training interventions. Research design, approach and method: The population of the study consists of two groups of participants which are AA appointees and AA mentors. The study mixed qualitative and quantitative research methodological processes. Main findings: Results of this study show that there are differences in perceptions between Black respondents who believe that mentors should be held liable for the failure of the mentees and White respondents who disagreed. The findings suggest that employees are of the opinion that internal policy guidelines on the implementation of AA are not communicated to all employees. Practical implications: Public hospital management should articulate the purpose of AA interventions and its targets to both mentors and mentees and continuously review the implementation thereof. Contribution: The study contributes towards explaining the importance of training interventions that are useful for the success of AA appointees in their respective duties and also give account of barriers that are experienced by these appointees.

  8. Identifying Barriers and Facilitators at Affect Community Pharmacists' Ability to Engage Children in Medication Counseling: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Dayna S.; Schleiden, Loren J.; Carpenter, Delesha M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study aimed to describe the barriers and facilitators that influence community pharmacists' ability to provide medication counseling to pediatric patients. METHODS Semistructured interviews (n = 16) were conducted with pharmacy staff at 3 community pharmacies in 2 Eastern states. The interview guide elicited pharmacy staff experiences interacting with children and their perceived barriers and facilitators to providing medication counseling. Transcripts were reviewed for accuracy and a codebook was developed for data analysis. NVivo 10 was used for content analysis and identifying relevant themes. RESULTS Ten pharmacists and 6 pharmacy technicians were interviewed. Most participants were female (69%), aged 30 to 49 years (56%), with ≥5 years of pharmacy practice experience. Eight themes emerged as barriers to pharmacists' engaging children in medication counseling, the most prevalent being the child's absence during medication pickup, the child appearing to be distracted or uninterested, and having an unconducive pharmacy environment. Pharmacy staff noted 7 common facilitators to engaging children, most importantly, availability of demonstrative and interactive devices/technology, pharmacist demeanor and communication approach, and having child-friendly educational materials. CONCLUSIONS Findings suggest that pharmacy personnel are rarely able to engage children in medication counseling because of the patient's absence during medication pickup; however, having child-friendly materials could facilitate interactions when the child is present. These findings can inform programs and interventions aimed at addressing the barriers pharmacists encounter while educating children about safe and appropriate use of medicines. PMID:29290741

  9. Examining emergency department communication through a staff-based participatory research method: identifying barriers and solutions to meaningful change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kenzie A; Engel, Kirsten G; McCarthy, Danielle M; Buckley, Barbara A; Mercer Kollar, Laura Min; Donlan, Sarah M; Pang, Peter S; Makoul, Gregory; Tanabe, Paula; Gisondi, Michael A; Adams, James G

    2010-12-01

    We test an initiative with the staff-based participatory research (SBPR) method to elicit communication barriers and engage staff in identifying strategies to improve communication within our emergency department (ED). ED staff at an urban hospital with 85,000 ED visits per year participated in a 3.5-hour multidisciplinary workshop. The workshop was offered 6 times and involved: (1) large group discussion to review the importance of communication within the ED and discuss findings from a recent survey of patient perceptions of ED-team communication; (2) small group discussions eliciting staff perceptions of communication barriers and best practices/strategies to address these challenges; and (3) large group discussions sharing and refining emergent themes and suggested strategies. Three coders analyzed summaries from group discussions by using latent content and constant comparative analysis to identify focal themes. A total of 127 staff members, including attending physicians, residents, nurses, ED assistants, and secretaries, participated in the workshop (overall participation rate 59.6%; range 46.7% to 73.3% by staff type). Coders identified a framework of 4 themes describing barriers and proposed interventions: (1) greeting and initial interaction, (2) setting realistic expectations, (3) team communication and respect, and (4) information provision and delivery. The majority of participants (81.4%) reported that their participation would cause them to make changes in their clinical practice. Involving staff in discussing barriers and facilitators to communication within the ED can result in a meaningful process of empowerment, as well as the identification of feasible strategies and solutions at both the individual and system levels. Copyright © 2010 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Identifying the barriers and enablers in the implementation of the New Zealand and Australian Antenatal Corticosteroid Clinical Practice Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Mc Goldrick

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ineffective implementation of evidence based practice guidelines can mean that the best health outcomes are not achieved. This study examined the barriers and enablers to the uptake and implementation of the new bi-national (Australia and New Zealand antenatal corticosteroid clinical practice guidelines among health professionals, using the Theoretical Domains Framework. Methods Semi-structured interviews or online questionnaires were conducted across four health professional groups and three district health boards in Auckland, New Zealand. The questions were constructed to reflect the 14 behavioural domains from the Theoretical Domains Framework. Relevant domains were identified by the presence of conflicting beliefs within a domain; the frequency of beliefs; and the likely strength of the impact of a belief on the behaviour using thematic analysis. The influence of health professional group and organisation on the different barriers and enablers identified were explored. Results Seventy-three health professionals completed either a semi-structured interview (n = 35 or on-line questionnaire (n = 38. Seven behavioural domains were identified as overarching enablers: belief about consequences; knowledge; social influences; environmental context and resource; belief about capabilities; social professional role and identity; and behavioural regulation. Five behavioural domains were identified as overarching barriers: environmental context and resources; knowledge; social influences; belief about consequences; and social professional role and identity. Differences in beliefs between individual health professional groups were identified within the domains: belief about consequences; social professional role and identity; and emotion. Organisational differences were identified within the domains: belief about consequences; social influences; and belief about capabilities. Conclusion This study has identified some of the

  11. Identifying a motor proficiency barrier for meeting physical activity guidelines in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meester, An; Stodden, David; Goodway, Jacqueline; True, Larissa; Brian, Ali; Ferkel, Rick; Haerens, Leen

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the existence of a threshold level (proficiency barrier) of actual motor competence (MC) below which a child is not likely to attain 60min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. A cross-sectional study. Actual MC was assessed in 326 children (48.5% boys; age=9.50±1.24years) using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2; MVPA was measured with ActiGraph GT3X+accelerometers. Perceived MC, included as a potential mediating variable, was assessed with the Self-Perception Profile for Children. Binary logistic (mediation) regression analyses controlling for sex and a chi-squared test were used to gain insight into the relationship between (the levels of) actual MC and the percentage of children meeting the MVPA guideline. Actual MC significantly predicted the percentage of children meeting the guideline (B=.03, SE=.01, p<.001), even when controlling for sex. Perceived MC did not mediate this relationship. Children with high actual MC (65-100 percentile) were 2.46 (p=.003) times more likely to meet the guideline than children with low actual MC (0-27 percentile). The present study demonstrates the potential impact of low MC on children's MVPA levels and suggests evidence for the existence of a proficiency barrier for meeting MVPA guidelines. Almost 90% of the children whose actual MC is below the 'average' threshold do not meet the MVPA guideline. As more children with higher levels of actual MC meet the guideline than their less competent peers, it is crucial to provide opportunities to sufficiently develop children's actual MC. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identifying barriers to patient acceptance of active surveillance: content analysis of online patient communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Mark V; Bennett, Michele; Vincent, Armon; Lee, Olivia T; Lallas, Costas D; Trabulsi, Edouard J; Gomella, Leonard G; Dicker, Adam P; Showalter, Timothy N

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative research aimed at identifying patient acceptance of active surveillance (AS) has been identified as a public health research priority. The primary objective of this study was to determine if analysis of a large-sample of anonymous internet conversations (ICs) could be utilized to identify unmet public needs regarding AS. English-language ICs regarding prostate cancer (PC) treatment with AS from 2002-12 were identified using a novel internet search methodology. Web spiders were developed to mine, aggregate, and analyze content from the world-wide-web for ICs centered on AS. Collection of ICs was not restricted to any specific geographic region of origin. NLP was used to evaluate content and perform a sentiment analysis. Conversations were scored as positive, negative, or neutral. A sentiment index (SI) was subsequently calculated according to the following formula to compare temporal trends in public sentiment towards AS: [(# Positive IC/#Total IC)-(#Negative IC/#Total IC) x 100]. A total of 464 ICs were identified. Sentiment increased from -13 to +2 over the study period. The increase sentiment has been driven by increased patient emphasis on quality-of-life factors and endorsement of AS by national medical organizations. Unmet needs identified in these ICs include: a gap between quantitative data regarding long-term outcomes with AS vs. conventional treatments, desire for treatment information from an unbiased specialist, and absence of public role models managed with AS. This study demonstrates the potential utility of online patient communications to provide insight into patient preferences and decision-making. Based on our findings, we recommend that multidisciplinary clinics consider including an unbiased specialist to present treatment options and that future decision tools for AS include quantitative data regarding outcomes after AS.

  13. Stakeholders identify similar barriers but different strategies to facilitate return-to-work: A vignette of a worker with an upper extremity condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan E; Truong, Anthony P; Johnston, Venerina

    2018-01-01

    Stakeholders involved in the return-to-work (RTW) process have different roles and qualificationsOBJECTIVE:To explore the perspectives of Australian stakeholders of the RTW barriers and strategies for a worker with an upper extremity condition and a complex workers' compensation case. Using a case vignette, stakeholders were asked to identify barriers and recommend strategies to facilitate RTW. Content analysis was performed on the open-ended responses. The responses were categorised into RTW barriers and strategies using the biopsychosocial model. Pearson's Chi Square and ANOVA were performed to establish group differences. 621 participants (488 healthcare providers (HCPs), 62 employers, 55 insurers and 16 lawyers) identified 36 barriers (31 modifiable): 4 demographic; 8 biological; 15 psychological and 9 social barriers. 484 participants reported 16 RTW strategies: 4 biological; 6 psychological and 6 social strategies. 'Work relationship stressors' (83.4%) and 'Personal relationship stressors' (64.7%) were the most frequently nominated barriers. HCPs most frequently nominated 'Pain management' (49.6%), while employers, insurers and lawyers nominated 'RTW planning/Suitable duties programs' (40.5%; 42.9%; 80%). Stakeholders perceived similar barriers for RTW but recommended different strategies. Stakeholders appeared to be more proficient in identifying barriers than recommending strategies. Future research should focus on tools to both identify RTW barriers and direct intervention.

  14. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Identifying barriers to mental health system improvements: an examination of community participation in assertive community treatment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakefield Patricia A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating the best available evidence into program standards is essential if system-wide improvements in the delivery of community-based mental health services are to be achieved. Since the beginning of the Assertive Community Treatment (ACT program movement, program standards have included a role for the community. In particular, ACT program standards have sought to ensure that members of the local community are involved in governance and that former clients participate in service delivery as "Peer Support Specialists". This paper reports on the extent to which ACT program standards related to community participation have been implemented and identifies barriers to full compliance. Methods Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through a telephone survey of ACT Program Coordinators in Ontario, Canada, using a census sample of the existing 66 ACT programs. A thematic approach to content analysis was used to analyze respondents' qualitative comments. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 and included means, frequencies, independent t-tests and Pearson Correlations. Results An 85% response rate was achieved. Of the 33 program standards, the two that received the lowest perceived compliance ratings were the two standards directly concerning community participation. Specifically, the standard to have a functioning Community Advisory Body and the standard requiring the inclusion of a Peer Support Specialist. The three major themes that emerged from the survey data with respect to the barriers to fully implementing the Community Advisory Body were: external issues; standard related issues; and, organizational/structural related issues. The three major themes concerning barriers to implementing the Peer Support Specialist role were: human resource related issues; organizational/structural related issues; and, standard related issues. Conclusions The reasons for low compliance of ACT programs with community

  16. Seeking Sepsis in the Emergency Department- Identifying Barriers to Delivery of the Sepsis 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, James; Henderson, Susan; Thakore, Shobhan; Donald, Michael; Wang, Weijie

    2016-01-01

    The Sepsis 6 is an internationally accepted management bundle that, when initiated within one hour of identifying sepsis, can reduce morbidity and mortality. This management bundle was advocated by the Scottish Patient Safety Programme as part of its Acute Adult campaign launched in 2008 and adopted by NHS Tayside in 2012. Despite this, the Emergency Department (ED) of Ninewells Hospital, a tertiary referral centre and major teaching hospital in Scotland, was displaying poor success in the Sepsis 6. We therefore set out to improve compliance by evaluating the application of all aspects of the NHS Tayside Sepsis 6 bundle within one hour of ED triage time, to identify what human factors may influence achieving the one hour The Sepsis 6 bundle. This allowed us to tailor a number of specific interventions including educational sessions, regular audit and personal feedback and check list Sepsis 6 sticker. These interventions promoted a steady increase in compliance from an initial rate of 51.0% to 74.3%. The project highlighted that undifferentiated patients create a challenge in initiating the Sepsis 6. Pyrexia is a key human factor-trigger for recognising sepsis with initial nursing assessment being vital in recognition and identifying the best area (resus) of the department to manage severely septic patients. EDs need to recognise these challenges and develop educational and feedback plans for staff and utilise available resources to maximise the Sepsis 6 compliance.

  17. Breaking barriers to interoperability: assigning spatially and temporally unique identifiers to spaces and buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Christopher R; Madan, Isaac

    2013-08-01

    The real estate industry routinely uses specialized information systems for functions, including design, construction, facilities management, brokerage, tax assessment, and utilities. These systems are mature and effective within vertically integrated market segments. However, new questions are reaching across these traditional information silos. For example, buyers may be interested in evaluating the design, energy efficiency characteristics, and operational performance of a commercial building. This requires the integration of information across multiple databases held by different institutions. Today, this type of data integration is difficult to automate and propone to errors due, in part, to the lack of generally accepted building and spaces identifiers. Moving forward, the real estate industry needs a new mechanism to assign identifiers for whole buildings and interior spaces for the purpose of interoperability, data exchange, and integration. This paper describes a systematic process to identify activities occurring at building or within interior spaces to provide a foundation for exchange and interoperability. We demonstrate the application of the approach with a prototype Web application. This concept and demonstration illustrate the elements of a practical interoperability framework that can increase productivity, create new business opportunities, and reduce errors, waste, and redundancy. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: a case study in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Anna L; Bero, Lisa A; Hill, Suzanne R

    2010-12-16

    Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are serious complications of pregnancy and major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. According to systematic reviews and WHO guidelines magnesium sulphate injection (MgSO4) should be the first -line treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Studies have shown that this safe and effective medicine is unavailable and underutilized in many resource poor countries. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System. A 'fishbone' (Ishikawa) diagram listing probable facilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified from the literature was used to develop an assessment tool. Barriers to availability and use of MgSO4 were assessed at the regulatory/government, supply, procurement, distribution, health facility and health professional levels. The assessment was completed during August 2008 using archival data, and observations at a pragmatic sample of health facilities providing obstetric services in Lusaka District, Zambia. The major barrier to the availability of MgSO4 within the public health system in Zambia was lack of procurement by the Ministry of Health. Other barriers identified included a lack of demand by health professionals at the health centre level and a lack of in-service training in the use of MgSO4. Where there was demand by obstetricians, magnesium sulphate injection was being procured from the private sector by the hospital pharmacy despite not being registered and licensed for use for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by the national Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority. The case study in Zambia highlights the complexities that underlie making essential medicines available and used appropriately. The fishbone diagram is a useful theoretical framework for illustrating the complexity of translating research findings into clinical practice. A better understanding of the supply system and of the pattern

  19. Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: A case study in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Suzanne R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are serious complications of pregnancy and major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. According to systematic reviews and WHO guidelines magnesium sulphate injection (MgSO4 should be the first -line treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Studies have shown that this safe and effective medicine is unavailable and underutilized in many resource poor countries. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System. Methods A 'fishbone' (Ishikawa diagram listing probable facilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified from the literature was used to develop an assessment tool. Barriers to availability and use of MgSO4 were assessed at the regulatory/government, supply, procurement, distribution, health facility and health professional levels. The assessment was completed during August 2008 using archival data, and observations at a pragmatic sample of health facilities providing obstetric services in Lusaka District, Zambia. Results The major barrier to the availability of MgSO4 within the public health system in Zambia was lack of procurement by the Ministry of Health. Other barriers identified included a lack of demand by health professionals at the health centre level and a lack of in-service training in the use of MgSO4. Where there was demand by obstetricians, magnesium sulphate injection was being procured from the private sector by the hospital pharmacy despite not being registered and licensed for use for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by the national Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority. Conclusions The case study in Zambia highlights the complexities that underlie making essential medicines available and used appropriately. The fishbone diagram is a useful theoretical framework for illustrating the complexity of translating research findings into clinical

  20. TH-B-BRC-00: How to Identify and Resolve Potential Clinical Errors Before They Impact Patients Treatment: Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    Radiation treatment consists of a chain of events influenced by the quality of machine operation, beam data commissioning, machine calibration, patient specific data, simulation, treatment planning, imaging and treatment delivery. There is always a chance that the clinical medical physicist may make or fail to detect an error in one of the events that may impact on the patient’s treatment. In the clinical scenario, errors may be systematic and, without peer review, may have a low detectability because they are not part of routine QA procedures. During treatment, there might be errors on machine that needs attention. External reviews of some of the treatment delivery components by independent reviewers, like IROC, can detect errors, but may not be timely. The goal of this session is to help junior clinical physicists identify potential errors as well as the approach of quality assurance to perform a root cause analysis to find and eliminate an error and to continually monitor for errors. A compilation of potential errors will be presented by examples of the thought process required to spot the error and determine the root cause. Examples may include unusual machine operation, erratic electrometer reading, consistent lower electron output, variation in photon output, body parts inadvertently left in beam, unusual treatment plan, poor normalization, hot spots etc. Awareness of the possibility and detection of error in any link of the treatment process chain will help improve the safe and accurate delivery of radiation to patients. Four experts will discuss how to identify errors in four areas of clinical treatment. D. Followill, NIH grant CA 180803.

  1. TH-B-BRC-00: How to Identify and Resolve Potential Clinical Errors Before They Impact Patients Treatment: Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Radiation treatment consists of a chain of events influenced by the quality of machine operation, beam data commissioning, machine calibration, patient specific data, simulation, treatment planning, imaging and treatment delivery. There is always a chance that the clinical medical physicist may make or fail to detect an error in one of the events that may impact on the patient’s treatment. In the clinical scenario, errors may be systematic and, without peer review, may have a low detectability because they are not part of routine QA procedures. During treatment, there might be errors on machine that needs attention. External reviews of some of the treatment delivery components by independent reviewers, like IROC, can detect errors, but may not be timely. The goal of this session is to help junior clinical physicists identify potential errors as well as the approach of quality assurance to perform a root cause analysis to find and eliminate an error and to continually monitor for errors. A compilation of potential errors will be presented by examples of the thought process required to spot the error and determine the root cause. Examples may include unusual machine operation, erratic electrometer reading, consistent lower electron output, variation in photon output, body parts inadvertently left in beam, unusual treatment plan, poor normalization, hot spots etc. Awareness of the possibility and detection of error in any link of the treatment process chain will help improve the safe and accurate delivery of radiation to patients. Four experts will discuss how to identify errors in four areas of clinical treatment. D. Followill, NIH grant CA 180803

  2. Identifying Barriers and Enablers in the Dietary Management of Type 2 Diabetes in M'Bour, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Evan; BeLue, Rhonda

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify cultural enablers and barriers to dietary management of type 2 diabetes in M'Bour, Senegal. This qualitative study used the PEN-3 cultural model to explore diabetes dietary management within a cultural framework. Content analysis identified emergent themes based on the PEN-3 model. Forty-one individuals completed interviews. Themes reflecting ways that culture affects adherence to the diabetic diet included (a) having a different diet or eating separately from the communal family plate creates feelings of social isolation; (b) forgoing the diabetic diet sometimes occurs so that family members have enough food; (c) reducing servings of traditional foods feels like abandoning culture; and (d) women being responsible for preparing food, while men typically manage money for purchasing food yet do not provide input on what food is purchased. Results suggest that educating family units on the dietary management of diabetes may be more effective than individual education.

  3. Resolving tumor heterogeneity: genes involved in chordoma cell development identified by low-template analysis of morphologically distinct cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin El-Heliebi

    Full Text Available The classical sacrococcygeal chordoma tumor presents with a typical morphology of lobulated myxoid tumor tissue with cords, strands and nests of tumor cells. The population of cells consists of small non-vacuolated cells, intermediate cells with a wide range of vacuolization and large heavily vacuolated (physaliferous cells. To date analysis was only performed on bulk tumor mass because of its rare incidence, lack of suited model systems and technical limitations thereby neglecting its heterogeneous composition. We intended to clarify whether the observed cell types are derived from genetically distinct clones or represent different phenotypes. Furthermore, we aimed at elucidating the differences between small non-vacuolated and large physaliferous cells on the genomic and transcriptomic level. Phenotype-specific analyses of small non-vacuolated and large physaliferous cells in two independent chordoma cell lines yielded four candidate genes involved in chordoma cell development. UCHL3, coding for an ubiquitin hydrolase, was found to be over-expressed in the large physaliferous cell phenotype of MUG-Chor1 (18.7-fold and U-CH1 (3.7-fold cells. The mannosyltransferase ALG11 (695-fold and the phosphatase subunit PPP2CB (18.6-fold were found to be up-regulated in large physaliferous MUG-Chor1 cells showing a similar trend in U-CH1 cells. TMEM144, an orphan 10-transmembrane family receptor, yielded contradictory data as cDNA microarray analysis showed up- but RT-qPCR data down-regulation in large physaliferous MUG-Chor1 cells. Isolation of few but morphologically identical cells allowed us to overcome the limitations of bulk analysis in chordoma research. We identified the different chordoma cell phenotypes to be part of a developmental process and discovered new genes linked to chordoma cell development representing potential targets for further research in chordoma tumor biology.

  4. The Genomic Landscape of Renal Oncocytoma Identifies a Metabolic Barrier to Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpy Joshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oncocytomas are predominantly benign neoplasms possessing pathogenic mitochondrial mutations and accumulation of respiration-defective mitochondria, characteristics of unknown significance. Using exome and transcriptome sequencing, we identified two main subtypes of renal oncocytoma. Type 1 is diploid with CCND1 rearrangements, whereas type 2 is aneuploid with recurrent loss of chromosome 1, X or Y, and/or 14 and 21, which may proceed to more aggressive eosinophilic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC. Oncocytomas activate 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK and Tp53 (p53 and display disruption of Golgi and autophagy/lysosome trafficking, events attributed to defective mitochondrial function. This suggests that the genetic defects in mitochondria activate a metabolic checkpoint, producing autophagy impairment and mitochondrial accumulation that limit tumor progression, revealing a novel tumor-suppressive mechanism for mitochondrial inhibition with metformin. Alleviation of this metabolic checkpoint in type 2 by p53 mutations may allow progression to eosinophilic ChRCC, indicating that they represent higher risk.

  5. A concept mapping approach to identifying the barriers to implementing an evidence-based sports injury prevention programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Alex; Callaghan, Aisling; Bizzini, Mario; Jowett, Andrew; Keyzer, Patrick; Nicholson, Matthew

    2018-01-20

    Understanding the barriers to programme use is important to facilitate implementation of injury prevention programmes in real-word settings. This study investigated the barriers to coaches of adolescent female soccer teams, in Victoria, Australia, implementing the evidence-based FIFA 11+ injury prevention programme. Concept mapping with data collected from 19 soccer coaches and administrators. Brainstorming generated 65 statements as barriers to 11+ implementation. After the statements were synthesised and edited, participants sorted 59 statements into groups (mean, 6.2 groups; range, 3-10 groups). Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis identified a six-cluster solution: Lack of 11+ knowledge among coaches (15 statements), Lack of player enjoyment and engagement (14), Lack of link to football-related goals (11), Lack of facilities and resources (8), Lack of leadership (6) and Lack of time at training (5). Statements in the 'Lack of 11+ knowledge among coaches' cluster received the highest mean importance (3.67 out of 5) and feasibility for the Football Federation to address (3.20) rating. Statements in the 'Lack of facilities and resources' cluster received the lowest mean importance rating (2.23), while statements in the 'Lack of time at training' cluster received the lowest mean feasibility rating (2.19). A multistrategy, ecological approach to implementing the 11+-with specific attention paid to improving coach knowledge about the 11+ and how to implement it, linking the 11+ to the primary goal of soccer training, and organisational leadership-is required to improve the uptake of the 11+ among the targeted coaches. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Building resilience into practical conservation: identifying local management responses to global climate change in the southern Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, J. A.; Marshall, P. A.; Johnson, J. E.; Harman, S.

    2010-06-01

    Climate change is now considered the greatest long-term threat to coral reefs, with some future change inevitable despite mitigation efforts. Managers must therefore focus on supporting the natural resilience of reefs, requiring that resilient reefs and reef regions be identified. We develop a framework for assessing resilience and trial it by applying the framework to target management responses to climate change on the southern Great Barrier Reef. The framework generates a resilience score for a site based on the evaluation of 19 differentially weighted indicators known or thought to confer resilience to coral reefs. Scores are summed, and sites within a region are ranked in terms of (1) their resilience relative to the other sites being assessed, and (2) the extent to which managers can influence their resilience. The framework was applied to 31 sites in Keppel Bay of the southern Great Barrier Reef, which has a long history of disturbance and recovery. Resilience and ‘management influence potential’ were both found to vary widely in Keppel Bay, informing site selection for the staged implementation of resilience-based management strategies. The assessment framework represents a step towards making the concept of resilience operational to reef managers and conservationists. Also, it is customisable, easy to teach and implement and effective in building support among local communities and stakeholders for management responses to climate change.

  7. Using the ecological framework to identify barriers and enablers to implementing Namaste Care in Canada's long-term care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Paulette V; Kaasalainen, Sharon; Froggatt, Katherine A; Ploeg, Jenny; Dolovich, Lisa; Simard, Joyce; Salsali, Mahvash

    2017-10-01

    Higher acuity of care at the time of admission to long-term care (LTC) is resulting in a shorter period to time of death, yet most LTC homes in Canada do not have formalized approaches to palliative care. Namaste Care is a palliative care approach specifically tailored to persons with advanced cognitive impairment who are living in LTC. The purpose of this study was to employ the ecological framework to identify barriers and enablers to an implementation of Namaste Care. Six group interviews were conducted with families, unlicensed staff, and licensed staff at two Canadian LTC homes that were planning to implement Namaste Care. None of the interviewees had prior experience implementing Namaste Care. The resulting qualitative data were analyzed using a template organizing approach. We found that the strongest implementation enablers were positive perceptions of need for the program, benefits of the program, and fit within a resident-centred or palliative approach to care. Barriers included a generally low resource base for LTC, the need to adjust highly developed routines to accommodate the program, and reliance on a casual work force. We conclude that within the Canadian LTC system, positive perceptions of Namaste Care are tempered by concerns about organizational capacity to support new programming.

  8. Identifying motivators and barriers to older community-dwelling people participating in resistance training: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Elissa; Lewin, Gill; Pettigrew, Simone; Hill, Anne-Marie; Bainbridge, Liz; Farrier, Kaela; Langdon, Trish; Airey, Phil; Hill, Keith D

    2017-08-01

    Participation rates of older people in resistance training (RT) are low despite increasing research showing many health benefits. To increase the number of older people participating in RT it is important to know what would motivate people to become involved, what motivates those who participate to continue, and the factors preventing many older people from commencing participation. To investigate these issues, a questionnaire was mailed to three groups of older people: (1) those receiving home care services, (2) members of a peak non-government seniors' organisation and (3) those participating in a specific gym-based RT programme. In total, 1327 questionnaires were returned (response rate = 42.5%). To feel good physically and mentally were the main reasons motivating participation among all three groups, and falls prevention was identified as an important motivator for the home care respondents. Pain, injury and illness were the main barriers to participating, or continuing to participate. However, medical advice was a factor influencing participation commencement. The results suggest organisations providing RT programmes for older people should tailor the promotion and delivery of programmes to address key motivators and barriers specific to each group to increase the proportion of older people initiating and continuing to engage in RT.

  9. Merging electricity and environment politics of Hong Kong: Identifying the barriers from the ways that sustainability is defined

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Alex Y.H. [Department of Geography, The University of Hong Kong, Hui Oi Chow Science Building, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2008-04-15

    The present paper presents a study of the electricity policy of Hong Kong in an environmental-political context. Through a critical review of the policy structure and rationale, it identifies the barriers to developing a truly sustainable electricity policy system and is expected to shed light on the forthcoming electricity market reform in the territory. The barriers stem from the path-dependent institutional set-ups that restrict a timely transformation of the roles of the actors. And this is coupled with the government's treatment that does not look beyond these structural constraints, overly appreciating scientific and economic rationalities than communicative actions. The author is of the view that these are intensified by the sharp changes in the local political economy. Positive signs of change are dampened by the minimal progress in democratic development in the near future and the extension of the power companies' monopolist status that will ruin the 'trust' between the stakeholders compounding the guilt of those rigid regulatory constraints. (author)

  10. A House Full of Trap Doors. Identifying barriers to resilient drylands in the toolbox of pastoral development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krätli, Saverio; Kaufmann, Brigitte; Roba, Hassan; Hiernaux, Pierre; Li, Wenjun; Easdale, Marcos H.; Huelsebusch, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The theoretical understanding of drylands and pastoral systems has long undergone a U-turn from the initial perspective rooted in classical ecology. The shift has hinged on the way to represent asymmetric variability, from a disturbance in an ecosystem that naturally tends towards uniformity and stability, to a constitutive part of a dynamic ecosystem. Operationalising the new reversed perspective, including the need to update the methodological infrastructure to plan around drylands and pastoral development, remains a challenge. Underlying assumptions about stability and uniformity, that are a legacy of equilibrium thinking, remain embedded in the toolbox of pastoral development, starting from the technical language to talk about the subject. This effectively gets in the way of operationalizing state of the art understanding of pastoral systems and the drylands. Unless these barriers are identified, unpacked and managed, even the present calls for increasing the rigour and intensity of data collection - for example as part of the ongoing global process to revise and improve agricultural data - cannot deliver a realistic representation of pastoral systems in statistics and policy making. This contribution presents the case for understanding variability as an asset, and provides a range of examples of methodological barriers, including classifications of livestock systems, scale of observation, key parameters in animal production, indicators in the measurement of ecological efficiency, concepts of ecological fragility, natural resources, and pastoral risk. The need to update this legacy is a pressing challenge for policy makers concerned with both modernisation and resilience in the drylands.

  11. Merging electricity and environment politics of Hong Kong: Identifying the barriers from the ways that sustainability is defined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Alex Y.H.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper presents a study of the electricity policy of Hong Kong in an environmental-political context. Through a critical review of the policy structure and rationale, it identifies the barriers to developing a truly sustainable electricity policy system and is expected to shed light on the forthcoming electricity market reform in the territory. The barriers stem from the path-dependent institutional set-ups that restrict a timely transformation of the roles of the actors. And this is coupled with the government's treatment that does not look beyond these structural constraints, overly appreciating scientific and economic rationalities than communicative actions. The author is of the view that these are intensified by the sharp changes in the local political economy. Positive signs of change are dampened by the minimal progress in democratic development in the near future and the extension of the power companies' monopolist status that will ruin the 'trust' between the stakeholders compounding the guilt of those rigid regulatory constraints

  12. Identifying Barriers to Delivering the Awakening and Breathing Coordination, Delirium, and Early Exercise/Mobility Bundle to Minimize Adverse Outcomes for Mechanically Ventilated Patients: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Deena Kelly; White, Matthew R; Ginier, Emily; Manojlovich, Milisa; Govindan, Sushant; Iwashyna, Theodore J; Sales, Anne E

    2017-08-01

    Improved outcomes are associated with the Awakening and Breathing Coordination, Delirium, and Early exercise/mobility bundle (ABCDE); however, implementation issues are common. As yet, no study has integrated the barriers to ABCDE to provide an overview of reasons for less successful efforts. The purpose of this review was to identify and catalog the barriers to ABCDE delivery based on a widely used implementation framework, and to provide a resource to guide clinicians in overcoming barriers to implementation. We searched MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus for original research articles from January 1, 2007, to August 31, 2016, that identified barriers to ABCDE implementation for adult patients in the ICU. Two reviewers independently reviewed studies, extracted barriers, and conducted thematic content analysis of the barriers, guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Discrepancies were discussed, and consensus was achieved. Our electronic search yielded 1,908 articles. After applying our inclusion/exclusion criteria, we included 49 studies. We conducted thematic content analysis of the 107 barriers and identified four classes of ABCDE barriers: (1) patient-related (ie, patient instability and safety concerns); (2) clinician-related (ie, lack of knowledge, staff safety concerns); (3) protocol-related (ie, unclear protocol criteria, cumbersome protocols to use); and, not previously identified in past reviews, (4) ICU contextual barriers (ie, interprofessional team care coordination). We provide the first, to our knowledge, systematic differential diagnosis of barriers to ABCDE delivery, moving beyond the conventional focus on patient-level factors. Our analysis offers a differential diagnosis checklist for clinicians planning ABCDE implementation to improve patient care and outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. All rights reserved.

  13. A qualitative study to identify barriers to deployment and student training in the use of automated external defibrillators in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinckernagel, Line; Hansen, Carolina Malta; Rod, Morten Hulvej

    2017-01-01

    such as delayed access have been reported. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to the implementation of defibrillator training of students and deployment of defibrillators in schools. Methods: A qualitative study based on semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups with a total of 25......Background: Student training in use of automated external defibrillators and deployment of such defibrillators in schools is recommended to increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Low implementation rates have been observed, and even at schools with a defibrillator, challenges...... to their perception of student training but not for their considerations on the relevance of their placement at schools. Conclusions: It is crucial for implementation of automated external defibrillators in schools to inform staff about how they work and are operated and that students are an appropriate target group...

  14. Integration of health into urban spatial planning through impact assessment: Identifying governance and policy barriers and facilitators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, Laurence; Barton, Hugh; Gray, Selena; Lease, Helen; Pilkington, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a review of literature examining the barriers and facilitators in integrating health in spatial planning at the local, mainly urban level, through appraisals. Our literature review covered the UK and non UK experiences of appraisals used to consider health issues in the planning process. We were able to identify four main categories of obstacles and facilitators including first the different knowledge and conceptual understanding of health by different actors/stakeholders, second the types of governance arrangements, in particular partnerships, in place and the political context, third the way institutions work, the responsibilities they have and their capacity and resources and fourth the timeliness, comprehensiveness and inclusiveness of the appraisal process. The findings allowed us to draw some lessons on the governance and policy framework regarding the integration of health impact into spatial planning, in particular considering the pros and cons of integrating health impact assessment (HIA) into other forms of impact assessment of spatial planning decisions such as environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environment assessment (SEA). In addition, the research uncovered a gap in the literature that tends to focus on the mainly voluntary HIA to assess health outcomes of planning decisions and neglect the analysis of regulatory mechanisms such as EIA and SEA. - Highlights: ► Governance and policy barriers and facilitators to the integration of health into urban planning. ► Review of literature on impact assessment methods used across the world. ► Knowledge, partnerships, management/resources and processes can impede integration. ► HIA evaluations prevail uncovering research opportunities for evaluating other techniques.

  15. Identifying Barriers to Appropriate Use of Metabolic/Bariatric Surgery for Type 2 Diabetes Treatment: Policy Lab Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jennifer K.; Hesketh, Rachel; Martin, Adam; Herman, William H.; Rubino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing recognition of the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of bariatric/metabolic surgery in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, few patients who may be appropriate candidates and may benefit from this type of surgery avail themselves of this treatment option. To identify conceptual and practical barriers to appropriate use of surgical procedures, a Policy Lab was hosted at the 3rd World Congress on Interventional Therapies for Type 2 Diabetes on 29 September 2015. Twenty-six stakeholders participated in the Policy Lab, including academics, clinicians, policy-makers, industry leaders, and patient representatives. Participants were provided with a summary of available evidence about the cost-effectiveness of bariatric/metabolic surgery and the costs of increasing the use of bariatric/metabolic surgery, using U.K. and U.S. scenarios as examples of distinct health care systems. There was widespread agreement among this group of stakeholders that bariatric/metabolic surgery is a legitimate and cost-effective approach to the treatment of type 2 diabetes in obese patients. The following four building blocks were identified to facilitate policy changes: 1) communicating the scale of the costs and harms associated with rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes; 2) properly articulating the role of bariatric/metabolic surgery for certain population groups; 3) identifying new funding sources for bariatric/metabolic surgery; and 4) incorporating bariatric/metabolic surgery into the appropriate clinical pathways. Although more research is needed to identify specific clinical scenarios for the prioritization of bariatric/metabolic surgery, the case appears to be strong enough to engage relevant policy-makers and practitioners in a concerted discussion of how to better use metabolic surgical resources in conjunction with other interventions in good diabetes practice. PMID:27222554

  16. Use of participant focus groups to identify barriers and facilitators to worksite exercise therapy adherence in randomized controlled trials involving firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer JM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available John M Mayer,1 James L Nuzzo,1 Simon Dagenais2 1School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 2Palladian Health, West Seneca, NY, USA Background: Firefighters are at increased risk for back injuries, which may be mitigated through exercise therapy to increase trunk muscle endurance. However, long-term adherence to exercise therapy is generally poor, limiting its potential benefits. Focus groups can be used to identify key barriers and facilitators to exercise adherence among study participants. Objective: To explore barriers and facilitators to worksite exercise therapy adherence among firefighters to inform future randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Methods: Participants enrolled in a previous RCT requiring twice-weekly worksite exercise therapy for 24 weeks were asked to take part in moderated focus group discussions centered on eight open-ended questions related to exercise adherence. Responses were analyzed qualitatively using a social ecological framework to identify key intrapersonal, interpersonal, and institutional barriers and potential facilitators to exercise adherence. Results: A total of 27 participants were included in the four focus group discussions, representing 50% of those assigned to a worksite exercise therapy group in the previous RCT, in which only 67% of scheduled exercise therapy sessions were completed. Lack of self-motivation was cited as the key intrapersonal barrier to adherence, while lack of peer support was the key interpersonal barrier reported, and lack of time to exercise during work shifts was the key institutional barrier identified. Conclusion: Focus group discussions identified both key barriers and potential facilitators to increase worksite exercise therapy adherence among firefighters. Future studies should consider educating and reminding participants about the benefits of exercise, providing individual and group incentives based on

  17. Developing a questionnaire to identify perceived barriers for implementing the Dutch physical therapy COPD clinical practice guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, P.J. van der; Zagers, C.A.; Die, S.E. de; Hendriks, E.J.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Bie, R.A. de

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines have been developed to assist healthcare practitioners in clinical decision making. Publication of clinical practice guidelines does not automatically lead to their uptake and barrier identification has been recognized as an important step in implementation

  18. Why is it not working? Identifying barriers to the therapy of paediatric obesity in an intercultural setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupitu, Carmen Cristina; Babitsch, Birgit

    2011-06-01

    Given the high overweight prevalence among children with a migration background in Germany, this paper describes barriers to the treatment of paediatric obesity in a specialized clinic providing services to an ethnically diverse population. In a cross-sectional mixed-method design, a two-week participant observation was followed by a cultural competence survey among the healthcare professionals employed at the clinic. The present study revealed barriers related to all categories of social actors involved in the therapy process. A major difficulty encountered by providers when working with ethnically diverse patients was the lack of mutual understanding, often associated with language barriers. Language barriers were most prevalent between providers and ethnically diverse mothers. Targeted education programs for adults (particularly women) with a migration background and cultural competence training for healthcare providers are needed in Germany. Special attention should be paid to scheduling appointments and enhancing patients' engagement in the therapy process.

  19. Combining the Power of Statistical Analyses and Community Interviews to Identify Adoption Barriers for Stormwater Best-Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, F. A.; Bowling, L. C.; Prokopy, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    Urban stormwater is an on-going management concern in municipalities of all sizes. In both combined or separated sewer systems, pollutants from stormwater runoff enter the natural waterway system during heavy rain events. Urban flooding during frequent and more intense storms are also a growing concern. Therefore, stormwater best-management practices (BMPs) are being implemented in efforts to reduce and manage stormwater pollution and overflow. The majority of BMP water quality studies focus on the small-scale, individual effects of the BMP, and the change in water quality directly from the runoff of these infrastructures. At the watershed scale, it is difficult to establish statistically whether or not these BMPs are making a difference in water quality, given that watershed scale monitoring is often costly and time consuming, relying on significant sources of funds, which a city may not have. Hence, there is a need to quantify the level of sampling needed to detect the water quality impact of BMPs at the watershed scale. In this study, a power analysis was performed on data from an urban watershed in Lafayette, Indiana, to determine the frequency of sampling required to detect a significant change in water quality measurements. Using the R platform, results indicate that detecting a significant change in watershed level water quality would require hundreds of weekly measurements, even when improvement is present. The second part of this study investigates whether the difficulty in demonstrating water quality change represents a barrier to adoption of stormwater BMPs. Semi-structured interviews of community residents and organizations in Chicago, IL are being used to investigate residents understanding of water quality and best management practices and identify their attitudes and perceptions towards stormwater BMPs. Second round interviews will examine how information on uncertainty in water quality improvements influences their BMP attitudes and perceptions.

  20. Identifying motivators and barriers to student completion of instructor evaluations: A multi-faceted, collaborative approach from four colleges of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, James W; Backo, Jennifer Lynn; Sobota, Kristen Finley; Metzger, Anne H; Ulbrich, Timothy

    To identify motivators and barriers to pharmacy student completion of instructor evaluations, and to develop potential strategies to improve the evaluation process. Completed at four Ohio Colleges of Pharmacy, Phase I consisted of a student/faculty survey and Phase II consisted of joint student/faculty focus groups to discuss Phase I data and to problem solve. In Phase I, the top three student-identified and faculty-perceived motivators to completion of evaluations were to (1) make the course better, (2) earn bonus points, and (3) improve the instructor's teaching. The top three student-identified barriers to completion of evaluations were having to (1) evaluate multiple instructors, (2) complete several evaluations around the same time, and (3) complete lengthy evaluations. Phase II focus groups identified a number of potential ways to enhance the motivators and reduce barriers, including but not limited to making sure faculty convey to students that the feedback they provide is useful and to provide examples of how student feedback has been used to improve their teaching/the course. Students and faculty identified motivators and barriers to completing instructor evaluations and were willing to work together to improve the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Method for identifying drivers, barriers and synergies related to the deployment of a CO2 pipeline network : A case study for the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, Niels; Cabal, Helena; Gouveia, João Pedro; van den Broek, Machteld; Faaij, André

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a method to identify drivers, barriers and synergies (DBS) related to the deployment of a CO2 pipeline network. The method was demonstrated for the West Mediterranean region (WMR) (i.e. Spain, Portugal and Morocco). The method comprises a literature review, analysis of

  2. Applying the Theoretical Domains Framework to identify barriers and targeted interventions to enhance nurses' use of electronic medication management systems in two Australian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Deborah; Taylor, Natalie; Lipworth, Wendy; Greenfield, David; Travaglia, Joanne; Black, Deborah; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2017-03-27

    Medication errors harm hospitalised patients and increase health care costs. Electronic Medication Management Systems (EMMS) have been shown to reduce medication errors. However, nurses do not always use EMMS as intended, largely because implementation of such patient safety strategies requires clinicians to change their existing practices, routines and behaviour. This study uses the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify barriers and targeted interventions to enhance nurses' appropriate use of EMMS in two Australian hospitals. This qualitative study draws on in-depth interviews with 19 acute care nurses who used EMMS. A convenience sampling approach was used. Nurses working on the study units (N = 6) in two hospitals were invited to participate if available during the data collection period. Interviews inductively explored nurses' experiences of using EMMS (step 1). Data were analysed using the TDF to identify theory-derived barriers to nurses' appropriate use of EMMS (step 2). Relevant behaviour change techniques (BCTs) were identified to overcome key barriers to using EMMS (step 3) followed by the identification of potential literature-informed targeted intervention strategies to operationalise the identified BCTs (step 4). Barriers to nurses' use of EMMS in acute care were represented by nine domains of the TDF. Two closely linked domains emerged as major barriers to EMMS use: Environmental Context and Resources (availability and properties of computers on wheels (COWs); technology characteristics; specific contexts; competing demands and time pressure) and Social/Professional Role and Identity (conflict between using EMMS appropriately and executing behaviours critical to nurses' professional role and identity). The study identified three potential BCTs to address the Environmental Context and Resources domain barrier: adding objects to the environment; restructuring the physical environment; and prompts and cues. Seven BCTs to address Social

  3. Identifying barriers to effective management of widespread invasive alien trees: Prosopis species (mesquite) in South Africa as a case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shackleton, RT

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available and in some cases improve the benefits that some invasive species can provide. This study assesses the barriers that hinder the effective management of widespread tree invasions, drawing insights from a case study of invasions of Prosopis species (mesquite...

  4. Identifying the Barriers to Using Games and Simulations in Education: Creating a Valid and Reliable Survey Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Lenora Jean

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a valid and reliable instrument to measure teacher perceived barriers to the adoption of games and simulations in instruction. Previous research, interviews with educators, a focus group, an expert review, and a think aloud protocol were used to design a survey instrument. After finalization, the survey was…

  5. Identifying the Barriers upon Development of Virtual Education in Engineering Majors (Case Study: The University of Isfahan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoonezhad, Sepideh; Nili, Mohammadreza; Esfahani, Ahmadreza Nasr

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims at investigating barriers upon development of virtual education in engineering majors at the University of Isfahan. The study has applied a mixed method (qualitative and quantitative) and its population consists all of the department members of the technical and engineering majors at the University of Isfahan including 125…

  6. Identifying barriers and facilitators to participation in pressure ulcer prevention in allied healthcare professionals: a mixed methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Peter R; Clarkson, Paul; Bader, Dan L; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the barriers and facilitators for allied health professional's participation in pressure ulcer prevention. Mixed method cohort study. Single centre study in an acute university hospital trust. Five physiotherapists and four occupational therapists were recruited from the hospital trust. Therapists had been working in the National Health Service (NHS) for a minimum of one year. Therapist views and experiences were collated using an audio recorded focus group. This recording was analysed using constant comparison analysis. Secondary outcomes included assessment of attitudes and knowledge of pressure ulcer prevention using questionnaires. Key themes surrounding barriers to participation in pressure ulcer prevention included resources (staffing and equipment), education and professional boundaries. Fewer facilitators were described, with new training opportunities and communication being highlighted. Results from the questionnaires showed the therapists had a positive attitude towards pressure ulcer prevention with a median score of 81% (range 50 to 83%). However, there were gaps in knowledge with a median score of 69% (range 50 to 77%). The therapist reported several barriers to pressure ulcer prevention and few facilitators. The primary barriers were resources, equipment and education. Attitudes and knowledge in AHPs were comparable to data previously reported from experienced nursing staff. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Identifying and Overcoming Barriers to Effective Consideration of Human and Organisational Factors in Event Analysis and Root Cause Analysis. Workshop Proceedings, September 21-22, 2009, Paris, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear licensees must have effective processes for learning from operating experience in order to manage safety, secure continuous improvement and defend against the potential for repeat events. These processes include root cause analysis (RCA) to identify the underlying causes of events and mechanisms to learn from these analyses and to implement improvements. Correctly identifying and correcting the causes of events will allow lessons to be learned and shared with others in the industry. The treatment of Human and Organisational Factors (HOF) in RCA is of special interest to WGHOF. It is estimated that approximately 60-80% of events in the nuclear industry can be attributed to human and organisational factors. Although the importance of correctly identifying the HOF causes is understood, there is still a tendency for the analysis to focus solely on the technical issues of the event. The history of prominent events across the major hazards sector shows that HOF lessons often fail to be learned. A NEA/CSNI special experts meeting entitled 'Identification of Barriers to Analyzing and Identifying Human and Organisational Factors in Root Cause Analysis' was held at the NEA Headquarters in Paris, France on September 21-22, 2009. A total of 17 participants from 10 countries representing licensee organisations, regulators, international organisations and an independent consultant attended the meeting. The meeting was structured to allow for small group discussions during which a number of themes were explored, followed by plenary discussion. There were also four papers presented which complemented the discussion themes. As set out in the objectives of this work, the participants identified barriers to the effective treatment of HOF in RCA and recommendations to mitigate the effects of these barriers. Many of the barriers and recommendations identified relate to the RCA process in general, not specifically to the treatment of HOF in the RCA process. This is logical, for

  8. Interlinking two institutional KOS about Agroecology: using LOD Agrovoc to circumvent the language barrier in identifying terminological intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Aubin , Sophie; Aventurier , Pascal; Pierozzi , Ivo Júnior; Mendonça Oliveira , Leandro Henrique

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the methodological approach proposed to resolve the matter of indicating equivalent terms in both languages to the same concept recorded in Agrovoc related to the discipline of Agroecology. French and Brazilian vocabularies were not compiled using the same methods and then the analysis was not conducted similarly, requiring different treatment for each vocabulary until the Agrovoc SKOS exact match could be performed.

  9. Barriers to free antiretroviral treatment access among kothi-identified men who have sex with men and aravanis (transgender women) in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; Dubrow, Robert

    2011-12-01

    The Indian government provides free antiretroviral treatment (ART) for people living with HIV. To assist in developing policies and programs to advance equity in ART access, we explored barriers to ART access among kothis (men who have sex with men [MSM] whose gender expression is feminine) and aravanis (transgender women, also known as hijras) living with HIV in Chennai. In the last quarter of 2007, we conducted six focus groups and four key-informant interviews. Data were explored using framework analysis to identify categories and derive themes. We identified barriers to ART access at the family/social-level, health care system-level, and individual-level; however, we found these barriers to be highly interrelated. The primary individual-level barrier was integrally linked to the family/social and health care levels: many kothis and aravanis feared serious adverse consequences if their HIV-positive status were revealed to others. Strong motivations to keep one's HIV-positive status and same-sex attraction secret were interconnected with sexual prejudice against MSM and transgenders, and HIV stigma prevalent in families, the health care system, and the larger society. HIV stigma was present within kothi and aravani communities as well. Consequences of disclosure, including rejection by family, eviction from home, social isolation, loss of subsistence income, and maltreatment (although improving) within the health care system, presented powerful disincentives to accessing ART. Given the multi-level barriers to ART access related to stigma and discrimination, interventions to facilitate ART uptake should address multiple constituencies: the general public, health care providers, and the kothi and aravani communities. India needs a national policy and action plan to address barriers to ART access at family/social, health care system, and individual levels for aravanis, kothis, other subgroups of MSM and other marginalized groups.

  10. Paving the Way to Successful Implementation: Identifying Key Barriers to Use of Technology-Based Therapeutic Tools for Behavioral Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Alex; Lord, Sarah; Torrey, John; Marsch, Lisa; Lardiere, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify barriers to use of technology for behavioral health care from the perspective of care decision makers at community behavioral health organizations. As part of a larger survey of technology readiness, 260 care decision makers completed an open-ended question about perceived barriers to use of technology. Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), qualitative analyses yielded barrier themes related to characteristics of technology (e.g., cost and privacy), potential end users (e.g., technology literacy and attitudes about technology), organization structure and climate (e.g., budget and infrastructure), and factors external to organizations (e.g., broadband accessibility and reimbursement policies). Number of reported barriers was higher among respondents representing agencies with lower annual budgets and smaller client bases relative to higher budget, larger clientele organizations. Individual barriers were differentially associated with budget, size of client base, and geographic location. Results are discussed in light of implementation science frameworks and proactive strategies to address perceived obstacles to adoption and use of technology-based behavioral health tools.

  11. Coastal Barrier Resource Areas, Barrier Islands and Spits; s44gbb89; Barrier Beaches as defined by RI CRMC were barrier beaches as defined by RI CRMC were identified on quad maps and manually digitized from tablets, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Coastal Barrier Resource Areas dataset current as of 1989. Barrier Islands and Spits; s44gbb89; Barrier Beaches as defined by RI CRMC were barrier beaches as defined...

  12. Toward Enteral Nutrition in the Treatment of Pediatric Crohn Disease in Canada: A Workshop to Identify Barriers and Enablers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Van Limbergen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment armamentarium in pediatric Crohn disease (CD is very similar to adult-onset CD with the notable exception of the use of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN [the administration of a liquid formula diet while excluding normal diet], which is used more frequently by pediatric gastroenterologists to induce remission. In pediatric CD, EEN is now recommended by the pediatric committee of the European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition as a first-choice agent to induce remission, with remission rates in pediatric studies consistently >75%. To chart and address enablers and barriers of use of EEN in Canada, a workshop was held in September 2014 in Toronto (Ontario, inviting pediatric gastroenterologists, nurses and dietitians from most Canadian pediatric IBD centres as well as international faculty from the United States and Europe with particular research and clinical expertise in the dietary management of pediatric CD. Workshop participants ranked the exclusivity of enteral nutrition; the health care resources; and cost implications as the top three barriers to its use. Conversely, key enablers mentioned included: standardization and sharing of protocols for use of enteral nutrition; ensuring sufficient dietetic resources; and reducing the cost of EEN to the family (including advocacy for reimbursement by provincial ministries of health and private insurance companies. Herein, the authors report on the discussions during this workshop and list strategies to enhance the use of EEN as a treatment option in the treatment of pediatric CD in Canada.

  13. Caring for people with dementia in hospital: findings from a survey to identify barriers and facilitators to implementing best practice dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropea, Joanne; LoGiudice, Dina; Liew, Danny; Roberts, Carol; Brand, Caroline

    2017-03-01

    Best practice dementia care is not always provided in the hospital setting. Knowledge, attitudes and motivation, practitioner behavior, and external factors can influence uptake of best practice and quality care. The aim of this study was to determine hospital staff perceived barriers and enablers to implementing best practice dementia care. A 17-item survey was administered at two Australian hospitals between July and September 2014. Multidisciplinary staff working in the emergency departments and general medical wards were invited to participate in the survey. The survey collected data about the respondents' current role, work area, and years of experience, their perceived level of confidence and knowledge in dementia care and common symptoms of dementia, barriers and enablers to implementing best practice dementia care, job satisfaction in caring for people with dementia, and to rate the hospital's capacity and available resources to support best practice dementia care. A total of 112 survey responses were received. The environment, inadequate staffing levels and workload, time, and staff knowledge and skills were identified as barriers to implementing best practice dementia care. Most respondents rated their knowledge of dementia care and common symptoms of dementia, and confidence in recognizing whether a person has dementia, as moderate or high dementia. Approximately, half the respondents rated access to training and equipment as low or very low. The survey findings highlighted hospital staff perceived barriers to implementing best practice dementia care that can be used to inform locally tailored improvement interventions.

  14. Using collective intelligence to identify barriers to teaching 12–19 year olds about the ocean in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauville, Géraldine; McHugh, Patricia; Domegan, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Since the degradation of the marine environment is strongly linked to human activities, having citizens who appreciate the ocean's influence on them and their influence on the ocean is important. Research has shown that citizens have a limited understanding of the ocean and it is this lack of ocean...... the ocean, highlighting how these barriers are interconnected and influence one another in a European Influence Map. The influence map shows 8 themes: Awareness and Perceived knowledge; Policies and Strategies; Engagement, formal education sector; the Ocean itself; Collaboration; Connections between humans...... and the ocean and the Blue Economy, having the greatest influence and impact on marine education. “Awareness and Perceived knowledge” in Stage 1, exerts the highest level of overall influence in teaching 12–19 year olds about the ocean. This map and study serves as a roadmap for policy makers to implement...

  15. Getting what they need when they need it. Identifying barriers to information needs of family caregivers to manage dementia-related behavioral symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Nicole E; Stanislawski, Barbara; Marx, Katherine A; Watkins, Daphne C; Kobayashi, Marissa; Kales, Helen; Gitlin, Laura N

    2017-02-22

    Consumer health informatics (CHI) such as web-based applications may provide the platform for enabling the over 15 million family caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's Disease or related dementias the information they need when they need it to support behavioral symptom management. However, for CHI to be successful, it is necessary that it be designed to meet the specific information needs of family caregivers in the context in which caregiving occurs. A sociotechnical systems approach to CHI design can help to understand the contextual complexities of family caregiving and account for those complexities in the design of CHI for family caregivers. This study used a sociotechnical systems approach to identify barriers to meeting caregivers' information needs related to the management of dementia-related behavioral symptoms, and to derive design implications that overcome barriers for caregiver-focused web-based platforms. We have subsequently used these design implications to inform the development of a web-based platform, WeCareAdvisor,TM which provides caregivers with information and an algorithm by which to identify and manage behavioral symptoms for which they seek management strategies. We conducted 4 focus groups with family caregivers (N=26) in a Midwestern state. Qualitative content analysis of the data was guided by a sociotechnical systems framework. We identified nine categories of barriers that family caregivers confront in obtaining needed information about behavioral symptom management from which we extrapolated design implications for a web-based platform. Based on interactions within the sociotechnical system, three critical information needs were identified: 1) timely access to information, 2) access to information that is tailored or specific to caregiver's needs and contexts, and 3) usable information that can directly inform how caregivers' manage behaviors. The sociotechnical system framework is a useful approach for identifying information

  16. Evaluation of storing hepatitis B vaccine outside the cold chain in the Solomon Islands: Identifying opportunities and barriers to implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakwell, Lucy; Anga, Jenniffer; Dadari, Ibrahim; Sadr-Azodi, Nahad; Ogaoga, Divinal; Patel, Minal

    2017-05-15

    Monovalent Hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) is heat stable, making it suitable for storage outside cold chain (OCC) at 37°C for 1month. We conducted an OCC project in the Solomon Islands to determine the feasibility of and barriers to national implementation and to evaluate impact on coverage. Healthcare workers at 13 facilities maintained monovalent HepB birth dose (HepB-BD) OCC for up to 28days over 7months. Vaccination data were recorded for children born during the project and those born during 7months before the project. Timely HepB-BD coverage among facility and home births increased from 30% to 68% and from 4% to 24%, respectively. Temperature excursions above 37°C were rare, but vaccine wastage was high and shortages common. Storing HepB OCC can increase HepB-BD coverage in countries with insufficient cold chain capacity or numerous home births. High vaccine wastage and unreliable vaccine supply must be addressed for successful implementation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Identifying the Barriers to Women's Agency in Domestic Violence: The Tensions between Women's Personal Experiences and Systemic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Aldridge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in knowledge and understanding about the impacts of domestic violence on women's lives, global research on violence against women shows there is a need for research that not only places women centre stage in research praxis, but also that involves them more collaboratively in genuine dialogue about their experiences, including their agentic stances. This is especially the case for marginalised and socially excluded women victims of domestic violence, such as those who are not known or do not present to services and who survive abusive relationships alone or with little outside support. Evidence from two studies reported here—secondary analysis of women with severe and enduring mental health problems and a collaborative narrative project with unsupported women victims of domestic violence—suggest that women's capacity for agency are compromised by a number of critical factors, and that these are also reflected in the tensions between micro–macro analyses and understanding of the impact of domestic violence on women. This article considers the barriers to women's agency from the women's perspective and in the context of broader, systemic dynamics, including the denial or obscuring of abuse by governments and states and the consequences of stringent fiscal retrenchment that put women at increased risk of domestic violence.

  18. Identifying barriers to receiving preventive dental services: expanding access to preventive dental hygiene services through affiliated practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Panico, Michelle L; Freeman, Wilbur K

    2012-01-01

    Minority children and children from lower income families are more likely to experience the burden of oral disease. Since oral disease reduces quality of life, it is a priority to utilize preventive dental services. The research questions ask if affiliated practice increases utilization of preventive dental services by underserved children from birth to 18 years of age, and what the barriers to receiving preventive dental services are and their level of importance. A survey was administered to parents/guardians of patients from birth to 18 years of age who received preventive dental services from Catholic Healthcare West East Valley Children's Dental Clinic, an affiliated practice dental clinic in Chandler, Arizona. Thirty-four surveys were completed: 21 completed in English and 13 completed in Spanish. The data was analyzed to provide descriptive statistics and non-parametrically analyzed using the Friedman's, Kendall's W and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Tests. The cost of preventive dental services is more important to this population than both convenience of appointment time and distance traveled. As the cost increases for preventive dental services, this population will utilize preventive dental services less frequently. The study indicated that the increase of self-reported utilization of preventive dental services by underserved children, ranging in age from birth to 18 years old, in Arizona affiliated practice dental clinics, was primarily impacted by perceived reduced costs of receiving care. Funding efforts, reimbursement mechanisms and legislative policies should support this dental care delivery model to provide care to underserved children, adults and seniors throughout the U.S.

  19. Identifying barriers to Science, Technology, Society and environment (STSE) educational goals and pedagogy in science education: A case study of UMASS Lowell undergraduate engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaneuf, Tiffany

    The implementation of sustainable development in higher education is a global trend. Engineers, as gatekeepers of technological innovation, confront increasingly complex world issues ranging from economic and social to political and environmental. Recently, a multitude of government reports have argued that solving such complex problems requires changes in the pedagogy of engineering education, such as that prescribed by the Science, Technology, Society, and education (STS) movement that grew out of the environmental movement in the 70s. In STS students are engaged in the community by understanding that scientific progress is innately a sociopolitical process that involves dimensions of power, wealth and responsibility. United States accreditation criteria now demand "the broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, and societal context" (ABET Engineering Accreditation Commission 2005). With such emphasis on STS education as necessary to address complex world issues, it is vital to assess the barriers in the traditional engineering curriculum that may inhibit the success of such educational reform. This study identifies barriers to STS goals and pedagogy in post secondary science education by using the Francis College of Engineering at UMASS Lowell as a single case study. The study draws on existing literature to develop a theoretical framework for assessing four hypothesized barriers to STS education in undergraduate engineering. Identification of barriers to STS education in engineering generates a critical reflection of post secondary science education and its role in preparing engineers to be active citizens in shaping a rapidly globalizing world. The study offers policy recommendations for enabling post secondary science education to incorporate STS education into its curriculum.

  20. Review of quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy: promising novel imaging technique to resolve neuronal network activity and identify cellular biomarkers of psychiatric disorders

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, Pierre

    2014-09-22

    Quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) has recently emerged as a new powerful quantitative imaging technique well suited to noninvasively explore a transparent specimen with a nanometric axial sensitivity. In this review, we expose the recent developments of quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy (QP-DHM). Quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy (QP-DHM) represents an important and efficient quantitative phase method to explore cell structure and dynamics. In a second part, the most relevant QPM applications in the field of cell biology are summarized. A particular emphasis is placed on the original biological information, which can be derived from the quantitative phase signal. In a third part, recent applications obtained, with QP-DHM in the field of cellular neuroscience, namely the possibility to optically resolve neuronal network activity and spine dynamics, are presented. Furthermore, potential applications of QPM related to psychiatry through the identification of new and original cell biomarkers that, when combined with a range of other biomarkers, could significantly contribute to the determination of high risk developmental trajectories for psychiatric disorders, are discussed.

  1. What does it take to resolve relationships and to identify species with molecular markers? An example from the epiphytic Rhipsalideae (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkova, Nadja; Borsch, Thomas; Quandt, Dietmar; Taylor, Nigel P; Müller, Kai F; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2011-09-01

    The Cactaceae are a major New World plant family and popular in horticulture. Still, taxonomic units and species limits have been difficult to define, and molecular phylogenetic studies so far have yielded largely unresolved trees, so relationships within Cactaceae remain insufficiently understood. This study focuses on the predominantly epiphytic tribe Rhipsalideae and evaluates the utility of a spectrum of plastid genomic regions. • We present a phylogenetic study including 52 of the 53 Rhipsalideae species and all the infraspecific taxa. Seven regions (trnK intron, matK, rbcL, rps3-rpl16, rpl16 intron, psbA-trnH, trnQ-rps16), ca. 5600 nucleotides (nt) were sequenced per sample. The regions used were evaluated for their phylogenetic performance and performance in DNA-based species recognition based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs) defined beforehand. • The Rhipsalideae are monophyletic and contain five clades that correspond to the genera Rhipsalis, Lepismium, Schlumbergera, Hatiora, and Rhipsalidopsis. The species-level tree was well resolved and supported; the rpl16 and trnK introns yielded the best phylogenetic signal. Although the psbA-trnH and trnQ-rps16 spacers were the most successful individual regions for OTU identification, their success rate did not significantly exceed 70%. The highest OTU identification rate of 97% was found using the combination of psbA-trnH, rps3-rpl16, trnK intron, and trnQ-rps16 as a minimum possible marker length (ca. 1660 nt). • The phylogenetic performance of a marker is not determined by the level of sequence variability, and species discrimination power does not necessarily correlate with phylogenetic utility.

  2. Identifying barriers and improving communication between cancer service providers and Aboriginal patients and their families: the perspective of service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Shaouli; Durey, Angela; Bessarab, Dawn; Aoun, Samar M; Thompson, Sandra C

    2013-11-04

    Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared to the non-Aboriginal population. Some progress has been made in understanding Aboriginal Australians' perspectives about cancer and their experiences with cancer services. However, little is known of cancer service providers' (CSPs) thoughts and perceptions regarding Aboriginal patients and their experiences providing optimal cancer care to Aboriginal people. Communication between Aboriginal patients and non-Aboriginal health service providers has been identified as an impediment to good Aboriginal health outcomes. This paper reports on CSPs' views about the factors impairing communication and offers practical strategies for promoting effective communication with Aboriginal patients in Western Australia (WA). A qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 62 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal CSPs from across WA was conducted between March 2006-September 2007 and April-October 2011. CSPs were asked to share their experiences with Aboriginal patients and families experiencing cancer. Thematic analysis was carried out. Our analysis was primarily underpinned by the socio-ecological model, but concepts of Whiteness and privilege, and cultural security also guided our analysis. CSPs' lack of knowledge about the needs of Aboriginal people with cancer and Aboriginal patients' limited understanding of the Western medical system were identified as the two major impediments to communication. For effective patient-provider communication, attention is needed to language, communication style, knowledge and use of medical terminology and cross-cultural differences in the concept of time. Aboriginal marginalization within mainstream society and Aboriginal people's distrust of the health system were also key issues impacting on communication. Potential solutions to effective Aboriginal patient-provider communication included recruiting more Aboriginal staff, providing appropriate cultural training for CSPs

  3. Identifying barriers and improving communication between cancer service providers and Aboriginal patients and their families: the perspective of service providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes from cancer compared to the non-Aboriginal population. Some progress has been made in understanding Aboriginal Australians’ perspectives about cancer and their experiences with cancer services. However, little is known of cancer service providers’ (CSPs) thoughts and perceptions regarding Aboriginal patients and their experiences providing optimal cancer care to Aboriginal people. Communication between Aboriginal patients and non-Aboriginal health service providers has been identified as an impediment to good Aboriginal health outcomes. This paper reports on CSPs’ views about the factors impairing communication and offers practical strategies for promoting effective communication with Aboriginal patients in Western Australia (WA). Methods A qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 62 Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal CSPs from across WA was conducted between March 2006 - September 2007 and April-October 2011. CSPs were asked to share their experiences with Aboriginal patients and families experiencing cancer. Thematic analysis was carried out. Our analysis was primarily underpinned by the socio-ecological model, but concepts of Whiteness and privilege, and cultural security also guided our analysis. Results CSPs’ lack of knowledge about the needs of Aboriginal people with cancer and Aboriginal patients’ limited understanding of the Western medical system were identified as the two major impediments to communication. For effective patient–provider communication, attention is needed to language, communication style, knowledge and use of medical terminology and cross-cultural differences in the concept of time. Aboriginal marginalization within mainstream society and Aboriginal people’s distrust of the health system were also key issues impacting on communication. Potential solutions to effective Aboriginal patient-provider communication included recruiting more Aboriginal staff

  4. Older adults are mobile too!Identifying the barriers and facilitators to older adults' use of mHealth for pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Samantha J; Jessel, Sonal; Richardson, Joshua E; Reid, M Cary

    2013-05-06

    Mobile health (mHealth) is a rapidly emerging field with the potential to assist older adults in the management of chronic pain (CP) through enhanced communication with providers, monitoring treatment-related side effects and pain levels, and increased access to pain care resources. Little is currently known, however, about older adults' attitudes and perceptions of mHealth or perceived barriers and facilitators to using mHealth tools to improve pain management. We conducted six focus groups comprised of 41 diverse older adults (≥60 years of age) with CP. Participants were recruited from one primary care practice and two multiservice senior community day-visit centers located in New York City that serve older adults in their surrounding neighborhoods. Focus group discussions were recorded and transcribed, and transcriptions were analyzed using direct content analysis to identify and quantify themes. Focus group discussions generated 38 individual themes pertaining to the use of mHealth to help manage pain and pain medications. Participants had low prior use of mHealth (5% of participants), but the vast majority (85%) were highly willing to try the devices. Participants reported that mHealth devices might help them reach their healthcare provider more expeditiously (27%), as well as help to monitor for falls and other adverse events in the home (15%). Barriers to device use included concerns about the cost (42%) and a lack of familiarity with the technology (32%). Facilitators to device use included training prior to device use (61%) and tailoring devices to the functional needs of older adults (34%). This study suggests that older adults with CP are interested and willing to use mHealth to assist in the management of pain. Participants in our study reported important barriers that medical professionals, researchers, and mHealth developers should address to help facilitate the development and evaluation of age-appropriate, and function-appropriate, m

  5. Modeling connectivity to identify current and future anthropogenic barriers to movement of large carnivores: A case study in the American Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Meredith L; Dickson, Brett G; Nicholson, Kerry L

    2017-06-01

    This study sought to identify critical areas for puma ( Puma concolor ) movement across the state of Arizona in the American Southwest and to identify those most likely to be impacted by current and future human land uses, particularly expanding urban development and associated increases in traffic volume. Human populations in this region are expanding rapidly, with the potential for urban centers and busy roads to increasingly act as barriers to demographic and genetic connectivity of large-bodied, wide-ranging carnivores such as pumas, whose long-distance movements are likely to bring them into contact with human land uses and whose low tolerance both for and from humans may put them at risk unless opportunities for safe passage through or around human-modified landscapes are present. Brownian bridge movement models based on global positioning system collar data collected during bouts of active movement and linear mixed models were used to model habitat quality for puma movement; then, a wall-to-wall application of circuit theory models was used to produce a continuous statewide estimate of connectivity for puma movement and to identify pinch points, or bottlenecks, that may be most at risk of impacts from current and future traffic volume and expanding development. Rugged, shrub- and scrub-dominated regions were highlighted as those offering high quality movement habitat for pumas, and pinch points with the greatest potential impacts from expanding development and traffic, although widely distributed, were particularly prominent to the north and east of the city of Phoenix and along interstate highways in the western portion of the state. These pinch points likely constitute important conservation opportunities, where barriers to movement may cause disproportionate loss of connectivity, but also where actions such as placement of wildlife crossing structures or conservation easements could enhance connectivity and prevent detrimental impacts before they occur.

  6. A systematic review and evidence synthesis of qualitative studies to identify primary care clinicians' barriers and enablers to the management of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, T; Diamond, L E; Buchbinder, R; Bennell, K L; Slade, S C

    2017-05-01

    Primary care management of osteoarthritis (OA) is variable and often inconsistent with clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). This study aimed to identify and synthesize available qualitative evidence on primary care clinicians' views on providing recommended management of OA. Eligibility criteria included full reports published in peer-reviewed journals, with data collected directly from primary care clinicians using qualitative methods for collection and analysis. Five electronic databases (MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychInfo) were searched to August 2016. Two independent reviewers identified eligible reports, conducted critical appraisal (based on Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) criteria), and extracted data. Three reviewers independently, then collaboratively, synthesized and interpreted data through an inductive and iterative process to derive new themes. The Confidence in Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research (CERQual) approach was used to determine a confidence profile for each finding. Eight studies involving approximately 83 general practitioners (GPs), 24 practice nurses, 12 pharmacists and 10 physical therapists, from Australia, France, United Kingdom, Germany and Mexico were included. Four barriers were identified as themes 1) OA is not that serious, 2) Clinicians are, or perceive they are, under-prepared, 3) Personal beliefs at odds with providing recommended practice, and 4) Dissonant patient expectations. No themes were enablers. Confidence ratings were moderate or low. Synthesising available data revealed barriers that collectively point towards a need to address clinician knowledge gaps, and enhance clinician communication and behaviour change skills to facilitate patient adherence, enable effective conversations and manage dissonant patient expectations. PROSPERO (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO) [4/11/2015, CRD42015027543]. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. AN EVALUATION TO IDENTIFY THE BARRIERS TO THE FEASIBILITY OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT PLANS: FIVE DECADES OF EXPERIENCE IN URBAN PLANNING IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Maghsoodi Tilaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid urbanization in many developing countries has indicat ed several challenges in different aspects. This is due t o inefficient urban planning ap proaches towards managing the development process. Similar to many other developing count ries, Iran has experienced rapid urbanization in recent decades. Although over the last few decades, urban planning processes have been applied to develop Iranian c ities, urban planning has failed to tackle the challenges facing the cities. This paper s eeks to identify the barriers that have prevented Iranian c ities from achieving the goals of urban planning. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the curre nt literature on the concept of urban planning and to assess the urban development plan proc ess in Iranian cities. The required data were collected through a review of international theoretical studies, Iranian experimental research and governmental reports. The findings of this study reveal five major barriers to the feasibility of the urban planning process , including the urban plans context, structure of urban pla nning, related law and regulatio ns, public participation, and financial resources.

  8. Identifying and prioritizing export barriers to small and medium enterprises (SMEs regarding food Industry based on national competition diamond Cole Porter model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rahmanyyoushanlouei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Diamond model Cole Porter and approaches after that have been used in several investigations in most countries and the credit behind the model has been repeatedly confirmed. But any theory is contended with regard to the conditions and time scope of their own; and gets corrected with the emergence of new features and based on the environment of reform. Current study has tried to identify and prioritize export barriers to small and medium enterprises (SMEs regarding food industry based on national competition diamond Cole Porter model in Iran (East Azerbaijan province and its subject pool were 266 people who were given the questionnaires. The method used to analyze and get information from research was exploratory confirmation factor, particularly from the equations structural theories for examination. With regard to the results achieved all hypotheses were confirmed.

  9. Exploring levers and barriers to accessing primary care for marginalised groups and identifying their priorities for primary care provision: a participatory learning and action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick; Tierney, Edel; O'Carroll, Austin; Nurse, Diane; MacFarlane, Anne

    2016-12-03

    The involvement of patients and the public in healthcare has grown significantly in recent decades and is documented in health policy documents internationally. Many benefits of involving these groups in primary care planning have been reported. However, these benefits are rarely felt by those considered marginalised in society and they are often excluded from participating in the process of planning primary care. It has been recommended to employ suitable approaches, such as co-operative and participatory initiatives, to enable marginalised groups to highlight their priorities for care. This Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) research study involved 21 members of various marginalised groups who contributed their views about access to primary care. Using a series of PLA techniques for data generation and co-analysis, we explored barriers and facilitators to primary healthcare access from the perspective of migrants, Irish Travellers, homeless people, drug users, sex workers and people living in deprivation, and identified their priorities for action with regard to primary care provision. Four overarching themes were identified: the home environment, the effects of the 'two-tier' healthcare system on engagement, healthcare encounters, and the complex health needs of many in those groups. The study demonstrates that there are many complicated personal and structural barriers to accessing primary healthcare for marginalised groups. There were shared and differential experiences across the groups. Participants also expressed shared priorities for action in the planning and running of primary care services. Members of marginalised groups have shared priorities for action to improve their access to primary care. If steps are taken to address these, there is scope to impact on more than one marginalised group and to address the existing health inequities.

  10. Clinical trial regulation in Argentina: overview and analysis of regulatory framework, use of existing tools, and researchers' perspectives to identify potential barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lauren; Ortiz, Zulma; Cuervo, Luis G; Reveiz, Ludovic

    2011-11-01

    To review and analyze the regulatory framework of clinical trial registration, use of existing tools (publicly accessible national/international registration databases), and users' perspectives to identify possible barriers to registration compliance by sponsors and researchers in Argentina. Internationally registered trials recruiting patients in Argentina were found through clincialtrials.gov and the International Clinical Trial Registration Platform (ICTRP) and compared with publically available clinical trials registered through the National Administration of Drugs, Foods, and Medical Devices (ANMAT). A questionnaire addressing hypothesized attitudinal, knowledge-related, idiomatic, technical, economic, and regulatory barriers that could discourage or impede registration of clinical trials was developed, and semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample of researchers (investigators, sponsors, and monitors) in Argentina. A response rate of 74.3% (n = 29) was achieved, and 27 interviews were ultimately used for analysis. Results suggested that the high proportion of foreign-sponsored or multinational trials (64.8% of all protocols approved by ANMAT from 1994-2006) may contribute to a communication gap between locally based investigators and foreign-based administrative officials. A lack of knowledge about available international registration tools and limited awareness of the importance of registration were also identified as limiting factors for local investigators and sponsors. To increase compliance and promote clinical trial registration in Argentina, national health authorities, sponsors, and local investigators could take the following steps: implement a grassroots educational campaign to improve clinical trial regulation, support local investigator-sponsor-initiated clinical trials, and/or encourage local and regional scientific journal compliance with standards from the International Committee of Medical Journal

  11. How Can Medical Students Add Value? Identifying Roles, Barriers, and Strategies to Advance the Value of Undergraduate Medical Education to Patient Care and the Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Jed D; Dekhtyar, Michael; Hawkins, Richard E; Wolpaw, Daniel R

    2017-09-01

    As health systems evolve, the education community is seeking to reimagine student roles that combine learning with meaningful contributions to patient care. The authors sought to identify potential stakeholders regarding the value of student work, and roles and tasks students could perform to add value to the health system, including key barriers and associated strategies to promote value-added roles in undergraduate medical education. In 2016, 32 U.S. medical schools in the American Medical Association's (AMA's) Accelerating Change in Education Consortium met for a two-day national meeting to explore value-added medical education; 121 educators, systems leaders, clinical mentors, AMA staff leadership and advisory board members, and medical students were included. A thematic qualitative analysis of workshop discussions and written responses was performed, which extracted key themes. In current clinical roles, students can enhance value by performing detailed patient histories to identify social determinants of health and care barriers, providing evidence-based medicine contributions at the point-of-care, and undertaking health system research projects. Novel value-added roles include students serving as patient navigators/health coaches, care transition facilitators, population health managers, and quality improvement team extenders. Six priority areas for advancing value-added roles are student engagement, skills, and assessments; balance of service versus learning; resources, logistics, and supervision; productivity/billing pressures; current health systems design and culture; and faculty factors. These findings provide a starting point for collaborative work to positively impact clinical care and medical education through the enhanced integration of value-added medical student roles into care delivery systems.

  12. Spatially resolved RNA-sequencing of the embryonic heart identifies a role for Wnt/β-catenin signaling in autonomic control of heart rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhard, Silja Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Development of specialized cells and structures in the heart is regulated by spatially -restricted molecular pathways. Disruptions in these pathways can cause severe congenital cardiac malformations or functional defects. To better understand these pathways and how they regulate cardiac development we used tomo-seq, combining high-throughput RNA-sequencing with tissue-sectioning, to establish a genome-wide expression dataset with high spatial resolution for the developing zebrafish heart. Analysis of the dataset revealed over 1100 genes differentially expressed in sub-compartments. Pacemaker cells in the sinoatrial region induce heart contractions, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying their development. Using our transcriptome map, we identified spatially restricted Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity in pacemaker cells, which was controlled by Islet-1 activity. Moreover, Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls heart rate by regulating pacemaker cellular response to parasympathetic stimuli. Thus, this high-resolution transcriptome map incorporating all cell types in the embryonic heart can expose spatially restricted molecular pathways critical for specific cardiac functions. PMID:29400650

  13. Breaking Down Cultural Barriers to Military Entry into Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to identify a problem in higher education that needed a new solution and draft a viable proposal for how to resolve it. I chose the problem of cultural barriers that veterans often face when attempting to return to many universities following military service. The method used was a combination of existing literature…

  14. Community voices: barriers and opportunities for programmes to successfully prevent vertical transmission of HIV identified through consultations among people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ginna; Caswell, Georgina; Edwards, Olive; Hsieh, Amy; Hull, Beri; Mallouris, Christoforos; Mason, Naisiadet; Nöstlinger, Christiana

    2012-07-11

    In 2010, two global networks of people living with HIV, the International Community of Women Living with HIV (ICW Global) and the Global Network of People living with HIV (GNP+) were invited to review a draft strategic framework for the global scale up of prevention of vertical transmission (PVT) through the primary prevention of HIV and the prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV. In order to ensure recommendations were based on expressed needs of people living with HIV, GNP+ and ICW Global undertook a consultation amongst people living with HIV which highlighted both facilitators and barriers to prevention services. This commentary summarizes the results of that consultation. The consultation was comprised of an online consultation (moderated chat-forum with 36 participants from 16 countries), an anonymous online e-survey (601 respondents from 58 countries), and focus-group discussions with people living with HIV in Jamaica (27 participants). The consultation highlighted the discrepancies across regions with respect to access to essential packages of PVT services. However, the consultation participants also identified common barriers to access, including a lack of trustworthy sources of information, service providers' attitudes, and gender-based violence. In addition, participant responses revealed common facilitators of access, including quality counselling on reproductive choices, male involvement, and decentralized services. The consultation provided some understanding and insight into the participants' experiences with and recommendations for PVT strategies. Participants agreed that successful, comprehensive PVT programming require greater efforts to both prevent primary HIV infection among young women and girls and, in particular, targeted efforts to ensure that women living with HIV and their partners are supported to avoid unintended pregnancies and to have safe, healthy pregnancies instead. In addition to providing the insights

  15. A novel PET imaging protocol identifies seizure-induced regional overactivity of P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankstahl, Jens P.; Bankstahl, Marion; Kuntner, Claudia; Stanek, Johann; Wanek, Thomas; Meier, Martin; Ding, Xiao-Qi; Müller, Markus; Langer, Oliver; Löscher, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    About one third of epilepsy patients are pharmacoresistant. Overexpression of P-glycoprotein and other multidrug transporters at the blood-brain barrier is thought to play an important role in drug-refractory epilepsy. Thus, quantification of regionally different P-glycoprotein activity in the brain in vivo is essential to identify P-glycoprotein overactivity as the relevant mechanism for drug-resistance in an individual patient. Using the radiolabeled P-glycoprotein substrate (R)-[11C]verapamil and different doses of co-administered tariquidar, which is an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein, we evaluated whether small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) can quantify regional changes in transporter function in the rat brain at baseline and 48 h after a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. P-glycoprotein expression was additionally quantified by immunohistochemistry. To reveal putative seizure-induced changes in blood-brain barrier integrity, we performed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance scans on a 7.0 Tesla small-animal scanner. Before P-glycoprotein modulation, brain uptake of (R)-[11C]verapamil was low in all regions investigated in control and post-status epilepticus rats. After administration of 3 mg/kg tariquidar, which inhibits P-glycoprotein only partially, we observed increased regional differentiation in brain activity uptake in post-status epilepticus versus control rats, which diminished after maximal P-glycoprotein inhibition. Regional increases in the efflux rate constant k2, but not in distribution volume VT or influx rate constant K1, correlated significantly with increases in P-glycoprotein expression measured by immunohistochemistry. This imaging protocol proves to be suitable to detect seizure-induced regional changes in P-glycoprotein activity and is readily applicable to humans, with the aim to detect relevant mechanisms of pharmacoresistance in epilepsy in vivo. PMID:21677164

  16. Exploring physiotherapists' experiences of implementing a cognitive behavioural approach for managing low back pain and identifying barriers to long-term implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Helen; Hall, Amanda M; Hansen, Zara; Williamson, Esther; Davies, David; Lamb, Sarah E

    2018-03-01

    Our objectives were two-fold: (i) to describe physiotherapists' experiences of implementing a cognitive behavioural approach (CBA) for managing low back pain (LBP) after completing an extensive online training course (iBeST), and (ii) to identify how iBeST could be enhanced to support long-term implementation before scale up for widespread use. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 physiotherapists from six National Health Service departments in the Midlands, Oxfordshire and Derbyshire. Questions centred on (i) using iBeST to support implementation, (ii) what barriers they encountered to implementation and (iii) what of information or resources they required to support sustained implementation. Interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed using NVivo. Themes were categorised using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Evidence-based techniques were identified using the behaviour change technique taxonomy to target relevant TDF domains. Three themes emerged from interviews: anxieties about using a CBA, experiences of implementing a CBA, and sustainability for future implementation of a CBA. Themes crossed multiple TDF domains and indicated concerns with knowledge, beliefs about capabilities and consequences, social and professional roles, social influences, emotion, and environmental context and resources. We identified evidence-based strategies that may support sustainable implementation of a CBA for LBP in a physiotherapy setting. This study highlighted potential challenges for physiotherapists in the provision of evidence-based LBP care within the current UK NHS. Using the TDF provided the foundation to develop a tailored, evidence-based, implementation intervention to support long term use of a CBA by physiotherapists managing LBP within UK NHS outpatient departments. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. All rights reserved.

  17. Perceived Barriers to Success for Minority Nursing Students: An Integrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Loftin, Collette; Newman, Susan D.; Dumas, Bonnie P.; Gilden, Gail; Bond, Mary Lou

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to identify barriers to successful program completion faced by underrepresented minority nursing students. This paper reveals that minority nursing student’s face multiple barriers to success including lack of financial support, inadequate emotional and moral support, as well as insufficient academic advising, program mentoring, technical support, and professional socialization. An additional theme—a resolve to succeed in spite of the identified barriers—was id...

  18. Excess seawater nutrients, enlarged algal symbiont densities and bleaching sensitive reef locations: 1. Identifying thresholds of concern for the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Scott A

    2016-05-23

    Here, I contribute new insight into why excess seawater nutrients are an increasingly identified feature at reef locations that have low resistance to thermal stress. Specifically, I link this unfavourable synergism to the development of enlarged (suboptimal) zooxanthellae densities that paradoxically limit the capacity of the host coral to build tissue energy reserves needed to combat periods of stress. I explain how both theoretical predictions and field observations support the existence of species-specific 'optimal' zooxanthellae densities ~1.0-3.0×10 6 cellscm- 2 . For the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR), excess seawater nutrients that permit enlarged zooxanthellae densities beyond this optimum range are linked with seawater chlorophyll a>0.45μg·L -1 ; a eutrophication threshold previously shown to correlate with a significant loss in species for hard corals and phototrophic octocorals on the central GBR, and herein shown to correlate with enhanced bleaching sensitivity during the 1998 and 2002 mass bleaching events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-05-06

    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  20. Identifying Barriers, Perceptions and Motivations Related to Healthy Eating and Physical Activity among 6th to 8th Grade, Rural, Limited-Resource Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Janavi; Adhikari, Koushik; Li, Yijing; Lindshield, Erika; Muturi, Nancy; Kidd, Tandalayo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to enable community members to discuss their perceptions of eating habits and physical activity in relation to sixth, seventh, and eighth graders, and reveal facilitators and barriers to healthy eating behavior and physical activity engagement. Design/methodology/approach: Nine focus groups, which included six…

  1. What's on a decision makers mind? - Identifying barriers in information flows between actors in integrated water management using mental model mapping. Poster.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, Rien; van Os, A.G.; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; van der Veen, A.

    2004-01-01

    This research studies the relation between mental models and the decision process outcome, in the specific case of the Zwolle storm surge barrier. Differences in mental models between stakeholders will result in different lines of argumentation leading to different solution alternatives. The final

  2. Identifying structural barriers to an effective HIV response: using the National Composite Policy Index data to evaluate the human rights, legal and policy environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruskin, Sofia; Ferguson, Laura; Alfven, Tobias; Rugg, Deborah; Peersman, Greet

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Attention to the negative effects of structural barriers on HIV efforts is increasing. Reviewing national legal and policy environments with attention to the international human rights commitments of states is a means of assessing and providing focus for addressing these barriers to effective HIV responses. Methods Law and policy data from the 171 countries reporting under the Declaration of Commitment from the 2001 United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS were analyzed to assess attention to human rights in national legal and policy environments as relevant to the health and rights of key populations such as people who inject drugs, men who have sex with men and sex workers. Results Seventy-eight governments and civil society in 106 countries report the existence of laws and policies which present obstacles to accessing HIV services for key populations. Laws and policies which positively affect access to HIV-related services, in and of themselves constituting structural interventions, were also reported. The dissonance between laws and how this impacts the availability and use of HIV-related services deserve greater attention. Conclusions Recognition of the harms inherent in laws that constitute structural barriers to effective HIV responses and the potential positive role that a supportive legal environment can play suggests the need for legal reform to ensure an enabling regulatory framework within which HIV services can be effectively delivered and used by the populations who need them. Moving beyond laws and policies, further efforts are required to determine how to capture information on the range of structural barriers. Teasing apart the impact of different barriers, as well as the structural interventions put in place to address them, remains complicated. Capturing the impact of policy and legal interventions can ultimately support governments and civil society to ensure the human rights of key populations are protected in

  3. The Use of Online Posts to Identify Barriers to and Facilitators of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Comparison to a Systematic Review of the Peer-Reviewed Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannaford, Alisse; Lipshie-Williams, Madeleine; Starrels, Joanna L; Arnsten, Julia H; Rizzuto, Jessica; Cohen, Phillip; Jacobs, Damon; Patel, Viraj V

    2018-04-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) remains an under-utilized HIV prevention tool among men who have sex with men (MSM). To more comprehensively elucidate barriers and facilitators to PrEP use among US MSM, we conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed published articles and content analysis of online posts about PrEP. We searched peer-reviewed databases (Medline, Web of Science, Google Scholar) using MESH headings and keywords about PrEP and/or HIV prevention from 2005 to 2015. We included original studies among MSM in the US that reported on barriers, facilitators, or other factors related to PrEP use. We also searched online posts and associated comments (news articles, opinion pieces, blogs and other social media posts) in diverse venues (Facebook, Slate Outward, Huffington Post Gay Voices, Queerty, and My PrEP Experience blog) to identify posts about PrEP. We used content analysis to identify themes and compare potential differences between the peer-reviewed literature and online posts. We identified 25 peer-reviewed articles and 28 online posts meeting inclusion criteria. We identified 48 unique barriers and 46 facilitators to using PrEP. These 94 themes fit into six overarching categories: (1) access (n = 14), (2) attitudes/beliefs (n = 24), (3) attributes of PrEP (n = 13), (4) behaviors (n = 11), (5) sociodemographic characteristics (n = 8), and (6) social network (n = 6). In all categories, analysis of online posts resulted in identification of a greater number of unique themes. Thirty-eight themes were identified in the online posts that were not identified in the peer-reviewed literature. We identified barriers and facilitators to PrEP in online posts that were not identified in a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature. By incorporating data both from a systematic review of peer-reviewed articles and from online posts, we have identified salient and novel information about barriers to and facilitators of PrEP use. Traditional

  4. Review of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) for Automated Vehicles : Identifying Potential Barriers and Challenges for the Certification of Automated Vehicles Using Existing FMVSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-11

    The purpose of this work is to identify instances where the existing Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards may pose challenges to the introduction of automated vehicles. It identifies standards requiring further review - both to ensure that existing...

  5. Time-resolved quantitative phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verano-Braga, Thiago; Schwämmle, Veit; Sylvester, Marc

    2012-01-01

    proteins involved in the Ang-(1-7) signaling, we performed a mass spectrometry-based time-resolved quantitative phosphoproteome study of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) treated with Ang-(1-7). We identified 1288 unique phosphosites on 699 different proteins with 99% certainty of correct peptide...

  6. Flip flops, dress clothes, and no coat: clothing barriers to children's physical activity in child-care centers identified from a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saelens Brian E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three-quarters of 3-6 year-old children in the U.S. spend time in childcare; many spend most of their waking hours in these settings. Daily physical activity offers numerous health benefits, but activity levels vary widely across centers. This study was undertaken to explore reasons why physical activity levels may vary. The purpose of this paper is to summarize an unexpected finding that child-care providers cited was a key barrier to children's physical activity. Methods Nine focus groups with 49 child-care providers (55% black from 34 centers (including inner-city, suburban, Head Start and Montessori were conducted in Cincinnati, OH. Three independent raters analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Several techniques were used to increase credibility of findings, including interviews with 13 caregivers. Results Two major themes about clothing were: 1 children's clothing was a barrier to children's physical activity in child-care, and 2 clothing choices were a significant source of conflict between parents and child-care providers. Inappropriate clothing items included: no coat/hat/gloves in the wintertime, flip flops or sandals, dress/expensive clothes, jewelry, and clothes that were either too loose or too tight. Child-care providers explained that unless there were enough extra coats at the center, a single child without a coat could prevent the entire class from going outside. Caregivers suggested several reasons why parents may dress their child inappropriately, including forgetfulness, a rushed morning routine, limited income to buy clothes, a child's preference for a favorite item, and parents not understanding the importance of outdoor play. Several child-care providers favored specific policies prohibiting inappropriate clothing, as many reported limited success with verbal or written reminders to bring appropriate clothing. Conclusion Inappropriate clothing may be an important barrier to children's physical

  7. Flip flops, dress clothes, and no coat: clothing barriers to children's physical activity in child-care centers identified from a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Three-quarters of 3-6 year-old children in the U.S. spend time in childcare; many spend most of their waking hours in these settings. Daily physical activity offers numerous health benefits, but activity levels vary widely across centers. This study was undertaken to explore reasons why physical activity levels may vary. The purpose of this paper is to summarize an unexpected finding that child-care providers cited was a key barrier to children's physical activity. Methods Nine focus groups with 49 child-care providers (55% black) from 34 centers (including inner-city, suburban, Head Start and Montessori) were conducted in Cincinnati, OH. Three independent raters analyzed verbatim transcripts for themes. Several techniques were used to increase credibility of findings, including interviews with 13 caregivers. Results Two major themes about clothing were: 1) children's clothing was a barrier to children's physical activity in child-care, and 2) clothing choices were a significant source of conflict between parents and child-care providers. Inappropriate clothing items included: no coat/hat/gloves in the wintertime, flip flops or sandals, dress/expensive clothes, jewelry, and clothes that were either too loose or too tight. Child-care providers explained that unless there were enough extra coats at the center, a single child without a coat could prevent the entire class from going outside. Caregivers suggested several reasons why parents may dress their child inappropriately, including forgetfulness, a rushed morning routine, limited income to buy clothes, a child's preference for a favorite item, and parents not understanding the importance of outdoor play. Several child-care providers favored specific policies prohibiting inappropriate clothing, as many reported limited success with verbal or written reminders to bring appropriate clothing. Conclusion Inappropriate clothing may be an important barrier to children's physical activity in child

  8. Prevention of Filipino Youth Behavioral Health Disparities: Identifying Barriers and Facilitators to Participating in "Incredible Years," an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention, Los Angeles, California, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Nicole; Supan, Jocelyn; Kreutzer, Cary B; Samson, Allan; Coffey, Dean M; Javier, Joyce R

    2015-10-22

    Evidence-based interventions for training parents are proven to prevent onset and escalation of childhood mental health problems. However, participation in such programs is low, especially among hard-to-reach, underserved populations such as Filipino Americans. Filipinos, the largest Asian subgroup in California, have significant behavioral health disparities compared with non-Hispanic whites and other Asian subgroups. The purpose of this study was to learn about Filipinos' barriers and facilitators to participating in "Incredible Years" (IY), a parenting program. We conducted 4 focus groups in Los Angeles, California, in 2012; the groups consisted of 20 Filipino parents of children aged 6 to 12 years who recently completed the IY parenting program, which was offered as a prevention workshop. Three reviewers, including two co-authors (A.S., J.J.) and a research assistant used content analysis to independently code the interview transcripts and extract subthemes. Grounded theory analytic methods were used to analyze interview transcripts. Parents' perceived benefits of participation in IY were learning more effective parenting techniques, networking with other parents, improved spousal relationships, and improvements in their children's behavior. Parents' most common motivating factor for enrollment in IY was to improve their parenting skills and their relationships with their children. The most common barriers to participation were being uncomfortable sharing problems with others and the fear of being stigmatized by others judging their parenting skills. Participants said that parent testimonials would be the most effective way to promote IY. Many recommended outreach at schools, pediatricians' offices, and churches. Increasing Filipino American parent enrollment in IY in culturally relevant ways will reduce the incidence of mental health disorders among children in this growing population.

  9. Identifying the barriers and enablers for a triage, treatment, and transfer clinical intervention to manage acute stroke patients in the emergency department: a systematic review using the theoretical domains framework (TDF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Louise E; McInnes, Elizabeth; Taylor, Natalie; Grimley, Rohan; Cadilhac, Dominique A; Considine, Julie; Middleton, Sandy

    2016-11-28

    Clinical guidelines recommend that assessment and management of patients with stroke commences early including in emergency departments (ED). To inform the development of an implementation intervention targeted in ED, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies to identify relevant barriers and enablers to six key clinical behaviours in acute stroke care: appropriate triage, thrombolysis administration, monitoring and management of temperature, blood glucose levels, and of swallowing difficulties and transfer of stroke patients in ED. Studies of any design, conducted in ED, where barriers or enablers based on primary data were identified for one or more of these six clinical behaviours. Major biomedical databases (CINAHL, OVID SP EMBASE, OVID SP MEDLINE) were searched using comprehensive search strategies. The barriers and enablers were categorised using the theoretical domains framework (TDF). The behaviour change technique (BCT) that best aligned to the strategy each enabler represented was selected for each of the reported enablers using a standard taxonomy. Five qualitative studies and four surveys out of the 44 studies identified met the selection criteria. The majority of barriers reported corresponded with the TDF domains of "environmental, context and resources" (such as stressful working conditions or lack of resources) and "knowledge" (such as lack of guideline awareness or familiarity). The majority of enablers corresponded with the domains of "knowledge" (such as education for physicians on the calculated risk of haemorrhage following intravenous thrombolysis [tPA]) and "skills" (such as providing opportunity to treat stroke cases of varying complexity). The total number of BCTs assigned was 18. The BCTs most frequently assigned to the reported enablers were "focus on past success" and "information about health consequences." Barriers and enablers for the delivery of key evidence-based protocols in an emergency setting have

  10. Special Experts Meeting: Identifying and Overcoming Barriers to the Effective Consideration of Human and Organizational Factors in Event Analysis and Root Cause Analysis. Nuclear Energy Agency / Working Group on Human and Organizational Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The main mission of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Group on Human and Organisational Factors (WGHOF) is to improve the understanding and treatment of human and organisational factors (HOF) within the nuclear industry in order to support the continued safety performance of nuclear installations and improve the effectiveness of regulatory practices in member countries. WGHOF developed a CSNI (Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations) Activity Proposal Sheet (CAPS) outlining the work and milestones necessary towards achieving the following objectives: - Identify barriers to analyzing and correctly identifying the Human and Organisational Factors (HOF) causes of events; - Identify barriers to implementing lessons learned from these analyses; and - Develop recommendations for overcoming these barriers to: improve the identification of HOF causes of events and support the successful implementation of appropriate corrective actions The CAPS can be found in Appendix A. The first activity under the plan was the development of a questionnaire. This was distributed to WGHOF members and their counterparts from the Working Group on Operating Experience (WGOE). The questionnaire was comprised of 20 questions based on the objectives of the CSNI Activity Proposed Sheet. The intended survey participants were licensees with previous experience conducting root cause analyses. Responses were received from 26 respondents from 11 different countries. The results of the questionnaire were analyzed to identify themes for further discussion during a specialist meeting planned for September 2009. The following themes were presented during the WGHOF meeting in March of 2009 and endorsed for further work: - Roles and Influence of Senior Management, - Skills and Knowledge of the Investigators, - Qualitative Nature of HOF, - Influence of the Regulator, - Systematic Approach to Investigation. A summary of the questionnaire responses is provided in Appendix B

  11. Fuzzy barrier distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piasecki, E.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy-ion collisions often produce a fusion barrier distribution with structures displaying a fingerprint of couplings to highly collective excitations [1]. Basically the same distribution can be obtained from large-angle quasi-elastic scattering, though here the role of the many weak direct-reaction channels is unclear. For 2 0N e + 9 0Z r we have observed the barrier structures expected for the highly deformed neon projectile, but for 2 0N e + 9 2Z r we find completely smooth distribution (see Fig.1). We find that transfer channels in these systems are of similar strength but single particle excitations are significantly stronger in the latter case. They apparently reduce the 'resolving power' of the quasi-elastic channel, what leads to smeared out, or 'fuzzy' barrier distribution. This is the first case when such a phenomenon has been observed.(author)

  12. Sustainable Products and the PPMs Dilemma: How the international community can help in resolving developing countries' concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borregaard, Nicola [RIDES (Chile); Dufey, Annie

    2004-07-01

    Sustainable Products have been identified as having significant potential for win-win-win outcomes from trade for developing countries. However, several barriers are preventing developing countries from exploiting these opportunities. While the international community could play a key role in resolving some constraints, national governments need also to take a more proactive and coherent approach to promote sustainable products if they want to keep abreast with a highly dynamic and rapidly evolving market.

  13. Resolving inventory differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.H.; Clark, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Determining the cause of an inventory difference (ID) that exceeds warning or alarm limits should not only involve investigation into measurement methods and reexamination of the model assumptions used in the calculation of the limits, but also result in corrective actions that improve the quality of the accountability measurements. An example illustrating methods used by Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel to resolve an ID is presented that may be useful to other facilities faced with a similar problem. After first determining that no theft or diversion of material occurred and correcting any accountability calculation errors, investigation into the IDs focused on volume and analytical measurements, limit of error of inventory difference (LEID) modeling assumptions, and changes in the measurement procedures and methods prior to the alarm. There had been a gradual gain trend in IDs prior to the alarm which was reversed by the alarm inventory. The majority of the NM in the facility was stored in four large tanks which helped identify causes for the alarm. The investigation, while indicating no diversion or theft, resulted in changes in the analytical method and in improvements in the measurement and accountability that produced a 67% improvement in the LEID

  14. Missed opportunities for catch-up human papillomavirus vaccination among university undergraduates: Identifying health decision-making behaviors and uptake barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Kathleen R; Bednarczyk, Robert A; Butler, Scott M; Omer, Saad B

    2018-01-04

    Suboptimal adolescent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine rates in the US highlight the need for catch-up vaccination. When teenagers enter college, there may be a shift in healthcare decision-making from parents and guardians to the students themselves. Little is known about factors influencing college students' healthcare decision-making processes. We evaluated HPV vaccine decision-making among 18-to-26-year-old college students through a self-administered, anonymous, cross-sectional survey. This survey was distributed to a sample of men and women in classroom settings at two universities. Categorical data comparisons were conducted using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to model initiation of HPV vaccine and compute prevalence ratios while controlling for key influential covariates at the 0.05 alpha level. A total of 527 students participated (response proportion=93.1%). Overall, 55.8% of participants received the HPV vaccine. Encouraging conversations with doctors and/or parents/guardians were identified as one of the most influential factors to increase vaccine uptake. Among students who received encouragement from both a doctor and parent, 95.8% received the vaccine. Campaigns about cancer prevention were viewed as more influential than those that focus on preventing genital warts. Approximately one-third of students indicated they didn't know where to get the HPV vaccine. Women were more likely to report that their parents would not let them get the HPV vaccine compared to men (26.7% vs. 2.3%). The majority of students (77.3%) indicated their parents were sometimes, equally, or mostly involved in making decisions about receiving vaccines (other than flu). Students' decision-making is greatly influenced by their parents; therefore, interventions for this population should work to increase students' control over decision-making while also addressing parental concerns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. Homozygous ALOXE3 Nonsense Variant Identified in a Patient with Non-Bullous Congenital Ichthyosiform Erythroderma Complicated by Superimposed Bullous Majocchi’s Granuloma: The Consequences of Skin Barrier Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NBCIE is a hereditary disorder of keratinization caused by pathogenic variants in genes encoding enzymes important to lipid processing and terminal keratinocyte differentiation. Impaired function of these enzymes can cause pathologic epidermal scaling, significantly reduced skin barrier function. In this study, we have performed a focused, genetic analysis of a probrand affected by NBCIE and extended this to his consanguineous parents. Targeted capture and next-generation sequencing was performed on NBCIE associated genes in the proband and his unaffected consanguineous parents. We identified a homozygous nonsense variant c.814C>T (p.Arg272* in ALOXE3 (NM_001165960.1 in the proband and discovered that his parents are both heterozygous carriers of the variant. The clinical manifestations of the proband’s skin were consistent with NBCIE, and detailed histopathological assessment revealed epidermal bulla formation and Majocchi’s granuloma. Infection with Trichophyton rubrum was confirmed by culture. The patient responded to oral terbinafine antifungal treatment. Decreased skin barrier function, such as that caused by hereditary disorders of keratinization, can increase the risk of severe cutaneous fungal infections and the formation of Majocchi’s granuloma and associated alopecia. Patients with NBCIE should be alerted to the possible predisposition for developing dermatophytoses and warrant close clinical follow-up.

  16. Inflammatory Response and Barrier Dysfunction by Different e-Cigarette Flavoring Chemicals Identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry in e-Liquids and e-Vapors on Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloff, Janice; Sundar, Isaac K; Freter, Robert; Sekera, Emily R; Friedman, Alan E; Robinson, Risa; Pagano, Todd; Rahman, Irfan

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that electronic cigarette (e-cig) flavors can be harmful to lung tissue by imposing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. The potential inflammatory response by lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts exposed to e-cig flavoring chemicals in addition to other risk-anticipated flavor enhancers inhaled by e-cig users is not known. The goal of this study was to evaluate the release of the proinflammatory cytokine (interleukin-8 [IL-8]) and epithelial barrier function in response to different e-cig flavoring chemicals identified in various e-cig e-liquid flavorings and vapors by chemical characterization using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Flavorings, such as acetoin (butter), diacetyl, pentanedione, maltol (malt), ortho-vanillin (vanilla), coumarin, and cinnamaldehyde in comparison with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), were used in this study. Human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas2B), human mucoepidermoid carcinoma epithelial cells (H292), and human lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) were treated with each flavoring chemical for 24 hours. The cells and conditioned media were then collected and analyzed for toxicity (viability %), lung epithelial barrier function, and proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 release. Cell viability was not significantly affected by any of the flavoring chemicals tested at a concentration of 10 μM to 1 mM. Acetoin and diacetyl treatment induced IL-8 release in Beas2B cells. Acetoin- and pentanedione-treated HFL-1 cells produced a differential, but significant response for IL-8 release compared to controls and TNFα. Flavorings, such as ortho-vanillin and maltol, induced IL-8 release in Beas2B cells, but not in H292 cells. Of all the flavoring chemicals tested, acetoin and maltol were more potent inducers of IL-8 release than TNFα in Beas2B and HFL-1 cells. Flavoring chemicals rapidly impaired epithelial barrier function in human bronchial epithelial cells (16-HBE) as measured by electric cell surface

  17. Barriers to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, C T

    1986-09-01

    Opportunities for the British coal industry seem vast yet there are still barriers to progress. Seven areas are identified and discussed: mining mobility (for example, longwall mining systems are rigid and inflexible compared with American stall and pillar working); mine structure (many mines are more suitable to pit ponies than to large pieces of equipment); financial barriers (Government requires the industry to break even in 1987/88); personnel barriers (less specialization, better use of skills); safety barriers (increased use of remote control, ergonomics and robotics to protect workers); microelectronic management (nationalization has cushioned management from the market place; there is a need for a more multidisciplinary approach to the industry); and legal barriers (most legislation in the past has been in response to accidents; legislation external to the industry but affecting it is more fundamental).

  18. Operation: Inherent Resolve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Larsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet giver læseren indsigt i den internationale koalitions engagement mod IS igennem Operaton Inherent Resolve; herunder koalitionens strategi i forhold til IS strategi, ligesom det belyser kampagnens legalitet og folkeretlige grundlag, ligesom det giver et bud på overvejelser om kampagnens...

  19. Zero Learning: Case explorations of barriers to organizational learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; S., Jacob

    2003-01-01

    that the existence of learning barriers may not only inhibit on-going learning process, but also lead to a negative cycle of non-learning in the organization. The implications of a "zero learning" cycle caused by learning barriers are discussed and insights are provided as to how barriers may be resolved so...

  20. Vehicle barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper

  1. Barriers to knowledge sharing in Chinese healthcare referral services: an emergent theoretical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Miguel Baptista

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper reports on a research study that aims to identify and explain barriers to knowledge sharing (KS) in the provision of healthcare referral services in Chinese healthcare organisations. Design An inductive case study approach was employed, in which 24 healthcare professionals and workers from four healthcare organisations in the province of Hubei, Central China, were interviewed using semi-structured scripts. Results Through data analysis, 14 KS barriers emerged in four main themes: interpersonal trust barriers, communication barriers, management and leadership barriers, and inter-institutional barriers. A cause–consequence analysis of the identified barriers revealed that three of them are at the core of the majority of problems, namely, the absence of national and local policies for inter-hospital KS, lack of a specific hospital KS requirement, and lack of mutual acquaintance. Conclusions To resolve KS problems, it is of great importance that healthcare governance agencies, both at the national and regional levels, take leadership in the process of KS implementation by establishing specific and strong policies for inter-institutional KS in the referral process. This paper raises important issues that exceed academic interests and are important to healthcare professionals, hospital managers, and Information communication technology (ICT) managers in hospitals, as well as healthcare politicians and policy makers. PMID:26895146

  2. Tears, Hope, Resolve, Uncertainty: The Barrier Island of Today's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    "Grief and bitterness entwined are heaven sent. The sad person sits alone, leaning by a window." Over 70 years ago, these words were carved into the walls of Angel Island: a detainment and interrogation center for Chinese immigrants from 1910 to 1940. At the time, American workers were resentful of the Chinese, who were filling low-wage…

  3. Barriers in the brain : resolving dendritic spine morphology and compartmentalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrian, Max; Kusters, Remy; Wierenga, Corette J; Storm, Cornelis; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Kapitein, Lukas C

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic spines are micron-sized protrusions that harbor the majority of excitatory synapses in the central nervous system. The head of the spine is connected to the dendritic shaft by a 50-400 nm thin membrane tube, called the spine neck, which has been hypothesized to confine biochemical and

  4. Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to Identify Barriers and Facilitators for the Implementation of an Internet-Based Patient-Provider Communication Service in Five Settings: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsi, Cecilie; Ekstedt, Mirjam; Gammon, Deede; Ruland, Cornelia M

    2015-11-18

    Although there is growing evidence of the positive effects of Internet-based patient-provider communication (IPPC) services for both patients and health care providers, their implementation into clinical practice continues to be a challenge. The 3 aims of this study were to (1) identify and compare barriers and facilitators influencing the implementation of an IPPC service in 5 hospital units using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), (2) assess the ability of the different constructs of CFIR to distinguish between high and low implementation success, and (3) compare our findings with those from other studies that used the CFIR to discriminate between high and low implementation success. This study was based on individual interviews with 10 nurses, 6 physicians, and 1 nutritionist who had used the IPPC to answer messages from patients. Of the 36 CFIR constructs, 28 were addressed in the interviews, of which 12 distinguished between high and low implementation units. Most of the distinguishing constructs were related to the inner setting domain of CFIR, indicating that institutional factors were particularly important for successful implementation. Health care providers' beliefs in the intervention as useful for themselves and their patients as well as the implementation process itself were also important. A comparison of constructs across ours and 2 other studies that also used the CFIR to discriminate between high and low implementation success showed that 24 CFIR constructs distinguished between high and low implementation units in at least 1 study; 11 constructs distinguished in 2 studies. However, only 2 constructs (patient need and resources and available resources) distinguished consistently between high and low implementation units in all 3 studies. The CFIR is a helpful framework for illuminating barriers and facilitators influencing IPPC implementation. However, CFIR's strength of being broad and comprehensive also limits its

  5. Quantum coherence in the reflection of above barrier wavepackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jakob; Pollak, Eli

    2018-02-01

    The quantum phenomenon of above barrier reflection is investigated from a time-dependent perspective using Gaussian wavepackets. The transition path time distribution, which in principle is experimentally measurable, is used to study the mean flight times ⟨t⟩R and ⟨t⟩T associated with the reflection and the transmission over the barrier paying special attention to their dependence on the width of the barrier. Both flight times, and their difference Δt, exhibit two distinct regimes depending on the ratio of the spatial width of the incident wavepacket and the length of the barrier. When the ratio is larger than unity, the reflection and transmission dynamics are coherent and dominated by the resonances above the barrier. The flight times ⟨t⟩R/T and the flight time difference Δt oscillate as a function of the barrier width (almost in phase with the transmission probability). These oscillations reflect a momentum filtering effect related to the coherent superposition of the reflected and transmitted waves. For a ratio less than unity, the barrier reflection and transmission dynamics are incoherent and the oscillations are absent. The barrier width which separates the coherent and incoherent regimes is identified analytically. The oscillatory structure of the time difference Δt as a function of the barrier width in the coherent regime is absent when considered in terms of the Wigner phase time delays for reflection and transmission. We conclude that the Wigner phase time does not correctly describe the temporal properties of above barrier reflection. We also find that the structure of the reflected and transmitted wavepackets depends on the coherence of the process. In the coherent regime, the wavepackets can have an overlapping peak structure, but the peaks are not fully resolved. In the incoherent regime, the wavepackets split in time into distinct separated Gaussian like waves, each one reflecting the number of times the wavepacket crosses the barrier

  6. Nurses' attitude and perceived barriers to pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etafa, Werku; Argaw, Zeleke; Gemechu, Endalew; Melese, Belachew

    2018-01-01

    The presence or absence of pressure ulcers has been generally regarded as a performance measure of quality nursing care and overall patient health. The aim of this study- wasto explorenurses' attitude about pressure ulcer prevention'and to identify staff nurses' perceived barriers to pressure ulcer prevention public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A self-reported multi-center institutional based cross sectional study design was employed to collect data from staff nurses ( N  = 222) working in six (6) selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa, from April 01-28/2015. Majority of the nurses had ( n  = 116, 52.2%) negative attitude towards pressure ulcer prevention. The mean scores of the test for all participants was 3.09out of 11(SD =0.92, range = 1-5). Similarly, the study revealed several barriers need to be resolved to put in to practice the strategies of pressure ulcer prevention; Heavy workload and inadequate staff (lack of tie) (83.1%), shortage of resources/equipment (67.7%) and inadequate training (63.2%) were among the major barriers identified in the study. The study finding suggests that Addis Ababa nurses have negative attitude to pressure ulcer prevention. Also several barriers exist for implementing pressure ulcer prevention protocols in public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Suggestion for improving this situation is attractive.

  7. Perceived barriers and difficulties of intermittent catheterization: In Korean patients with spinal dysraphism and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seoung-Wha; Lee, Hahn-Ey; Davis, Monica; Park, Kwanjin

    2016-03-01

    Integrating regular intermittent catheterization (IC) into daily life is essential for good medical outcomes in patients with neurogenic bladders. The goal is to identify long-term IC-related barriers, or difficulties in Korean patients with spinal dysraphism and their parents. The data were prospectively collected using questionnaires from spinal dysraphism patients from two sources: an online community, and those visiting the outpatient clinic of Seoul National university hospital. The questions included were barriers in general and school life, respectively. Also, an open question was included regarding suggestions for school managers or the government in order to overcome identified IC related difficulties. A total of 20 patients and 40 parents answered the questionnaire. Common barriers found in general life were related to lack of places, time, or helpers to perform IC. Substantial numbers of adolescent patients also complained that IC could not be adequately performed due to problems related to privacy or lack of understanding at school. However, the number and nature of barriers varied according to the developmental stage and school environments. Almost all IC barriers seemed to be significant in adolescence. Some parents requested that the government provide space and broaden insurance coverage of catheters in order to facilitate IC. Various perceived barriers were identified in those who need IC and differences were demonstrated over time. Both dedicated space and time are issues. In addition, patients may benefit from emotional support and enhanced communication with community agencies and government to resolve the problems related with privacy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Ethics case reflection sessions: Enablers and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdson, Cecilia; Molewijk, Bert; Lützén, Kim; Blomgren, Klas; Pergert, Pernilla

    2018-03-01

    In previous research on ethics case reflection (ECR) sessions about specific cases, healthcare professionals in childhood cancer care were clarifying their perspectives on the ethical issue to resolve their main concern of consolidating care. When perspectives were clarified, consequences in the team included 'increased understanding', 'group strengthening' and 'decision grounding'. Additional analysis of the data was needed on conditions that could contribute to the quality of ECR sessions. The aim of this study was to explore conditions for clarifying perspectives during ECR sessions. Data were collected from observations and interviews and the results emerged from an inductive analysis using grounded theory. Participants and research context: Six observations during ECR sessions and 10 interviews were performed with healthcare professionals working in childhood cancer care and advanced paediatric homecare. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by a regional ethical review board. Participants were informed about their voluntary involvement and that they could withdraw their participation without explaining why. Two categories emerged: organizational enablers and barriers and team-related enablers and barriers. Organizational enablers and barriers included the following sub-categories: the timing of the ECR session, the structure during the ECR session and the climate during the ECR session. Sub-categories to team-related enablers and barriers were identified as space for inter-professional perspectives, varying levels of ethical skills and space for the patient's and the family's perspectives. Space for inter-professional perspectives included the dominance of a particular perspective that can result from hierarchical positions. The medical perspective is relevant for understanding the child's situation but should not dominate the ethical reflection. Conditions for ECR sessions have been explored and the new knowledge can be used when training

  9. Barriers to Physical Activity Among African American Women: An Integrative Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Keller, Colleen; Dodgson, Joan E

    2015-01-01

    A key aspect for researchers to consider when developing culturally appropriate physical activity (PA) interventions for African American (AA) women are the specific barriers AA women face that limit their participation in PA. Identification and critical examination of these barriers is the first step in developing comprehensive culturally relevant approaches to promote PA and help resolve PA-related health disparities in this underserved population. We conducted a systematic integrative literature review to identify barriers to PA among AA women. Five electronic databases were searched, and forty-two studies (twenty-seven qualitative, fourteen quantitative, one mixed method) published since 1990 (range 1998-2013) in English language journals met inclusion criteria for review. Barriers were classified as intrapersonal, interpersonal, or environment/community according to their respective level of influence within our social ecological framework. Intrapersonal barriers included lack of time, knowledge, and motivation; physical appearance concerns; health concerns; monetary cost of exercise facilities; and tiredness/fatigue. Interpersonal barriers included family/caregiving responsibilities; lack of social support; and lack of a PA partner. Environmental barriers included safety concerns; lack of facilities; weather concerns; lack of sidewalks; and lack of physically active AA role models. Results provide key leverage points for researchers to consider when developing culturally relevant PA interventions for AA women.

  10. Barrier Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heteren, S. van

    2015-01-01

    Barrier-system dynamics are a function of antecedent topography and substrate lithology, Relative sea-level (RSL) changes, sediment availability and type, climate, vegetation type and cover, and various aero- and hydrodynamic processes during fair-weather conditions and extreme events. Global change

  11. Highly resolving computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, B.; Petersen, D.; Walter, E.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of highly-resolving devices for computerized tomography, CT diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column has gained increasing importance. As an ambulatory, non-invasive method it has proved in comparative studies to be at least equivalent to myelography in the detection of dislocations of inter-vertebral disks (4,6,7,15). Because with modern devices not alone the bones, but especially the spinal soft part structures are clearly and precisely presented with a resolution of distinctly below 1 mm, a further improvement of the results is expected as experience will increase. The authors report on the diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column with the aid of a modern device for computerized tomography and wish to draw particular attention to the possibility of doing this investigation as a routine, and to the diagnostic value of secondary reconstructions. (BWU) [de

  12. Highly resolving computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, B.; Petersen, D.; Walter, E.

    1984-01-01

    With the development of highly-resolving devices for computerized tomography, CT diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column has gained increasing importance. As an ambulatory, non-invasive method it has proved in comparative studies to be at least equivalent to myelography in the detection of dislocations of inter-vertebral disks (4,6,7,15). Because with modern devices not alone the bones, but especially the spinal soft part structures are clearly and precisely presented with a resolution of distinctly below 1 mm, a further improvement of the results is expected as experience will increase. The authors report on the diagnosis of the lumbar vertebral column with the aid of a modern device for computerized tomography and wish to draw particular attention to the possibility of doing this investigation as a routine, and to the diagnostic value of secondary reconstructions.

  13. Information barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.L.; Wolford, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: An information barrier (IB) consists of procedures and technology that prevent the release of sensitive information during a joint inspection of a sensitive nuclear item, and provides confidence that the measurement system into which it has been integrated functions exactly as designed and constructed. Work in the U.S. on radiation detection system information barriers dates back at least to 1990, even though the terminology is more recent. In January 1999 the Joint DoD-DOE Information Barrier Working Group was formed in the United States to help coordinate technical efforts related to information barrier R and D. This paper presents an overview of the efforts of this group, by its Chairs, as well as recommendations for further information barrier R and D. Progress on the demonstration of monitoring systems containing IBs is also provided. From the U.S. perspective, the basic, top-level functional requirements for the information barrier portion of an integrated radiation signature-information barrier inspection system are twofold: The host must be assured that his classified information is protected from disclosure to the inspecting party; and The inspecting party must be confident that the integrated inspection system measures, processes, and presents the radiation-signature-based measurement conclusion in an accurate and reproducible manner. It is the position of the United States that in the absence of any agreement to share classified nuclear weapons design information in the conduct of an inspection regime, the requirement to protect host country classified warhead design information is paramount and admits no tradeoff versus the confidence provided to the inspecting party in the accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements. The U.S. has reached an internal consensus on several critical design elements that define a general standard for radiation signature information barrier design. These criteria have stood the test of time under intense

  14. Bipolar affective disorder and medication therapy: identifying barriers Trastorno afectivo bipolar y por terapia medicamentoso: identificación de barreras Transtorno afetivo bipolar e terapêutica medicamentosa: identificando barreiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Inocenti Miasso

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study identified the barriers faced by people with bipolar affective disorder (BAD regarding the need for continuous medication. The qualitative approach was used, and the methodological framework was based on the Grounded Theory in the light of Symbolic Interactionism. In total, of 14 people with BAD, who were being attended at the Outpatient Unit for Mood Disorders of a university hospital, and 14 relatives indicated by them participated in the study. The data collection was carried out through interviews and observation. Two categories emerged from the results, describing the barriers faced by people with BAD: to have affective and cognitive losses and to have several limitations. People with BAD feel ambivalent regarding medication adherence, as they perceive that, no matter the direction they take, it will lead to a context of prejudice, losses and limitations in various spheres of daily life.Este estudio identificó las barreras enfrentadas por las personas con Trastorno Afectivo Bipolar (TAB ante la necesidad del usar continuamente medicamentos. De enfoque cualitativo, tuvo como referencia metodológico, a la Teoría Basada en los Datos, bajo la perspectiva de la Interacción Simbólica. Participaron del estudio 14 personas con TAB, las cuales seguían tratamiento en un servicio Ambulatorio para Trastornos del Humor de un hospital universitario y 14 familiares señalados por los mismos. Las principales formas de obtención de datos fueron la entrevista y la observación. Los resultados mostraron dos categorías que describen las barreras enfrentadas por las personas con TAB: manifestar olvidos afectivos y cognoscitivos y la aparición de varias limitaciones. Se constató que la persona con TAB sienten ambivalencia con relación al seguimiento medicamentoso, pues perciben que cualquiera que sea la dirección adoptada, las conducirá al preconcepto, pérdidas y limitaciones en las diversas esferas de su vida.Este estudo identificou as

  15. Nurses' Psychosocial Barriers to Suicide Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Valente

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide remains a serious health care problem and a sentinel event tracked by The Joint Commission. Nurses are pivotal in evaluating risk and preventing suicide. Analysis of nurses' barriers to risk management may lead to interventions to improve management of suicidal patients. These data emerged from a random survey of 454 oncology nurses' attitudes, knowledge of suicide, and justifications for euthanasia. Instruments included a vignette of a suicidal patient and a suicide attitude questionnaire. Results. Psychological factors (emotions, unresolved grief, communication, and negative judgments about suicide complicate the nurse's assessment and treatment of suicidal patients. Some nurses (=122 indicated that euthanasia was never justified and 11 were unsure of justifications and evaluated each case on its merits. Justifications for euthanasia included poor symptom control, poor quality of life, incurable illness or permanent disability, terminal illness, and terminal illness with inadequate symptom control or impending death, patient autonomy, and clinical organ death. The nurses indicated some confusion and misconceptions about definitions and examples of euthanasia, assisted suicide, and double effect. Strategies for interdisciplinary clinical intervention are suggested to identify and resolve these psychosocial barriers.

  16. Floating barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-05-06

    This floating barrier consists of relatively long elements which can be connected to form a practically continuous assembly. Each element consists of an inflatable tube with an apron of certain height, made of impregnated fabric which is resistant to ocean water and also to hydrocarbons. Means for connecting one element to the following one, and means for attaching ballast to the apron are also provided.

  17. Perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, C.H.M.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Dijkstra, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    This article uses factor analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of strategic and structural entry barriers. We find that, in the perception of firms, both types of barriers are important and that the effectiveness of strategic barriers depends on attributes of the market structure. Based on

  18. Perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Clemens H. M.; Kemp, Ron G. M.; Dijkstra, S. Gerhard

    This article uses factor analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of strategic and structural entry barriers. We find that, in the perception of firms, both types of barriers are important and that the effectiveness of strategic barriers depends on attributes of the market structure. Based on

  19. Faculty Perceptions about Barriers to Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Faculty may perceive many barriers to active learning in their classrooms. Four groups of participants in a faculty development workshop were asked to list their perceived barriers to active learning. Many of the problems identified were present on more than one list. The barriers fall into three categories: student characteristics, issues…

  20. Barriers to Mammography among Inadequately Screened Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Carolyn R. T.; Roberts, Summer; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Crayton, Eloise V.; Jackson, Sherrill; Politi, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Mammography use has increased over the past 20 years, yet more than 30% of women remain inadequately screened. Structural barriers can deter individuals from screening, however, cognitive, emotional, and communication barriers may also prevent mammography use. This study sought to identify the impact of number and type of barriers on mammography…

  1. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-01-01

    positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking

  2. Time-resolved studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    When new or more powerful probes become available that offer both shorter data-collection times and the opportunity to apply innovative approaches to established techniques, it is natural that investigators consider the feasibility of exploring the kinetics of time-evolving systems. This stimulating area of research not only can lead to insights into the metastable or excited states that a system may populate on its way to a ground state, but can also lead to a better understanding of that final state. Synchrotron radiation, with its unique properties, offers just such a tool to extend X-ray measurements from the static to the time-resolved regime. The most straight-forward application of synchrotron radiation to the study of transient phenomena is directly through the possibility of decreased data-collection times via the enormous increase in flux over that of a laboratory X-ray system. Even further increases in intensity can be obtained through the use of novel X-ray optical devices. Widebandpass monochromators, e.g., that utilize the continuous spectral distribution of synchrotron radiation, can increase flux on the sample several orders of magnitude over conventional X-ray optical systems thereby allowing a further shortening of the data-collection time. Another approach that uses the continuous spectral nature of synchrotron radiation to decrease data-collection times is the open-quote parallel data collectionclose quotes method. Using this technique, intensities as a function of X-ray energy are recorded simultaneously for all energies rather than sequentially recording data at each energy, allowing for a dramatic decrease in the data-collection time

  3. Challenges confronting female surgical leaders: overcoming the barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Rena B; Souba, Wiley W; Thorndyke, Luanne E

    2006-05-15

    The number of women reaching top ranks in academic surgery is remarkably low. The purpose of this study was to identify: 1) barriers to becoming a female surgical leader; 2) key attributes that enable advancement and success; and 3) current leadership challenges faced as senior leaders. Semi-structured interviews of ten female surgical leaders queried the following dimensions: attributes for success, lessons learned, mistakes, key career steps, the role of mentoring, gender advantages/disadvantages, and challenges. Perseverance (60%) and drive (50%) were identified as critical success factors, as were good communication skills, a passion for scholarship, a stable home life and a positive outlook. Eighty percent identified discrimination or gender prejudice as a major obstacle in their careers. While 90% percent had mentors, 50% acknowledged that they had not been effectively mentored. Career advice included: develop broad career goals (50%); select a conducive environment (30%); find a mentor (60%); take personal responsibility (40%); organize time and achieve balance (40%); network (30%); create a niche (30%); pursue research (30%); publish (50%); speak in public (30%); and enjoy the process (30%). Being in a minority, being highly visible and being collaborative were identified as advantages. Obtaining buy-in and achieving consensus was the greatest leadership challenge reported. Female academic surgeons face challenges to career advancement. While these barriers are real, they can be overcome by resolve, commitment, and developing strong communication skills. These elements should be taken into consideration in designing career development programs for junior female surgical faculty.

  4. Resolving Turbine Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kruizenga, Alan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Withey, Elizabeth Ann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton Cycle has gained significant attention in the last decade as an advanced power cycle capable of achieving high efficiency power conversion. Sandia National Laboratories, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (US DOE-NE), has been conducting research and development in order to deliver a technology that is ready for commercialization. Root cause analysis has been performed on the Recompression Loop at Sandia National Laboratories. It was found that particles throughout the loop are stainless steel, likely alloy 316 based upon the elemental composition. Deployment of a filter scheme is underway to both protect the turbomachinery and also for purposes of determining the specific cause for the particulate. Shake down tests of electric resistance (ER) as a potential in-situ monitoring scheme shows promise in high temperature systems. A modified instrument was purchased and held at 650°C for more than 1.5 months to date without issue. Quantitative measurements of this instrument will be benchmarked against witness samples in the future, but all qualitative trends to date are as to be expected. ER is a robust method for corrosion monitoring, but very slow at responding and can take several weeks under conditions to see obvious changes in behavior. Electrochemical noise was identified as an advanced technique that should be pursued for the ability to identify transients that would lead to poor material performance.

  5. Identifying social and economic barriers to regular care and treatment for Black men who have sex with men and women (BMSMW) and who are living with HIV: a qualitative study from the Bruthas cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Emily A; Weeks, John; Benjamin, Michael; Stewart, William R; Pollack, Lance M; Kegeles, Susan M; Operario, Don

    2017-01-28

    There is little research regarding the ability of Black men who have sex with men and women (BMSMW) to access and maintain HIV-related health care and treatment adherence. This population, who often insist on secrecy about their same-sex desire, may experience unique barriers to seeking regular care and treatment. From March 2011-April 2014, we recruited 396 BMSMW in the San Francisco Bay Area to be enrolled in our randomized controlled trial. At baseline we administered a behavioral survey assessing: demographics, homelessness, employment, history of incarceration, HIV status and disclosure practices, care and treatment adherence. 64 men reported living with HIV at intake. To learn more about their experiences, we recruited N = 25 to participate in qualitative interviews, which were conducted April-December 2014. Topics included: current living situation, diagnosis story, disclosure practices, experiences of accessing and maintaining care and treatment, and HIV-related stigma. Recordings were transcribed and coded for major themes. Despite being located in an area where treatment is plentiful, men faced social and economic barriers to maintaining regular care and treatment adherence. Several findings emerged to shed light on this quandary: (1) Competing needs particularly around attaining stable housing, food security, and money created barriers to treatment and care; (2) Side effects of HIV medications discouraged men from adhering to treatment; (3) Provider and Institutional level characteristics influenced care engagement; (4) Disclosure and social support made a difference in care and treatment behaviors; and (5) Participants expressed a desire for group-based intervention activities to support treatment and care among HIV+ BMSMW. Inadequate engagement in the continuum of care for HIV was born out in the quantitative data where 28% of participants did not know their Viral Load. A holistic approach to HIV health for BMSMW would appear to translate to better

  6. A Learner Perspective on Barriers to E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Karen; Newton, Cameron; Sawang, Sukanlaya

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to identify and categorize barriers to e-learning adoption and the relative impact of those barriers on learners. It contributes to the understanding of learner perceptions of barriers, the different types of barriers and their relative importance. This study used a quantitative methodology grounded in previous literature. The…

  7. Enershield : energy saving air barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallihan, D. [Enershield Industries Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Enershield Industries is a leader in air barrier technology and provides solution for the Canadian climate. This presentation described the advantages of air barriers and the impact of rising energy costs. An air barrier is used to separate areas of differing environments and makes existing building systems more efficient. This presentation discussed how an air barrier works. It also identified how Enershield Industries calculates energy savings. It described air barrier applications and those who use barrier technology. These include the commercial and industrial sector as well as the personnel and retail sector. Barrier technology can be used for cold storage; vehicle and equipment washes; food processing; and environmental separation. Features and benefits such as the ability to create seal, acoustic insulation, and long term durability were also discussed. Last, the presentation addressed model selection and design criteria issues. Design criteria that were presented included a discussion of acoustic installation, articulating nozzles, scroll cased fans, and structural frame. Other design criteria presented were galvanized frames, telescopic sliders, and off the shelf parts. It was concluded that the ability to reduce energy consumption and enhance employee/client comfort is beneficial to the employer as well as to the employee. figs.

  8. Sprache als Barriere (Language as a Barrier)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheier, Klaus

    1974-01-01

    The concept of language barrier has its derivations in the fields of dialectology, sociology and psychology. In contemporary usage however, the concept has two meanings i.e. regional-cultural barrier and socio-cultural barrier. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  9. Prevention of Filipino Youth Behavioral Health Disparities: Identifying Barriers and Facilitators to Participating in “Incredible Years,” an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention, Los Angeles, California, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Nicole; Supan, Jocelyn; Kreutzer, Cary B.; Samson, Allan; Coffey, Dean M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Evidence-based interventions for training parents are proven to prevent onset and escalation of childhood mental health problems. However, participation in such programs is low, especially among hard-to-reach, underserved populations such as Filipino Americans. Filipinos, the largest Asian subgroup in California, have significant behavioral health disparities compared with non-Hispanic whites and other Asian subgroups. The purpose of this study was to learn about Filipinos’ barriers and facilitators to participating in “Incredible Years” (IY), a parenting program. Methods We conducted 4 focus groups in Los Angeles, California, in 2012; the groups consisted of 20 Filipino parents of children aged 6 to 12 years who recently completed the IY parenting program, which was offered as a prevention workshop. Three reviewers, including two co-authors (A.S., J.J.) and a research assistant used content analysis to independently code the interview transcripts and extract subthemes. Grounded theory analytic methods were used to analyze interview transcripts. Results Parents’ perceived benefits of participation in IY were learning more effective parenting techniques, networking with other parents, improved spousal relationships, and improvements in their children's behavior. Parents’ most common motivating factor for enrollment in IY was to improve their parenting skills and their relationships with their children. The most common barriers to participation were being uncomfortable sharing problems with others and the fear of being stigmatized by others judging their parenting skills. Participants said that parent testimonials would be the most effective way to promote IY. Many recommended outreach at schools, pediatricians’ offices, and churches. Conclusion Increasing Filipino American parent enrollment in IY in culturally relevant ways will reduce the incidence of mental health disorders among children in this growing population. PMID:26491813

  10. Time resolved techniques: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.C.; Tischler, J.Z.

    1990-06-01

    Synchrotron sources provide exceptional opportunities for carrying out time-resolved x-ray diffraction investigations. The high intensity, high angular resolution, and continuously tunable energy spectrum of synchrotron x-ray beams lend themselves directly to carrying out sophisticated time-resolved x-ray scattering measurements on a wide range of materials and phenomena. When these attributes are coupled with the pulsed time-structure of synchrotron sources, entirely new time-resolved scattering possibilities are opened. Synchrotron beams typically consist of sub-nanosecond pulses of x-rays separated in time by a few tens of nanoseconds to a few hundred nanoseconds so that these beams appear as continuous x-ray sources for investigations of phenomena on time scales ranging from hours down to microseconds. Studies requiring time-resolution ranging from microseconds to fractions of a nanosecond can be carried out in a triggering mode by stimulating the phenomena under investigation in coincidence with the x-ray pulses. Time resolution on the picosecond scale can, in principle, be achieved through the use of streak camera techniques in which the time structure of the individual x-ray pulses are viewed as quasi-continuous sources with ∼100--200 picoseconds duration. Techniques for carrying out time-resolved scattering measurements on time scales varying from picoseconds to kiloseconds at present and proposed synchrotron sources are discussed and examples of time-resolved studies are cited. 17 refs., 8 figs

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Time-resolved ESR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckert, D.

    1986-06-01

    The time-resolved ESR spectroscopy is one of the modern methods in radiospectroscopy and plays an important role in solving various problems in chemistry and biology. Proceeding from the basic ideas of time-resolved ESR spectroscopy the experimental equipment is described generally including the equipment developed at the Central Institute of Isotope and Radiation Research. The experimental methods applied to the investigation of effects of chemically induced magnetic polarization of electrons and to kinetic studies of free radicals in polymer systems are presented. The theory of radical pair mechanism is discussed and theoretical expressions are summarized in a computer code to compute the theoretical polarization for each pair of the radicals

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Barriers and benefits to using mobile health technology after operation: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Jonathan S; Kaufman, Elinore; Symer, Matthew; Peters, Alexander; Charlson, Mary; Yeo, Heather

    2017-09-01

    Recently, mobile health technology has emerged as a promising avenue for improving physician-patient communication and patient outcomes. The objective of our study was to determine the public's perception of barriers and benefits to using mobile health technology technologies to enhance recovery after operation. We used the Empire State Poll to ask 2 open-ended questions to 800 participants assessing their perceptions of benefits and barriers to use mobile health technology after operation. All responses were coded independently, and any discrepancies were resolved by consensus. We used grounded theory to allow themes to arise from the codes. Interrater reliability was calculated using Cohen's Kappa. Participants identified a range of possible barriers to using mobile health technology apps after operation including: protecting personal health information, technology effectiveness and failure, preference for face-to-face interaction with their surgeon, level of effort required, and ability of the older adults to navigate mobile health technology. Participants identified multiple possible benefits including: better monitoring, improved communication with their surgeon, minimizing follow-up visits, improved convenience, and increased patient knowledge. In the study, 15% of all respondents stated there were no barriers whereas 6% stated there were no benefits. Participants were receptive to the many potential benefits of this technology to enhance not only their relationships with providers and the convenience of access, but also their health outcomes. We must address participants concerns about data security and their fears of losing a personal relationship with their doctor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Barriers to accessing urethroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolo, Michael J; Syed, Kirin K; Robison, Christopher; McFadden, Jacob; Shalowitz, David I; Brown, Gordon A; Sussman, David O; Figler, Bradley D

    2016-01-01

    Urethroplasty is an effective treatment for men with anterior urethral strictures, but is utilized less frequently than ineffective treatments such as internal urethrotomy. We sought to identify provider-level barriers to urethroplasty. An anonymous online survey was emailed to all Mid-Atlantic American Urological Association members. Six scenarios in which urethroplasty was the most appropriate treatment were presented. Primary outcome was recommendation for urethroplasty in ≥ three clinical scenarios. Other factors measured include practice zip code, urethroplasty training, and proximity to a urethroplasty surgeon. Multivariate logistic regression identified factors associated with increased likelihood of urethroplasty recommendation. Of 670 members emailed, 109 (16%) completed the survey. Final analysis included 88 respondents. Mean years in practice was 17.2. Most respondents received formal training in urethroplasty: 43 (49%) in residency, 5 (6%) in fellowship, and 10 (11%) in both; 48 respondents (55%) had a urethroplasty surgeon in their practice, whereas 18 (20%) had a urethroplasty surgeon within 45 minutes of his or her primary practice location. The only covariate that was associated with an increased likelihood of recommending urethroplasty in ≥ three scenarios was formal urethroplasty training. Most members (68%) reported no barriers to referring patients for urethroplasty; the most common barriers cited were long distance to urethroplasty surgeon (n 5 13, 15%) and concern about complications (n 5 8, 9%). Urethroplasty continues to be underutilized in men with anterior urethral strictures, potentially due to lack of knowledge dissemination and access to a urethroplasty surgeon. Appropriate urethroplasty utilization may increase with greater exposure to urethroplasty in training.

  16. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokmakoff, Andrei [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Champion, Paul [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Heilweil, Edwin J. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Nelson, Keith A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ziegler, Larry [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2009-05-14

    This document contains the Proceedings from the 14th International Conference on Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy, which was held in Meredith, NH from May 9-14, 2009. The study of molecular dynamics in chemical reaction and biological processes using time-resolved spectroscopy plays an important role in our understanding of energy conversion, storage, and utilization problems. Fundamental studies of chemical reactivity, molecular rearrangements, and charge transport are broadly supported by the DOE's Office of Science because of their role in the development of alternative energy sources, the understanding of biological energy conversion processes, the efficient utilization of existing energy resources, and the mitigation of reactive intermediates in radiation chemistry. In addition, time-resolved spectroscopy is central to all fiveof DOE's grand challenges for fundamental energy science. The Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy conference is organized biennially to bring the leaders in this field from around the globe together with young scientists to discuss the most recent scientific and technological advances. The latest technology in ultrafast infrared, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy and the scientific advances that these methods enable were covered. Particular emphasis was placed on new experimental methods used to probe molecular dynamics in liquids, solids, interfaces, nanostructured materials, and biomolecules.

  17. Resolving Ethical Issues at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninga, Jacques S.

    2013-01-01

    Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

  18. Material Barriers to Diffusive Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, George; Karrasch, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Transport barriers, as zero-flux surfaces, are ill-defined in purely advective mixing in which the flux of any passive scalar is zero through all material surfaces. For this reason, Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) have been argued to play the role of mixing barriers as most repelling, attracting or shearing material lines. These three kinematic concepts, however, can also be defined in different ways, both within rigorous mathematical treatments and within the realm of heuristic diagnostics. This has lead to a an ever-growing number of different LCS methods, each generally identifying different objects as transport barriers. In this talk, we examine which of these methods have actual relevance for diffusive transport barriers. The latter barriers are arguably the practically relevant inhibitors in the mixing of physically relevant tracers, such as temperature, salinity, vorticity or potential vorticity. We demonstrate the role of the most effective diffusion barriers in analytical examples and observational data. Supported in part by the DFG Priority Program on Turbulent Superstructures.

  19. Barriers to Herbal Medicine Research in Nigeria; Researcher's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the barriers to herbal medicine research in Nigeria. This is with a view to formulating appropriate strategies that would be deployed to overcome the identified barriers to herbal medicine research. The paper therefore identified and discussed some of these inherent barriers such as the standardization of ...

  20. Identifying technology barriers in adapting a state-of-the-art gas turbine for IGCC applications and an experimental investigation of air extraction schemes for IGCC operations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tah-teh; Agrawal, A.K.; Kapat, J.S.

    1993-06-01

    Under contracted work with Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Clemson University, the prime contractor, and General Electric (GE) and CRSS, the subcontractors, made a comprehensive study in the first phase of research to investigate the technology barriers of integrating a coal gasification process with a hot gas cleanup scheme and the state-of-the-art industrial gas turbine, the GE MS-7001F. This effort focused on (1) establishing analytical tools necessary for modeling combustion phenomenon and emissions in gas turbine combustors operating on multiple species coal gas, (2) estimates the overall performance of the GE MS-7001F combined cycle plant, (3) evaluating material issues in the hot gas path, (4) examining the flow and temperature fields when air extraction takes place at both the compressor exit and at the manhole adjacent to the combustor, and (5) examining the combustion/cooling limitations of such a gas turbine by using 3-D numerical simulation of a MS-7001F combustor operated with gasified coal. In the second phase of this contract, a 35% cool flow model was built similar to GE`s MS-7001F gas turbine for mapping the flow region between the compressor exit and the expander inlet. The model included sufficient details, such as the combustor`s transition pieces, the fuel nozzles, and the supporting struts. Four cases were studied: the first with a base line flow field of a GE 7001F without air extraction; the second with a GE 7001F with air extraction; and the third and fourth with a GE 7001F using a Griffith diffuser to replace the straight wall diffuser and operating without air extraction and with extraction, respectively.

  1. Intra-family role expectations and reluctance to change identified as key barriers to expanding vegetable consumption patterns during interactive family-based program for Appalachian low-income food preparers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J Lynne; Wenrich, Tionni R

    2012-08-01

    Few Americans eat sufficient vegetables, especially the protective deep orange and dark green vegetables. To address this, a community-based wellness program to broaden vegetables served at evening meals targeting Appalachian food preparers and their families was tested in a randomized, controlled intervention. Food preparers (n=50) were predominately married (88%), white (98%), and female (94%), with several children living at home. Experimental food preparers (n=25) attended the program sessions and controls (n=25) were mailed relevant handouts and recipes. At program sessions, participants received nutrition information, hands-on cooking instruction, and prepared recipes to take home for family evaluation. As qualitative assessment, 10 couples from each treatment group (n=20 couples) were randomly selected for baseline and immediate post-intervention interviews to explore impact on the food preparer's family. These in-depth interviews with the food preparer and their adult partner were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers conducted thematic analysis using constant comparison. Family flexibility about food choices was assessed using roles, rules, and power concepts from Family Systems Theory. Interviews at baseline revealed dinner vegetable variety was very limited because food preparers served only what everyone liked (a role expectation) and deferred to male partner and children's narrow vegetable preferences (power). Control couples reported no change in vegetable dinner variety post-intervention. Most experimental couples reported in-home tasting and evaluation was worthwhile and somewhat broadened vegetables served at dinners. But the role expectation of serving only what everyone liked and the practice of honoring powerful family members' vegetable preferences remained major barriers to change. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Minimum resolvable power contrast model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shuai; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    Signal-to-noise ratio and MTF are important indexs to evaluate the performance of optical systems. However,whether they are used alone or joint assessment cannot intuitively describe the overall performance of the system. Therefore, an index is proposed to reflect the comprehensive system performance-Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast (MRP) model. MRP is an evaluation model without human eyes. It starts from the radiance of the target and the background, transforms the target and background into the equivalent strips,and considers attenuation of the atmosphere, the optical imaging system, and the detector. Combining with the signal-to-noise ratio and the MTF, the Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast is obtained. Finally the detection probability model of MRP is given.

  3. Barriers Approach to Innovation in Academic Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Hsuan Chuang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in academic libraries is not a brand new issue. Academic libraries can benefit from successful innovation, since innovation is a key contributor to gaining and sustaining competitive advantage for survival. Building on two case studies, 28 participants from leadership teams to practitioners are involved, the qualitative findings identified the specific two types of barriers that academic libraries face by applying a barriers approach to innovation, that’s, environmental and organizational barriers. Especially, seven dimensions of two types of barriers to innovation are found.

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Resolving conflict realistically in today's health care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S B; Tutor, R S; Phillips, M L

    2001-11-01

    Conflict is a natural part of human interaction, and when properly addressed, results in improved interpersonal relationships and positive organizational culture. Unchecked conflict may escalate to verbal and physical violence. Conflict that is unresolved creates barriers for people, teams, organizational growth, and productivity, leading to cultural disintegration within the establishment. By relying on interdependence and professional collaboration, all parties involved grow and, in turn, benefit the organization and population served. When used in a constructive manner, conflict resolution can help all parties involved see the whole picture, thus allowing freedom for growth and change. Conflict resolution is accomplished best when emotions are controlled before entering into negotiation. Positive confrontation, problem solving, and negotiation are processes used to realistically resolve conflict. Everyone walks away a winner when conflict is resolved in a positive, professional manner (Stone, 1999).

  7. Communication barriers in the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBARA KOC-KOZŁOWIEC

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The art of communication – listening and speaking – is a major life skill, with a thorough influence on every human life. Remaining silent while the interlocutor speaks is not all that there is to the act of listening to messages. True listening is based on an intention to get involved in understanding of the other person, enjoying his or her presence, learning something from the conversation, giving assistance, or comforting the interlocutor. In the article the author describes obstacles (barriers, which render true listening impossible. These barriers have been identified by a group of young adults.

  8. Barriers to evidence-based medicine: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Tabrizi, Jafar Sadegh; Azami-Aghdash, Saber

    2014-12-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has emerged as an effective strategy to improve health care quality. The aim of this study was to systematically review and carry out an analysis on the barriers to EBM. Different database searching methods and also manual search were employed in this study using the search words ('evidence-based' or 'evidence-based medicine' or 'evidence-based practice' or 'evidence-based guidelines' or 'research utilization') and (barrier* or challenge or hinder) in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane library, Pro Quest, Magiran, SID. Out of 2592 articles, 106 articles were finally identified for study. Research barriers, lack of resources, lack of time, inadequate skills, and inadequate access, lack of knowledge and financial barriers were found to be the most common barriers to EBM. Examples of these barriers were found in primary care, hospital/specialist care, rehabilitation care, medical education, management and decision making. The most common barriers to research utilization were research barriers, cooperation barriers and changing barriers. Lack of resources was the most common barrier to implementation of guidelines. The result of this study shows that there are many barriers to the implementation and use of EBM. Identifying barriers is just the first step to removing barriers to the use of EBM. Extra resources will be needed if these barriers are to be tackled. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Barrier cell sheath formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.

    1980-04-01

    The solution for electrostatic potential within a simply modeled tandem mirror thermal barrier is seen to exhibit a sheath at each edge of the cell. The formation of the sheath requires ion collisionality and the analysis assmes that the collisional trapping rate into the barrier is considerably slower than the barrier pump rate

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Mediation for resolving family disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamenecka-Usova M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the understanding of the institute of marriage and its importance in the society has changed. Marriage is no longer assumed to be a commitment for a lifetime. As the principle of equality has replaced hierarchy as the guiding principle of family law it gave more grounds for family disputes and it became socially acceptable to leave marriages that are intolerable or merely unfulfilling. The aim of this article is to suggest an alternative dispute resolution method-mediation as a worthy option for resolving family conflicts.

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. SPARQL-enabled identifier conversion with Identifiers.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalaratne, Sarala M.; Bolleman, Jerven; Juty, Nick; Katayama, Toshiaki; Dumontier, Michel; Redaschi, Nicole; Le Novère, Nicolas; Hermjakob, Henning; Laibe, Camille

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: On the semantic web, in life sciences in particular, data is often distributed via multiple resources. Each of these sources is likely to use their own International Resource Identifier for conceptually the same resource or database record. The lack of correspondence between identifiers introduces a barrier when executing federated SPARQL queries across life science data. Results: We introduce a novel SPARQL-based service to enable on-the-fly integration of life science data. This service uses the identifier patterns defined in the Identifiers.org Registry to generate a plurality of identifier variants, which can then be used to match source identifiers with target identifiers. We demonstrate the utility of this identifier integration approach by answering queries across major producers of life science Linked Data. Availability and implementation: The SPARQL-based identifier conversion service is available without restriction at http://identifiers.org/services/sparql. Contact: sarala@ebi.ac.uk PMID:25638809

  7. SPARQL-enabled identifier conversion with Identifiers.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalaratne, Sarala M; Bolleman, Jerven; Juty, Nick; Katayama, Toshiaki; Dumontier, Michel; Redaschi, Nicole; Le Novère, Nicolas; Hermjakob, Henning; Laibe, Camille

    2015-06-01

    On the semantic web, in life sciences in particular, data is often distributed via multiple resources. Each of these sources is likely to use their own International Resource Identifier for conceptually the same resource or database record. The lack of correspondence between identifiers introduces a barrier when executing federated SPARQL queries across life science data. We introduce a novel SPARQL-based service to enable on-the-fly integration of life science data. This service uses the identifier patterns defined in the Identifiers.org Registry to generate a plurality of identifier variants, which can then be used to match source identifiers with target identifiers. We demonstrate the utility of this identifier integration approach by answering queries across major producers of life science Linked Data. The SPARQL-based identifier conversion service is available without restriction at http://identifiers.org/services/sparql. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Barriers to fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriman, A.C.; Butt, R.D.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D.J.; Morton, C.R.; Newton, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    The fusion barrier is formed by the combination of the repulsive Coulomb and attractive nuclear forces. Recent research at the Australian National University has shown that when heavy nuclei collide, instead of a single fusion barrier, there is a set of fusion barriers. These arise due to intrinsic properties of the interacting nuclei such deformation, rotations and vibrations. Thus the range of barrier energies depends on the properties of both nuclei. The transfer of matter between nuclei, forming a neck, can also affect the fusion process. High precision data have been used to determine fusion barrier distributions for many nuclear reactions, leading to new insights into the fusion process

  9. Extremal surface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy

  10. Safety- barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2008-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called 'bow-tie' diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation of safety-barrier diagrams to other methods such as fault...... trees and Bayesian networks is discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management....

  11. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2007-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk...... analysis with operational safety management....

  12. Component Resolved Diagnosis in Hymenoptera Anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsitz, D; Brockow, K

    2017-06-01

    Hymenoptera anaphylaxis is one of the leading causes of severe allergic reactions and can be fatal. Venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT) can prevent a life-threatening reaction; however, confirmation of an allergy to a Hymenoptera venom is a prerequisite before starting such a treatment. Component resolved diagnostics (CRD) have helped to better identify the responsible allergen. Many new insect venom allergens have been identified within the last few years. Commercially available recombinant allergens offer new diagnostic tools for detecting sensitivity to insect venoms. Additional added sensitivity to nearly 95% was introduced by spiking yellow jacket venom (YJV) extract with Ves v 5. The further value of CRD for sensitivity in YJV and honey bee venom (HBV) allergy is more controversially discussed. Recombinant allergens devoid of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants often help to identify the culprit venom in patients with double sensitivity to YJV and HBV. CRD identified a group of patients with predominant Api m 10 sensitization, which may be less well protected by VIT, as some treatment extracts are lacking this allergen. The diagnostic gap of previously undetected Hymenoptera allergy has been decreased via production of recombinant allergens. Knowledge of analogies in interspecies proteins and cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants is necessary to distinguish relevant from irrelevant sensitizations.

  13. Barriers to healthcare for transgender individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safer, Joshua D; Coleman, Eli; Feldman, Jamie; Garofalo, Robert; Hembree, Wylie; Radix, Asa; Sevelius, Jae

    2016-04-01

    Transgender persons suffer significant health disparities and may require medical intervention as part of their care. The purpose of this manuscript is to briefly review the literature characterizing barriers to healthcare for transgender individuals and to propose research priorities to understand mechanisms of those barriers and interventions to overcome them. Current research emphasizes sexual minorities' self-report of barriers, rather than using direct methods. The biggest barrier to healthcare reported by transgender individuals is lack of access because of lack of providers who are sufficiently knowledgeable on the topic. Other barriers include: financial barriers, discrimination, lack of cultural competence by providers, health systems barriers, and socioeconomic barriers. National research priorities should include rigorous determination of the capacity of the US healthcare system to provide adequate care for transgender individuals. Studies should determine knowledge and biases of the medical workforce across the spectrum of medical training with regard to transgender medical care; adequacy of sufficient providers for the care required, larger social structural barriers, and status of a framework to pay for appropriate care. As well, studies should propose and validate potential solutions to address identified gaps.

  14. A Survey to Assess Barriers to Urban Teaching Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasey, Gary; Mays, Jennifer; Lee, Robert; D'Santiago, Verenice

    2016-01-01

    The "Urban Teaching Barriers" survey was created to assess barriers to urban teaching careers. Pre-service teachers (N = 377) completed this instrument, along with questionnaires that assessed urban teaching intentions and urban teaching self-efficacy. Six barrier domains were identified that tapped concerns over (a) lack of resources,…

  15. SME's perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Clemens; Kemp, Ron; Dijkstra, S. Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Extant literature discusses a large number of different entry barriers that may hamper market efficiency or entrepreneurial activity. In practice several of these barriers cohere and stem from the same root. Factor analysis is used to identify the underlying dimensions of these barriers. 7

  16. Overcoming Branding Barriers in Nonprofit, Private Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyr, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this Delphi study was to explore the views of experts in the field of nonprofit private colleges and universities in the United States to define branding and identify current barriers to branding, to discover how those barriers can be overcome, and to determine what barriers to branding are likely to occur 5 years in the…

  17. 10 CFR 63.115 - Requirements for multiple barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Requirements for multiple barriers. Demonstration of compliance with § 63.113(a) must: (a) Identify those design features of the engineered barrier system, and natural features of the geologic setting, that are... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for multiple barriers. 63.115 Section 63.115...

  18. Resolvent-Techniques for Multiple Exercise Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Sören; Lempa, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    We study optimal multiple stopping of strong Markov processes with random refraction periods. The refraction periods are assumed to be exponentially distributed with a common rate and independent of the underlying dynamics. Our main tool is using the resolvent operator. In the first part, we reduce infinite stopping problems to ordinary ones in a general strong Markov setting. This leads to explicit solutions for wide classes of such problems. Starting from this result, we analyze problems with finitely many exercise rights and explain solution methods for some classes of problems with underlying Lévy and diffusion processes, where the optimal characteristics of the problems can be identified more explicitly. We illustrate the main results with explicit examples

  19. Resolvent-Techniques for Multiple Exercise Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Sören, E-mail: christensen@math.uni-kiel.de [Christian–Albrechts-University in Kiel, Mathematical Institute (Germany); Lempa, Jukka, E-mail: jukka.lempa@hioa.no [Oslo and Akershus University College, School of business, Faculty of Social Sciences (Norway)

    2015-02-15

    We study optimal multiple stopping of strong Markov processes with random refraction periods. The refraction periods are assumed to be exponentially distributed with a common rate and independent of the underlying dynamics. Our main tool is using the resolvent operator. In the first part, we reduce infinite stopping problems to ordinary ones in a general strong Markov setting. This leads to explicit solutions for wide classes of such problems. Starting from this result, we analyze problems with finitely many exercise rights and explain solution methods for some classes of problems with underlying Lévy and diffusion processes, where the optimal characteristics of the problems can be identified more explicitly. We illustrate the main results with explicit examples.

  20. Spatially resolved spectroscopy on semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessler, Johanna

    2009-02-20

    Cleared edge overgrowth (CEO) nanostructures are identified and studied by 1D und 2D {mu}PL mapping scans and by time-resolved and power-dependent measurements. Distinct excitonic ground states of 2fold CEO QDs with large localization energies are achieved. The deeper localization reached as compared to the only other report on 2fold CEO QDs in literature is attributed to a new strain-free fabrication process and changed QW thickness in [001] growth. In order to achieve controlled manipulation of 2fold CEO QDs the concept of a CEO structure with three top gates and one back gate is presented. Due to the complexity of this device, a simpler test structure is realized. Measurements on this test structure confirm the necessity to either grow significantly thicker overgrowth layers or to provide separate top gates in all three spatial direction to controllably manipulate 2fold CEO QDs with an external electric field. (orig.)

  1. Psychological Barriers to Behavior Change: How to indentify the barriers that inhibit change

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Adopting a healthy lifestyle often requires changing patterns of behavior. This article describes three categories of psychological barriers to behavior change: those that prevent the admission of a problem, those that interfere with initial attempts to change behavior, and those that make long-term change difficult. Strategies are identified that family physicians can use to overcome the barriers.

  2. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Thomas; Mialocq, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the evolution in time of light emitted by a molecular system after a brief photo-excitation. The authors first describe fluorescence from a photo-physical point of view and discuss the characterization of the excited state. Then, they explain some basic notions related to fluorescence characterization (lifetime and decays, quantum efficiency, so on). They present the different experimental methods and techniques currently used to study time-resolved fluorescence. They discuss basic notions of time resolution and spectral reconstruction. They briefly present some conventional methods: intensified Ccd cameras, photo-multipliers and photodiodes associated with a fast oscilloscope, and phase modulation. Other methods and techniques are more precisely presented: time-correlated single photon counting (principle, examples, and fluorescence lifetime imagery), streak camera (principle, examples), and optical methods like the Kerr optical effect (principle and examples) and fluorescence up-conversion (principle and theoretical considerations, examples of application)

  3. Barriers to investment in emerging power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardsworth, Jr, J J [Hunton and Williams, Richmond, VA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Investing in private power projects in developing countries is a very different issue from investment in the US or the UK. There are many investment barriers not present in developed nations. Firstly investment barriers need to be identified. Trouble may be encountered with legal authorization; the regulatory framework; government guarantees; fuel supply security; lender protection; labour laws and local commercial restrictions such as profits repatriation, currency convertibility, and taxes. Political barriers may also be encountered in the form of: government commitments and support; funding sources; political unrest; religion; and relationships with other countries. Investment barriers may be minimised by persuading the government to remove any legal barriers; the contract has then to be agreed. Factors in a successful contract include: power purchase agreements; fuel agreements; and implementation agreements. It is vital to have a source of information on local rules and customs, by working with local companies and employing local attorneys.

  4. Barriers to physical activity among working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Jill J

    2011-04-01

    Working mothers experience several barriers to physical activity. If these barriers can be identified by occupational health nurses and they can partner with working mothers to reduce these perceived barriers, the health of these workers can be improved and chronic disease risk prevented. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of self-regulatory efficacy on physical activity among working mothers and to describe specific barriers to physical activity. The Barriers Specific Self-Efficacy Scale (BARSE) and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) were used to measure the variables. Self-regulatory efficacy was found to be a strong predictor of physical activity in a diverse sample of working mothers who did not meet current recommendations for physical activity. Occupational health nurses can use these findings to design programs for groups and for counseling individuals. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Resolved Companions of Cepheids as Seen by HST and XMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail; Mason, Brian D.; Tingle, Evan; Karovska, Margarita; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott J.; Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted a survey of 70 classical Cepheids with the Hubble Wide Field Camera3 (WFC3) to identify possible resolved companions. Data cover the range of 0.3" to 20" which typically corresponds to 200 AU to 0.1 pc. At present only possible companions greater than 5" from the Cepheid are discussed, since closer companions require a sophisticated point spread correction for the light of the much brighter Cepheid. We have followed up a subset of the possible resolved companions with XMM observations to determine whether they are young (X-ray active) enough to be physical companions of the Cepheids. We estimate that 4% of the Cepheids have a physical resolved companion, with the widest having a separation of 4000 AU. The one wider young star is in the field of S Nor, but since it is a cluster member, the companion is not assumed to be gravitationally bound to the Cepheid.

  6. Multilayer moisture barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  7. Barrier penetration database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainberg, A.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1978-11-01

    This document is intended to supply the NRC and nuclear power plant licensees with basic data on the times required to penetrate forcibly the types of barriers commonly found in nuclear plants. These times are necessary for design and evaluation of the physical protection system required under 10CFR73.55. Each barrier listed is described in detail. Minor variations in basic barrier construction that result in the same penetration time, are also described

  8. Understanding healthcare professionals' self-efficacy to resolve interprofessional conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Martha; Orchard, Carole

    2016-05-01

    Conflict within interprofessional healthcare teams, when not effectively resolved, has been linked to detrimental consequences; however, effective conflict resolution has been shown to enhance team performance, increase patient safety, and improve patient outcomes. Alarmingly, knowledge of healthcare professionals' ability to resolve conflict has been limited, largely due to the challenges that arise when researchers attempt to observe a conflict occurring in real time. Research literature has identified three central components that seem to influence healthcare professional's perceived ability to resolve conflict: communication competence, problem-solving ability, and conflict resolution education and training. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of communication competence, problem-solving ability, and conflict resolution education and training on healthcare professionals' perceived ability to resolve conflicts. This study employed a cross-sectional survey design. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that two of the three central components-conflict resolution education and training and communication competence-were found to be statistically significant predictors of healthcare professionals' perceived ability to resolve conflict. Implications include a call to action for clinicians and academicians to recognize the importance of communication competence and conflict resolution education and training as a vital area in interprofessional pre- and post-licensure education and collaborative practice.

  9. Barriers to timely diagnosis and treatment for children with hearing impairment in a southern Indian city: a qualitative study of parents and clinic staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merugumala, Sri Vamshi; Pothula, Vijay; Cooper, Max

    2017-10-01

    In low income countries, deaf children are identified late due to the absence of a universal screening. Hearing impairment is a common yet neglected disability in India that leads to loss of speech and language. This qualitative study explored barriers to accessing appropriate hearing services in one city in southern India. To identify the barriers in timely management of deafness, 25 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Data were examined using Applied Thematic Analysis. Seventeen mothers of deaf children, primarily from low socioeconomic backgrounds, and eight staff members at a charitable hearing centre in Hyderabad. Barriers to accessing hearing services included failure to recognise deafness, the dominant role of elders in household decisions, belief that deafness would resolve, reassurance from a child's overall good health, lack of funds and transportation barriers to reach the centre particularly from rural areas. Parents frequently learned about services through word of mouth. The challenges to accessing appropriate services for deafness operate prior to presentation and include educational, cultural, navigational and financial barriers especially for those of lower socioeconomic status and residents of rural areas. The findings highlighted the need to raise awareness and implement wider screening programmes for early interventions.

  10. Identifying Barriers to Knowledge Management in the US Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-16

    Knowledge Age In his 1980s best-seller, Megatrends , John Naisbitt proposed that our industrial society had transformed itself into an information society...considered to be representations of the world that consist of objects and events, and the challenge of a cognitive system, computational or biological ...Naisbitt, J. (1984). Megatrends . New York: Warner Books, Inc. Nguyen, B. (2000). Building a Knowledge-Centric United States Air Force. 1250 AF

  11. Research aims to identify and remove barriers faced by Africa's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-07-10

    Jul 10, 2013 ... Across Africa, men and women are increasingly entering the marketplace as small ... that prevent them from growing, improving their performance, and increasing earnings. This is ... Woman working in a small shop in Ghana.

  12. Identifying barriers for ICT development in companies' registration office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool Mehdian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the necessary issues in business development is to register it with government, which helps an organization gain an official identification. However, registering a firm with government often involves with many challenges in different countries. The recent advances in information technology have created tremendous opportunities to expedite the process of business development. This paper presents an empirical investigation to prioritize various factors influencing on information and communication technology development in noncommercial business registration office in Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire with eight categories and distributes it among some experts. The results of our survey indicate that Creating a sense of urgency is number one important factor followed by Appropriate planning, Form a coalition FAQ, Fixed improvements, Empowering, Creating a good perspective, New approaches to institution-building and Explanation of Vision.

  13. Identifying Barriers and Facilitators in Implementing Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Don; Childs, Karen; Blase, Karen A.; Wallace, Frances

    2007-01-01

    As the number of schools implementing systemic, schoolwide positive behavior support (PBS) processes expands (nationally, at least 5,000 schools are participating), increasing attention is being paid to the efficacy of implementation. This article describes a case study of the experiences of Florida's Positive Behavior Support Project, which used…

  14. Identifying the barriers to female leadership in Paramedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige Mason

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main message is clear: women are not making it to the top in any profession, anywhere in the world, and the field of prehospital and academic medicine is not immune. Whether in the public or private sphere, from the highest levels of government decision-making to common households, women continue to be denied equal opportunity with men

  15. Transport barriers in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, I L; Szezech, J D Jr; Kroetz, T; Marcus, F A; Roberto, M; Viana, R L; Lopes, S R

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the creation of transport barriers in magnetically confined plasmas with non monotonic equilibrium radial profiles. These barriers reduce the transport in the shearless region (i.e., where the twist condition does not hold). For the chaotic motion of particles in an equilibrium electric field with a nonmonotonic radial profile, perturbed by electrostatic waves, we show that a nontwist transport barrier can be created in the plasma by modifying the electric field radial profile. We also show non twist barriers in chaotic magnetic field line transport in the plasma near to the tokamak wall with resonant modes due to electric currents in external coils.

  16. Barriers to treatment for older adults seeking psychological therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthrich, Viviana M; Frei, Jacqueline

    2015-07-01

    Older adults with mental health disorders underutilize mental health services more than other adults. While there are well known general barriers to help seeking across the population, specific barriers for older adults include difficulties with transportation, beliefs that it is normal to be anxious and depressed in old age, and beliefs by referrers that psychological therapy is less likely to be effective. This study examined barriers related to identifying the need for help, seeking help and participating in therapy in a clinical population of older adults. Sixty older adults (aged 60-79 years) with comorbid anxiety and unipolar mood disorders completed barriers to treatment questionnaires before and after psychological group treatment, as well as measures of cognitive ability, anxiety, depression, and quality of life at baseline. The greatest barriers to help seeking related to difficulties identifying the need for help, with 50% of the sample reporting their belief that their symptoms were normal as a major barrier. Other major barriers identified were related to: self-reliance, cost of treatment, and fear of medication replicating previous findings. The main barriers reported for difficulties in continuing therapy included not finding therapy helpful, cost of treatment, and thinking that the therapist did not understand their issues. The main barriers identified related to issues with identifying the need to seek help. More attention is needed to educate older adults and professionals about the need for, and effectiveness of, psychological therapies for older adults with anxiety and depression to reduce this barrier to help seeking.

  17. Component-resolved diagnostics in vernal conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia, Alicia; Sanchís, Eugenia; Montero, Javier A

    2016-10-01

    Conventional diagnostic tests in allergy are insufficient to clarify the cause of vernal conjunctivitis. Component-resolved diagnostic (CRD) by microarray allergen assay may be useful in detecting allergens that might be involved in the inflammatory process. In a recent trial in patients suffered from eosinophilic esophagitis, after 2 years of the CRD-guided exclusion diet and specific immunotherapy, significant clinical improvement was observed, and 68% of patients were discharged (cure based on negative biopsy, no symptoms, and no medication intake). Our new objective was to evaluate IgE-mediated hypersensitivity by CRD in tears and serum from patients with vernal conjunctivitis and treat patients with identified triggering allergens by specific immunotherapy. Twenty-five patients with vernal conjunctivitis were evaluated. The identified triggering allergens were n Lol p 1 (11 cases), n Cyn d 1 (eight cases), group 4 and 6 grasses (six cases) and group 5 of grasses (five cases). Prick test and pollen IgE were positive in one case. Clinical improvement was observed in 13/25 vernal conjunctivitis patients after 1-year specific immunotherapy. CRD seems to be a more sensitive diagnostic tool compared with prick test and IgE detection. Specific CRD-led immunotherapy may achieve clinical improvements in vernal conjunctivitis patients.

  18. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither...

  19. Physician perspectives on legal processes for resolving end-of-life disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidwick, Paula; Sibbald, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand how to effectively approach end-of-life disputes, this study surveyed physicians' attitudes towards one process for resolving end-of-life disputes, namely, the Consent and Capacity Board of Ontario. In this case, the process involved examining interpretation of best interests between substitute decision-makers and medical teams. Physicians who made "Form G" applications to the Consent and Capacity Board of Ontario that resulted in a decision posted on the open-access database, Canadian Legal Information Institute (CanLii), were identified and surveyed. This purposive sample led to 13 invitations to participate and 12 interviews (92% response rate). Interviews were conducted using a prescribed interview guide. No barriers to the Consent and Capacity Board process were reported. Applications were made when physicians reached an impasse with the family and further treatment was perceived to be "unethical." The most significant challenge reported was the delay when appeals were launched. Appeals extended the process for an indefinite period of time making it so lengthy it negated any perceived benefits of the process. Benefits included that a neutral third party, namely the Consent and Capacity Board, was able to assess best interests. Also, when decisions were timely, further harm to the patient was minimized. Physicians reported this particular approach, namely the Consent and Capacity Board has a mechanism that is worthwhile, patient centred, process oriented, orderly and efficient for resolving end-of-life disputes and, in particular, determining best interests. However, unless the appeal process can be adjusted to respond to the ICU context there is a risk of not serving the best interest of patients. Physicians would recommend framing end-of-life treatment plans in the positive instead of negative, for example, propose palliative care and no escalation of treatment as opposed to withdrawal.

  20. Imaging buried organic islands by spatially resolved ballistic electron emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Kuan Eng J; Bannani, A; Troadec, C

    2008-01-01

    The well-known Au/n-Si(111) Schottky interface is modified by a discontinuous pentacene film (∼1.5 nm thick) and studied using spatially resolved ballistic electron emission spectroscopy (BEES). The pentacene film introduced subtle changes to the interface which cannot be definitively detected by current-voltage measurements or a standard BEES analysis of the barrier height. In contrast, analyzing the BEES results in a dual-parameter (transmission attenuation and barrier height) space allows the effect of the pentacene film on the Au/n-Si(111) interface to be clearly demonstrated. We found that the pentacene film behaves like a tunneling barrier and increases the distribution of local barrier heights with a tendency toward lower values. Our results highlight the potential of the dual-parameter BEES analysis for understanding local interface modification by molecules.

  1. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Renowned experts present the latest knowledge Although a very fragile structure, the skin barrier is probably one of the most important organs of the body. Inward/out it is responsible for body integrity and outward/in for keeping microbes, chemicals, and allergens from penetrating the skin. Since...... the role of barrier integrity in atopic dermatitis and the relationship to filaggrin mutations was discovered a decade ago, research focus has been on the skin barrier, and numerous new publications have become available. This book is an interdisciplinary update offering a wide range of information...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  2. Benchmarking the interactions among barriers in third-party logistics implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diabat, A.; Khreishah, A.; Govindan, Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the interaction among some of the major barriers that may hinder the implementation of third-party logistics (TPL) in manufacturing industries. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses an interpretive structural modeling (ISM) methodology...... to analyze the interactions among the barriers. Findings: It is beneficial for the management of any firm to be aware of significant barriers and to diagnose those that could be integral to the organization's future survival. Many works have focused on identifying barriers for TPL implementation, but a model...... for such barriers is lacking. This paper attempts to develop a model for the barriers using an ISM methodology and analyzes the mutual interactions among the barriers. The model differentiates between the barriers so that driving barriers, which can intensify other barriers, and dependent barriers are identified...

  3. Resolvability of regional density structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonka, A.; Fichtner, A.

    2016-12-01

    Lateral density variations are the source of mass transport in the Earth at all scales, acting as drivers of convectivemotion. However, the density structure of the Earth remains largely unknown since classic seismic observables and gravityprovide only weak constraints with strong trade-offs. Current density models are therefore often based on velocity scaling,making strong assumptions on the origin of structural heterogeneities, which may not necessarily be correct. Our goal is to assessif 3D density structure may be resolvable with emerging full-waveform inversion techniques. We have previously quantified the impact of regional-scale crustal density structure on seismic waveforms with the conclusion that reasonably sized density variations within thecrust can leave a strong imprint on both travel times and amplitudes, and, while this can produce significant biases in velocity and Q estimates, the seismic waveform inversion for density may become feasible. In this study we performprincipal component analyses of sensitivity kernels for P velocity, S velocity, and density. This is intended to establish theextent to which these kernels are linearly independent, i.e. the extent to which the different parameters may be constrainedindependently. Since the density imprint we observe is not exclusively linked to travel times and amplitudes of specific phases,we consider waveform differences between complete seismograms. We test the method using a known smooth model of the crust and seismograms with clear Love and Rayleigh waves, showing that - as expected - the first principal kernel maximizes sensitivity to SH and SV velocity structure, respectively, and that the leakage between S velocity, P velocity and density parameter spaces is minimal in the chosen setup. Next, we apply the method to data from 81 events around the Iberian Penninsula, registered in total by 492 stations. The objective is to find a principal kernel which would maximize the sensitivity to density

  4. A comparison of freeway median crash frequency, severity, and barrier strike outcomes by median barrier type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Brendan J; Savolainen, Peter T

    2018-08-01

    Median-crossover crashes are among the most hazardous events that can occur on freeways, often resulting in severe or fatal injuries. The primary countermeasure to reduce the occurrence of such crashes is the installation of a median barrier. When installation of a median barrier is warranted, transportation agencies are faced with the decision among various alternatives including concrete barriers, beam guardrail, or high-tension cable barriers. Each barrier type differs in terms of its deflection characteristics upon impact, the required installation and maintenance costs, and the roadway characteristics (e.g., median width) where installation would be feasible. This study involved an investigation of barrier performance through an in-depth analysis of crash frequency and severity data from freeway segments where high-tension cable, thrie-beam, and concrete median barriers were installed. A comprehensive manual review of crash reports was conducted to identify crashes in which a vehicle left the roadway and encroached into the median. This review also involved an examination of crash outcomes when a barrier strike occurred, which included vehicle containment, penetration, or re-direction onto the travel lanes. The manual review of crash reports provided critical supplementary information through narratives and diagrams not normally available through standard fields on police crash report forms. Statistical models were estimated to identify factors that affect the frequency, severity, and outcomes of median-related crashes, with particular emphases on differences between segments with varying median barrier types. Several roadway-, traffic-, and environmental-related characteristics were found to affect these metrics, with results varying across the different barrier types. The results of this study provide transportation agencies with important guidance as to the in-service performance of various types of median barrier. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Barriers to Quality Care for Dying Patients in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vorst, Rebecca F.; Crane, Lori A.; Barton, Phoebe Lindsey; Kutner, Jean S.; Kallail, K. James; Westfall, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Barriers to providing optimal palliative care in rural communities are not well understood. Purpose: To identify health care personnel's perceptions of the care provided to dying patients in rural Kansas and Colorado and to identify barriers to providing optimal care. Methods: An anonymous self-administered survey was sent to health care…

  6. Imposing resolved turbulence in CFD simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, L.; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2011-01-01

    In large‐eddy simulations, the inflow velocity field should contain resolved turbulence. This paper describes and analyzes two methods for imposing resolved turbulence in the interior of the domain in Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations. The intended application of the methods is to impose...

  7. Safety barriers to prevent release of hydrocarbons during production of oil and gas

    OpenAIRE

    Sklet, Snorre; Hauge, Stein

    2004-01-01

    This report documents a set of scenarios related to release of hydrocarbons during production on oil and gas platforms. For each release scenario, initiating events, barrier functions aimed to prevent loss of containment, and barrier systems that realize these barrier functions are identified and described. Safety barriers to prevent release of hydrocarbons during production of oil and gas

  8. Clinical and radiological aspects of limited forms of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis and slowly resolving pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraiani, Olga; Lesnic, Evelina; Niguleanu, Adriana; Niguleanu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    Despite of a clearly defined diagnostic algorithm of pulmonary tuberculosis, low sensibility of contemporary laboratory methods in limited forms of pulmonary tuberculosis contributes to a difficult differential diagnosis with community acquired pneumonia, especially with slowly resolving pneumonia. A case-control, prospective, selective, comparative and descriptive study was performed using a group of 180 patients, divided into two samples: I group - 125 cases with limited form of pulmonary infiltrative tuberculosis; II group - 55 cases with slowly resolving community-acquired pneumonia. The findings identified the prevalence of intoxication syndrome in the slowly resolving pneumonia sample. Lung destructions and bronchogenous dissemination was identified only in the tuberculosis sample. A higher impact of comorbidities and old age was more relevant in slowly resolving pneumonia sample. Clinical and radiological improvement was established in most patients of both groups, but the considerable resorption of lung infiltrates predominated in slowly resolving pneumonia sample. (authors)

  9. Sub-nanometrically resolved chemical mappings of quantum-cascade laser active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantzas, Konstantinos; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Patriarche, Gilles; Largeau, Ludovic; Mauguin, Olivia; Sagnes, Isabelle; Pegolotti, Giulia; Vasanelli, Angela; Calvar, Ariane; Amanti, Maria; Sirtori, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    A procedure that produces sub-nanometrically resolved chemical mappings of MOCVD-grown InGaAs/InAlAs/InP quantum cascade lasers is presented. The chemical mappings reveal that, although the structure is lattice-matched to InP, the InAlAs barriers do not attain the nominal aluminum content—48%—and are, in fact, InGaAlAs quaternaries. This information is used to adjust the aluminum precursor flow and fine-tune the composition of the barriers, resulting in a significant improvement of the fabricated lasers. (paper)

  10. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...

  11. De novo assembly of a haplotype-resolved human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongzhi; Wu, Honglong; Luo, Ruibang; Huang, Shujia; Sun, Yuhui; Tong, Xin; Xie, Yinlong; Liu, Binghang; Yang, Hailong; Zheng, Hancheng; Li, Jian; Li, Bo; Wang, Yu; Yang, Fang; Sun, Peng; Liu, Siyang; Gao, Peng; Huang, Haodong; Sun, Jing; Chen, Dan; He, Guangzhu; Huang, Weihua; Huang, Zheng; Li, Yue; Tellier, Laurent C A M; Liu, Xiao; Feng, Qiang; Xu, Xun; Zhang, Xiuqing; Bolund, Lars; Krogh, Anders; Kristiansen, Karsten; Drmanac, Radoje; Drmanac, Snezana; Nielsen, Rasmus; Li, Songgang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Li, Yingrui; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun

    2015-06-01

    The human genome is diploid, and knowledge of the variants on each chromosome is important for the interpretation of genomic information. Here we report the assembly of a haplotype-resolved diploid genome without using a reference genome. Our pipeline relies on fosmid pooling together with whole-genome shotgun strategies, based solely on next-generation sequencing and hierarchical assembly methods. We applied our sequencing method to the genome of an Asian individual and generated a 5.15-Gb assembled genome with a haplotype N50 of 484 kb. Our analysis identified previously undetected indels and 7.49 Mb of novel coding sequences that could not be aligned to the human reference genome, which include at least six predicted genes. This haplotype-resolved genome represents the most complete de novo human genome assembly to date. Application of our approach to identify individual haplotype differences should aid in translating genotypes to phenotypes for the development of personalized medicine.

  12. Overcoming barriers to work participation for patients with postpoliomyelitis syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Katen, Kim; Beelen, Anita; Nollet, Frans; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. This study aimed to explore the perceived work ability of patients with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS), to identify barriers and factors that are impeding or conducive, respectively, to work participation, and to identify possible interventions. Methods. Qualitative cross-sectional

  13. Barriers to education of overseas doctors in paediatrics: a qualitative study in South Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, J; Stark, P

    2007-03-01

    To explore the factors that may influence the progress of doctors who come from the Indian subcontinent to train in paediatrics in the UK. Overseas doctors training in paediatrics in Rotherham, Sheffield and Doncaster participated in the study. Focus groups were used to collect data; two focus groups, each with 4-5 participants, were conducted at 6-week intervals. Semistructured, one-to-one interviews were conducted to add more understanding and depth to issues highlighted in the focus groups. The focus groups and interviews were audiotaped; the tapes were transcribed and data were analysed using the Grounded Theory; open codes were formed and concepts identified using microanalysis, and initial theories were built. Lack of information about the National Health Service (NHS)/Royal Colleges, inappropriate communication skills, difficulties in team working, difficulties in preparing for Royal College examinations, visa and job hunting, and social and cultural isolation were identified as major barriers. Problems arose not only from difficulties with language but also from use of local and colloquial words, different accents and difficulty in communicating sensitive issues. Lack of understanding of role in teams and difficulties in working in multiprofessional setting all contributed to the problems. Cultural differences inside and outside the workplace, and social isolation were also highlighted. Induction programmes, mentoring, awareness of the issues within the teams, and courses in communication specifically directed at overseas doctors were identified as means to overcome these barriers. Several intercultural factors were identified that could act as barriers to the progress of overseas doctors training in paediatrics in the UK. Increased awareness of these factors within the teams would be the first step in resolving some of the issues.

  14. Patients' reports of barriers to expressing concerns during cancer consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Kim; Linn, Annemiek J; Smit, Edith G; van Weert, Julia C M

    2015-03-01

    To identify cancer patients' most influential barriers to expressing concerns during cancer consultations in a new manner by examining patients' reports of perceived barriers and perceived occurrence of barriers in consultations. Two online focus groups (N=16) and an online survey (N=236) were conducted among cancer patients and cancer survivors. The online focus groups and survey were used to examine two elements of patients' barriers, i.e., patients' reports of perceived barriers and perceived occurrence of barriers in consultations. Composite scores of these two elements were calculated to determine influential barriers. Results showed that the most influential barriers were related to providers' behavior (e.g., providers do not explicitly invite patients to express concerns) and the environment where the consultation takes place (e.g., perceived lack of time). The results of this study indicate that influential barriers to expressing concerns are barriers that patients cannot overcome themselves (i.e., they are related to providers' behavior or the environment of the consultation). A collaborative approach between researchers, providers and policy makers is needed to overcome these barriers. The results of this study can be used to develop strategies to overcome barriers to patients expressing concerns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Information barriers and authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; Wolford, J.K.

    2001-01-01

    Acceptance of nuclear materials into a monitoring regime is complicated if the materials are in classified shapes or have classified composition. An attribute measurement system with an information barrier can be emplo,yed to generate an unclassified display from classified measurements. This information barrier must meet two criteria: (1) classified information cannot be released to the monitoring party, and (2) the monitoring party must be convinced that the unclassified output accurately represents the classified input. Criterion 1 is critical to the host country to protect the classified information. Criterion 2 is critical to the monitoring party and is often termed the 'authentication problem.' Thus, the necessity for authentication of a measurement system with an information barrier stems directly from the description of a useful information barrier. Authentication issues must be continually addressed during the entire development lifecycle of the measurement system as opposed to being applied only after the system is built.

  16. Barrier Infrared Detector (BIRD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...

  17. Protective barrier development: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    Protective barrier and warning marker systems are being developed to isolate wastes disposed of near the earth's surface at the Hanford Site. The barrier is designed to function in an arid to semiarid climate, to limit infiltration and percolation of water through the waste zone to near-zero, to be maintenance free, and to last up to 10,000 yr. Natural materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, clay, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity and to create an integrated structure with redundant features. These materials isolate wastes by limiting water drainage; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling emission of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion. Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory efforts to assess the performance of various barrier and marker designs will be discussed

  18. Engineered barriers: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, A.; Marsh, G.P.

    1988-01-01

    This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg 137 Cs), since they can provide containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author)

  19. Skin barrier composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osburn, F.G.

    1985-01-01

    A skin barrier composition comprises a mixture of a copolymer resin of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA), and a water-insoluble dry tack-providing elastomer such as polyisobutylene. The composition after mixing and molding, is subjected to ionizing irradiation to form cross-linked polymer networks of the EVA. The compositions have exceptional properties for use as barrier sheets, rings, or strips in ostomy, wound drainage, and incontinence devices. (author)

  20. Skin barrier composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osburn, F G

    1985-06-12

    A skin barrier composition comprises a mixture of a copolymer resin of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA), and a water-insoluble dry tack-providing elastomer such as polyisobutylene. The composition after mixing and molding, is subjected to ionizing irradiation to form cross-linked polymer networks of the EVA. The compositions have exceptional properties for use as barrier sheets, rings, or strips in ostomy, wound drainage, and incontinence devices.

  1. Barriers analysis for green supply chain management implementation in Indian industries using analytic hierarchy process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Kaliyan, Mathiyazhagan; Kannan, Devika

    2014-01-01

    to the implementation of a green supply chain management (Green SCM) based on procurement effectiveness. A total of 47 barriers were identified, both through detailed literature and discussion with industrial experts and through a questionnaire-based survey from various industrial sectors. Essential barriers......Manufacturing industries started adopting the green concept in their supply chain management recently to focus on environmental issues. But, industries still struggle to identify barriers hindering green supply chain management implementation. This work focuses on identifying barriers...

  2. Time-resolved absorption measurements on OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaanimagi, P.A.; DaSilva, L.; Delettrez, J.; Gregory, G.G.; Richardson, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    Time-resolved measurements of the incident laser light that is scattered and/or refracted from targets irradiated by the 24 uv-beam OMEGA laser at LLE, have provided some interesting features related to time-resolved absorption. The decrease in laser absorption characteristic of irradiating a target that implodes during the laser pulse has been observed. The increase in absorption expected as the critical density surface moves from a low to a high Z material in the target has also been noted. The detailed interpretation of these results is made through comparisons with simulation using the code LILAC, as well as with streak data from time-resolved x-ray imaging and spectroscopy. In addition, time and space-resolved imaging of the scattered light yields information on laser irradiation uniformity conditions on the target. The report consists of viewgraphs

  3. Knowledge Extraction from Atomically Resolved Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlcek, Lukas; Maksov, Artem; Pan, Minghu; Vasudevan, Rama K; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2017-10-24

    Tremendous strides in experimental capabilities of scanning transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) over the past 30 years made atomically resolved imaging routine. However, consistent integration and use of atomically resolved data with generative models is unavailable, so information on local thermodynamics and other microscopic driving forces encoded in the observed atomic configurations remains hidden. Here, we present a framework based on statistical distance minimization to consistently utilize the information available from atomic configurations obtained from an atomically resolved image and extract meaningful physical interaction parameters. We illustrate the applicability of the framework on an STM image of a FeSe x Te 1-x superconductor, with the segregation of the chalcogen atoms investigated using a nonideal interacting solid solution model. This universal method makes full use of the microscopic degrees of freedom sampled in an atomically resolved image and can be extended via Bayesian inference toward unbiased model selection with uncertainty quantification.

  4. Smoking cessation: barriers to success and readiness to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirguis, Alexander B; Ray, Shaunta M; Zingone, Michelle M; Airee, Anita; Franks, Andrea S; Keenum, Amy J

    2010-10-01

    Smoking cessation interventions should be individualized based on patient history and readiness for change. The objective of this study was to assess stages of change and key components of smoking and cessation history among a sample of primary care patients. A telephone survey of current or recent smokers identified smoking status, stage of change, motivation, concerns, relapse history, pharmacotherapy, and social support. Of 150 participants, most were within precontemplation (22.7 percent) or contemplation (44.0 percent) stages of change; 14.0 percent were in preparation, 4.7 percent in action, and 14.7 percent in maintenance. The primary motivation for quitting was to improve general health (42.3 percent). The most common cessation-related concerns were: breaking the habit, stress, and weight gain. Pharmacotherapy was discontinued due to adverse events in 31.5 percent of users. Intratreatment social support was reported by 17.5 percent. The most common reasons for relapse were falling back into the habit (36 percent), stressful situations (27 percent), and being around other smokers (25 percent). Targeted interventions are needed for patients in either precontemplation or contemplation stages. Counseling should focus on helping patients resolve barriers to cessation and reasons for relapse, particularly stress and weight management. Pharmacotherapy should be utilized when patients are ready to quit. Increased intratreatment social support and counseling appear warranted to support behavior change and appropriate medication use.

  5. Transient analysis for resolving safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, J.; Layman, W.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Analysis Center (NSAC) has a Generic Safety Analysis Program to help resolve high priority generic safety issues. This paper describes several high priority safety issues considered at NSAC and how they were resolved by transient analysis using thermal hydraulics and neutronics codes. These issues are pressurized thermal shock (PTS), anticipated transients without scram (ATWS), steam generator tube rupture (SGTR), and reactivity transients in light of the Chernobyl accident

  6. Barriers to Medicaid Participation among Florida Dentists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Henrietta L.; Catalanotto, Frank; Guo, Yi; Marks, John; Dharamsi, Shafik

    2015-01-01

    Background Finding dentists who treat Medicaid-enrolled children is a struggle for many parents. The purpose of this study was to identify non-reimbursement factors that influence the decision by dentists about whether or not to participate in the Medicaid program in Florida. Methods Data from a mailed survey was analyzed using a logistic regression model to test the association of Medicaid participation with the Perceived Barriers and Social Responsibility variables. Results General and pediatric dentists (n=882) who identified themselves as either Medicaid (14%) or Non-Medicaid (86%) participants responded. Five items emerged as significant predictors of Medicaid participation, with a final concordance index of 0.905. Two previously unreported barriers to participation in Medicaid emerged: 1) dentists’ perception of social stigma from other dentists for participating in Medicaid, and 2) the lack of specialists to whom Medicaid patients can be referred. Conclusions This study provides new information about non-reimbursement barriers to Medicaid participation. PMID:25702734

  7. Barriers to medication taking among Kuwaiti patients with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeragh-Alhaddad FB

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fatima B Jeragh-Alhaddad,1,2 Mohammad Waheedi,2 Nick D Barber,1 Tina Penick Brock3 1Department of Practice and Policy, University College London School of Pharmacy, London, UK; 2Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait; 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Background: Nonadherence to medications among Kuwaitis with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is believed to be a major barrier to appropriate management of the disease. Published studies of barriers to medication adherence in T2DM suggest a Western bias, which may not adequately describe the Kuwaiti experience. Aim: The purpose of this study was to explore barriers to medication adherence among Kuwaiti adults with T2DM. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 Kuwaiti patients with type 2 diabetes. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Barriers to medication adherence were identified. Emerging themes were: 1 lack of education/awareness about diabetes/medications, 2 beliefs about medicines/diabetes, 3 spirituality and God-centered locus of control, 4 attitudes toward diabetes 5 perceptions of self-expertise with the disease and body awareness, 6 social stigma, 7 perceptions of social support, 8 impact of illness on patient’s life, 9 perceptions of health care providers’ attitudes toward patients, and 10 health system-related factors, such as access difficulties and inequalities of medication supply and services. Conclusion: Personal, sociocultural, religious, health care provider, and health care system-related factors may impede medication adherence among Kuwaitis with type 2 diabetes. Interventions to improve care and therapeutic outcomes in this particular population must recognize and attempt to resolve these factors. Keywords: medication adherence, type 2 diabetes mellitus, Kuwait

  8. Qatar pharmacists' understanding, attitudes, practice and perceived barriers related to providing pharmaceutical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajj, Maguy Saffouh; Al-Saeed, Hassna Sohil; Khaja, Maryam

    2016-04-01

    Pharmaceutical care (PC) is the philosophy of practice that includes identifying and resolving medication therapy problems to improve patient outcomes. The study objectives were to examine the extent of pharmaceutical care practice and the barriers to pharmaceutical care provision as perceived by Qatar pharmacists and to assess their level of understanding of pharmaceutical care and their attitudes about pharmaceutical care provision. Setting Qatar pharmacies. A cross sectional survey of all pharmacists in Qatar was made. Consenting pharmacists were given the option to complete the survey either online using an online software or as paper by fax or by hand. 1. Extent of pharmaceutical care practice in Qatar. 2. Barriers to pharmaceutical care provision in Qatar. 3. Qatar pharmacists' level of understanding of pharmaceutical care. 4. Qatar pharmacists' attitudes toward pharmaceutical care provision. Over 8 weeks, 274 surveys were collected (34 % response rate). More than 80 % of respondents had correct understanding of the aim of PC and of the pharmacist role in PC. However, only 47 % recognized the patient role in PC and only 35 % were aware of the differences between clinical pharmacy and PC. Yet, more than 80 % believed that they could be advocates when it comes to patients' medications and health matters. Concerning their practice, respondents reported spending little time on PC activities. Offering feedback to the physician about the patient progress was always or most of the time performed by 21 % of respondents. The top perceived barriers for PC provision included inconvenient access to patient medical information (78 %) and lack of staff and time (77 and 74 % respectively). Although PC is not incorporated into pharmacy practice, Qatar pharmacists showed positive attitudes toward PC provision. Further work should focus on improving their PC understanding and on overcoming all barriers.

  9. Time-resolved spectroscopy in synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehn, V.; Stanford Univ., CA

    1980-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) from large-diameter storage rings has intrinsic time structure which facilitates time-resolved measurements form milliseconds to picoseconds and possibly below. The scientific importance of time-resolved measurements is steadily increasing as more and better techniques are discovered and applied to a wider variety of scientific problems. This paper presents a discussion of the importance of various parameters of the SR facility in providing for time-resolved spectroscopy experiments, including the role of beam-line optical design parameters. Special emphasis is placed on the requirements of extremely fast time-resolved experiments with which the effects of atomic vibrational or relaxation motion may be studied. Before discussing the state-of-the-art timing experiments, we review several types of time-resolved measurements which have now become routine: nanosecond-range fluorescence decay times, time-resolved emission and excitation spectroscopies, and various time-of-flight applications. These techniques all depend on a short SR pulse length and a long interpulse period, such as is provided by a large-diameter ring operating in a single-bunch mode. In most cases, the pulse shape and even the stability of the pulse shape is relatively unimportant as long as the pulse length is smaller than the risetime of the detection apparatus, typically 1 to 2 ns. For time resolution smaller than 1 ns, the requirements on the pulse shape become more stringent. (orig./FKS)

  10. Women leadership barriers in healthcare, academia and business

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaitzi, S.; Czabanowska, K.; Fowler-Davis, S.; Brand, H.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose\\ud \\ud \\ud \\ud This paper maps the barriers to women leadership across healthcare, academia and business, and identifies barriers prevalence across sectors. A Barriers Thematic Map (BTM), with quantitative logic, and a prevalence chart have been developed, with the aim to uncover inequalities and provide orientation to develop inclusion and equal opportunity strategies within different work environments.\\ud \\ud \\ud \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud \\ud \\ud A systematic literature...

  11. Health Barriers to Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaney Gracy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the results from a 2013 online survey with 408 principals and assistant principals in New York City public elementary and middle schools. The survey assessed three primary areas: health issues in the school, health issues perceived as barriers to learning for affected students, and resources needed to address these barriers. Eighteen of the 22 health conditions listed in the survey were considered a moderate or serious issue within their schools by at least 10% of respondents. All 22 of the health issues were perceived as a barrier to learning by between 12% and 87% of the respondents. Representatives from schools that serve a higher percentage of low-income students reported significantly higher levels of concern about the extent of health issues and their impact on learning. Respondents most often said they need linkages with organizations that can provide additional services and resources at the school, especially for mental health.

  12. Resolving Gas-Phase Metallicity In Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, David

    2017-06-01

    with sizes approximately equal to the half width at half maximum of the point-spread function. However, we also find that the presence of star forming clumps can significantly complicate the interpretation of metallicity gradients in moderately resolved high-redshift galaxies. Therefore we emphasize that care should be taken when comparing nearby well-resolved observations to high-redshift observations of partially resolved galaxies. Chapter 4 We present gas-phase metallicity gradients for 94 star-forming galaxies between (0.08 , i.e. on average we find the centres of these galaxies to be more metal-rich than their outskirts. However, there is significant scatter underlying this and we find that 10% (9) galaxies have significantly positive metallicity gradients, 39% (37) have significantly negative gradients, 28% (26) have gradients consistent with being flat, the remainder 23% (22) are considered to have unreliable gradient estimates. We find a slight trend for a more negative metallicity gradient with both increasing stellar mass and increasing star formation rate (SFR). However, given the potential redshift and size selection effects, we do not consider these trends to be significant. Indeed when we normalize the SFR of our galaxies relative to the main sequence, we do not observe any trend between the metallicity gradient and the normalized SFR. This finding is contrary to other recent studies of galaxies at similar and higher redshifts. We do, however, identify a novel trend between the metallicity gradient of a galaxy and its size. Small galaxies ((r_d 3 kpc) with positive metallicity gradients, and overall there is less scatter in the metallicity gradient amongst the large galaxies. We suggest that these large (well-evolved) galaxies may be analogues of galaxies in the present-day Universe, which also present a common negative metallicity gradient. Chapter 5 The relationship between a galaxy's stellar mass and its gas-phase metallicity results from the complex

  13. Electron density in surface barrier discharge emerging at argon/water interface: quantification for streamers and leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetanović, Nikola; Galmiz, Oleksandr; Synek, Petr; Zemánek, Miroslav; Brablec, Antonín; Hoder, Tomáš

    2018-02-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy, fast intensified CCD imaging and electrical measurements were applied to investigate the basic plasma parameters of surface barrier discharge emerging from a conductive water electrode. The discharge was generated at the triple-line interface of atmospheric pressure argon gas and conductive water solution at the fused silica dielectrics using a sinusoidal high-voltage waveform. The spectroscopic methods of atomic line broadening and molecular spectroscopy were used to determine the electron densities and the gas temperature in the active plasma. These parameters were obtained for both applied voltage polarities and resolved spatially. Two different spectral signatures were identified in the spatially resolved spectra resulting in electron densities differing by two orders of magnitude. It is shown that two discharge mechanisms take a place: the streamer and the leader one, with electron densities of 1014 and 1016 cm-3, respectively. This spectroscopic evidence is supported by the combined diagnostics of electrical current measurements and phase-resolved intensified CCD camera imaging.

  14. Tacit Knowledge Barriers in Franchising: Practical Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberland, Denise; Githens, Rod

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify barriers that hinder tacit knowledge transfer in a franchise environment and offer a compendium of solutions that encourage franchisees and franchisors to leverage tacit knowledge as a resource for competitive advantage. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing from the research on franchise…

  15. Prioritising the implementation of practices to overcome operational barriers in reverse logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Badenhorst

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The framework developed in this article will enable organisations to identify the operational barriers they experience in reverse logistics and the practices they can implement on a priority basis to overcome these barriers.

  16. Barriers to guideline-compliant psoriasis care: analyses and concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissing, L; Radtke, M A; Zander, N; Augustin, M

    2016-04-01

    Despite the availability of effective therapeutics and evidence-based treatment guidelines, a substantial proportion of patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis does not receive appropriate care. This under-provision of health care may cause further worsening of health, remarkable limitations of the patient's quality of life, and indirect costs for the health care system. In order to provide guideline-compliant care for every psoriasis patient, it is important to identify barriers obstructing optimal care. Studies have identified various barriers on the physician's and on the patient's side; however, respective studies approached only single barriers, and not all of them in the context of psoriasis. Other publications that describe barriers systematically did not focus on psoriasis either. The objective of this literature review was to identify barriers and facilitators, based on studies analysing quality of care and single barriers, resulting in a comprehensive model of causal factors. Our analyses revealed three categories of barriers - patient-related, physician-related and external factors: On the patient side, we found non-adherence to therapies to be an important barrier, often in close association with psychiatric factors. Barriers on the physician's side predominantly are incomplete knowledge of the guidelines as well as the complexity of psoriasis comorbidity. In some countries, payment for patients with complex disease status is poor and inconsistent reimbursement regulations potentially interfere with optimal care. The current analysis indicates that most barriers are interdependent. Thus, measures approaching related barriers simultaneously are required. To improve care for psoriasis patients, further studies systematically addressing all potentially relevant barriers in conjoint are needed. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  17. The Gendered International School: Barriers to Women Managers' Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Ruth Elizabeth; Whitehead, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the barriers women identify to their promotion in international schools and also the ways in which women can overcome these barriers. Design/methodology/approach: The field of enquiry is international schools, with the study drawing on qualitative research. The researchers interviewed 11 women from…

  18. SOLUTIONS TO OVERCOME BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTATION OF TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    To make treatment a viable option for remediation you must first identify the barriers to implementing treatment. The primary barrier is economics. Treatment options are relatively expensive and there is a lack of funds for treatment. The cost of technologies can be lowered by 1)...

  19. Spatio-temporal resolved diagnostics of the single filament barrier discharge in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.E.; Brandenburg, R.; Michel, P.; Kozlov, K.V.

    2001-01-01

    First experimental results on the spatio-temporal development of single filaments of DBDs in dry air at atmospheric pressure are presented. The measurements allow a detailed visualisation and interpretation of the streamer development. In combination with the kinetic model they are used to get information on the spatiotemporal development of the reduced field-strength E/n, too

  20. Velocity barrier-controlled of spin-valley polarized transport in monolayer WSe2 junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xuejun; Lv, Qiang; Cao, Zhenzhou

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we have theoretically investigated the influence of velocity barrier on the spin-valley polarized transport in monolayer (ML) WSe2 junction with a large spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Both the spin-valley resolved transmission probabilities and conductance are strong dependent on the velocity barrier, as the velocity barrier decreases to 0.06, a spin-valley polarization of exceeding 90% is observed, which is distinct from the ML MoS2 owing to incommensurable SOC. In addition, the spin-valley polarization is further increased above 95% in a ML WSe2 superlattice, in particular, it's found many extraordinary velocity barrier-dependent transport gaps for multiple barrier due to evanescent tunneling. Our results may open an avenue for the velocity barrier-controlled high-efficiency spin and valley polarizations in ML WSe2-based electronic devices.

  1. Barrier Data Base user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, R.B.; Gould, D.J.; Wall, D.W.

    1977-06-01

    A special purpose data base for physical security barriers has been developed. In addition to barriers, the entities accommodated by the Barrier Data Base (BDB) include threats and references. A threat is established as a configuration of people and equipment which has been employed to penetrate (or attempt to penetrate) a barrier. References are used to cite publications pertinent to the barriers and threats in the data base. Utilization and maintenance of the Barrier Data Base is achieved with LIST, QUERY, ENTER, DELETE, and CHANGE commands which are used to manipulate the data base entities

  2. The conforming brain and deontological resolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Melanie; LaViers, Lisa; Prietula, Michael J; Berns, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Our personal values are subject to forces of social influence. Deontological resolve captures how strongly one relies on absolute rules of right and wrong in the representation of one's personal values and may predict willingness to modify one's values in the presence of social influence. Using fMRI, we found that a neurobiological metric for deontological resolve based on relative activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) during the passive processing of sacred values predicted individual differences in conformity. Individuals with stronger deontological resolve, as measured by greater VLPFC activity, displayed lower levels of conformity. We also tested whether responsiveness to social reward, as measured by ventral striatal activity during social feedback, predicted variability in conformist behavior across individuals but found no significant relationship. From these results we conclude that unwillingness to conform to others' values is associated with a strong neurobiological representation of social rules.

  3. The conforming brain and deontological resolve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Pincus

    Full Text Available Our personal values are subject to forces of social influence. Deontological resolve captures how strongly one relies on absolute rules of right and wrong in the representation of one's personal values and may predict willingness to modify one's values in the presence of social influence. Using fMRI, we found that a neurobiological metric for deontological resolve based on relative activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC during the passive processing of sacred values predicted individual differences in conformity. Individuals with stronger deontological resolve, as measured by greater VLPFC activity, displayed lower levels of conformity. We also tested whether responsiveness to social reward, as measured by ventral striatal activity during social feedback, predicted variability in conformist behavior across individuals but found no significant relationship. From these results we conclude that unwillingness to conform to others' values is associated with a strong neurobiological representation of social rules.

  4. The NOAA Dataset Identifier Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.; Mccullough, H.; Casey, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) initiated a project in 2013 to assign persistent identifiers to datasets archived at NOAA and to create informational landing pages about those datasets. The goals of this project are to enable the citation of datasets used in products and results in order to help provide credit to data producers, to support traceability and reproducibility, and to enable tracking of data usage and impact. A secondary goal is to encourage the submission of datasets for long-term preservation, because only archived datasets will be eligible for a NOAA-issued identifier. A team was formed with representatives from the National Geophysical, Oceanographic, and Climatic Data Centers (NGDC, NODC, NCDC) to resolve questions including which identifier scheme to use (answer: Digital Object Identifier - DOI), whether or not to embed semantics in identifiers (no), the level of granularity at which to assign identifiers (as coarsely as reasonable), how to handle ongoing time-series data (do not break into chunks), creation mechanism for the landing page (stylesheet from formal metadata record preferred), and others. Decisions made and implementation experience gained will inform the writing of a Data Citation Procedural Directive to be issued by the Environmental Data Management Committee in 2014. Several identifiers have been issued as of July 2013, with more on the way. NOAA is now reporting the number as a metric to federal Open Government initiatives. This paper will provide further details and status of the project.

  5. Load management for refrigeration systems: Potentials and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grein, Arne, E-mail: a.grein@tu-berlin.de [University of Technology Berlin, Institute for Energy Technology, Department of Energy Systems, Einsteinufer 25 (TA8), 10587 Berlin (Germany); Pehnt, Martin [Institute for Energy and Environmental Research Heidelberg (ifeu), Wilckensstr. 3, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    As a strategy to deal with the increasing intermittent input of renewable energy sources in Germany, the adaptation of power consumption is complementary to power-plant regulation, grid expansion and physical energy storage. One demand sector that promises strong returns for load management efforts is cooling and refrigeration. In these processes, thermal inertia provides a temporal buffer for shifting and adjusting the power consumption of cooling systems. We have conducted an empirical investigation to obtain a detailed and time-resolved bottom-up analysis of load management for refrigeration systems in the city of Mannheim, Germany. We have extrapolated our results to general conditions in Germany. Several barriers inhibit the rapid adoption of load management strategies for cooling systems, including informational barriers, strict compliance with legal cooling requirements, liability issues, lack of technical experience, an inadequate rate of return and organizational barriers. Small commercial applications of refrigeration in the food-retailing and cold storage in hotels and restaurants are particularly promising starting points for intelligent load management. When our results are applied to Germany, suitable sectors for load management have theoretical and achievable potential values of 4.2 and 2.8 GW, respectively, amounting to about 4-6% of the maximum power demand in Germany. - Highlights: > Potential and barriers for implementation of load shifting for refrigeration. > Empirical investigation for time-resolved bottom-up analysis in Mannheim, Germany. > Suitable sectors and further recommendations for introducing load management.> Extrapolation of results from local to national level.

  6. Barriers to participation in vocational orientation programmes among prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien Brosens

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the barriers to prisoners’ participation in vocational education, as well as the predictors of different types of barriers. Survey data derived from a project in a remand prison in Belgium (N=468 provided the empirical evidence for the analyses. The results indicate that facing situational and informational barriers are most common. Based on the different kinds of barriers, various types of non-participants can be distinguished and multinomial logistic regression analyses are conducted to identify in what way participants of vocational education differ from various types of non-participants. For instance, prisoners with a poor understanding of the Dutch language and those who never/rarely receive visitors participate less in vocational education as they are more likely to be confronted with informational barriers. We conclude this article by discussing paths for future research and implications for policy and practice to anticipate the barriers for those who want to participate in vocational education.

  7. Barriers to implement green supply chain management in automobile industry using interpretive structural modeling technique: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Luthra

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM has received growing attention in the last few years. Most of the automobile industries are setting up their own manufacturing plants in competitive Indian market. Due to public awareness, economic, environmental or legislative reasons, the requirement of GSCM has increased.  In this context, this study aims to develop a structural model of the barriers to implement GSCM in Indian automobile industry.Design/methodology/approach: We have identified various barriers and contextual relationships among the identified barriers. Classification of barriers has been carried out based upon dependence and driving power with the help of MICMAC analysis. In addition to this, a structural model of barriers to implement GSCM in Indian automobile industry has also been put forward using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM technique. Findings: Eleven numbers of relevant barriers have been identified from literature and subsequent discussions with experts from academia and industry. Out of which, five numbers of barriers have been identified as dependent variables; three number of barriers have been identified as the driver variables and three number of barriers have been identified as the linkage variables. No barrier has been identified as autonomous variable. Four barriers have been identified as top level barriers and one bottom level barrier. Removal of these barriers has also been discussed.Research limitations/implications: A hypothetical model of these barriers has been developed based upon experts’ opinions. The conclusions so drawn may be further modified to apply in real situation problem. Practical implications: Clear understanding of these barriers will help organizations to prioritize better and manage their resources in an efficient and effective way.Originality/value: Through this paper we contribute to identify the barriers to implement GSCM in Indian automobile industry and to prioritize them

  8. Overcoming Barriers in Unhealthy Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Lemke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the phenomenon of sustained health-supportive behaviors among long-haul commercial truck drivers, who belong to an occupational segment with extreme health disparities. With a focus on setting-level factors, this study sought to discover ways in which individuals exhibit resiliency while immersed in endemically obesogenic environments, as well as understand setting-level barriers to engaging in health-supportive behaviors. Using a transcendental phenomenological research design, 12 long-haul truck drivers who met screening criteria were selected using purposeful maximum sampling. Seven broad themes were identified: access to health resources, barriers to health behaviors, recommended alternative settings, constituents of health behavior, motivation for health behaviors, attitude toward health behaviors, and trucking culture. We suggest applying ecological theories of health behavior and settings approaches to improve driver health. We also propose the Integrative and Dynamic Healthy Commercial Driving (IDHCD paradigm, grounded in complexity science, as a new theoretical framework for improving driver health outcomes.

  9. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas in Financial Audit

    OpenAIRE

    Professor PhD Turlea Eugeniu; PhD Student Mocanu Mihaela

    2010-01-01

    Resolving ethical dilemmas is a difficult endeavor in any field and financial auditing makes no exception. Ethical dilemmas are complex situations which derive from a conflict and in which a decision among several alternatives is needed. Ethical dilemmas are common in the work of the financial auditor, whose mission is to serve the interests of the public at large, not those of the auditee’s managers who mandate him/her. The objective of the present paper is to offer support in resolving ethi...

  10. Barriers to Physical Activity Among African American Women: An Integrative Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Keller, Colleen; Dodgson, Joan E

    2015-01-01

    A key aspect for researchers to consider when developing culturally appropriate physical activity (PA) interventions for African American (AA) women are the specific barriers AA women face that limit their participation in PA. Identification and critical examination of these barriers is the first step in developing comprehensive culturally relevant approaches to promote PA and help resolve PA-related health disparities in this underserved population. We conducted a systemati...

  11. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier

  12. Chaotic correlations in barrier billiards with arbitrary barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osbaldestin, A H; Adamson, L N C

    2013-01-01

    We study autocorrelation functions in symmetric barrier billiards for golden mean trajectories with arbitrary barriers. Renormalization analysis reveals the presence of a chaotic invariant set and thus that, for a typical barrier, there are chaotic correlations. The chaotic renormalization set is the analogue of the so-called orchid that arises in a generalized Harper equation. (paper)

  13. Barriers To Successful Implementation of STEM Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Ejiwale

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of STEM education in schools across the globe is to prepare the future workforce with strong scientific and mathematical backgrounds to enhance skills development across STEM disciplines. However, for STEM education to achieve its goals and objectives, addressing the barriers to STEM education should start by fixing the problems at the elementary, junior and senior high school levels; the grassroots and potential feeders to colleges and universities. Since many nations including the United States of America is in dire need of the workforce with adequate preparation in science and mathematics to help address the nation’s economy that is in shambles, the barriers to its successful implementation should be identified and addressed. In this paper, (a the definition of STEM education and (b some barriers to successful implementation of STEM education are discussed and elaborated.

  14. Barriers to student success in engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Wageeh; Whelan, Karen

    2017-07-01

    In the UK, the USA and Australia, there have been calls for an increase in the number of engineering graduates to meet the needs of current global challenges. Universities around the world have been grappling with how to both attract more engineering students and to then retain them. Attrition from engineering programmes is disturbingly high. This paper reports on an element of research undertaken through an Australian Learning and Teaching Council-funded Fellowship that investigated the factors leading to student attrition in engineering programmes, by identifying barriers to student success. Here, we contrast a review of the literature related to student barriers and success with student perceptions, gathered through a series of focus groups and interviews at three Australian universities. We also present recommendations for action to try to remove barriers to student success.

  15. Barriers to Point-of-Care Testing in India: Results from Qualitative Research across Different Settings, Users and Major Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Nora; Ganesh, Gayatri; Patil, Mamata; Yellappa, Vijayashree; Pant Pai, Nitika; Vadnais, Caroline; Pai, Madhukar

    2015-01-01

    Background Successful point-of-care testing, namely ensuring the completion of the test and treat cycle in the same encounter, has immense potential to reduce diagnostic and treatment delays, and impact patient outcomes. However, having rapid tests is not enough, as many barriers may prevent their successful implementation in point-of-care testing programs. Qualitative research on diagnostic practices may help identify such barriers across different points of care in health systems. Methods In this exploratory qualitative study, we conducted 78 semi-structured interviews and 13 focus group discussions in an urban and rural area of Karnataka, India, with healthcare providers (doctors, nurses, specialists, traditional healers, and informal providers), patients, community health workers, test manufacturers, laboratory technicians, program managers and policy-makers. Participants were purposively sampled to represent settings of hospitals, peripheral labs, clinics, communities and homes, in both the public and private sectors. Results In the Indian context, the onus is on the patient to ensure successful point-of-care testing across homes, clinics, labs and hospitals, amidst uncoordinated providers with divergent and often competing practices, in settings lacking material, money and human resources. We identified three overarching themes affecting point-of-care testing: the main theme is ‘relationships’ among providers and between providers and patients, influenced by the cross-cutting theme of ‘infrastructure’. Challenges with both result in ‘modified practices’ often favouring empirical (symptomatic) treatment over treatment guided by testing. Conclusions Even if tests can be conducted on the spot and infrastructure challenges have been resolved, relationships among providers and between patients and providers are crucial for successful point-of-care testing. Furthermore, these barriers do not act in isolation, but are interlinked and need to be examined

  16. Barriers to Point-of-Care Testing in India: Results from Qualitative Research across Different Settings, Users and Major Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Engel

    Full Text Available Successful point-of-care testing, namely ensuring the completion of the test and treat cycle in the same encounter, has immense potential to reduce diagnostic and treatment delays, and impact patient outcomes. However, having rapid tests is not enough, as many barriers may prevent their successful implementation in point-of-care testing programs. Qualitative research on diagnostic practices may help identify such barriers across different points of care in health systems.In this exploratory qualitative study, we conducted 78 semi-structured interviews and 13 focus group discussions in an urban and rural area of Karnataka, India, with healthcare providers (doctors, nurses, specialists, traditional healers, and informal providers, patients, community health workers, test manufacturers, laboratory technicians, program managers and policy-makers. Participants were purposively sampled to represent settings of hospitals, peripheral labs, clinics, communities and homes, in both the public and private sectors.In the Indian context, the onus is on the patient to ensure successful point-of-care testing across homes, clinics, labs and hospitals, amidst uncoordinated providers with divergent and often competing practices, in settings lacking material, money and human resources. We identified three overarching themes affecting point-of-care testing: the main theme is 'relationships' among providers and between providers and patients, influenced by the cross-cutting theme of 'infrastructure'. Challenges with both result in 'modified practices' often favouring empirical (symptomatic treatment over treatment guided by testing.Even if tests can be conducted on the spot and infrastructure challenges have been resolved, relationships among providers and between patients and providers are crucial for successful point-of-care testing. Furthermore, these barriers do not act in isolation, but are interlinked and need to be examined as such. Also, a test alone has only

  17. Design of engineered sorbent barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.O.; Freeman, H.D.

    1988-08-01

    A sorbent barrier uses sorbent material such as activated carbon or natural zeolites to prevent the migration of radionuclides from a low-level waste site to the aquifer. The sorbent barrier retards the movement of radioactive contaminants, thereby providing time for the radionuclides to decay. Sorbent barriers can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for reducing the migration of radionuclides to the environment. Designing a sorbent barrier consists of using soil and sorbent material properties and site conditions as input to a model which will determine the necessary sorbent barrier thickness to meet contaminant limits. The paper will cover the following areas: techniques for measuring sorption properties of barrier materials and underlying soils, use of a radionuclide transport model to determine the required barrier thickness and performance under a variety of site conditions, and cost estimates for applying the barrier. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  18. Design of engineered sorbent barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.O.; Freeman, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    A sorbent barrier uses sorbent material such as activated carbon or natural zeolites to prevent the migration of radionuclides from a low-level waste site to the aquifer. The sorbent barrier retards the movement of radioactive contaminants, thereby providing time for the radionuclides to decay. Sorbent barriers can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for reducing the migration of radionuclides to the environment. Designing a sorbent barrier consists of using soil and sorbent material properties and site conditions as input to a model which will determine the necessary sorbent barrier thickness to meet contaminant limits. The paper covers the following areas: techniques for measuring sorption properties of barrier materials and underlying soils, use of a radionuclide transport model to determine the required barrier thickness and performance under a variety of site conditions, and cost estimates for applying the barrier

  19. Barriers in developing and using simulation-based decision-support software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papamichael, Konstantinos; Pal, Vineeta

    2002-03-11

    The need for proper consideration of energy-related performance aspects during building design has been identified since the energy crises of the 1970s. However, energy performance is still considered in a very small fraction of building projects, mainly because proper consideration is very expensive. It requires the use of computational software tools, which are not easy to learn and are time-consuming to use. Several attempts have been made to facilitate the use of energy simulation tools, but none has brought a significant increase in the consideration of energy performance. Energy related performance criteria are still considered only in a small fraction of buildings and, in most cases, after most of the building design is complete. This paper is focused on the main barriers in properly considering energy-related performance aspects in building decisions, which range from sociopolitical, to technical. The paper includes consideration of issues related to the general interest of the building industry in energy performance and environmental impact, current practice trends, modeling capabilities and performance of tools, compatibility of computational models and availability of data. Finally, a strategy for government-industry collaboration towards removing the barriers is presented, along with the main issues that need to be resolved towards potential implementation.

  20. Component-resolved diagnostics to direct in venom immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Simon; Bilò, Maria Beatrice; Ollert, Markus

    2018-01-01

    , the increasing knowledge about the molecular structure and relevance of important venom allergens and their availability as recombinant allergens, devoid of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants, resulted in the development of an advanced component-resolved diagnostics (CRD) approach in venom allergy. Already...... immunotherapeutic intervention. Moreover, the detailed knowledge about sensitization profiles on a molecular level might open new options to identify patients who are at increased risk for side effects or not to respond to immunotherapy. Therefore, increasing potential of CRD becomes evident, to direct therapeutic...

  1. Time Resolved X-Ray Scattering of molecules in Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt van Driel, Tim

    The dissertation describes the use of Time-Resolved X-ray Diffuse Scattering (TR-XDS) to study photo-induced structural changes in molecules in solution. The application of the technique is exemplified with experiments on two bimetallic molecules. The main focus is on the data-flow and process......)42+ obtained at European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are presented to exemplify TR-XDS at synchrotrons. Similarly, measurements on Ir2(dimen)42+ are used to show the XFEL data-flow and how it deviates from the prior. A method to identify and account for systematic fluctuations...

  2. Empirical investigation of energy efficiency barriers in Italian manufacturing SMEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico; Worrell, Ernst; Pugliese, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    The paper identifies and evaluates barriers to industrial energy efficiency through the investigation of 48 manufacturing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Northern Italy. The research provides interesting suggestions both for enterprises and energy policy-makers. Firstly, economic and information barriers are perceived as the major obstacles to the adoption of energy-efficient technologies, whilst behavioural barriers do not seem to affect enterprises very much. Nonetheless, despite what declared, the most relevant barriers are the lack of interest in energy efficiency and the existence of other priorities, thus showing that decision-makers tend to downgrade energy efficiency to a marginal issue. Furthermore, perceived barriers do not take place exclusively in implementing energy-efficient technologies, but, with comparable importance, also in generating the interest and knowledge of the opportunities. Moreover, the study highlights that relevant differences can be appreciated for both perceived and real barriers even among SMEs, that thus should not be bundled together. In addition to that, other factors affect barriers, stimulating future research: indeed, lower real barriers can be observed with higher complexity of the production, high variability of the demand and strong competitors. -- Highlights: ► Evidence of existing misalignments between perceived and real barriers to the adoption of energy-efficient technologies. ► Relevance of barriers to the generation of interest towards energy efficiency. ► Evidence of firm's size (within SMEs) and energy expenditures on barriers to energy efficiency. ► Importance, for energy efficiency barriers, of avoid bundling SMEs as a whole. ► Preliminary evidence of factors related to supply chain complexity affecting barriers to energy efficiency.

  3. Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    2002-01-01

    The INEEL Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) program has launched a new R and D project on Near-Surface Engineered Environmental Barrier Integrity to increase knowledge and capabilities for using engineering and ecological components to improve the integrity of near-surface barriers used to confine contaminants from the public and the environment. The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions and enable improved solutions for future cleanup decisions. The research is planned to (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms (weathering, biological, geological, chemical, radiological, and catastrophic) in times shorter than service life, (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics, (c) develop sensor systems to identify degradation prior to failure, and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems to increase reliability and reduce the risk of failure. Our project combine s selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging testing and the meso-scale, testing of new monitoring concepts, and modeling of dynamic systems. The performance of evapo-transpiration, capillary, and grout-based barriers will be examined

  4. Surface stability test plan for protective barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligotke, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    Natural-material protective barriers for long-term isolation of buried waste have been identified as integral components of a plan to isolate a number of Hanford defense waste sites. Standards currently being developed for internal and external barrier performance will mandate a barrier surface layer that is resistant to the eolian erosion processes of wind erosion (deflation) and windborne particle deposition (formation of sand dunes). Thus, experiments are needed to measure rates of eolian erosion processes impacting those surfaces under different surface and climatological conditions. Data from these studies will provide information for use in the evaluation of selected surface layers as a means of providing stable cover over waste sites throughout the design life span of protective barriers. The multi-year test plan described in this plan is directed at understanding processes of wind erosion and windborne particle deposition, providing measurements of erosion rates for models, and suggesting construction materials and methods for reducing the effect of long-term eolian erosion on the barrier. Specifically, this plan describes possible methods to measure rates of eolian erosion, including field and laboratory procedure. Advantages and disadvantages of laboratory (wind tunnel) tests are discussed, and continued wind tunnel tests are recommended for wind erosion studies. A comparison between field and wind tunnel erosive forces is discussed. Plans for testing surfaces are described. Guidance is also presented for studying the processes controlling sand dune and blowout formation. 24 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Tank Farm Interim Surface Barrier Materials And Runoff Alternatives Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    This report identifies candidate materials and concepts for interim surface barriers in the single-shell tank farms. An analysis of these materials for application to the TY tank farm is also provided.

  6. barriers to an effective diabetic retinopathy service in ibadan, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    like UK and USA,6,7 barriers identified include fear of ... blindness as well as the cost of attending clinic. Diabetic retinopathy .... cost of treatment for diabetic retinopathy - laser treatment ..... harness compliance to diabetic care, treatment and.

  7. Shottky-barrier formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guines, F.; Sanchez-Dehesa, J.; Flores, F.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper a realistic selfconsistent calculation of an abrupt metal-semiconductor junction is presented by means of a tight-binding approach. A specific Si-Ag junction has been considered, and the charge neutrality level as well as the barrier height have been determined in good agreement with experiments. For a generaljunction it is shown that the interface properties depend essentially on the characteristics of the first metal layer and its interaction with the semiconductor. (Author) [pt

  8. Energy barrier to decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizel, Ari; Mitchell, M. W.; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a ground-state approach to realizing quantum computers. This scheme is time-independent and inherently defends against decoherence by possessing an energy barrier to excitation. We prove that our time-independent qubits can perform the same algorithms as their time-dependent counterparts. Advantages and disadvantages of the time-independent approach are described. A model involving quantum dots is provided for illustration

  9. Direct angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since 1997 we systematically perform direct angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) on in-situ grown thin (< 30 nm) cuprate films. Specifically, we probe low-energy electronic structure and properties of high-c superconductors (HTSC) under different degrees of epitaxial (compressive vs. tensile) strain.

  10. Resolved resonance parameters for 236Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morogovskij, G.B.; Bakhanovich, L.A.

    2002-01-01

    Multilevel Breit-Wigner parameters were obtained for fission cross-section representation in the 0.01-33 eV energy region from evaluation of a 236 Np experimental fission cross-section in the resolved resonance region. (author)

  11. Decomposition of time-resolved tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, P.J.; Violato, D.; Scarano, F.

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study has been conducted on a transitional water jet at a Reynolds number of Re = 5,000. Flow fields have been obtained by means of time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry capturing all relevant spatial and temporal scales. The measured threedimensional flow fields have

  12. Performance of engineered barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaram, V.; Dean, P.V.; McLellan, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Engineered barriers, both vertical and horizontal, have been used to isolate hazardous wastes from contact, precipitation, surface water and groundwater. The primary objective of this study was to determine the performance of subsurface barriers installed throughout the U.S. over the past 20 years to contain hazardous wastes. Evaluation of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C or equivalent caps was a secondary objective. A nationwide search was launched to select hazardous waste sites at which vertical barrier walls and/or caps had been used as the containment method. None of the sites selected had an engineered floor. From an initial list of 130 sites, 34 sites were selected on the basis of availability of monitoring data for detailed analysis of actual field performance. This paper will briefly discuss preliminary findings regarding the design, construction quality assurance/construction quality control (CQA/CQC), and monitoring at the 34 sites. In addition, the short-term performance of these sites (less than 5 years) is presented since very little long-term performance data was available

  13. Fluctuations in Schottky barrier heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    A double Schottky barrier is often formed at the grain boundary in polycrystalline semiconductors. The barrier height is shown to fluctuate in value due to the random nature of the impurity positions. The magnitude of the fluctuations is 0.1 eV, and the fluctuations cause the barrier height measured by capacitance to differ from the one measured by electrical conductivity

  14. Time-resolved biophysical approaches to nucleocytoplasmic transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cardarelli

    Full Text Available Molecules are continuously shuttling across the nuclear envelope barrier that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm. Instead of being just a barrier to diffusion, the nuclear envelope is rather a complex filter that provides eukaryotes with an elaborate spatiotemporal regulation of fundamental molecular processes, such as gene expression and protein translation. Given the highly dynamic nature of nucleocytoplasmic transport, during the past few decades large efforts were devoted to the development and application of time resolved, fluorescence-based, biophysical methods to capture the details of molecular motion across the nuclear envelope. These methods are here divided into three major classes, according to the differences in the way they report on the molecular process of nucleocytoplasmic transport. In detail, the first class encompasses those methods based on the perturbation of the fluorescence signal, also known as ensemble-averaging methods, which average the behavior of many molecules (across many pores. The second class comprises those methods based on the localization of single fluorescently-labelled molecules and tracking of their position in space and time, potentially across single pores. Finally, the third class encompasses methods based on the statistical analysis of spontaneous fluorescence fluctuations out of the equilibrium or stationary state of the system. In this case, the behavior of single molecules is probed in presence of many similarly-labelled molecules, without dwelling on any of them. Here these three classes, with their respective pros and cons as well as their main applications to nucleocytoplasmic shuttling will be briefly reviewed and discussed. Keywords: Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, Single particle tracking, Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, Diffusion, Transport, GFP, Nuclear pore complex, Live cell, Confocal microscopy

  15. Identification of barriers to medication adherence in a Latino population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Sheryl; Haack, Sally; Phillips, Charles R

    2010-12-01

    Barriers to medication adherence may present differently in diverse patient populations. Because of changing U.S. demographics, health care providers will be required to identify alternative strategies for managing increasingly diverse patient populations. This pilot project identified barriers that may hinder medication adherence in a Latino population. The results of the survey may identify trends in barriers allowing for the development of interventions aimed at improving medication adherence. The study used a convenience sample of Spanish-labeled prescriptions that had not been picked up from a community pharmacy after a 2-week period to identify study subjects. Patients were contacted by phone and surveyed regarding reasons for not picking up their prescription medication. The 24-item survey instrument consisted of demographic and medication-related questions, reasons for, and associated barriers with failure to pick up medications. The most common classes of medications patients failed to pick up were chronic medications. More than 90% of the patients thought that the medication in question was helpful to them, and nearly 80% thought that the medicine was still needed. Patients cited communication issues (ie, content matter, such as when the prescription was ready), logistics, and limited hours of pharmacy operation as the primary barriers in picking up their medications, whereas nearly 40% failed to identify any barriers. Barriers identified by patients that could be improved included confusion regarding when their prescription was ready and limited hours of pharmacy operation. Most of the patients were comfortable using the American health care system. The barriers to medication adherence identified did not appear to be the result of cultural influences. This could be because the community pharmacy had bilingual staff and interpreters available for patient education and prescription processing. Alternative methods are needed to further identify reasons for

  16. Resolving deconvolution ambiguity in gene alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubbell Earl

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For many gene structures it is impossible to resolve intensity data uniquely to establish abundances of splice variants. This was empirically noted by Wang et al. in which it was called a "degeneracy problem". The ambiguity results from an ill-posed problem where additional information is needed in order to obtain an unique answer in splice variant deconvolution. Results In this paper, we analyze the situations under which the problem occurs and perform a rigorous mathematical study which gives necessary and sufficient conditions on how many and what type of constraints are needed to resolve all ambiguity. This analysis is generally applicable to matrix models of splice variants. We explore the proposal that probe sequence information may provide sufficient additional constraints to resolve real-world instances. However, probe behavior cannot be predicted with sufficient accuracy by any existing probe sequence model, and so we present a Bayesian framework for estimating variant abundances by incorporating the prediction uncertainty from the micro-model of probe responsiveness into the macro-model of probe intensities. Conclusion The matrix analysis of constraints provides a tool for detecting real-world instances in which additional constraints may be necessary to resolve splice variants. While purely mathematical constraints can be stated without error, real-world constraints may themselves be poorly resolved. Our Bayesian framework provides a generic solution to the problem of uniquely estimating transcript abundances given additional constraints that themselves may be uncertain, such as regression fit to probe sequence models. We demonstrate the efficacy of it by extensive simulations as well as various biological data.

  17. Barriers to pediatric pain management: a nursing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Michelle L; Simon, Katherine; Thompson, Jamie J; Armus, Cheryl L; Hanson, Tom C; Berg, Kristin A; Petrie, Jodie L; Xiang, Qun; Malin, Shelly

    2011-09-01

    This study describes strategies used by the Joint Clinical Practice Council of Children's Hospital of Wisconsin to identify barriers perceived as interfering with nurses' (RNs) ability to provide optimal pain management. A survey was used to ascertain how nurses described optimal pain management and how much nurses perceived potential barriers as interfering with their ability to provide that level of care. The survey, "Barriers to Optimal Pain management" (adapted from Van Hulle Vincent & Denyes, 2004), was distributed to all RNs working in all patient care settings. Two hundred seventy-two surveys were returned. The five most significant barriers identified were insufficient physician (MD) orders, insufficient MD orders before procedures, insufficient time to premedicate patients before procedures, the perception of a low priority given to pain management by medical staff, and parents' reluctance to have patients receive pain medication. Additional barriers were identified through narrative comments. Information regarding the impact of the Acute Pain Service on patient care, RNs' ability to overcome barriers, and RNs' perception of current pain management practices is included, as are several specific interventions aimed at improving or ultimately eliminating identified barriers. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. BSN completion barriers, challenges, incentives, and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Marie T; Friesen, Mary Ann; Speroni, Karen Gabel; Swengros, Diane; Shanks, Laura A; Waiter, Pamela A; Sheridan, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore RN perceptions regarding barriers/challenges and incentives/supports for BSN completion and identify recommendations to increase RN BSN completion. The Institute of Medicine's 2011 The Future of Nursing report recommended the proportion of RNs with a BSN increase to 80% by 2020. This qualitative study included 41 RNs who participated in 1 of 6 focus groups based on their BSN completion status. Primary themes were sacrifices, barriers/challenges, incentives/supports, value, how to begin, and pressure. Primary BSN completion barriers/challenges were work-life balance and economic issues. Incentives/supports identified were financial compensation, assistance from employer and academic institution, and encouragement from family. Institutional strategies recommended for increasing BSN completion rates were improved access to education and financial support facilitated by collaboration between hospitals and academic institutions. Exploring RN barriers/challenges and incentives/supports for BSN completion can lead to implementation of institutional strategies, such as tuition reimbursement and academic collaboration.

  19. ULF Wave Activity in the Magnetosphere: Resolving Solar Wind Interdependencies to Identify Driving Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, S. N.; Watt, C. E. J.; Owens, M. J.; Rae, I. J.

    2018-04-01

    Ultralow frequency (ULF) waves in the magnetosphere are involved in the energization and transport of radiation belt particles and are strongly driven by the external solar wind. However, the interdependency of solar wind parameters and the variety of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling processes make it difficult to distinguish the effect of individual processes and to predict magnetospheric wave power using solar wind properties. We examine 15 years of dayside ground-based measurements at a single representative frequency (2.5 mHz) and a single magnetic latitude (corresponding to L ˜ 6.6RE). We determine the relative contribution to ULF wave power from instantaneous nonderived solar wind parameters, accounting for their interdependencies. The most influential parameters for ground-based ULF wave power are solar wind speed vsw, southward interplanetary magnetic field component Bzstill account for significant amounts of power. We suggest that these three parameters correspond to driving by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, formation, and/or propagation of flux transfer events and density perturbations from solar wind structures sweeping past the Earth. We anticipate that this new parameter reduction will aid comparisons of ULF generation mechanisms between magnetospheric sectors and will enable more sophisticated empirical models predicting magnetospheric ULF power using external solar wind driving parameters.

  20. Role of diagnostic testing in identifying and resolving dimensional-stability problems in electroplated laser mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, R.L.; Hogan, B.

    1982-01-01

    The metal mirrors which are the subject of this discussion are to be used in the Antares inertial fusion laser system. Antares is a high-power (40 TW), high-energy (35 to 40 kJ), pulsed CO 2 laser system for the investigation of inertial confinement fusion. The system contains more than four hundred small and large diamond-turned and conventionally polished mirrors. The largest mirrors are trapezoidal in shape with the longest dimension being 16 to 18 inches. The substrates are type 2124 aluminum for most large mirrors, and aluminum bronze, oxygen-free copper or a copper-zirconium alloy for most of the smaller mirrors. The optical surface is electro-deposited copper 20 to 40 mils thick. After nondestructive testing and rough machining, the electroplated surface is single-point diamond machined or conventionally polished

  1. Clinical trial regulation in Argentina: overview and analysis of regulatory framework, use of existing tools, and researchers' perspectives to identify potential barriers Reglamentación de ensayos clínicos en la Argentina: panorama y análisis del marco normativo, uso de los instrumentos existentes y perspectivas de los investigadores para identificar posibles obstáculos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren White

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review and analyze the regulatory framework of clinical trial registration, use of existing tools (publicly accessible national/international registration databases, and users' perspectives to identify possible barriers to registration compliance by sponsors and researchers in Argentina. METHODS: Internationally registered trials recruiting patients in Argentina were found through clincialtrials.gov and the International Clinical Trial Registration Platform (ICTRP and compared with publically available clinical trials registered through the National Administration of Drugs, Foods, and Medical Devices (ANMAT. A questionnaire addressing hypothesized attitudinal, knowledge-related, idiomatic, technical, economic, and regulatory barriers that could discourage or impede registration of clinical trials was developed, and semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample of researchers (investigators, sponsors, and monitors in Argentina. RESULTS: A response rate of 74.3% (n = 29 was achieved, and 27 interviews were ultimately used for analysis. Results suggested that the high proportion of foreign-sponsored or multinational trials (64.8% of all protocols approved by ANMAT from 1994-2006 may contribute to a communication gap between locally based investigators and foreign-based administrative officials. A lack of knowledge about available international registration tools and limited awareness of the importance of registration were also identified as limiting factors for local investigators and sponsors. CONCLUSIONS: To increase compliance and promote clinical trial registration in Argentina, national health authorities, sponsors, and local investigators could take the following steps: implement a grassroots educational campaign to improve clinical trial regulation, support local investigator-sponsor-initiated clinical trials, and/or encourage local and regional scientific journal compliance with

  2. Experienced Barriers to Lean in Swedish Manufacturing and Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Halling

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to compare similarities and divergences in how the concepts of Lean and barriers to Lean are described by key informants at a production unit in a large manufacturing company and two emergency health care units in Sweden. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews and analyzed with the constant comparative method (CCM and Porras and Robertson’s (1992 change model. : In both organizations, the view of Lean changed from a toolbox to a human behavior view. Eight barriers were experienced in both organizations. Three barriers were unique to manufacturing or to health care, respectively. Nine barriers were elements of social factors; five were elements of organizing arrangements. Only people practically involved and responsible for the implementation at the two organizations participated in the study. Persons responsible for implementing Lean should consider organizational arrangements and social factors in order to limit barriers to successful implementation. Most research on Lean has been about successful Lean implementations. This study focuses on how Lean is viewed and what barriers personnel in manufacturing and health care have experienced. In comparing the barriers to Lean experienced in the two groups, common, archetypical, and unique barriers for manufacturing and health care can be identified, thus contributing to knowledge about barriers to Lean implementation.

  3. Barriers to female sex addiction treatment in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuffar, Manpreet K; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-12-01

    Background Over the last 20 years, behavioral addictions (e.g., addictions to gambling, playing video games, work, etc.) have become more accepted among both public and scientific communities. Addiction to sex is arguably a more controversial issue, but this does not take away from the fact that some individuals seek professional help for problematic excessive sex, irrespective of how the behavior is conceptualized. Empirical evidence suggests that among treatment seekers, men are more likely than women to seek help for sex addiction (SA). Methods Using the behavioral addiction literature and the authors' own expertise in researching female SA, this paper examines potential barriers to the treatment for female sex addicts. Results Four main types of barriers for female sex addicts not seeking treatment were identified. These comprised (a) individual barriers, (b) social barriers, (c) research barriers, and (d) treatment barriers. Conclusions Further research is needed to either confirm or disconfirm the identified barriers that female sex addicts face when seeking treatment, and if conformation is found, interested stakeholders should provide better awareness and/or see ways in which such barriers can be overcome to aid better uptake of SA services.

  4. Barrier mechanisms in the Drosophila blood-brain barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Jane Hindle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The invertebrate blood-brain barrier field is growing at a rapid pace and, in recent years, studies have shown a physiologic and molecular complexity that has begun to rival its vertebrate counterpart. Novel mechanisms of paracellular barrier maintenance through GPCR signaling were the first demonstrations of the complex adaptive mechanisms of barrier physiology. Building upon this work, the integrity of the invertebrate blood-brain barrier has recently been shown to require coordinated function of all layers of the compound barrier structure, analogous to signaling between the layers of the vertebrate neurovascular unit. These findings strengthen the notion that many blood-brain barrier mechanisms are conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, and suggest that novel findings in invertebrate model organisms will have a significant impact on the understanding of vertebrate BBB functions. In this vein, important roles in coordinating localized and systemic signaling to dictate organism development and growth are beginning to show how the blood-brain barrier can govern whole animal physiologies. This includes novel functions of blood-brain barrier gap junctions in orchestrating synchronized neuroblast proliferation, and of blood-brain barrier secreted antagonists of insulin receptor signaling. These advancements and others are pushing the field forward in exciting new directions. In this review, we provide a synopsis of invertebrate blood-brain barrier anatomy and physiology, with a focus on insights from the past 5 years, and highlight important areas for future study.

  5. Barriers and Promoters to Participation in the Era of Shared Treatment Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, Sarah P; Tariman, Joseph D; Spawn, Nadia; Mehmeti, Enisa; Bishop-Royse, Jessica; Garcia, Ima; Hartle, Lisa; Szubski, Katharine

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to identify the barriers and promoters for participation in cancer treatment decision in the era of shared decision-making (SDM) process. A qualitative design was utilized. Nineteen nurses and 11 nurse practitioners from oncology inpatient and outpatient settings participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using directed content analysis. The findings include practice barrier, patient barrier, institutional policy barrier, professional barrier, scope of practice barrier, insurance coverage barrier, and administrative barrier. Multidisciplinary team approach, having a nursing voice during SDM, high level of knowledge of the disease and treatment, and personal valuation of SDM participation were perceived as promoters. Oncology nurses and nurse practitioners face many barriers to their participation during SDM. Organizational support and system-wide culture of SDM are essential to achieve better cancer treatment decisions outcome. Additional studies are needed to determine the factors that can promote more participation among nurses and nurse practitioners. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Structure and function of proteins investigated by crystallographic and spectroscopic time-resolved methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwar, Namrta

    crystal. Time-resolved X-ray data collected at pH's of 4, 7 and 9 demonstrate that pH alters the kinetics of the PYP photocycle dramatically. At pH 4 the photocycle lasts almost one order of magnitude longer in time compared to pH 7. The final intermediate that accumulates at both pH 7 and pH 4 is absent at pH 9. Results from the dose- and the pH-dependent time-resolved crystallographic experiments show that it is imperative to carefully control the conditions under which time-resolved data are collected. With these considerations we collected a comprehensive time-series from nanoseconds to seconds at 14 different temperature settings from -40 °C to 70 °C. Results from time-resolved crystallography are corroborated by employing time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. For this, absorption spectra on crystals and solution are collected by a fast micro-spectrophotometer custom-designed in our lab. We identify kinetic phases of the PYP photocycle at all 14 temperature settings. Relaxation times associated with these phases are temperature-dependent and can be fit by the Van't Hoff-Arrhenius equation. Kinetic modeling yields entropy and enthalpy values at the barriers of the activation solely from the time-resolved crystallographic data. With this, we advance crystallography to a new frontier: the determination of free energy surfaces. Investigating enzymatic reactions can be challenging, because they are non-cyclic. After one turnover product must be washed away and substrate must be reloaded. A promising approach for routine application can be envisioned at the new 4th generation X-ray sources, such as X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). With our results we set the scene to comprehensively investigate all kinds of enzymatic reactions with these instruments.

  7. Barriers to participation in mental health research: are there specific gender, ethnicity and age related barriers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Louise

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that the incidence, prevalence and presentation of mental disorders differ by gender, ethnicity and age, and there is evidence that there is also differential representation in mental health research by these characteristics. The aim of this paper is to a review the current literature on the nature of barriers to participation in mental health research, with particular reference to gender, age and ethnicity; b review the evidence on the effectiveness of strategies used to overcome these barriers. Method Studies published up to December 2008 were identified using MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE using relevant mesh headings and keywords. Results Forty-nine papers were identified. There was evidence of a wide range of barriers including transportation difficulties, distrust and suspicion of researchers, and the stigma attached to mental illness. Strategies to overcome these barriers included the use of bilingual staff, assistance with travel, avoiding the use of stigmatising language in marketing material and a focus on education about the disorder under investigation. There were very few evaluations of such strategies, but there was evidence that ethnically matching recruiters to potential participants did not improve recruitment rates. Educational strategies were helpful and increased recruitment. Conclusion Mental health researchers should consider including caregivers in recruitment procedures where possible, provide clear descriptions of study aims and describe the representativeness of their sample when reporting study results. Studies that systematically investigate strategies to overcome barriers to recruitment are needed.

  8. Community Participation and Barriers in Rural Tourism: A Case Study in Kiulu, Sabah

    OpenAIRE

    Velnisa Paimin N. F.; Modilih S.; Mogindol S. H.; Johnny C.; Thamburaj J. A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an investigation on local community participation and barriers in rural tourism. It identifies two sides of community participation in tourism as identified by Timothy [5], which are; the benefits point of view and from the decision making process perspective. It also identifies the communities’ barriers in engaging in tourism and uses Tosun’s [18] approach in examining the barriers. A total of eighty-three questionnaire forms were completed by respondents from seven villag...

  9. Racial Trade Barriers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jacob Halvas

    . This paper analyzes the racial policies pursued in the foreign trade and argues that we need to recognize Aryanization as a world-wide policy in order to fully understand its character and possible consequences. I focus on the pre-war period and analyze the case of Denmark from three different perspectives......: perpetrators, victims and bystanders. The analysis will show that race, economy and foreign trade were combined in an attempt to raise racial trade barriers. This forced the question of German racial policies on the Danish government, Danish-Jewish businesses, and German companies involved in foreign trade...

  10. Support or Barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum; Lønsmann, Dorte

    This study offers a critical look at how corporate-level language management influences front-line language practices among employees in three multinational corporations (MNCs) headquartered in Scandinavia. Based on interview and document data, we examine, firstly, what front-line practices...... employees use to cross language boundaries in their everyday work, and, secondly, how these practices relate to top-down language management in the case companies. Our findings show that employees are often dependent on ad hoc and informal solutions in cross- language situations, which leads us...... to a discussion of how a company’s language policy may be seen as both support and a barrier....

  11. Time-resolved brightness measurements by streaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Joshua S.; Speirs, Rory W.; McCulloch, Andrew J.; Scholten, Robert E.

    2018-03-01

    Brightness is a key figure of merit for charged particle beams, and time-resolved brightness measurements can elucidate the processes involved in beam creation and manipulation. Here we report on a simple, robust, and widely applicable method for the measurement of beam brightness with temporal resolution by streaking one-dimensional pepperpots, and demonstrate the technique to characterize electron bunches produced from a cold-atom electron source. We demonstrate brightness measurements with 145 ps temporal resolution and a minimum resolvable emittance of 40 nm rad. This technique provides an efficient method of exploring source parameters and will prove useful for examining the efficacy of techniques to counter space-charge expansion, a critical hurdle to achieving single-shot imaging of atomic scale targets.

  12. Deflection evaluation using time-resolved radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, D.A.; Lucero, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Time-resolved radiography is the creation of an x-ray image for which both the start-exposure and stop-exposure times are known with respect to the event under study. The combination of image and timing are used to derive information about the event. The authors have applied time-resolved radiography to evaluate motions of explosive-driven events. In the particular application discussed in this paper, the author's intent is to measure maximum deflections of the components involved. Exposures are made during the time just before to just after the event of interest occurs. A smear or blur of motion out to its furthest extent is recorded on the image. Comparison of the dynamic images with static images allows deflection measurements to be made

  13. Reverse Universal Resolving Algorithm and inverse driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Inverse interpretation is a semantics based, non-standard interpretation of programs. Given a program and a value, an inverse interpreter finds all or one of the inputs, that would yield the given value as output with normal forward evaluation. The Reverse Universal Resolving Algorithm is a new...... variant of the Universal Resolving Algorithm for inverse interpretation. The new variant outperforms the original algorithm in several cases, e.g., when unpacking a list using inverse interpretation of a pack program. It uses inverse driving as its main technique, which has not been described in detail...... before. Inverse driving may find application with, e.g., supercompilation, thus suggesting a new kind of program inverter....

  14. Formation and evolution of the glow-like dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starostin, S.A.; ElSabbagh, M.A.M.; Premkumar, P.A.; Vries, de H.W.; Paffen, R.M.J.; Creatore, M.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Time resolved process of formation and evolution of the atmospheric pressure glow discharge was studied in the roll-to- roll plasma- enhanced chemical vapor deposition dielectric barrier discharge reactor operating in helium-free gas mixtures by means of fast ICCD imaging. It was observed that the

  15. 238U + n resolved resonance energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.; de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.; Difilippo, F.C.; Ingle, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Neutron transmission measurements from 100 eV to 170 keV at 150 m through four 238 U samples are reported. The energy calibration is described, and the resultant 233 U resolved resonance energies are found to be intermediate between those from other workers. In addition, some energies for sharp resonances in 23 Na, 27 Al, 32 S, and 206 Pb are given

  16. Generalized Darcy–Oseen resolvent problem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medková, Dagmar; Ptashnyk, M.; Varnhorn, W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2016), s. 1621-1630 ISSN 0170-4214 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Darcy-Oseen resolvent problem * semipermeable membrane * Brinkman-Darcy equations * fluid flow between free-fluid domains and porous media Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mma.3872/abstract

  17. Barriers to accessing radiation therapy in Canada: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillan, Caitlin; Briggs, Kaleigh; Pazos, Alejandro Goytisolo; Maurus, Melanie; Harnett, Nicole; Catton, Pamela; Wiljer, David

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is effective treatment for curing and palliating cancer, yet concern exists that not all Canadians for whom RT is indicated receive it. Many factors may contribute to suboptimal use of RT. A review of recent Canadian literature was undertaken to identify such barriers. MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBase databases were used to search keywords relating to barriers to accessing or utilizing RT in Canada. Collected abstracts were reviewed independently. Barriers identified in relevant articles were categorized as relating to the health systems, patient socio-demographic, patient factors, or provider factors contexts and thematic analysis performed for each context. 535 unique abstracts were collected. 75 met inclusion criteria. 46 (61.3%) addressed multiple themes. The most cited barriers to accessing RT when indicated were patient age (n = 26, 34.7%), distance to treatment centre (n = 23, 30.7%), wait times (n = 22, 29.3%), and lack of physician understanding about the use of RT (n = 16, 21.6%). Barriers to RT are reported in many areas. The role of provider factors and the lack of attention to patient fears and mistrust as potential barriers were unexpected findings demanding further attention. Solutions should be sought to overcome identified barriers facilitating more effective cancer care for Canadians

  18. On marginally resolved objects in optical interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaume, R.

    2003-03-01

    With the present and soon-to-be breakthrough of optical interferometry, countless objects shall be within reach of interferometers; yet, most of them are expected to remain only marginally resolved with hectometric baselines. In this paper, we tackle the problem of deriving the properties of a marginally resolved object from its optical visibilities. We show that they depend on the moments of flux distribution of the object: centre, mean angular size, asymmetry, and curtosis. We also point out that the visibility amplitude is a second-order phenomenon, whereas the phase is a combination of a first-order term, giving the location of the photocentre, and a third-order term, more difficult to detect than the visibility amplitude, giving an asymmetry coefficient of the object. We then demonstrate that optical visibilities are not a good model constraint while the object stays marginally resolved, unless observations are carried out at different wavelengths. Finally, we show an application of this formalism to circumstellar discs.

  19. WFIRST: Resolving the Milky Way Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalirai, Jason; Conroy, Charlie; Dressler, Alan; Geha, Marla; Levesque, Emily; Lu, Jessica; Tumlinson, Jason

    2018-01-01

    WFIRST will yield a transformative impact in measuring and characterizing resolved stellar populations in the Milky Way. The proximity and level of detail that such populations need to be studied at directly map to all three pillars of WFIRST capabilities - sensitivity from a 2.4 meter space based telescope, resolution from 0.1" pixels, and large 0.3 degree field of view from multiple detectors. In this poster, we describe the activities of the WFIRST Science Investigation Team (SIT), "Resolving the Milky Way with WFIRST". Notional programs guiding our analysis include targeting sightlines to establish the first well-resolved large scale maps of the Galactic bulge aand central region, pockets of star formation in the disk, benchmark star clusters, and halo substructure and ultra faint dwarf satellites. As an output of this study, our team is building optimized strategies and tools to maximize stellar population science with WFIRST. This will include: new grids of IR-optimized stellar evolution and synthetic spectroscopic models; pipelines and algorithms for optimal data reduction at the WFIRST sensitivity and pixel scale; wide field simulations of Milky Way environments including new astrometric studies; and strategies and automated algorithms to find substructure and dwarf galaxies in the Milky Way through the WFIRST High Latitude Survey.

  20. Barriers and facilitators of mental health screening in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Dawn; Austin, Marie-Paule; Heaman, Maureen; McDonald, Sheila; Lasiuk, Gerri; Sword, Wendy; Giallo, Rebecca; Hegadoren, Kathy; Vermeyden, Lydia; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen; Kingston, Joshua; Jarema, Karly; Biringer, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Access to mental health services during pregnancy is most commonly mobilized through formal mental health screening. However, few studies to date have identified barriers and facilitators that affect pregnant women's responses to mental health screening. The objective was to identify barriers and facilitators that influence pregnant women's responses to the screening process and factors associated with their identification. This multi-site, cross-sectional survey recruited pregnant women >16 years of age who spoke/read English in Alberta, Canada. Main outcomes were barriers and facilitators of mental health screening. Descriptive statistics were generated to identify the most common barriers and facilitators and multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to determine factors associated with barriers and facilitators. Study participation rate was 92% (460/500). Women's most common barriers were: significant others normalizing their emotional difficulties; desiring to handle mental health problems on their own; preferring to discuss feelings with significant others; and not knowing what emotions were 'normal'. Women who identified these barriers were more likely not to have been treated previously for mental illness, were primiparous, and could not be completely honest with their provider. Main facilitators were provider characteristics (sensitive, interested), reassurance that mental healthcare is a part of routine prenatal care, hearing that other women have emotional problems during pregnancy and knowing that help was available. The sample comprised largely Caucasian, well-educated, and partnered women, which limits generalizability of the findings. Personal and stigma-related barriers influence pregnant women's responses to mental health screening. Efforts to minimize barriers and enhance facilitators should be explored as potential strategies for optimizing prenatal mental health screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Chaos near the Coulomb barrier. Nuclear molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strayer, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    The present work examines in detail the classical behavior of the α + 14 C and the 12 C + 12 C(O + ) collison at energies near the Coulomb barrier. The long-time motion of the compound nuclear system is identified in terms of its classical quasiperiodic and chaotic behavior. The consequences of this motion are discussed and interpreted in terms of the evolution of the system along a dynamical energy surface. 45 references

  2. Stability of barrier buckets with zero RF-barrier separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-03-01

    A barrier bucket with very small separation between the rf barriers (relative to the barrier widths) or even zero separation has its synchrotron tune decreasing rather slowly from a large value towards the boundary of the bucket. As a result, large area at the bucket edges can become unstable under the modulation of rf voltage and/or rf phase. In addition, chaotic regions may form near the bucket center and extend outward under increasing modulation. Application is made to those barrier buckets used in the process of momentum mining at the Fermilab Recycler Ring.

  3. Mental health beliefs and barriers to accessing mental health services in youth aging out of foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Christina; Mackie, Thomas I; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Franzen, Sara; Partap, Anu; Flores, Glenn; Leslie, Laurel K

    2014-01-01

    To examine the perspectives of youth on factors that influence mental health service use after aging out of foster care. Focus groups were conducted with youth with a history of mental health needs and previous service use who had aged out of foster care. Questions were informed by the Health Belief Model and addressed 4 domains: youth perceptions of the "threat of mental health problems," treatment benefits versus barriers to accessing mental health services, self-efficacy, and "cues to action." Data were analyzed using a modified grounded-theory approach. Youth (N = 28) reported ongoing mental health problems affecting their functioning; however, they articulated variable levels of reliance on formal mental health treatment versus their own ability to resolve these problems without treatment. Past mental health service experiences influenced whether youth viewed treatment options as beneficial. Youth identified limited self-efficacy and insufficient psychosocial supports "cueing action" during their transition out of foster care. Barriers to accessing mental health services included difficulties obtaining health insurance, finding a mental health provider, scheduling appointments, and transportation. Youths' perceptions of their mental health needs, self-efficacy, psychosocial supports during transition, and access barriers influence mental health service use after aging out of foster care. Results suggest that strategies are needed to 1) help youth and clinicians negotiate shared understanding of mental health treatment needs and options, 2) incorporate mental health into transition planning, and 3) address insurance and other systemic barriers to accessing mental health services after aging out of foster care. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Measuring Health-related Transportation Barriers in Urban Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Sara M; Sharp, Lisa K; Syed, Saming T; Bhansari, Shikhi; Gerber, Ben S

    Access to reliable transportation is important for people with chronic diseases considering the need for frequent medical visits and for medications from the pharmacy. Understanding of the extent to which transportation barriers, including lack of transportation, contribute to poor health outcomes has been hindered by a lack of consistency in measuring or operationally defining "transportation barriers." The current study uses the Rasch measurement model to examine the psychometric properties of a new measure designed to capture types of transportation and associated barriers within an urban context. Two hundred forty-four adults with type 2 diabetes were recruited from within an academic medical center in Chicago and completed the newly developed transportation questions as part of a larger National Institutes of Health funded study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01498159). Results suggested a two subscale structure that reflected 1) general transportation barriers and 2) public transportation barriers.

  5. Fruit and vegetable consumption: benefits and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclellan, Debbie L; Gottschall-Pass, Katherine; Larsen, Roberta

    2004-01-01

    Few people on Prince Edward Island meet the goal of consuming five or more servings of vegetables and fruit a day. The main objective of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of the nutritional benefits and barriers to vegetable and fruit intake among adult women in Prince Edward Island. Participants were 40 women aged 20-49, with or without children at home, who were or were not currently meeting the objective of eating five or more fruit and vegetable servings a day. In-home, one-on-one interviews were used for data collection. Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcribed interviews. Data were examined for trustworthiness in the context of credibility, transferability, and dependability. Most participants identified one or more benefits of eating fruit and vegetables; however, comments tended to be non-specific. The main barriers that participants identified were effort, lack of knowledge, sociopsychological and socioenvironmental factors, and availability. Internal influences, life events, and food rules were identified as encouraging women to include vegetables and fruit in their diets. Given the challenges of effecting meaningful dietary change, dietitians must look for broader dietary behavioural interventions that are sensitive to women's perceptions of benefits and barriers to fruit and vegetable intake.

  6. Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

    2006-01-01

    In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life

  7. Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington; CJ Larkin; BJ Close

    2006-02-23

    In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements. Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life.

  8. Use of Postpartum Care: Predictors and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica N. DiBari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify actual and perceived barriers to postpartum care among a probability sample of women who gave birth in Los Angeles County, California in 2007. Survey data from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB study (N = 4,075 were used to identify predictors and barriers to postpartum care use. The LAMB study was a cross-sectional, population-based study that examined maternal and child health outcomes during the preconception, prenatal, and postpartum periods. Multivariable analyses identified low income, being separated/divorced and never married, trying hard to get pregnant or trying to prevent pregnancy, Medi-Cal insurance holders, and lack of prenatal care to be risk factors of postpartum care nonuse, while Hispanic ethnicity was protective. The most commonly reported barriers to postpartum care use were feeling fine, being too busy with the baby, having other things going on, and a lack of need. Findings from this study can inform the development of interventions targeting subgroups at risk for not obtaining postpartum care. Community education and improved access to care can further increase the acceptability of postpartum visits and contribute to improvements in women’s health. Postpartum care can serve as a gateway to engage underserved populations in the continuum of women’s health care.

  9. Thin film growth studies using time-resolved x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowarik, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Thin-film growth is important for novel functional materials and new generations of devices. The non-equilibrium growth physics involved is very challenging, because the energy landscape for atomic scale processes is determined by many parameters, such as the diffusion and Ehrlich-Schwoebel barriers. We review the in situ real-time techniques of x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray growth oscillations and diffuse x-ray scattering (GISAXS) for the determination of structure and morphology on length scales from Å to µm. We give examples of time resolved growth experiments mainly from molecular thin film growth, but also highlight growth of inorganic materials using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and electrochemical deposition from liquids. We discuss how scaling parameters of rate equation models and fundamental energy barriers in kinetic Monte Carlo methods can be determined from fits of the real-time x-ray data.

  10. Dimensional Analysis of Psychosocial Barriers to Prevention of Early Childhood Caries Among Recent Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Perez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to define the underlying dimensions of psychosocial barriers to obtaining and providing dental care for young children among recent immigrants. Fifteen focus groups were conducted with 99 primary caregivers from African, South Asian, and Chinese recent immigrants. A secondary analysis of identified barriers using dimensional analysis methodology was performed to determine dimensions and properties of barriers. The analysis continued until irreducible properties were found or emerging dimensions were not relevant to the study. Identified dimensions were associated with barriers and individuals. Type, number, level, objectiveness, nature, and impact were barrier-related; awareness and controllability were individual-related dimensions. Type refers to barriers themselves. Number and level indicate the amount and location of barriers, respectively. Objectiveness refers to the extent that perceived barrier reflects reality and nature indicates its intrinsic characteristic. Impact concerns behaviors, goals, and outcomes compromised by barriers. Awareness alludes to the extent that individuals are aware of the barriers and controllability explains how much control people perceive to have over barriers. Identified dimensions are useful for better understanding and addressing existing barriers to children’s optimal oral health.

  11. Development of a Cloud Resolving Model for Heterogeneous Supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreepathi, S.; Norman, M. R.; Pal, A.; Hannah, W.; Ponder, C.

    2017-12-01

    A cloud resolving climate model is needed to reduce major systematic errors in climate simulations due to structural uncertainty in numerical treatments of convection - such as convective storm systems. This research describes the porting effort to enable SAM (System for Atmosphere Modeling) cloud resolving model on heterogeneous supercomputers using GPUs (Graphical Processing Units). We have isolated a standalone configuration of SAM that is targeted to be integrated into the DOE ACME (Accelerated Climate Modeling for Energy) Earth System model. We have identified key computational kernels from the model and offloaded them to a GPU using the OpenACC programming model. Furthermore, we are investigating various optimization strategies intended to enhance GPU utilization including loop fusion/fission, coalesced data access and loop refactoring to a higher abstraction level. We will present early performance results, lessons learned as well as optimization strategies. The computational platform used in this study is the Summitdev system, an early testbed that is one generation removed from Summit, the next leadership class supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The system contains 54 nodes wherein each node has 2 IBM POWER8 CPUs and 4 NVIDIA Tesla P100 GPUs. This work is part of a larger project, ACME-MMF component of the U.S. Department of Energy(DOE) Exascale Computing Project. The ACME-MMF approach addresses structural uncertainty in cloud processes by replacing traditional parameterizations with cloud resolving "superparameterization" within each grid cell of global climate model. Super-parameterization dramatically increases arithmetic intensity, making the MMF approach an ideal strategy to achieve good performance on emerging exascale computing architectures. The goal of the project is to integrate superparameterization into ACME, and explore its full potential to scientifically and computationally advance climate simulation and prediction.

  12. Performing a local barrier operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-03-04

    Performing a local barrier operation with parallel tasks executing on a compute node including, for each task: retrieving a present value of a counter; calculating, in dependence upon the present value of the counter and a total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a base value, the base value representing the counter's value prior to any task joining the local barrier; calculating, in dependence upon the base value and the total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a target value of the counter, the target value representing the counter's value when all tasks have joined the local barrier; joining the local barrier, including atomically incrementing the value of the counter; and repetitively, until the present value of the counter is no less than the target value of the counter: retrieving the present value of the counter and determining whether the present value equals the target value.

  13. Barrier rf systems in synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Chandra M.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, many interesting applications of the barrier RF system in hadron synchrotrons have been realized. A remarkable example of this is the development of longitudinal momentum mining and implementation at the Fermilab Recycler for extraction of low emittance pbars for the Tevatron shots. At Fermilab, we have barrier RF systems in four different rings. In the case of Recycler Ring, all of the rf manipulations are carried out using a barrier RF system. Here, the author reviews various uses of barrier rf systems in particle accelerators including some new schemes for producing intense proton beam and possible new applications

  14. Tunnel superpenetrability of potential barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhariev, B N.

    1982-01-01

    The transmission of two particles through the same barrier is considered. The limiting cases are compared when the particles are joined together in a single particle with double mass-energy and potential and when they pass the barrier independently. As an intermediate case a pair of particles bound in a quasideuteron of a finite size is considered. It is shown that long-range collective correlations of particles (of the superfluidity type and others) simplify very much for them passing through high potential barriers. This happens due to the transfer of the additional energy from the particles outside the barriers to those inside it

  15. Barriers for recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools...... this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment....

  16. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... groups, the sociology of work needs to develop a better understanding of the way in which linguistic diversity influences the formation of social capital, i.e. resources such as the trust and reciprocity inherent in social relations in such workplaces. Drawing on theories about intergroup contact...... and intercultural communication, this article analyses interviews with 31 employees from two highly ethnically diverse Danish workplaces. The article shows how linguistic barriers such as different levels of majority language competence and their consequent misunderstandings breed mistrust and hostility, whilst...

  17. Countermeasures and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Johannes [Oersted - DTU, Automation, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-10-01

    In 1973 Haddon proposed ten strategies for reducing and avoiding damages based on a model of potential harmful energy transfer (Haddon, 1973). The strategies apply to a large variety of unwanted phenomena. Haddon's pioneering work on countermeasures has had a major influence on later thinking about safety. Considering its impact it is remarkable that the literature offers almost no discussions related to the theoretical foundations of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. The present report addresses a number of theoretical issues related to Haddon's countermeasure strategies, which are: 1) A reformulation and formalization of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. 2) An identification and description of some of the problems associated with the term 'barrier'. 3) Suggestions for a more precise terminology based on the causal structure of countermeasures. 4) Extending the scope of countermeasures to include sign-based countermeasures. (au)

  18. Countermeasures and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Johannes

    2005-10-01

    In 1973 Haddon proposed ten strategies for reducing and avoiding damages based on a model of potential harmful energy transfer (Haddon, 1973). The strategies apply to a large variety of unwanted phenomena. Haddon's pioneering work on countermeasures has had a major influence on later thinking about safety. Considering its impact it is remarkable that the literature offers almost no discussions related to the theoretical foundations of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. The present report addresses a number of theoretical issues related to Haddon's countermeasure strategies, which are: 1) A reformulation and formalization of Haddon's countermeasure strategies. 2) An identification and description of some of the problems associated with the term 'barrier'. 3) Suggestions for a more precise terminology based on the causal structure of countermeasures. 4) Extending the scope of countermeasures to include sign-based countermeasures. (au)

  19. Studying Executive Barriers on Rationalizing the Size of Iranian Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hussein Rahmati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To rationalize the size of government, Act on adjusting a part of government‟s financial rules is approved and the government is obliged to assign a part of its activities through (1 services by nonpublic sector, (2 partnership with nonpublic sector, and (3 assigning the management to nonpublic sector. There are many barriers in executing this law. The present study derived from a field study tries to provide a report on the performance of various organs in Qom province on executing this law and identifies the executive barriers and provides practical proposals to remove them.Overall, seventeen organs in Qom are subjected to this law of which five organs are selected as our sample. In this respect, different documents were studied, ten interviews were conducted and one hundred and four executive barriers and forty seven operational proposals including twenty three barriers and eleven proposals in organization and structure area, sixteen barriers and five proposals in administrative technology and working processes area, thirty two barriers and twelve proposals in human resources area, twenty one barriers and eight proposals in laws and regulations area and twelve barriers and eleven proposals in management area have been analyzed and summarized regarding their contents.

  20. Thames barrier (flood protection barriers on the Thames)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilkovic, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the flood protection barriers on the Thames are presented. The flood protection system on the Thames in 1984 was commissioned. During two decades this barrier was used 54 times against to the high water and 34 times against storm-sewage. There is installed buttress type hydroelectric power plant

  1. Recent advances in component resolved diagnosis in food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus P. Borres

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high prevalence of food allergic diseases globally there are increasing demands in clinical practice for managing IgE-mediated conditions. During the last decade, component resolved diagnostics has been introduced into the field of clinical allergology, providing information that cannot be obtained from extract-based tests. Component resolved data facilitate more precise diagnosis of allergic diseases and identify sensitizations attributable to cross-reactivity. Furthermore it assists risk assessment in clinical practice as sensitization to some allergenic molecules is related to persistence of clinical symptoms and systemic rather than local reactions. The information may also aid the clinician in prescription of oral immunotherapy (OIT in patients with severe symptoms, and in giving advice on food allergen avoidance or on the need to perform food challenges. The use of allergen components is rapidly evolving and increases our possibility to treat food allergic patients with a more individual approach. Using molecular allergology, we can already now better diagnose, prognose and grade the food allergy. In summary, daily routine molecular allergy diagnostics offers a number of benefits that give us a higher diagnostic precision and allow for better management of the patient.

  2. Time-resolved studies. Ch. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Dennis M.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1991-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation, with its unique properties, offers a tool to extend X-ray measurements from the static to the time-resolved regime. The most straight-forward application of synchrotron radiation to the study of transient phenomena is directly through the possibility of decreased data-collection times via the enormous increase in flux over that of a laboratory X-ray system. Even further increases in intensity can be obtained through the use of novel X-ray optical devices. Wide-bandpass monochromators, e.g., that utilize the continuous spectral distribution of synchrotron radiation, can increase flux on the sample several orders of magnitude over conventional X-ray optical systems thereby allowing a further shortening of the data-collection time. Another approach that uses the continuous spectral nature of synchrotron radiation to decrease data-collection times is the 'parallel data collection' method. Using this technique, intensities as a function of X-ray energy are recorded simultaneously for all energies rather than sequentially recording data at each energy, allowing for a dramatic decrease in data-collection time. Perhaps the most exciting advances in time-resolved X-ray studies will be made by those methods that exploit the pulsed nature of the radiation emitted from storage rings. Pulsed techniques have had an enormous impact in the study of the temporal evolution of transient phenomena. The extension from continuous to modulated sources for use in time-resolved work has been carried over in a host of fields that use both pulsed particle and pulsed electro-magnetic beams. In this chapter the new experimental techniques are reviewed and illustrated with some experiments. (author). 98 refs.; 20 figs.; 5 tabs

  3. Time-resolved x-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques for time-resolved x-ray diagnostics will be reviewed with emphasis on systems utilizing x-ray diodes or scintillators. System design concerns for high-bandwidth (> 1 GHz) diagnostics will be emphasized. The limitations of a coaxial cable system and a technique for equalizing to improve bandwidth of such a system will be reviewed. Characteristics of new multi-GHz amplifiers will be presented. An example of a complete operational system on the Los Alamos Helios laser will be presented which has a bandwidth near 3 GHz over 38 m of coax. The system includes the cable, an amplifier, an oscilloscope, and a digital camera readout

  4. Achieving patient satisfaction: resolving patient complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxler, K F

    1997-07-01

    Patients demand to be active participants on and partners with the health care team to design their care regimen. Patients bring unique perceptions and expectations and use these to evaluate service quality and satisfaction. If customer satisfaction is not achieved and a patient complaint results, staff must have the skills to respond and launch a service recovery program. Service recovery, when done with style and panache, can retain loyal customers. Achieving patient satisfaction and resolving patient complaints require commitment from top leadership and commitment from providers to dedicate the time to understand their patients' needs.

  5. Spatially Resolved Analysis of Bragg Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Sabel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper targets an inherent control of optical shrinkage in photosensitive polymers, contributing by means of spatially resolved analysis of volume holographic phase gratings. Point by point scanning of the local material response to the Gaussian intensity distribution of the recording beams is accomplished. Derived information on the local grating period and grating slant is evaluated by mapping of optical shrinkage in the lateral plane as well as through the depth of the layer. The influence of recording intensity, exposure duration and the material viscosity on the Bragg selectivity is investigated.

  6. Spatially Resolved Circumnuclear Dust in Centaurus A

    OpenAIRE

    Karovska, Margarita; Marengo, Massimo; Elvis, Martin; Fazio, Giovanni; Hora, Joseph; Hinz, Philip; Hoffmann, William; Meyer, Michael; Mamajek, Eric

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present results from our exploratory mid-IR study of Centaurus A circumnuclear environment using high-angular resolution imaging at the Magellan 6.5m telescope with the MIRAC/BLINC camera. We detected emission from a compact region surrounding the nuclear source, and obtained photometry at 8.8 microns and in the N band. Our analysis suggests that the nuclear region is resolved with a size of approximately 3 pc. The mid-IR emission from this region is likely associated with co...

  7. Periodicity in Age-Resolved Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esipov, Sergei

    We discuss the interplay between the non-linear diffusion and age-resolved population dynamics. Depending on the age properties of collective migration the system may exhibit continuous joint expansion of all ages or continuous expansion with age segregation. Between these two obvious limiting regimes there is an interesting window of periodic expansion, which has been previously used by us in modeling bacterial colonies of Proteus mirabilis. In order to test whether the age-dependent collective migration leads to periodicity in other systems we performed a Fourier analysis of historical data on ethnic expansions and found multiple co-existing periods of activity.

  8. Nontechnical Barriers to Solar Energy Use: Review of Recent Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolis, R.; Zuboy, J.

    2006-09-01

    This paper reviews the nontechnical barriers to solar energy use, drawing on recent literature to help identify key barriers that must be addressed as part of the Technology Acceptance efforts under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar America Initiative. A broad literature search yielded more than 400 references, which were narrowed to 19 recent documents on nontechnical barriers to the use of solar energy and other energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE/RE) technologies. Some of the most frequently identified barriers included lack of government policy supporting EE/RE, lack of information dissemination and consumer awareness about energy and EE/RE, high cost of solar and other EE/RE technologies compared with conventional energy, and inadequate financing options for EE/RE projects.

  9. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Study (Appendix A), June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This study examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This study also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  10. Overcoming Barriers to Open Innovation at Apple, Nintendo and Nokia

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Pontiskoski; Kazuhiro Asakawa

    2009-01-01

    This is a conceptual paper on the application of open innovation in three case examples of Apple, Nintendo, and Nokia. Utilizing key concepts from research into managerial and organizational cognition, we describe how each company overcame barriers to utilizing open innovation strategy in R&D and commercialization projects. We identify three levels of barriers: cognitive, behavioral, and institutional, and describe the companies balanced between internal and external reso...

  11. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Report to Congress, June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This report examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This report also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  12. Qualitative Comparison of Barriers to Antiretroviral Medication Adherence Among Perinatally and Behaviorally HIV-Infected Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Errol L; Bogart, Laura M; Thurston, Idia B; Hu, Caroline H; Skeer, Margie R; Safren, Steven A; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2017-07-01

    Medication adherence among youth living with HIV (28%-69%) is often insufficient for viral suppression. The psychosocial context of adherence barriers is complex. We sought to qualitatively understand adherence barriers among behaviorally infected and perinatally infected youth and develop an intervention specific to their needs. We conducted in-depth interviews with 30 youth living with HIV (aged 14-24 years) and analyzed transcripts using the constant comparative method. Barriers were influenced by clinical and psychosocial factors. Perinatally infected youth barriers included reactance, complicated regimens, HIV fatigue, and difficulty transitioning to autonomous care. Behaviorally infected youth barriers included HIV-related shame and difficulty initiating medication. Both groups reported low risk perception, medication as a reminder of HIV, and nondisclosure, but described different contexts to these common barriers. Common and unique barriers emerged for behaviorally infected and perinatally infected youth reflecting varying HIV experiences and psychosocial contexts. We developed a customizable intervention addressing identified barriers and their psychosocial antecedents.

  13. Barriers and enablers to academic health leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharwani, Aleem; Kline, Theresa; Patterson, Margaret; Craighead, Peter

    2017-02-06

    Purpose This study sought to identify the barriers and enablers to leadership enactment in academic health-care settings. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews ( n = 77) with programme stakeholders (medical school trainees, university leaders, clinical leaders, medical scientists and directors external to the medical school) were conducted, and the responses content-analysed. Findings Both contextual and individual factors were identified as playing a role in affecting academic health leadership enactment that has an impact on programme development, success and maintenance. Contextual factors included sufficient resources allocated to the programme, opportunities for learners to practise leadership skills, a competent team around the leader once that person is in place, clear expectations for the leader and a culture that fosters open communication. Contextual barriers included highly bureaucratic structures, fear-of-failure and non-trusting cultures and inappropriate performance systems. Programmes were advised to select participants based on self-awareness, strong communication skills and an innovative thinking style. Filling specific knowledge and skill gaps, particularly for those not trained in medical school, was viewed as essential. Ineffective decision-making styles and tendencies to get involved in day-to-day activities were barriers to the development of academic health leaders. Originality/value Programmes designed to develop academic health-care leaders will be most effective if they develop leadership at all levels; ensure that the organisation's culture, structure and processes reinforce positive leadership practices; and recognise the critical role of teams in supporting its leaders.

  14. Distributed Persistent Identifiers System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Golodoniuc

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The need to identify both digital and physical objects is ubiquitous in our society. Past and present persistent identifier (PID systems, of which there is a great variety in terms of technical and social implementation, have evolved with the advent of the Internet, which has allowed for globally unique and globally resolvable identifiers. PID systems have, by in large, catered for identifier uniqueness, integrity, and persistence, regardless of the identifier’s application domain. Trustworthiness of these systems has been measured by the criteria first defined by Bütikofer (2009 and further elaborated by Golodoniuc 'et al'. (2016 and Car 'et al'. (2017. Since many PID systems have been largely conceived and developed by a single organisation they faced challenges for widespread adoption and, most importantly, the ability to survive change of technology. We believe that a cause of PID systems that were once successful fading away is the centralisation of support infrastructure – both organisational and computing and data storage systems. In this paper, we propose a PID system design that implements the pillars of a trustworthy system – ensuring identifiers’ independence of any particular technology or organisation, implementation of core PID system functions, separation from data delivery, and enabling the system to adapt for future change. We propose decentralisation at all levels — persistent identifiers and information objects registration, resolution, and data delivery — using Distributed Hash Tables and traditional peer-to-peer networks with information replication and caching mechanisms, thus eliminating the need for a central PID data store. This will increase overall system fault tolerance thus ensuring its trustworthiness. We also discuss important aspects of the distributed system’s governance, such as the notion of the authoritative source and data integrity

  15. Rapid Spontaneously Resolving Acute Subdural Hematoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Qi; Zhao, Hexiang; Zhang, Hanmei; You, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study reports a rare patient of a rapid spontaneously resolving acute subdural hematoma. In addition, an analysis of potential clues for the phenomenon is presented with a review of the literature. Patient Presentation: A 1-year-and-2-month-old boy fell from a height of approximately 2 m. The patient was in a superficial coma with a Glasgow Coma Scale of 8 when he was transferred to the authors’ hospital. Computed tomography revealed the presence of an acute subdural hematoma with a midline shift beyond 1 cm. His guardians refused invasive interventions and chose conservative treatment. Repeat imaging after 15 hours showed the evident resolution of the hematoma and midline reversion. Progressive magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the complete resolution of the hematoma, without redistribution to a remote site. Conclusions: Even though this phenomenon has a low incidence, the probability of a rapid spontaneously resolving acute subdural hematoma should be considered when patients present with the following characteristics: children or elderly individuals suffering from mild to moderate head trauma; stable or rapidly recovered consciousness; and simple acute subdural hematoma with a moderate thickness and a particularly low-density band in computed tomography scans. PMID:28468224

  16. High resolving power spectrometer for beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshammer, H.W.; Spencer, J.E.

    1992-03-01

    We describe a system designed to analyze the high energy, closely spaced bunches from individual RF pulses. Neither a large solid angle nor momentum range is required so this allows characteristics that appear useful for other applications such as ion beam lithography. The spectrometer is a compact, double-focusing QBQ design whose symmetry allows the Quads to range between F or D with a correspondingly large range of magnifications, dispersion and resolving power. This flexibility insures the possibility of spatially separating all of the bunches along the focal plane with minimal transverse kicks and bending angle for differing input conditions. The symmetry of the system allows a simple geometric interpretationof the resolving power in terms of thin lenses and ray optics. We discuss the optics and the hardware that is proposed to measure emittance, energy, energy spread and bunch length for each bunch in an RF pulse train for small bunch separations. We also discuss how to use such measurements for feedback and feedforward control of these bunch characteristics as well as maintain their stability. 2 refs

  17. Femtosecond Time-resolved Optical Polarigraphy (FTOP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoshima, S.; Fujimoto, M.; Hosoda, M.; Tsuchiya, Y.

    2000-01-01

    A novel time-resolved imaging technique named FTOP (Femtosecond Time-resolved Optical Polarigraphy) for visualizing the ultrafast propagation dynamics of intense light pulses in a medium has been proposed and demonstrated. Femtosecond snapshot images can be created with a high spatial resolution by imaging only the polarization components of the probe pulse; these polarization components change due to the instantaneous birefringence induced by the pump pulse in the medium. Ultrafast temporal changes in the two-dimensional spatial distribution of the optical pulse intensity were clearly visualized in consecutive images by changing the delay between the pump and probe. We observe that several filaments appear and then come together before the vacuum focus due to nonlinear effects in air. We also prove that filamentation dynamics such as the formation position and the propagation behavior are complex and are strongly affected by the pump energy. The results collected clearly show that this method FTOP succeeds for the first time in directly visualizing the ultrafast dynamics of the self-modulated nonlinear propagation of light. (author)

  18. Healthcare Teams Neurodynamically Reorganize When Resolving Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Stevens

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on the microscale neural dynamics of social interactions has yet to be translated into improvements in the assembly, training and evaluation of teams. This is partially due to the scale of neural involvements in team activities, spanning the millisecond oscillations in individual brains to the minutes/hours performance behaviors of the team. We have used intermediate neurodynamic representations to show that healthcare teams enter persistent (50–100 s neurodynamic states when they encounter and resolve uncertainty while managing simulated patients. Each of the second symbols was developed situating the electroencephalogram (EEG power of each team member in the contexts of those of other team members and the task. These representations were acquired from EEG headsets with 19 recording electrodes for each of the 1–40 Hz frequencies. Estimates of the information in each symbol stream were calculated from a 60 s moving window of Shannon entropy that was updated each second, providing a quantitative neurodynamic history of the team’s performance. Neurodynamic organizations fluctuated with the task demands with increased organization (i.e., lower entropy occurring when the team needed to resolve uncertainty. These results show that intermediate neurodynamic representations can provide a quantitative bridge between the micro and macro scales of teamwork.

  19. Time Resolved Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Roquemore, A.L.; Hogan, J.; Wampler, W.R.

    2004-01-01

    Time-resolved measurements of deposition in current tokamaks are crucial to gain a predictive understanding of deposition with a view to mitigating tritium retention and deposition on diagnostic mirrors expected in next-step devices. Two quartz crystal microbalances have been installed on NSTX at a location 0.77m outside the last closed flux surface. This configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. The deposits were analyzed ex-situ and found to be dominantly carbon, oxygen, and deuterium. A rear facing quartz crystal recorded deposition of lower sticking probability molecules at 10% of the rate of the front facing one. Time resolved measurements over a 4-week period with 497 discharges, recorded 29.2 (micro)g/cm 2 of deposition, however surprisingly, 15.9 (micro)g/cm 2 of material loss occurred at 7 discharges. The net deposited mass of 13.3 (micro)g/cm 2 matched the mass of 13.5 (micro)g/cm 2 measured independently by ion beam analysis. Monte Carlo modeling suggests that transient processes are likely to dominate the deposition

  20. Energy barriers in patterned media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    Due to the fact that thermal activation aids in overcoming the energy barrier, the required field for reversal varies from instance to instance for the same island. This thermally induced switching field distribution can be used to determine the difference in energy barrier of magneticallyweak and

  1. Simulating complex noise barrier reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Lutgendorf, D.; Roo, F. de

    2011-01-01

    Within the EU FP7 QUIESST project, QUIeting the Environment for a Sustainable Surface Transport, a test method is being developed for the reflectivity of noise barriers. The method needs to account for a complex shape of barriers and the use of various types of absorbing materials. The performance

  2. BARRIERS OF STRATEGIC ALLIANCES ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav M. Sannikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available General barriers of organization of different types of strategic alliances have beenconsidered in the article. There are several recommendations for overcoming themin cases of international alliances, and in case of work in one state. The article also identified goals and tasks of single coordination center of alliance to overcome organization barriers.

  3. Analysis of interactions among the barriers to JIT production: interpretive structural modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, J. R.; Mantha, S. S.; Rane, S. B.

    2015-09-01

    `Survival of the fittest' is the reality in modern global competition. Organizations around the globe are adopting or willing to embrace just-in-time (JIT) production to reinforce the competitiveness. Even though JIT is the most powerful inventory management methodologies it is not free from barriers. Barriers derail the implementation of JIT production system. One of the most significant tasks of top management is to identify and understand the relationship between the barriers to JIT production for alleviating its bad effects. The aims of this paper are to study the barriers hampering the implementation of successful JIT production and analysing the interactions among the barriers using interpretive structural modelling technique. Twelve barriers have been identified after reviewing literature. This paper offers a roadmap for preparing an action plan to tackle the barriers in successful implementation of JIT production.

  4. Barriers to return to work after burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselman, Peter C; Askay, Shelley Wiechman; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Lezotte, Dennis C; Holavanahalli, Radha K; Magyar-Russell, Gina; Fauerbach, James A; Engrav, Loren H

    2007-12-01

    To identify barriers to return to work after burn injury as identified by the patient. A cohort study with telephone interview up to 1 year. Hospital-based burn centers at 3 national sites. Hospitalized patients (N=154) meeting the American Burn Association criteria for major burn injury, employed at least 20 hours a week at the time of injury, and with access to a telephone after discharge. Patients were contacted via telephone every 2 weeks up to 4 months, then monthly up to 1 year after discharge. A return to work survey was used to identify barriers that prevented patients from returning to work. A graphic rating scale determined the impact of each barrier. By 1 year, 79.7% of patients returned to work. Physical and wound issues were barriers early after discharge. Although physical abilities continued to be a significant barrier up to 1 year, working conditions (temperature, humidity, safety) and psychosocial factors (nightmares, flashbacks, appearance concerns) became important issues in those with long-term disability. The majority of patients return to work after a burn injury. Although physical and work conditions are important barriers, psychosocial issues need to be evaluated and treated to optimize return to work.

  5. Language Profiles and Literacy Outcomes of Children with Resolving, Emerging, or Persisting Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowling, Margaret J.; Duff, Fiona J.; Nash, Hannah M.; Hulme, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with language impairment (LI) show heterogeneity in development. We tracked children from pre-school to middle childhood to characterize three developmental trajectories: resolving, persisting and emerging LI. Methods: We analyzed data from children identified as having preschool LI, or being at family risk of dyslexia,…

  6. Direct access tariffs and barriers to choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levson, D.

    1999-01-01

    The current situation of the power market in Alberta was reviewed. Based on this review is was concluded that the province is a long way from being a competitive, liquid power market. Further, it was predicted that unless large power purchasers get actively involved in managing their options, identify realistic and competitive supply options and actively campaign for the removal of barriers to choice, they will experience significant cost increases in the year 2001 and beyond, due in large measure to the market power exercised by the four major utilities (TAU, EPCOR, APL and Powerex). Barriers to new supply such as the high cost of standby, uncertainties about transmission and natural gas prices, the delays to cogeneration caused by low oil prices, and the design of direct access tariffs by utilities, were also explored. The cumulative contribution of these factors to uncertainties in pool price, fixed price and transmission and distribution costs were outlined

  7. Investing in Energy Efficiency. Removing the Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Investing in improving energy efficiency has the clear advantages of reducing energy costs, improving security of supply and mitigating the environmental impacts of energy use. And still, many viable opportunities for higher energy efficiency are not tapped because of the existence of numerous barriers to such investments. These lost opportunities imply costs to the individual energy consumers and to the society as a whole and they are particularly important in economies in transition. This report identifies various types of barriers for making energy efficiency investments (be they of legal, administrative, institutional or financial nature), mainly in buildings, district heating and efficient lighting. The role of various bodies and organisations for the facilitation of energy efficiency investments is analysed, from public authorities and regulators to banks and international financing institutions

  8. BARRIERS TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN THE ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Matias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The population awareness of the physical exercise’s benefits is widely diffused. These benefits are particularly important in the elderly because, with increasing age, there is a decline of the musculoskeletal system and the maximum oxygen consumption which reduces the functional fitness of the elderly and can often lead to a significant decline in the quality of life. Despite this awareness, a large part of the population remains sedentary. It is important to know what the barriers are, so they can be circumvented in order to increase the engagement of the elderly population in existing physical activity programs.Objectives: This study aims to identify some of the personal, behavioral and environmental barriers that prevent older adults to be physically active.

  9. Organization and staffing barriers to parent involvement in teen pregnancy prevention programs: challenges for community partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Janet E; Montgomery, Susanne; Lee, Jerry W

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate parent involvement in a Southern California teen pregnancy prevention community partnership project. Researchers expected to find parent and family-related participation barriers similar to those described in the family support literature, which they could address with program modifications. Three phases of qualitative evaluation occurred: key informant interviews and focus groups with youth and parents; focus groups with service providers; and key informant interviews with service providers, their supervisor, and the collaborative coordinator. Theory-based, open-ended question guides directed the interviews and focus groups, and transcriptions were coded and themed using grounded theory methods. Parents and youth sought ways to improve connections and communication with each other, and parents welcomed parenting education from the project. Unexpectedly, the major obstacles to parent participation identified in this project were largely organizational, and included the assignment of parent involvement tasks to agencies lacking capacities to work effectively with parents, inadequate administrative support for staff, and the absence of an effective system for communicating concerns and resolving conflicts among collaborative partners. Youth serving agencies may not be the best partners to implement effective parent involvement or family support interventions. Collaborative leadership must identify appropriate partners, engender their cooperation, and support their staff to further the overall goals of the collaborative.

  10. Load management for refrigeration systems: Potentials and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grein, Arne; Pehnt, Martin

    2011-01-01

    As a strategy to deal with the increasing intermittent input of renewable energy sources in Germany, the adaptation of power consumption is complementary to power-plant regulation, grid expansion and physical energy storage. One demand sector that promises strong returns for load management efforts is cooling and refrigeration. In these processes, thermal inertia provides a temporal buffer for shifting and adjusting the power consumption of cooling systems. We have conducted an empirical investigation to obtain a detailed and time-resolved bottom-up analysis of load management for refrigeration systems in the city of Mannheim, Germany. We have extrapolated our results to general conditions in Germany. Several barriers inhibit the rapid adoption of load management strategies for cooling systems, including informational barriers, strict compliance with legal cooling requirements, liability issues, lack of technical experience, an inadequate rate of return and organizational barriers. Small commercial applications of refrigeration in the food-retailing and cold storage in hotels and restaurants are particularly promising starting points for intelligent load management. When our results are applied to Germany, suitable sectors for load management have theoretical and achievable potential values of 4.2 and 2.8 GW, respectively, amounting to about 4-6% of the maximum power demand in Germany. - Highlights: → Potential and barriers for implementation of load shifting for refrigeration. → Empirical investigation for time-resolved bottom-up analysis in Mannheim, Germany. → Suitable sectors and further recommendations for introducing load management.→ Extrapolation of results from local to national level.

  11. Barriers to outdoor physical activity in wintertime among Somali youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Elizabeth; Holt, Christina; Kuhn, Celine; McAteer, Timothy; Askari, Isabella; O'Meara, Mary; Sharif, Abdimajid; Dexter, William

    2010-10-01

    To identify barriers to outdoor physical activity in winter among Somali youth in Maine. Despite the many proven health benefits of physical activity among children, such as cardiovascular fitness and health status as an adult, there has been a decrease in physical activity among children in recent years. Specifically, children who are of low socio-economic status or are from communities where many immigrants are at increased risk for developing obesity. Immigrants are also less likely to be physically active. There are many potential barriers to wintertime physical activity among Somali youth in Maine, such as lack of financial resources, transportation, proper winter clothing, and appropriate knowledge of winter safety, and language and cultural barriers. For females, different attire required for outdoor activity may be a barrier. Somali parents and children were recruited from Portland, Maine to participate in focus groups led by a trained facilitator with a Somali translator and cultural broker. Transcripts were coded using NVIVO software to identify barriers to physical activity among Somali youth outside in winter. Eight focus groups were conducted. Sixty-one Somali community members were recruited. Participants felt outdoor physical activity is important, but note that it is decreased in winter. Barriers to outdoor activity in winter cited by focus group participants were lack of resources, health concerns, gender barriers for females, and knowledge barriers. Concern over lack of supervision while children play outside was also cited. This study revealed many of the underlying beliefs, barriers and cultural issues that impact Somali families' intention to be active and ability to be active outdoors in winter. These findings can be used to generate research hypotheses and public health interventions regarding outdoor physical activity among Somali youth.

  12. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  13. Understanding barriers to implementation of an adaptive land management program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, S.K.; Morris, J.K.; Sanders, J.S.; Wiley, E.N.; Brooks, M.; Bennetts, R.E.; Percival, H.F.; Marynowski, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission manages over 650,000 ha, including 26 wildlife management and environmental areas. To improve management, they developed an objective-based vegetation management (OBVM) process that focuses on desired conditions of plant communities through an adaptive management framework. Our goals were to understand potential barriers to implementing OBVM and to recommend strategies to overcome barriers. A literature review identified 47 potential barriers in six categories to implementation of adaptive and ecosystem management: logistical, communication, attitudinal, institutional, conceptual, and educational. We explored these barriers through a bureau-wide survey of 90 staff involved in OBVM and personal interviews with area managers, scientists, and administrators. The survey incorporated an organizational culture assessment instrument to gauge how institutional factors might influence OBVM implementation. The survey response rate was 69%. Logistics and communications were the greatest barriers to implementing OBVM. Respondents perceived that the agency had inadequate resources for implementing OBVM and provided inadequate information. About one-third of the respondents believed OBVM would decrease their job flexibility and perceived greater institutional barriers to the approach. The 43% of respondents who believed they would have more responsibility under OBVM also had greater attitudinal barriers. A similar percentage of respondents reported OBVM would not give enough priority to wildlife. Staff believed that current agency culture was hierarchical but preferred a culture that would provide more flexibility for adaptive management and would foster learning from land management activities. In light of the barriers to OBVM, we recommend the following: (1) mitigation of logistical barriers by addressing real and perceived constraints of staff, funds, and other resources in a participatory manner; (2) mitigation of

  14. Nurse-patient communication barriers in Iranian nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoosheh, M; Zarkhah, S; Faghihzadeh, S; Vaismoradi, M

    2009-06-01

    Providing effective communication with patients is an essential aspect of nursing care. Understanding the barriers that inhibit nurse-patient communication can provide an opportunity to eliminate them. To investigate nurse-patient and environment-related communication barriers perceived by patients and nurses in Iranian nursing. A descriptive survey was carried out in three randomly selected educational hospitals in a large urban city in Iran. Data were collected by questionnaire; the study sample consisted of 61 patients and 75 nurses. Participants were asked to rate the importance of each communication barriers item. Finally, data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and to compare the perceived importance of communication barriers between patients and nurses, item means were calculated and the t-test for independent samples was applied. Similarities and differences between the two groups were identified. According to nurses' views, 'heavy nursing workload', 'hard nursing tasks' and 'lack of welfare facilities for nurses' were the main communication barriers. From patients' views, 'unfamiliarity of nurses with dialect', 'having contagious diseases' and 'sex differences between nurses and patients' were determined as the main communication barriers. The shared communication barriers were 'age difference', 'social class difference' and 'having contagious diseases'. It can be concluded that nursing managers and healthcare system planners should focus on eliminating or modifying the barriers stated by the two groups, particularly the shared ones. It is suggested that understanding the cultural aspects of nurse-patient communication barriers in various contexts can help nurses. The study relied on self-report by a limited sample of nurses and patients. The responses should now be tested by a larger sample and then by empirical research into actual practice in order to test whether the nurses' and patients' perceived ideas of communication barriers are

  15. Antimicrobial aspects of inflammatory resolution in the mucosa: A role for pro-resolving mediators1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Eric L.; Serhan, Charles N.; Colgan, Sean P.

    2011-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces function as selectively permeable barriers between the host and the outside world. Given their close proximity to microbial antigens, mucosal surfaces have evolved sophisticated mechanisms for maintaining homeostasis and preventing excessive acute inflammatory reactions. The role attributed to epithelial cells was historically limited to serving as a selective barrier, in recent years numerous findings implicate an active role of the epithelium with pro-resolving mediators in the maintenance of immunological equilibrium. In this brief review, we highlight new evidence that the epithelium actively contributes to coordination and resolution of inflammation, principally through the generation of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution lipid mediators. These autacoids, derived from ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, are implicated in the initiation, progression and resolution of acute inflammation and display specific, epithelial-directed actions focused on mucosalhomeostasis. We also summarize present knowledge of mechanisms for resolution via regulation of epithelial-derived antimicrobial peptides in response to pro-resolving lipid mediators. PMID:21934099

  16. Tunnelling without barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.

    1987-01-01

    The evolution in flat and curved space-time of quantum fields in theories with relative flat potential and its consequences are considered. It is shown that bubble nucleation, a quantum mechanical tunnelling process, may occur in flat space-time, having a bounce solution, even if V(phi) has no barrier. It is shown that bubble nucleation can also occur in curved space-time even though there is no bounce solution in the standard formalism for the bubble nucleation rate in curved space-time. Additionally, bubbles can nucleate during the slow rolling period on the potential in flat and curved space-time, in this case also there is no bounce solution. It is known in the new inflationary scenario that energy density perturbations caused by quantum fluctuations of the scalar field can satisfy the presently observed bounds on density perturbations. Bubble nucleation during the slow rolling period also gives rise to density perturbations. For a model potential density perturbations by bubbles are calculated at the horizon reentering. By applying the bound from the almost isotropic microwave black body radiation on these density perturbations, a constraint on the model potential is obtained. Finally, some further implications on the galaxy formation and applications in more realistic potential are discussed

  17. Development of engineered barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Kim, Seung Soo; Kang, Mu Ja

    1999-03-01

    Engineered barrier development was carried out into the three research fields : waste form, disposal container, and buffer. The waste form field dealt with long-term leaching tests with borosilicate waste glasses surrounded by compacted bentonite. The leach rate decreased with increasing time, and was higher for the waste specimen rich in U and Na. In the container field, preliminary concepts of disposal containers were recommended by conducting structural analysis, thermal analysis, and shielding analysis, and major properties of stainless steel, copper, and titanium as a container material were surveyed. The sensitization degrees of SUS 316 and316L were lower than those of SUS 304 and 304L, respectively. The crevice corrosion of sensitized stainless steel was sensitive to the content of salt. Researches into the buffer included establishment of its performance criteria followed by investigating major properties of buffer using potential material in Korea. Experiments were made for measuring hydraulic conductivities, swelling properties, mechanical properties, thermal conductivities, pore-water chemistry properties, and adsorption properties was also investigated. (author)

  18. Omnidirectional ventilated acoustic barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-long; Zhu, Yi-fan; Liang, Bin; Yang, Jing; Yang, Jun; Cheng, Jian-chun

    2017-11-01

    As an important problem in acoustics, sound insulation finds applications in a great variety of situations. In the existing schemes, however, there has always been a trade-off between the thinness of sound-insulating devices and their ventilating capabilities, limiting their potentials in the control of low-frequency sound in high ventilation environments. Here, we design and experimentally implement an omnidirectional acoustic barrier with a planar profile, subwavelength thickness ( 0.18 λ ), yet high ventilation. The proposed mechanism is based on the interference between the resonant scattering of discrete states and the background scattering of continuous states which induces a Fano-like asymmetric transmission profile. Benefitting from the binary-structured design of the coiled unit and hollow pipe, it maximally simplifies the design and fabrication while ensuring the ventilation for all the non-resonant units with open tubes. The simulated and measured results agree well, showing the effectiveness of our proposed mechanism to block low frequency sound coming from various directions while allowing 63% of the air flow to pass. We anticipate our design to open routes to design sound insulators and to enable applications in traditionally unattainable cases such as those calling for noise reduction and cooling simultaneously.

  19. Alternative geochemical barrier materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    Previous investigations of the effects of neutralization and reduction on uranium mill tailings pore fluids by the Technical Support Contractor indicated that arsenic, selenium, and molybdenum continue to remain in solution in all but reducing conditions. These hazardous constituents are present in groundwaters as oxyanions and, therefore, are not expected to be removed by adsorption into clays and most other soil constituents. It was decided to investigate the attenuation capacity of two commonly available crystalline iron oxides, taconite and scoria, and a zeolite, a network aluminosilicate with a cage structure. Columns of the candidate materials were exposed to solutions of individual constituents, including arsenic, molybdenum, selenium, and, uranium, and to the spiked tailings pore fluid from the Bodo Canyon disposal cell near Durango, Colorado. In addition to the single material columns, a homogeneous blend of the three materials and layers of the materials were exposed to spiked tailings pore fluids. The results of these experiments indicate that with the exception of molybdenum, the constituents of concern are attenuated by the taconite; however, they are not sufficiently attenuated to meet the groundwater protection standards applicable to the UMTRA Project. Therefore, the candidate barrier materials did not prove to be useful to the UMTRA Project for the cleanup of groundwaters

  20. Mobilitet, barrierer & muligheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mimi

    2011-01-01

    stereotypering. På den ene side peger udsagn fra de unge drenge på en oplevelse af at blive kriminaliseret i kraft af deres køn (det maskuline kombineret med at have en anden hudfarve). Og de unge piger oplever, at de udover at blive kategoriseret som ”indvandrere” også bliver kategoriseret som passive, umyndige...... som en vej ud af irakiske Kurdistan, men ikke tilbage til Danmark. Drengene fra familier med bedre økonomiske ressourcer giver udtryk for, ønske om at rejse til andre lande. På grund af begrænsede sproglige kompetencer oplever hovedparten af de unge (både i Danmark og i irakiske Kurdistan) barrierer i...... har planer for at flytte fra Kurdistan. De har dansk statsborgerskab, men de vil ikke tilbage til Danmark. I de fortællinger, som afhandlingen bygger på, er det tydeligt at samspillet mellem flere sociale dimensioner, spiller ind på de unges selvforståelse, tilhørsforhold, erfaringer og deres valg af...

  1. Development of engineered barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Kim, Seung Soo; Kang, Mu Ja

    1999-03-01

    Engineered barrier development was carried out into the three research fields : waste form, disposal container, and buffer. The waste form field dealt with long-term leaching tests with borosilicate waste glasses surrounded by compacted bentonite. The leach rate decreased with increasing time, and was higher for the waste specimen rich in U and Na. In the container field, preliminary concepts of disposal containers were recommended by conducting structural analysis, thermal analysis, and shielding analysis, and major properties of stainless steel, copper, and titanium as a container material were surveyed. The sensitization degrees of SUS 316 and 316L were lower than those of SUS 304 and 304L, respectively. The crevice corrosion of sensitized stainless steel was sensitive to the content of salt. Researches into the buffer included establishment of its performance criteria followed by investigating major properties of buffer using potential material in Korea. Experiments were made for measuring hydraulic conductivities, swelling properties, mechanical properties, thermal conductivities, pore-water chemistry properties, and adsorption properties was also investigated. (author)

  2. Barriers to the adoption of low carbon production: A multiple-case study of Chinese industrial firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study employs a multiple-case study method, identifies barriers to the adoption of low carbon production, and categorizes these barriers into four domains: structural, regulatory, cultural, and contextual. The two most frequently mentioned barriers were “lack of financial incentives to stimulate low carbon innovation” and “lack of a common definition of low carbon production”. The two least frequently mentioned barriers were “silos exist between planning and production” and “operational staff are often physically separated from planning staff, which isolates them from planning decisions”. Furthermore, contextual barriers were significantly related to structural and regulatory barriers, while regulatory barriers were significantly related to structural barriers. Larger firms tend to have a more structured organization and lower perceptions of the employment term barrier. However, larger structured organizations have been affected by a long history of a planning-oriented economy and hence tend to have inflexible hierarchical systems. In contrast, small firms have hierarchical systems with less effect on low carbon production than those of large enterprises. Another interesting trend is the direct size effect on cultural barriers, which is evident in a culture of risk aversion, as well as the lack of low carbon technology and the existence of silos between planning and production. - Highlights: • Barriers were categorized as structural, regulatory, cultural and contextual. • Contextual barriers were significantly related to structural and regulatory barriers. • Regulatory barriers were significantly related to structural barriers. • Firm size directly affected firm hierarchical systems and cultural barriers

  3. MENDING THE IN SITU MANIPULATION BARRIER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN, S.W.

    2006-02-06

    In early 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland and Fluor Hanford requested technical assistance from the DOE Headquarters EM-23 Technical Assistance Program to provide a team of technical experts to develop recommendations for mending the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) Barrier in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site in Washington State. To accommodate this request, EM-23 provided support to convene a group of technical experts from industry, a national laboratory, and a DOE site to participate in a 2 1/2-day workshop with the objective of identifying and recommending options to enhance the performance of the 100-D Area reactive barrier and of a planned extension to the northeast. This report provides written documentation of the team's findings and recommendations. In 1995, a plume of dissolved hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], which resulted from operation of the D/DR Reactors at the Hanford site, was discovered along the Columbia River shoreline and in the 100-D Area. Between 1999 and 2003, a reactive barrier using the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) technology, was installed a distance of 680 meters along the river to reduce the Cr(VI) in the groundwater. The ISRM technology creates a treatment zone within the aquifer by injection of sodium dithionite, a strong reducing agent that scavenges dissolved oxygen (DO) from the aquifer and reduces ferric iron [Fe(III)], related metals, and oxy-ions. The reduction of Fe(III) to ferrous [Fe(II)] iron provides the primary reduction capacity to reduce Cr(VI) to the +3 state, which is less mobile and less toxic. Bench-scale and field-scale treatability tests were initially conducted to demonstrate proof-of principle and to provide data for estimation of barrier longevity. These calculations estimated barrier longevity in excess of twenty years. However, several years after initial and secondary treatment, groundwater in a number of wells has been found to contain elevated chromium (Cr) concentrations

  4. Where Diffusion of Clean Technologies and Barriers to Innovation Clash: Application to the Global Diffusion of the Electrical Arc Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Moya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the role of barriers preventing the worldwide take-up of a clean technology: the electrical arc furnace. It also identifies which barriers affect a parameter that summarises the combined effect of all of them. The first step, determination of the combined effect of the barriers, is carried out using a novel approach to model the diffusion of innovations. This new approach is composed only by terms that account for the driver of innovations and the parameter that summarises the effect of barriers. The objective quantification of the effect of barriers in the diffusion of innovations opens up new opportunities for designing policies to overcome the barriers identified as the most relevant, for identifying the effect of existing policies, for relating innovation indicators with those barriers or for better incorporating the effect of barriers in bottom-up models that forecast the technological evolution of the economy.

  5. Barriers to adherence in adolescents and young adults with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2011-01-01

    Treatment adherence is crucial in patients with cystic fibrosis, but poor adherence is a problem, especially during adolescence. Identification of barriers to treatment adherence and a better understanding of how context shapes barriers is of great importance in the disease. Adolescent reports of...... of barriers to adherence have been studied, but studies of their parents' experience of such barriers have not yet been carried out. The aim of the present study was to explore barriers to treatment adherence identified by young patients with cystic fibrosis and by their parents....

  6. An Insight into Communication Barriers between Bank Managers and their Customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golen, Steven

    1987-01-01

    The study attempted to identify specific industry-related communication problems of bank managers. A questionnaire was completed by 193 managers identifying perceived communication barriers and relative importance of each. Resistance to change and tendency not to listen were considered serious barriers. (CH)

  7. Barriers to wheelchair use in the winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripat, Jacquie D; Brown, Cara L; Ethans, Karen D

    2015-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that challenges to community participation posed by winter weather are greater for individuals who use scooters, manual and power wheelchairs (wheeled mobility devices [WMDs]) than for the general ambulatory population, and to determine what WMD users identify as the most salient environmental barriers to community participation during the winter. Cross-sectional survey organized around 5 environmental domains: technological, natural, physical, social/attitudinal, and policy. Urban community in Canada. Convenience sample of WMD users or their proxy (N=99). Not applicable. Not applicable. Forty-two percent identified reduced outing frequency in winter months, associated with increased age (χ(3)=6.4, P=.04), lack of access to family/friends for transportation (χ(2)=8.1, P=.04), and primary type of WMD used in the winter (scooter χ(2)=8.8, P=.003). Most reported tires/casters becoming stuck in the snow (95%) or slipping on the ice (91%), difficulty ascending inclines/ramps (92%), and cold hands while using controls or pushing rims (85%); fewer identified frozen wheelchair/scooter batteries, seat cushions/backrests, or electronics. Sidewalks/roads were reported to be problematic by 99%. Eighty percent reported needing additional help in the winter. Limited community access in winter led to a sense of loneliness/isolation, and fear/anxiety related to safety. Respondents identified policies that limited participation during winter. People who use WMDs decrease their community participation in cold weather because of multiple environmental barriers. Clinicians, researchers, and policymakers can take a multidimensional approach to mitigate these barriers in order to enhance community participation by WMD users in winter. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A cross-cultural investigation into the dimensional structure and stability of the Barriers to Research and Utilization Scale (BARRIERS Scale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Brown, Ted; Costello, Shane

    2015-10-24

    It is important that scales exhibit strong measurement properties including those related to the investigation of issues that impact evidence-based practice. The validity of the Barriers to Research Utilization Scale (BARRIERS Scale) has recently been questioned in a systematic review. This study investigated the dimensional structure and stability of the 28 item BARRIERS Scale when completed by three groups of participants from three different cross-cultural environments. Data from the BARRIERS Scale completed by 696 occupational therapists from Australia (n = 137), Taiwan (n = 413), and the United Kingdom (n = 144) were analysed using principal components analysis, followed by Procrustes Transformation. Poorly fitting items were identified by low communalities, cross-loading, and theoretically inconsistent primary loadings, and were systematically removed until good fit was achieved. The cross-cultural stability of the component structure of the BARRIERS Scale was examined. A four component, 19 item version of the BARRIERS Scale emerged that demonstrated an improved dimensional fit and stability across the three participant groups. The resulting four components were consistent with the BARRIERS Scale as originally conceptualised. Findings from the study suggest that the four component, 19 item version of the BARRIERS Scale is a robust and valid measure for identifying barriers to research utilization for occupational therapists in paediatric health care settings across Australia, United Kingdom, and Taiwan. The four component 19 item version of the BARRIERS Scale exhibited good dimensional structure, internal consistency, and stability.

  9. Time-resolved suprathermal x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.H.Y.; Rosen, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    Temporally resolved x-ray spectra in the range of 1 to 20 keV have been obtained from gold disk targets irradiated by 1.06 μm laser pulses from the Argus facility. The x-ray streak camera used for the measurement has been calibrated for streak speed and dynamic range by using an air-gap Fabry-Perot etalon, and the instrument response has been calibrated using a multi-range monoenergetic x-ray source. The experimental results indicate that we are able to observe the ''hot'' x-ray temperature evolve in time and that the experimentally observed values can be qualitatively predicted by LASNEX code computations when the inhibited transport model is used

  10. Time-resolved measurements of luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, Bradley B. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, 408 Mechanical Engineering Office Building, Spence Street, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); McShane, Michael J., E-mail: mcshane@tamu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, 408 Mechanical Engineering Office Building, Spence Street, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, 408 Mechanical Engineering Office Building, Spence Street, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Luminescence sensing and imaging has become more widespread in recent years in a variety of industries including the biomedical and environmental fields. Measurements of luminescence lifetime hold inherent advantages over intensity-based response measurements, and advances in both technology and methods have enabled their use in a broader spectrum of applications including real-time medical diagnostics. This review will focus on recent advances in analytical methods, particularly calculation techniques, including time- and frequency-domain lifetime approaches as well as other time-resolved measurements of luminescence. -- Highlights: • Developments in technology have led to widespread use of luminescence lifetime. • Growing interest for sensing and imaging applications. • Recent advances in approaches to lifetime calculations are reviewed. • Advantages and disadvantages of various methods are weighed. • Other methods for measurement of luminescence lifetime also described.

  11. Time-resolved measurements of luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, Bradley B.; McShane, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Luminescence sensing and imaging has become more widespread in recent years in a variety of industries including the biomedical and environmental fields. Measurements of luminescence lifetime hold inherent advantages over intensity-based response measurements, and advances in both technology and methods have enabled their use in a broader spectrum of applications including real-time medical diagnostics. This review will focus on recent advances in analytical methods, particularly calculation techniques, including time- and frequency-domain lifetime approaches as well as other time-resolved measurements of luminescence. -- Highlights: • Developments in technology have led to widespread use of luminescence lifetime. • Growing interest for sensing and imaging applications. • Recent advances in approaches to lifetime calculations are reviewed. • Advantages and disadvantages of various methods are weighed. • Other methods for measurement of luminescence lifetime also described

  12. Radiofrequency encoded angular-resolved light scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buckley, Brandon W.; Akbari, Najva; Diebold, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    The sensitive, specific, and label-free classification of microscopic cells and organisms is one of the outstanding problems in biology. Today, instruments such as the flow cytometer use a combination of light scatter measurements at two distinct angles to infer the size and internal complexity...... of cells at rates of more than 10,000 per second. However, by examining the entire angular light scattering spectrum it is possible to classify cells with higher resolution and specificity. Current approaches to performing these angular spectrum measurements all have significant throughput limitations...... Encoded Angular-resolved Light Scattering (REALS), this technique multiplexes angular light scattering in the radiofrequency domain, such that a single photodetector captures the entire scattering spectrum from a particle over approximately 100 discrete incident angles on a single shot basis. As a proof...

  13. Time - resolved thermography at Tokamak T-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunow, C.; Guenther, K.; Lingertat, J.; Chicherov, V.M.; Evstigneev, S.A.; Zvonkov, S.N.

    1987-01-01

    Thermographic experiments were performed at T-10 tokamak to investigate the thermic coupling of plasma and the limiter. The limiter is an internal equipment of the vacuum vessel of tokamak-type fusion devices and the interaction of plasma with limiter results a high thermal load of limiter for short time. In according to improve the limiter design the temperature distribution on the limiter surface was measured by a time-resolved thermographic method. Typical isotherms and temperature increment curves are presented. This measurement can be used as a systematic plasma diagnostic method because the limiter is installed in the tokamak whereas special additional probes often disturb the plasma discharge. (D.Gy.) 3 refs.; 7 figs

  14. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    Measurements of the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the S(1s) core level of a c(2 x 2)S/Ni(001) are analyzed to determine the spacing between the S overlayer and the first and second Ni layers. ARPEFS is a type of photoelectron diffraction measurement in which the photoelectron kinetic energy is swept typically from 100 to 600 eV. By using this wide range of intermediate energies we add high precision and theoretical simplification to the advantages of the photoelectron diffraction technique for determining surface structures. We report developments in the theory of photoelectron scattering in the intermediate energy range, measurement of the experimental photoemission spectra, their reduction to ARPEFS, and the surface structure determination from the ARPEFS by combined Fourier and multiple-scattering analyses. 202 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Tritium/hydrogen barrier development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Simonen, E.P.; Kalinen, G.; Terlain, A.

    1994-06-01

    A review of hydrogen permeation barriers that can be applied to structural metals used in fusion power plants is presented. Both implanted and chemically available hydrogen isotopes must be controlled in fusion plants. The need for permeation barriers appears strongest in Li17-Pb blanket designs, although barriers also appear necessary for other blanket and coolant systems. Barriers that provide greater than a 1000 fold reduction in the permeation of structural metals are desired. In laboratory experiments, aluminide and titanium ceramic coatings provide permeation reduction factors, PRFS, from 1000 to over 100,000 with a wide range of scatter. The rate-controlling mechanism for hydrogen permeation through these barriers may be related to the number and type of defects in the barriers. Although these barriers appear robust and resistant to liquid metal corrosion, irradiation tests which simulate blanket environments result in very low PRFs in comparison to laboratory experiments, i.e., <150. It is anticipated from fundamental research activities that the REID enhancement of hydrogen diffusion in oxides may contribute to the lower permeation reduction factors during in-reactor experiments

  16. Spectrally Resolved and Functional Super-resolution Microscopy via Ultrahigh-Throughput Single-Molecule Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rui; Moon, Seonah; Kenny, Samuel J; Xu, Ke

    2018-03-20

    As an elegant integration of the spatial and temporal dimensions of single-molecule fluorescence, single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) overcomes the diffraction-limited resolution barrier of optical microscopy by localizing single molecules that stochastically switch between fluorescent and dark states over time. While this type of super-resolution microscopy (SRM) technique readily achieves remarkable spatial resolutions of ∼10 nm, it typically provides no spectral information. Meanwhile, current scanning-based single-location approaches for mapping the positions and spectra of single molecules are limited by low throughput and are difficult to apply to densely labeled (bio)samples. In this Account, we summarize the rationale, design, and results of our recent efforts toward the integration of the spectral dimension of single-molecule fluorescence with SMLM to achieve spectrally resolved SMLM (SR-SMLM) and functional SRM ( f-SRM). By developing a wide-field scheme for spectral measurement and implementing single-molecule fluorescence on-off switching typical of SMLM, we first showed that in densely labeled (bio)samples it is possible to record the fluorescence spectra and positions of millions of single molecules synchronously within minutes, giving rise to ultrahigh-throughput single-molecule spectroscopy and SR-SMLM. This allowed us to first show statistically that for many dyes, single molecules of the same species exhibit near identical emission in fixed cells. This narrow distribution of emission wavelengths, which contrasts markedly with previous results at solid surfaces, allowed us to unambiguously identify single molecules of spectrally similar dyes. Crosstalk-free, multiplexed SRM was thus achieved for four dyes that were merely 10 nm apart in emission spectrum, with the three-dimensional SRM images of all four dyes being automatically aligned within one image channel. The ability to incorporate single-molecule fluorescence measurement with

  17. Barriers to Business Model Innovation in Swedish Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Sivertsson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Swedish agricultural companies, especially small farms, are struggling to be profitable in difficult economic times. It is a challenge for Swedish farmers to compete with imported products on prices. The agricultural industry, however, supports the view that through business model innovation, farms can increase their competitive advantage. This paper identifies and describes some of the barriers Swedish small farms encounter when they consider business model innovation. A qualitative approach is used in the study. Agriculture business consultants were interviewed. In a focus group led by the researchers, farmers discussed business model innovation, including the exogenous and endogenous barriers to such innovation. The paper concludes many barriers exist when farmers consider innovation of agricultural business models. Some barriers are caused by human factors, such as individuals’ attitudes, histories, and traditions. Other barriers are more contextual in nature and relate to a particular industry or company setting. Still other barriers, such as government regulations, value chain position, and weather, are more abstract. All barriers, however, merit attention when Swedish agricultural companies develop new business models.

  18. Understanding barriers to glycaemic control from the patient's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janes R

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To better understand barriers to glycaemic control from the patient's perspective. METHODS: An interpretative phenomenological approach was used to study the experiences of 15 adults with Type 2 diabetes. Participants each gave a semi-structured interview of their experiences of living with diabetes. Interviews were transcribed, and themes extracted and organised using a patientcentred framework. FINDINGS: Participants' stories confirmed many of the barriers in the literature, particularly those related to context, such as family, finances, work. Barriers also related to negative emotional reactions to diabetes: fear of new events (diagnosis, starting pills/insulin; guilt about getting diabetes and not controlling it; and shame about having diabetes. Barriers also related to unscientific beliefs and personal beliefs. There were additional barriers related to poor clinician-patient relationships. Overall, participants had a poor understanding of diabetes, and complained that their clinician simply 'told them what to do'. CONCLUSION: Using a patient-centred approach, this study identified many barriers to glycaemic control. We suggest that a key barrier is clinician ignorance of their patients' fears, beliefs, expectations, context; of what constitutes a positive therapeutic relationship; and of the limitations of a biomedical approach to patient non-adherence. Faced with both a worsening diabetes epidemic and increasing health care workforce shortages, clinicians urgently need to understand that it is they, not their patients, who must change their approach if diabetes care is to be improved.

  19. Barriers to Electronic Health Record Adoption: a Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Clemens Scott; Kristof, Caitlin; Jones, Beau; Mitchell, Erica; Martinez, Angelica

    2016-12-01

    Federal efforts and local initiatives to increase adoption and use of electronic health records (EHRs) continue, particularly since the enactment of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act. Roughly one in four hospitals not adopted even a basic EHR system. A review of the barriers may help in understanding the factors deterring certain healthcare organizations from implementation. We wanted to assemble an updated and comprehensive list of adoption barriers of EHR systems in the United States. Authors searched CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar, and accepted only articles relevant to our primary objective. Reviewers independently assessed the works highlighted by our search and selected several for review. Through multiple consensus meetings, authors tapered articles to a final selection most germane to the topic (n = 27). Each article was thoroughly examined by multiple authors in order to achieve greater validity. Authors identified 39 barriers to EHR adoption within the literature selected for the review. These barriers appeared 125 times in the literature; the most frequently mentioned barriers were regarding cost, technical concerns, technical support, and resistance to change. Despite federal and local incentives, the initial cost of adopting an EHR is a common existing barrier. The other most commonly mentioned barriers include technical support, technical concerns, and maintenance/ongoing costs. Policy makers should consider incentives that continue to reduce implementation cost, possibly aimed more directly at organizations that are known to have lower adoption rates, such as small hospitals in rural areas.

  20. Penetration through the Skin Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Benfeldt, Eva; Holmgaard, Rikke

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a strong and flexible organ with barrier properties essential for maintaining homeostasis and thereby human life. Characterizing this barrier is the ability to prevent some chemicals from crossing the barrier while allowing others, including medicinal products, to pass at varying rates......-through diffusion cells) as well as in vivo methods (microdialysis and microperfusion). Then follows a discussion with examples of how different characteristics of the skin (age, site and integrity) and of the penetrants (size, solubility, ionization, logPow and vehicles) affect the kinetics of percutaneous...

  1. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  2. Big Data as Information Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ya. Tsvetkov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article covers analysis of ‘Big Data’ which has been discussed over last 10 years. The reasons and factors for the issue are revealed. It has proved that the factors creating ‘Big Data’ issue has existed for quite a long time, and from time to time, would cause the informational barriers. Such barriers were successfully overcome through the science and technologies. The conducted analysis refers the “Big Data” issue to a form of informative barrier. This issue may be solved correctly and encourages development of scientific and calculating methods.

  3. Error-measure for anisotropic grid-adaptation in turbulence-resolving simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toosi, Siavash; Larsson, Johan

    2015-11-01

    Grid-adaptation requires an error-measure that identifies where the grid should be refined. In the case of turbulence-resolving simulations (DES, LES, DNS), a simple error-measure is the small-scale resolved energy, which scales with both the modeled subgrid-stresses and the numerical truncation errors in many situations. Since this is a scalar measure, it does not carry any information on the anisotropy of the optimal grid-refinement. The purpose of this work is to introduce a new error-measure for turbulence-resolving simulations that is capable of predicting nearly-optimal anisotropic grids. Turbulent channel flow at Reτ ~ 300 is used to assess the performance of the proposed error-measure. The formulation is geometrically general, applicable to any type of unstructured grid.

  4. Crossing the Barriers: An Analysis of Land Access Barriers to Geothermal Development and Potential Improvement Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Developers have identified many non-technical barriers to geothermal power development, including access to land. Activities required for accessing land, such as environmental review and private and public leasing can take a considerable amount of time and can delay or prevent project development. This paper discusses the impacts to available geothermal resources and deployment caused by land access challenges, including tribal and cultural resources, environmentally sensitive areas, biological resources, land ownership, federal and state lease queues, and proximity to military installations. In this analysis, we identified challenges that have the potential to prevent development of identified and undiscovered hydrothermal geothermal resources. We found that an estimated 400 MW of identified geothermal resource potential and 4,000 MW of undiscovered geothermal resource potential were either unallowed for development or contained one or more significant barriers that could prevent development at the site. Potential improvement scenarios that could be employed to overcome these barriers include (1) providing continuous funding to the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) for processing geothermal leases and permit applications and (2) the creation of advanced environmental mitigation measures. The model results forecast that continuous funding to the USFS could result in deployment of an additional 80 MW of geothermal capacity by 2030 and 124 MW of geothermal capacity by 2050 when compared to the business-as-usual scenario. The creation of advanced environmental mitigation measures coupled with continuous funding to the USFS could result in deployment of an additional 97 MW of geothermal capacity by 2030 and 152 MW of geothermal capacity by 2050 when compared to the business-as-usual scenario. The small impact on potential deployment in these improvement scenarios suggests that these 4,400 MW have other barriers to development in addition to land access. In other words, simply

  5. Polymers for subterranean containment barriers for underground storage tanks (USTs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.H.; Colombo, P.; Clinton, J.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) set up the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration Program (USTID) to demonstrate technologies for the retrieval and treatment of tank waste, and closure of underground storage tanks (USTs). There are more than 250 underground storage tanks throughout the DOE complex. These tanks contain a wide variety of wastes including high level, low level, transuranic, mixed and hazardous wastes. Many of the tanks have performed beyond the designed lifetime resulting in leakage and contamination of the local geologic media and groundwater. To mitigate this problem it has been proposed that an interim subterranean containment barrier be placed around the tanks. This would minimize or prevent future contamination of soil and groundwater in the event that further tank leakages occur before or during remediation. Use of interim subterranean barriers can also provide sufficient time to evaluate and select appropriate remediation alternatives. The DOE Hanford site was chosen as the demonstration site for containment barrier technologies. A panel of experts for the USTID was convened in February, 1992, to identify technologies for placement of subterranean barriers. The selection was based on the ability of candidate grouts to withstand high radiation doses, high temperatures and aggressive tank waste leachates. The group identified and ranked nine grouting technologies that have potential to place vertical barriers and five for horizontal barriers around the tank. The panel also endorsed placement technologies that require minimal excavation of soil surrounding the tanks

  6. Perceived barriers to online education by radiologic science educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Nina K

    2014-01-01

    Radiologic science programs continue to adopt the use of blended online education in their curricula, with an increase in the use of online courses since 2009. However, perceived barriers to the use of online education formats persist in the radiologic science education community. An electronic survey was conducted to explore the current status of online education in the radiologic sciences and to identify barriers to providing online courses. A random sample of 373 educators from radiography, radiation therapy, and nuclear medicine technology educational programs accredited by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology and Joint Review Committee on Educational Programs in Nuclear Medicine Technology was chosen to participate in this study. A qualitative analysis of self-identified barriers to online teaching was conducted. Three common themes emerged: information technology (IT) training and support barriers, student-related barriers, and institutional barriers. Online education is not prevalent in the radiologic sciences, in part because of the need for the clinical application of radiologic science course content, but online course activity has increased substantially in radiologic science education, and blended or hybrid course designs can effectively provide opportunities for student-centered learning. Further development is needed to increase faculty IT self-efficacy and to educate faculty regarding pedagogical methods appropriate for online course delivery. To create an excellent online learning environment, educators must move beyond technology issues and focus on providing quality educational experiences for students.

  7. Motivators and barriers for paediatricians discharging patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbitt, Erin; Kunin, Marina; Gafforini, Sarah; Freed, Gary L

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify motivators and barriers that paediatricians face when discharging patients from outpatient specialty care. A questionnaire was administered to outpatient care paediatricians in Victoria working in one of five speciality public hospital clinics. Questions focused on how important various motivators and barriers were in respondents' decision to discharge a patient from their clinic. Nearly all (91%, n=74) paediatricians invited to participate provided responses. The factor influencing the greatest proportion of paediatricians in their decision to discharge patients back to primary care was the potential that patients may not receive the required care from a GP. The next most highly rated barrier was that it is too complicated to arrange discharge; rated as a very important influence by one-third of paediatricians (33%, n=24). Improvements to the discharge process may encourage more paediatricians to discharge patients back to their GP, therefore freeing up appointment slots. This in turn could reduce waiting times for paediatric outpatient clinics in Victoria. The concern from paediatricians that patients may not receive the required care from a GP warrants attention and should be further investigated.

  8. Barriers to green supply chain management in the automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cristina da Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study identified the barriers to and analyzed their degree of influence on Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM from the perspective of a first tier supplier in the Brazilian automotive industry. There are 43 barriers in the literature of which 13 were validated: support and involvement (five, operational performance (three, economic performance (two, environmental performance (two, and knowledge and information (one. The validation occurred through the perception of technical and academic specialists familiar with environmental management and supply chains in several sectors. The hierarchy of barriers priorities was obtained through the application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, with decision makers representing an industry in the automotive sector. The research showed that the cost implications represent the most influential barrier to GCSV, from the perspective of a first tier supplier in the sector.

  9. Economic evaluation of closure cap barrier materials study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, M.G.; Bhutani, J.S.; Mead, S.M.

    1993-09-01

    Volume II of the Economic Evaluation of the Closure Cap Barrier Materials, Revision I contains detailed cost estimates for closure cap barrier materials. The cost estimates incorporate the life cycle costs for a generic hazardous waste seepage basin closure cap under the RCRA Post Closure Period of thirty years. The economic evaluation assessed six barrier material categories. Each of these categories consists of several composite cover system configurations, which were used to develop individual cost estimates. The information contained in this report is not intended to be used as a cost estimating manual. This information provides the decision makers with the ability to screen barrier materials, cover system configurations, and identify cost-effective materials for further consideration.

  10. The Significance of Barriers to Entry in the Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard de Valence

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research looks at the significance of barriers that firms considering entry into the construction industry might face. Drawing on the microeconomic characteristics of imperfectly competitive and oligopolistic markets the analysis finds that there are a dozen barriers to entry that affect the industry, but their significance depends on the product type. The discussion covers the question of product homogeneity in construction and evidence for the existence of barriers to entry in concentration levels. Barriers to entry specific to construction are then identified, which leads to an analysis of how they operate and their significance (high, medium or low in different market types, thus increasing our understanding of construction industry dynamics.

  11. Trends in drug delivery through tissue barriers containing tight junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscheik, Christian; Blasig, Ingolf E; Winkler, Lars

    2013-04-01

    A limitation in the uptake of many drugs is the restricted permeation through tissue barriers. There are two general ways to cross barriers formed by cell layers: by transcytosis or by diffusion through the intercellular space. In the latter, tight junctions (TJs) play the decisive role in the regulation of the barrier permeability. Thus, transient modulation of TJs is a potent strategy to improve drug delivery. There have been extensive studies on surfactant-like absorption enhancers. One of the most effective enhancers found is sodium caprate. However, this modulates TJs in an unspecific fashion. A novel approach would be the specific modulation of TJ-associated marvel proteins and claudins, which are the main structural components of the TJs. Recent studies have identified synthetic peptidomimetics and RNA interference techniques to downregulate the expression of targeted TJ proteins. This review summarizes current progress and discusses the impact on TJs' barrier function.

  12. Economic evaluation of closure cap barrier materials study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrato, M.G.; Bhutani, J.S.; Mead, S.M.

    1993-09-01

    Volume II of the Economic Evaluation of the Closure Cap Barrier Materials, Revision I contains detailed cost estimates for closure cap barrier materials. The cost estimates incorporate the life cycle costs for a generic hazardous waste seepage basin closure cap under the RCRA Post Closure Period of thirty years. The economic evaluation assessed six barrier material categories. Each of these categories consists of several composite cover system configurations, which were used to develop individual cost estimates. The information contained in this report is not intended to be used as a cost estimating manual. This information provides the decision makers with the ability to screen barrier materials, cover system configurations, and identify cost-effective materials for further consideration

  13. Barriers to Medical Error Reporting for Physicians and Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydemir, Dilek; Seren Intepeler, Seyda; Mert, Hatice

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine what barriers to error reporting exist for physicians and nurses. The study, of descriptive qualitative design, was conducted with physicians and nurses working at a training and research hospital. In-depth interviews were held with eight physicians and 15 nurses, a total of 23 participants. Physicians and nurses do not choose to report medical errors that they experience or witness. When barriers to error reporting were examined, it was seen that there were four main themes involved: fear, the attitude of administration, barriers related to the system, and the employees' perceptions of error. It is important in terms of preventing medical errors to identify the barriers that keep physicians and nurses from reporting errors.

  14. ANALYSIS OF FLEXIBLE BARRIERS USED AS SAFETY PROTECTION IN WOODWORKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pavlovic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Machine tools use physical barriers, made by flexible thermoplastic materials, to protect the environment and the operators against the projections of wood chips and parts of cutting tools. These barriers constitute a partial closure and allow the passage of the workpiece, being simultaneously able to contain sharp fragments projected at high speed. The present research was conducted with the aim to evaluate the real effectiveness of these barriers, to investigate their dynamic behaviour by numerical simulations. Results showed that these barriers, if properly considered, could retain heavier masses and higher speeds. The research also allowed, in fact, to investigate the influence of several factors in design, selection and use, as material, shape, position, assemblages and many others, highlighting weaknesses and identifying possible measures to increase its effectiveness.

  15. CAPILLARY BARRIERS IN UNSATURATED FRACTURED ROCKS OF YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.S.; Zhang, W.; Pan, L.; Hinds, J.; Bodvarsson, G.

    2000-01-01

    This work presents modeling studies investigating the effects of capillary barriers on fluid-flow and tracer-transport processes in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a potential site for storing high-level radioactive waste. These studies are designed to identify factors controlling the formation of capillary barriers and to estimate their effects on the extent of possible large-scale lateral flow in unsaturated fracture rocks. The modeling approach is based on a continuum formulation of coupled multiphase fluid and tracer transport through fractured porous rock. Flow processes in fractured porous rock are described using a dual-continuum concept. In addition, approximate analytical solutions are developed and used for assessing capillary-barrier effects in fractured rocks. This study indicates that under the current hydrogeologic conceptualization of Yucca Mountain, strong capillary-barrier effects exist for significantly diverting moisture flow

  16. Barriers in green lean six sigma product development process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Luthra, Sunil; Govindan, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    In today’s competitive globalised business environment, production cost cutting is a primary issue before operation managers. As a research area, green lean six sigma (GLS) is proposed to have strategic importance in product development towards cutting costs, contributing to optimisation...... experts’ opinions towards developing a hierarchical model structuring these barriers. Twenty-one barriers have been identified and sorted from the review of literature and were then validated through discussions with experts. Relationships (contextual in nature) among these barriers have been realised...... during a brainstorming session. An interpretive structural modelling (ISM) technique has been utilised for developing a hierarchical model of barriers in implementing the GLSPD process in the automobile sector of India. A nine-level structural model has been deduced after application of the ISM technique...

  17. Fusion barrier characteristics of actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, H. C.; Sridhar, K. N.

    2018-03-01

    We have studied fusion barrier characteristics of actinide compound nuclei with atomic number range 89 ≤ Z ≤ 103 for all projectile target combinations. After the calculation of fusion barrier heights and positions, we have searched for their parameterization. We have achieved the empirical formula for fusion barrier heights (VB), positions (RB), curvature of the inverted parabola (ħω) of actinide compound nuclei with atomic number range 89 ≤ Z ≤ 103 for all projectile target combinations (6 projectile target combinations. The values produced by the present formula are also compared with experiments. The present pocket formula produces fusion barrier characteristics of actinides with the simple inputs of mass number (A) and atomic number (Z) of projectile-targets.

  18. Transport barrier in Helical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Katsumi

    1998-01-01

    Experiments on the transport barrier in Helical plasmas are reviewed. There are two mechanisms of transport improvement, that results in the formation of the transport barrier. One is the improvement of neoclassical transport by reducing the ripple loss with radial electric field, which exist only in helical plasma. The other is the improvement of anomalous transport due to the suppression of fluctuations associated with a radial electric field shear both in tokamak and helical plasma. The formation of the transport barrier can be triggered by the radial electric field shear associated with the transition of the radial electric field (L/H transition or ion-electron root transition) or the peaked density or the optimization of magnetic field shear. The mechanisms of transport barrier formation are also discussed. (author). 60 refs

  19. Coastal Structures and Barriers 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset is a compilation of the UCSC Sand Retention Structures, MC Barriers, and USACE Coastal Structures. UCSC Sand Retention Structures originate from a...

  20. Engineered barriers: current status 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, A.; Marsh, G.B.

    1989-06-01

    This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain substantially the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg 137 Cs), since they can provide a measure of containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author)

  1. Numerical simulation of flood barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srb, Pavel; Petrů, Michal; Kulhavý, Petr

    This paper deals with testing and numerical simulating of flood barriers. The Czech Republic has been hit by several very devastating floods in past years. These floods caused several dozens of causalities and property damage reached billions of Euros. The development of flood measures is very important, especially for the reduction the number of casualties and the amount of property damage. The aim of flood control measures is the detention of water outside populated areas and drainage of water from populated areas as soon as possible. For new flood barrier design it is very important to know its behaviour in case of a real flood. During the development of the barrier several standardized tests have to be carried out. Based on the results from these tests numerical simulation was compiled using Abaqus software and some analyses were carried out. Based on these numerical simulations it will be possible to predict the behaviour of barriers and thus improve their design.

  2. BENCHMARKING THE INTERACTIONS AMONG BARRIERS IN DAIRY SUPPLY CHAIN: AN ISM APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul S Mor

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the key barriers in dairy supply chain and to analyze their interactions in the context of Indian dairy industry. A total of eight barriers have been identified through literature review and the opinions of an expert team consisting of managerial and technical experts from dairy industry and academics. A questionnaire has been developed for identified barriers and responses were collected from select dairy industries located at northern India. Interpretive structure modeling (ISM is used to analyze the interactions among barriers and to propose a structural model. Further, the importance of barriers is determined based on their driving and dependence power using MICMAC analysis. The ISM-based model allocates to 'traceability, unbalanced production line, over-processing' as key barriers, 'wastages and high production downtime' comes next. MICMAC analysis depicts one autonomous barrier, one dependent barrier and six linkage barriers. The ISM-based model and MICMAC analysis will support the decision makers in dairy industry for planning their supply chain activities in an efficient way by managing the identified barriers.

  3. Barriers to student success in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail R. Wills

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various indicators suggest that many students in developing countries are not learning in school. Using Madagascar as a case study, we aimed to: (1 evaluate the effectiveness of education among those enrolled in science and math programs of primary, secondary, and university institutions; and (2 understand barriers to student progression through the education system. To address these aims, we conducted 63 semi-structured interviews in June and August 2012 with science and math teachers in five population centers, across all three levels of the public and private school system. We found that crowded classes, limited resources (pedagogical and infrastructural, an average student age range of seven years per classroom (suggestive of grade repetition and/or late school starting age, and discontinuities in the language of instruction explain why teachers estimated that almost 25% of their students would not finish school. Although most secondary and university teachers taught the sciences only in French, they estimated that just one-third of students could fully understand the language. There were also urban-rural and public-private disparities. Teachers in urban areas were significantly more likely to teach using French than their rural counterparts, while public schools housed significantly larger classes than private institutions. While resource equalisation will help to resolve many of these disparities, improved early training in professional languages and increased local autonomy in designing appropriate curriculums will be necessary to tackle other shortfalls.

  4. Conflict on interprofessional primary health care teams--can it be resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judith; Lewis, Laura; Ellis, Kathy; Stewart, Moira; Freeman, Thomas R; Kasperski, M Janet

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, primary health care teams (PHCTs) depend on the contributions of multiple professionals. However, conflict is inevitable on teams. This article examines PHCTs members' experiences with conflict and responses to conflict. This phenomenological study was conducted using in-depth interviews with 121 participants from 16 PHCTs (10 urban and 6 rural) including a wide range of health care professionals. An iterative analysis process was used to examine the verbatim transcripts. The analysis revealed three main themes: sources of team conflict; barriers to conflict resolution; and strategies for conflict resolution. Sources of team conflict included: role boundary issues; scope of practice; and accountability. Barriers to conflict resolution were: lack of time and workload; people in less powerful positions; lack of recognition or motivation to address conflict; and avoiding confrontation for fear of causing emotional discomfort. Team strategies for conflict resolution included interventions by team leaders and the development of conflict management protocols. Individual strategies included: open and direct communication; a willingness to find solutions; showing respect; and humility. Conflict is inherent in teamwork. However, understanding the potential barriers to conflict resolution can assist PHCTs in developing strategies to resolve conflict in a timely fashion.

  5. Barriers affecting adherence to radiation treatment and strategies to overcome those barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, R; Jayaraman, K

    2017-01-01

    The WHO defines adherence as the extent to which a patient's behavior coincides with recommendations from a health-care provider. Nonadherence to cancer treatment has a major impact on the therapeutic outcome. To assess the prevalence of nonadherence to radiation regimen and to analyze the factors that affect adherence to cancer treatment. Patients receiving radiation treatment in our hospital were screened for adherence to appointment keeping and to the prescribed radiation regimen and patients who had unplanned treatment breaks during treatment were interviewed. Between January and July 2013, we identified 61 patients who had unplanned breaks during treatment. We analyzed the social, emotional, educational, economic, and therapeutic barriers that led to nonadherence. Of the 61 patients who had unplanned breaks during treatment, 54% were males and 46% were females. Fifty-seven percent of patients had head and neck cancers and 25% had gynecological cancers. Seventy-one percent of patients were planned for concurrent chemoradiation. The number of days of unplanned treatment breaks ranged from 3 to 27 days. Social and therapeutic barriers were found to be the most common factor that led to nonadherence in these patients. Identification of barriers that lead to nonadherence, designing strategies to overcome such barriers and effective communication becomes imperative to ensure uninterrupted treatment. Based on the above analysis, we have designed several strategies to improve adherence to treatment among our patients.

  6. Hot exozodiacal dust resolved around Vega with IOTA/IONIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrère, D.; Absil, O.; Augereau, J.-C.; di Folco, E.; Berger, J.-P.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Kervella, P.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Lebreton, J.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Monnier, J. D.; Olofsson, J.; Traub, W.

    2011-10-01

    Context. Although debris discs have been detected around a significant number of main-sequence stars, only a few of them are known to harbour hot dust in their inner part where terrestrial planets may have formed. Thanks to infrared interferometric observations, it is possible to obtain a direct measurement of these regions, which are of prime importance for preparing future exo-Earth characterisation missions. Aims: We resolve the exozodiacal dust disc around Vega with the help of infrared stellar interferometry and estimate the integrated H-band flux originating from the first few AUs of the debris disc. Methods: Precise H-band interferometric measurements were obtained on Vega with the 3-telescope IOTA/IONIC interferometer (Mount Hopkins, Arizona). Thorough modelling of both interferometric data (squared visibility and closure phase) and spectral energy distribution was performed to constrain the nature of the near-infrared excess emission. Results: Resolved circumstellar emission within ~6 AU from Vega is identified at the 3-σ level. The most straightforward scenario consists in a compact dust disc producing a thermal emission that is largely dominated by small grains located between 0.1 and 0.3 AU from Vega and accounting for 1.23 ± 0.45% of the near-infrared stellar flux for our best-fit model. This flux ratio is shown to vary slightly with the geometry of the model used to fit our interferometric data (variations within ± 0.19%). Conclusions: The presence of hot exozodiacal dust in the vicinity of Vega, initially revealed by K-band CHARA/FLUOR observations, is confirmed by our H-band IOTA/IONIC measurements. Whereas the origin of the dust is still uncertain, its presence and the possible connection with the outer disc suggest that the Vega system is currently undergoing major dynamical perturbations.

  7. Legal and Regulatory Barriers to Reverse Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowthorn, Virginia; Plum, Alexander J; Zervos, John

    Reverse innovation, or the importation of new, affordable, and efficacious models to high-income countries from the developing world, has emerged as a way to improve the health care system in the United States. Reverse innovation has been identified as a key emerging trend in global health systems in part because low-resourced settings are particularly good laboratories for low-cost/high-impact innovations that are developed out of necessity. A difficult question receiving scant attention is that of legal and regulatory barriers. The objective of this paper is to understand and elucidate the legal barriers faced by innovators bringing health interventions to the United States. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 9 key informants who have directly participated in the introduction of global health care approaches to the United States health system. A purposive sampling scheme was employed to identify participants. Phone interviews were conducted over one week in July 2016 with each participant and lasted an average of 35 minutes each. Purely legal barriers included questions surrounding tort liability, standard of care, and concerns around patient-administered self-care. Regulatory burdens included issues of international medical licensure, reimbursement, and task shifting and scope of work challenges among nonprofessionals (e.g. community health workers). Finally, perceived (i.e. not realized or experienced) legal and regulatory barriers to innovative modalities served as disincentives to bringing products or services developed outside of the United States to the United States market. Conflicting interests within the health care system, safety concerns, and little value placed on low-cost interventions inhibit innovation. Legal and regulatory barriers rank among, and contribute to, an anti-innovation atmosphere in healthcare for domestic and reverse innovators alike. Reverse innovation should be fostered through the thoughtful development of

  8. Economic alternatives for containment barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, P.J.; Jasperse, B.H.; Fisher, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Fixation, barriers, and containment of existing landfills and other disposal areas are often performed by insitu auger type soil mixing and jet grouting. Cement or other chemical reagents are mixed with soil to form both vertical and horizontal barriers. Immobilization of contaminants can be economically achieved by mixing soil and the contaminants with reagents that solidify or stabilize the contaminated area. Developed in Japan, and relatively new to the United States, the first large scale application was for a vertical barrier at the Jackson Lake Dam project in 1986. This technology has grown in both the civil and environmental field since. The paper describes current United States practice for Deep Soil Mixing (over 12 meters in depth), and Shallow Soil Mixing for vertical barriers and stabilization/solidification, and Jet Grouting for horizontal and vertical barriers. Creating very low permeability barriers at depth with minimal surface return often makes these techniques economical when compared to slurry trenches. The paper will discuss equipment, materials, soil and strength parameters, and quality control

  9. Air barrier systems: Construction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrault, J.C

    1989-01-01

    An examination is presented of how ordinary building materials can be used in an innovative manner to design, detail, and construct effective air barrier systems for common types of walls. For residential construction, the air drywall approach uses the interior gypsum board as the main component of the wall air barrier system. Joints between the gypsum board and adjacent materials or assemblies are sealed by gaskets. In commercial construction, two different techniques are employed for using gypsum board as air barrier material: the accessible drywall and non-accessible drywall approaches. The former is similar to the air drywall approach except that high performance sealants are used instead of gaskets. In the latter approach, exterior drywall sheathing is the main component of the air barrier system; joints between boards are taped and joints between boards and other components are sealed using elastomeric membrane strips. For various types of commercial and institutional buildings, metal air barrier systems are widely used and include pre-engineered curtain walls or sheet metal walls. Masonry wall systems are regarded as still the most durable, fireproof, and soundproof wall type available but an effective air barrier system has typically been difficult to implement. Factory-made elastomeric membranes offer the potential to provide airtightness to masonry walls. These membranes are applied on the entire masonry wall surface and are used to make airtight connections with other building components. Two types of product are available: thermofusible and peel-and-stick membranes. 5 figs.

  10. Differences in perceived communication barriers among nurses and elderly patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jing; Lambert, Vickie A

    2008-06-01

    In China, limited information exists about nurses' and elderly patients' perceptions of barriers to the communication process. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to identify the major communication barriers (nurse-related, patient-related, and environment-related) perceived both by nurses and elderly patients and to determine the perceived differences in the level of importance of the communication barriers between nurses and elderly patients. The sample consisted of 84 nurses and 75 elderly patients who completed a demographic questionnaire and a communication barriers questionnaire. The findings suggested that the nurses and elderly patients often selected similar barriers related to the communication process. The nurses tended to assign higher values to the communication barriers that were found to be significantly different from those of the elderly patients. The study findings provide information about which type of barriers nurses need to address so as to facilitate effective communication with elderly patients.

  11. [Barriers for the implementation of cognitive services in Spanish community pharmacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastelurrutia, Miguel Angel; Fernández-Llimos, Fernando; Benrimoj, Shalom I; Castrillon, Carla Cristina; Faus, María José

    2007-09-01

    To identify and assess barriers for dissemination, implementation, and sustainability of different cognitive services in Spanish community pharmacies. Qualitative study through semi-structured interviews followed by a descriptive analysis. Two groups of experts related to Spanish community pharmacy were chosen. One with 15 community pharmacists with a relevant professional activity, while the other group (n=18) was related to pharmacy strategists. The lack of university clinical oriented learning, lack of pharmacists' attitude towards change and some uncertainty over their professional future were identified as barriers at the pharmacists' level. In relation to pharmacy as an organization the lack of clear messages by their leaders and the small volume of Spanish pharmacies were identified as barriers. In the category of pharmacy profession, the current reimbursement system, the lack of university clinical education, and the lack of leadership by current representative organizations were the barriers found. The lack of real involvement by health authorities, the lack of knowledge about the objectives of pharmacy cognitive services, and the lack of demand of these services by patients where also identified as barriers. Finally, 12 barriers were identified and grouped into 6 categories. These barriers fit in with the barriers identified in other countries.

  12. Implementation of renewable technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Zimbabwe country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETS) have over the years become an integral part of the energy supply chain in most developed countries. Recent projections show that 13.5% of the world's primary energy supply comes from renewable and this figure has an aggregated annual growth rate of 16%. Wind has the highest annual growth rate of 22% while the least annual growth rate of 2% is for hydropower. The main push for renewable like wind in the OECD countries are environmental concerns and the business aspect in power generation. The situation is however completely different in Africa, where the thrust for RETs is developmental based. Although the continent has abundant renewable energy resources like solar, biomass, wind and hydro potential, they have remained largely unexploited. Several efforts have been made to help African countries like Zimbabwe to exploit such resources. The main objectives of this country study included review of Zimbabwe's development of past RETs, establish barriers related lessons learnt from such projects and currently running RETs projects, identify barriers experienced by other projects and then select a few barrier removal projects and then develop them with the help of all stake holders in the country. The methodology of this study involved a review of past RETs projects to establish barriers faced and barriers related lessons learnt. An examination of the policy instruments related to RETs was done to establish how they promote the dissemination of the technologies as well as their adequacy. A survey of all possible RETs projects in the country was carried out and in this survey the end-users were visited and interviewed by the research team. An initial workshop, which was attended by all stake holders, was held in November 1999. An Advisory committee on RETs in Zimbabwe was then set up comprising of various stake holders from government, the private sector, research institutions, interviewed end-users and the NGO community

  13. Resolving Environmental Effects of Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Karin C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeGeorge, Elise M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Copping, Andrea E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; May, Roel [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research; Bennet, Finlay [Marine Scotland Science; Warnas, Marijke [Rijkswaterstaat; Perron, Muriel [nateco AG; Elmqvist, Asa [Swedish Environmental Protection Agency

    2018-04-25

    Concerns for potential wildlife impacts resulting from land-based and offshore wind energy have created challenges for wind project development. Research is not always adequately supported, results are neither always readily accessible nor are they satisfactorily disseminated, and so decisions are often made based on the best available information, which may be missing key findings. The potential for high impacts to avian and bat species and marine mammals have been used by wind project opponents to stop, downsize, or severely delay project development. The global nature of the wind industry - combined with the understanding that many affected species cross-national boundaries, and in many cases migrate between continents - also points to the need to collaborate on an international level. The International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Technology Collaborative Programs facilitates coordination on key research issues. IEA Wind Task 34 - WREN: Working Together to Resolve Environmental Effects of Wind Energy-is a collaborative forum to share lessons gained from field research and modeling, including management methods, wildlife monitoring methods, best practices, study results, and successful approaches to mitigating impacts and addressing the cumulative effects of wind energy on wildlife.

  14. Fully Resolved Simulations of 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryggvason, Gretar; Xia, Huanxiong; Lu, Jiacai

    2017-11-01

    Numerical simulations of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) (or Fused Filament Fabrication) where a filament of hot, viscous polymer is deposited to ``print'' a three-dimensional object, layer by layer, are presented. A finite volume/front tracking method is used to follow the injection, cooling, solidification and shrinking of the filament. The injection of the hot melt is modeled using a volume source, combined with a nozzle, modeled as an immersed boundary, that follows a prescribed trajectory. The viscosity of the melt depends on the temperature and the shear rate and the polymer becomes immobile as its viscosity increases. As the polymer solidifies, the stress is found by assuming a hyperelastic constitutive equation. The method is described and its accuracy and convergence properties are tested by grid refinement studies for a simple setup involving two short filaments, one on top of the other. The effect of the various injection parameters, such as nozzle velocity and injection velocity are briefly examined and the applicability of the approach to simulate the construction of simple multilayer objects is shown. The role of fully resolved simulations for additive manufacturing and their use for novel processes and as the ``ground truth'' for reduced order models is discussed.

  15. Time resolved ion beam induced charge collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton W, Frederick; Walsh S, David; Doyle L, Barney; Dodd E, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Under this effort, a new method for studying the single event upset (SEU) in microelectronics has been developed and demonstrated. Called TRIBICC, for Time Resolved Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection, this technique measures the transient charge-collection waveform from a single heavy-ion strike with a -.03db bandwidth of 5 GHz. Bandwidth can be expanded up to 15 GHz (with 5 ps sampling windows) by using an FFT-based off-line waveform renormalization technique developed at Sandia. The theoretical time resolution of the digitized waveform is 24 ps with data re-normalization and 70 ps without re-normalization. To preserve the high bandwidth from IC to the digitizing oscilloscope, individual test structures are assembled in custom high-frequency fixtures. A leading-edge digitized waveform is stored with the corresponding ion beam position at each point in a two-dimensional raster scan. The resulting data cube contains a spatial charge distribution map of up to 4,096 traces of charge (Q) collected as a function of time. These two dimensional traces of Q(t) can cover a period as short as 5 ns with up to 1,024 points per trace. This tool overcomes limitations observed in previous multi-shot techniques due to the displacement damage effects of multiple ion strikes that changed the signal of interest during its measurement. This system is the first demonstration of a single-ion transient measurement capability coupled with spatial mapping of fast transients

  16. The Resolved Stellar Population of Leo A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline

    1996-05-01

    New observations of the resolved stellar population of the extremely metal-poor Magellanic dwarf irregular galaxy Leo A in Thuan-Gunn r, g, i, and narrowband Hα filters are presented. Using the recent Cepheid variable star distance determination to Leo A by Hoessel et al., we are able to create an accurate color-magnitude diagram (CMD). We have used the Bavesian inference method described by Tolstoy & Saha to calculate the likelihood of a Monte Carlo simulation of the stellar population of Leo A being a good match to the data within the well understood errors in the data. The magnitude limits on our data are sensitive enough to look back at ~1 Gyr of star formation history at the distance of Leo A. To explain the observed ratio of red to blue stars in the observed CMD, it is necessary to invoke either a steadily decreasing star formation rate toward the present time or gaps in the star formation history. We also compare the properties of the observed stellar population with the known spatial distribution of the H I gas and H II regions to support the conclusions from CMD modeling. We consider the possibility that currently there is a period of diminished star formation in Leo A, as evidenced by the lack of very young stars in the CMD and the faint H II regions. How the chaotic H I distribution, with no observable rotation, fits into our picture of the evolution of Leo A is as yet unclear.

  17. Enzyme reactions and their time resolved measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajdu, Janos

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses experimental strategies in data collection with the Laue method and summarises recent results using synchrotron radiation. Then, an assessment is made of the progress towards time resolved studies with protein crystals and the problems that remain. The paper consists of three parts which respectively describe some aspects of Laue diffraction, recent examples of structural results from Laue diffraction, and kinetic Laue crystallography. In the first part, characteristics of Laue diffraction is discussed first, focusing on the harmonics problems, spatials problem, wavelength normalization, low resolution hole, data completeness, and uneven coverage of reciprocal space. Then, capture of the symmetry unique reflection set is discussed focusing on the effect of wavelength range on the number of reciprocal lattice points occupying diffracting positions, effect of crystal to film distance and the film area and shape on the number of reflections captured, and effect of crystal symmetry on the number of unique reflections within the number of reflections captured. The second part addresses the determination of the structure of turkey egg white lysozyme, and calcium binding in tomato bushy stunt virus. The third part describes the initiation of reactions in enzyme crystals, picosecond Laue diffraction at high energy storage rings, and detectors. (N.K.)

  18. Time resolved ion beam induced charge collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEXTON,FREDERICK W.; WALSH,DAVID S.; DOYLE,BARNEY L.; DODD,PAUL E.

    2000-04-01

    Under this effort, a new method for studying the single event upset (SEU) in microelectronics has been developed and demonstrated. Called TRIBICC, for Time Resolved Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection, this technique measures the transient charge-collection waveform from a single heavy-ion strike with a {minus}.03db bandwidth of 5 GHz. Bandwidth can be expanded up to 15 GHz (with 5 ps sampling windows) by using an FFT-based off-line waveform renormalization technique developed at Sandia. The theoretical time resolution of the digitized waveform is 24 ps with data re-normalization and 70 ps without re-normalization. To preserve the high bandwidth from IC to the digitizing oscilloscope, individual test structures are assembled in custom high-frequency fixtures. A leading-edge digitized waveform is stored with the corresponding ion beam position at each point in a two-dimensional raster scan. The resulting data cube contains a spatial charge distribution map of up to 4,096 traces of charge (Q) collected as a function of time. These two dimensional traces of Q(t) can cover a period as short as 5 ns with up to 1,024 points per trace. This tool overcomes limitations observed in previous multi-shot techniques due to the displacement damage effects of multiple ion strikes that changed the signal of interest during its measurement. This system is the first demonstration of a single-ion transient measurement capability coupled with spatial mapping of fast transients.

  19. Resolved Parental Infertility and Children's Educational Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branigan, Amelia R; Helgertz, Jonas

    2017-06-01

    Although difficulty conceiving a child has long been a major medical and social preoccupation, it has not been considered as a predictor of long-term outcomes in children ultimately conceived. This is consistent with a broader gap in knowledge regarding the consequences of parental health for educational performance in offspring. Here we address that omission, asking how resolved parental infertility relates to children's academic achievement. In a sample of all Swedish births between 1988 and 1995, we find that involuntary childlessness prior to either a first or a second birth is associated with lower academic achievement (both test scores and GPA) in children at age 16, even if the period of infertility was prior to a sibling's birth rather than the child's own. Our results support a conceptualization of infertility as a cumulative physical and social experience with effects extending well beyond the point at which a child is born, and emphasize the need to better understand how specific parental health conditions constrain children's educational outcomes.

  20. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Karen; Anies, Maria; Folb, Barbara L; Zallman, Leah

    2015-01-01

    With the unprecedented international migration seen in recent years, policies that limit health care access have become prevalent. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants go beyond policy and range from financial limitations, to discrimination and fear of deportation. This paper is aimed at reviewing the literature on barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants and identifying strategies that have or could be used to address these barriers. To address study questions, we conducted a literature review of published articles from the last 10 years in PubMed using three main concepts: immigrants, undocumented, and access to health care. The search yielded 341 articles of which 66 met study criteria. With regard to barriers, we identified barriers in the policy arena focused on issues related to law and policy including limitations to access and type of health care. These varied widely across countries but ultimately impacted the type and amount of health care any undocumented immigrant could receive. Within the health system, barriers included bureaucratic obstacles including paperwork and registration systems. The alternative care available (safety net) was generally limited and overwhelmed. Finally, there was evidence of widespread discriminatory practices within the health care system itself. The individual level focused on the immigrant’s fear of deportation, stigma, and lack of capital (both social and financial) to obtain services. Recommendations identified in the papers reviewed included advocating for policy change to increase access to health care for undocumented immigrants, providing novel insurance options, expanding safety net services, training providers to better care for immigrant populations, and educating undocumented immigrants on navigating the system. There are numerous barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants. These vary by country and frequently change. Despite concerns that access to health care attracts