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Sample records for resistant external guide

  1. Guide for External Beam Radiotherapy. Procedures 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardiet, Jean-Michel; Bourhis, Jean; Eschwege, Francois; Gerard, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Barillot, Isabelle; Bey, Pierre; Cosset, Jean-Marc; Thomas, Olivier; Bolla, Michel; Bourguignon, Michel; Godet, Jean-Luc; Krembel, David; Valero, Marc; Bara, Christine; Beauvais-March, Helene; Derreumaux, Sylvie; Vidal, Jean-Pierre; Drouard, Jean; Sarrazin, Thierry; Lindecker-Cournil, Valerie; Robin, Sun Hee Lee; Thevenet, Nicolas; Depenweiller, Christian; Le Tallec, Philippe; Ortholan, Cecile; Aimone, Nicole; Baldeschi, Carine; Cantelli, Andree; Estivalet, Stephane; Le Prince, Cyrille; QUERO, Laurent; Costa, Andre; Gerard, Jean-Pierre; Ardiet, Jean-Michel; Bensadoun, Rene-Jean; Bourhis, Jean; Calais, Gilles; Lartigau, Eric; Ginot, Aurelie; Girard, Nicolas; Mornex, Francoise; Bolla, Michel; Chauvet, Bruno; Maingon, Philippe; Martin, Etienne; Azria, David; Gerard, Jean-Pierre; Grehange, Gilles; Hennequin, Christophe; Peiffert, Didier; Toledano, Alain; Belkacemi, Yazid; Courdi, Adel; Belliere, Aurelie; Peignaux, Karine; Mahe, Marc; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Kantor, Guy; Lepechoux, Cecile; Carrie, Christian; Claude, Line

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize quality and security in the delivery of radiation treatment, the French SFRO (Societe francaise de radiotherapie oncologique) is publishing a Guide for Radiotherapy. This guide is realized according to the HAS (Haute Autorite de sante) methodology of 'structured experts consensus'. This document is made of two parts: a general description of external beam radiation therapy and chapters describing the technical procedures of the main tumors to be irradiated (24). For each procedure, a special attention is given to dose constraints in the organs at risk. This guide will be regularly updated

  2. Guide of external radiotherapy procedures 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This work aims at participating in the permanent optimization of the returned medical service and the ratio profit-risk. This first version of the guide of external radiotherapy procedures 2007 processes only techniques of external radiotherapy, by opposition to the techniques of brachytherapy which use radioactive sources (iridium 192 , iodine 125 , cesium 137 ) placed in the contact of the tumor to be irradiated. Only, also, will be considered the irradiations of the most frequent cunning(malignant) tumors with the exception of the radiotherapy of the mild pathologies and the re-irradiations after a first radiotherapy. The first part is shared in eight chapters as follow: introduction, the steps of a treatment by radiotherapy, infrastructure, equipment and human resources, radiobiology mechanism of action of ionising radiations in radiotherapy, dose in radiotherapy, quality of treatment and radiation protection of patients in radiotherapy, prevention and risk management in radiotherapy, quality assurance and radiation protection for the pediatrics cancers and the case of pregnant women. The second part gives the tumoral localizations and the procedures; the third part is a glossary and different annexes such regulations and legislative texts. (N.C.)

  3. An External Archive-Guided Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingling; Lin, Qiuzhen; Chen, Weineng; Wong, Ka-Chun; Coello Coello, Carlos A; Li, Jianqiang; Chen, Jianyong; Zhang, Jun

    2017-09-01

    The selection of swarm leaders (i.e., the personal best and global best), is important in the design of a multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm. Such leaders are expected to effectively guide the swarm to approach the true Pareto optimal front. In this paper, we present a novel external archive-guided MOPSO algorithm (AgMOPSO), where the leaders for velocity update are all selected from the external archive. In our algorithm, multiobjective optimization problems (MOPs) are transformed into a set of subproblems using a decomposition approach, and then each particle is assigned accordingly to optimize each subproblem. A novel archive-guided velocity update method is designed to guide the swarm for exploration, and the external archive is also evolved using an immune-based evolutionary strategy. These proposed approaches speed up the convergence of AgMOPSO. The experimental results fully demonstrate the superiority of our proposed AgMOPSO in solving most of the test problems adopted, in terms of two commonly used performance measures. Moreover, the effectiveness of our proposed archive-guided velocity update method and immune-based evolutionary strategy is also experimentally validated on more than 30 test MOPs.

  4. Recovery and radio-resistance in mice after external irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guillou, S.

    1965-01-01

    The author presents a literature study concerning recovery from external irradiation and an analysis of experimental data (which appear to suggest the idea of a radio-resistance in animals), as well as the hypotheses put forward for explaining this phenomenon. The author then describes an experiment carried out on mice whose LD 50/30 days increased from 1005 to 1380 rads and for which it was shown that an increase occurs in the number of certain anti-bodies circulating after a low dose of γ irradiation. (author) [fr

  5. Validation of External Corrosion Growth-Rate Using Polarization Resistance and Soil Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The research project evaluated the use of the Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) and the Electric Resistance (ER) technologies in estimating the external corrosion growth rates of buried steel pipelines. This was achieved by performing laboratory a...

  6. The effect of real-time external resistance optimization on microbial fuel cell performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, R P; Srinivasan, B; Guiot, S R; Tartakovsky, B

    2011-02-01

    This work evaluates the impact of the external resistance (electrical load) on the long-term performance of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) and demonstrates the real-time optimization of the external resistance. For this purpose, acetate-fed MFCs were operated at external resistances, which were above, below, or equal to the internal resistance of a corresponding MFC. A perturbation/observation algorithm was used for the real-time optimal selection of the external resistance. MFC operation at the optimal external resistance resulted in increased power output, improved Coulombic efficiency, and low methane production. Furthermore, the efficiency of the perturbation/observation algorithm for maximizing long-term MFC performance was confirmed by operating an MFC fed with synthetic wastewater for over 40 days. In this test an average Coulombic efficiency of 29% was achieved. © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antiretroviral drug resistance: A guide for the southern African clinician

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both private and public sector see a bewildering clinical array of patients taking failing antiretroviral (ARV) regimens. We intend this article to provide a practical guide to help clinicians understand and manage ARV drug resistance in an African context. ARV resistance is a rapidly evolving field, requiring expertise in dealing ...

  8. Assessment of occupational exposure due to external sources of radiation. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. The three Safety Guides on occupational radiation protection are jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the International Labour Office. The Agency gratefully acknowledges the contribution of the European Commission to the development of the present Safety Guide. The present Safety Guide addresses the assessment of exposure due to external sources of radiation in the workplace. Such exposure can result from a number of sources within a workplace, and the monitoring of workers and the workplace in such situations is an integral part of any occupational radiation protection programme. The assessment of exposure due to external radiation sources depends critically upon knowledge of the radiation type and energy and the conditions of exposure. The present Safety Guide reflects the major changes over the past decade in international practice in external dose assessment

  9. Assessment of occupational exposure due to external sources of radiation. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Adequate radiation protection of workers is essential for the safe and acceptable use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy. The three Safety Guides on occupational radiation protection are jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the International Labour Office. The Agency gratefully acknowledges the contribution of the European Commission to the development of the present Safety Guide. The present Safety Guide addresses the assessment of exposure due to external sources of radiation in the workplace. Such exposure can result from a number of sources within a workplace, and the monitoring of workers and the workplace in such situations is an integral part of any occupational radiation protection programme. The assessment of exposure due to external radiation sources depends critically upon knowledge of the radiation type and energy and the conditions of exposure. The present Safety Guide reflects the major changes over the past decade in international practice in external dose assessment

  10. Protection of Basic Nuclear Installations Against External Flooding - Guide No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The French regulations require that the flooding hazard be taken into consideration in the demonstration of nuclear safety of basic nuclear installations (BNI). This guide details the recommendations concerning the external flooding hazard which is defined, for the purpose of this guide, as being a flood whose origin is external to the structures, areas or buildings of the BNI accommodating systems or components to be protected, whatever the cause(s) of that flooding (rainfall, river spates, storms, pipes failures, etc.). An external flood therefore means any flood originating outside the perimeter of the BNI and certain floods originating within the BNI perimeter. The terms 'flood' or 'flooding' as used henceforth designate external flooding. The purpose of this guide is to: - define the situations to consider when assessing the flood hazard for the site in question; - propose an acceptable method of quantifying them; - list recommendations for defining means of protection adapted to the specifics of the flooding hazard, implemented by the licensee according to the life cycle phases of the installation. The guide has taken climate change into account when the state of knowledge so allows. It is necessary to take into account - on the basis of current knowledge - the predictable climate changes for a period representative of the installations' foreseeable life times, and until the next safety review. The use of this guide necessitates prior identification - for the installation in question - of the functions required to demonstrate nuclear safety and which shall be preserved in the event of flooding. These functions are called 'safety functions' in this guide. This guide applies to all the basic nuclear installations defined by article L. L.593-2 of the Environment Code. With regard to radioactive waste disposal installations, this guide only applies to above-ground facilities. This guide can be used to assess the external flooding hazards and the associated

  11. Mesolimbic confidence signals guide perceptual learning in the absence of external feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenmos, Matthias; Wilbertz, Gregor; Hebart, Martin N; Sterzer, Philipp

    2016-03-29

    It is well established that learning can occur without external feedback, yet normative reinforcement learning theories have difficulties explaining such instances of learning. Here, we propose that human observers are capable of generating their own feedback signals by monitoring internal decision variables. We investigated this hypothesis in a visual perceptual learning task using fMRI and confidence reports as a measure for this monitoring process. Employing a novel computational model in which learning is guided by confidence-based reinforcement signals, we found that mesolimbic brain areas encoded both anticipation and prediction error of confidence-in remarkable similarity to previous findings for external reward-based feedback. We demonstrate that the model accounts for choice and confidence reports and show that the mesolimbic confidence prediction error modulation derived through the model predicts individual learning success. These results provide a mechanistic neurobiological explanation for learning without external feedback by augmenting reinforcement models with confidence-based feedback.

  12. A guide to the external review of an academic radiology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jannette; Amis, E Stephen; Beauchamp, Norman J; Norbash, Alexander M; Meltzer, Carolyn C

    2014-03-01

    External reviews are used to evaluate a department on a routine basis or prior to reappointment or recruitment of a department chair. The Society of Chairs of Academic Radiology Departments (SCARD) developed a template that outlines important components of an external review report and a table that outlines the objective information that can be requested from the institution/department prior to the reviewer's site visit. The template is meant to facilitate a high-quality review and serve as a guide to a chair who is preparing for his/her first review, chairs who serve as external consultants, and institutional officials seeking review of a radiology department. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Interference resisting design for guided wave tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Liang; Hua, Jiadong; Shi, Wen; Lin, Jing

    2013-01-01

    RAPID (reconstruction algorithm for the probabilistic inspection of damage) is a new promising tomography approach for the detection and monitoring of critical areas in a structure. With the sensors permanently installed on or embedded in structures, changes in effective thickness and material properties caused by structural damage can be detected and mapped to the tomogram. However, in this method, the tomographic feature SDC (signal difference coefficient) captures the overall change of the received ultrasonic signals, which makes it sensitive to environmental factors (e.g. rain, changes in temperature and humidity). As a result, the approach is restricted in the laboratory environment. In this paper, the influence of measurement data length on the SDC and the tomogram are investigated, and a new strategy is established on how to choose the measurement data to obtain good reconstruction by matching the coverage zone of each transmitter–receiver pair with the corresponding affected zone. The proposed method is then applied to identify defects of the specimen in the presence of external sources of interference, such as water droplets and structural variations outside the critical area. The results demonstrate its capability of improved robustness in the presence of external sources of interference. (paper)

  14. External quality assessment of the molecular diagnostics and genotyping of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. te Witt (René); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); W.G. MacKay (William); P.S. Wallace; W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTwo multicentre external quality assessments (EQA) for the molecular detection and genotyping of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were arranged. Firstly, 11 samples containing various amounts of inactivated MRSA strains, meticillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA),

  15. How externalities impact an evaluation of strategies to prevent antimicrobial resistance in health care organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenine R. Leal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rates of antimicrobial-resistant organisms (ARO continue to increase for both hospitalized and community patients. Few resources have been allocated to reduce the spread of resistance on global, national and local levels, in part because the broader economic impact of antimicrobial resistance (i.e. the externality is not fully considered when determining how much to invest to prevent AROs, including strategies to contain antimicrobial resistance, such as antimicrobial stewardship programs. To determine how best to measure and incorporate the impact of externalities associated with the antimicrobial resistance when making resource allocation decisions aimed to reduce antimicrobial resistance within healthcare facilities, we reviewed the literature to identify publications which 1 described the externalities of antimicrobial resistance, 2 described approaches to quantifying the externalities associated with antimicrobial resistance or 3 described macro-level policy options to consider the impact of externalities. Medline was reviewed to identify published studies up to September 2016. Main body An externality is a cost or a benefit associated with one person’s activity that impacts others who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit. We did not identify a well-accepted method of accurately quantifying the externality associated with antimicrobial resistance. We did identify three main methods that have gained popularity to try to take into account the externalities of antimicrobial resistance, including regulation, charges or taxes on the use of antimicrobials, and the right to trade permits or licenses for antimicrobial use. To our knowledge, regulating use of antimicrobials is the only strategy currently being used by health care systems to reduce antimicrobial use, and thereby reduce AROs. To justify expenditures on programs that reduce AROs (i.e. to formally incorporate the impact of the negative externality of

  16. Guide for everyday practice of in vivo dosimetry in external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This guide first presents the objectives, methods and limitations of the In Vivo Dosimetry in external radiotherapy. Then, it describes the practical implementation of dosimetry with semiconductors (human needs, receipt tests, in vivo use, system quality control, semiconductor diodes). It also describes other available or currently being developed techniques (In vivo dosimetry using radio-thermoluminescent, MOSFET detectors or optically simulated luminescence). Finally, it present substitution methods when conventional In vivo dosimetry is not technically possible: transit dosimetry (with high energy imagery), global control of the treatment process

  17. Adaptation to high current using low external resistances eliminates power overshoot in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Yiying

    2011-10-01

    One form of power overshoot commonly observed with mixed culture microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is doubling back of the power density curve at higher current densities, but the reasons for this type of overshoot have not been well explored. To investigate this, MFCs were acclimated to different external resistances, producing a range of anode potentials and current densities. Power overshoot was observed for reactors acclimated to higher (500 and 5000. Ω) but not lower (5 and 50. Ω) resistances. Acclimation of the high external resistance reactors for a few cycles to low external resistance (5. Ω), and therefore higher current densities, eliminated power overshoot. MFCs initially acclimated to low external resistances exhibited both higher current in cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and higher levels of redox activity over a broader range of anode potentials (-0.4 to 0. V; vs. a Ag/AgCl electrode) based on first derivative cyclic voltammetry (DCV) plots. Reactors acclimated to higher external resistances produced lower current in CVs, exhibited lower redox activity over a narrower anode potential range (-0.4 to -0.2. V vs. Ag/AgCl), and failed to produce higher currents above ∼-0.3. V (vs. Ag/AgCl). After the higher resistance reactors were acclimated to the lowest resistance they also exhibited similar CV and DCV profiles. Our findings show that to avoid overshoot, prior to the polarization and power density tests the anode biofilm must adapt to low external resistances to be capable of higher currents. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Risk of axillary nerve injury during percutaneous proximal humerus locking plate insertion using an external aiming guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Neil; Bergeron, Stephane G; Benoit, Benoit; Reindl, Rudolf; Harvey, Edward J; Berry, Gregory K

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which screws could be safely inserted percutaneously into a proximal humerus locking plate using a new external aiming guide without injuring the axillary nerve. We also sought to evaluate that all the screws could be accurately inserted ina locked position with the external guide. Eight cadaveric specimens were implanted with a proximal humerus locking plate using a minimally invasive direct-lateral deltoid splitting approach using an attached external aiming guide for screw insertion. The anatomic proximity of the axillary nerve to the guidewires and screws was measured following soft tissue dissection and inspection of the nerve. The two superior holes (C1 and C2) were proximal to the axillary nerve with an average distance of 15.1 mm. Screw F was on average 6.6 mm distal to the axillary nerve but within 2 mm of the nerve in two specimens. In all specimens, the locking screws were appropriately seated in a locked position using the external aiming guide. This study suggests that percutaneous fixation of a proximal humerus locking plate with an external aiming guide can be safely used for proximal humerus fractures. The limited number of screws that can be inserted into the proximal fragment using the current external guide arm may compromise fixation of more unstable fractures. Therefore, the indications for percutaneous locking plate fixation of the proximal humerus using an external aiming guide should be limited to stable fracture patterns that can be anatomically reduced. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mesolimbic confidence signals guide perceptual learning in the absence of external feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenmos, Matthias; Wilbertz, Gregor; Hebart, Martin N; Sterzer, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that learning can occur without external feedback, yet normative reinforcement learning theories have difficulties explaining such instances of learning. Here, we propose that human observers are capable of generating their own feedback signals by monitoring internal decision variables. We investigated this hypothesis in a visual perceptual learning task using fMRI and confidence reports as a measure for this monitoring process. Employing a novel computational model in which learning is guided by confidence-based reinforcement signals, we found that mesolimbic brain areas encoded both anticipation and prediction error of confidence—in remarkable similarity to previous findings for external reward-based feedback. We demonstrate that the model accounts for choice and confidence reports and show that the mesolimbic confidence prediction error modulation derived through the model predicts individual learning success. These results provide a mechanistic neurobiological explanation for learning without external feedback by augmenting reinforcement models with confidence-based feedback. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13388.001 PMID:27021283

  20. External Events Excluding Earthquakes in the Design of Nuclear Power Plants. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations and guidance on design for the protection of nuclear power plants from the effects of external events (excluding earthquakes), i.e. events that originate either off the site or within the boundaries of the site but from sources that are not directly involved in the operational states of the nuclear power plant units. In addition, it provides recommendations on engineering related matters in order to comply with the safety objectives and requirements established in the IAEA Safety Requirements publication, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It is also applicable to the design and safety assessment of items important to the safety of land based stationary nuclear power plants with water cooled reactors. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Application of safety criteria to the design; 3. Design basis for external events; 4. Aircraft crash; 5. External fire; 6. Explosions; 7. Asphyxiant and toxic gases; 8. Corrosive and radioactive gases and liquids; 9. Electromagnetic interference; 10. Floods; 11. Extreme winds; 12. Extreme meteorological conditions; 13. Biological phenomena; 14. Volcanism; 15. Collisions of floating bodies with water intakes and UHS components; Annex I: Aircraft crashes; Annex II: Detonation and deflagration; Annex III: Toxicity limits.

  1. External human induced events in site evaluation for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present Safety Guide is to provide recommendations and guidance for the examination of the region considered for site evaluation for a plant in order to identity hazardous phenomena associated with human induced events initiated by sources external to the plant. In some cases it also presents preliminary guidance for deriving values of relevant parameters for the design basis. This Safety Guide is also applicable for periodic site evaluation and site evaluation following a major human induced event, and for the design and operation of the site's environmental monitoring system. Site evaluation includes site characterization. Consideration of external events that could lead to a degradation of the safety features of the plant and cause a release of radioactive material from the plant and/or affect the dispersion of such material in the environment. And consideration of population issues and access issues significant to safety (such as the feasibility of evacuation, the population distribution and the location of resources). The process of site evaluation continues throughout the lifetime of the facility, from siting to design, construction, operation and decommissioning. The external human induced events considered in this Safety Guide are all of accidental origin. Considerations relating to the physical protection of the plant against wilful actions by third parties are outside its scope. However, the methods described herein may also have some application for the purposes of such physical protection. The present Safety Guide may also be used for events that may originate within the boundaries of the site, but from sources which are not directly involved in the operational states of the nuclear power plant units, such as fuel depots or areas for the storage of hazardous materials for the construction of other facilities at the same site. Special consideration should be given to the hazardous material handled during the construction, operation and

  2. External human induced events in site evaluation for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present Safety Guide is to provide recommendations and guidance for the examination of the region considered for site evaluation for a plant in order to identity hazardous phenomena associated with human induced events initiated by sources external to the plant. In some cases it also presents preliminary guidance for deriving values of relevant parameters for the design basis. This Safety Guide is also applicable for periodic site evaluation and site evaluation following a major human induced event, and for the design and operation of the site's environmental monitoring system. Site evaluation includes site characterization. Consideration of external events that could lead to a degradation of the safety features of the plant and cause a release of radioactive material from the plant and/or affect the dispersion of such material in the environment. And consideration of population issues and access issues significant to safety (such as the feasibility of evacuation, the population distribution and the location of resources). The process of site evaluation continues throughout the lifetime of the facility, from siting to design, construction, operation and decommissioning. The external human induced events considered in this Safety Guide are all of accidental origin. Considerations relating to the physical protection of the plant against wilful actions by third parties are outside its scope. However, the methods described herein may also have some application for the purposes of such physical protection. The present Safety Guide may also be used for events that may originate within the boundaries of the site, but from sources which are not directly involved in the operational states of the nuclear power plant units, such as fuel depots or areas for the storage of hazardous materials for the construction of other facilities at the same site. Special consideration should be given to the hazardous material handled during the construction, operation and

  3. Stabilization of pressure-driven external modes in tokamaks with a resistive wall and toroidal rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.J.; Bondeson, A.

    1994-01-01

    In recent work we have shown that it is possible to completely stabilize low n, pressure-driven external modes in tokamaks by the combined effect of resistive walls and toroidal plasma rotation. We have used numerical computation to study the wall stabilization in toroidal geometry. The spectral codes MARS and NOVA have been modified to include a resistive shell in the vacuum region surrounding the plasma. Rigid toroidal rotation was modeled by making the resistive shell rotate with an externally imposed frequency ω rot while the equilibrium was static. The plasma was treated as ideally conducting and ω rot was some fraction of the sound frequency. Furthermore, the time-constant of the resistive wall, τ ω , was taken much larger than any ideal-MHD timescale. (author) 4 figs., 6 refs

  4. Improved External Base Resistance Extraction for Submicrometer InP/InGaAs DHBT Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor; Nodjiadjim, Virginie

    2011-01-01

    An improved direct parameter extraction method is proposed for III–V heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) external base resistance $R_{\\rm bx}$ extraction from forward active $S$-parameters. The method is formulated taking into account the current dependence of the intrinsic base...

  5. Long-term results of ultrasonically guided implantation of 125-I seeds combined with external irradiation in localized prostatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Holm, H H

    1991-01-01

    Transperineal 125-iodine seed implantation guided by transrectal ultrasonography and subsequent external beam irradiation was employed in the treatment of 32 patients with localized prostatic carcinoma (16 poorly differentiated). Follow-up is currently 35-98 months with a median of 65 months. Dis...

  6. Optimising measles virus-guided radiovirotherapy with external beam radiotherapy and specific checkpoint kinase 1 inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touchefeu, Yann; Khan, Aadil A.; Borst, Gerben; Zaidi, Shane H.; McLaughlin, Martin; Roulstone, Victoria; Mansfield, David; Kyula, Joan; Pencavel, Tim; Karapanagiotou, Eleni M.; Clayton, Jamie; Federspiel, Mark J.; Russell, Steve J.; Garrett, Michelle; Collins, Ian; Harrington, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: We previously reported a therapeutic strategy comprising replication-defective NIS-expressing adenovirus combined with radioiodide, external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and DNA repair inhibition. We have now evaluated NIS-expressing oncolytic measles virus (MV-NIS) combined with NIS-guided radioiodide, EBRT and specific checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) inhibition in head and neck and colorectal models. Materials and methods: Anti-proliferative/cytotoxic effects of individual agents and their combinations were measured by MTS, clonogenic and Western analysis. Viral gene expression was measured by radioisotope uptake and replication by one-step growth curves. Potential synergistic interactions were tested in vitro by Bliss independence analysis and in in vivo therapeutic studies. Results: EBRT and MV-NIS were synergistic in vitro. Furthermore, EBRT increased NIS expression in infected cells. SAR-020106 was synergistic with EBRT, but also with MV-NIS in HN5 cells. MV-NIS mediated 131 I-induced cytotoxicity in HN5 and HCT116 cells and, in the latter, this was enhanced by SAR-020106. In vivo studies confirmed that MV-NIS, EBRT and Chk1 inhibition were effective in HCT116 xenografts. The quadruplet regimen of MV-NIS, virally-directed 131 I, EBRT and SAR-020106 had significant anti-tumour activity in HCT116 xenografts. Conclusion: This study strongly supports translational and clinical research on MV-NIS combined with radiation therapy and radiosensitising agents

  7. Ultrasound-guided supra-acetabular pin placement in pelvic external fixation: description of a surgical technique and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chana-Rodríguez, Francisco; Cuervas-Mons, Manuel; Rojo-Manaute, José; Mora, Félix; Arnal, Juan; Vaquero-Martín, Javier

    2017-11-01

    Pelvic fracture in trauma patients can lead to hemodynamic instability. External fixation is a treatment capable of stabilizing these injuries in the context of damage control surgery. Supra-acetabular pin offers the greater biomechanical stability but requires the use of intraoperative fluoroscopy. The aim of this study was to analyze our results for an ultrasound-guided supra-acetabular pinning. Cross-sectional study with cadaveric specimens. Ultrasound-guided pin placement assessed by fluoroscopy and dissection. Fourteen ultrasound-guided supra-acetabular pins were placed in seven cadaveric specimens. Excellent placement in all cases, evaluated with radiological control. Good qualitative bone fixation after dissection. One femoral cutaneous nerve was not found during anatomic dissection and was assumed injured. Ultrasound-guided supra-acetabular pin placement is a feasible and effective technique. Our study indicates that pin placement without intraoperative fluoroscopy is feasible without compromising the reliability of its placement. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Standard guide for installing bonded resistance strain gages

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1993-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides guidelines for installing bonded resistance strain gages. It is not intended to be used for bulk or diffused semiconductor gages. This document pertains only to adhesively bonded strain gages. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  9. Recovery and radio-resistance in mice after external irradiation; Restauration et radio-resistance chez la souris apres irradiation externe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guillou, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The author presents a literature study concerning recovery from external irradiation and an analysis of experimental data (which appear to suggest the idea of a radio-resistance in animals), as well as the hypotheses put forward for explaining this phenomenon. The author then describes an experiment carried out on mice whose LD 50/30 days increased from 1005 to 1380 rads and for which it was shown that an increase occurs in the number of certain anti-bodies circulating after a low dose of {gamma} irradiation. (author) [French] L'auteur presente une etude bibliographique de la restauration apres irradiation externe et une analyse des donnees experimentales qui paraissent suggerer la notion de radioresistance chez les animaux ainsi que les hypotheses cherchant a expliquer ce phenomene. Il relate ensuite une experience realisee sur des souris dont la DL 50/30 jours est passee de 1005 a 1380 rads et dans laquelle est montree l'augmentation de certains anticorps circulant apres une faible dose d'irradiation gamma. (auteur)

  10. Effect of a static external magnetic perturbation on resistive mode stability in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, R.

    1994-03-01

    The influence of a general static external magnetic perturbation on the stability of resistive modes in a tokamak plasma is examined. There are three main parts to this investigation. Firstly, the vacuum perturbation is expanded as a set of well-behaved toroidal ring functions and is, thereafter, specified by the coefficients of this expansion. Secondly, a dispersion relation is derived for resistive plasma instabilities in the presence of a general external perturbation and finally, this dispersion relation is solved for the amplitudes of the tearing and twisting modes driven in the plasma by a specific perturbation. It is found that the amplitudes of driven tearing and twisting modes are negligible until a certain critical perturbation strength is exceeded. Only tearing modes are driven in low-β plasmas with εβ p p ∼>1. For error-field perturbations made up of a large number of different poloidal and toroidal harmonics the critical strength to drive locked modes has a open-quote staircase close-quote variation with edge-q, characterized by strong discontinuities as coupled rational surfaces enter or leave the plasma. For single harmonic perturbations the variation with edge-q is far smoother. Both types of behaviour have been observed experimentally. The critical perturbation strength is found to decrease strongly close to an ideal external kink stability boundary. This is also in agreement with experimental observations

  11. Rebreathing, resistance and external work of breathing in three different coaxial Mapleson D systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, L O; Zetterström, H

    1989-01-01

    Using a lung model, rebreathing characteristics, resistance against gas flow and the external work of breathing were tested in three different coaxial Mapleson D systems: the Medicvent D system, the Bain original system and the Coax-II system. The rebreathing characteristics were found to be similar in all systems in both spontaneous and controlled ventilation. The Bain system was found to have the lowest resistance and work of breathing and the Coax-II system the highest. The differences were small and clinically insignificant. Both the resistance and the work of breathing increased with fresh gas flow. The resistance against expiration was found to be in the range 135-160 Pa at a total gas flow of 31 1.min-1, which is well within the acceptable level. The resulting end-expiratory pressure was never above 100 Pa (1 cmH2O) in any system. We concluded that there was no clinically significant difference among the three systems despite differences in design. The coaxial Mapleson D systems can also be used safely with high fresh gas flows with regard to resistance and end-expiratory pressures.

  12. MRI-guided percutaneous cryoablation of renal tumors: Use of external manual displacement of adjacent bowel loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuncali, Kemal; Morrison, Paul R.; Tatli, Servet; Silverman, Stuart G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to investigate retrospectively the safety and effectiveness of using external hand compression to displace adjacent bowel loops during MRI-guided percutaneous cryoablation of renal tumors. Materials and methods: Fourteen patients (six women, eight men; mean age: 72 years) with 15 renal tumors (mean diameter: 2.4 cm; range: 1.4-4.6 cm) adjacent to bowel were treated with MRI-guided percutaneous cryoablation during which bowel was displaced manually. Bowel loop of concern was ascending colon (n 5), descending colon (n = 8), descending colon and small bowel (n = 1), ascending colon and small bowel (n = 1). To analyze effectiveness of the maneuver, mean distance between tumor margin and bowel before and after the maneuver were compared and analyzed using paired Student's t-test. Minimum distance between iceball edge and adjacent bowel with external manual displacement during freezing was also measured. Safety was assessed by analyzing post-procedural MR imaging for adjacent bowel wall thickening and focal fluid collections as well as patients' clinical and imaging follow-up. Results: Mean distance between tumor margin and closest adjacent bowel increased from 0.8 cm (range: 0-2 cm) before external manual compression to 2.6 cm (range: 1.6-4.1 cm) with manual displacement (p < 0.01). Mean minimum distance between iceball edge and closest adjacent bowel during the procedures was 1.6 cm (range: 0.5-3.5 cm). No evidence of bowel injury was encountered. Twelve of 15 tumors had follow-up (mean: 10 months) that showed no tumor recurrence. Conclusion: MRI-guided percutaneous cryoablation of renal tumors adjacent to bowel can be done safely and effectively using external hand compression to displace bowel loops

  13. 75 FR 78268 - Draft NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for Law Enforcement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... of Justice Programs Draft NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for... of Draft NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor for Law Enforcement... the general public the draft ``NIJ Selection and Application Guide to Ballistic-Resistant Body Armor...

  14. Stabilization of the external kink and control of the resistive wall mode in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garofalo, A.M.; Turnbull, A.D.; Strait, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    One promising approach to maintaining stability of high beta tokamak plasmas is the use of a conducting wall near the plasma to stabilize low-n ideal MHD instabilities. However, with a resistive wall, either plasma rotation or active feedback control is required to stabilize the more slowly growing resistive wall modes (RWMs). Experiments in the DIII-D, PBHX-M, and HBT-EP tokamaks have demonstrated that plasmas with a nearby conducting wall can remain stable to the n = 1 ideal external kink above the beta limit predicted with the wall at infinity, with durations in DIII-D up to 30 times τ w , the resistive wall time constant. More recently, detailed, reproducible observation of the n = 1 RWM has been possible in DIII-D plasmas above the no-wall beta limit. The DIII-D measurements confirm characteristics common to several RWM theories. The mode is destabilized as the plasma rotation at the q = 3 surface decreases below a critical frequency of 1 to 7 kHz. The measured mode growth times of 2 to 8 ms agree with measurements and numerical calculations of the dominant DIII-D vessel eigenmode time constants, τ w . From its onset, the RWM has little or no toroidal rotation and rapidly reduces the plasma rotation to zero. Both DIII-D and HBT-EP have adopted the smart shell concept as an initial approach to control of these slowly growing RWMs; external coils are controlled by a feedback loop designed to make the resistive wall appear perfectly conducting by maintaining a net zero radial field at the wall. Initial experiment results from DIII-D have yielded encouraging results

  15. External Resistances Applied to MFC Affect Core Microbiome and Swine Manure Treatment Efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilajeliu-Pons, Anna; Bañeras, Lluis; Puig, Sebastià; Molognoni, Daniele; Vilà-Rovira, Albert; Hernández-Del Amo, Elena; Balaguer, Maria D; Colprim, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can be designed to combine water treatment with concomitant electricity production. Animal manure treatment has been poorly explored using MFCs, and its implementation at full-scale primarily relies on the bacterial distribution and activity within the treatment cell. This study reports the bacterial community changes at four positions within the anode of two almost identically operated MFCs fed swine manure. Changes in the microbiome structure are described according to the MFC fluid dynamics and the application of a maximum power point tracking system (MPPT) compared to a fixed resistance system (Ref-MFC). Both external resistance and cell hydrodynamics are thought to heavily influence MFC performance. The microbiome was characterised both quantitatively (qPCR) and qualitatively (454-pyrosequencing) by targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The diversity of the microbial community in the MFC biofilm was reduced and differed from the influent swine manure. The adopted electric condition (MPPT vs fixed resistance) was more relevant than the fluid dynamics in shaping the MFC microbiome. MPPT control positively affected bacterial abundance and promoted the selection of putatively exoelectrogenic bacteria in the MFC core microbiome (Sedimentibacter sp. and gammaproteobacteria). These differences in the microbiome may be responsible for the two-fold increase in power production achieved by the MPPT-MFC compared to the Ref-MFC.

  16. Action and resistance mechanisms of antibiotics: A guide for clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Kapoor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections account for a major cause of death throughout the developing world. This is mainly due to the emergence of newer infectious agents and more specifically due to the appearance of antimicrobial resistance. With time, the bacteria have become smarter and along with it, massive imprudent usage of antibiotics in clinical practice has resulted in resistance of bacteria to antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial resistance is recognized as a major problem in the treatment of microbial infections. The biochemical resistance mechanisms used by bacteria include the following: antibiotic inactivation, target modification, altered permeability, and “bypass” of metabolic pathway. Determination of bacterial resistance to antibiotics of all classes (phenotypes and mutations that are responsible for bacterial resistance to antibiotics (genetic analysis are helpful. Better understanding of the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance will help clinicians regarding usage of antibiotics in different situations. This review discusses the mechanism of action and resistance development in commonly used antimicrobials.

  17. Humeral repair in birds by guided tissue regeneration and external and internal associated fixation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delogu, M.

    1993-01-01

    Ten pigeons (Columba livia domestic form) with humeral diaphyseal fracture were treated with external and internal fixation techniques (Boston technique and intamedullary pin). Longitudinal space was intentionally left between fracture surfaces during osteosynthesis. This space was filled with bovine lyophilized collagen, set around an intramedullary pin, in five samples. Ossification process was checked by radiography every seven days. Results show the utility of this technique in pneumatic bird bones. In fact, shortening control and callus formation facility were observed [it

  18. Radiation resistivity of pure silica core image guides for industrial fiberscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Shinichi; Ohnishi, Tokuhiro; Kanazawa, Tamotsu; Tsuji, Yukio; Hayami, Hiroyuki; Ishitani, Tadayoshi; Akutsu, Takeji; Suzuki, Koichi.

    1991-01-01

    Industrial fiberscopes incorporating pure silica core image guides have been extensively used for remote visual inspection in radiation fields including nuclear power plants, owing to their superior radiation resistivity. The authors have been intensively conducting R and D on improving radiation resistivity of pure silica core image guides. This paper reports the results of experiments to compare the effects of core materials on radiation resistivity and to investigate the dependence of radiation resistivity on total dose, does rate, and support pipe material. The results confirmed the superior radiation resistivity of the core material containing fluorine at any irradiation condition and indicated the existence of a critical dose rate at which radiation-induced deterioration was stabilized. No difference in radiation resistivity attributable to support layer material was observed. (author)

  19. Commerce Supervisory Course: Discussion Guide. Overcoming Resistance To Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaw, Edward A.; And Others

    Reasons for employee resistance to change are listed and described. Six steps for the supervisor to take to initiate change are listed and described. Graphics and handouts list reasons for resistance to change and steps to bring about change in work groups. (NF)

  20. CT-Guided 125I Seed Interstitial Brachytherapy as a Salvage Treatment for Recurrent Spinal Metastases after External Beam Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lihong; Cao, Qianqian; Yang, Jiwen; Meng, Na; Guo, Fuxin; Jiang, Yuliang; Tian, Suqing; Sun, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical efficacy of CT-guided 125I seed interstitial brachytherapy in patients with recurrent spinal metastases after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Between August 2003 and September 2015, 26 spinal metastatic lesions (24 patients) were reirradiated by this salvage therapy modality. Treatment for all patients was preplanned using a three-dimensional treatment planning system 3–5 days before 125I seed interstitial brachytherapy; dosimetry verification was performed immediately after seed implantation. Median actual D 90 was 99 Gy (range, 90–176), and spinal cord median D max was 39 Gy (range, 6–110). Median local control (LC) was 12 months (95% CI: 7.0–17.0). The 6- and 12-month LC rates were 52% and 40%, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) was 11 months (95% CI: 7.7–14.3); 6-month and 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS rates were 65%, 37%, 14%, and 9%, respectively. Pain-free survival ranged from 2 to 42 months (median, 6; 95% CI: 4.6–7.4). Treatment was well-tolerated, with no radiation-induced vertebral compression fractures or myelopathy reported. Reirradiation with CT-guided 125I seed interstitial brachytherapy appears to be feasible, safe, and effective as pain relief or salvage treatment for patients with recurrent spinal metastases after EBRT. PMID:28105434

  1. CT-Guided 125I Seed Interstitial Brachytherapy as a Salvage Treatment for Recurrent Spinal Metastases after External Beam Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical efficacy of CT-guided 125I seed interstitial brachytherapy in patients with recurrent spinal metastases after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT. Between August 2003 and September 2015, 26 spinal metastatic lesions (24 patients were reirradiated by this salvage therapy modality. Treatment for all patients was preplanned using a three-dimensional treatment planning system 3–5 days before 125I seed interstitial brachytherapy; dosimetry verification was performed immediately after seed implantation. Median actual D90 was 99 Gy (range, 90–176, and spinal cord median Dmax was 39 Gy (range, 6–110. Median local control (LC was 12 months (95% CI: 7.0–17.0. The 6- and 12-month LC rates were 52% and 40%, respectively. Median overall survival (OS was 11 months (95% CI: 7.7–14.3; 6-month and 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS rates were 65%, 37%, 14%, and 9%, respectively. Pain-free survival ranged from 2 to 42 months (median, 6; 95% CI: 4.6–7.4. Treatment was well-tolerated, with no radiation-induced vertebral compression fractures or myelopathy reported. Reirradiation with CT-guided 125I seed interstitial brachytherapy appears to be feasible, safe, and effective as pain relief or salvage treatment for patients with recurrent spinal metastases after EBRT.

  2. Guiding deployment of resistance in cereals using evolutionary principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, Jeremy J; Barrett, Luke G; Rebetzke, Greg; Thrall, Peter H

    2014-06-01

    Genetically controlled resistance provides plant breeders with an efficient means of controlling plant disease, but this approach has been constrained by practical difficulties associated with combining many resistance genes together and strong evolutionary responses from pathogen populations leading to subsequent resistance breakdown. However, continuing advances in molecular marker technologies are revolutionizing the ability to rapidly and reliably manipulate resistances of all types - major gene, adult plant and quantitative resistance loci singly or multiply into individual host lines. Here, we argue that these advances provide major opportunities to deliberately design deployment strategies in cereals that can take advantage of the evolutionary pressures faced by target pathogens. Different combinations of genes deployed either within single host individuals or between different individuals within or among crops, can be used to reduce the size of pathogen populations and generate patterns of disruptive selection. This will simultaneously limit immediate epidemic development and reduce the probability of subsequent evolutionary change in the pathogen for broader infectivity or increased aggressiveness. The same general principles are relevant to the control of noncereal diseases, but the most efficacious controls will vary reflecting the range of genetic options available and their fit with specific ecology and life-history combinations.

  3. Automatic analysis of image quality control for Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) devices in external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torfeh, Tarraf

    2009-01-01

    On-board imagers mounted on a radiotherapy treatment machine are very effective devices that improve the geometric accuracy of radiation delivery. However, a precise and regular quality control program is required in order to achieve this objective. Our purpose consisted of developing software tools dedicated to an automatic image quality control of IGRT devices used in external radiotherapy: 2D-MV mode for measuring patient position during the treatment using high energy images, 2D-kV mode (low energy images) and 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) MV or kV mode, used for patient positioning before treatment. Automated analysis of the Winston and Lutz test was also proposed. This test is used for the evaluation of the mechanical aspects of treatment machines on which additional constraints are carried out due to the on-board imagers additional weights. Finally, a technique of generating digital phantoms in order to assess the performance of the proposed software tools is described. Software tools dedicated to an automatic quality control of IGRT devices allow reducing by a factor of 100 the time spent by the medical physics team to analyze the results of controls while improving their accuracy by using objective and reproducible analysis and offering traceability through generating automatic monitoring reports and statistical studies. (author) [fr

  4. A user's guide to the inhalation and external radiation collective dose module NECTAR-POPDOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, J.H.

    1982-02-01

    NECTAR-POPDOS is a module of the computer program NECTAR, which has been written in modular form to evaluate radioactive releases from nuclear fuel, their dispersion in the environment and the consequent individual and collective doses to man. The NECTAR-POPDOS module may be used to evaluate external and inhalation collective doses to any specified area of Great Britain, either to the total population or to any one of six age groups, using population data from the 1971 UK census. If a dose-risk function is defined, the module may be used to assess population health effects or for optimisation studies. The module is based on the stand-alone program POPDOS2, and is written in Fortran IV. The input data to the module is described and the module's limitations and sources of inaccuracy are discussed. Appendices to the report contain the necessary Job Control Language for running NECTAR, a list of NECTAR-POPDOS subroutines, and the input and output of two sample NECTAR-POPDOS cases. (author)

  5. Behavioral and Nondirective Guided Self-Help for Parents of Children with Externalizing Behavior: Mediating Mechanisms in a Head-To-Head Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzmann, Josepha; Hautmann, Christopher; Greimel, Lisa; Imort, Stephanie; Pinior, Julia; Scholz, Kristin; Döpfner, Manfred

    2017-05-01

    Parent training (PT) delivered as a guided self-help intervention may be a cost- and time-effective intervention in the treatment of children with externalizing disorders. In face-to-face PT, parenting strategies have repeatedly been identified as mediating mechanisms for the decrease of children's problem behavior. Few studies have examined possible mediating effects in guided self-help interventions for parents. The present study aimed to investigate possible mediating variables of a behaviorally oriented guided self-help program for parents of children with externalizing problems compared to a nondirective intervention in a clinical sample. A sample of 110 parents of children with externalizing disorders (80 % boys) were randomized to either a behaviorally oriented or a nondirective guided self-help program. Four putative mediating variables were examined simultaneously in a multiple mediation model using structural equation modelling. The outcomes were child symptoms of ADHD and ODD as well as child externalizing problems, assessed at posttreatment. Analyses showed a significant indirect effect for dysfunctional parental attributions in favor of the group receiving the behavioral program, and significant effects of the behavioral program on positive and negative parenting and parental self-efficacy, compared to the nondirective intervention. Our results indicate that a decrease of dysfunctional parental attributions leads to a decrease of child externalizing problems when parents take part in a behaviorally oriented guided self-help program. However, none of the putative mediating variables could explain the decrease in child externalizing behavior problems in the nondirective group. A change in dysfunctional parental attributions should be considered as a possible mediator in the context of PT.

  6. The finnish guide to radon-resistant homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: New regulations of the National Finnish Building Code require consideration of radon risks and as a main rule radon technical design in the building permission documents. Slab-on-grade is the prevalent substructure in Finnish low-rise residential buildings. Building statistics show that the prevalent practices in foundation construction promote the flow of radon-bearing soil air into living spaces. Without prevention the normal practices would result in high indoor radon concentrations in Finland. In wide areas more than 50% of houses exceed the reference level of 200 Bq/m 3 given for new buildings. The new guide published in 2003 requires installation of protective sheet in the slab-on-ground foundation and a preparatory radon piping. A protective sheet of durable reinforced bitumen felt with a width of 50 - 100 cm should be installed in the slab-foundation wall joint. Careful sealing of lead-troughs plays also an important role. In the case the sealing work does not result in low indoor radon concentration, the radon piping should be activated through radon-fan installation. Careful implementation of the sealing work reduces indoor radon concentration to a level of less than 50 Bq/m 3 , also in areas where the normal building practices result in indoor radon concentrations exceeding the reference level of 200 Bq/m 3 in more than 50% of new houses. Recent experiences from the implementation of the guide will be considered. (author)

  7. Improvement and Accountability: Navigating between Scylla and Charybdis. Guide for External Quality Assessment in Higher Education. Higher Education Policy Series 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vroeijenstijn, A. I.

    This guide provides advice and recommendations on designing a system of external quality assessment (EQA) for systems and institutions of higher education. Based on a Dutch national model, key features of the suggested system include: ownership by higher education institutions themselves although sanctioned by the government; primary aims of…

  8. Context-dependent neural activation: internally and externally guided rhythmic lower limb movement in individuals with and without neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Eve Hackney

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s Disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder that has received considerable attention in allopathic medicine over the past decades. However, it is clear that, to date, pharmacological and surgical interventions do not fully address symptoms of PD and patients’ quality of life. As both an alternative therapy and as an adjuvant to conventional approaches, several types of rhythmic movement (e.g., movement strategies, dance, tandem biking, tai chi have shown improvements to motor symptoms, lower limb control and postural stability in people with PD (Amano, Nocera, Vallabhajosula, Juncos, Gregor, Waddell et al., 2013; Earhart, 2009; M. E. Hackney & Earhart, 2008; Kadivar, Corcos, Foto, & Hondzinski, 2011; Morris, Iansek, & Kirkwood, 2009; Ridgel, Vitek, & Alberts, 2009. However, while these programs are increasing in number, still little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying motor improvements attained with such interventions. Studying limb motor control under task specific contexts can help determine the mechanisms of rehabilitation effectiveness. Both internally guided (IG and externally guided (EG movement strategies have evidence to support their use in rehabilitative programs. However, there appears to be a degree of differentiation in the neural substrates involved in IG versus EG designs. Because of the potential task specific benefits of rhythmic training within a rehabilitative context, this report will consider the use of IG and EG movement strategies, and observations produced by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and other imaging techniques. This review will present findings from lower limb imaging studies, under IG and EG conditions for populations with and without movement disorders. We will discuss how these studies might inform movement disorders rehabilitation (in the form of rhythmic, music-based movement training and highlight research gaps. We believe better understanding of lower limb neural

  9. Let the Pleasure Guide Your Resistance Training Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsangedy, Hassan Mohamed; da Silva Machado, Daniel Gomes; Krinski, Kleverton; Duarte do Nascimento, Paulo Henrique; de Amorim Oliveira, Gledson Tavares; Santos, Tony Meireles; Hargreaves, Elaine A; Parfitt, Gaynor

    2018-02-09

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of the Feeling Scale (FS) to self-regulate resistance training (RT) intensity. Sixteen sedentary men (39.7±7.5 years) performed 3 familiarization sessions, 2 one repetition maximum testing (1RM), and 16 RT sessions (4 sessions for each FS descriptor; randomized). The FS descriptors were "very good" (FS+5), "good" (FS+3), "fairly good" (FS+1), and "fairly bad" (FS-1). Resistance exercises were leg press, chest press, knee extension, and seated biceps curl. Participants were instructed to select a load associated with the verbal/numerical descriptor of the FS to perform 3 sets of 10 repetitions. Participants lifted a significantly greater %1RM as the FS level decreased from FS+5 to FS-1 (P<0.001). Mean %1RM for the FS descriptors of +5, +3, +1, and -1, respectively, were: leg press 42.5%±9.5; 58.2%±7.4; 69.9%±7.0; 80.7%±5.4; knee extensor 37.4%±9.6; 54.5%±9.3; 65.3±8.7; 78.2%±5.9; chest press 42.4%±11.3; 54.9%±11.4; 66.4%±12.6; 78.2%±13.5; and biceps curl 39.0%±8.1; 54.0%±9.7; 68.4%±5.9; 83.2%±3.0. The interclass correlation coefficient over the 4 experimental sessions ranged from 0.73 and 0.99 for %1RM, and 0.77 and 0.99 for weight lifted, with a coefficient of variation of approximately 7%, 4%, 2%, and 2% for FS descriptors of +5, +3, +1, and -1, respectively. This study is the first to demonstrate that the FS can be used to self-regulate exercise intensity in RT. The lower the FS descriptor the higher the weight lifted. In addition, the load self-selected for each FS descriptor was reliable across the four sessions.

  10. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Compounds from Datura stramonium with TRAIL-Resistance Overcoming Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Utpal K; Toume, Kazufumi; Ishikawa, Naoki; Arai, Midori A; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Ishibashi, Masami

    2016-02-01

    TRAIL is a potent inducer of apoptosis in most cancer cells, but not in normal cells, and therefore has deserved intense interest as a promising agent for cancer therapy. In the search for bioactive natural products for overcoming TRAIL-resistance, we previously reported a number of active compounds. In our screening program on natural resources targeting overcoming TRAIL-resistance, activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of Datura stramonium leaves led to the isolation of three alkaloids--scopolamine (1), trigonelline (2), and tyramine (3). Compounds 1, 2, and 3 exhibited TRAIL-resistance overcoming activity at 50, 150, and 100 µM, respectively in TRAIL-resistant AGS cells.

  11. 18F-FDG Pet-Guided External Beam Radiotherapy in Iodine-Refractory Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Farina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To evaluate the clinical response rate after a postoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT guided external beam radiotherapy (EBRT in Iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer. Material and Methods. Patients with thyroid cancer locally recurrent after total thyroidectomy plus metabolic radiotherapy and treated with radical EBRT were included. Inclusion criteria were detectable thyroglobulin (Tg, negative postmetabolic radiotherapy whole body scintigraphy, and no surgical indications. The pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT resulted positive in all cases (loggia, lymph nodes, and lung. EBRT was delivered with IMRT-SIB technique. A 18F-FDG PET/CT revaluation and Tg dosage were performed 3 months after the treatment. Results. Sixteen consecutive patients were included in this analysis (median follow-up: 6–44 months. Post-EBRT 18F-FDG PET/CT showed CR in 43.7%, PR in 31.2%, SD in 25.0% patients, and PD due to lung metastases in 12.5%. Overall response rate was 75.0% (CI 95%: 41.4–93.3%. Tg levels decreased in 75.0% with a median Δ of 68.0%. Two-year PFS and OS rates were 80.0% and 93.0%, respectively. Acute G3 toxicity occurred in 18.7% and late G2 toxicity in 12.5%. Conclusions.  18F-FDG PET/CT was useful in target definition for radiotherapy planning, identifying positive areas not detected with 131I scintigraphy. IMRT based EBRT was feasible and our results encourage future prospective studies. This clinical trial is registered with ID: NCT03191643.

  12. Bioprospecting for β-lactam resistance genes using a metagenomics-guided strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Yang, Ying; Che, You; Xia, Yu; Li, Liguan; Xiong, Wenguang; Zhang, Tong

    2017-08-01

    Emergence of new antibiotic resistance bacteria poses a serious threat to human health, which is largely attributed to the evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). In this work, a metagenomics-guided strategy consisting of metagenomic analysis and function validation was proposed for rapidly identifying novel ARGs from hot spots of ARG dissemination, such as wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and animal feces. We used an antibiotic resistance gene database to annotate 76 putative β-lactam resistance genes from the metagenomes of sludge and chicken feces. Among these 76 candidate genes, 25 target genes that shared 40~70% amino acid identity to known β-lactamases were cloned by PCR from the metagenomes. Their resistances to four β-lactam antibiotics were further demonstrated. Furthermore, the validated ARGs were used as the reference sequences to identify novel ARGs in eight environmental samples, suggesting the necessity of re-examining the profiles of ARGs in environmental samples using the validated novel ARG sequences. This metagenomics-guided pipeline does not rely on the activity of ARGs during the initial screening process and may specifically select novel ARG sequences for function validation, which make it suitable for the high-throughput screening of novel ARGs from environmental metagenomes.

  13. 4E10-resistant HIV-1 isolated from four subjects with rare membrane-proximal external region polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J Nakamura

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Human antibody 4E10 targets the highly conserved membrane-proximal external region (MPER of the HIV-1 transmembrane glycoprotein, gp41, and has extraordinarily broad neutralizing activity. It is considered by many to be a prototype for vaccine development. In this study, we describe four subjects infected with viruses carrying rare MPER polymorphisms associated with resistance to 4E10 neutralization. In one case resistant virus carrying a W680G substitution was transmitted from mother to infant. We used site-directed mutagenesis to demonstrate that the W680G substitution is necessary for conferring the 4E10-resistant phenotype, but that it is not sufficient to transfer the phenotype to a 4E10-sensitive Env. Our third subject carried Envs with a W680R substitution causing variable resistance to 4E10, indicating that residues outside the MPER are required to confer the phenotype. A fourth subject possessed a F673L substitution previously associated with 4E10 resistance. For all three subjects with W680 polymorphisms, we observed additional residues in the MPER that co-varied with position 680 and preserved charged distributions across this region. Our data provide important caveats for vaccine development targeting the MPER. Naturally occurring Env variants described in our study also represent unique tools for probing the structure-function of HIV-1 envelope.

  14. 4E10-resistant HIV-1 isolated from four subjects with rare membrane-proximal external region polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kyle J; Gach, Johannes S; Jones, Laura; Semrau, Katherine; Walter, Jan; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Decker, Julie M; Heath, Laura; Decker, William D; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Thea, Donald; Mullins, James; Kuhn, Louise; Zwick, Michael B; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2010-03-23

    Human antibody 4E10 targets the highly conserved membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 transmembrane glycoprotein, gp41, and has extraordinarily broad neutralizing activity. It is considered by many to be a prototype for vaccine development. In this study, we describe four subjects infected with viruses carrying rare MPER polymorphisms associated with resistance to 4E10 neutralization. In one case resistant virus carrying a W680G substitution was transmitted from mother to infant. We used site-directed mutagenesis to demonstrate that the W680G substitution is necessary for conferring the 4E10-resistant phenotype, but that it is not sufficient to transfer the phenotype to a 4E10-sensitive Env. Our third subject carried Envs with a W680R substitution causing variable resistance to 4E10, indicating that residues outside the MPER are required to confer the phenotype. A fourth subject possessed a F673L substitution previously associated with 4E10 resistance. For all three subjects with W680 polymorphisms, we observed additional residues in the MPER that co-varied with position 680 and preserved charged distributions across this region. Our data provide important caveats for vaccine development targeting the MPER. Naturally occurring Env variants described in our study also represent unique tools for probing the structure-function of HIV-1 envelope.

  15. Consultation Barriers between Teachers and External Consultants: A Grounded Theory of Change Resistance in School Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study, conducted in Sweden, was to investigate the cultural barriers between school personnel (teachers and principals) and nonschool personnel (a resource team), who were external to the school system, regarding consultation about challenging or difficult-to-teach students. Focus groups with teachers, principals, and the resource…

  16. Guide for the self-assessment of risks brought upon patients in external radiotherapy - ASN guide nr 4, Index 0, Release of the 15/01/2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document contains a user's guide for radiotherapy centres which is to be read before completing the form of analysis of failure modes, their effects and criticality (AMDEC), this form which must be completed by each radiotherapy centre, and a report explaining the methodology which has been adopted to elaborate this guide

  17. Seven-day genotypic resistance-guided tripleHelicobacter pylorieradication therapy can be highly effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Mathou, Nicoletta; Licousi, Sophia; Evgenidi, Aikaterini; Paraskeva, Konstantina D; Giannakopoulos, Athanasios; Stavrou, Pinelopi-Zoi; Platsouka, Evangelia; Karagiannis, John A

    2018-01-01

    The efficacy and applicability of molecular testing to guide the selection of antibiotics in triple Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori) eradication regimens have not been reported. We tested a 7-day, genotypic resistance-guided triple H. pylori eradication therapy in a high-resistance setting. Consecutive dyspeptic patients with H. pylori infection were prospectively enrolled. Genotypic resistances to clarithromycin ( 23SrRNA mutations) and fluoroquinolones ( gyrA mutations) were determined from gastric biopsy specimens using a commercially available molecular assay (GenoType â HelicoDR). A tailored genotypic resistance-guided 7-day triple therapy comprised esomeprazole, amoxicillin, and either clarithromycin (wild-type 23SrRNA ), levofloxacin ( 23SrRNA mutated/wild-type gyrA ) or rifabutin (both 23SrRNA / gyrA mutated). H. pylori eradication was confirmed by 13 C-urea breath test. Of 148 subjects screened, 51 patients were enrolled (male/female: 27/24, mean age: 50.7±11.4 years, treatment-naïve/-experienced: 32/19). The molecular kit was easily implemented, allowing for rapid (within 24 h) and relatively inexpensive determination of H. pylori resistance (clarithromycin: 47.1%, fluoroquinolones: 15.7%, dual clarithromycin/fluoroquinolones: 7.8%). For patients who received clarithromycin-, levofloxacin- and rifabutin-containing triple therapy, the respective eradication rates were 24/27, 20/20, and 2/4 by intention-to-treat (ITT); and 24/24, 19/19 and 2/3 by per-protocol (PP) analysis. Overall eradication rates were 90.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 77.8-96.3%) by ITT and 97.8% (95%CI 87-99.8%) by PP analysis, showing no significant difference between treatment-naïve and -experienced patients (ITT: 87.5% vs. 94.7%, P=0.64; PP: 96.4% vs. 100%, respectively, P=1.00). Regardless of prior treatment history, a genotypic resistance-guided 7-day triple therapy, based on a simple molecular assay, achieved a high H. pylori eradication rate.

  18. Effect of Shear Resistance on Flexural Debonding Load-Carrying Capacity of RC Beams Strengthened with Externally Bonded FRP Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guibing Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Debonding failure is the main failure mode in flexurally strengthened reinforced concrete beams by externally bonded or near surface mounted fibre reinforced polymer (FRP composites. It is believed that FRP debonding will be initiated if the shear stress on the concrete-FRP interface reaches the tensile strength of concrete. However, it was found through experimental and analytical studies that the debonding mechanism of FRP composites has the potential of shear failure in combination with debonding failure. Moreover, the shear failure probably influences the debonding failure. Presently, there are very little experimental and analytical studies to investigate the influence of shear resistance of reinforced concrete (RC beam on FRP debonding failure. The current study investigates and analyzes the effect of shear resistance on FRP debonding failure based on test results. The analytical results show that the shear resistance of RC beam has a great effect on flexural debonding load-carrying capacity of FRP-strengthened RC beam. The influence of shear resistance on flexural debonding load-carrying capacity must be fully considered in flexural strengthening design of RC beams.

  19. Wear resistance of machine tools' bionic linear rolling guides by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiqiang; Liu, Botao; Guo, Zhengcai

    2017-06-01

    In order to improve the rolling wear resistance (RWR) of linear rolling guides (LRG) as well as prolong the life of machine tools, various shape samples with different units spaces ranged from 1 to 5 mm are designed through the observation of animals in the desert and manufactured by laser cladding. Wear resistance tests reproducing closely the real operational condition are conducted by using a homemade linear reciprocating wear test machine, and wear resistance is evaluated by means of weight loss measurement. Results indicate that the samples with bionic units have better RWR than the untreated one, of which the reticulate treated sample with unit space 3 mm present the best RWR. More specifically, among the punctuate treated samples, the mass loss increases with the increase of unit space; among the striate treated samples, the mass loss changes slightly with the increase of unit space, attaining a minimum at the unit space of 4 mm; among the reticulate treated samples, with the increase of unit space, the mass loss initially decreases, but turns to increase after reaching a minimum at the unit space of 3 mm. Additionally, the samples with striate shape perform better wear resistance than the other shape groups on the whole. From the ratio value of laser treated area to contacted area perspective, that the samples with ratio value between 0.15 and 0.3 possess better wear resistance is concluded.

  20. Standard guide for estimating the atmospheric corrosion resistance of low-alloy steels

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This guide presents two methods for estimating the atmospheric corrosion resistance of low-alloy weathering steels, such as those described in Specifications A242/A242M, A588/A588M, A606 Type 4, A709/A709M grades 50W, HPS 70W, and 100W, A852/A852M, and A871/A871M. One method gives an estimate of the long-term thickness loss of a steel at a specific site based on results of short-term tests. The other gives an estimate of relative corrosion resistance based on chemical composition. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  1. Assessment of the Resistance to External Factors of Low-Density Polyethylene Modified with Natural Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Głogowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study reports the results of investigation of basic processing and thermal properties of low-density polyethylene modified with two types of natural filler: wheat bran and pumpkin seed hulls, their content ranging from 5% to 15% relative to the matrix. In addition, the physical properties of the produced granulates are determined, i.e. the relationship between their density and the applied contents of the tested fillers. Furthermore, the study reports the results concerning the longitudinal shrinkage, abrasion resistance and cold water absorption of injection molded tensile specimens.

  2. Resistive switching phenomena of extended defects in Nb-doped SrTiO3 under influence of external gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenbuecher, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Redox-based memristive materials have attracted much attention in the last decade owing to their ability to change the resistance upon application of an electric field making them promising candidates for future non-volatile memories. However, a fundamental understanding of the nature of the resistive switching effect, which is indispensable for designing future technological applications,is still lacking. As a prototype material of a memristive oxide, strontium titanate (SrTiO 3 ) has been investigated intensively and it was revealed that the valence change of a Ti ''d'' electron plays an important role during resistive switching related to insulator-to-metal transition. Such a transition can be induced by electrical gradients, by chemical gradients, by a combination of these gradients or by donor doping. Hence, SrTiO 3 doped with the donor Nb should have metallic properties and is used commonly as a conducting substrate for the growth of functional oxide thin films. Nevertheless,the resistive switching effect has also be observed in Nb-doped SrTiO 3 . This paradoxical situation offers a unique opportunity to gain an insight into the processes during the insulator-to metal transition. In this thesis, a comprehensive study of the influence of external gradients on SrTiO 3 :Nb single crystals is presented. The focus is especially set on the investigation of the crystallographic structure, the chemical composition, the electronic structure, the lattice dynamics and the electronic transport phenomena using surface-sensitive methods on the macro- and nanoscale. On the as-received epi-polished single crystals, the evolution of a surface layer having a slight excess of strontium and - in contrast to the bulk of the material - semiconducting properties are observed. Hence, the key for understanding of the resistive switching effect is the knowledge of the nature of the surface layer. On the basis of systematic studies of the influence of external

  3. Influence of helical external driven current on nonlinear resistive tearing mode evolution and saturation in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Wang, S.; Ma, Z. W.

    2017-06-01

    The influences of helical driven currents on nonlinear resistive tearing mode evolution and saturation are studied by using a three-dimensional toroidal resistive magnetohydrodynamic code (CLT). We carried out three types of helical driven currents: stationary, time-dependent amplitude, and thickness. It is found that the helical driven current is much more efficient than the Gaussian driven current used in our previous study [S. Wang et al., Phys. Plasmas 23(5), 052503 (2016)]. The stationary helical driven current cannot persistently control tearing mode instabilities. For the time-dependent helical driven current with f c d = 0.01 and δ c d < 0.04 , the island size can be reduced to its saturated level that is about one third of the initial island size. However, if the total driven current increases to about 7% of the total plasma current, tearing mode instabilities will rebound again due to the excitation of the triple tearing mode. For the helical driven current with time dependent strength and thickness, the reduction speed of the radial perturbation component of the magnetic field increases with an increase in the driven current and then saturates at a quite low level. The tearing mode is always controlled even for a large driven current.

  4. Combating mutations in genetic disease and drug resistance: understanding molecular mechanisms to guide drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanaz, Amanda T S; Rodrigues, Carlos H M; Pires, Douglas E V; Ascher, David B

    2017-06-01

    Mutations introduce diversity into genomes, leading to selective changes and driving evolution. These changes have contributed to the emergence of many of the current major health concerns of the 21st century, from the development of genetic diseases and cancers to the rise and spread of drug resistance. The experimental systematic testing of all mutations in a system of interest is impractical and not cost-effective, which has created interest in the development of computational tools to understand the molecular consequences of mutations to aid and guide rational experimentation. Areas covered: Here, the authors discuss the recent development of computational methods to understand the effects of coding mutations to protein function and interactions, particularly in the context of the 3D structure of the protein. Expert opinion: While significant progress has been made in terms of innovative tools to understand and quantify the different range of effects in which a mutation or a set of mutations can give rise to a phenotype, a great gap still exists when integrating these predictions and drawing causality conclusions linking variants. This often requires a detailed understanding of the system being perturbed. However, as part of the drug development process it can be used preemptively in a similar fashion to pharmacokinetics predictions, to guide development of therapeutics to help guide the design and analysis of clinical trials, patient treatment and public health policy strategies.

  5. Epidemiology of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in guide dogs in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönthal, Thomas; Ollilainen, Matti; Eklund, Marjut; Piiparinen, Heli; Gindonis, Veera; Junnila, Jouni; Saijonmaa-Koulumies, Leena; Liimatainen, Riitta; Rantala, Merja

    2015-07-17

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) and Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are common multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in dogs. In 2012-2013 three dogs of the Guide Dog School of the Finnish Federation of the Visually Impaired were found to be MRSP positive. Guide dogs have regular contact with each other during their first year of life and prolonged contact when in training. Since dogs are placed in different parts of Finland after training, there is a risk for national spread of MDR bacteria. In this study the prevalence of MRSP and MRSA, as well as the risk factors for MRSP were determined in the Finnish guide dog population. MRSP isolates were investigated using molecular methods and compared to the earlier isolates. Out of 132 tested dogs 4 were MRSP positive thus giving the prevalence estimate of 3% (95% CI: 1-8%) for MRSP in the target population. MRSA was not detected (prevalence estimate 0%, 95% CI: 0-3%). Risk factors associated with MRSP were being a breeding bitch (OR = 8.4; 95% CI: 1.1-64.1, P = 0.012), the number of veterinary visits (OR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.0-1.5, P = 0.025) and number of antimicrobial courses (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.0-2.55; P = 0.035). Identified MRSP isolates belonged to five different sequence types (ST45, 71, 402, 403 and 404). All ST71 isolates carried SCCmec II-III, while the SCCmec type of the ST45 and ST402 (a single locus variant of ST45) isolates were non-typeable with the method used. MRSP and MRSA had low prevalence in the studied dog population despite the close contact between dogs, and the MRSP population was heterogenic. Antimicrobial therapy and veterinary visits are risk factors for MRSP even among a small case group.

  6. A pilot external quality assurance programme for line-probe assay detection of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, K L; Yip, C W; Tang, H S; Lai, Y W; Lam, T K; Kam, K M

    2013-02-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB; resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin) is difficult to detect and control. Line-probe assays (LiPA) are widely used for the rapid detection of MDR-TB. To ensure the quality of the test, a pilot external quality assurance (EQA) programme was initiated to assess the feasibility of running such a programme and the possibility of improving the proficiency of TB laboratories in performing the test. Prepared filter-paper-based Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA samples were shipped to participant laboratories for LiPA EQA. The tests were performed blind, and the results were returned to the organising laboratory for comparison and analysis. A total of four rounds of EQA samples were dispatched to five laboratories in four countries. Overall inter- and intra-laboratory reproducibility was respectively 97% and 96%. The strengths and weaknesses of the participant laboratories in performing the test were discussed. A LiPA EQA programme can ensure quality and improve the performance of TB laboratories. This is a critical step during the initial stages at the time of setting up this method of testing.

  7. Protection of base nuclear installations against external flooding - Guide nr 13, release of the 08/01/2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    As the French law requires the flooding risk to be taken into account in the demonstration of the nuclear safety of base nuclear installations (INB), this guide aims at defining situations to be taken into account when assessing the flooding risk for a site (identification of water sources and of flooding causes, definition of flooding situations), at proposing an acceptable method to quantify these situations (local rains, rise of water level, problems on hydraulic works, dam failure, ocean waves, and so on), and at listing recommendations to define the protection means which are adapted to the specificities of the flooding risk, and are implemented by the operator with respect to the installation lifetime

  8. One-year follow-up of guided self-help for parents of preschool children with externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ise, Elena; Kierfeld, Frauke; Döpfner, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    Self-help programs are an effective intervention for parents of children with externalizing behavior. A number of studies have shown that self-administered parent training has positive short-term effects on a child's behavior, but there is little research done on long-term outcomes. This paper reports results from a 1-year follow-up of a randomized controlled prevention trial of self-administered parent training with minimal therapist contact. In the initial prevention trial, we randomly assigned 48 preschool children with elevated levels of externalizing behavior to either a treatment group (TG) or a waitlist control group (WLC). The intervention consisted of written material and brief weekly telephone consultations. Thirty-six families (25 TG families, 11 WLC families) completed the self-help program. Twenty-five of these participated in a follow-up assessment 1 year after the intervention. There were no significant changes from post-test to follow-up on measures of child behavior (e.g., Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder symptom rating scales) and parental mental health, indicating that gains achieved post-intervention were maintained for at least 1 year. Moreover, the percentage of children with substantial behavior problems was reduced from pre-intervention to follow-up. These findings provide evidence that telephone-assisted self-help programs can be effective in the prevention of disruptive behavior problems.

  9. External Quality Assessment for Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Drug Resistance in the European Union: A Five Year Multicentre Implementation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Hillemann, Doris; Richter, Elvira; Ahmed, Nada; van der Werf, Marieke J; Kodmon, Csaba; Drobniewski, Francis; Ruesch-Gerdes, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    External quality assurance (EQA) systems are essential to ensure accurate diagnosis of TB and drug-resistant TB. The implementation of EQA through organising regular EQA rounds and identification of training needs is one of the key activities of the European TB reference laboratory network (ERLTB-Net). The aim of this study was to analyse the results of the EQA rounds in a systematic manner and to identify potential benefits as well as common problems encountered by the participants. The ERLTB-Net developed seven EQA modules to test laboratories' proficiency for TB detection and drug susceptibility testing using both conventional and rapid molecular tools. All National TB Reference laboratories in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States were invited to participate in the EQA scheme. A total of 32 National TB Reference laboratories participated in six EQA rounds conducted in 2010-2014. The participation rate ranged from 52.9% - 94.1% over different modules and rounds. Overall, laboratories demonstrated very good proficiency proving their ability to diagnose TB and drug-resistant TB with high accuracy in a timely manner. A small number of laboratories encountered problems with identification of specific Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTMs) (N = 5) and drug susceptibility testing to Pyrazinamide, Amikacin, Capreomycin, and Ethambutol (N = 4). The European TB Reference laboratories showed a steady and high level of performance in the six EQA rounds. A network such as ERLTB-Net can be instrumental in developing and implementing EQA and in establishing collaboration between laboratories to improve the diagnosis of TB in the EU/EEA.

  10. Structure, thermal stability and resistance under external irradiation of rare earths and molybdenum-rich alumino-borosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouard, N.

    2011-01-01

    In France, the highly radioactive nuclear liquid wastes arising from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing (fission products + minor actinides (FPA)) are currently immobilized in an alumino-borosilicate glass called 'R7T7'. In the future, the opportunity of using new alumino-borosilicate glass compositions (HTC glasses) is considered in order to increase the waste loading in glasses and thus significantly decrease the number of glass canisters. However, the increase of the concentration of FPA could lead to the crystallization of rare-earth-rich phases (Ca 2 RE 8 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 ) or molybdenum-rich phases (CaMoO 4 , Na 2 MoO 4 ) during melt cooling, which can modify the confinement properties of the glass (chemical durability, self-irradiation resistance..), particularly if they can incorporate radionuclides α or β in their structure. This thesis can be divided into two parts: The first part deals with studying the relationship that can occur between the composition, the structure and the crystallization tendency of simplified seven oxides glasses, belonging to the SiO 2 -B 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 -Na 2 O-CaO-MoO 3 -Nd 2 O 3 system and derived from the composition of the HTC glass at 22,5 wt. % in FPA. The impact of the presence of platinoid elements (RuO 2 in our case) on the crystallization of the different phases is also studied. The second part deals with the effect of actinides α decays and more particularly of nuclear interactions essentially coming from recoil nuclei (simulated here by heavy ions external irradiations) on the behaviour under irradiation of an alumino-borosilicate glass containing apatite Ca 2 Nd 8 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 crystals, that can incorporate actinides in their structure. Two samples containing apatite crystals with different size are studied, in order to understand the impact of microstructure on the irradiation resistance of this kind of material. (author) [fr

  11. Transperineal gold marker implantation for image-guided external beam radiotherapy of prostate cancer. A single institution, prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgo, Kliton; Agoston, Peter; Major, Tibor; Takacsi-Nagy, Zoltan; Polgar, Csaba [National Institute of Oncology, Centre of Radiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-06-15

    To present the feasibility and complications of transperineal fiducial marker implantation in prostate cancer patients undergoing image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) Between November 2011 and April 2016, three radiopaque, gold-plated markers were transperineally implanted into the prostate of 300 patients under transrectal ultrasound guidance and with local anaesthesia. A week after the procedure patients filled in a questionnaire regarding pain, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, rectal bleeding, hematuria, hematospermia or fever symptoms caused by the implantation. Pain was scored on a 1-10 scale, where score 1 meant very weak and score 10 meant unbearable pain. The implanted gold markers were used for daily verification and online correction of patients' setup during IGRT. Based on the questionnaires no patient experienced fever, infection, dysuria or rectal bleeding after implantation. Among the 300 patients, 12 (4%) had hematospermia, 43 (14%) hematuria, which lasted for an average of 3.4 and 1.8 days, respectively. The average pain score was 4.6 (range 0-9). Of 300 patients 87 (29%) felt any pain after the intervention, which took an average of 1.5 days. None of the patients needed analgesics after implantation. Overall, 105 patients (35%) reported less, 80 patients (27%) more, and 94 patients (31%) equal amount of pain during marker implantation compared to biopsy. The 21 patients who had a biopsy performed under general anesthesia did not answer this question. Transperineal gold marker implantation under local anesthesia was well tolerated. Complications were limited; rate and frequency of perioperative pain was comparable to the pain caused by biopsy. The method can be performed safely in clinical practice. (orig.) [German] Darstellung von Machbarkeit und Komplikationen der transperinealen Implantation von Goldmarkern bei mit perkutaner Strahlentherapie (IGRT) behandelten Prostatakarzinompatienten. Zwischen November 2011 und April 2016 bekamen 300

  12. A clinical study of ligamentoaxis using an external fixator, modified frame in the management of a neglected, relapsed, resistant older congenital Talipes Equino varus child

    OpenAIRE

    Ajit Shinde; Suhas Kamble; Smit Shah; Raviraj Shinde

    2013-01-01

    Background: In an older, relapsed, recurrent, resistant Congenital Talipes Equino Varus (CTEV) child with previous surgical scar, soft tissue release alone is often not sufficient for full correction, particularly at above 2 years of age. Here controlled, fractional differential distraction with Joshi′s external stabilization system is a useful option to correct all the deformities. It is a well-established modality but with complication rate of 30%, mainly related to pin loosening and infect...

  13. A clinical study of ligamentoaxis using an external fixator, modified frame in the management of a neglected, relapsed, resistant older congenital Talipes Equino varus child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Shinde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In an older, relapsed, recurrent, resistant Congenital Talipes Equino Varus (CTEV child with previous surgical scar, soft tissue release alone is often not sufficient for full correction, particularly at above 2 years of age. Here controlled, fractional differential distraction with Joshi′s external stabilization system is a useful option to correct all the deformities. It is a well-established modality but with complication rate of 30%, mainly related to pin loosening and infection leading to instability of frame. We aimed to study a method to increase stability of frame to reduce incidence of pin loosening, infection and to evaluate clinical and functional outcome of the modality along with modification. Materials and Methods: 117 children underwent Joshi′s external stabilization system procedure. The principle of correction applied in this study was fractional distraction. Patients were evaluated by Catteral and Simons criteria. Results: Excellent results were obtained in 68.50% of cases, good results in 23.90%, and poor results in 7.60% of the cases. The complication rate reduced to 3% pin tract infections, which eventually healed with outpatient treatment. Conclusion: Fractional distraction method by using Joshi′s External Stabilization System is an easy, simple, less invasive method, which corrects all the deformities in resistant, neglected, and relapsed cases of CTEV and modification of the frame we used proved to be beneficial. Teaching and awareness of parents regarding distraction schedule, stability of frame postoperative importance of wearing of corrected footwear for long period are important.

  14. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  15. External quality assurance system for antibiotic resistance in bacteria of animal origin in Europe (ARBAO-II), 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fo Wong, Lo D.M.A.; Hendriksen, R.S.; Mevius, D.J.; Veldman, K.T.; Aarestrup, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Initiated in 2003 by the European Union, ARBAO-II aims to establish a monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility among the veterinary laboratories in all European countries based on validated methodologies. This includes an external quality control system for the most important bacterial pathogens.

  16. Resistance to temptation: the interaction of external and internal control on alcohol use during residential treatment for alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soravia, Leila M; Schläfli, Katrin; Stutz, Sonja; Rösner, Susanne; Moggi, Franz

    2015-11-01

    There is evidence that drinking during residential treatment is related to various factors, such as patients' general control beliefs and self-efficacy, as well as to external control of alcohol use by program's staff and situations where there is temptation to drink. As alcohol use during treatment has been shown to be associated with the resumption of alcohol use after discharge from residential treatment, we aimed to investigate how these variables are related to alcohol use during abstinence-oriented residential treatment programs for alcohol use disorders (AUD). In total, 509 patients who entered 1 of 2 residential abstinence-oriented treatment programs for AUD were included in the study. After detoxification, patients completed a standardized diagnostic procedure including interviews and questionnaires. Drinking was assessed by patients' self-report of at least 1 standard drink or by positive breathalyzer testing. The 2 residential programs were categorized as high or low control according to the average number of tests per patient. Regression analysis revealed a significant interaction effect between internal and external control suggesting that patients with high internal locus of control and high frequency of control by staff demonstrated the least alcohol use during treatment (16.7%) while patients with low internal locus of control in programs with low external control were more likely to use alcohol during treatment (45.9%). No effects were found for self-efficacy and temptation. As alcohol use during treatment is most likely associated with poor treatment outcomes, external control may improve treatment outcomes and particularly support patients with low internal locus of control, who show the highest risk for alcohol use during treatment. High external control may complement high internal control to improve alcohol use prevention while in treatment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research published by Wiley

  17. Prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant rectal flora in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy: A prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ho Seok; Hwang, Eu Chang; Yu, Ho Song; Jung, Seung Il; Lee, Sun Ju; Lim, Dong Hoon; Cho, Won Jin; Choe, Hyun Sop; Lee, Seung-Ju; Park, Sung Woon

    2018-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant rectal flora in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy and to identify the high-risk groups. From January 2015 to March 2016, rectal swabs of 557 men who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy were obtained from five institutions. Clinical variables, including demographics, rectal swab culture results and infectious complications, were evaluated. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to identify the risk factors for fluoroquinolone resistance of rectal flora and infectious complications. The incidence of fluoroquinolone-resistant and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production was 48.1 and 11.8%, respectively. The most common fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria was Escherichia coli (81% of total fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria, 39% of total rectal flora), and 16 (2.9%) patients had infectious complications. Univariable and multivariable analysis of clinical parameters affecting fluoroquinolone resistance showed no factor associated with fluoroquinolone resistance of rectal flora. The clinical parameter related to infectious complications after prostate biopsy was a history of operation within 6 months (relative risk 6.60; 95% confidence interval 1.99-21.8, P = 0.002). These findings suggest that a risk-based approach by history taking cannot predict antibiotic resistance of rectal flora, and physicians should consider targeted antibiotic prophylaxis or extended antibiotic prophylaxis for Korean patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy because of high antibiotic resistance of rectal flora. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  18. Teacher Skill Guide for Combatting Sexism. Module 3: Dealing with Resistance to Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulkin, Sunny; And Others

    This workshop module is designed to increase teachers' understanding of the resistance they are likely to encounter from their students when introducing emotionally laden content (e.g., issues of stereotyping and sex bias), and to provide them with strategies for preventing, dealing with, and reacting to student resistance. A booklet for use in…

  19. Genotyping External Quality Assurance in the World Health Organization HIV Drug Resistance Laboratory Network During 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, James; Bertagnolio, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a global laboratory network to support human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance genotyping for public health surveillance in resource-limited countries. Blinded proficiency panels are an essential part of a genotyping quality-assurance program and are used to monitor the reliability of genotyping data in the WHO laboratory network. Laboratories in Europe, North America, Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean have tested panels annually since 2007; 103 of 131 submissions (79%) had >99% nucleotide sequence identity and resistance mutation concordance, compared with consensus. Most errors were associated with mixtures in the test specimen, leading to subjectivity in base-calling or amplification bias. Overall, genotyping assays used by the WHO laboratory network are reliable. PMID:22544186

  20. Scaling of resistivities and guided vortex motion in MgB.sub.2./sub. thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašek, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 20, - (2007), s. 67-70 ISSN 0953-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0114; GA ČR GA202/05/0173 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : MgB 2 * thin films * longitudinal and transverse voltages * guided vortex motion model Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.547, year: 2007

  1. IGF-1 receptor targeted nanoparticles for image-guided therapy of stroma-rich and drug resistant human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongyu; Qian, Weiping; Uckun, Fatih M; Zhou, Zhiyang; Wang, Liya; Wang, Andrew; Mao, Hui; Yang, Lily

    2016-04-17

    Low drug delivery efficiency and drug resistance from highly heterogeneous cancer cells and tumor microenvironment represent major challenges in clinical oncology. Growth factor receptor, IGF-1R, is overexpressed in both human tumor cells and tumor associated stromal cells. The level of IGF-1R expression is further up-regulated in drug resistant tumor cells. We have developed IGF-1R targeted magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) carrying multiple anticancer drugs into human tumors. This IGF-1R targeted theranostic nanoparticle delivery system has an iron core for non-invasive MR imaging, amphiphilic polymer coating to ensure the biocompatibility as well as for drug loading and conjugation of recombinant human IGF-1 as targeting molecules. Chemotherapy drugs, Doxorubicin (Dox), was encapsulated into the polymer coating and/or conjugated to the IONP surface by coupling with the carboxyl groups. The ability of IGF1R targeted theranostic nanoparticles to penetrate tumor stromal barrier and enhance tumor cell killing has been demonstrated in human pancreatic cancer patient tissue derived xenograft (PDX) models. Repeated systemic administrations of those IGF-1R targeted theranostic IONP carrying Dox led to breaking the tumor stromal barrier and improved therapeutic effect. Near infrared (NIR) optical and MR imaging enabled noninvasive monitoring of nanoparticle-drug delivery and therapeutic responses. Our results demonstrated that IGF-1R targeted nanoparticles carrying multiple drugs are promising combination therapy approaches for image-guided therapy of stroma-rich and drug resistant human cancer, such as pancreatic cancer.

  2. Towards mechanisms-guided resistivity-based monitoring of damage evolution in laminated composites

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles

    2013-04-05

    A convenient health monitoring technique for detecting degradation in laminated composite is to monitor the change of electrical resistance along multiple conduction paths within the structure. Yet, the relations between the global modification of resistivity and the exact underlying damage map is still unclear that makes diffcult to interpret these nondestructive-testing results. The challenge is then to be able to reconstruct from these global observation the underlying damage map. This is even more diffcult due to the numerous underlying damage mechanisms that can take place either at the inter laminar of intra laminar level. This paper intends to provide some preliminary insights about strategies to recover the damage state based only on global measurements. We focus here on transverse cracking detection. We introduce the homogenization process that defines at the meso scale an equivalent homogeneous ply that is energetically equivalent to the cracked one. This can be used as a first tool to reconstruct damage maps based on global resistivity measurements.

  3. A European multi-centre External Quality Assessment (EQA) study on phenotypic and genotypic methods used for Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) drug resistance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Baharak; Bibby, David F; Piorkowska, Renata; Ohemeng-Kumi, Natasha; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela; Gillemot, Sarah; Morfin, Florence; Frobert, Emilie; Burrel, Sonia; Boutolleau, David; Crowley, Brendan; Mbisa, Jean L

    2017-11-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) drug resistance is a significant public health concern among immunocompromised individuals. Phenotypic assays are considered the gold standard method for detecting HSV drug resistance. However, plaque reduction assays (PRAs) are technically demanding, often with long turnaround times of up to four weeks. In contrast, genotypic tests can be performed within a few days. The development and coordination of the first European External Quality Assessment (EQA) study to evaluate phenotypic and genotypic methods used for HSV drug resistance testing in specialised reference laboratories. Four HSV-1 or HSV-2 strains with different antiviral susceptibility profiles were isolated from clinical samples. Isolates were quantified by qPCR, and aliquoted in culture medium. One isolate was distributed at two dilutions to help assess assay sensitivity. The panel was distributed to five European centres with a six-week deadline for the return of phenotypic and genotypic results, together with clinical reports. Four out of five participating labs returned results by the deadline. Limited results were later available from the fifth lab. Phenotypic and genotypic data were largely, but not completely, concordant. An unusual resistance profile shown by one of the samples was explained by the detection of a mixed virus population after extensive further investigation by one of the centres. Discordant clinical outputs reflecting the diversity of phenotypic methodologies demonstrated the utility of this exercise. With emerging genotypic technologies looking to supplant phenotyping, there is a need for curated public databases, accessible interpretation tools and standardised control materials for quality management. By establishing a network of testing laboratories, we hope that this EQA scheme will facilitate ongoing progress in this area. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Japanese external quality assessment program to standardize HIV-1 drug-resistance testing (JEQS2010 program) using in vitro transcribed RNA as reference material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shigeru; Hattori, Junko; Matsuda, Masakazu; Okada, Kiyomi; Kazuyama, Yukumasa; Hashimoto, Osamu; Ibe, Shiro; Fujisawa, Shin-ichi; Chiba, Hitoshi; Tatsumi, Masashi; Kato, Shingo; Sugiura, Wataru

    2015-03-01

    To design appropriate antiretroviral therapy regimens and avoid the emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 variants with reduced susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs, genotypic drug-resistance testing (HIV genotyping) is strongly recommended. To monitor the quality of HIV genotyping in Japan, we performed an external quality assessment (EQA), named the Japanese external quality assessment program, to standardize HIV genotyping (JEQS). To accurately evaluate the quality of HIV genotyping, we employed as reference material (RM) a well-characterized sample, in vitro transcribed RNA (trRNA) that includes the HIV gag-pol sequence, and created a JEQS2010 panel consisting of three single variant and three mixed trRNA samples. All 11 participating laboratories showed high concordance rates (>96%) for the single variant samples. Eight laboratories also showed good rates of detecting minor variants, but three laboratories failed to detect the variants comprising one-half of the sample. These three laboratories used a common primer that had four internal mismatches to the minor trRNA clone. This program showed the usefulness of trRNA as RM, the high quality of HIV genotyping, and extensive interlaboratory variation in the ability to detect minor variants. These results suggest that improving the quality of HIV genotyping in Japan requires regularly implementing the EQA program and improving the HIV genotyping protocol in each laboratory.

  5. Nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus polymerase chain reaction: a potential use in guiding antibiotic therapy for pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer A; Wright, Michael E; Sheperd, Lyndsay A; Musher, Daniel M; Dang, Bich N

    2015-01-01

    The role at admission of nasal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in guiding antibiotic therapy for lower respiratory tract infection is unknown. To determine whether nasal MRSA PCR at admission can predict the absence of MRSA in lower respiratory tract secretions. We performed a retrospective study of adult patients admitted to a large urban hospital. Patients had a nasal MRSA PCR test and a lower respiratory tract culture obtained within 48 hours of admission and the culture yielded S aureus. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. Our results showed high sensitivity (93.3%) and negative predictive value (95.2%) of nasal PCR for MRSA in the lower respiratory tract. With its high sensitivity and negative predictive value, a nasal MRSA PCR test performed within 48 hours of hospital admission could help guide the discontinuation of MRSA-directed empiric antibiotic therapy in patients who are unlikely to be infected with this organism. A prospective study is needed to confirm these findings.

  6. Molecular detection of rifampin and isoniazid resistance to guide chronic TB patient management in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinsi Gabriele

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB is considered a real threat to the achievement of TB control. Testing of mycobacterial culture and testing of drug susceptibility (DST capacity are limited in resource-poor countries, therefore inadequate treatment may occur, favouring resistance development. We evaluated the molecular assay GenoType® MTBDRplus (Hain Lifescience, Germany in order to detect DR-TB directly in clinical specimens as a means of providing a more accurate management of chronic TB patients in Burkina Faso, a country with a high TB-HIV co-infection prevalence. Methods Samples were collected in Burkina Faso where culture and DST are not currently available, and where chronic cases are therefore classified and treated based on clinical evaluation and sputum-smear microscopy results. One hundred and eight chronic TB patients (sputum smear-positive, after completing a re-treatment regimen for pulmonary TB under directly observed therapy were enrolled in the study from December 2006 to October 2008. Two early morning sputum samples were collected from each patient, immediately frozen, and shipped to Italy in dry ice. Samples were decontaminated, processed for smear microscopy and DNA extraction. Culture was attempted on MGIT960 (Becton Dickinson, Cockeysville, USA and decontaminated specimens were analyzed for the presence of mutations conferring resistance to rifampin and isoniazid by the molecular assay GenoType® MTBDRplus. Results We obtained a valid molecular test result in 60/61 smear-positive and 47/47 smear-negative patients. Among 108 chronic TB cases we identified patients who (i harboured rifampin- and isoniazid-susceptible strains (n 24, (ii were negative for MTB complex DNA (n 24, and (iii had non-tuberculous mycobacteria infections (n 13. The most represented mutation conferring rifampin-resistance was the D516V substitution in the hotspot region of the rpoB gene (43.8% of cases. Other mutations recognized

  7. Normalized resistance interpretation, the NRI method: Review of NRI disc test applications and guide to calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronvall, Göran; Smith, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The normalized resistance interpretation (NRI) method was developed in response to a call for a method to calibrate disc diffusion test results making inter-laboratory comparisons possible. The main use of NRI so far has been in individual laboratories, in medical and veterinary medicine and in the field of marine microbiology. The applications of NRI for disc diffusion tests are reviewed and, in addition, a detailed description of the calculation procedure is presented. NRI provides a fully objective method for ECOFF calculations of disc diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test results. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Successful treatment of a 67-year-old woman with urethral adenocarcinoma with the use of external beam radiotherapy and image guided adaptive interstitial brachytherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mujkanovic, Jasmin; Tanderup, Kari; Agerbæk, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Primary urethral cancer (PUC) is a very rare disease. This case report illustrates a successful treatment approach of a 67-year-old woman with a urethral adenocarcinoma selected for an organ preserving treatment with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and interstitial brachytherapy (BT) boost, using...

  9. Structures of HIV Protease Guide Inhibitor Design to Overcome Drug Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Irene T.; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y.; Harrison, Robert W. (GSU)

    2008-06-03

    The HIV/AIDS infection continues to be a major epidemic worldwide despite the initial promise of antiviral drugs. Current therapy includes a combination of drugs that inhibit two of the virally-encoded enzymes, the reverse transcriptase and the protease. The first generation of HIV protease inhibitors that have been in clinical use for treatment of AIDS since 1995 was developed with the aid of structural analysis of protease-inhibitor complexes. These drugs were successful in improving the life span of HIV-infected people. Subsequently, the rapid emergence of drug resistance has necessitated the design of new inhibitors that target mutant proteases. This second generation of antiviral protease inhibitors has been developed with the aid of data from medicinal chemistry, kinetics, and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Traditional computational methods such as molecular mechanics and dynamics can be supplemented with intelligent data mining approaches. One approach, based on similarities to the protease interactions with substrates, is to incorporate additional interactions with main chain atoms that cannot easily be eliminated by mutations. Our structural and inhibition data for darunavir have helped to understand its antiviral activity and effectiveness on drug resistant HIV and demonstrate the success of this approach.

  10. A field guide to pandemic, epidemic and sporadic clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Monecke, Stefan

    2011-04-01

    In recent years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become a truly global challenge. In addition to the long-known healthcare-associated clones, novel strains have also emerged outside of the hospital settings, in the community as well as in livestock. The emergence and spread of virulent clones expressing Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is an additional cause for concern. In order to provide an overview of pandemic, epidemic and sporadic strains, more than 3,000 clinical and veterinary isolates of MRSA mainly from Germany, the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Malta, Abu Dhabi, Hong Kong, Australia, Trinidad & Tobago as well as some reference strains from the United States have been genotyped by DNA microarray analysis. This technique allowed the assignment of the MRSA isolates to 34 distinct lineages which can be clearly defined based on non-mobile genes. The results were in accordance with data from multilocus sequence typing. More than 100 different strains were distinguished based on affiliation to these lineages, SCCmec type and the presence or absence of PVL. These strains are described here mainly with regard to clinically relevant antimicrobial resistance- and virulence-associated markers, but also in relation to epidemiology and geographic distribution. The findings of the study show a high level of biodiversity among MRSA, especially among strains harbouring SCCmec IV and V elements. The data also indicate a high rate of genetic recombination in MRSA involving SCC elements, bacteriophages or other mobile genetic elements and large-scale chromosomal replacements.

  11. A Field Guide to Pandemic, Epidemic and Sporadic Clones of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, Stefan; Coombs, Geoffrey; Shore, Anna C.; Coleman, David C.; Akpaka, Patrick; Borg, Michael; Chow, Henry; Ip, Margaret; Jatzwauk, Lutz; Jonas, Daniel; Kadlec, Kristina; Kearns, Angela; Laurent, Frederic; O'Brien, Frances G.; Pearson, Julie; Ruppelt, Antje; Schwarz, Stefan; Scicluna, Elizabeth; Slickers, Peter; Tan, Hui-Leen; Weber, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become a truly global challenge. In addition to the long-known healthcare-associated clones, novel strains have also emerged outside of the hospital settings, in the community as well as in livestock. The emergence and spread of virulent clones expressing Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is an additional cause for concern. In order to provide an overview of pandemic, epidemic and sporadic strains, more than 3,000 clinical and veterinary isolates of MRSA mainly from Germany, the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Malta, Abu Dhabi, Hong Kong, Australia, Trinidad & Tobago as well as some reference strains from the United States have been genotyped by DNA microarray analysis. This technique allowed the assignment of the MRSA isolates to 34 distinct lineages which can be clearly defined based on non-mobile genes. The results were in accordance with data from multilocus sequence typing. More than 100 different strains were distinguished based on affiliation to these lineages, SCCmec type and the presence or absence of PVL. These strains are described here mainly with regard to clinically relevant antimicrobial resistance- and virulence-associated markers, but also in relation to epidemiology and geographic distribution. The findings of the study show a high level of biodiversity among MRSA, especially among strains harbouring SCCmec IV and V elements. The data also indicate a high rate of genetic recombination in MRSA involving SCC elements, bacteriophages or other mobile genetic elements and large-scale chromosomal replacements. PMID:21494333

  12. The anti-vaccination movement and resistance to allergen-immunotherapy: a guide for clinical allergists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrmann Jason

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite over a century of clinical use and a well-documented record of efficacy and safety, a growing minority in society questions the validity of vaccination and fear that this common public health intervention is the root-cause of severe health problems. This article questions whether growing public anti-vaccine sentiments might have the potential to spill-over into other therapies distinct from vaccination, namely allergen-immunotherapy. Allergen-immunotherapy shares certain medical vernacular with vaccination (e.g., allergy shots, allergy vaccines, and thus may become "guilty by association" due to these similarities. Indeed, this article demonstrates that anti-vaccine websites have begun unduly discrediting this allergy treatment regimen. Following an explanation of the anti-vaccine movement, the article aims to provide guidance on how clinicians can respond to patient fears towards allergen-immunotherapy in the clinical setting. This guide focuses on the provision of reliable information to patients in order to dispel misconceived associations between vaccination and allergen-immunotherapy, and the discussion of the risks and benefits of both therapies in order to assist patients in making autonomous decisions about their choice of allergy treatment.

  13. Methodological guide for the implementation of a workstation radiation protection optimization approach: case of the external exposure of the whole body. Report nr 305

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, C.; Boucher, A.; Schieber, C.

    2008-02-01

    The first part of this report presents the different steps of the radiation protection optimization approach and proposes some methodological elements for its implementation when designing a maintenance or modification operation. For each step of this optimization approach, the guide presents objectives, peculiarities, recommendations to deepen the approach. The second part proposes a set of technical forms related to the study and the implementation of some actions aimed at dose reduction. These actions are notably: circuit rinsing, decontamination of an irradiation source, setting up of biological protections, removal of an irradiating component, tele-dosimetry, and so on

  14. Fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli in intestinal flora of patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy--should we reassess our practices for antibiotic prophylaxis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, D; Slabbaert, K; De Wever, L; Vermeersch, P; Van Poppel, H; Verhaegen, J

    2012-06-01

    Although the estimate of the incidence of sepsis following transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUSPB) is low, fluoroquinolone-resistant infections after prostate biopsy are being increasingly noted. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of faecal carriage of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli strains before TRUSPB and at evaluating potential predisposing risk factors. The incidence of sepsis after prostate biopsy was determined, and our routine practice for antibiotic prophylaxis for TRUSPB was evaluated. A prospective study was conducted in 342 consecutive patients undergoing prostate biopsy between December 2009 and July 2010. Before TRUSPB, a rectal swab was cultured. The correlation between the presence of fluoroquinolone-resistant strains and plausible risk factors was investigated by the use of a questionnaire. Of the 236 patients included, 22.0% (52/236) harboured ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli strains. The use of fluoroquinolones in the 6 months before biopsy was associated with an increased risk of faecal carriage of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains (p fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains was an important risk factor for infectious complications after TRUSPB (p fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains (22.0%) before TRUSPB. The use of fluoroquinolones in the previous 6 months before biopsy is a risk factor for faecal carriage of fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli strains and for infectious complications after TRUSPB. Hence, the universal administration of fluoroquinolones should be reconsidered. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  15. External man-induced events in relation to nuclear power plant design. A Safety Guide. A publication within the NUSS programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In order to take account of lessons learned since the first publication of the NUSS programme was issued, it was decided in 1986 to revise and reissue the Codes and Safety Guides. During the original development of these publications, as well as during the revision process, care was taken to ensure that all Member States, in particular those with active nuclear power programmes, could provide their input. Several independent reviews took place including a final one by the Nuclear Safety Standards Advisory Group (NUSSAG). The revised Codes were approved by the Board of Governors in June 1988. In the revision process new developments in technology and methods of analysis have been incorporated on the basis of international consensus. It is hoped that the revised Codes will be used, and that they will be accepted and respected by Member States as a basis for regulation of the safety of power reactors within the national legal and regulatory framework. 28 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  16. Aldosterone Antagonists or Renin-Guided Therapy for Treatment-Resistant Hypertension: A Comparative Effectiveness Pilot Study in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Brent M; Laken, Marilyn A; Sutherland, Susan E; Qanungo, Suparna; Fleming, Douglas O; Cook, Anne G; Hester, William H; Jones, Kelly W; Jebaily, Gerard C; Valainis, Gregory T; Way, Charles F; Wright, Mary Beth; Davis, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    Uncontrolled treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH), i.e., blood pressure (BP, mm Hg) ≥140/≥90mm Hg in and out of office on ≥3 different BP medications at optimal doses, is common and has a poor prognosis. Aldosterone antagonist (AA) and renin-guided therapy (RGT) are effective strategies for improving BP control in TRH but have not been compared. A comparative effectiveness TRH pilot study of AA vs. RGT was conducted in 4 primary care clinics with 2 each randomized to AA or RGT. The primary outcome was change in clinic BP defined by means of 5 automated office BP values. Eighty-nine patients with apparent TRH were screened and 44 met criteria for true TRH. Baseline characteristics of 20 patients in the AA (70% Black, 45% female, mean age: 57.4 years) and 24 patients in RGT (79% Black, 50% female, 57.8 years) arms were similar with baseline BP 162±5/90±3 vs. 153±3/84±3, respectively, P = 0.11/0.20. BP declined to 144±5/86±4 in AA vs. 132±4/75±3 in RGT, P = 0.07/0.01; BP was controlled to JNC7 (Seventh Joint National Committee Report) goal in 25% vs. 62.5%, respectively, P primary outcome, were not different (-17.6±5.1/-4.0±3.0 AA vs. -20.4±3.8/-9.7±2.0 RGT, P = 0.65/0.10.), more BP medications were added with AA than RGT (+0.9±0.1 vs. +0.4±0.1 per patient, P primary care. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Surveillance-guided selective digestive decontamination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the intensive care unit: A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Joyce H S; Li, Hong-Kiu; Ip, Margaret

    2018-03-01

    Clinical findings have shown effectiveness and safety of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) for eradication of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in high-risk carriers. We aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of SDD guided by CRE surveillance in the intensive care unit (ICU). Outcomes of surveillance-guided SDD (test-guided SDD) and no screening (control) in the ICU were compared by Markov model simulations. Model outcomes were CRE infection and mortality rates, direct costs, and quality-adjusted life year (QALY) loss. Model inputs were estimated from clinical literature. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the robustness of base case results. Test-guided SDD reduced infection (4.8% vs 5.0%) and mortality (1.8% vs 2.1%) rates at a higher cost ($1,102 vs $1,074) than the control group in base case analysis, respectively. Incremental cost per QALY saved (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER]) by the test-guided SDD group was $557 per QALY. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that test-guided SDD was effective in saving QALYs in 100% of 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations, and cost-saving 59.1% of time. The remaining 40.9% of simulations found SDD to be effective at an additional cost, with ICERs accepted as cost-effective per the willingness-to-pay threshold. Surveillance-guided SDD appears to be cost-effective in reducing CRE infection and mortality with QALYs saved. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Image Guided Radiation Therapy for External Beam Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation: Evaluation of Delivered Dose and Intrafractional Cavity Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, Sahaja; Fischer-Valuck, Benjamin W.; Mazur, Thomas R.; Curcuru, Austen; Sona, Karl; Kashani, Rojano; Green, Olga; Ochoa, Laura; Mutic, Sasa; Zoberi, Imran; Li, H. Harold; Thomas, Maria A., E-mail: mthomas@radonc.wustl.edu

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To use magnetic resonance image guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) for accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) to (1) determine intrafractional motion of the breast surgical cavity; and (2) assess delivered dose versus planned dose. Methods and Materials: Thirty women with breast cancer (stages 0-I) who underwent breast-conserving surgery were enrolled in a prospective registry evaluating APBI using a 0.35-T MR-IGRT system. Clinical target volume was defined as the surgical cavity plus a 1-cm margin (excluding chest wall, pectoral muscles, and 5 mm from skin). No additional margin was added for the planning target volume (PTV). A volumetric MR image was acquired before each fraction, and patients were set up to the surgical cavity as visualized on MR imaging. To determine the delivered dose for each fraction, the electron density map and contours from the computed tomography simulation were transferred to the pretreatment MR image via rigid registration. Intrafractional motion of the surgical cavity was determined by applying a tracking algorithm to the cavity contour as visualized on cine MR. Results: Median PTV volume was reduced by 52% when using no PTV margin compared with a 1-cm PTV margin used conventionally. The mean (± standard deviation) difference between planned and delivered dose to the PTV (V95) was 0.6% ± 0.1%. The mean cavity displacement in the anterior–posterior and superior–inferior directions was 0.6 ± 0.4 mm and 0.6 ± 0.3 mm, respectively. The mean margin required for at least 90% of the cavity to be contained by the margin for 90% of the time was 0.7 mm (5th-95th percentile: 0-2.7 mm). Conclusion: Minimal intrafractional motion was observed, and the mean difference between planned and delivered dose was less than 1%. Assessment of efficacy and cosmesis of this MR-guided APBI approach is under way.

  19. Transperineal ultrasound-guided implantation of electromagnetic transponders in the prostatic fossa for localization and tracking during external beam radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garsa, Adam A; Verma, Vivek; Michalski, Jeff M; Gay, Hiram A

    2014-01-01

    To describe a transperineal ultrasound-guided technique for implantation of electromagnetic transponders into the prostatic fossa. Patients were placed in the dorsal lithotomy position, and local anesthetic was administered. On ultrasound, the bladder, urethra, vesicourethral anastomosis, rectum, and the prostatic fossa were carefully identified. Three transponders were implanted into the prostatic fossa under ultrasound guidance in a triangular configuration and implantation was verified by fluoroscopy. Patients underwent computed tomography (CT) simulation approximately 1 week later. All patients in this study were subsequently treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to the prostatic fossa. From 2008 to 2012, 180 patients received transperineal implantation of electromagnetic transponders into the prostatic fossa and subsequently received IMRT. There were no cases of severe hematuria or rectal bleeding requiring intervention. There were no grade 3 or 4 toxicities. Three patients (1.7%) had a transponder missing on the subsequent CT simulation. Thirteen patients (7.3%) had transponder migration with a geometric residual that exceeded 2 mm for 3 consecutive days (5.6%) or rotation that exceeded 10 degrees for 5 consecutive days (1.7%). These patients underwent a resimulation CT scan to identify the new transponder coordinates. A transperineal technique for implantation of electromagnetic transponders into the prostatic fossa is safe and well tolerated, with no severe toxicity after implantation. There is a low rate of transponder loss or migration.

  20. External short circuit performance of Graphite-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 and Graphite-LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cells at different external resistances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriston, Akos; Pfrang, Andreas; Döring, Harry; Fritsch, Benjamin; Ruiz, Vanesa; Adanouj, Ibtissam; Kosmidou, Theodora; Ungeheuer, Jürgen; Boon-Brett, Lois

    2017-09-01

    This study aims at analyzing the response of Li-ion cells and at identifying the hazards and governing phenomena from hard to soft external short circuit conditions. 10 Ah pouch cells and 4.5 mAh coin cells were short circuited while synchronized current, potential and temperature signals, audio, IR and visual video recordings were registered. The anode, cathode and separator harvested from the cells were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, micro X-ray Computed Tomography and 3D-profilometry. The complex short circuit behavior obtained can be described by 3 regions: In the first region 274C-rate is observed which is mainly governed by the cell's double and diffusion layer discharge. In the second region, the current drops significantly to 50-60C-rate where mass transport becomes the current limiting factor. The maximum temperature (77-121 °C) is reached and cell rupture, venting and electrolyte leakage may occur. In the final, third region the current decline continues due to the decaying electromotive force. The normalized external/internal resistance ratio is found to be the main influential factor on current and hazards rather than the external resistance or the capacity of the cell. The implications on the relevance and fitness-for-purpose of external short circuit test in standards are outlined.

  1. A field guide for rapid assessment of post-wildfire recovery potential in sagebrush and pinon-juniper ecosystems in the Great Basin: Evaluating resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive annual grasses and predicting vegetation response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard F. Miller; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant

    2015-01-01

    This field guide provides a framework for rapidly evaluating post-fire resilience to disturbance, or recovery potential, and resistance to invasive annual grasses, and for determining the need and suitability of the burned area for seeding. The framework identifies six primary components that largely determine resilience to disturbance, resistance to invasive grasses,...

  2. Multiple Genetic Analysis System-Based Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing in Helicobacter pylori and High Eradication Rate With Phenotypic Resistance-Guided Quadruple Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fangyuan; Ji, Danian; Huang, Renxiang; Zhang, Fan; Huang, Yiqin; Xiang, Ping; Kong, Mimi; Nan, Li; Zeng, Xianping; Wu, Yong; Bao, Zhijun

    2015-11-01

    /18), whereas in detecting LVX resistance were 100% (25/25) and 83.3% (15/18), respectively. Finally, the eradication rate in test group was significantly higher than that in control group as demonstrated by intention-to-treat analysis and per-protocol analysis.MGAS is a promising assay for H. pylori identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Phenotypic resistance-guided quadruple therapy showed a high efficacy in treating patients with H. pylori infection.

  3. Multilevel resistance switching effect in Au/La2/3Ba1/3MnO3/Pt heterostructure manipulated by external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiahong; Zhao, Xiaoyu; Li, Qian; Zhang, Sheng; Wang, Dunhui; Du, Youwei

    2018-04-01

    Multilevel resistance switching (RS) effect has attracted more and more attention due to its promising potential for the increase of storage density in memory devices. In this work, the transport properties are investigated in an Au/La2/3Ba1/3MnO3 (LBMO)/Pt heterostructure. Taking advantage of the strong interplay among the spin, charge, orbital and lattice of LBMO, the Au/LBMO/Pt device can exhibit bipolar RS effect and magnetoresistance effect simultaneously. Under the coaction of electric field and magnetic field, four different resistance states are achieved in this device. These resistance states show excellent repeatability and retentivity and can be switched between any two states, which suggest the potential applications in the multilevel RS memory devices with enhanced storage density.

  4. Decreased antimicrobial resistance and defined daily doses after implementation of a clinical culture-guided antimicrobial stewardship program in a local hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Teng Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to report the implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP guided by clinically significant cultures in a hospital to assess its pharmaceutical, microbiological, financial, and outcome effects. Methods: A 3-year cohort study of an antimicrobial restriction policy implementation was performed. The ASP with culture-guided de-escalation of antibiotics was instituted in a local hospital since January 1, 2012. The cost of antimicrobials, defined daily dose (DDD, susceptibility to antimicrobials, and outcome of all admitted patients were calculated and evaluated before and after the ASP implementation. Results: Average monthly length of stay of admitted patients decreased from 7.8 ± 0.5 days in 2011 to 6.9 ± 0.3 days in 2013 (p < 0.001. The average monthly cost of antimicrobials decreased 46.9% from US$30,146.8 in 2011 to US$16,021.3 in 2013 (p < 0.001. Total intravenous antimicrobial DDDs per 100 bed-days of the inpatients were 66.9, 54.1 and 48.4 in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. A total of 18.6 DDDs per 100 bed-days of inpatients (27.7% decreased from 2011 to 2013. By comparing data in 2013 to those in 2011, the ASP reduced antimicrobial resistance of Gram-positive bacteria (p = 0.013, Gram-negative bacteria (p < 0.001, and predominant species (all p < 0.05. The yearly mortality also decreased from 1.3% in 2011 to 1.1% in 2012 and 1.0% in 2013. Conclusions: The ASP with a culture-guided de-escalation of antibiotics successfully reduced length of stay, mortality, the cost of antimicrobials, DDDs, and antimicrobial resistance rate, and that is highly recommended for local hospitals. Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, antimicrobial restriction policy, antimicrobial stewardship program, defined daily dose

  5. Strength training at high versus low external resistance in older adults: effects on muscle volume, muscle strength, and force-velocity characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roie, Evelien; Delecluse, Christophe; Coudyzer, Walter; Boonen, Steven; Bautmans, Ivan

    2013-11-01

    Muscle adaptations can be induced by high-resistance exercise. Despite being potentially more suitable for older adults, low-resistance exercise protocols have been less investigated. We compared the effects of high- and low-resistance training on muscle volume, muscle strength, and force-velocity characteristics. Fifty-six older adults were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of leg press and leg extension training at either HIGH (2×10-15 repetitions at 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM)), LOW (1×80-100 repetitions at 20% of 1RM), or LOW+ (1×60 repetitions at 20% of 1RM, followed by 1×10-20 repetitions at 40% of 1RM). All protocols ended with muscle failure. Leg press and leg extension of 1RM were measured at baseline and post intervention and before the first training session in weeks 5 and 9. At baseline and post intervention, muscle volume (MV) was measured by CT-scan. A Biodex dynamometer evaluated knee extensor static peak torque in different knee angles (PT(stat90°), PT(stat120°), PT(stat150°)), dynamic peak torque at different speeds (PT(dyn60°s)(-1), PT(dyn180°s)(-1), PT(dyn240°s)(-1)), and speed of movement at 20% (S20), 40% (S40), and 60% (S60) of PTstat90°. HIGH and LOW+ resulted in greater improvements in 1RM strength than LOW (presistance exercises ending with muscle failure may be similarly effective for hypertrophy. High-resistance training led to a higher increase in 1RM strength than low-resistance training (20% of 1RM), but this difference disappeared when using a mixed low-resistance protocol in which the resistance was intensified within a single exercise set (40% of 1RM). Our findings support the need for more research on low-resistance programs in older age, in particular long-term training studies and studies focusing on residual effects after training cessation. © 2013.

  6. Automated External Defibrillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / Automated External Defibrillator Automated External Defibrillator Also known as What Is An automated external ... in survival. Training To Use an Automated External Defibrillator Learning how to use an AED and taking ...

  7. Overhead guide sign retroreflectivity and illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Roadway guide sign visibility during darkness is fundamental to driver safety, especially elderly drivers. Guide : sign visibility can be improved by external sign illumination or the use of retroreflective sheeting on signs. Because : energy conserv...

  8. Infective complications in patients after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy and the role of ciprofloxacin resistant Escherichia coli colonization in rectal flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamarat, Mustafa Bilal; Tarhan, Fatih; Horuz, Rahim; Öcal, Gülfem Akengin; Demirkol, Mehmet Kutlu; Kafkaslı, Alper; Yazıcı, Özgür

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, we aimed to invastigate the ciprofloxacin resistance in rectal flora of the patients undergoing prostate biopsy in our department. Additionally, the possible effects of the presence of ciprofloxacin resistant bacteria in faecal flora on the risk of infective complications after the procedure as well as the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on such infectious complications have been evaluated. A total of 142 patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy were included into the study program. Rectal swab samples were taken from all patients prior to biopsy. The presence of complications have been evaluated after a week following the biopsy procedure. Patients with fever were also evaluated. The possible correlation between the presence of ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria in faecal flora and the risk of urinary tract infection development and the other complications were evaluated. E. coli bacteria were present in all cultures of rectal swab samples obtained from 142 patients prior to prostate biopsy. Of all these patients, while ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli (CR E. coli ) grew in 76 (53.5%) patients; ciprofloxacin susceptible E. coli (CS E. coli ) was obtained in 66 (46.5%) patients. In 16 patients (11.3%), infectious complications were observed. While the infective complications were present in the 14.5% of patients with CR E. coli ; they were present in the 7.6% of patients with CS E. coli (p=0.295). High fever was observed in nine patients (6.3%). Of these nine patients, although six had CR E. coli growth as detected during culture sensitivity tests; three had CS E. coli growth in their rectal swab culture tests. Sepsis was observed in three (2.1%) of these patients with high fever. Ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli grew in all of the rectal swab cultures obtained from these patients with sepsis. In the light of our findings we may say that, it will be appropriate to reconsider the ciprofloxacin prophylaxis and prefer to use

  9. CCR5 gene disruption via lentiviral vectors expressing Cas9 and single guided RNA renders cells resistant to HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiming; Ye, Chaobaihui; Liu, Jingjing; Zhang, Di; Kimata, Jason T; Zhou, Paul

    2014-01-01

    CCR5, a coreceptor for HIV-1 entry, is a major target for drug and genetic intervention against HIV-1. Genetic intervention strategies have knocked down CCR5 expression levels by shRNA or disrupted the CCR5 gene using zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) or Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN). In the present study, we silenced CCR5 via CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) and single guided RNAs (sgRNAs). We constructed lentiviral vectors expressing Cas9 and CCR5 sgRNAs. We show that a single round transduction of lentiviral vectors expressing Cas9 and CCR5 sgRNAs into HIV-1 susceptible human CD4+ cells yields high frequencies of CCR5 gene disruption. CCR5 gene-disrupted cells are not only resistant to R5-tropic HIV-1, including transmitted/founder (T/F) HIV-1 isolates, but also have selective advantage over CCR5 gene-undisrupted cells during R5-tropic HIV-1 infection. Importantly, using T7 endonuclease I assay we did not detect genome mutations at potential off-target sites that are highly homologous to these CCR5 sgRNAs in stably transduced cells even at 84 days post transduction. Thus we conclude that silencing of CCR5 via Cas9 and CCR5-specific sgRNAs could be a viable alternative strategy for engineering resistance against HIV-1.

  10. A field guide for selecting the most appropriate treatment in sagebrush and pinon-juniper ecosystems in the Great Basin: Evaluating resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive annual grasses, and predicting vegetation response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard F. Miller; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant

    2014-01-01

    This field guide identifies seven primary components that largely determine resilience to disturbance, as well as resistance to invasive grasses and plant succession following treatment of areas of concern. The primary components are (1) characteristics of the ecological site, (2) current vegetation prior to treatment, (3) disturbance history, (4) type, timing, and...

  11. Comparative Investigation of Guided Fuzzy Clustering and Mean Shift Clustering for Edge Detection in Electrical Resistivity Tomography Images of Mineral Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Wil; Wilkinson, Paul; Chambers, Jon; Bai, Li

    2014-05-01

    Geophysical surveying using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be used as a rapid non-intrusive method to investigate mineral deposits [1]. One of the key challenges with this approach is to find a robust automated method to assess and characterise deposits on the basis of an ERT image. Recent research applying edge detection techniques has yielded a framework that can successfully locate geological interfaces in ERT images using a minimal assumption data clustering technique, the guided fuzzy clustering method (gfcm) [2]. Non-parametric clustering techniques are statistically grounded methods of image segmentation that do not require any assumptions about the distribution of data under investigation. This study is a comparison of two such methods to assess geological structure based on the resistivity images. In addition to gfcm, a method called mean-shift clustering [3] is investigated with comparisons directed at accuracy, computational expense, and degree of user interaction. Neither approach requires the number of clusters as input (a common parameter and often impractical), rather they are based on a similar theory that data can be clustered based on peaks in the probability density function (pdf) of the data. Each local maximum in these functions represents the modal value of a particular population corresponding to a cluster and as such the data are assigned based on their relationships to these model values. The two methods differ in that gfcm approximates the pdf using kernel density estimation and identifies population means, assigning cluster membership probabilities to each resistivity value in the model based on its distance from the distribution averages. Whereas, in mean-shift clustering, the density function is not calculated, but a gradient ascent method creates a vector that leads each datum towards high density distributions iteratively using weighted kernels to calculate locally dense regions. The only parameter needed in both methods

  12. Research into the usage of integrated jamming of IR weakening and smoke-screen resisting the IR imaging guided missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long-tao; Jiang, Ning; Lv, Ming-shan

    2015-10-01

    With the emergence of the anti-ship missle with the capability of infrared imaging guidance, the traditional single jamming measures, because of the jamming mechanism and technical flaws or unsuitable use, greatly reduced the survival probability of the war-ship in the future naval battle. Intergrated jamming of IR weakening + smoke-screen Can not only make jamming to the search and tracking of IR imaging guidance system , but also has feasibility in conjunction, besides , which also make the best jamming effect. The research conclusion has important realistic meaning for raising the antimissile ability of surface ships. With the development of guidance technology, infrared guidance system has expanded by ir point-source homing guidance to infrared imaging guidance, Infrared imaging guidance has made breakthrough progress, Infrared imaging guidance system can use two-dimensional infrared image information of the target, achieve the precise tracking. Which has Higher guidance precision, better concealment, stronger anti-interference ability and could Target the key parts. The traditional single infrared smoke screen jamming or infrared decoy flare interference cannot be imposed effective interference. So, Research how to effectively fight against infrared imaging guided weapons threat measures and means, improving the surface ship antimissile ability is an urgent need to solve.

  13. A cost analysis of introducing an infectious disease specialist-guided antimicrobial stewardship in an area with relatively low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanbeck, Peter; Ragnarson Tennvall, Gunnel; Resman, Fredrik

    2016-07-27

    Antimicrobial stewardship programs have been widely introduced in hospitals as a response to increasing antimicrobial resistance. Although such programs are commonly used, the long-term effects on antimicrobial resistance as well as societal economics are uncertain. We performed a cost analysis of an antimicrobial stewardship program introduced in Malmö, Sweden in 20 weeks 2013 compared with a corresponding control period in 2012. All direct costs and opportunity costs related to the stewardship intervention were calculated for both periods. Costs during the stewardship period were directly compared to costs in the control period and extrapolated to a yearly cost. Two main analyses were performed, one including only comparable direct costs (analysis one) and one including comparable direct and opportunity costs (analysis two). An extra analysis including all comparable direct costs including costs related to length of hospital stay (analysis three) was performed, but deemed as unrepresentative. According to analysis one, the cost per year was SEK 161 990 and in analysis two the cost per year was SEK 5 113. Since the two cohorts were skewed in terms of size and of infection severity as a consequence of the program, and since short-term patient outcomes have been demonstrated to be unchanged by the intervention, the costs pertaining to patient outcomes were not included in the analysis, and we suggest that analysis two provides the most correct cost calculation. In this analysis, the main cost drivers were the physician time and nursing time. A sensitivity analysis of analysis two suggested relatively modest variation under changing assumptions. The total yearly cost of introducing an infectious disease specialist-guided, audit-based antimicrobial stewardship in a department of internal medicine, including direct costs and opportunity costs, was calculated to be as low as SEK 5 113.

  14. Does external pneumatic compression treatment between bouts of overreaching resistance training sessions exert differential effects on molecular signaling and performance-related variables compared to passive recovery? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Cody T; Roberts, Michael D; Romero, Matthew A; Osburn, Shelby C; Mobley, Christopher B; Anderson, Richard G; Goodlett, Michael D; Pascoe, David D; Martin, Jeffrey S

    2017-01-01

    We sought to compare the effects of external pneumatic compression (EPC) and sham when used concurrently with resistance training on performance-related outcomes and molecular measures related to recovery. Twenty (N = 20) resistance-trained male participants (aged 21.6±2.4 years) were randomized to balanced sham or EPC intervention groups. The protocol consisted of 3 consecutive days of heavy, voluminous back squat exercise followed by EPC/sham treatment (Days2-4) and 3 consecutive days of recovery (Days5-7) with EPC/sham only on Days5-6. On Day1 (PRE), and Days3-7, venipuncture, flexibility and pressure-to-pain threshold (PPT) measures were performed. Vastsus lateralis muscle tissue was biopsied at PRE, 1-h post-EPC/sham treatment on Day2 (POST1) and 24-h post-EPC/sham treatment on Day7 (POST2). Isokinetic peak torque was assessed at PRE and POST2. Peak isokinetic strength did not change from PRE to POST2 in either group. The PPT was significantly lower on Days3-6 with sham, indicating greater muscle soreness, though this was largely abolished in the EPC group. A significant decrease in flexibility with sham was observed on Day3 (+16.2±4.6% knee joint angle; P0.01). Vastus lateralis poly-ubiquitinated proteins significantly increased at the POST2 time point relative to PRE with sham (+66.6±24.6%; Pmuscle oxidative stress and proteolysis markers during recovery from heavy resistance exercise.

  15. Mitochondrial energy-dissipating systems (alternative oxidase, uncoupling proteins, and external NADH dehydrogenase) are involved in development of frost-resistance of winter wheat seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabelnych, O I; Borovik, O A; Tauson, E L; Pobezhimova, T P; Katyshev, A I; Pavlovskaya, N S; Koroleva, N A; Lyubushkina, I V; Bashmakov, V Yu; Popov, V N; Borovskii, G B; Voinikov, V K

    2014-06-01

    Gene expression, protein synthesis, and activities of alternative oxidase (AOX), uncoupling proteins (UCP), adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), and non-coupled NAD(P)H dehydrogenases (NDex, NDPex, and NDin) were studied in shoots of etiolated winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings after exposure to hardening low positive (2°C for 7 days) and freezing (-2°C for 2 days) temperatures. The cold hardening efficiently increased frost-resistance of the seedlings and decreased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during further cold shock. Functioning of mitochondrial energy-dissipating systems can represent a mechanism responsible for the decrease in ROS under these conditions. These systems are different in their response to the action of the hardening low positive and freezing temperatures. The functioning of the first system causes induction of AOX and UCP synthesis associated with an increase in electron transfer via AOX in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and also with an increase in the sensitivity of mitochondrial non-phosphorylating respiration to linoleic and palmitic acids. The increase in electron transfer via AOX upon exposure of seedlings to hardening freezing temperature is associated with retention of a high activity of NDex. It seems that NDex but not the NDPex and NDin can play an important role in maintaining the functional state of mitochondria in heterotrophic tissues of plants under the influence of freezing temperatures. The involvement of the mitochondrial energy-dissipating systems and their possible physiological role in the adaptation of winter crops to cold and frost are discussed.

  16. Total hip prosthesis complication, periprosthetic infection with external fistulizing due to Enterobacter cloacae complex multiple drugs resistance: A clinical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorese, V; Corda, M; Donadu, M; Usai, D; Pisanu, F; Milia, F; Marras, F; Sanna, A; Delogu, D; Mazzarello, V; Manzoni, G; Conti, M; Meloni, G B; Zanetti, S; Doria, C

    2017-01-01

    The Enterobacter cloacae is a microorganism found in the intestinal flora of the majority of animals, including humans. Primary infections caused by E. cloacae are rare in immunocompetent patients, but are very common in hospital settings in newborns and immunocompromised patients, and can be aggravated by the insurgence of antibiotic resistance. The incidence of periprosthetic hip infections is just below 2%. A 76year old woman with multiple comorbidities underwent surgical implantation of intermediary total hip prosthesis of the left hip, in a different health facility, in February 2014, after the basicervical fracture of the upper femur extremity due to trauma. After an episode of dislocation of the prosthetic implant, in September 2014, she underwent a surgical operation to implant the acetabular component. A month later not in our facility, following a re-hospitalization for the dislocation of the arthroprosthesis, an infection from E. cloacae complex was discovered. After 2 years of chronic infection she came to our attention; the clinical picture featured coxalgia and secreting fistula in the surgical wound. Following a specific antibiotic therapy, carried out intravenously over the course of a month, we decided to intervene removing the left hip arthroprosthesis and placing an antibiotic spacer following the direction deduced from the antibiogram study of August 2016. The patient was hospitalized in our facility and 2 months later she underwent another operation to remove the antibiotic spacer and to place a new total hip arthroprosthesis. Multiple swabs showed the complete healing from the infection, which was confirmed a couple of months later. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P.; Hongisto, M.; Siitonen, S.; Johansson, M.

    1999-01-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  18. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  19. Long-Wearing Wire Guide For Welding Torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutow, David A.; Burley, Richard K.; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Fogel, Irving

    1992-01-01

    Insert for wire-guide tube on tungsten/inert-gas welding apparatus extends life of guide tube and increases accuracy of weld. Hardened insert resists wear by sliding tungsten wire. Chamfer guides wire into insert.

  20. Does external pneumatic compression treatment between bouts of overreaching resistance training sessions exert differential effects on molecular signaling and performance-related variables compared to passive recovery? An exploratory study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody T Haun

    Full Text Available We sought to compare the effects of external pneumatic compression (EPC and sham when used concurrently with resistance training on performance-related outcomes and molecular measures related to recovery.Twenty (N = 20 resistance-trained male participants (aged 21.6±2.4 years were randomized to balanced sham or EPC intervention groups. The protocol consisted of 3 consecutive days of heavy, voluminous back squat exercise followed by EPC/sham treatment (Days2-4 and 3 consecutive days of recovery (Days5-7 with EPC/sham only on Days5-6. On Day1 (PRE, and Days3-7, venipuncture, flexibility and pressure-to-pain threshold (PPT measures were performed. Vastsus lateralis muscle tissue was biopsied at PRE, 1-h post-EPC/sham treatment on Day2 (POST1 and 24-h post-EPC/sham treatment on Day7 (POST2. Isokinetic peak torque was assessed at PRE and POST2.Peak isokinetic strength did not change from PRE to POST2 in either group. The PPT was significantly lower on Days3-6 with sham, indicating greater muscle soreness, though this was largely abolished in the EPC group. A significant decrease in flexibility with sham was observed on Day3 (+16.2±4.6% knee joint angle; P0.01. Vastus lateralis poly-ubiquitinated proteins significantly increased at the POST2 time point relative to PRE with sham (+66.6±24.6%; P<0.025 and were significantly greater (P<0.025 than those observed with EPC at the same time point (-18.6±8.5%. 4-hydroxynonenal values were significantly lower at POST2 relative to PRE with EPC (-16.2±5.6%; P<0.025 and were significantly lower (P<0.025 than those observed with sham at the same time point (+11.8±5.9%.EPC mitigated a reduction in flexibility and PPT that occurred with sham. Moreover, EPC reduced select skeletal muscle oxidative stress and proteolysis markers during recovery from heavy resistance exercise.

  1. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  2. The External Nasal Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Grant S

    2017-05-01

    The external nasal valve is a complex entity comprised of multiple structures and tissue types. As such, there is no single operation that can address all problems of the external valve. This article reviews the relevant anatomy, pathologic conditions, and treatments for external nasal valve dysfunction, including a detailed review of the nasal muscles and their contribution to external nasal valve patency. Surgical and nonsurgical options for treatment and the evidence supporting the importance of proper external nasal valve function on quality-of-life measures are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 1. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1995-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase 1 was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes is underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  4. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase I was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes are underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  5. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 5. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Tort, V.; Manen, P.

    1995-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, there has been increased interest in the environmental impacts that are caused by the generation of electricity. The comparative risk assessment studies at that time used mainly deaths and injuries as impact indicators. By the end of the 1980s studies changed to the assessment of the costs imposed on society and the environment that were not included in the market price of the energy produced, the so-called external costs. The preliminary studies that were published set the conceptual basis, grounded in neo-classical economics, for the valuation of the health and environmental impacts that could be assessed. As a consequence of the many questions raised by the methodologies employed by these early studies, Directorate General XII (DG XII) of the Commission of the European Communities established a collaborative research programme with the United States Department of Energy to identify an appropriate methodology for this type of work. Following the completion of this collaboration, the DG XII programme has continued as the ExternE project. The main objective of the work carried out at CEPN was to develop an impact pathway methodology for the nuclear fuel cycle that would be consistent with the methodologies developed for other fuel cycles, without loosing the nuclear-specific techniques required for a proper evaluation. In this way, comparisons between the different fuel cycles would be possible. This report presents the methodology and demonstration of the results in the context of the French nuclear fuel cycle. The United States team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has previously issued a draft report on the results of their assessment. The French fuel cycle was broken down into 8 separate stages. Reference sites and 1990s technology were chosen to represent the total nuclear fuel cycle, as it exists today. In addition, the transportation of material between the sites was considered. The facilities are assessed for routine operation, except

  6. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...... instruments. However, solving the open-access externality problem also affects CO2 emissions. By using a bio-economic model covering Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and the Faroe Islands, it is shown that regulations of the open-access externality problem have a large effect on both economic performance...... and CO2 emissions, while an additional CO2 regulation only has minor effects. The second-best solution achieved by only regulating open access reduces emissions by approximately 50% compared to current fisheries, with the exception of Iceland, which already has a well-developed fisheries management...

  7. Neutron guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Geoffrey L.

    1999-01-01

    A neutron guide in which lengths of cylindrical glass tubing have rectangular glass plates properly dimensioned to allow insertion into the cylindrical glass tubing so that a sealed geometrically precise polygonal cross-section is formed in the cylindrical glass tubing. The neutron guide provides easier alignment between adjacent sections than do the neutron guides of the prior art.

  8. [External cephalic version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Santana, B; Duarez-Coronado, M; Plaza-Arranz, J

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the rate of successful external cephalic versions in our center and caesarean sections that would be avoided with the use of external cephalic versions. From January 2012 to March 2016 external cephalic versions carried out at our center, which were a total of 52. We collected data about female age, gestational age at the time of the external cephalic version, maternal body mass index (BMI), fetal variety and situation, fetal weight, parity, location of the placenta, amniotic fluid index (ILA), tocolysis, analgesia, and newborn weight at birth, minor adverse effects (dizziness, hypotension and maternal pain) and major adverse effects (tachycardia, bradycardia, decelerations and emergency cesarean section). 45% of the versions were unsuccessful and 55% were successful. The percentage of successful vaginal delivery in versions was 84% (4% were instrumental) and 15% of caesarean sections. With respect to the variables studied, only significant differences in birth weight were found; suggesting that birth weight it is related to the outcome of external cephalic version. Probably we did not find significant differences due to the number of patients studied. For women with breech presentation, we recommend external cephalic version before the expectant management or performing a cesarean section. The external cephalic version increases the proportion of fetuses in cephalic presentation and also decreases the rate of caesarean sections.

  9. Internalisation of external costs in Switzerland and in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauch, U.

    1995-01-01

    Plans and resistance for internalising the external costs are discussed taking the conditions in Switzerland and in other countries of Europe into account. Internalisation is seen as signpost to regressive development. (author) 5 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Initial external events: floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumond, M.M.

    1989-12-01

    The initial external event, specifically flood in a Nuclear power plant, and the calculation necessary to determine the contribution of this type of event in a Probabilistic Safety Analysis, are presented. (M.I.)

  11. Energy policy and externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Fraser, P.

    2002-01-01

    External costs of energy have been assessed in a number of authoritative and reliable studies based upon widely accepted methodologies such as life cycle analysis (LCA). However, although those costs are recognised by most stakeholders and decision makers, results from analytical work on externalities and LCA studies are seldom used in policy making. The International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) convened a joint workshop in November 2001 to offer experts and policy makers an opportunity to present state-of-the-art results from analytical work on externalities and debate issues related to the relevance of external costs and LCA for policy-making purposes. The findings from the workshop highlight the need for further work in the field and the potential rote of international organisations like the IEA and the NEA in this context. (authors)

  12. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  13. Future of External Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This chapter builds on prior chapters and focuses on higher education trends on the horizon and the resulting impact on external reporting for institutional researchers. Three practical recommendations and examples for institutional researchers are also presented.

  14. Productivity Change and Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the analysis of the impact of externalities on the host country's total factor productivity by taking into account different dimensions of spillover effects. Namely, engagement in exporting and foreign ownership is generally perceived as being beneficial to individual...... firms and the economy as a whole. The approach used in the current research accounts for different internal as well as external factors that individual firms face and evaluates the effect on changes in productivity, technology as well as the efficiency of domestic firms. The empirical analysis focuses...... on Hungary. While the country leads the group of post-socialist countries in the amount of attracted foreign direct investments (FDI) the effect of this policy on the economy remains unclear. The research finds that different externalities play a different role in productivity, technological and efficiency...

  15. Externality or sustainability economics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  16. From Bench-Top to Bedside: A Prospective In Vitro Antibiotic Combination Testing (iACT) Service to Guide the Selection of Rationally Optimized Antimicrobial Combinations against Extensively Drug Resistant (XDR) Gram Negative Bacteria (GNB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yiying; Chua, Nathalie Grace; Lim, Tze-Peng; Teo, Jocelyn Qi-Min; Lee, Winnie; Kurup, Asok; Koh, Tse-Hsien; Tan, Thuan-Tong; Kwa, Andrea L

    2016-01-01

    Combination therapy is increasingly utilized against extensively-drug resistant (XDR) Gram negative bacteria (GNB). However, choosing a combination can be problematic as effective combinations are often strain-specific. An in vitro antibiotic combination testing (iACT) service, aimed to guide the selection of individualized and rationally optimized combination regimens within 48 hours, was developed. We described the role and feasibility of the iACT service in guiding individualized antibiotic combination selection in patients with XDR-GNB infections. A retrospective case review was performed in two Singapore hospitals from April 2009-June 2014. All patients with XDR-GNB and antibiotic regimen guided by iACT for clinical management were included. The feasibility and role of the prospective iACT service was evaluated. The following patient outcomes were described: (i) 30-day in-hospital all-cause and infection-related mortality, (ii) clinical response, and (iii) microbiological eradication in patients with bloodstream infections. From 2009-2014, the iACT service was requested by Infectious Disease physicians for 39 cases (20 P. aeruginosa, 13 A. baumannii and 6 K. pneumoniae). Bloodstream infection was the predominant infection (36%), followed by pneumonia (31%). All iACT recommendations were provided within 48h from request for the service. Prior to iACT-guided therapy, most cases were prescribed combination antibiotics empirically (90%). Changes in the empiric antibiotic regimens were recommended in 21 (54%) cases; in 14 (36%) cases, changes were recommended as the empiric regimens were found to be non-bactericidal in vitro. In 7 (18%) cases, the number of antibiotics used in combination empirically was reduced by the iACT service. Overall, low 30-day infection-related mortality (15%) and high clinical response (82%) were observed. Microbiological eradication was observed in 79% of all bloodstream infections. The iACT service can be feasibly employed to guide the

  17. Nanoparticle-guided radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and nano-sized particles for image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of a target tissue. More specifically, the invention relates to nano-sized particles comprising X-ray-imaging contrast agents in solid form with the ability to block x-rays, allowing for simult......The present invention relates to a method and nano-sized particles for image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of a target tissue. More specifically, the invention relates to nano-sized particles comprising X-ray-imaging contrast agents in solid form with the ability to block x-rays, allowing...... for simultaneous or integrated external beam radiotherapy and imaging, e.g., using computed tomography (CT)....

  18. Guided labworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lærke Bang

    For the last 40 years physics education research has shown poor learning outcomes of guided labs. Still this is found to be a very used teaching method in the upper secodary schools. This study explains the teacher's choice of guided labs throught the concept of redesign as obstacle dislodgement...

  19. Unix Application Migration Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Microsoft. Redmond

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on the experience of Microsoft consultants working in the field, as well as external organizations that have migrated from UNIX to Microsoft® Windows®, this guide offers practical, prescriptive guidance on the issues you are likely to face when porting existing UNIX applications to the Windows operating system environment. Senior IT decision makers, network managers, and operations managers will get real-world guidance and best practices on planning and implementation issues to understand the different methods through which migration or co-existence can be accomplished. Also detailing

  20. Toroidal plasma response to external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storer, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    Toroidal plasmas respond to external driving fields in a way which is determined by the coupling of these fields to the spectrum of the plasma. We have extended the toroidal resistive magnetohydrodynamic spectral code, SPECTOR, to include the effects of external fields on tokamak-like plasmas. The code is capable of determining both the stable and unstable modes and also the response to helical applied fields with arbitrary mode structure. Resistivity changes the continuous regions of the ideal MHD spectrum into a set of discrete eigenvalues lying along lines in the complex frequency plane with a spacing which is related to the inverse of the square root of the magnetic Reynolds number. Results are presented which relate the spectral distribution to the plasma response as a function of frequency. (author)

  1. Impact of preoperative screening for rectal colonization with fluoroquinolone-resistant enteric bacteria on the incidence of sepsis following transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrell JJ

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available John J Farrell,1,2 Jennifer L Hicks,3 Stephanie E Wallace,2 Allen D Seftel4,5 1Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Illinois College of Medicine, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Microbiology & Serology, OSF/Saint Francis Medical Center, 3Department of Urology, OSF /Saint Francis Medical Center, Peoria, IL, 4Department of Urology, Cooper University Hospital, 5Department of Surgery, Cooper University School of Medicine, Camden, NJ, USA Abstract: With the universal adoption of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to prostate biopsy, the current risk of post-biopsy infection (including sepsis is <2%. Preoperative prophylactic antibiotic regimens can vary, and although fluoroquinolones have emerged as the standard of care, there is no universally agreed upon preoperative antibiotic regimen. Recently, an increase in the proportion of postoperative infections caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli (as well as other Enterobacteriaceae has led to the exploration of simple, practical, and cost-effective methods to minimize this postoperative infection risk. We performed a prospective, nonrandomized, controlled study of preoperative rectal cultures to screen for rectal colonization with fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria using ciprofloxacin-supplemented MacConkey agar culture media. To evaluate the feasibility and practicality of this test, one provider used the results of rectal swab cultures collected during the preoperative outpatient evaluation to adjust each patient’s preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis when fluoroquinolone-resistant enteric bacteria were detected, whereas two other providers continued usual preoperative care and empiric antimicrobial prophylaxis. Rectal colonization with fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria was detected in 19/152 (12.5% of patients. In our intention-to-treat analysis (N=268, the rate of post-biopsy sepsis was 3.6% lower in the group that was screened

  2. Análise da resistência externa e da atividade eletromiográfica do movimento de extensão de quadril realizado segundo o método Pilates Analysis of the external resistance and electromyographic activity of hip extension performed according to the Pilates method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YO Silva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Comparar a ativação elétrica do reto femoral (RF, do bíceps femoral cabeça longa (BF e semitendíneo (ST e o torque de resistência (T R do movimento de extensão de quadril (EQ realizado com a mola fixada em duas posições distintas no Cadillac. MÉTODOS: 12 sujeitos realizaram 5 repetições de EQ com a mola fixada em duas posições (alta e baixa. Dados de eletromiografia (EMG e eletrogoniometria foram coletados simultaneamente. O root mean square foi calculado e normalizado com base na contração voluntária máxima. Para o cálculo do T R, foram usados diagramas de corpo livre (DCL e equações de movimento. ANOVA one-way foi usada para verificar as diferenças para EMG entre as posições de mola (pOBJECTIVES: To compare the electrical activation of the rectus femoris (RF, long head of the biceps femoris (BF and semitendinosus (ST and the resistance torque (T R of the hip extension (HE movement performed on the Pilates Cadillac with the attachable spring in two different positions. METHODS: Twelve subjects performed five hip extensions with the attachable spring in two positions (high and low. Electromyography (EMG and electrogoniometry data were colleted simultaneously. The root mean square (RMS was calculated and normalized based on the maximal voluntary contraction. A free-body diagram (FBD and movement equations were used to calculate T R. One-way ANOVA was used to investigate EMG differences between spring positions (p<0.05. RESULTS: When the spring was in the high position, T R was classified as descending and occurred in the "direction" of flexion over most of the range of motion (ROM. In the low position, T R descended until 60º of hip flexion, in the direction of flexion, and from there it took on an ascending pattern in the direction of extension. CONCLUSIONS: The EMG analysis seemed to follow the T R, with higher values for the RF in the low position and higher activation values for the BF and ST in the high

  3. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke

    2014-01-01

    to an implementation setting. In this paper, currently available checklists on external validity are identified, assessed and used as a basis for proposing a new improved instrument. METHOD: A systematic literature review was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl on English-language papers without time restrictions...

  4. External costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.; Spadaro, J.V.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a synthesis of the ExternE project (External costs of Energy) of the European community about the external costs of power generation. Pollution impacts are calculated using an 'impact pathways' analysis, i.e. an analysis of the emission - dispersion - dose-response function - cost evaluation chain. Results are presented for different fuel cycles (with several technological variants) with their confidence intervals. The environmental impact costs are particularly high for coal: for instance, in France, for coal-fired power plants it is of the same order as the electricity retail price. For natural gas, this cost is about a third of the one for coal. On the contrary, the environmental impact costs for nuclear and renewable energies are low, typically of few per cent of the electricity price. The main part of these costs corresponds to the sanitary impacts, in particular the untimely mortality. In order to avoid any controversy about the cost evaluation of mortality, the reduction of the expectation of life due to the different fuel cycles is also indicated and the risks linked with nuclear energy are presented using several comparisons. (J.S.)

  5. On parabolic external maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomonaco, Luna; Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Shen, Weixiao

    2017-01-01

    We prove that any C1+BV degree d ≥ 2 circle covering h having all periodic orbits weakly expanding, is conjugate by a C1+BV diffeomorphism to a metrically expanding map. We use this to connect the space of parabolic external maps (coming from the theory of parabolic-like maps) to metrically expan...

  6. Network cities and externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Boix Domènech

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of «agglomeration economies» explains the existence of advantages derived from the concentration of population and activity. However, it does not explain the existence of spatially dynamic external economies. Network economies generated in networks of cities correspond to this last type, since they are generated from the interaction between urban units, linked by a network relationship. The objective of this research is to advance in the study of the relationship between the networks of cities and the generation of external economies. The research is divided in four parts: first we expose the link between networks of cities and external economies. The second part outlines a model for the combined measuring of the concentration and network economies. The third part explains the results of applying the model to a case of study: the network of cities of Catalonia. The results suggest that there is a causal relationship between the organization of the urban units forming networks of cities and the generation of external economies that affect growth and economic development. Finally, conclusions and policy implications are drawn up.

  7. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an otoscope for redness, swelling, and pus. Debris removal, antibiotic ear drops, keeping water out of the ear, and pain relievers are ... cleaning it (using cotton-tipped swabs) or getting water or irritants, such as hair spray or hair dye, in the canal often leads to external otitis. ...

  8. HBR guides

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Nancy; Dillon, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Master your most pressing professional challenges with this seven-volume set that collects the smartest best practices from leading experts all in one place. "HBR Guide to Better Business Writing" and "HBR Guide to Persuasive Presentations" help you perfect your communication skills; "HBR Guide to Managing Up and Across" and "HBR Guide to Office Politics" show you how to build the best professional relationships; "HBR Guide to Finance Basics for Managers" is the one book you'll ever need to teach you about the numbers; "HBR Guide to Project Management" addresses tough questions such as how to manage stakeholder expectations and how to manage uncertainty in a complex project; and "HBR Guide to Getting the Right Work Done" goes beyond basic productivity tips to teach you how to prioritize and focus on your work. This specially priced set of the most popular books in the series makes a perfect gift for aspiring leaders looking for trusted advice. Arm yourself with the advice you need to succeed on the job, from ...

  9. Structure-Guided Functional Characterization of Enediyne Self-Sacrifice Resistance Proteins, CalU16 and CalU19

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Calicheamicin γ1I (1) is an enediyne antitumor compound produced by Micromonospora echinospora spp. calichensis, and its biosynthetic gene cluster has been previously reported. Despite extensive analysis and biochemical study, several genes in the biosynthetic gene cluster of 1 remain functionally unassigned. Using a structural genomics approach and biochemical characterization, two proteins encoded by genes from the 1 biosynthetic gene cluster assigned as “unknowns”, CalU16 and CalU19, were characterized. Structure analysis revealed that they possess the STeroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein related lipid Transfer (START) domain known mainly to bind and transport lipids and previously identified as the structural signature of the enediyne self-resistance protein CalC. Subsequent study revealed calU16 and calU19 to confer resistance to 1, and reminiscent of the prototype CalC, both CalU16 and CalU19 were cleaved by 1in vitro. Through site-directed mutagenesis and mass spectrometry, we identified the site of cleavage in each protein and characterized their function in conferring resistance against 1. This report emphasizes the importance of structural genomics as a powerful tool for the functional annotation of unknown proteins. PMID:25079510

  10. Ultrasonic guided waves in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Petro

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress in quantitative ultrasound (QUS) has shown increasing interest toward measuring long bones by ultrasonic guided waves. This technology is widely used in the field of nondestructive testing and evaluation of different waveguide structures. Cortical bone provides such an elastic waveguide and its ability to sustain loading and resist fractures is known to be related to its mechanical properties at different length scales. Because guided waves could yield diverse characterizations of the bone's mechanical properties at the macroscopic level, the method of guided waves has a strong potential over the standardized bone densitometry as a tool for bone assessment. Despite this, development of guided wave methods is challenging, e.g., due to interferences and multiparametric inversion problems. This paper discusses the promises and challenges related to bone characterization by ultrasonic guided waves.

  11. A 6-Fr Guiding Catheter (Slim Guide®) for Use with Multiple Microdevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Y.; Ohmori, Y.; Watanabe, M.; Kaku, Y.; Morioka, M.; Hirano, T.; Yano, S.; Kawano, T.; Hamada, J-I.; Kuratsu, J-I.

    2013-01-01

    Summary A modified technique is required in patients with wide-necked aneurysms whose treatment by the single microcatheter technique is difficult. We developed a 6-Fr guiding catheter (Slim Guide®) that features a large lumen (0.072 inch) for performing the modified technique. To evaluate the usefulness of Slim Guide® we carried out experiments using three types of 6-Fr guiding catheter. In experiment 1, the shaft hardness and kink resistance were compared among three different guiding catheters (Slim Guide®, Launcher®, Envoy®). In experiment 2, we inserted a microballoon catheter and a microcatheter into the three different guiding catheters and recorded the maximal infusion pressure. In experiment 3, we inserted 13 different types of microdevices into the three different guiding catheters and evaluated the resistance of the microdevices. Although the shaft of the Slim Guide® was softer than that of the other two guiding catheters, its kink resistance was comparable. The maximal infusion pressure was significantly lower than with Launcher® or Envoy® catheters. Furthermore, with Slim Guide®, in 136 of 143 microdevice combinations examined (95.1%) there was no resistance; this was true for 125 (87.4%) and 116 (81.1%) combinations using the Launcher® - and the Envoy® guiding catheters, respectively. There was a significant difference between Slim Guide® and the other two guiding catheters with respect to their accommodation of double microsystems (pGuide® is slightly larger than of the other two guiding catheters, it significantly increased the combination of microdevices that could be used for the coil embolization of difficult aneurysms. PMID:23472717

  12. Bioassay-guided isolation of active principles from Nigerian medicinal plants identifies new trypanocides with low toxicity and no cross-resistance to diamidines and arsenicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebiloma, Godwin Unekwuojo; Igoli, John Ogbaji; Katsoulis, Evangelos; Donachie, Anne-Marie; Eze, Anthonius; Gray, Alexander Ian; de Koning, Harry P

    2017-04-18

    Leaves from the plant species studied herein are traditionally used in northern Nigeria against various protozoan infections. However, none of these herbal preparations have been standardized, nor have their toxicity to mammalian cells been investigated. In search of improved and non-toxic active antiprotozoal principles that are not cross-resistant with current anti-parasitics, we here report the results of the in vitro screening of extracts from seven selected medicinal plant species (Centrosema pubescens, Moringa oleifera, Tridax procumbens, Polyalthia longifolia, Newbouldia laevis, Eucalyptus maculate, Jathropha tanjorensis), used traditionally to treat kinetoplastid infections in Nigeria, and the isolation of their bioactive principles. To investigate the efficacies of medicinal plant extracts, and of compounds isolated therefrom, against kinetoplastid parasites, assess cross-resistance to existing chemotherapy, and assay their toxicity against mammalian cells in vitro. Plants were extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Active principles were isolated by bioassay-led fractionation, testing for trypanocidal activity, and identified using NMR and mass spectrometry. EC 50 values for their activity against wild-type and multi-drug resistant Trypanosoma brucei were obtained using the viability indicator dye resazurin. Seven medicinal plants were evaluated for activity against selected kinetoplastid parasites. The result shows that crude extracts and isolated active compounds from Polyalthia longifolia and Eucalyptus maculata, in particular, display promising activity against drug-sensitive and multi-drug resistant Trypanosoma brucei. The EC 50 value of a clerodane (16α-hydroxy-cleroda-3,13(14)-Z-dien-15,16-olide) isolated from Polyalthia longifolia was as low as 0.38µg/mL, while a triterpenoid (3β,13β-dihydroxy-urs-11-en-28-oic acid) isolated from Eucalyptus maculata displayed an EC 50 of 1.58µg/mL. None of the isolated compounds displayed toxicity

  13. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The External Mind: an Introduction by Riccardo Fusaroli, Claudio Paolucci pp. 3-31 The sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind by Massimiliano Cappuccio, Michael Wheeler pp. 33-55 The Overextended Mind by Shaun Gallagher pp. 57-68 The "External Mind": Semiotics, Pragmatism......, Extended Mind and Distributed Cognition by Claudio Paolucci pp. 69-96 The Social Horizon of Embodied Language and Material Symbols by Riccardo Fusaroli pp. 97-123 Semiotics and Theories of Situated/Distributed Action and Cognition: a Dialogue and Many Intersections by Tommaso Granelli pp. 125-167 Building...... Action in Public Environments with Diverse Semiotic Resources by Charles Goodwin pp. 169-182 How Marking in Dance Constitutes Thinking with the Body by David Kirsh pp. 183-214 Ambiguous Coordination: Collaboration in Informal Science Education Research by Ivan Rosero, Robert Lecusay, Michael Cole pp. 215-240...

  14. Externally triggered microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Disclosed are microcapsules comprising a polymer shell enclosing one or more immiscible liquid phases in which a drug or drug precursor are contained in a liquid phase. The microparticles also contain magnetic particles that can be heated by application of an external magnetic field and thus heated to a predetermined Curie temperature. Heating of the particles melts the polymer shell and releases the drug without causing heating of surrounding tissues.

  15. Bottom nozzle to guide tube connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear fuel assembly which includes an upper end fitting and a lower end fitting spaced therefrom and connected thereto by elongated guide tubes of one alloy having an open upper end and a closed lower end with spaced fuel element retaining grids mounted on the guide tubes therebetween, the closed lower ends of the guide tubes including a threaded central passageway and the attachment of the guide tubes to the lower end fitting of another alloy. It comprises: an externally threaded bolt with a first end threadably received in the threaded central passageway of the lower end of the guide tube and a head at the other end of the side of the lower end fitting opposite the guide tube; an interruption in the external threads of the bolt which forms a groove which communicates the interior of the guide tube with the side of the lower end fitting opposite the guide tube and enhances its frictional engagement with the threaded central passageway, thereby to hold and attach the guide tube and lower end fitting firmly together, even through a series of temperature cycles

  16. A Curriculum Guide for Electricity/Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Bill, Comp.

    This curriculum guide is designed to upgrade the secondary electrical trades program in Mississippi by broadening its scope to incorporate basic electronic principles. Covered in the individual chapters of the guide are the following courses: basic electricity (occupational information, basic physics, circuit fundamentals, resistance and Ohm's…

  17. External split field generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundat, Thomas George [Knoxville, TN; Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Vass, Arpad Alexander [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-02-21

    A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.

  18. Guide device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, C.M. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a fuel handling guide tube centering device for use in nuclear reactors during fuel assembly handling operations. The device comprises an outer ring secured to the flange of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, a rotatable table rotatably coupled to the outer ring, and a plurality of openings through the table. Truncated locating cones are positioned in each of the openings in the table, and the locating cones center the guide tube during fuel handling operations. The openings in the table are located such that each fuel assembly in the nuclear core may be aligned with one of the openings by a suitable rotation of the table. The locating cones thereby provide alignment between the fuel handling mechanism located in the guide tube and the individual fuel assemblies of the cone. The need for a device to provide alignment is especially critical for floating nuclear power plants, where wave motion may exist during fuel handling operations. 5 claims, 4 figures

  19. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    Research on relative performance measures, transfer pricing, beyond budgeting initiatives, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management has for decades underlined the importance of external benchmarking in performance management. Research conceptualises external benchmarking...

  20. Hypoxia imaging with [F-18] FMISO-PET in head and neck cancer: Potential for guiding intensity modulated radiation therapy in overcoming hypoxia-induced treatment resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, Kristi; Phillips, Mark; Smith, Wade; Peterson, Lanell; Krohn, Kenneth; Rajendran, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with [F-18] fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) has been validated as a hypoxic tracer . Head and neck cancer exhibits hypoxia, inducing aggressive biologic traits that impart resistance to treatment. Delivery of modestly higher radiation doses to tumors with stable areas of chronic hypoxia can improve tumor control . Advanced radiation treatment planning (RTP) and delivery techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can deliver higher doses to a small volume without increasing morbidity. We investigated the utility of co-registered FMISO-PET and CT images to develop clinically feasible RTPs with higher tumor control probabilities (TCP). Materials and methods: FMISO-PET images were used to determine hypoxic sub-volumes for boost planning. Example plans were generated for 10 of the patients in the study who exhibited significant hypoxia. We created an IMRT plan for each patient with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) to the hypoxic sub-volumes. We also varied the boost for two patients. Result: A significant (mean 17%, median 15%) improvement in TCP is predicted when the modest additional boost dose to the hypoxic sub-volume is included. Conclusion: Combined FMISO-PET imaging and IMRT planning permit delivery of higher doses to hypoxic regions, increasing the predicted TCP (mean 17%) without increasing expected complications.

  1. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...... of the Danish part of the project is to implement the framework for externality evaluation, for three different power plants located in Denmark. The paper will focus on the assessment of the impacts of the whole fuel cycles for wind, natural gas and biogas. Priority areas for environmental impact assessment...... are identified, based on results of earlier studies and some identified of specific relevance for Denmark. Importance is attached to the quantification of impacts for each of the three fuel cycles and to monetisation of the externalities....

  2. [Integral Care Guide for Early Detection and Diagnosis of Depressive Episodes and Recurrent Depressive Disorder in Adults. Integral Attention of Adults with a Diagnosis of Depressive Episodes and Recurrent Depressive Disorder: Part III: Treatment of Resistant Depression and Psychotic Depression, Occupational Therapy and Day Hospital Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia Bohórquez; Valencia, Jenny García; Guarín, Maritza Rodríguez; Ángel, Juliana Rodríguez; Jaramillo, Luis Eduardo; Acosta, Carlos Alberto Palacio; Pedraza, Ricardo Sánchez; Díaz, Sergio Mario Castro; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María

    2012-12-01

    This article presents recommendations based on the evidence gathered to answer a series of clinical questions concerning the depressive episode and the recurrent depressive disorder. Emphasis was given to general treatment issues of resistant depression and psychotic depression, occupational therapy and day hospital treatment so as to grant diagnosed adult patients the health care parameters based on the best and more updated evidence available and achieve minimum quality standards. A practical clinical guide was elaborated according to standards of the Methodological Guide of the Ministry of Social Protection. Recommendation from NICE90 and CANMAT guides were adopted and updated so as to answer the questions posed while de novo questions were developed. Recommendations 23-25 corresponding to the management of depression are presented. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantized fields in interaction with external fields. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellissard, J.

    1975-01-01

    We consider a massive, charged, scalar quantized field interacting with an external classical field. Guided by renormalized perturbation theory we show that whenever the integral equations defining the Feynman or retarded or advanced interaction kernel possess non perturbative solutions, there exists an S-operator which satisfies, up to a phase, the axioms of Bogoliubov, and is given for small external fields by a power series which converges on coherent states. Furthermore this construction is shown to be equivalent to the one based on the Yang-Kaellen-Feldman equation. This is a consequence of the relations between chronological and retarded Green's functions which are described in detail. (orig.) [de

  4. Testing of thermal fatigue resistance of tools and rolls for hot working

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terčelj, Milan; Fazarinc, Matevž; Kugler, Goran

    2017-09-01

    In the present contribution two tests for thermal fatigue testing, which have been developed in our group, are presented. First test has provided internal cooling system of sample, while second has external cooling. For both tests heating and cooling of samples are computer guided that enables very reliable results of testing. The first test is more appropriate for testing the base material, i.e. roll cast irons, roll steels, tool steels. The second test is more appropriate for experiments that are aimed for selection of appropriate tool surface treatment, i.e. laser cladding, nitriding, coating, etc., and to compare and to achieve improved resistance against thermal fatigue of produced surface layers.

  5. A 6-fr guiding catheter (slim guide(®)) for use with multiple microdevices. An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Y; Ohmori, Y; Watanabe, M; Kaku, Y; Morioka, M; Hirano, T; Yano, S; Kawano, T; Hamada, J-I; Kuratsu, J-I

    2013-03-01

    A modified technique is required in patients with wide-necked aneurysms whose treatment by the single microcatheter technique is difficult. We developed a 6-Fr guiding catheter (Slim Guide(®)) that features a large lumen (0.072 inch) for performing the modified technique. To evaluate the usefulness of Slim Guide(®) we carried out experiments using three types of 6-Fr guiding catheter. In experiment 1, the shaft hardness and kink resistance were compared among three different guiding catheters (Slim Guide(®), Launcher(®), Envoy(®)). In experiment 2, we inserted a microballoon catheter and a microcatheter into the three different guiding catheters and recorded the maximal infusion pressure. In experiment 3, we inserted 13 different types of microdevices into the three different guiding catheters and evaluated the resistance of the microdevices. Although the shaft of the Slim Guide(®) was softer than that of the other two guiding catheters, its kink resistance was comparable. The maximal infusion pressure was significantly lower than with Launcher(®) or Envoy(®) catheters. Furthermore, with Slim Guide(®), in 136 of 143 microdevice combinations examined (95.1%) there was no resistance; this was true for 125 (87.4%) and 116 (81.1%) combinations using the Launcher(®) - and the Envoy(®) guiding catheters, respectively. There was a significant difference between Slim Guide(®) and the other two guiding catheters with respect to their accommodation of double microsystems (pGuide(®) is slightly larger than of the other two guiding catheters, it significantly increased the combination of microdevices that could be used for the coil embolization of difficult aneurysms.

  6. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summarised...... how the methodology has been applied so far in a previous Danish study. Finally, results of a case study are reported. Exposure factors have been calculated for various urban categories in the Greater Copenhagen Area...

  7. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages. The d....... The different systems are evaluated using 5 different types of existing walls....

  8. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  9. External benefits of natural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry W. Tombaugh

    1971-01-01

    Existing methods of assessing economic benefits arising from certain physical environments left in a relatively natural condition do not include estimates of external benefits. Existence value is one such external benefit that accrues to individuals who have no intention of ever visiting the area in question. A partial measure of the existence value of National Parks...

  10. External quality assessment schemes for toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John

    2002-08-14

    A variety of external quality assurance (EQA) schemes monitor quantitative performance for routine biochemical analysis of agents such as paracetamol, salicylate, ethanol and carboxyhaemoglobin. Their usefulness for toxicologists can be lessened where the concentrations monitored do not extend fully into the toxic range or where the matrix is synthetic, of animal origin or serum as opposed to whole human blood. A scheme for quantitative determinations of a wider range of toxicological analytes such as opioids, benzodiazepines and tricyclics in human blood has been piloted by the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Scheme (UKNEQAS). Specialist schemes are available for drugs of abuse testing in urine and for hair analysis. Whilst these programmes provide much useful information on the performance of analytical techniques, they fail to monitor the integrated processes that are needed in investigation of toxicological cases. In practice, both qualitative and quantitative tests are used in combination with case information to guide the evaluation of the samples and to develop an interpretation of the analytical findings that is used to provide clinical or forensic advice. EQA programs that combine the analytical and interpretative aspects of case studies are available from EQA providers such as UKNEQAS and the Dutch KKGT program (Stichting Kwaliteitsbewaking Klinische Geneesmiddelanalyse en Toxicologie).

  11. Flow resistance a design guide for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Idelchik, I

    1989-01-01

    A sourcebook offering an up-to-date perspective on a variety of topics and using practical, applications-oriented data necessary for the design and evaluation of internal fluid system pressure losses. It has been prepared for the practicing engineer who understands fluid-flow fundamentals.

  12. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs

  13. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs.

  14. Guidance for External Events Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guidance for External Events Analysis was developed under a contract with the Nordic PSA Group, and aims at creating a common framework for analysis of external events as part of a nuclear power plant Probabilistic Safety Assessment. Thus, the purpose of this Guidance is to constitute a common methodological guidance for the analysis of external events at Nordic nuclear power plants. This will make it possible for the utilities to perform these analyses in a cost-efficient way, assuring simultaneously the quality of the analyses. The Guidance is meant to clarify the scope of the analysis of external events, to provide guidance for the performance of the analysis, and to help in defining, subcontracting and reviewing the work. The analysis procedure includes four phases, addressing project planning, identification of external events, screening of events, and probabilistic analysis. The aim is first to do as complete an identification of potential single and combined external events as possible. Thereafter, as many external events as possible are screened out as early as possible. The screening capability is increased during the project, using the continuously acquired information on the events and on their effects on the plant

  15. traumatismes externes du larynx external laryngeal trauma of larynx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction : Le traumatisme externe du larynx est relativement rare mais expose à un risque vital immédiat. En l'absence de dia- gnostic et de prise en charge rapide il expose à des séquelles fonctionnelles. Le but de ce travail est de rappeler la présentation clinique des traumatismes externes du larynx et d'étayer notre ...

  16. Matchings with Externalities and Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2013-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real-life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas...... fully expressive representations of externalities in matchings require exponential space, in this paper we propose a compact model of externalities, in which the influence of a match on each agent is computed additively. Under this framework, we analyze many-to-many matchings and one-to-one matchings...

  17. Matching Games with Additive Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2012-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas...... fully expressive representations of externalities in matchings require exponential space, in this paper we propose a compact model of externalities, in which the influence of a match on each agent is computed additively. In this framework, we analyze many-to-many and one-to-one matchings under neutral...

  18. External effects in Swiss hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauenstein, W.; Bonvin, J.; Vouillamoz, J.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the external costs and benefits of hydropower that are not internalised in normal book-keeping. Several negative and positive effects are discussed. The results of a study that addressed the difficult task of quantifying these external effects are presented. An assessment of the results gained shows that difficulties are to be met regarding system limits, methods of expressing the effects in monetary terms and ethical factors. The report also examines the consideration of external effects as a correction factor for falsified market prices for electricity

  19. Find Your Passion, Lead with Purpose: A Health Informaticians' Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Househ, Mowafa

    2017-01-01

    Health Informatics is an ever evolving, changing and dynamic field that has become the disruptive innovation shaping the future of healthcare. Health informaticians face a number of challenges in the workplace such as gaining acceptance and recognition from other healthcare providers and overcoming the resistance of healthcare providers from using technology in clinical practice. Being a health informatician is not for the faint hearted, especially as resistance to the role of health informaticians continues from both healthcare providers and hospital administrators. As health informaticians move from behind the scenes to the front line of todays modern healthcare organization, more leadership training is needed for health informaticians in dealing with the changing demands of the healthcare industry and rapid changes in technology innovations. Waking up everyday with the same passion and purpose to lead others and drive change within healthcare organizations requires the health informatician to find the internal passion that will be transformed into external actions guiding the health informatician in how they lead, communicate, work, think, and treat others within the workplace. The purpose of this paper is to help health informaticiains tap into and develop their passion for the field of health informatics so that they can lead with purpose to improve how healthcare is practiced and delivered, making a lasting change in the overall healthcare system.

  20. External hazards as they affect nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, B.K.

    1975-01-01

    The USAEC Regulatory Staff (soon to be known as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission) has recently issued guidance to utilities in the areas of man-made hazards and natural phenomena which may influence availability and development costs of candidate nuclear power plants. They are in the form of regulatory guides and revisions to the standard format and content of safety-analysis reports. It has also issued guides to its own staff in the form of review plans, some of which have been recently completed and made available to the public. This paper summarizes the USAEC guides now available on the subject of external hazards and discusses typical hazards which are given attention by the regulatory staff in the course of the review of an application to construct a nuclear power plant. (author)

  1. External imaging of human atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, R.S.; Lees, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    For external imaging of arteriosclerotic lesions in blood vessels, low-density lipoproteins labeled by 99 Tc were employed, instead of radiolabelled blood platelets. The results suggest that the ability to be imaged correlates with lesion activity. (Auth.)

  2. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P. [eds.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs.

  3. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs

  4. Externalities of energy. Swedish implementation of the ExternE methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Maans; Gullberg, M.

    1998-01-01

    The growing interest for developing economic instruments for efficient environmental policies has opened up a large area of multi-disciplinary research. ExternE is an example of this research, combining disciplines such as engineering, ecology, immunology and economics expertise to create new knowledge about how environmental pressures from energy production affect our nature and society. The ExternE Project aims to identify and, as far as possible quantify the externalities of energy production in Europe. The Stockholm Environment Institute has carried out a preliminary aggregation: -Coal Fuel Cycle: centred around Vaesteraas Kraftvaermeverk, Vaesteraas. This is the largest co-generation plant in Sweden, with four blocks and a maximum co-generation output of 520 MW electricity and 950 MW heat. The analysis is carried out on boiler B4. -Biomass Fuel Cycle: centred around Haendeloeverket, Norrkoeping. This plant predominately burns forestry residues, but a variety of fuels are combusted. Haendeloeverket has an installed capacity of 100 MW electricity and 375 MW heat, in a total of three boilers and two back-pressure turbines. The analysis is carried out on boiler P13. -Hydro Fuel Cycle: Klippens Kraftstation, Storuman. Built in 1990-1994, it is the youngest hydro power station in Sweden. It has been designed and built with significant efforts to account for and protect environmental values. Installed capacity is 28 MW. The environmental impact assessment from the construction of this plant is carried out, but the evaluation is still not finalized. The preliminary aggregation aimed to test whether ExternE results could be used to make estimates for the entire Swedish electricity production system. Hence, national results as well as results from other partner countries in ExternE has been applied

  5. Parallel External Memory Graph Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study parallel I/O efficient graph algorithms in the Parallel External Memory (PEM) model, one o f the private-cache chip multiprocessor (CMP) models. We study the fundamental problem of list ranking which leads to efficient solutions to problems on trees, such as computing lowest...... an optimal speedup of ¿(P) in parallel I/O complexity and parallel computation time, compared to the single-processor external memory counterparts....

  6. Resistive Switching Assisted by Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, G. A.; Fierens, P. I.; Grosz, D. F.

    2013-01-01

    We extend results by Stotland and Di Ventra on the phenomenon of resistive switching aided by noise. We further the analysis of the mechanism underlying the beneficial role of noise and study the EPIR (Electrical Pulse Induced Resistance) ratio dependence with noise power. In the case of internal noise we find an optimal range where the EPIR ratio is both maximized and independent of the preceding resistive state. However, when external noise is considered no beneficial effect is observed.

  7. COATING ALTERNATIVES GUIDE (CAGE) USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The guide provides instructions for using the Coating Alternatives GuidE (CAGE) software program, version 1.0. It assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating an IBM-compatible personal computer (PC) under the Microsoft disk operating system (MS-DOS). CAGE...

  8. External Costs Related to Power Production Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective of...

  9. On guided versus deflected fields in controlled-source electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidinsky, Andrei

    2015-06-01

    The detection of electrically resistive targets in applied geophysics is of interest to the hydrocarbon, mining and geotechnical industries. Elongated thin resistive bodies have been extensively studied in the context of offshore hydrocarbon exploration. Such targets guide electromagnetic fields in a process which superficially resembles seismic refraction. On the other hand, compact resistive bodies deflect current in a process which has more similarities to diffraction and scattering. The response of a real geological structure is a non-trivial combination of these elements-guiding along the target and deflection around its edges. In this note the electromagnetic responses of two end-member models are compared: a resistive layer, which guides the electromagnetic signal, and a resistive cylinder, which deflects the fields. Results show that the response of a finite resistive target tends to saturate at a much lower resistivity than a resistive layer, under identical survey configurations. Furthermore, while the guided electromagnetic fields generated by a buried resistive layer contain both anomalous horizontal and vertical components, the process of electromagnetic deflection from a buried resistive cylinder creates mainly anomalous vertical fields. Finally, the transmitter orientation with respect to the position of a finite body is an important survey parameter: when the distance to the target is much less than the host skin depth, a transmitter pointing towards the resistive cylinder will produce a stronger signal than a transmitter oriented azimuthally with respect to the cylinder surface. The opposite situation is observed when the distance to the target is greater than the host skin depth.

  10. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  11. Analysis Of MPLS VPN Resistance To External Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pólkowski Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents analysis and possible reactions of MPLS network on unauthorized access and on device’s failure. Five Cisco routers joined into a core network were used to conduct the project. The devices were connected into a classic reliability model with envelope shape. The key aspects of the research were incidents’ simulation in line with previously prepared scenarios as well as diagnosis of network’s reactions to a particular type of a device failure. These effects were modelled using special devices such as analysers and generators of data traffic. Additionally, the range of the project included measuring convergence time of the routing protocols acting inside the network combined with analysis of reactions to forced changes of route.

  12. Extrapolation of Survival Curves from Cancer Trials Using External Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Patricia; Ades, Anthony E; Beasley, Matthew; Lueza, Béranger; Pignon, Jean-Pierre; Welton, Nicky J

    2017-05-01

    Estimates of life expectancy are a key input to cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) models for cancer treatments. Due to the limited follow-up in Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), parametric models are frequently used to extrapolate survival outcomes beyond the RCT period. However, different parametric models that fit the RCT data equally well may generate highly divergent predictions of treatment-related gain in life expectancy. Here, we investigate the use of information external to the RCT data to inform model choice and estimation of life expectancy. We used Bayesian multi-parameter evidence synthesis to combine the RCT data with external information on general population survival, conditional survival from cancer registry databases, and expert opinion. We illustrate with a 5-year follow-up RCT of cetuximab plus radiotherapy v. radiotherapy alone for head and neck cancer. Standard survival time distributions were insufficiently flexible to simultaneously fit both the RCT data and external data on general population survival. Using spline models, we were able to estimate a model that was consistent with the trial data and all external data. A model integrating all sources achieved an adequate fit and predicted a 4.7-month (95% CrL: 0.4; 9.1) gain in life expectancy due to cetuximab. Long-term extrapolation using parametric models based on RCT data alone is highly unreliable and these models are unlikely to be consistent with external data. External data can be integrated with RCT data using spline models to enable long-term extrapolation. Conditional survival data could be used for many cancers and general population survival may have a role in other conditions. The use of external data should be guided by knowledge of natural history and treatment mechanisms.

  13. Comparing pulmonary resistance measured with an esophageal balloon to resistance measurements with an airflow perturbation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursey, D C; Johnson, A T; Scharf, S M

    2010-01-01

    The airflow perturbation device (APD) perturbs flow and mouth pressure during regular breathing. Ratios of mouth pressure perturbation magnitudes to flow perturbation magnitudes were used to calculate inspiratory, expiratory and average respiratory resistances. Resistance measurements with the APD were compared to pulmonary resistances directly measured with an esophageal balloon. Six healthy subjects were tested during tidal breathing when known external resistances were added during inspiration, during expiration and during both inspiration and expiration. When the baseline averaged balloon measured pulmonary resistance was subtracted from the baseline averaged APD measured resistance, the difference between them was 0.92 ± 1.25 (mean ± SD) cmH 2 O L –1 s –1 . Compared to the magnitude of the known increase in the added resistance, the APD measured resistance increased by 79%, whereas directly measured pulmonary resistance increased only by 56%. During addition of external resistances to both inspiration and expiration, the changes in inspiratory and expiratory pulmonary resistance were only 36% and 62% of the added resistance, respectively. On the other hand, the APD inhalation and exhalation resistance measured between 82% and 76% of the added resistance. We conclude that the APD detects changes in external resistance at least as well as, and probably better than, classical measurements of pulmonary resistance

  14. Space station neutral external environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, H.; Leger, L.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular contamination levels arising from the external induced neutral environment of the Space Station (Phase 1 configuration) were calculated using the MOLFLUX model. Predicted molecular column densities and deposition rates generally meet the Space Station contamination requirements. In the doubtful cases of deposition due to materials outgassing, proper material selection, generally excluding organic products exposed to the external environment, must be considered to meet contamination requirements. It is important that the Space Station configuration, once defined, is not significantly modified to avoid introducing new unacceptable contamination sources.

  15. Motor coordination uses external spatial coordinates independent of developmental vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heed, Tobias; Röder, Brigitte

    2014-07-01

    The constraints that guide bimanual movement coordination are informative about the processing principles underlying movement planning in humans. For example, symmetry relative to the body midline benefits finger and hand movements independent of hand posture. This symmetry constraint has been interpreted to indicate that movement coordination is guided by a perceptual code. Although it has been assumed implicitly that the perceptual system at the heart of this constraint is vision, this relationship has not been tested. Here, congenitally blind and sighted participants made symmetrical and non-symmetrical (that is, parallel) bimanual tapping and finger oscillation movements. For both groups, symmetrical movements were executed more correctly than parallel movements, independent of anatomical constraints like finger homology and hand posture. For the blind, the reliance on external spatial factors in movement coordination stands in stark contrast to their use of an anatomical reference frame in perceptual processing. Thus, the externally coded symmetry constraint evident in bimanual coordination can develop in the absence of the visual system, suggesting that the visual system is not critical for the establishment of an external-spatial reference frame in movement coordination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The correlation between internal and external markers for abdominal tumors: Implications for respiratory gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierga, David P.; Brewer, Johanna; Sharp, Gregory C.; Betke, Margrit; Willett, Christopher G.; Chen, George T.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The correlation of the respiratory motion of external patient markers and abdominal tumors was examined. Data of this type are important for image-guided therapy techniques, such as respiratory gating, that monitor the movement of external fiducials. Methods and Materials: Fluoroscopy sessions for 4 patients with internal, radiopaque tumor fiducial clips were analyzed by computer vision techniques. The motion of the internal clips and the external markers placed on the patient's abdominal skin surface were quantified and correlated. Results: In general, the motion of the tumor and external markers were well correlated. The maximum amount of peak-to-peak craniocaudal tumor motion was 2.5 cm. The ratio of tumor motion to external-marker motion ranged from 0.85 to 7.1. The variation in tumor position for a given external-marker position ranged from 2 to 9 mm. The period of the breathing cycle ranged from 2.7 to 4.5 seconds, and the frequency patterns for both the tumor and the external markers were similar. Conclusions: Although tumor motion generally correlated well with external fiducial marker motion, relatively large underlying tumor motion can occur compared with external-marker motion and variations in the tumor position for a given marker position. Treatment margins should be determined on the basis of a detailed understanding of tumor motion, as opposed to relying only on external-marker information

  17. Loss of Guide Wire: A Lesson Learnt Review of Literature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was stabilized, she underwent chest X-ray, plain abdominal radiography, and ultrasonography and the patient was .... Figure 1: Chest X-ray showing guide wire of catheter had entered in the inferior vena cava (IVC) via the right .... Consider a guide wire to be a delicate and fragile instrument. • When resistance to insertion is ...

  18. PHOSPHORUS SORPTION ISOTHERMS AND EXTERNAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Zhang et al., 2005). For instance, in strongly acidic soils with pH<5.5 and high P sorbing soils, application of rock phosphate is more effective and cheaper than using TSP (Bationo et al., 2011). Moreover, it enables determination of the external P.

  19. Organizing for External Knowledge Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbiosi, Larissa; Reichstein, Toke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the special issue. We briefly consider the external knowledge sourcing and organizing for innovation literatures, which offer a background for the special issue, and we highlight their mutual dialogue. We then illustrate the main findings o...

  20. Femoral Reconstruction Using External Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Palatnik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of an external fixator for the purpose of distraction osteogenesis has been applied to a wide range of orthopedic problems caused by such diverse etiologies as congenital disease, metabolic conditions, infections, traumatic injuries, and congenital short stature. The purpose of this study was to analyze our experience of utilizing this method in patients undergoing a variety of orthopedic procedures of the femur. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed our experience of using external fixation for femoral reconstruction. Three subgroups were defined based on the primary reconstruction goal lengthening, deformity correction, and repair of nonunion/bone defect. Factors such as leg length discrepancy (LLD, limb alignment, and external fixation time and complications were evaluated for the entire group and the 3 subgroups. Results. There was substantial improvement in the overall LLD, femoral length discrepancy, and limb alignment as measured by mechanical axis deviation (MAD and lateral distal femoral angle (LDFA for the entire group as well as the subgroups. Conclusions. The Ilizarov external fixator allows for decreased surgical exposure and preservation of blood supply to bone, avoidance of bone grafting and internal fixation, and simultaneous lengthening and deformity correction, making it a very useful technique for femoral reconstruction.

  1. Lupus vulgaris of external nose

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B. Usha

    2008-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  2. Automated external defibrillators: design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, M W; Brewer, J E

    1997-05-01

    Biphasic defibrillation waveforms are now the standard of care in clinical use for defibrillation with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), due to the superior performance demonstrated over that of comparable monophasic waveforms. To better understand these significantly different outcomes, ICD research has developed cardiac cell response models to defibrillation. Waveform design criteria have been derived from these first principles and have been applied to monophasic and biphasic waveforms to optimize their parameters. These principles-based design criteria have produced significant improvements over the current art of waveforms. Monophasic defibrillation waveforms remain the standard of care in clinical use for transthoracic defibrillation. Waveform design has not yet been influenced by the important gains made in ICD research. The limitations of present transthoracic waveforms may be due in part to a lack of application of these design principles to determine optimal waveform characteristics. To overcome these limitations, design principles based on cell response have recently been developed for external defibrillation waveforms. The transthoracic model incorporates elements into a cell response model that extends it to external defibrillation. External waveform design principles demonstrate reductions in capacitance, voltage, duration, and delivered energy. Therefore, design principles based on cardiac electrophysiology may provide a means to significantly reduce the energy required for safe and efficacious external defibrillation. Footnotes, formulae, and figures augment this presentation in order to clarify the defibrillation waveform theory.

  3. EAMJ External Dec 09.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-12

    Dec 12, 2009 ... the dental chair light and a dental probe. The tooth revealed the presence of at least two canal orifices on the floor of the pulp chamber. (iv) Three-rooted when three external roots were observed. Figure 1 (a-d) shows the four root types. Figure 1 (a-d). Premolars depicting one root (a), two distinct roots (b),.

  4. Threats to NATO external borders in the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubková, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the current security dilemma in Syria with the focus on production, use, and the process of disposal of chemical weapons and its impacts. Specifically, the thesis addresses the issue of Syria's chemical weapons in the context of threats to NATO external borders. Degree of Security in the region and Resistance effort are measured according to RAND. Consequently, phases of Chemical weapons Program implementation in Syria are analyzed according to ACWA model....

  5. Sliding Contact Fatigue of Graded Zirconia with External Esthetic Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, L.; Janal, M.N.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Veneer chipping and fracture are common failure modes for porcelain-veneered zirconia dental restorations. We hypothesized that the graded glass/zirconia/glass with external esthetic glass (e-GZG) can increase the lifetime and improve resistance to veneer chipping and fracture relative to porcelain-veneered zirconia, while providing necessary esthetics. Previously, we have demonstrated that a graded glass-zirconia surface possesses excellent resistance to occlusal-like sliding contact fatigue. Here, we investigated the sliding contact fatigue response of this graded glass-zirconia surface with external esthetic glass. This external glass is essential for shade options, for preventing excessive wear of opposing dentition, and for protecting Y-TZP from hydrothermal degradation. e-GZG plates were bonded to composite blocks and subjected to prolonged sliding contact up to 10 million cycles at 200 N in water. The resistance to sliding contact fatigue of e-GZG matches that of monolithic Y-TZP, and both of these materials demonstrated lifetimes that were orders of magnitude longer than that of porcelain-veneered zirconia. Graded e-GZG is a promising restorative material. PMID:21666105

  6. Guidelines on the medical therapy of persons accidentally overexposed to ionizing radiations. External contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.R.; Di Trano, J.L.; Gisone, P.

    1998-01-01

    The document represents a guide for the external decontamination of persons accidentally radio contaminated due to the use, production or transport of radioactive materials. The general conditions, from the medical point of view, to be kept in mind, in the event of accidental overexposures as decontamination treatment and the handling of samples are detailed throughout report. The external contamination without injury in skin or with wound its considered. The distribution of measures and responsibilities for the therapy of the irradiated patients with radioactive materials are enumerated. The preparations of decontaminate solutions are detailed in this work. Moreover, forms for the reception, physical evaluation of the patient and external contamination are presented. (author)

  7. External main-induced events in relation to nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This safety Guide recomments procedures and provides information for use in implementing that part of the code of safety in Nuclear Power Plant Siting (IAEA Safety Series No. 50-C-S) which concerns man-induced events external to the plant, up to the evaluation of corresponding design basis parameters. Like the code, the Guide forms part of the IAEA's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing codes of practice and safety Guides relating to land-based stationary thermal neutron power plants

  8. External evaluation policies: emphasis in the cognitive and socioemotional competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Júlia Gonçalves de Carvalho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents reflections on the Brazilian policies for external evaluation with the aim to question the relevance of the emphasis that has been given to the different skills. Thereunto, we analyze the goals, the basis and the references of Brazilian main basic education test (Prova Brasil and the SENNA Project, relating them to the new capital requirements and directions of international organizations from the 1990s. According to the analysis, initially, external evaluations focused on the amount of knowledge obtained, and later began to be guided by the model of different types of skills, influencing the way teachers assess and handle knowledge, that is their pedagogical conceptions. The results show that the logic of competences corresponds to a trend in political and pedagogical directions of denial of scientific and cultural knowledge, and of the school role as responsible for the distribution, as equally as possible, of systematized knowledge.

  9. Guide Wire Entrapment during Central Venous Catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Woo Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We experienced a case of venous vessel wall entrapment between the introducer needle and the guide wire during an attempt to perform right internal jugular vein (IJV catheterization. The guide wire was introduced with no resistance but could not be withdrawn. We performed ultrasonography and C-arm fluoroscopy to confirm the entrapment location. We assumed the introducer needle penetrated the posterior vessel wall during the puncture and that only the guide wire entered the vein; an attempt to retract the wire pinched the vein wall between the needle tip and the guide wire. Careful examination with various diagnostic tools to determine the exact cause of entrapment is crucial for reducing catastrophic complications and achieving better outcomes during catheterization procedures.

  10. External costs of energy - do the answers match the questions? Looking back at 10 years of ExternE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewitt, W.

    2002-01-01

    While the claim for 'getting prices right' is quite popular in conceptual policy papers, the implementation of appropriate internalisation strategies is still hampered by a lack of reliable external cost data. Great expectations were set into the ExternE project, a major research programme launched by the European Commission at the beginning of the 1990s to provide a scientific basis for the quantification of energy related externalities and to give guidance supporting the design of internalisation measures. After more than a decade of research, the ExternE label became a well recognised standard source for external cost data. Looking back into the ExternE history, the paper pursues how emerging new scientific insights and changing background assumptions affected external cost estimates and related recommendations to policy over time. Based on ExternE results, the usefulness and inherent limitations of external cost estimates for impact categories like climate change or nuclear waste disposal is discussed. The paper also gives examples on how external costs in spite of remaining uncertainties are successfully used to support environmental policy. (Author)

  11. Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MRSA Mycobacterium abscessus Norovirus Pseudomonas aeruginosa Tracking CRPA Staphylococcus aureus Tuberculosis VISA / VRSA Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) in Healthcare Settings Preventing HAIs Targeted Assessment for Prevention (TAP) TAP CAUTI Implementation Guide TAP CDI Implementation ...

  12. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Healthcare Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MRSA Mycobacterium abscessus Norovirus Pseudomonas aeruginosa Tracking CRPA Staphylococcus aureus Tuberculosis VISA / VRSA Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) in Healthcare Settings Preventing HAIs Targeted Assessment for Prevention (TAP) TAP CAUTI Implementation Guide TAP CDI Implementation ...

  13. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses

  14. Firm Search for External Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    ignored the institutional context that provides or denies access to external knowledge at the country level. Combining institutional and knowledge search theory, we suggest that the market orientation of the institutional environment and the magnitude of institutional change influence when firms begin......The innovation performance of modern firms is increasingly determined by their ability to search and absorb external knowledge. However, after a certain threshold firms "oversearch" their environment and innovation performance declines. In this paper, we argue that prior literature has largely...... to experience the negative performance effects of oversearch. Based on a comprehensive sample of almost 8,000 firms from ten European countries, we find that institutions matter considerably for firms' search activity. Higher market orientation of institutions increases the effectiveness of firms' search...

  15. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  16. Conceptual challenges for internalising externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miguel, Brandão; Weidema, Bo Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii) The relev......We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii......) The relevance and efficiency of different instruments for internalisation and compensation; and iii) Implementing internalisation over large geographical and temporal distances. We find taxation to be a more relevant and efficient tool for internalisation than insurance and litigation. With increasing...

  17. COLLABORATIVE GUIDE: A REEF MANAGER'S GUIDE TO ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative strategies to conserve the world's coral reefs are included in a new guide released today by NOAA, and the Australian Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, with author contributions from a variety of international partners from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and academic institutions. Referred to as A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching, the guide will provide coral reef managers with the latest scientific information on the causes of coral bleaching and new management strategies for responding to this significant threat to coral reef ecosystems. Innovative strategies to conserve the world's coral reefs are included in a new guide released today by NOAA, and the Australian Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, with author contributions from a variety of international partners from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and academic institutions. Dr. Jordan West, of the National Center for Environmental Assessment, was a major contributor to the guide. Referred to as

  18. BOP Crises and External Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Kitano, Shigeto

    2003-01-01

    This is a theoretical study of BOP crises in emerging markets in East Asia and LatinAmerica in the l990s. These BOP crises tend to be preceded by the current account deterioration, the real exchange rate appreciation, and inflationary pressures. The paper develops a model of BOP crises preceded by these macroeconomic phenomena. The model shows that an external shock (a decrease in the world nominal interest rate) leads to this type of BOP crises.

  19. Acute incarcerated external abdominal hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia-Lin

    2014-01-01

    External abdominal hernia occurs when abdominal organs or tissues leave their normal anatomic site and protrude outside the skin through the congenital or acquired weakness, defects or holes on the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, femoral hernia and so on. Acute incarcerated hernia is a common surgical emergency. With advances in minimally invasive devices and techniques, the diagnosis and treatment have witnessed major changes, such as the use of laparoscopic surg...

  20. Personnel external dose monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hengyuan

    1989-01-01

    The status and trend of personnel external dose monitoring system are introduced briefly. Their characteristics, functions and TLD bedges of some commercially available automatic TLD system, including UD-710A (Matsushita, Japan), Harshaw-2271, 2276 (Harshaw, USA), Harshaw-8000 (Harshaw/Filtrol), Studsvik-1313 (Sweden) and Pitman-800 (UK) were depicted in detail. Finally, personnel dose management and record keeping system were presented and two examples were given

  1. Manual on brachytherapy. Incorporating: Applications guide, procedures guide, basics guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In addition to a basic guide to the principles of the production of ionizing radiation and to methods of radiation protection and dosimetry, this booklet includes information about radiation protection procedures for brachytherapy

  2. Resistance-resistant antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin

    2014-12-01

    New antibiotics are needed because drug resistance is increasing while the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. We discuss here six possible approaches to develop 'resistance-resistant' antibiotics. First, multitarget inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy owing to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, repurposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multitarget therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and, in some cases, suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored in otherwise drug-resistant organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 4. Oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.; Krewitt, W.; Mayerhofer, P.

    1995-01-01

    Awareness of the environmental damage resulting from human activity, particularly commencing energy use, has grown greatly in recent years. Effects such as global warming, ozone depletion and acid rain are now the subjects of much research and public debate. It is now known that these and other effects damage a wide range of receptors, including human health, forests, crops, freshwater ecosystems and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the assessment of the environmental and health impacts of energy, and the related external costs. This concern is driven by a number of different factors: the need to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels and energy technologies; the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards; increased attention to the use of economic instruments for environmental policy, the need to develop overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies; major changes in the energy sector, including privatisation, liberalisation of markets, reduction of subsidies, etc. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not been established. Earlier work is typically of a preliminary nature and tends to be deficient with respect to both the methods employed and the quality of models and data used. In consequence of this a collaborative project, the EC/US Fuel Cycles Study, was established between Directorate General XLI (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy. This ran for the period 1991 to 1993, and good agreement on a variety of

  4. u-CARE: user-friendly Comprehensive Antibiotic resistance Repository of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Saurav B; Uttam, Vishwas; Verma, Vivek

    2015-08-01

    Despite medical advancements, Escherichia coli-associated infections remain a major public health concern and although an abundant information about E. coli and its antibiotic resistance mechanisms is available, no effective tool exists that integrates gene and genomic data in context to drug resistance, thus raising a need to develop a repository that facilitates integration and assimilation of factors governing drug resistance in E. coli. User-friendly Comprehensive Antibiotic resistance Repository of Escherichia coli (u-CARE) is a manually curated catalogue of 52 antibiotics with reported resistance, 107 genes, transcription factors and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) involved in multiple drug resistance of this pathogen. Each gene page provides detailed information about its resistance mechanisms, while antibiotic page consists of summary, chemical description and structural descriptors with links to external public databases like GO, CDD, DEG, Ecocyc, KEGG, Drug Bank, PubChem and UniProt. Moreover, the database integrates this reductive information to holistic data such as strain-specific and segment-specific pathogenic islands and operons. In addition, the database offers rich user interface for the visualisation and retrieval of information using various search criteria such as sequence, keyword, image and class search. u-CARE is aimed to cater to the needs of researchers working in the field of antimicrobial drug resistance with minimal knowledge of bioinformatics. This database is also intended as a guide book to medical practitioners to avoid use of antibiotics against which resistance has already been reported in E. coli. The database is available from: http://www.e-bioinformatics.net/ucare. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  6. Visualizing guided tours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Signe Herbers; Fjord-Larsen, Mads; Hansen, Frank Allan

    This paper identifies several problems with navigating and visualizing guided tours in traditional hypermedia systems. We discuss solutions to these problems, including the representation of guided tours as 3D metro maps with content preview. Issues regarding navigation and disorientation...

  7. Systematic Review and the External Validity of Randomized Controlled Trials in Lupus Nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Pakozdi

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Published RCTs do not truly reflect the heterogeneity of patients with LN in routine practice at our lupus center. The external validity of RCTs could be improved by including more representative patient cohorts. RCTs should be used as a guide but consideration should be given to similarities between individual patients and the characteristics of the trial cohorts before treatment decisions being made.

  8. Agile practice guide (English)

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This practice guide provides guidance on when, where, and how to apply agile approaches and provides practical tools for practitioners and organizations wanting to increase agility. This practice guide is aligned with other PMI standards, including A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) - Sixth Edition, and was developed as the result of collaboration between the Project Management Institute and the Agile Alliance.

  9. Managerial Accounting. Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, Leonard E.

    This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course in managerial accounting. The study guide is intended for use by students in conjuction with a separate textbook, Horngren's "Accounting for Management Control: An Introduction," and a workbook, Curry's "Student Guide to Accounting for Management…

  10. Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy An ultrasound-guided breast biopsy uses ... of Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? What is Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy? Lumps or abnormalities in the breast ...

  11. Agile practice guide

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Agile Practice Guide – First Edition has been developed as a resource to understand, evaluate, and use agile and hybrid agile approaches. This practice guide provides guidance on when, where, and how to apply agile approaches and provides practical tools for practitioners and organizations wanting to increase agility. This practice guide is aligned with other PMI standards, including A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) – Sixth Edition, and was developed as the result of collaboration between the Project Management Institute and the Agile Alliance.

  12. Malignant external otitis in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Espejo, Antonio; Valenciano-Moreno, Inmaculada; Ramírez-Llorens, Rafael; Pérez-Monteagudo, Palmira

    Malignant external otitis is a necrotizing infection, which extends from the squamous epithelium of the ear canal to the adjacent tissue. The objective of the study was to investigate its incidence and other epidemiological data in Spain, reporting the largest case series to date. A descriptive, retrospective study of the Spanish population was carried out using the minimum basic data set (MBDS) based on data of patients admitted to hospitals in the 2008-2013 period. Patients whose diagnosis (principal or secondary) at discharge was encoded as 380.14 (malignant external otitis), according to ICD-9-CM, were included as cases. The Spanish incidence rate was calculated for all its communities and provinces, as well as by season and mortality. A total of 355 patients (302 as principal diagnosis and 53 as secondary) were diagnosed. The incidence rate was 1.30 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.44) per 106 inhabitants and year, although there were variations among geographical areas. The median age of cases with main diagnosis was 74 years (range 10-95 years). The predominant age group was in patients over 84 years old (19.3 cases per 10 6 inhabitants and year). The incidence was higher in men and the male-female relative risk was 2.4. Diabetes was present in 74.6% of patients. The diagnosis was predominant in the last quarter of the year. The gross in-hospital mortality rate was 3.7%. Malignant external otitis is seen mostly among male elderly and diabetic patients. The incidence and mortality rate are low in Spain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  13. Skepticism, Contextualism, Externalism and Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wilburn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I argue for the following claims. Contextualist strategies to tame or localize epistemic skepticism are hopeless if contextualist factors are construed internalistically. However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated. While these claims do not give us an argument for skepticism, they do give us an argument that contextualism, as such, is not likely to provide us with an argument against skepticism.

  14. Waveguide based external cavity semiconductor lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbeuving, Ruud; Klein, E.J.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Lee, Christopher James; Verhaegen, M.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on progress of the project waveguide based external cavity semiconductor laser (WECSL) arrays. Here we present the latest results on our efforts to mode lock an array of tunable, external cavity semiconductor lasers.

  15. Observations on resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwin, R.A.; Finn, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Several results on resistive wall modes and their application to tokamaks are presented. First, it is observed that in the presence of collisional parallel dynamics there is an exact cancellation to lowest order of the dissipative and sound wave effects for an ideal Ohm's law. This is easily traced to the fact that the parallel dynamics occurs along the perturbed magnetic field lines for such electromagnetic modes. Such a cancellation does not occur in the resistive layer of a tearing-like mode. The relevance to models for resistive wall modes using an electrostatic Hammett-Perkins type operator to model Landau damping will be discussed. Second, we observe that with an ideal Ohm's law, resistive wall modes can be destabilized by rotation in that part of parameter space in which the ideal MHD modes are stable with the wall at infinity. This effect can easily be explained by interpreting the resistive wall instability in terms of mode coupling between the backward stable MHD mode and a stable mode locked into the wall. Such an effect can occur for very small rotation for tearing-resistive wall modes in which inertia dominates viscosity in the layer, but the mode is stabilized by further rotation. For modes for which viscosity dominates in the layer, rotation is purely stabilizing. For both tearing models, a somewhat higher rotation frequency gives stability essentially whenever the tearing mode is stable with a perfectly conducting wall. These tearing/resistive wall results axe also simply explained in terms of mode coupling. It has been shown that resonant external ideal modes can be stabilized in the presence of resistive wall and resistive plasma with rotation of order the nominal tearing mode growth rate. We show that these modes behave as resistive wall tearing modes in the sense above. This strengthens the suggestion that rotational stabilization of the external kink with a resistive wall is due to the presence of resistive layers, even for ideal modes

  16. Externalized ileocolic anastomosis: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, James; Kuntz, Charles A; Newman, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    A 6-year-old, spayed female Labrador retriever was presented 48 hours after an intestinal resection and anastomosis for management of a small intestinal foreign body. Abdominal ultrasound confirmed the presence of peritoneal effusion. Cytology of fluid collected by abdominocentesis revealed a large number of degenerate neutrophils with intracellular cocci. A diagnosis of septic peritonitis was made, presumably because of dehiscence of the anastomosis. Upon repeat exploratory celiotomy, the intestinal anastomosis (located 4 cm orad to the cecum) was found to be leaking intestinal contents into the abdomen. The distal ileum, cecum, and proximal colon were resected. An end-to-end, ileocolic anastomosis was performed and subsequently exteriorized into the subcutaneous space via a paramedian incision through the abdominal wall. The anastomosis was inspected daily for 4 days before it was returned to the abdomen and the subcutaneous defect was closed. Serial cytology of the peritoneal fluid, which was performed during this 4-day postoperative period, confirmed progressive resolution of peritonitis. The dog was discharged from the hospital 2 days following return of the anastomosis into the abdomen. Externalized intestinal anastomosis is used with good success in human medicine for repair of colonic injuries. In this case, externalization of the anastomosis permitted healing of the intestinal anastomosis in an environment isolated from the detrimental effects created by septic peritonitis. In addition, direct visualization of the anastomosis allowed assessment of healing. To our knowledge, this procedure has not been previously reported in companion animals.

  17. The external cruising costs of parking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inci, E.; van Ommeren, J.N.; Kobus, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    Existing work emphasizes the importance of traffic congestion externalities, but typically ignores cruising-for-parking externalities. We estimate the marginal external cruising costs of parking—that is, the time costs that an additional parked car imposes on drivers by inducing them to cruise for

  18. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 64.19 Section 64.19 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum breaker...

  19. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on the...

  20. 46 CFR 154.452 - External pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 154.452 Section 154.452 Shipping... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.452 External pressure. The design external pressure...) for tanks without a vacuum relief valve. P2=0, or the pressure relief valve setting for an enclosed...

  1. 187 AGRICULTURAL GROWTH AND EXTERNAL DEBT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural revenue has not been able to sustain the external debt in. Nigeria despite the effort ... increasing external debt volume while real private investment expenditure decreases with .... results. Ehirim, N. C. Agricultural growth and External debt management in developing nations: Evidence from Nigeria (1960-. 2005) ...

  2. Methods for external event screening quantification: Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP) methods development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindra, M.K.; Banon, H.

    1992-07-01

    In this report, the scoping quantification procedures for external events in probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear power plants are described. External event analysis in a PRA has three important goals; (1) the analysis should be complete in that all events are considered; (2) by following some selected screening criteria, the more significant events are identified for detailed analysis; (3) the selected events are analyzed in depth by taking into account the unique features of the events: hazard, fragility of structures and equipment, external-event initiated accident sequences, etc. Based on the above goals, external event analysis may be considered as a three-stage process: Stage I: Identification and Initial Screening of External Events; Stage II: Bounding Analysis; Stage III: Detailed Risk Analysis. In the present report, first, a review of published PRAs is given to focus on the significance and treatment of external events in full-scope PRAs. Except for seismic, flooding, fire, and extreme wind events, the contributions of other external events to plant risk have been found to be negligible. Second, scoping methods for external events not covered in detail in the NRC's PRA Procedures Guide are provided. For this purpose, bounding analyses for transportation accidents, extreme winds and tornadoes, aircraft impacts, turbine missiles, and chemical release are described

  3. Resistance to Change in Educational/Organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhuizen, Philip C. van der; Theron, A. M. C.

    Research has shown that change imposed from above by a bureaucracy will usually engender resistance. The education system under the new democractic South Africa recently underwent change. This paper presents findings of a study that examined whether principals in South Africa perceived any internal or external resistance-to-change factors in their…

  4. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 3. Coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.; Holland, M.; Lee, D.

    1995-01-01

    Awareness of the environmental damage resulting from human activity, particularly concerning energy use, has grown greatly in recent years. Effects such as global warming, ozone depletion and acid rain are now the subjects of much research and public debate. It is now known that these and other effects damage a wide range of receptors, including human health, forests, crops, freshwater ecosystems and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the assessment of the environmental and health impacts of energy, and the related external costs. This concern is driven by a number of different factors: the need to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels and energy technologies; the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards; increased attention to the use of economic instruments for environmental policy; the need to develop overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies; major changes in the energy sector, including privatisation, liberalisation of markets, reduction of subsidies, etc. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not been established. Earlier work is typically of a preliminary nature and tends to be deficient with respect to both the methods employed and the quality of models and data used. In consequence of this a collaborative project, the EC/US Fuel Cycles Study, was established between Directorate General XII (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy. This ran for the period 1991 to 1993, and good agreement on a variety of

  5. Music-Guided Video Summarization using Quadratic Assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, T.; Jongstra, T.; Mettes, P.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to automatically generate a summary of an unedited video, guided by an externally provided music-track. The tempo, energy and beats in the music determine the choices and cuts in the video summarization. To solve this challenging task, we model video summarization as a quadratic

  6. Safety, Health, and Environmental Auditing A Practical Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Pain, Simon Watson

    2010-01-01

    A practical guide to environmental, safety, and occupational health audits. It allows organizations and business to avoid expensive external auditors and retain the knowledge and learning 'in-house'. It allows any competent manager or safety/environmental officer to undertake in-house audits in a competent and reproducible fashion.

  7. Promoting, Guiding, and Surviving Change in School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Terrence E.; Nutt, Samuel C.

    Compiled for school administrators who must initiate or respond to external mandate for change, this guide draws on the experiences of 10 rural school districts that participated in the federally funded Experimental Schools (ES) program for perspectives that can be used in the successful management of change efforts in school districts. Organized…

  8. External noise when using biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaleski, J.

    1994-08-01

    The aim of this study has been to cover sources of noise dealing with all steps in a biofuel chain; producing, transporting, storing and firing the biofuel. When the availability of relevant test results from noise surveys is not so good and mostly badly documented, the study has been concentrated on estimation of external noise for planning and design purposes, from a prospective biofuel-fired plant. A synoptic tabulation of estimated acoustic power levels from different noise sources, has been done. The results from measurements of external noise from different existing combined power and heating plants are tabulated. The Nordic model for simulation of external noise has been used for a prospective plant - VEGA - designed by Vattenfall. The aim has been to estimate its noise pollutions at critical points at the nearest residential area (250 m from the fenced industry area). The software - ILYD - is easy to handle, but knowledge about the model is necessary. A requisite for the reliability is the access to measurements or estimations of different sources of noise, at different levels of octaves from 63 to 8000 Hz. The degree of accuracy increases with the number of broad band sources, that are integrated. Using ILYD with available data, a night limit of 40 dB(A) should be possible to fulfill with good degree of accuracy at VEGA, between 10 pm and 7 am, with good planning and under normal operation conditions. A demand for 35 dB(A) as a limit can be harder to fulfill, especially at mornings from 6 to 7. Noise from heavy vehicles within the plant area is classified as industrial noise and not as road traffic noise. This type of noise depends very much on the way of driving and assumed acceleration. Concerning wheel-mounted loaders, they may then only be used during daytime. The simulations show, that even at daytime from 7 to 6 pm, it would be possible to use an acoustically damped chipping machine, inside the power industry area. 31 refs, 13 figs, tabs, 8

  9. An external disturbance sensor for ionic polymer metal composite actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiarpour, Parisa; Parvizi, Amin; Müller, Martin; Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Marti, Othmar; Amirkhani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) is a fast-growing type of smart material with a wide range of applications. IPMC has been used extensively as an actuator, but for effective usage, one must add a self-sensing ability to it. Two common self-sensing techniques are mechanical-to-electrical transducer and surface resistance. The first one cannot be used while the actuator is running, and the second one needs a sample modification. In this work, we present a new self-sensing method, which can measure external disturbance in the presence of actuator voltage without any sample modification. The resistance across an IPMC sample follows Ohm’s law at sufficiently high frequency. We exploit the frequency dependency of the resistance across the sample to design the self-sensing method. In this technique a function generator, a lock-in amplifier and an isolation circuit were employed to measure an external impulse or steady disturbance. As implementing this technique does not require any change to the IPMC specimen or electrical connection (hanger), it can be added to any existing electroactive device.

  10. Improvement of kurtosis-guided-grams via Gini index for bearing fault feature identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yonghao; Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing

    2017-12-01

    A group of kurtosis-guided-grams, such as Kurtogram, Protrugram and SKRgram, is designed to detect the resonance band excited by faults based on the sparsity index. However, a common issue associated with these methods is that they tend to choose the frequency band with individual impulses rather than the desired fault impulses. This may be attributed to the selection of the sparsity index, kurtosis, which is vulnerable to impulsive noise. In this paper, to solve the problem, a sparsity index, called the Gini index, is introduced as an alternative estimator for the selection of the resonance band. It has been found that the sparsity index is still able to provide guidelines for the selection of the fault band without prior information of the fault period. More importantly, the Gini index has unique performance in random-impulse resistance, which renders the improved methods using the index free from the random impulse caused by external knocks on the bearing housing, or electromagnetic interference. By virtue of these advantages, the improved methods using the Gini index not only overcome the shortcomings but are more effective under harsh working conditions, even in the complex structure. Finally, the comparison between the kurtosis-guided-grams and the improved methods using the Gini index is made using the simulated and experimental data. The results verify the effectiveness of the improvement by both the fixed-axis bearing and planetary bearing fault signals.

  11. Highly potent host external immunity acts as a strong selective force enhancing rapid parasite virulence evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaluk, Charlotte; Yang, Wentao; Mitschke, Andreas; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schulenburg, Hinrich; Joop, Gerrit

    2017-05-01

    Virulence is often under selection during host-parasite coevolution. In order to increase fitness, parasites are predicted to circumvent and overcome host immunity. A particular challenge for pathogens are external immune systems, chemical defence systems comprised of potent antimicrobial compounds released by prospective hosts into the environment. We carried out an evolution experiment, allowing for coevolution to occur, with the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, which has a well-documented external immune system with strong inhibitory effects against B. bassiana. After just seven transfers of experimental evolution we saw a significant increase in parasite induced host mortality, a proxy for virulence, in all B. bassiana lines. This apparent virulence increase was mainly the result of the B. bassiana lines evolving resistance to the beetles' external immune defences, not due to increased production of toxins or other harmful substances. Transcriptomic analyses of evolved B. bassiana implicated the up-regulation of oxidative stress resistance genes in the observed resistance to external immunity. It was concluded that external immunity acts as a powerful selective force for virulence evolution, with an increase in virulence being achieved apparently entirely by overcoming these defences, most likely due to elevated oxidative stress resistance. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Hip abduction strength training in the clinical setting: with or without external loading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, T; Petersen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    The side-lying hip abduction exercise is one of the most commonly used exercises in rehabilitation to increase hip abduction strength, and is often performed without external loading. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 6 weeks of side-lying hip abduction training, with and without...... external loading, on hip abduction strength in healthy subjects. Thirty-one healthy, physically active men and women were included in a randomised controlled trial and allocated to side-lying hip abduction training, with or without external loading. Training without external loading was performed using...... only the weight of the leg as resistance, whereas training with external loading was performed with a relative load corresponding to 10 repetition maximum. Hip abduction strength was measured pre- and post-intervention. Isometric and eccentric hip abduction strength of the trained leg increased after...

  13. Leveraging External Sources of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    suggests several gaps in prior research. One is a tendency to ignore the importance of business models, despite their central role in distinguishing open innovation from earlier research on interorganizational collaboration in innovation. Another gap is a tendency in open innovation to use “innovation......, it suggests a four-phase model in which a linear process—(1) obtaining, (2) integrating, and (3) commercializing external innovations—is combined with (4) interaction between the firm and its collaborators. This model is used to classify papers taken from the top 25 innovation journals, complemented by highly...... cited work beyond those journals. A review of 291 open innovation-related publications from these sources shows that the majority of these articles indeed address elements of this inbound open innovation process model. Specifically, it finds that researchers have front-loaded their examination...

  14. External radiotherapy in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    In the management of thyroid carcinoma (TC) of any histological type, surgery is the primary mode of treatment. The second modality for the management is treatment with radioactive iodine ( 131 I), especially, when the tumor has the ability to concentrate 131 I. External radiotherapy has a limited use in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). It is useful in the management of bulky residual tissue which is not completely resected, metastatic disease which does not concentrated radioiodine and as a palliative treatment for reliving pain in patients with distant metastases. The ER as an adjuvant treatment in both anaplastic and medullary carcinoma has a significant role to play and should be used more frequently than is presently being advocated and practiced

  15. [Resistances and initiatives in Madagascar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, C

    1993-03-01

    materials, and promote population education. The Association for the Promotion of Population Education in Madagascar has attempted to establish groups in the 112 subprefectures. Respect for the sociocultural values of the diverse ethnic groups in Madagascar is a guiding principle in determination of program content. The traditional desire for a large family as a sign of respect for the ancestors is examined in the light of current economic and demographic realities. Involvement of parents, teachers, and local officials in population education seminars counters the perception of population education as externally imposed. The cooperation of teachers is sought by involving them in program development and by assuring them that their autonomy will not be threatened by the new teaching approach to population education. The population education program seeks to cooperate with other development programs to maximize impact and minimize competition for scarce resources.

  16. Analysis of External Treatment Methods and Technical Characteristics of External Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Miao, Mingsan; Bai, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Chinese medicine external therapy is a treatment method of Chinese medicine with Chinese characteristics. The effect of traditional Chinese medicine external treatment, convenient operation, external treatment and technology has great prospects for development. The traditional Chinese medicine external treatment method and technical characteristics were analyzed.

  17. CISSP study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Conrad, Eric; Feldman, Joshua; Riggins, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    "The Eleventh Hour CISSP Study Guide" is keyed to the latest CISSP exam. This book is streamlined to include only core certification information and is presented for ease of last-minute studying. Main objectives of the exam are covered concisely with key concepts highlighted. This is the only guide you need for last-minute studying. This title answers the toughest questions and highlights core topics. This title can be paired with any other study guide so you are completely prepared.

  18. Maven The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Company, Sonatype

    2009-01-01

    Written by Maven creator Jason Van Zyl and his team at Sonatype, Maven: The Definitive Guide clearly explains how this popular tool can bring order to your software development projects. The first part of the book demonstrates Maven's capabilities through the development of several sample applications from ideation to deployment, and the second part offers a complete reference guide. Concise and to the point, this is the only guide you need to manage your project.

  19. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information.

  20. Joomla! 3 beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tiggeler, Eric

    2014-01-01

    An easy to use, step-by-step guide to creating professional, mobile-friendly websites with the free Joomla CMS. The Joomla! 3 Beginner's Guide Second Edition is the ultimate guide for web developers who wish to build upon their skills and knowledge on creating websites. Even if you're new to this subject, you won't have any difficulty understanding the clear and friendly instructions and explanations. No prior knowledge of HTML and CSS is required.

  1. The guiding center Lagrangian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, J.

    1986-01-01

    Recursion relations determining the guiding center Langrangian Λ and the associated guiding center variables to all orders are derived. We consider some particularly simple forms of Λ obtainable by specific choices of certain arbitrary functions appearing as free parameters in the theory. It is, for example, possible to locally define the guiding center variables so that the expression for the corresponding Langrangian is unchanged by all higher order terms. (orig.)

  2. Maintainability design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Human Factors Design Guide for Maintainability provides guidance for systematically incorporating good human factors techniques into the design of power plants. The guide describes a means of developing a comprehensive program plan to ensure compliance with the human factors approaches specified by the utility. The guide also provides specific recommendations for design practices, with examples, bases, and references. The recommendations are formatted for easy use by nuclear power plant design teams and by utility personnel involved in specification and design review. The guide was developed under EPRI research project RP2166-4 and is currently being published

  3. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Economic valuation. Economical valuation: An impact pathway approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.

    1994-01-01

    The EC/US study of the external costs of fuel cycles is designed to trace through all the environmental impacts arising from the use of a particular fuel, from the 'cradle' to the 'grave'; to quantify these impacts as far as possible (giving priority to those that are the considered the most important) and to value the damages arising from them in money terms as far as possible (again keeping to the priority listing established by the physical quantification). The fuel cycle has been identified as consisting of the following elements: activities -> emissions/burdens; emissions/burdens -> physical environmental impacts; physical impacts -> external environmental impacts; external impacts -> costs of these impacts. The activities consist of all the operations that are carried out in connection with the extraction transportation, use in electricity generation and finally disposal of the fuel. The emissions or burdens arising from the cycle result in physical impacts, which in turn imply certain environmental impacts. An illustration of a typical fuel cycle (coal) audits environmental impacts is given in Figures. The work of the fuels cycle study teams is to complete the valuation of the shaded areas but giving priority to those impacts that are likely to be quantitatively important. .Each fuel cycle is evaluated in a location-specific context, so that it refers to the impacts arising from the use of coal, or gas or whatever fuel is being considered at an actual plant that is operating. The purpose of this report on economic valuation is to: (a) examine the literature or economic valuation of environmental externalities in Europe; (b) assess its relevance to the fuel cycle study and (c) make recommendations on how the detailed analysis of the individual fuel cycles should use the economic valuation. It is important to recognize that the report is not a complete survey of all the research ever done on environmental valuation. Although as complete a survey of all the

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in campylobacter: susceptibility testing methods and resistance trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Beilei; Wang, Fei; Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; McDermott, Patrick F

    2013-10-01

    Most Campylobacter infections are self-limiting but antimicrobial treatment (e.g., macrolides, fluoroquinolones) is necessary in severe or prolonged cases. Susceptibility testing continues to play a critical role in guiding therapy and epidemiological monitoring of resistance. The methods of choice for Campylobacter recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) are agar dilution and broth microdilution, while a disk diffusion method was recently standardized by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Macrolides, quinolones, and tetracyclines are among the common antimicrobials recommended for testing. Molecular determination of Campylobacter resistance via DNA sequencing or PCR-based methods has been performed. High levels of resistance to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin are frequently reported by many national surveillance programs, but resistance to erythromycin and gentamicin in Campylobacter jejuni remains low. Nonetheless, variations in susceptibility observed over time underscore the need for continued public health monitoring of Campylobacter resistance from humans, animals, and food. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Abbreviated guide pneumatic conveying design guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, David

    1990-01-01

    Abbreviated Guide: Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide describes the selection, design, and specification of conventional pneumatic conveying systems. The design procedure uses previous test data on the materials to be conveyed. The book also discusses system economics, operating costs, the choice of appropriate components or systems, system control, and system flexibility. The design system involves the type of conveying system for installation, the pipeline parameters, and also the plant components. System selection covers the properties of the material to be conveyed, plant layout, material pr

  6. Study on propagation properties of laser guiding EMP in a finite magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Xinren; Yin Chengyou

    2009-01-01

    The geometric model of laser plasma channel (LPC) guiding electromagnetic pulse (EMP) in a finite electromagnetic field is created; when LPC is in lossy gas the propagation properties of the normal modes of LPC guiding EMP are studied; and then the wave equation of longitudinal electormagnetic field and the relationship between transverse and longitudinal electromagnetic field in anisotropic medium are derived under the generalized cylindrical coordinate system. By applying the boundary conditions of electromagnetic fields, the strict characteristic equation of mode propagation for LPC guiding EMP is deduced, and the effects of plasma parameters, surrounding material and external magnetic field on propagation are discussed. The results show that the propagation properties of magnetized LPC guiding EMP are easy to be controlled compared with those without external magnetic field or an infinite external magnetic field applied. (authors)

  7. Adaptive plasticity in speech perception: Effects of external information and internal predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guediche, Sara; Fiez, Julie A; Holt, Lori L

    2016-07-01

    When listeners encounter speech under adverse listening conditions, adaptive adjustments in perception can improve comprehension over time. In some cases, these adaptive changes require the presence of external information that disambiguates the distorted speech signals, whereas in other cases mere exposure is sufficient. Both external (e.g., written feedback) and internal (e.g., prior word knowledge) sources of information can be used to generate predictions about the correct mapping of a distorted speech signal. We hypothesize that these predictions provide a basis for determining the discrepancy between the expected and actual speech signal that can be used to guide adaptive changes in perception. This study provides the first empirical investigation that manipulates external and internal factors through (a) the availability of explicit external disambiguating information via the presence or absence of postresponse orthographic information paired with a repetition of the degraded stimulus, and (b) the accuracy of internally generated predictions; an acoustic distortion is introduced either abruptly or incrementally. The results demonstrate that the impact of external information on adaptive plasticity is contingent upon whether the intelligibility of the stimuli permits accurate internally generated predictions during exposure. External information sources enhance adaptive plasticity only when input signals are severely degraded and cannot reliably access internal predictions. This is consistent with a computational framework for adaptive plasticity in which error-driven supervised learning relies on the ability to compute sensory prediction error signals from both internal and external sources of information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Manual on brachytherapy. Incorporating: Applications guide, procedures guide, basics guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This publication is part of practical radiation safety manual series for different fields of application aimed primarily at persons handling radiation sources on a daily routine basis, which could at same time be used by the competent authorities, supporting their efforts in the radiation protection training of workers or medical assistance personnel or helping on-site management to set up local radiation protection rules. It is dedicated to brachytherapy: its application and procedures guides

  9. JBoss ESB Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    DiMaggio, Len; Magesh, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series, each chapter contains practical examples with step-by-step instructions and plenty of screenshots to guide you through the implementation of JBoss ESB. This book is intended for Java programmers although you don't need previous experience with middleware such as application servers or ESBs.

  10. Hospitality Services. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This guide, which was developed as part of Texas' home economics education program, is intended to assist teachers of a hospitality services course focusing on the food and lodging segments of the hospitality and tourism industry. The first 40% of the approximately 600-page guide consists of strategies for teaching each of 29 essential…

  11. Irrigation Systems. Student's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by individuals preparing for a career in commercial and residential irrigation. The materials included are geared toward students who have had some experience in the irrigation business; they are intended to be presented in 10 six-hour sessions. The first two sections deal with using this guide and preparing for the…

  12. Irrigation Systems. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by licensed irrigators who wish to teach others how to design and install residential and commercial irrigation systems. The materials included in the guide have been developed under the assumption that the instructors who use it have little or no formal training as teachers. The first section presents detailed…

  13. Instructional Guide for Cosmetology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.

    Intended as a tool for cosmetology teachers in Virginia public and private schools, the document is an instructional guide which offers 12 units of study, arranged in a three year course. Materials covered help prepare students for licensure in the State of Virginia and the guide is designed to cover the 1,500 hours required to be spent in the…

  14. concrete5 Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Laubacher, Remo

    2011-01-01

    This book is part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series. You will be guided through the set up of a Concrete5 site with step-by-step practical examples. This book is ideal for developers who would like to build their first site with Concrete5. Some k

  15. Marketing Education Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This curriculum guide is intended to provide a common core of competencies from which to design an effective secondary marketing education program. Introductory materials include a definition of marketing education, objectives, outline of instructional content, and questions and answers regarding the curriculum guide. These practical materials are…

  16. Library Automation Style Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.

    This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…

  17. Nutrition Guide for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Nutrition Guide for Toddlers KidsHealth / For Parents / Nutrition Guide ... español Guía de nutrición para sus hijos pequeños Nutrition Through Variety Growth slows somewhat during the toddler ...

  18. Moving Field Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie Meador; Mark Twery; Meagan. Leatherbury

    2011-01-01

    The Moving Field Guides (MFG) project is a creative take on site interpretation. Moving Field Guides provide an example of how scientific and artistic endeavors work in parallel. Both begin with keen observations that produce information that must be analyzed, understood, and interpreted. That interpretation then needs to be communicated to others to complete the...

  19. The Higgs hunter's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Gunion, John F; Haber, Howard E; Kane, Gordon L

    1989-01-01

    The Higgs Hunter's Guide is a definitive and comprehensive guide to the physics of Higgs bosons. In particular, it discusses the extended Higgs sectors required by those recent theoretical approaches that go beyond the Standard Model, including supersymmetry and superstring-inspired models.

  20. HSM training guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "This guide focuses on identifying HSM training currently available to state and local agencies who are considering implementation of the HSM. The objectives of the training guide are to: : Identify key focus groups that can be used as a basis fo...

  1. Kid's Guide to Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español A Kid's Guide to Fever KidsHealth / For Kids / A Kid's Guide to Fever ... change into some lighter-weight pajamas. Fighting a Fever For almost all kids, fevers aren't a ...

  2. Guided Reading and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Allyson L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Guided Reading and student motivation to read across fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. The study defined literacy motivation as: (a) task value; (b) self-perceived competence; (c) students' perceptions of the Guided Reading format. Factor analysis and repeated measures ANOVAs were…

  3. Career Education Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Univ. of New York, Oswego. Coll. at Oswego. Dept. of Industrial Arts and Technology.

    The guide is designed primarily for industrial arts teachers at the middle school level who wish to integrate career education into their curricula. The lessons and activities attempt to establish a balance among career information, technical information, and hands-on experience. The guide contains six lesson plans which cover the topics: the…

  4. EXTERNAL ELEMENTS OF INTERCULTURAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra GEORGESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Because nowadays we attach a great importance to our look, this article wants to highlight certain aspects of intercultural management that are external to us, the personal label with which we "come into contact with the whole world” and also this article gives some suggestions that I want to consider for business success. As speakers of a language, we are both "producers" and "consumers" of it. In a sense, this is also the case for the dress code, the "language" of clothing: we dress in a certain way and this send messages to others; We perceive how others are dressed and so we receive messages from them. But there is no difference: we are not the ones who produce the signs. Beyond fashion, myths and motes, clothing, accessories, gesture, face expression, posture and body lines are the first elements that give visual identity to any person. In the business environment, as in the world of fashion, immediate visual identity is the one that generates the first impression.

  5. External plans for radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, G.; Vizuet G, J.; Benitez S, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1989, the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico shares in the task of Food and Water Control corresponding to the FT-86 task force of External Plans for Radiological Emergency (PERE), in charge of the Veracruz Health Services. In the PERE preparation stage previous actions are necessary developed for the preparation and updating of this plan and the task organization with the purpose to maintaining standing and operable in any time and circumstance, the capability to response in the face of an emergency. This stage englobes activities which must be realized before to carry out the Plan as they are the specialized training of personnel which participates and the execution of exercises and simulacrums. Until 1998, training and exercises for this task had been realized under diverse possible sceneries but in conditions that simulated the presence of radioactive material. For this reason, it should be emphasized the training realized during the days 6th, 7th, 8th July, 1999, in the emergency planning zone of the Plan, which to carry out using radioactive material. The National Institute of Nuclear Research had in charge of the training. This work describes all the activities for the realization of this training. (Author)

  6. External quality assessment: best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David; Ames, Darren; Lopez, Berenice; Still, Rachel; Simpson, Wiliam; Twomey, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    There is a requirement for accredited laboratories to participate in external quality assessment (EQA) schemes, but there is wide variation in understanding as to what is required by the laboratories and scheme providers in fulfilling this. This is not helped by a diversity of language used in connection with EQA; Proficiency testing (PT), EQA schemes, and EQA programmes, each of which have different meanings and offerings in the context of improving laboratory quality. We examine these differences, and identify what factors are important in supporting quality within a clinical laboratory and what should influence the choice of EQA programme. Equally as important is how EQA samples are handled within the laboratory, and how the information provided by the EQA programme is used. EQA programmes are a key element of a laboratory's quality assurance framework, but laboratories should have an understanding of what their EQA programmes are capable of demonstrating, how they should be used within the laboratory, and how they support quality. EQA providers should be clear as to what type of programme they provide - PT, EQA Scheme or EQA Programme. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Clinical governance and external audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazebrook, S G; Buchanan, J G

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a model of clinical governance that was developed at South Auckland Health during the period 1995 to 2000. Clinical quality and safety are core objectives. A multidisciplinary Clinical Board is responsible for the development and publicising of sound clinical policies together with monitoring the effects of their implementation on quality and safety. The Clinical Board has several committees, including an organization-wide Continuous Quality Improvement Committee to enhance the explicit nature of the quality system in terms of structure, staff awareness and involvement, and to develop the internal audit system. The second stream stems from the Chief Medical Officer and clinical directors in a clinical management sense. The Audit Committee of the Board of Directors covers both clinical and financial audit. The reporting lines back to that committee are described and the role of the external auditor of clinical standards is explained. The aim has been to create a supportive culture where quality initiatives and innovation can flourish, and where the emphasis is not on censure but improvement.

  8. Human Sound Externalization in Reverberant Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catic, Jasmina

    In everyday environments, listeners perceive sound sources as externalized. In listening conditions where the spatial cues that are relevant for externalization are not represented correctly, such as when listening through headphones or hearing aids, a degraded perception of externalization may...... occur. In this thesis, the spatial cues that arise from a combined effect of filtering due to the head, torso, and pinna and the acoustic environment were analysed and the impact of such cues for the perception of externalization in different frequency regions was investigated. Distant sound sources...... were simulated via headphones using individualized binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs). An investigation of the influence of spectral content of a sound source on externalization showed that effective externalization cues are present across the entire frequency range. The fluctuation of interaural...

  9. Guided modes in silicene-based waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mengzhuo; He, Ying; Yang, Yanfang; Zhang, Huifang

    2018-02-01

    Silicene is a new Dirac-type electron system similar to graphene. A monolayer silicene sheet forms a quantum well induced by an electrostatic potential, which acts as an electron waveguide. The guided modes in the silicene waveguide have been investigated. Electron waves can propagate in the silicene-based waveguide in the cases of Klein tunneling and classical motion. The behavior of the wave function depends on the spin and valley indices. The amplitude of the electron wave function in the silicene waveguide can be controlled by the external electric field. These phenomena may be helpful for the potential applications of silicene-based electronic devices.

  10. Human factors guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penington, J.

    1995-10-01

    This document presents human factors guides, which have been developed in order to provide licensees of the AECB with advice as to how to address human factors issues within the design and assessment process. This documents presents the results of a three part study undertaken to develop three guides which are enclosed in this document as Parts B, C and D. As part of the study human factors standards, guidelines, handbooks and other texts were researched, to define those which would be most useful to the users of the guides and for the production of the guides themselves. Detailed specifications were then produced to outline the proposed contents and format of the three guides. (author). 100 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

  11. Energy security externalities and fuel cycle comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.; Toman, M.

    1994-01-01

    Externalities related to 'energy security' may be one way in which the full social costs of energy use diverge from the market prices of energy commodities. Such divergences need to be included in reckoning the full costs of different fuel cycles. In this paper we critically examine potential externalities related to energy security and issues related to the measurement of 2 these externalities, in the context of fuel cycle comparisons

  12. Risk analysis of external radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvidsson, Marcus

    2011-09-01

    External radiation therapy is carried out via a complex treatment process in which many different groups of staff work together. Much of the work is dependent on and in collaboration with advanced technical equipment. The purpose of the research task has been to identify a process for external radiation therapy and to identify, test and analyze a suitable method for performing risk analysis of external radiation therapy

  13. Early discharge after external anal sphincter repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe an accelerated-stay program for repair of the external anal sphincter. METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients undergoing overlapping repair of the external anal sphincter were included in the study. Effect parameters were length of hospitalization....... CONCLUSION: We have described a safe accelerated-stay program (24 to 48 hours) for overlapping repair of external anal sphincter....

  14. Internal and External Readings of Same

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    is infelicitous in the absence of parallelism. Hardt and Mikkelsen propose an account that applies uniformly to internal and external readings; however, the evidence they present largely targets external readings – they don’t offer empirical evidence that clearly supports the uniform approach. Furthermore, Barker...... (2007) argues that internal readings must be treated differently than external readings. In this paper, I show that the parallelism effects observed by Hardt and Mikkelsen in fact apply to internal readings as well. This provides support for a uniform treatment of internal and external readings of same...

  15. Proceedings: National conference on environmental externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report is the proceedings of the National Conference on Environmental Externalities. A environmental externality is the environmental impact of a process or a plant that society must endure. It is a social cost and is paid, but not by the company who produced it or the company's customers who endure it. The main purpose of this report is to gather the many designs and ideas of how and why to internalize the externalities into the pricing systems of the public utility commissions, especially that of the electric utilities. Economic and sociological aspects of the internalization of these externalities are given in these proceedings. Individual papers are processed separately for databases. (MB)

  16. A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy Patient Education FAQs A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish A Partner's Guide to Pregnancy FAQ032, ...

  17. Pocket Guide to Transportation 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The BTS Pocket Guide to Transportation is a quick reference guide to significant transportation statistics. All the previous seven sections plus a new Major Trends section are included. This year marks the 20th anniversary of the Pocket Guide, which ...

  18. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... least 10 countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Japan, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden and the United Kingdom ... plan Global report on surveillance Country situation analysis Policy to combat antimicrobial resistance More on antimicrobial resistance ...

  19. External proton and Li beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuff, Juan A.; Burlon, Alejandro A.; Debray, Mario E.; Kesque, Jose M.; Kreiner, Andres J.; Stoliar, Pablo A.; Naab, Fabian; Ozafran, Mabel J.; Vazquez, Monica E.; Perez de la Hoz, A.; Somacal, Hector; Valda, Alejandro; Canevas, S.; Ruffolo, M.; Tasat, D.R.; Muhlmann, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of a feasibility study to introduce proton therapy in Argentina in a collaborative agreement between the Physics and Radiobiology Departments of the National Atomic Energy Commission or Argentina and the Centre de Protontherapie de Orsay, France, external proton and Li beams were produced at the TANDAR accelerator in Buenos Aires. The specific aim of this work was to start radiobiology studies on cell cultures and small laboratory animals. In particular we seek to determine here the relative biological effectiveness, RBE, for proton and Li beams as a function of energy for different tumor and normal cell lines. The 24 MeV proton beam was diffused using a 25 μm gold foil and extracted through a Kapton window to obtain a homogeneous field (constant to 95%) of about 7 cm in diameter. Measurements were carried out with quasi-monoenergetic beams (of 20.2 ± 0.07 MeV, 2.9 ± 0.10 MeV y 1.5 ± 0.1 MeV for protons and 21.4 ± 0.4 MeV for Lithium). Proton fluence and Bragg peaks were measured. The dose delivered in each case was monitored on-line with a calibrated transmission ionization chamber. Three cell lines PDV, PDVC 57 and V 79 (as a reference) were irradiated with γ-rays, proton and lithium beams with linear energy transfer (LET) from 2 to 100 keV/μm. RBE values in the range of 1.2-5.9 were obtained. In addition preliminary studies on chromosomal aberrations and viability of alveolar macrophages were carried out. (author)

  20. Estimation of current density distribution under electrodes for external defibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papazov Sava P

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transthoracic defibrillation is the most common life-saving technique for the restoration of the heart rhythm of cardiac arrest victims. The procedure requires adequate application of large electrodes on the patient chest, to ensure low-resistance electrical contact. The current density distribution under the electrodes is non-uniform, leading to muscle contraction and pain, or risks of burning. The recent introduction of automatic external defibrillators and even wearable defibrillators, presents new demanding requirements for the structure of electrodes. Method and Results Using the pseudo-elliptic differential equation of Laplace type with appropriate boundary conditions and applying finite element method modeling, electrodes of various shapes and structure were studied. The non-uniformity of the current density distribution was shown to be moderately improved by adding a low resistivity layer between the metal and tissue and by a ring around the electrode perimeter. The inclusion of openings in long-term wearable electrodes additionally disturbs the current density profile. However, a number of small-size perforations may result in acceptable current density distribution. Conclusion The current density distribution non-uniformity of circular electrodes is about 30% less than that of square-shaped electrodes. The use of an interface layer of intermediate resistivity, comparable to that of the underlying tissues, and a high-resistivity perimeter ring, can further improve the distribution. The inclusion of skin aeration openings disturbs the current paths, but an appropriate selection of number and size provides a reasonable compromise.

  1. Code Calculations for Local Stability of Shaft Guides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiołek Przemysław

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Steel structures for a conveyance guiding system are subjected to prolonged, intense corrosion during their operation leading to a considerable loss of material and structure capacity reduction. Shaft guides are made of closed profiles welded from hot-rolled channel sections. These profiles are categorized as class 1 cross-sections according to Eurocode 3, which means that they are resistant to local instability upon bending [1]. With an increase in the corrosion loss of the guides, the inertia moment of the cross-section is reduced. The resistance of profiles to local buckling is also reduced. However, calculations for local stability in guides upon bending are not required by the local Polish regulations on the operation of conveyance in shafts [2]. The question is whether this constitutes a shortcoming and risk for safe operation. Calculations according to steel construction standards [1] supported by numerical simulation were used to evaluate shaft steelwork guides resistance to buckling and their sensitivity to corrosion loss. It was shown that the guides of corrosion loss of 52–63%, depending on profile size, are prone to local buckling.

  2. Scanning magneto-resistance microscopy with FIB trimmed yoke-type magneto-resistive tape heads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, G.N.; Eisenberg, M.; Eisenberg, M.; Persat, N.; Draaisma, E.A.; Abelmann, Leon; Lodder, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Scanning magneto-resistance microscopy has been performed with thin film yoke-type magneto-resistive tape heads possessing eight channels. The read flux guides of these channels have been trimmed down from 24 μm to widths varying between 5.5 μm and 148 nm by focused ion beam milling with Ga+ ions.

  3. Environmental externalities related to power production on biogas and natural gas based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the environmental impacts and external costs from selected electricity generation systems in Denmark. The assessment is carried out as part of the ExternE National Implementation, which is the second phase of the ExternE project and involves case studies from all Western Europ...... show that estimated damages due to the greenhouse effect are predominant, however, the uncertainty is high. The predominant damage at the local and regional level is related to emission of NOx, which results in effects on public health....... the use of a software package, EcoSence, having an environmental database at both a local and regional level including population, crops, building materials and forest. The system also incorporates two air transport models, allowing local and regional scale modelling. The results of the Danish case study...

  4. Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected with a drug-resistant strain of HIV. Drug-resistance testing results are used to decide which HIV medicines to include in a person’s first HIV regimen. After treatment is started, drug-resistance testing is repeated if ...

  5. External nasal dilators: definition, background, and current uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinardi RR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricardo Reis Dinardi, Cláudia Ribeiro de Andrade, Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Pulmonology Unit, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Abstract: Our goal was to revise the literature about external nasal dilators (ENDs as to their definition, history, and current uses. We reviewed journals in the PubMed and MEDLINE databases. The current uses hereby presented and discussed are physical exercise, nasal congestion and sleep, snoring, pregnancy, cancer, and healthy individuals. Numerous studies have shown that ENDs increase the cross-sectional area of the nasal valve, reducing nasal resistance and transnasal inspiratory pressure and stabilizing the lateral nasal vestibule, avoiding its collapse during final inspiration. These effects also facilitate breathing and are beneficial to patients with nasal obstruction. Furthermore, END use is simple, noninvasive, painless, affordable, and bears minimum risk to the user. Most studies have limited sample size and are mainly focused on physical exercise. In conclusion, ENDs seem useful, so further studies involving potential effects on the performance of physical tests and improvements in sleep quality are necessary, especially in children and teenagers. Keywords: external nasal dilator, nasal valve, nasal congestion, nasal resistance

  6. Protection of nuclear power plants against external disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, W.B.

    1975-04-01

    A bibliography and a compilation of articles on the protection of nuclear power plants from external disasters are presented. The subject matter includes tornadoes and high winds, floods and high waves, earthquakes, plane crashes, sabotage and diversion, acts of war, and other disasters. The articles included in this compilation are primarily review articles on various topics selected from Nuclear Safety. Relevant AEC regulations, rulings, and regulatory guides are also included where appropriate. The bibliography with each section includes all recent literature on each topic, each with its own key-word, author, and permured title index. In addition, a brief commentary serves as an introduction to the report as well as to place its varied contents in perspective. An overall index to all textural material is also provided. (U.S.)

  7. CRACUK user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, M.J.; Nixon, W.; Brearley, I.R.

    1986-08-01

    The CRACUK computer code is a revised version of the US consequence modelling code CRAC2, adapted to suit UK applications. Modifications to various models within the code have led to certain changes in the input data requirements for CRACUK in comparison with CRAC2. This guide, written in the form of an Appendix to the CRAC2 User Guide, includes descriptions of the input data layout as it has been altered for use in CRACUK. Used in conjunction with the CRAC2 User Guide, this publication should allow easy use of the CRACUK code. (author)

  8. CCNA Wireless Study Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lammle, Todd

    2010-01-01

    A complete guide to the CCNA Wireless exam by leading networking authority Todd Lammle. The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level certification in this rapidly growing field. Todd Lammle is the undisputed authority on networking, and this book focuses exclusively on the skills covered in this Cisco certification exam. The CCNA Wireless Study Guide joins the popular Sybex study guide family and helps network administrators advance their careers with a highly desirable certification.: The CCNA Wireless certification is the most respected entry-level wireless certification

  9. 2014 Australasian sky guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lomb, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Compact, easy to use and reliable, this popular guide contains everything you need to know about the southern night sky with monthly astronomy maps, viewing tips and highlights, and details of all the year's exciting celestial events. Wherever you are in Australia or New Zealand, easy calculations allow you to estimate local rise and set times for the Sun, Moon and planets. The 2014 Australasian Sky Guide also provides information on the solar system, updated with the latest findings from space probes. Published annually since 1991, the Sky Guide continues to be a favourite with photographers,

  10. 2015 Australasian sky guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lomb, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Compact, easy to use and reliable, this popular guide has been providing star gazers with everything they need to know about the southern night sky for the past 25 years. The 2015 guide will celebrate this landmark with highlights from the past as well as monthly astronomy maps, viewing tips and highlights, and details of the year's exciting celestial events.Wherever you are in Australia or New Zealand, easy calculations allow you to estimate local rise and set times for the Sun, Moon and planets. The 2015 Australasian Sky Guide also provides information on the solar system, updated with the l

  11. Manufacturing Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waid, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  12. Crossing boundaries : Involving external parties in innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    To improve the return on investments in innovation, firms increasingly open up their new product development (NPD) processes by inviting external parties to participate. This dissertation focuses on the involvement of three different types of external parties in the NPD process: suppliers,

  13. Hydropower externalities: A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattmann, Matteo; Logar, Ivana; Brouwer, Roy

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of existing research related to the economic valuation of the external effects of hydropower. A database consisting of 81 observations derived from 29 studies valuing the non-market impacts of hydropower electricity generation is constructed with the main aim to quantify and explain the economic values for positive and negative hydropower externalities. Different meta-regression model specifications are used to test the robustness of significant determinants of non-market values, including different types of hydropower impacts. The explanatory and predictive power of the estimated models is relatively high. Whilst controlling for sample and study characteristics, we find significant evidence for public aversion towards deteriorations of landscape, vegetation and wildlife caused by hydropower projects. There is however only weak evidence of willingness to pay for mitigating these effects. The main positive externality of hydropower generation, the avoidance of greenhouse gas emission, positively influences welfare estimates when combined with the share of hydropower in national energy production. Sensitivity to scope is detected, but not linked to specific externalities or non-market valuation methods. - Highlights: • A global meta-analysis of valuation studies of hydropower externalities is presented. • Positive and negative externalities are distinguished. • Welfare losses due to environmental deteriorations outweigh gains of GHG reductions. • There is only weak evidence of public WTP for mitigating negative externalities. • The non-market values of hydropower externalities are sensitive to scope.

  14. School Improvement Processes and External Agency Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Sanford

    This paper discusses the improvement process used in schools to bring about change, as well as the influence of external agencies on improvement activity. It considers school district processes as they relate to improvement activity, the strategies and roles performed by external agencies, and the issues that might effect planning by an external…

  15. External Communities of Practice and Relational Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Frank W.; Navarro, Juan G. Cegarra

    2004-01-01

    External communities of practice are groups formed by company clients and employees based on common interests, commitment, mutual trust and collaboration whose members regularly share knowledge and learning. This paper examines how external communities of practice contribute to the creation of relational capital through an empirical investigation…

  16. Black holes under external influence £

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KTF MFF UK

    Abstract. The work on black holes immersed in external fields is reviewed in both test-field ap- proximation and within exact solutions. In particular we pay attention to the effect of the expulsion of the flux of external fields across charged and rotating black holes which are approaching extremal states. Recently this effect has ...

  17. Forms of Spanking and Children's Externalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Wager, Laura B.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that corporal punishment is related to higher levels of child externalizing behavior, but there has been controversy regarding whether infrequent, mild spanking predicts child externalizing or whether more severe and frequent forms of corporal punishment account for the link. Mothers rated the frequency with which they spanked…

  18. Wind power externalities: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattmann, M.; Logar, I.; Brouwer, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the first quantitative meta-analysis of the non-market valuation literature on the external effects associated with wind power production. A data set of 60 observations drawn from 32 studies is constructed. The relative economic values of different types of externalities as well

  19. Examining the Assessment Literacy of External Examiners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medland, Emma

    2015-01-01

    External scrutiny of higher education courses is evident globally, but the use of an external examiner from another institution for the purposes of quality assurance has been a distinguishing feature of UK higher education since the 1830s. However, the changing higher education context has led to mounting criticism of the system and the…

  20. On interaction with external fields. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polubarinov, I.V.

    1978-01-01

    An introduction into theory of interaction of any quantized charged field with arbitrary external time-dependent classical fields is exposed. Usual field operator terms are used. S-matrix is explicitly represented in an N-ordered form. Its matrix elements are treated, using a particle number operator formalism. Pair number distribution produced by external fields from vacuum is characterized

  1. Network Externality and Commercial Software Piracy

    OpenAIRE

    Sougata Poddar

    2005-01-01

    Contrary to the earlier findings under end-users piracy where the existence of strong network externality was shown to be a reason for allowing limited piracy, we find when the piracy is commercial in nature the optimal policy for the original software developer is to protect its product irrespective of the strength of network externality in the software users market.

  2. New advances in solid state powder lasers: the effects of external seeding and external mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noginov, Mikhail A.; Noginova, Natalia E.; Egarievwe, Stephen U.; Wang, JaChing; Caulfield, H. John

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the effects of the external laser seeding and external mirrors on stimulated emission in powder lasers. The possibility of remove controlling of the powder laser emission has been demonstrated.

  3. External Tank - The Structure Backbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzyn, Kenneth; Pilet, Jeffrey C.; Diecidue-Conners, Dawn; Worden, Michelle; Guillot, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The External Tank forms the structural backbone of the Space Shuttle in the launch configuration. Because the tank flies to orbital velocity with the Space Shuttle Orbiter, minimization of weight is mandatory, to maximize payload performance. Choice of lightweight materials both for structure and thermal conditioning was necessary. The tank is large, and unique manufacturing facilities, tooling, handling, and transportation operations were required. Weld processes and tooling evolved with the design as it matured through several block changes, to reduce weight. Non Destructive Evaluation methods were used to assure integrity of welds and thermal protection system materials. The aluminum-lithium alloy was used near the end of the program and weld processes and weld repair techniques had to be refined. Development and implementation of friction stir welding was a substantial technology development incorporated during the Program. Automated thermal protection system application processes were developed for the majority of the tank surface. Material obsolescence was an issue throughout the 40 year program. The final configuration and tank weight enabled international space station assembly in a high inclination orbit allowing international cooperation with the Russian Federal Space Agency. Numerous process controls were implemented to assure product quality, and innovative proof testing was accomplished prior to delivery. Process controls were implemented to assure cleanliness in the production environment, to control contaminants, and to preclude corrosion. Each tank was accepted via rigorous inspections, including non-destructive evaluation techniques, proof testing, and all systems testing. In the post STS-107 era, the project focused on ascent debris risk reduction. This was accomplished via stringent process controls, post flight assessment using substantially improved imagery, and selective redesigns. These efforts were supported with a number of test programs to

  4. Externalities of energy and atomic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    Energy technology ensures not only energy supply but also has great impacts on society and environments. Economical value and effect evaluation alone doesn't mean appropriate so the evaluation of 'externalities' should be appreciated. In order to assess atomic power in this context, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan set up a research committee on 'externalities of energy and atomic power' from April 2002 to March 2006, whose activities were described in this report. In addition to environmental effects and environmental externalities, four areas were newly studied as follows: (1) biological effects of low dose rate exposure and externalities, (2) externalities as social/economical effects including stable supply and security, (3) energy technologies evaluation and (4) social choice and decision-making. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Antibiotic Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian

    of antimicrobial resistance: (1) adaptive mutations and (2) horizontal acquisition of resistance genes from antibiotic gene reservoirs. By studying the geno- and phenotypic changes of E. coli in response to single and drug-pair exposures, I uncover the evolutionary trajectories leading to adaptive resistance. I......Bacteria can avoid extinction during antimicrobial exposure by becoming resistant. They achieve this either via adaptive mutations or horizontally acquired resistance genes. If resistance emerges in clinical relevant species, it can lead to treatment failure and ultimately result in increasing...... morbidity and mortality as well as an increase in the cost of treatment. Understanding how bacteria respond to antibiotic exposure gives the foundations for a rational approach to counteract antimicrobial resistance. In the work presented in this thesis, I explore the two fundamental sources...

  6. Guide to Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-10-11

    This guide examines new methods of enclosure designs that provide high thermal performance and long-term durability but also take opportunities to reduce material use, simplify or integrate systems and details, and potentially reduce overall initial costs of construction.

  7. EERE Peer Review Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    The primary purpose of this guide is to provide managers and staff guidance in establishing formal in-progress peer review that provides intellectually fair expert evaluation of EERE RD3 and supporting business administration programs, both retrospective and prospective.

  8. Guide to ship sanitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    "The third edition of the Guide to Ship Sanitation presents the public health significance of ships in terms of disease and highlights the importance of applying appropriate control measures"--Back cover...

  9. Guide to Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Behavior Change Your Weight Is Important Over the past few ... focus on are the dietary and physical activity changes that will lead to long-term weight change. ...

  10. Lean Government Methods Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Guide focuses primarily on Lean production, which is an organizational improvement philosophy and set of methods that originated in manufacturing but has been expanded to government and service sectors.

  11. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  12. Evaluations of the Third Kind: External Evaluations of External Quality Assurance Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, Tibor R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews several cases of external evaluations of external quality assurance (EQA) agencies. The characteristics, methodology and findings of six such evaluations from three continents are discussed and similarities and differences are analysed. The lessons drawn from these six cases show that external evaluation of agencies is a…

  13. Characterization of systems for external insulation and retrofitting with emphasis on the thermal performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus; Rose, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    to include the effect of thermal bridges by performing simple calculations, a task which normally requires the use of numerical models. The results show that thermal bridges in external insulation systems may decrease their thermal resistance by more than 25%.Key parameters was calculated by the use...... or unsatisfactory architectural look. One way of solving these problems is by adding a retrofitting system with thermal insulation to the existing building envelope. If external insulation systems are used, a new rain screen is applied on the outside of the insulation. Insulation can be applied either on the inside...... or the outside of the existing building envelope, but internal insulation has many disadvantages compared to external insulation. Several external insulation systems exist, each with different properties making it difficult for building designers to choose between systems in an objective manner.To help...

  14. VOLTTRON: User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutes, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Akyol, Bora A.; Tenney, Nathan D.; Haack, Jereme N.; Monson, Kyle E.; Carpenter, Brandon J.

    2014-04-24

    This document is a user guide for the deployment of the Transactional Network platform and agent/application development within the VOLTTRON. The intent of this user guide is to provide a description of the functionality of the Transactional Network Platform. This document describes how to deploy the platform, including installation, use, guidance, and limitations. It also describes how additional features can be added to enhance its current functionality.

  15. Security guide for subcontractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This security guide of the Department of Energy covers contractor and subcontractor access to DOE and Mound facilities. The topics of the security guide include responsibilities, physical barriers, personnel identification system, personnel and vehicular access controls, classified document control, protecting classified matter in use, storing classified matter repository combinations, violations, security education clearance terminations, security infractions, classified information nondisclosure agreement, personnel security clearances, visitor control, travel to communist-controlled or sensitive countries, shipment security, and surreptitious listening devices.

  16. CT guided thoracocentesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Yoshitomo; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Baba, Makoto; Watabe, Hideyuki; Sato, Masashi; Kajiki, Yoshie; Hikita, Fuminori; Yamagishi, Yoshihiko

    1986-01-01

    Our diagnostic method of CT guided thoracocentesis is introduced. This method is especially useful to obtain pleural fluid in patient with small amount of pleural effusion. The essential points of this method are as follows; The course and site to reach the pleural cavity are determined by CT scan. And the angulated 22 G needle is inserted from the back (below) of the supine patient. CT guided thoracocentesis is a simple, safe and sure procedure to obtain pleural fluid. (author)

  17. Railo 3 Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Drew, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series, this book uses practical examples and screenshots to steadily guide the reader through setting up and using Railo. If you want to develop your own dynamic web applications using CFML, then this book is for you. No prior experience with Railo or CFML is required, although you will be expected to have some web application development experience and knowledge of HTML.

  18. Liferay Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Robert; Bhatt, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series, each chapter follows the creation of a fictional neighbourhood site to demonstrate an aspect of Liferay portal with practical examples, screenshots, and step-by-step instructions. All you need in order to benefit from the Liferay Beginner's Guide is programming experience. No prior knowledge of Liferay is required, although experienced Liferay portal programmers who need to get up to speed with its latest features will also find this book useful.

  19. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  20. Radiological design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this design guide is to provide radiological safety requirements, standards, and information necessary for designing facilities that will operate without unacceptable risk to personnel, the public, or the environment as required by the US Department of Energy (DOE). This design guide, together with WHC-CM-4-29, Nuclear Criticality Safety, WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis, and WHC-CM-7-5, Environmental Compliance, covers the radiation safety design requirements at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This design guide applies to the design of all new facilities. The WHC organization with line responsibility for design shall determine to what extent this design guide shall apply to the modifications to existing facilities. In making this determination, consideration shall include a cost versus benefit study. Specifically, facilities that store, handle, or process radioactive materials will be covered. This design guide replaces WHC-CM-4-9 and is designated a living document. This design guide is intended for design purposes only. Design criteria are different from operational criteria and often more stringent. Criteria that might be acceptable for operations might not be adequate for design

  1. Control system design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  2. Radiological design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R.A.

    1994-08-16

    The purpose of this design guide is to provide radiological safety requirements, standards, and information necessary for designing facilities that will operate without unacceptable risk to personnel, the public, or the environment as required by the US Department of Energy (DOE). This design guide, together with WHC-CM-4-29, Nuclear Criticality Safety, WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis, and WHC-CM-7-5, Environmental Compliance, covers the radiation safety design requirements at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This design guide applies to the design of all new facilities. The WHC organization with line responsibility for design shall determine to what extent this design guide shall apply to the modifications to existing facilities. In making this determination, consideration shall include a cost versus benefit study. Specifically, facilities that store, handle, or process radioactive materials will be covered. This design guide replaces WHC-CM-4-9 and is designated a living document. This design guide is intended for design purposes only. Design criteria are different from operational criteria and often more stringent. Criteria that might be acceptable for operations might not be adequate for design.

  3. Development and external validation of a new PTA assessment scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Bram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA is a key symptom of traumatic brain injury (TBI. Accurate assessment of PTA is imperative in guiding clinical decision making. Our aim was to develop and externally validate a short, examiner independent and practical PTA scale, by selecting the most discriminative items from existing scales and using a three-word memory test. Methods Mild, moderate and severe TBI patients and control subjects were assessed in two separate cohorts, one for derivation and one for validation, using a questionnaire comprised of items from existing PTA scales. We tested which individual items best discriminated between TBI patients and controls, represented by sensitivity and specificity. We then created our PTA scale based on these results. This new scale was externally evaluated for its discriminative value using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis and compared to existing PTA scales. Results The derivation cohort included 126 TBI patients and 31 control subjects; the validation cohort consisted of 132 patients and 30 controls. A set of seven items was eventually selected to comprise the new PTA scale: age, name of hospital, time, day of week, month, mode of transport and recall of three words. This scale demonstrated adequate discriminative values compared to existing PTA scales on three consecutive administrations in the validation cohort. Conclusion We introduce a valid, practical and examiner independent PTA scale, which is suitable for mild TBI patients at the emergency department and yet still valuable for the follow-up of more severely injured TBI patients.

  4. Review of external validity reporting in childhood obesity prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesges, Lisa M; Dzewaltowski, David A; Glasgow, Russell E

    2008-03-01

    The translation and dissemination of prevention intervention evidence into practice is needed to address significant public health issues such as childhood obesity. Increased attention to and reporting of external validity information in research publications would allow for better understanding of generalizability issues relevant to successful translation. To demonstrate this potential, recent reports of childhood obesity prevention interventions were evaluated on the extent to which external validity dimensions were reported. Childhood obesity prevention studies that were controlled, long-term research trials published between 1980 and 2004 that reported a behavioral target of physical activity and/or healthy eating along with at least one anthropometric outcome were identified in 2005. Studies were summarized between 2005 and 2006 using review criteria developed by Green and Glasgow in 2006. Nineteen publications met selection criteria. In general, all studies lacked full reporting on potential generalizability and dissemination elements. Median reporting over all elements was 34.5%; the mode was 0% with a range of 0% to 100%. Most infrequent were reports of setting level selection criteria and representativeness, characteristics regarding intervention staff, implementation of intervention content, costs, and program sustainability. The evidence base for future prevention interventions can be improved by enhancing the reporting of contextual and generalizability elements central to translational research. Such efforts face practical hurdles but could provide additional explanation for variability in intervention outcomes, insights into successful adaptations of interventions, and help guide policy decisions.

  5. External Contamination Control of Attached Payloads on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Olsen, Randy L.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Schmidl, William D.; Wright, Bruce D.; Koontz, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an on-orbit platform for science utilization in low Earth orbit with multiple sites for external payloads with exposure to the natural and induced environments. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. This paper describes the external contamination control requirements and integration process for externally mounted payloads on the ISS. The external contamination control requirements are summarized and a description of the integration and verification process is detailed to guide payload developers in the certification process of attached payloads on the vehicle. A description of the required data certification deliverables covers the characterization of contamination sources. Such characterization includes identification, usage and operational data for each class of contamination source. Classes of external contamination sources covered are vacuum exposed materials, sources of leakage, vacuum venting and thrusters. ISS system level analyses are conducted by the ISS Space Environments Team to certify compliance with external contamination control requirements. This paper also addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on ISS.

  6. Guided ionization waves: Theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X.; Naidis, G.V.; Laroussi, M.; Ostrikov, K.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on one of the fundamental phenomena that occur upon application of sufficiently strong electric fields to gases, namely the formation and propagation of ionization waves–streamers. The dynamics of streamers is controlled by strongly nonlinear coupling, in localized streamer tip regions, between enhanced (due to charge separation) electric field and ionization and transport of charged species in the enhanced field. Streamers appear in nature (as initial stages of sparks and lightning, as huge structures—sprites above thunderclouds), and are also found in numerous technological applications of electrical discharges. Here we discuss the fundamental physics of the guided streamer-like structures—plasma bullets which are produced in cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jets. Plasma bullets are guided ionization waves moving in a thin column of a jet of plasma forming gases (e.g., He or Ar) expanding into ambient air. In contrast to streamers in a free (unbounded) space that propagate in a stochastic manner and often branch, guided ionization waves are repetitive and highly-reproducible and propagate along the same path—the jet axis. This property of guided streamers, in comparison with streamers in a free space, enables many advanced time-resolved experimental studies of ionization waves with nanosecond precision. In particular, experimental studies on manipulation of streamers by external electric fields and streamer interactions are critically examined. This review also introduces the basic theories and recent advances on the experimental and computational studies of guided streamers, in particular related to the propagation dynamics of ionization waves and the various parameters of relevance to plasma streamers. This knowledge is very useful to optimize the efficacy of applications of plasma streamer discharges in various fields ranging from health care and medicine to materials science and nanotechnology

  7. Use of Automated External Defibrillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory K Christensen

    2009-02-01

    In an effort to improve survival from cardiac arrest, the American Heart Association (AHA) has promoted the Chain of Survival concept, describing a sequence of prehospital steps that result in improved survival after sudden cardiac arrest. These interventions include immediate deployment of emergency medical services, prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation when indicated, and early initiation of advanced medical care. Early defibrillation has emerged as the most important intervention with survival decreasing by 10% with each minute of delay in defibrillation. Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) is a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the heart cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them tremble rather than contract properly. VF is a medical emergency and if the arrhythmia continues for more than a few seconds, blood circulation will cease, and death can occur in a matter of minutes. During VF, contractions of the heart are not synchronized, blood flow ceases, organs begin to fail from oxygen deprivation and within 10 minutes, death will occur. When VF occurs, the victim must be defibrillated in order to establish the heart’s normal rhythm. On average, the wait for an ambulance in populated areas of the United States is about 11 minutes. In view of these facts, the EFCOG Electrical Safety Task Group initiated this review to evaluate the potential value of deployment and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) for treatment of SCA victims. This evaluation indicates the long term survival benefit to victims of SCA is high if treated with CPR plus defibrillation within the first 3-5 minutes after collapse. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), survival rates as high as 74% are possible if treatment and defibrillation is performed in the first 3 minutes. In contrast survival rates are only 5% where no AED programs have been established to provide prompt CPR and defibrillation. ["CPR statistics

  8. Can positrons be guided by insulating capillaries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBois, R.D.; Toekesi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Investigations of guiding of few hundred eV antiparticles by macroscopic insulating capillaries have been described. Using subfemtoamp positron and electron beams, we demonstrated that a portion of the entering beams were transmitted and emerged in the direction of the capillary. We also demonstrated that the transmitted intensities decreased as the capillary tilt angle was increased (see Fig. 1). Both of these are indications of guiding. However, a comparison with transmitted photon data implies that the positron transmission may result from geometric factors associated with our diffuse beams and tapered capillary used in these studies. For electrons, the comparison indicates differences which could imply that even very low intensity beams can be guided. Measurements of the transmitted intensity as a function of charge entering the capillary were inconclusive as no major increases in the transmitted intensity were observed. 2D static simulations imply that our beam intensities, although extremely small with respect to previous guiding experiments, were capable of supplying sufficient charge for guiding to occur. Although not definitive, our study implies that sub-femtoamp beam intensities are sufficient to form charge patches and produce guiding. This may have been observed for electrons with the question remaining open for positrons. That guiding was not clearly seen may have been due to the capillary geometry used or it may indicate that although sufficient charge is being supplied, the surface and bulk resistivities of glass permit this charge to dissipate faster than it is formed. This aspect was not taken into consideration in our simulations but a crude estimate of the discharge rate implies that beam intensities on the order of pA, rather than fA as used here, may be required for guiding to occur in the capillaries used here. Additional studies are required to definitively answer the question as to whether antiparticles

  9. Estimation of Externalities for Juragua Nuclear Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, H. R.; Carbonell, L. T.

    2002-01-01

    Estimation of externalities allows taking into account environmental impacts due to any activity in total costs calculation. In the present work, the external costs of electricity generation from nuclear energy were calculated considering three scenarios: normal operation (routine releases), accident situation and solid waste disposal. A comparison between these results and those obtained for electricity generation from fossil fuels was made. IAEA proposals of Simplified methodologies were used for externality calculations. The Juragua project was selected as a study case; it is based in two energetic blocks both PWR, VVER 440/318 type with a plant capacity of 417 MWe each. Four impact ways were considered for all scenarios: (1) Inhalation of radionuclides in the air, (2) External irradiation from radionuclides immersed in clouds, (3) External irradiation from deposited radionuclides and (4) Ingestion of radionuclides in agricultural products. Besides, two impact categories (local and regional) for all scenarios were considered. The total cost of externalities was 0.01425 c/kWh, value smaller than the one obtained for electricity generation from fossil fuel (0.256 c/kWh). For the normal operation scenario, the external cost calculated was 0.00112 c/kWh, for accident situation 0.01103 c/kWh, and for the solid wastes management scenario 0.0021 c/kWh. The high value obtained for solid waste disposal scenario is due to repository placement features. (author)

  10. Antiretroviral Resistance in HIV/AIDS Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosuthi, W.; MD

    2018-03-01

    The higher prevalence of HIV drug resistance was observed in areas with greater ART coverage. The HIV resistance-associated mutations occur when people have inadequate levels of antiretroviral drugs as well as inadequate potency, inadequate adherence, and preexisting resistance. The degree to drug cross-resistance is observed depends on the specific mutations and number of mutation accumulation. In the Southeast Asia region, the challenging of people with treatment failure is the availability and accessibility to subsequent new antiretroviral drugs to construct he second and salvage regimen. Genotypic resistance testing is a useful tool because it can identify the existing drug resistance-associated mutations under the selective drug pressure. Thus, understanding the basic interpretation of HIV drug resistance- associated mutation is useful in guiding clinical decisions for treatment-experienced people living with HIV.

  11. Bacterial resistance and impetigo treatment trends: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, Scott; Levy, Moise; Hebert, Adelaide A

    2012-01-01

    Impetigo is a common cutaneous infection that is especially prevalent in children. The prevalence of colonization and infection with resistant strains is continually increasing, forcing clinicians to reevaluate treatment strategies. Newer topical agents are effective in treating infections with resistant strains and may help minimize resistance and adverse effects from systemic agents. Use of topical disinfectants to decrease colonization is an important adjunctive measure. Physicians should be aware of local resistance patterns in impetigo to help guide therapy. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Assembly of Superparamagnetic Filaments in External Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiachen; Song, Fan; Dobnikar, Jure

    2016-09-13

    We present a theoretical and simulation study of anchored magneto-elastic filaments in external magnetic field. The filaments are composed of a mixture of superparamagnetic and nonmagnetic colloidal beads interlinked with elastic springs. We explore the steady-state structures of filaments with various composition and bending rigidity subject to external magnetic field parallel to the surface. The interplay of elastic and induced magnetic interactions results in a rich phase behavior with morphologies reminiscent of macromolecular folding: bent filaments, loops, sheets, helicoids, and other collapsed structures. Our results provide new insights into the design of hierarchically assembled supramolecular structures with controlled response to external stimuli.

  13. Environment and externalization; Environnement et externalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremlis, G.; Renaud, R. [Association francaise des ingenieurs et techniciens de l' environnement, AFITE, 75 - Paris (France); Touron, M. [Veritas, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the discussions of the 16 may 2000, concerning the externalization and the environment and proposes to answer the following questions: is the externalization a new strategy to better perceive, hopeful engineering department, the technological risks problems, the environment or the land pollution? Does the externalization allow a better organization of the enterprise? To analyse the situation, the document presents the white book of the environmental liability, the administration point of view, some enterprises examples and the importance of the environmental management. (A.L.B.)

  14. Relaxed plasmas in external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, G.O.; Li, J.

    1991-08-01

    The well-known theory of relaxed plasmas (Taylor states) is extended to external magnetic fields whose field lines intersect the conducting toroidal boundary. Application to an axially symmetric, large-aspect-ratio torus with circular cross section shows that the maximum pinch ratio, and hence the phenomenon of current saturation, is independent of the external field. The relaxed state is explicitly given for an external octupole field. In this case, field reversal is inhibited near parts of the boundary if the octupole generates magnetic x-points within the plasma. (orig.)

  15. Internal Versus External Knowledge Sourcing Of Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Pedersen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    between the external and internal networks. However, newer organizationalforms, like the concept of the `differentiated MNC', imply a relatively smooth flow of knowledgeinside the MNC, indicating that we should not expect an organizational trade-off between internaland external sources. The subsidiary...... countries (the Centre of ExcellenceProject). In fact, the results show that, to a certain extent, there is no dilemma between asubsidiary's knowledge development based on both internal, and external knowledge sources.However, the results also show a bell-shaped relationship between the use of internal...

  16. Concurrent sourcing and external supplier opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    costs of opportunism are determined as a product of four factors. The four factors are: likelihood of discovering supplier opportunism, buyer’s internalized quantity as reaction to supplier opportunism, asset specificity of external supplier’s investments, and multiplicator effects. Each......When a firm simultaneously makes and buys the same components then the firm uses concurrent sourcing. This paper presents an agency model for explaining how and when concurrent sourcing reduces the likelihood of external supplier opportunism. In the proposed model, the external supplier’s expected...

  17. Camptothecin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brangi, M; Litman, Thomas; Ciotti, M

    1999-01-01

    The mitoxantrone resistance (MXR) gene encodes a recently characterized ATP-binding cassette half-transporter that confers multidrug resistance. We studied resistance to the camptothecins in two sublines expressing high levels of MXR: S1-M1-80 cells derived from parental S1 colon cancer cells...... and MCF-7 AdVp3,000 isolated from parental MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Both cell lines were 400- to 1,000-fold more resistant to topotecan, 9-amino-20(S)-camptothecin, and the active metabolite of irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), than their parental cell lines. The cell lines...... demonstrated much less resistance to camptothecin and to several camptothecin analogues. Reduced accumulation and energy-dependent efflux of topotecan was demonstrated by confocal microscopy. A significant reduction in cleavable complexes in the resistant cells could be observed after SN-38 treatment...

  18. Promotion Guide – A guide for career reviews

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    On 8 February, the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) approved the Promotion Guide, subtitled “A guide for career reviews”. The English version is already published on the HR website. This Promotion Guide is not very different from the Career Path Guide which it replaces following the implementation of the new career structure with benchmark jobs and grades. Structure The guide is composed of three parts: Section I – Introduction revisits the reference documents: the Staff Rules and Regulations (S&R) and the Administrative Circular No. 26 (AC 26). In the Staff Rules and Regulations, the term promotion is defined as a change of grade1 and in Administrative Circular No. 26, the Promotion Guide is referenced under paragraph 452. The objective of the Promotion Guide is laid out in Section I: “The Promotion Guide defines the criteria to be used as a reference for career reviews with a view to a potential promotion”. However, this guide do...

  19. Proceedings: National conference on environmental externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report is the proceedings of the National Conference on Environmental Externalities. A environmental externality is the environmental impact of a process or a plant that society must endure. It is a social cost and is paid, but not by the company who produced it or the company`s customers who endure it. The main purpose of this report is to gather the many designs and ideas of how and why to internalize the externalities into the pricing systems of the public utility commissions, especially that of the electric utilities. Economic and sociological aspects of the internalization of these externalities are given in these proceedings. Individual papers are processed separately for databases. (MB)

  20. Which Agglomeration Externalities Matter Most and Why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Henri L.F.; Poot, Jacques; Smit, Martijn J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper revisits the ongoing discussion on the importance of agglomeration externalities – specifically specialization, diversity and competition effects – that may contribute to innovation, productivity and urban employment growth. Previous meta‐analyses suggested that the evidence on

  1. Which Agglomeration Externalities Matter Most and Why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, H.L.F.; Poot, J.; Smit, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper revisits the ongoing discussion on the importance of agglomeration externalities – specifically specialization, diversity and competition effects – that may contribute to innovation, productivity and urban employment growth. Previous meta-analyses suggested that the evidence on

  2. Partial breast radiation therapy - external beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoma of the breast - partial radiation therapy; Partial external beam radiation - breast; Intensity-modulated radiation therapy - breast cancer; IMRT - breast cancer WBRT; Adjuvant partial breast - IMRT; APBI - IMRT; ...

  3. The strategic significance of negative externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Negative externalities have competitive relevance in a market when they have selective impacts as, for : example, when a product in use imposes greater costs on consumers of rival products than on other people. : Because managers have discretion ...

  4. Multiple Environmental Externalities and Manure Management Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Key, Nigel D.; Kaplan, Jonathan D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the economic and environmental implications of regulating water and air nitrogen emissions under single and multi-environmental media policies in the U.S. hog industry. We examine tradeoffs from policies designed to correct an externality in one medium, when there are multiple environmental externalities. We separately and jointly analyze: (a) nitrogen land application restrictions consistent with recently adopted EPA requirements under the Clean Water Act, and (b) hypoth...

  5. Integrating Building Functions into Massive External Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hisham Hafez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Well into the twentieth century, brick and stone were the materials used. Bricklaying and stonemasonry were the construction technologies employed for the exterior walls of virtually all major structures. However, with the rise in quality of life, the massive walls alone became incapable of fulfilling all the developed needs. Adjacent systems and layers had then to be attached to the massive layer. Nowadays, the external wall is usually composed of a layered construction. Each external wall function is usually represented by a separate layer or system. The massive layer of the wall is usually responsible for the load-bearing function. Traditional massive external walls vary in terms of their external appearance, their composition and attached layers. However, their design and construction process is usually a repeated process. It is a linear process where each discipline is concerned with a separate layer or system. These disciplines usually take their tasks away and bring them back to be re-integrated in a layered manner. New massive technologies with additional function have recently become available. Such technologies can provide the external wall with other functions in addition to its load-bearing function. The purpose of this research is to map the changes required to the traditional design and construction process when massive technologies with additional function are applied in external walls. Moreover, the research aims at assessing the performance of massive solutions with additional function when compared to traditional solutions in two different contexts, the Netherlands and Egypt. Through the analysis of different additional function technologies in external walls, a guidance scheme for different stakeholders is generated. It shows the expected process changes as related to the product level and customization level. Moreover, the research concludes that the performance of additional insulating technologies, and specifically

  6. Road Damage Externalities and Road User Charges.

    OpenAIRE

    Newbery, David M

    1988-01-01

    Vehicles damage roads and, thus, increase road repair costs and create a road damage externality by raising the operating costs of subsequent vehicles. The main result is that if periodic road maintenance is condition responsive and if all road damage is attributable to traffic, then, in steady state with zero traffic growth, the average road damage externality is zero a nd the appropriate road damage charge is the average maintenance cost. Where weather accounts for some road damage, the roa...

  7. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Natural gas fuel cycle. Estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority impact pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Watkiss, P.; Berry, J.; Johnson, C.; Lee, D.

    1994-01-01

    been established. Earlier work is typically of a preliminary nature and tends to be deficient with respect to both the methods employed and the quality of models and data used. In consequence of this the ExternE Project was established in 1991, with the following main objectives; 1) To identify and develop a suitable methodology with which to quantify the external costs and benefits of the major fuel cycles for electricity generation and conservation, using the best available models and data. This to be done using a common framework for assessment of different fuel cycles, in order that fair comparison can be made between them. 2) To use this methodology to assess the external costs for a number of case studies representative of each fuel cycle. 3) To make recommendations on areas in which further research is required in order that future estimates of damages can be made with greater confidence. To meet these objectives we have stressed transparency, consistency and comprehensiveness as guiding principles for the work. This applies particularly to the methods used, definition of study boundaries and listing of effects that are considered and those that are not. These principles are essential to allow valid comparison to be made between different fuel cycles, for which priority impacts may differ greatly, as illustrated by comparison of the gas, nuclear and wind fuel cycles. The present report is one of a series covering the following fuel cycles; coal, uranium, lignite, oil, gas, wind, photovoltaics, biomass and small scale hydroelectric projects. Energy security and energy conservation are also being considered within a similar framework. The methodology used is broadly similar to that identified for Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) by The Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. It is split into the following stages; 1) Definition of objectives and system boundaries; 2) Collation of an inventory of burdens associated with the process in question; 3

  8. Developing Dynamic Digital Image Correlation Technique to Monitor Structural Damage of Old Buildings under External Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsiang Shih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of buildings to resist external excitation is an important factor to consider for the structural design of buildings. When subject to external excitation, a building may suffer a certain degree of damages, and its residual capacity to resist external excitation cannot be evaluated. In this research, dynamic digital image correlation method combined with parameter evaluation available in system identification is used to evaluate the structural capacity to resist external excitation. The results reveal possible building latent safety problems so that timely structural reinforcement or dismantling of the building can be initiated to alleviate further damages. The results of experiments using the proposed method conform to the results obtained using the conventional method, but this method is more convenient and rapid than the latter in the subsequent procedure of data processing. If only the frequency change is used, the damages suffered by the building can be detected, but the damage location is not revealed. The interstory drift mode shape (IDMS based on the characteristic of story drift has higher sensitivity than the approximate story damage index (ADSI method based on modal frequency and vibration type; however, both indices can be used to determine the degree and location of building damages.

  9. Construction of an external electrode for determination of electrochemical corrosion potential in normal operational conditions of an BWR type reactor for hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar T, J.A.; Rivera M, H.; Hernandez C, R.

    2001-01-01

    The behavior of the corrosion processes at high temperature requires of external devices that being capable to resist a temperature of 288 Centigrade and a pressure of 80 Kg/cm 2 , to give stable and reproducible results of some variable and resisting physically and chemically the radiation. The external electrode of Ag/AgCl fulfils all the requirements in the determination of the electrochemical corrosion potential under normal operational conditions of a BWR type reactor in hot cells. (Author)

  10. Antibacterial-guided isolation of constituents from Senna alata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial-guided isolation of constituents from Senna alata leaves with a particular reference against Multi-Drug-Resistant Vibrio cholerae and Shigella flexneri. ... Senna alata is widely used in Cameroon for the treatment of several infections which include gonorrhoea, gastro-intestinal and skin diseases. Therefore, its ...

  11. ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE SERVICEMAN, SUGGESTED GUIDE FOR A TRAINING COURSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOVE, L. CARL; RONEY, MAURICE W.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO AID IN PLANNING AND DEVELOPING A COURSE FOR TRAINING ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE SERVICEMEN. OUTLINES (ONE PAGE EACH) COVER -- (1) RELATED INSTRUCTION, (2) FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY, (3) BASIC CONTROLS AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS, (4) RESISTANCE HEATING APPLIANCES, (5) MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC APPLIANCES, (6) MOTOR DRIVEN…

  12. External cost assessment for nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byung Heung; Ko, Won Il

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power is currently the second largest power supply method in Korea and the number of nuclear power plants are planned to be increased as well. However, clear management policy for spent fuels generated from nuclear power plants has not yet been established. The back-end fuel cycle, associated with nuclear material flow after nuclear reactors is a collection of technologies designed for the spent fuel management and the spent fuel management policy is closely related with the selection of a nuclear fuel cycle. Cost is an important consideration in selection of a nuclear fuel cycle and should be determined by adding external cost to private cost. Unlike the private cost, which is a direct cost, studies on the external cost are focused on nuclear reactors and not at the nuclear fuel cycle. In this research, external cost indicators applicable to nuclear fuel cycle were derived and quantified. OT (once through), DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR SF in CANDU), PWR-MOX (PWR PUREX reprocessing), and Pyro-SFR (SFR recycling with pyroprocessing) were selected as nuclear fuel cycles which could be considered for estimating external cost in Korea. Energy supply security cost, accident risk cost, and acceptance cost were defined as external cost according to precedent and estimated after analyzing approaches which have been adopted for estimating external costs on nuclear power generation

  13. Cold guided beams of polar molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motsch, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This thesis reports on experiments characterizing cold guided beams of polar molecules which are produced by electrostatic velocity filtering. This filtering method exploits the interaction between the polar molecules and the electric field provided by an electrostatic quadrupole guide to extract efficiently the slow molecules from a thermal reservoir. For molecules with large and linear Stark shifts such as deuterated ammonia (ND 3 ) or formaldehyde (H 2 CO), fluxes of guided molecules of 10 10 -10 11 molecules/s are produced. The velocities of the molecules in these beams are in the range of 10-200 m/s and correspond to typical translational temperatures of a few Kelvin. The maximum velocity of the guided molecules depends on the Stark shift, the molecular mass, the geometry of the guide, and the applied electrode voltage. Although the source is operated in the near-effusive regime, the number density of the slowest molecules is sensitive to collisions. A theoretical model, taking into account this velocity-dependent collisional loss of molecules in the vicinity of the nozzle, reproduces the density of the guided molecules over a wide pressure range. A careful adjustment of pressure allows an increase in the total number of molecules, whilst yet minimizing losses due to collisions of the sought-for slow molecules. This is an important issue for future applications. Electrostatic velocity filtering is suited for different molecular species. This is demonstrated by producing cold guided beams of the water isotopologs H 2 O, D 2 O, and HDO. Although these are chemically similar, they show linear and quadratic Stark shifts, respectively, when exposed to external electric fields. As a result, the flux of HDO is larger by one order of magnitude, and the flux of the individual isotopologs shows a characteristic dependence on the guiding electric field. The internal-state distribution of guided molecules is studied with a newly developed diagnostic method: depletion

  14. Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszko, Adrian; Janus, Agnieszka; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a severe medical condition which is estimated to appear in 9-18% of hypertensive patients. Due to higher cardiovascular risk, this disorder requires special diagnosis and treatment. The heterogeneous etiology, risk factors and comorbidities of resistant hypertension stand in need of sophisticated evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and select the best therapeutic options, which should consider lifestyle modifications as well as pharmacological and interventional treatment. After having excluded pseudohypertension, inappropriate blood pressure measurement and control as well as the white coat effect, suspicion of resistant hypertension requires an analysis of drugs which the hypertensive patient is treated with. According to one definition - ineffective treatment with 3 or more antihypertensive drugs including diuretics makes it possible to diagnose resistant hypertension. A multidrug therapy including angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, long-acting calcium channel blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to be effective in resistant hypertension treatment. Nevertheless, optional, innovative therapies, e.g. a renal denervation or baroreflex activation, may create a novel pathway of blood pressure lowering procedures. The right diagnosis of this disease needs to eliminate the secondary causes of resistant hypertension e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, atherosclerosis and renal or hormonal disorders. This paper briefly summarizes the identification of the causes of resistant hypertension and therapeutic strategies, which may contribute to the proper diagnosis and an improvement of the long term management of resistant hypertension.

  15. Managing Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, John W.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents some considerations and ideas for managing students' resistance. They are organized around four topics: the impact of context on behavior, the importance of being comprehensive and nonrestrictive in behavior, the adaptive function of resistant behavior, and the benefit of joining children in their frame of reference.…

  16. Investigation of a magnetic flux-guide for a HTS scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, B; Moon, S H; Lee, Su-Young; Lee, S M; Kye, J I; Lee, H J; Khim, Z G

    2004-01-01

    A magnetic flux-guide in the form of a sharp needle is known to enhance the spatial resolution of the scanning SQUID microscope. We investigated the properties of a soft ferromagnetic tip as a flux-guide by measuring the local field of the tip end. The effects of the flux-guide, such as the transmission of a magnetic signal, length dependence, and nonlinear distortion, were observed. We also present the design and construction of a HTS scanning SQUID microscope with a flux-guide and a planar gradiometer. The gradiometer with a flux-guide is an appropriate solution for improving the performance of the scanning SQUID microscope with a flux-guide as regards the prevention of external field noise without magnetic shields

  17. Google Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Calishain, Tara; Adams, DJ

    2003-01-01

    Beneath its deceptively simple search form, Google is a remarkably powerful and flexible search engine that indexes billions of web pages, handling more than 150 million searches a day. You know that what you're looking for must be in there somewhere, but how do you make Google work for you? Crafted from our best-selling Google Hacks title, the Google Pocket Guide provides exactly the information you need to make your searches faster and more effective, right from the start. The Google Pocket Guide unleashes the power behind that blinking cursor by delivering: A thorough but concise tour o

  18. Synthetic guide star generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA

    2008-06-10

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  19. Pneumatic conveying design guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, David

    1990-01-01

    Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide is a guide for the design of pneumatic conveying systems and includes detailed data and information on the conveying characteristics of a number of materials with a wide range of properties. This book includes logic diagrams for design procedures and scaling parameters for the conveying line configuration. It also explains how to improve the performance of pneumatic conveyors by optimizing, uprating, and extending the system or adapting it for a change of material. This book consists of 15 chapters divided into three sections and opens with an overview of the s

  20. Jenkins The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, John

    2011-01-01

    Streamline software development with Jenkins, the popular Java-based open source tool that has revolutionized the way teams think about Continuous Integration (CI). This complete guide shows you how to automate your build, integration, release, and deployment processes with Jenkins-and demonstrates how CI can save you time, money, and many headaches. Ideal for developers, software architects, and project managers, Jenkins: The Definitive Guide is both a CI tutorial and a comprehensive Jenkins reference. Through its wealth of best practices and real-world tips, you'll discover how easy it is

  1. Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Labrecque, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Adobe Edge Quickstart Guide is a practical guide on creating engaging content for the Web with Adobe's newest HTML5 tool. By taking a chapter-by-chapter look at each major aspect of Adobe Edge, the book lets you digest the available features in small, easily understandable chunks, allowing you to start using Adobe Edge for your web design needs immediately. If you are interested in creating engaging motion and interactive compositions using web standards with professional tooling, then this book is for you. Those with a background in Flash Professional wanting to get started quickly with Adobe

  2. CFEngine 3 Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Rajneesh

    2011-01-01

    Part of Packt's Beginner's Guide series, this book guides you through setting up Cfengine to maximizing its potential. This book focuses on getting you through all the major learning points in a smooth, logical order. You'll also learn how to avoid some common pitfalls. If you are a System Administrator or Configuration manager with a growing infrastructure and if you are looking for a dependable tool to manage your infrastructure, then this book is for you. If your infrastructure is already big with hundreds and thousands of nodes and you are looking for a secure, versatile and stable configu

  3. Cassandra the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hewitt, Eben

    2011-01-01

    What could you do with data if scalability wasn't a problem? With this hands-on guide, you'll learn how Apache Cassandra handles hundreds of terabytes of data while remaining highly available across multiple data centers -- capabilities that have attracted Facebook, Twitter, and other data-intensive companies. Cassandra: The Definitive Guide provides the technical details and practical examples you need to assess this database management system and put it to work in a production environment. Author Eben Hewitt demonstrates the advantages of Cassandra's nonrelational design, and pays special

  4. Raspberry Pi user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Upton, Eben

    2013-01-01

    The essential guide to getting started with the Raspberry Pi ® The Raspberry Pi has been a success beyond the dream of its creators. Their goal, to encourage a new generation of computer programmers who understand how computers work, is well under way. Raspberry Pi User Guide 2e is the newest edition of the runaway bestseller written by the Pi's co-creator, Eben Upton, and tech writer Gareth Halfacree. It contains everything you need to know to get the Pi up and running, including how to: Connect a keyboard, mouse, monitor and other peripheralsInstall software and configure your Raspberry

  5. Raspberry Pi user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Halfacree, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Make the most out of the world’s first truly compact computer It's the size of a credit card, it can be charged like a smartphone, it runs on open-source Linux, and it holds the promise of bringing programming and playing to millions at low cost. And now you can learn how to use this amazing computer from its co-creator, Eben Upton, in Raspberry Pi User Guide. Cowritten with Gareth Halfacree, this guide gets you up and running on Raspberry Pi, whether you're an educator, hacker, hobbyist, or kid. Learn how to connect your Pi to other hardware, install software, write basic programs, an

  6. Manifold tool guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, A.

    1982-07-08

    A tool guide that makes possible the insertion of cleaning and/or inspection tools into a manifold pipe that will dislocate and extract the accumulated sediment in such manifold pipes. The tool guide basically comprises a right angled tube (or other angled tube as required) which can be inserted in a large tube and locked into a radially extending cross pipe by adjustable spacer rods and a spring-loaded cone, whereby appropriate cleaning tools can be inserted into to cross pipe for cleaning, inspection, etc.

  7. The OSIRIS user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Telling, M T F

    2003-01-01

    This user guide contains all the information necessary to perform a successful neutron scattering experiment on the OSIRIS spectrometer at ISIS, RAL, UK. Since OSIRIS is a continually evolving and improving instrument some information contained within this manual may become redundant. However, the basic instrument operating procedures should remain essentially unchanged. While updated manuals will be produced when appropriate, the most comprehensive source of information concerning OSIRIS is the Instrument Scientist/Local Contact. It would be appreciated, however, if this user guide were the first point of call should problems arise

  8. Joomla! 25 Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Tiggeler, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Written with a fast-paced but friendly and engaging approach, this Packt Beginner's guide is designed to be placed alongside the computer as your guide and mentor. Step-by-step tutorials are bolstered by explanations of the reasoning behind what you are doing. You will quickly pick up the necessary skills, tips, and tricks for building a successful Joomla! website. This book is written for beginners to website design. By the end of the book you will have built a complete custom content managed website, and be ready to build any kind of website.

  9. Seismic Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eagling, D.G. (ed.)

    1983-09-01

    This guide provides managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. The Guide is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, evaluation and rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, special considerations related to shielding blocks, non-structural elements, lifelines, fire protection and emergency facilities. Management of risk and liabilities is also covered. Nuclear facilities per se are not dealt with specifically. The principles covered also apply generally to nuclear facilities but the design and construction of such structures are subject to special regulations and legal controls.

  10. Guide to software export

    CERN Document Server

    Philips, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    An ideal reference source for CEOs, marketing and sales managers, sales consultants, and students of international marketing, Guide to Software Export provides a step-by-step approach to initiating or expanding international software sales. It teaches you how to examine critically your candidate product for exportability; how to find distributors, agents, and resellers abroad; how to identify the best distribution structure for export; and much, much more!Not content with providing just the guidelines for setting up, expanding, and managing your international sales channels, Guide to Software

  11. Outdoor lighting guide

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    As concern grows over environmental issues and light pollution, this book satisfies a need for a straightforward and accessible guide to the use, design and installation of outdoor lighting.This all-inclusive guide to exterior lighting from the Institution of Lighting Engineers, recognized as the pre-eminent professional source in the UK for authoritative guidance on exterior lighting, provides a comprehensive source of information and advice on all forms of exterior lighting, from floodlighting, buildings and road lighting to elaborate Christmas decorations. Useful to practitioners

  12. 2013 Australasian sky guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lomb, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Compact, easy to use and reliable, this popular guide contains everything you need to know about the southern night sky with monthly star maps, diagrams and details of all the year's exciting celestial events. Wherever you are in Australia or New Zealand, easy calculations allow you to determine when the Sun, Moon and planets will rise and set throughout the year. Also included is information on the latest astronomical findings from space probes and telescopes around the world. The Sky guide has been published annually by the Powerhouse Museum, Sydney, since 1991. It is recommended for photogr

  13. Seismic Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eagling, D.G.

    1983-09-01

    This guide provides managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. The Guide is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, evaluation and rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, special considerations related to shielding blocks, non-structural elements, lifelines, fire protection and emergency facilities. Management of risk and liabilities is also covered. Nuclear facilities per se are not dealt with specifically. The principles covered also apply generally to nuclear facilities but the design and construction of such structures are subject to special regulations and legal controls

  14. Diminished neural responses predict enhanced intrinsic motivation and sensitivity to external incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Karen E; Ma, Wei Ji; Deci, Edward L; Ryan, Richard M; Chiu, Pearl H

    2015-06-01

    The duration and quality of human performance depend on both intrinsic motivation and external incentives. However, little is known about the neuroscientific basis of this interplay between internal and external motivators. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation, operationalized as the free-choice time spent on a task when this was not required, and tested the neural and behavioral effects of external reward on intrinsic motivation. We found that increased duration of free-choice time was predicted by generally diminished neural responses in regions associated with cognitive and affective regulation. By comparison, the possibility of additional reward improved task accuracy, and specifically increased neural and behavioral responses following errors. Those individuals with the smallest neural responses associated with intrinsic motivation exhibited the greatest error-related neural enhancement under the external contingency of possible reward. Together, these data suggest that human performance is guided by a "tonic" and "phasic" relationship between the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation (tonic) and the impact of external incentives (phasic).

  15. Coordinated research programme on safety of RBMK type NPPs in relation to external events. V. 1. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present volume is a collection of progress reports which have been submitted within the scope of the CRP on safety of RBMK type NPPs in relation to external events including seismic related papers and man-induced events (explosions and airplane crash). It includes papers concerned with experience related to RBMK equipment testing and calculations of seismic resistance, soil-structure interactions analysis, safety assurance, aircraft impact qualification and other external events for RBMK type NPP, seismic stability of NPPs in Eastern Europe, probabilistic assessment of NPP safety under aircraft impact, dynamic analysis of NPPs, screening of external hazards for NPP

  16. Special Effects Activity Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, Jennifer; Valenta, Carol

    This guide accompanies "Special Effects," a 40-minute IMAX film and "Special Effects II", a multimedia, interactive traveling exhibit designed by the California Museum of Science and Industry. The exhibit focuses on the underlying scientific and technical processes of special effects from the earliest motion picture to state-of-the-art digital…

  17. Welding. Student Learning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm Beach County Board of Public Instruction, West Palm Beach, FL.

    This student learning guide contains 30 modules for completing a course in welding. It is designed especially for use in secondary schools in Palm Beach County, Florida. Each module covers one task, and consists of a purpose, performance objective, enabling objectives, learning activities keyed to resources, information sheets, student self-check…

  18. Fashion Merchandising Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education Services.

    Developed to address the needs of the apparel industry, this fashion merchandising curriculum guide is designed to assist marketing educators in effective instructional delivery. Introductory materials include the following: a course blueprint that illustrates units of instruction, core competencies in each unit, and specific objectives for each…

  19. Architectural Guide of Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Architectural and cultural guidebook for Jordan that also includes a view on the Syrian refugee situation, especially in the large UNHCR camp of Zaatari. The guide book is a preparatory study for a field trip our master studio undertook to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in Fall 2016....

  20. The Turing guide

    CERN Document Server

    Copeland, Jack; Sprevak, Mark; Wilson, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This carefully edited resource brings together contributions from some of the world's leading experts on Alan Turing to create a comprehensive guide that will serve as a useful resource for researchers in the area as well as the increasingly interested general reader.

  1. Follow the guide!

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    For once it was the turn of the CERN guides to be shown around. A special tour had been organised for their annual outing on 24 June 2003, the aim of which was to go behind the scenes at research centres similar to CERN and discover the secrets of their public communications activities. The first stop was the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, where the twenty or so CERN guides were welcomed by Dominique Cornujeols, head of communication at ESRF, who explained the Facility's history and purpose and how it operates before they were taken on a tour of the actual installations. CERN guides are welcomed to the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility).The second visit of this trip to the Grenoble region was to the centre for science, technology and industry (CCSTI). "The people in charge at CCSTI showed us their day-to-day work in science and technology workshops", explains Stephan Petit, one of the guides. These workshops allow the public to discuss fundamental issues relating to a ...

  2. Citizen's Guide to Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This guide provides suggestions on pest control and safety rules for pesticide use at home. Pest prevention may be possible by modification of pest habitat: removal of food and water sources, removal or destruction of pest shelter and breeding sites, and good horticultural practices that reduce plant stress. Nonchemical alternatives to pesticides…

  3. Guide to hydro turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This listing is a guide to turbines for hydroelectric projects of independent energy projects. The listing is in directory format and includes the supplier's name, the name of the supplier's contact, address, telephone and FAX numbers and a description of the company and the types of turbines, services and expertise available for energy projects. The listing is international in scope

  4. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  5. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  6. Industrial Education Safety Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    California is one of the few states in which school districts have a legal responsibility for accidents involving students while they are participating in assigned school activities. This guide was prepared to help school administrators and teachers evaluate their safety instruction programs and industrial education facilities in accordance with…

  7. Cosmetology. Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Michael D.; And Others

    This curriculum guide is designed to offer guidelines along with supporting resources and teaching ideas from which the local secondary instructor can extract a cosmetology curriculum that meets local needs. Following an outline of the philosophy and goals underlying state and local vocational education programs in Georgia, the purpose and…

  8. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Seong Ki; Shin, Hee Seong; Park, Seong Won; Shin, Young Joon.

    1997-06-01

    Nuclear criticality safety guide was described for handling, transportation and storage of nuclear fissile materials in this report. The major part of the report was excerpted frp, TID-7016(revision 2) and nuclear criticality safety written by Knief. (author). 16 tabs., 44 figs., 5 refs

  9. Home Ventilator Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOME VENTILATOR GUIDE This project is made possible by a bequest from ventilator user Ira Holland. ©Copyright 2017 Post-Polio Health ... proper balance between the two. What is a ventilator? A ventilator, also known as a respirator, is ...

  10. Transit labor relations guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This report is designed as a guide for those involved in labor relations in the transit industry. It begins with a history of transit labor relations. The economic, political, and legal environment of transit relations is then discussed. A section fo...

  11. SALOME. User's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zastrow, K.D.

    1994-01-01

    A user's guide for a least squares fit analysis program is presented, which has been developed for VUV and visible plasma spectroscopy on the Extrap-T1 experiment. The program can be used for line and multiplet identification, multiplet intensity and line width measurements. Atomic data are used extensively to aid the interpretation of the spectra. 7 figs

  12. Explanatory guide: Rio 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Published in July 2015, the Explanatory Guides offer a detailed introduction to each sport at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games, as well as providing information on a variety of other fundamental topics that may be of importance to teams as they continue their planning and preparations.

  13. Ozone Layer Educator's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This guide has been developed through a collaborative effort involving the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It is part of an ongoing commitment to ensure that the results of scientific research on ozone depletion are…

  14. Destination: Kyrgyzstan. Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Kristen J.

    This guide offers a closer look at the newly-independent nation of Kyrgyzstan. The teaching materials focus on the history and culture of the nation, emphasize the influence of physical geography on culture, and explore the diversity found in this small country. Each lesson includes the geography standards linked to the activity, objectives,…

  15. Drush User's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Requena, Juan Pablo Novillo

    2012-01-01

    A practical guide full of examples and step-by-step instructions to start using Drush right from chapter 1. Drupal developers or themers who understand Drupal administration's basic concepts. Drush can make building any kind of website quicker and easier, no matter if it is a development environment, beta, a simple blog or a complex system.

  16. Evolution. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershad, Carol

    This teacher's guide was developed to assist teachers in the use of multimedia resources for the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) program, "Evolution." Each unit uses an inquiry-based approach to meet the National Science Education Standards. Units include: (1) "What is the Nature of Science?"; (2) "Who Was Charles Darwin?"; (3) "What is the…

  17. Solar Curriculum Guides, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward County Community Coll., Liberal, KS.

    This document contains an outline for a curriculum to train solar energy technicians in community colleges. The guide contains eight courses, each of which is divided into one to five modules. Modules, in turn, are divided into units, and units contain student handouts appropriate to the material. The following eight courses are included in this…

  18. Environmental Horticulture Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard environmental horticulture curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level workers in the environmental horticulture field. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description,…

  19. Automated Accounting. Instructor Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Duane R.

    This curriculum guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting College Edition Version 2.0 software in their accounting programs. The module consists of four units containing assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting. The first…

  20. Einstein a beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Breithaupt, Jim

    2000-01-01

    This guide contains the essential facts and concepts of the life and work of Albert Einstein. It examines his background and the scientific method of the day, and explains his theories in simple terms. Central themes are presented in jargon-free language and key terms are highlighted and explained.

  1. Introductory guide to noise

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferreira, T.M

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference between sound and noise varies from one human being to another. Noise, then, is simply unwanted sound and to understand how it can be combatted we must know more about its nature. A guide of acceptable levels of noise are investigated....

  2. Industrial Radiography Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Harry D.

    The curriculum guide was developed for teacher use in an 80-hour course for industrial radiographers. The units include: (1) The Structure of Matter and Radiation, (2) Nuclear Reactions and Radioisotopes, (3) The Nature and Consequences of Radiation Exposure, (4) Radiation Attenuation, (5) Absorption of Radiation, (6) Radiation Detection and…

  3. Rust scoring guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anonymous,

    1986-01-01

    This brief guide for identifying rust diseases of smaill grain cereals contains color photos depicting the growth stages of small grain cereal crops and provides instructions for recording rust severity and field response for stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis), stem rust (P. graminis), and leaf rust

  4. Rust scoring guide

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    1986-01-01

    This brief guide for identifying rust diseases of smaill grain cereals contains color photos depicting the growth stages of small grain cereal crops and provides instructions for recording rust severity and field response for stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis), stem rust (P. graminis), and leaf rust (P. recondita).

  5. Hospitality Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.

    This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…

  6. A guided science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsiner, Jaan

    That sciences are guided by explicit and implicit ties to their surrounding social world is not new. Jaan Valsiner fills in the wide background of scholarship on the history of science, the recent focus on social studies of sciences, and the cultural and cognitive analyses of knowledge making...

  7. NPAS Users Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This NPAS Users Guide is primarily intended as a source of information about policies, procedures, and facilities appropriate for users in the program of Nuclear Physics at SLAC (NPAS). General policies and practices are described, the preparation of proposals is discussed, and the services for users is outlined. SLAC experimental facilities are described, and contacts are listed

  8. CERN honours its guides

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    At the end of January, CERN's guides were rewarded for their devotion to the Laboratory. They have a passion for their work, know CERN inside-out and for 40 years have shown people of all ages and nationalities, from all walks of life, around the Laboratory. Who are they? Why, the CERN guides, of course. On 27 January, ten of CERN's 180 guides received special honours for their impressive number of guided tours in 2003. Presenting the awards in the Microcosm hall, CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar congratulated the winners on the key role they play with respect to the general public. "CERN would be nothing without you who show them its activities," he stressed. CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar congratulates Alberto Ribon for his tally of over 40 visits in the course of 2003.One of the prizes was the book «The Particle Odyssey». Here the book's co-author Christine Sutton dedicates it for Sijin Qian. Tzanko Spassoff (PH) and retired staff members Klaus Batzner and Antonio Francano wo...

  9. Teacher's Guide for Earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Merle S.; And Others

    This teacher's guide on earthworms includes four major sections: (1) introduction, (2) caring for earthworms in the classroom, (3) classroom activities, and (4) the appendix. The introduction includes information concerning grade level, scheduling, materials, obtaining earthworms, field study, classroom clean-up, and records. Caring for earthworms…

  10. Kids Guide to Shots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español A Kid's Guide to Shots KidsHealth / For Kids / A Kid's ...

  11. The Influence of External Forces on Wrist Proprioception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Marini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Proprioception combines information from cutaneous, joint, tendon, and muscle receptors for maintaining a reliable internal body image. However, it is still a matter of debate, in both neurophysiology and psychology, to what extent such body image is modified or distorted by a changing haptic environment. In particular, what is worth investigating is the contribution of external forces on our perception of body and joint configuration. The proprioceptive acuity of fifteen young participants was tested with a Joint Position Matching (JPM task, performed with the dominant wrist under five different external forces, in order to understand to what extent they affect proprioceptive acuity. Results show that accuracy and precision in target matching do not change in a significant manner as a function of the loading condition, suggesting that the multi-sensory integration process is indeed capable of discriminating different sub-modalities of proprioception, namely the joint position sense and the sense of force. Furthermore, results indicate a preference for target undershooting when movements are performed in a viscous or high resistive force field, rather than passive or null fields in which subjects did not show any predominance for under/over estimation of their position.

  12. The Influence of External Forces on Wrist Proprioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Francesca; Contu, Sara; Antuvan, Chris W; Morasso, Pietro; Masia, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    Proprioception combines information from cutaneous, joint, tendon, and muscle receptors for maintaining a reliable internal body image. However, it is still a matter of debate, in both neurophysiology and psychology, to what extent such body image is modified or distorted by a changing haptic environment. In particular, what is worth investigating is the contribution of external forces on our perception of body and joint configuration. The proprioceptive acuity of fifteen young participants was tested with a Joint Position Matching (JPM) task, performed with the dominant wrist under five different external forces, in order to understand to what extent they affect proprioceptive acuity. Results show that accuracy and precision in target matching do not change in a significant manner as a function of the loading condition, suggesting that the multi-sensory integration process is indeed capable of discriminating different sub-modalities of proprioception, namely the joint position sense and the sense of force. Furthermore, results indicate a preference for target undershooting when movements are performed in a viscous or high resistive force field, rather than passive or null fields in which subjects did not show any predominance for under/over estimation of their position.

  13. Small--radiation-amplitude dynamical voltage model of an irradiated, externally unbiased Josephson tunnel junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAdory, R.T. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A theory is presented for the nonequilibrium voltage states of an irradiated Josephson junction shunted by an external resistor but with no external current or voltage biasing. This device, referred to as a free-running Josephson junction, is modeled in a small--radiation-amplitude, deterministic regime extending the previous work of Shenoy and Agarwal. The time-averaged induced voltage is treated as a dynamical variable, the external radiation is modeled as a current source, and the induced junction-radiation vector potential, with and without a mode structure, is treated to first order in the driving currents. A dynamical equation for the time-averaged induced voltage yields a (nonequilibrium) steady-state relation between the time-averaged induced voltage and the incident radiation amplitude valid for a wide range of voltages, including zero. Regions of bistability occur in the voltage--versus--incident-amplitude curves, some of which are dependent on the external resistor. The zero-voltage state breaks down, as the external radiation amplitude is increased, at a critical value of the incident-radiation amplitude inversely proportional to the external resistance

  14. Coherent polarization driven by external electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, M.; Ganciu, M.

    2010-01-01

    The coherent interaction of the electromagnetic radiation with an ensemble of polarizable, identical particles with two energy levels is investigated in the presence of external electromagnetic fields. The coupled non-linear equations of motion are solved in the stationary regime and in the limit of small coupling constants. It is shown that an external electromagnetic field may induce a macroscopic occupation of both the energy levels of the particles and the corresponding photon states, governed by a long-range order of the quantum phases of the internal motion (polarization) of the particles. A lasing effect is thereby obtained, controlled by the external field. Its main characteristics are estimated for typical atomic matter and atomic nuclei. For atomic matter the effect may be considerable (for usual external fields), while for atomic nuclei the effect is extremely small (practically insignificant), due to the great disparity in the coupling constants. In the absence of the external field, the solution, which is non-analytic in the coupling constant, corresponds to a second-order phase transition (super-radiance), which was previously investigated.

  15. External GSM phone calls now made simpler

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    On 2 July, the IT/CS Telecom Service introduced a new service making external calls from CERN GSM phones easier. A specific prefix is no longer needed for calls outside CERN. External calls from CERN GSM phones are to be simplified. It is no longer necessary to use a special prefix to call an external number from the CERN GSM network.The Telecom Section of the IT/CS Group is introducing a new system that will make life easier for GSM users. It is no longer necessary to use a special prefix (333) to call an external number from the CERN GSM network. Simply dial the number directly like any other Swiss GSM customer. CERN currently has its own private GSM network with the Swiss mobile operator, Sunrise, covering the whole of Switzerland. This network was initially intended exclusively for calls between CERN numbers (replacing the old beeper system). A special system was later introduced for external calls, allowing them to pass thr...

  16. Internalizing Externalities through Payments for Environmental Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsono Soedomo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems, including plantation forests, provide goods and services that are marketable and non-marketable. Positive externalities produced by forest ecosystems are rarely considered in pricing of marketable products that result in economic inefficiencies. Internalizing externalities is required to improve the economic efficiency. The traditional way to internalize an externality is by providing subsidies or imposing taxes. Recently, payments for environmental services  are receiving more attention as an instrument for internalizing externalities provided by forest ecosystems. This promising alternative to improve our environment needs to be studied more extensively. In this paper, it can be indicated theoretically that the Pigovian tax, as a traditional way of addressing environmental problems, is able to mimic the result derived from the employment of environmental services payment. The difference is that environmental services payment improves the welfare of environmental service producers, whereas the Pigovian tax reduces it. A positive Pigovian tax increases the optimal rotation, which is positively associated with environmental improvement, but certainly reduces forest owner's welfare. This difference should be taken into account in the public policymaking so that perverse incentive may be avoided. Payment for environmental services  as an additional income to forest growers, not as alternative source of income, is a potential tool to address simultaneously issues of environment and poverty that are frequently contested.Keywords: externalities, payments for environmental services, tax, perverse incentive, social welfare

  17. Ultrasonically guided 125iodine seed implantation with external radiation in management of localized prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Bak, M; Juul, N

    1989-01-01

    with a median follow-up of thirty-five months. Median change in prostatic volume was a reduction of 35 percent. Re-biopsy or transurethral resection of the prostate was performed in 25 patients after one to two years, revealing still malignant histology in 12 (48%). Development of distant metastases occurred...

  18. BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the BASINS and WEPP climate assessment tools. The report presents a series of short case studies designed to illustrate the capabilities of these tools for conducting scenario based assessments...

  19. SAGE 2.1: SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE: USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The guide provides instruction for using the SAGE (Solvent Alternatives GuidE) software system, version 2.1. SAGE recommends solvent replacements in cleaning and degreasing operations. It leads the user through a question-and-answer session. The user's responses allow the system ...

  20. Automated external defibrillator availability and CPR training among state police agencies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Lior M; Wallace, Sarah K; Leary, Marion; Tucker, Kathryn D; Becker, Lance B; Abella, Benjamin S

    2012-07-01

    Access to automated external defibrillators and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training are key determinants of cardiac arrest survival. State police officers represent an important class of cardiac arrest first responders responsible for the large network of highways in the United States. We seek to determine accessibility of automated external defibrillators and CPR training among state police agencies. Contact was attempted with all 50 state police agencies by telephone and electronic mail. Officers at each agency were guided to complete a 15-question Internet-based survey. Descriptive statistics of the responses were performed. Attempts were made to contact all 50 states, and 46 surveys were completed (92% response rate). Most surveys were filled out by police leadership or individuals responsible for medical programs. The median agency size was 725 (interquartile range 482 to 1,485) state police officers, with 695 (interquartile range 450 to 1,100) patrol vehicles ("squad cars"). Thirty-three percent of responding agencies (15/46) reported equipping police vehicles with automated external defibrillators. Of these, 53% (8/15) equipped less than half of their fleet with the devices. Regarding emergency medical training, 78% (35/45) of state police agencies reported training their officers in automated external defibrillator usage, and 98% (44/45) reported training them in CPR. One third of state police agencies surveyed equipped their vehicles with automated external defibrillators, and among those that did, most equipped only a minority of their fleet. Most state police agencies reported training their officers in automated external defibrillator usage and CPR. Increasing automated external defibrillator deployment among state police represents an important opportunity to improve first responder preparedness for cardiac arrest care. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  1. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & Cooking Health Problems Illnesses & Injuries Relax & ... English Español A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / A Guide to ...

  2. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search Radon Contact Us Share Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  3. Pocket Guide to Transportation 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The 2018 BTS Pocket Guide to Transportation is a quick reference guide that provides transportation statistics at your fingertips. It provides key information and highlights major trends on the U.S. transportation system. This year features a new and...

  4. Good research guide, second edition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This guide informs CSIR staff about the standards that they are expected to meet when doing research. Researchers who follow this guide will have satisfied the legal requirement for 'due diligence' in their work....

  5. Memory, metamemory, and social cues: Between conformity and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka, Katarzyna; Krogulska, Aleksandra; Button, Roberta; Higham, Philip A; Hanczakowski, Maciej

    2016-02-01

    When presented with responses of another person, people incorporate these responses into memory reports: a finding termed memory conformity. Research on memory conformity in recognition reveals that people rely on external social cues to guide their memory responses when their own ability to respond is at chance. In this way, conforming to a reliable source boosts recognition performance but conforming to a random source does not impair it. In the present study we assessed whether people would conform indiscriminately to reliable and unreliable (random) sources when they are given the opportunity to exercise metamemory control over their responding by withholding answers in a recognition test. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found the pattern of memory conformity to reliable and unreliable sources in 2 variants of a free-report recognition test, yet at the same time the provision of external cues did not affect the rate of response withholding. In Experiment 3, we provided participants with initial feedback on their recognition decisions, facilitating the discrimination between the reliable and unreliable source. This led to the reduction of memory conformity to the unreliable source, and at the same time modulated metamemory decisions concerning response withholding: participants displayed metamemory conformity to the reliable source, volunteering more responses in their memory report, and metamemory resistance to the random source, withholding more responses from the memory report. Together, the results show how metamemory decisions dissociate various types of memory conformity and that memory and metamemory decisions can be independent of each other. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life-threatening infections – to a last resort treatment (carbapenem antibiotics) has spread to all regions of the ... unit patients. In some countries, because of resistance, carbapenem antibiotics do not work in more than half ...

  7. Renewable energy: Externality costs as market barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Anthony D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact of environmentally based market failure constraints on the adoption of renewable energy technologies through the quantification in financial terms of the externalities of electric power generation, for a range of alternative commercial and almost-commercial technologies. It is shown that estimates of damage costs resulting from combustion of fossil fuels, if internalised into the price of the resulting output of electricity, could lead to a number of renewable technologies being financially competitive with generation from coal plants. However, combined cycle natural gas technology would have a significant financial advantage over both coal and renewables under current technology options and market conditions. On the basis of cost projections made under the assumption of mature technologies and the existence of economies of scale, renewable technologies would possess a significant social cost advantage if the externalities of power production were to be 'internalised'. Incorporating environmental externalities explicitly into the electricity tariff today would serve to hasten this transition process

  8. Atomic excitation and recombination in external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayfeh, M.H.; Clark, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    This volume offers a timely look at Rydberg states of atoms in external fields and dielectronic recombination. Each topic provides authoritative coverage, presents a fresh account of a flourishing field of current atomic physics and introduces new opportunities for discovery and development. Topics considered include electron-atom scattering in external fields; observations of regular and irregular motion as exemplified by the quadratic zeeman effect and other systems; Rydberg atoms in external fields and the Coulomb geometry; crossed-field effects in the absorption spectrum of lithium in a magnetic field; precise studies of static electric field ionization; widths and shapes of stark resonances in sodium above the saddle point; studies of electric field effects and barium autoionizing resonances; autoionization and dielectronic recombination in plasma electric microfields; dielectronic recombination measurements on multicharged ions; merged beam studies of dielectronic recombination; Rydberg atoms and dielectronic recombination in astrophysics; and observations on dielectronic recombination

  9. Performance Targets and External Market Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan; Friis, Ivar; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    In this paper we explore the processes of ‘bringing the market inside the firm’ to set performance targets and benchmark production workers productivity. We analyze attempts to use external suppliers’ bids in target setting in a Danish manufacturing company. The case study illustrates how...... the implementation of external market information in target setting – well known in transfer pricing, relative performance evaluation, beyond budgeting, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management – relate to challenging motivation and information problem. The analysis and discussion of those...... problems, in particular those related to accounting for the internal performance (that are going to be compared with the external target), calculating the ‘inside’ costs and defining controllability, contributes to the management accounting as well as the piece-rate literature....

  10. An Indicator for ecosystem externalities in fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars; Andersen, Ken Haste; Vestergaard, Niels

    Ecosystem externalities arise when one use of an ecosystem affects its other uses through the production functions of the ecosystem.We use simulations from a size-spectrum ecosystem model to investigate the ecosystem externality created by fishing of multiple species. The model is based upon...... general ecological principles and is calibrated to the North Sea. Two fleets are considered: a “forage fish” fleet targeting species that mature at small sizes and a “large fish” fleet targeting large piscivorous species. Based on the marginal analysis of the present value of the rent, we develop...... a benefit indicator that explicitly divides the consequences of fishing into internal and external benefits. This analysis demonstrates that the forage fish fleet has a notable economic impact on the large fish fleet, but the reverse is not true. The impact can be either negative or positive, which entails...

  11. An indicator for ecosystem externalities in fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars; Andersen, Ken Haste; Vestergaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem externalities arise when one use of an ecosystem affects its other uses through the production functions of the ecosystem. We use simulations with a size-spectrum ecosystem model to investigate the ecosystem externality created by fishing of multiple species. The model is based upon...... general ecological principles and is calibrated to the North Sea. Two fleets are considered: a "forage fish" fleet targeting species that mature at small sizes and a "large fish" fleet targeting large piscivorous species. Based on the marginal analysis of the present value of the rent, we develop...... a benefit indicator that explicitly divides the consequences of fishing into internal and external benefits. This analysis demonstrates that the forage fish fleet has a notable economic impact on the large fish fleet, but the reverse is not true. The impact can be either negative or positive, which entails...

  12. Plasmon instability under four external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.B.; Fonseca, A.L.A.; Nunes, O.A.C.

    1998-01-01

    The plasmon instability in a laboratory produced plasma in the presence of four external fields, namely two laser fields, one strong magnetic field and one static electric field, is discussed. The method of unitary transformations is used to transform the problem of electron motion under the four external fields to that of an electron in the presence only of crossed electric and magnetic fields. A kinetic equation for the plasmon population is derived from which the damping (amplification) rate is calculated. We found that the joint action of the four fields results in a relatively larger amplification rate for some values of the static electric field in contrast to the case where no electric field is present. It was also found that the plasmon growth rate favors plasmon wave vectors in an extremely narrow band i.e., the plasmon instability in four external fields is a very selective mechanism for plasmon excitation. (author)

  13. Performance Targets and External Market Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan; Friis, Ivar; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    2012-01-01

    the implementation of external market information in target setting – well known in transfer pricing, relative performance evaluation, beyond budgeting, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management – relate to challenging motivation and information problem. The analysis and discussion of those......In this paper we explore the processes of ‘bringing the market inside the firm’ to set performance targets and benchmark production workers productivity. We analyze attempts to use external suppliers’ bids in target setting in a Danish manufacturing company. The case study illustrates how...... problems, in particular those related to accounting for the internal performance (that are going to be compared with the external target), calculating the ‘inside’ costs and defining controllability, contributes to the management accounting as well as the piece-rate literature....

  14. External radiotherapy in a pleural mesothelioma tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.C.; Garcia, J.L.; Gomez, A.; Simon, J.L.; Maillo, M.; Jimenez Torres, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    Pleural mesothelioma is an uncommon tumor compared with other thoracic malignancies and a 80% of the cases have asbestos exposure. From 1983 to 1992 we have examined patients suffering from malignant pleural mesothelioma treated with external radiotherapy. We treated 11 patients of which 9 were males and 2 were females. The most frequent symptom was the chest pain and all these patients underwent a torascoscopy followed by a pleasured. Of the 11 cases: 10 were malignant epithelial mesothelioma and 1 was a mixed pleural case. Afterwards, they were treated with external radiotherapy between 30 and 55 Gy, with few complications. At the moment, 5 patients are still alive and there is a survival rate of 50% at 24 and 60 months and of 25% at 120 months. We think that external radiotherapy is a good palliative treatment with few complications. (Author) 28 refs

  15. [Experimental study on phenotypic conversion of clinical chloromycetin-resistant strains of E. coli to drug-sensitive strains by using EGS technique in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mei-ying; Chen, Ru; Liu, Shou-gui; Feng, Jiang-nan

    2004-08-02

    To explore the possibility of phenotypic conversion of clinical chloromycetin (Cm)-resistant isolates of E.coli to drug-sensitive ones with external guide sequences (EGS) in vitro. Recombinant EGS plasmids directed against Cm acetyl transferase (cat) and containing kanamycin (Km) drug-resistance gene and control plasmids only containing kanamycin-resistance gene without EGS were constructed. By using CaCl(2) method, the recombinant plasmids were introduced into the clinically isolated Cm-resistant E.coli strains. Extraction of plasmids and PCR were applied to identify the EGS positive clones; The growth rate in liquid broth culture of Cm-resistant bacteria after EGS containing plasmid transformation was determined by spectrophotometer A(600). Drug sensitivity was tested in solid culture by using KB method. Transformation studies were carried out on 16 clinically isolated Cm-resistant E.coli strains with pEGFP-C1-EGS + cat1 + cat2 recombinant plasmid. Transformants were screened on LB-agar plates containing Km after transformation using EGS. In 4 tested strains of them, transformants with specific EGS plasmid showed growth inhibition when grown in liquid broth culture containing 100 approximately 200 micro g/ml of Cm. They were sensitive to Cm on LB-agar plates containing 100 approximately 200 micro g/ml of Cm in drug-sensitivity test. Extraction of plasmids showed the existence of EGS bands. PCR amplified products of EGS. The above facts indicated that the 4 strains out of the 16 clinical isolates had been converted to drug-sensitive phenotype, and Cm-resistant clinically isolated E. coli resumed sensitivity to Cm. EGS has the capability of converting the phenotype of clinical drug-resistant isolates to drug sensitivity.

  16. RAM-Efficient External Memory Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Thorup, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    In recent years a large number of problems have been considered in external memory models of computation, where the complexity measure is the number of blocks of data that are moved between slow external memory and fast internal memory (also called I/Os). In practice, however, internal memory time...... often dominates the total running time once I/O-efficiency has been obtained. In this paper we study algorithms for fundamental problems that are simultaneously I/O-efficient and internal memory efficient in the RAM model of computation....

  17. Internal Versus External Knowledge Sourcing Of Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Pedersen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    's ability to build on two knowledge networks depends on itsscale of resources, absorptive capacity and the role it plays in the corporation.The relationship between internal and external sourcing is tested using a unique dataset that coversmore than 2,000 subsidiaries located in seven different European...... countries (the Centre of ExcellenceProject). In fact, the results show that, to a certain extent, there is no dilemma between asubsidiary's knowledge development based on both internal, and external knowledge sources.However, the results also show a bell-shaped relationship between the use of internal...

  18. External legitimation in international new ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2012-01-01

    building, the paper introduces the typology of captivity, and the four types that have emerged: captive industry supplier, captive dyadic partner, captive market leader, and free market leader. The effects of captivity types on the acquisition of external legitimacy and its survival, on reaching legitimacy......This paper explores within the framework of new venture legitimation how and why international new ventures acquire external legitimacy and strive for survival in the face of critical events. Following a longitudinal multiple-case study methodology that was adopted for the purpose of theory...

  19. The External Networking Behaviour of Public Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2017-01-01

    There has been an increasing focus on managerial external networking behaviour within public administration. While most previous quantitative research has analysed such behaviour one-dimensionally, we suggest a two-dimensional conceptualization based on the concepts of weak and strong ties....... Utilizing measures resembling previous research, we explore the utility of the approach in an exploratory study of Danish local government. Our findings suggest that the two dimensions of external networking behaviour are distinct. We discuss our approach compared to previous approaches and argue...

  20. Cosmological Accretion Disks via External Radiation Drag

    OpenAIRE

    FUKUE, Jun; UMEMURA, Masayuki

    1994-01-01

    Accretion disks as well as disk accretion driven by external radiation drag are presented under a steady approximation in the cases of the point-mass potential and of the dark-matter potential. We assume that the external drag force can be expressed as -beta_v, where (beta) is a constant coefficient and v the velocity vector. When the gravitational potential is given by a central point-mass M, we find, in a cold regime where the pressure force is neglected, steady solutions such that the infa...

  1. Externalities of the energy. The nuclear case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notari, Carla; Perl, Hugo

    2005-01-01

    When referring to private energy cost, which reflects the market value of energy, important elements are left aside in the evaluation process. These elements or externalities have an impact on third parties. The impact can be positive or negative and nowadays it is increasingly relevant to take them into account and include them in the project evaluation, specially when we are looking for sustainable development. The environmental impact and health effects are the most visible items but not the unique which generate externalities. The supply security, prices stability, employment impact and trade balance, are also important factors, although not much improvement has been achieved in their quantitative evaluation. (author) [es

  2. External Environment and Upper Echelons Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escribá-Esteve, Alejandro; Nielsen, Sabina; Yamak, Sibel

    and industrial organization theories, we elaborate a cross-level conceptual model outlining the direct, mediating and moderating effects of the external environment on TMTs and their impact. Our review distinguishes between industry and institutional level of analyses and three types of environmental......This work reviews empirical research on TMTs with a specific emphasis on the role of the external environment. We extend the existing research on upper echelons theory, which has largely focused on the team and firm level of analyses of top management teams (TMT). Considering institutional...

  3. Combined effect of external and internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiradzhiev, G.

    1987-01-01

    Some of the general regularities of the combined effect of external irradiation and iodine 131 are discussed. Data are adduced showing that modification of the effects of these two radiation factors, when jointly applied, is also determined by the quantitative relations of the applied doses of external and internal irradiation, referred to a particular moment of the effects. It was shown that the effects of the radionuclides in these combined radiation injuries are basically realized by two mechanisms: 1. changes are found in the radionuclide kinetic parameters (nonspecific effects); 2. changes in their kinetic parameters are absent (specific effect). These two mechanisms underlie different approaches to therapy

  4. Automatic Planning of External Search Engine Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Jasevičiūtė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an investigation of the external search engine optimization (SEO action planning tool, dedicated to automatically extract a small set of most important keywords for each month during whole year period. The keywords in the set are extracted accordingly to external measured parameters, such as average number of searches during the year and for every month individually. Additionally the position of the optimized web site for each keyword is taken into account. The generated optimization plan is similar to the optimization plans prepared manually by the SEO professionals and can be successfully used as a support tool for web site search engine optimization.

  5. Social Ontology Documentation for Knowledge Externalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-Corral, Gonzalo A.; Borrego-Díaz, Joaquín; Jiménez-Mavillard, Antonio

    Knowledge externalization and organization is a major challenge that companies must face. Also, they have to ask whether is possible to enhance its management. Mechanical processing of information represents a chance to carry out these tasks, as well as to turn intangible knowledge assets into real assets. Machine-readable knowledge provides a basis to enhance knowledge management. A promising approach is the empowering of Knowledge Externalization by the community (users, employees). In this paper, a social semantic tool (called OntoxicWiki) for enhancing the quality of knowledge is presented.

  6. Computing betweenness centrality in external memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Goodrich, Michael T.; Walderveen, Freek van

    2013-01-01

    Betweenness centrality is one of the most well-known measures of the importance of nodes in a social-network graph. In this paper we describe the first known external-memory and cache-oblivious algorithms for computing betweenness centrality. We present four different external-memory algorithms...... exhibiting various tradeoffs with respect to performance. Two of the algorithms are cache-oblivious. We describe general algorithms for networks with weighted and unweighted edges and a specialized algorithm for networks with small diameters, as is common in social networks exhibiting the “small worlds...

  7. Quantized fields in external field. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellissard, J.

    1976-01-01

    The case of a charged scalar field is considered first. The existence of the corresponding Green's functions is proved. For weak fields, as well as pure electric or scalar external fields, the Bogoliubov S-operator is shown to be unitary, covariant, causal up-to-a-phase. These results are generalised to a class of higher spin quantized fields, 'nicely' coupled to external fields, which includes the Dirac theory, and in the case of minimal and magnetic dipole coupling, the spin one Petiau-Duffin-Kemmer theory. (orig.) [de

  8. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; Aken, M.A.G. van; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large

  9. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, C.J.M.; van Aken, M.A.G.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large

  10. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents: Familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J.M. Buschgens (Cathelijne); M.A.G. van Aken (Marcel); S.H.N. Swinkels (Sophie); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); J.K. Buitelaar (Jan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in

  11. Externalizing behaviors in preadolescents : familial risk to externalizing behaviors and perceived parenting styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschgens, Cathelijne J. M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    The aim was to investigate the contribution of familial risk to externalizing behaviors (FR-EXT), perceived parenting styles, and their interactions to the prediction of externalizing behaviors in preadolescents. Participants were preadolescents aged 10-12 years who participated in TRAILS, a large

  12. Effects Of On–Line Banking On External Audit And Banks\\' External ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the appeal of information technology in enhancing service delivery, it is important for regulatory authorities and examiners to upgrade their processing and monitoring systems to align with the private sector banking innovation pace. This paper presents the effect of on-line banking on external audit and external ...

  13. PrimeFaces beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, K Siva Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A guide for beginner's with step-by-step instructions and an easy-to-follow approach.PrimeFaces Beginners Guide is a simple and effective guide for beginners, wanting to learn and implement PrimeFaces in their JSF-based applications. Some basic JSF and jQuery skills are required before you start working through the book.

  14. Library Guide: Spanish Literature, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sumar, Juanita Jara, Comp.

    Intended for use by those conducting research in Spanish literature, this guide lists selected reference materials in literature from Spain, in Spanish, Galician, and Catalan languages. Annotations in the guide are divided into the following sections: (1) General Encyclopedias (1 annotation); (2) Guides to the Literature (4 annotations); (3)…

  15. Precision Machining Technology. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide was developed from a Technical Committee Report prepared with the assistance of industry personnel and containing a Task List which is the basis of the guide. It presents competency-based program standards for courses in precision machining technology and is part of the Idaho Vocational Curriculum Guide Project, a cooperative…

  16. Mind over Matter. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This teacher's guide aims to develop an understanding among students in grades 5-9 about the biological effects of drug use. The guide provides background information on the anatomy of the brain, nerve cells and neurotransmission, and the effects of drugs on the brain. Drugs described in this guide include marijuana, opiates, inhalants,…

  17. Guide to Purchasing Green Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Guide for Purchasing Green Power is a comprehensive guide for current and potential buyers of green power with information about green power purchasing. The Guide is created cooperatively between the EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the World Resou

  18. Dealing with Resistance in Career Coaching/Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, Deeta

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how career counselors and coaches can identify and honor resistance as they assist and guide individuals and groups in the process of change and transition. The author explores what can cause/lead to resistance, what the effects are and what can be done about it. (GCP)

  19. Manufacturing process optimization of nuclear fuel guide tube using HANA alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yong Hwan; Park, S. Y.; Choi, B. K.; Park, J. Y.; Kim, H. G.; Jeong, Y. I.; Park, D. J.; Lim, J. K. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    From this project, the advanced manufacturing parameters which were contained of heat-treatment, reduction rate, and new process (2 step) were considered to increase the guide tube performance of HANA material. It was obtained that the strength and corrosion resistance of HANA material were improved by applying the improve manufacturing parameters when compared to the commercial guide tube material. {center_dot} Manufacturing parameter study to increase mechanical property -Tensile strength increase of 30% by manufacturing parameter setup when compared to the guide tube specification {center_dot} Manufacturing parameter study to decrease irradiation growth -Theoretical study of the texture effect on sample specimens related to the irradiation growth {center_dot} Manufacturing parameter study to increase corrosion resistance -Corrosion resistance increase of 30% by manufacturing parameter setup when compared to the commercial guide tube

  20. Laboratory Sampling Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    NPD X - Electron Capture Detector GC-ECD X X Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry ICP-OES X - Mass Spectrometry ICP-MS X...as a result may be found in high concentrations in some soils, in drinking water, and in some foods . Worker exposures include external radiation...and Foodstuffs Although vegetation is not routinely obtained for analyses, collection of such samples should be made when the potential for food

  1. Sustainability of solid wall external insulation in existing UK housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleni, Raskou

    2007-12-01

    The great contribution of the construction and operation of the buildings to the CO2 emissions in the UK that reach 45-50% of the total, therefore their huge impact on the greenhouse effect and global warming, forces the global and local authorities to set strict regulations as regards their energy demand and the thermal performance of their components. Especially in the case of existing buildings, which are the great majority of the building stock in Great Britain and whose overall performance is bad due to the degradation of their structure and low efficiency of their services, the UK Building Regulations set standards that require refurbishment actions so that the buildings can comply with them. This study focuses on the environmental performance and cost-effectiveness of the upgrade of external solid walls with external insulation systems, led by the concept that external insulation is considered thermally more efficient than internal insulation, and it is accredited by manufacturers and approval bodies providing guaranteed results. The choice of insulation material should be mostly based on factors such as longevity, thermal resistance and ozone depletion potential synthesis. The importance of embodied energy is considered less critical than the above as the energy savings from the use of insulation can be even 1000 times higher than the energy consumed for their manufacture and transport. Wet render systems are usually applied to low-rise buildings while dry-cladding systems, being more expensive, are most appropriate for high-rise buildings. "Wall Reform" system consists of phenolic Kingspan insulant and insulating render with polystyrene beads that increases the total thermal resistance of the system. Its application on an existing residential, currently uninsulated, building has shown that the system including 40mm phenolic can reduce the total of heating and cooling demand to 80% with a proportional decrease of the total costs and CO2 emissions. The

  2. Study on transport safety of fresh MOX fuel. Performance of the cladding tube of fresh MOX fuel against external water pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chihiro

    1999-01-01

    It is important to know the ability of the cladding tube for fresh MOX fuel against external water pressure when they were hypothetically sunk into the sea for unknown reasons. In order to evaluate the ability of cladding tubes for MOX fresh fuel against external water pressure, external water pressure tests were carried out. Resistible limit of cladding tubes against external water pressure is defined when cladding tubes are deformed largely due to buckling etc. The test results show cladding tube of BWR type can resist an external water pressure of 69 MPa (a depth of water of 7,000 m) and that of PWR type fuel can resist an external water pressure of 54 MPa (a depth of water of 5,500 m). Moreover, leak tightness is maintained at an external water pressure of 73 MPa (a depth of water of 7,400 m) for BWR type cladding tubes and at an external water pressure of 98 MPa (a depth of water of 10,000 m) for PWR type cladding tubes. (author)

  3. Environmental Compliance Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    The Guide is intended to assist Department of Energy personnel by providing information on the NEPA process, the processes of other environmental statutes that bear on the NEPA process, the timing relationships between the NEPA process and these other processes, as well as timing relationships between the NEPA process and the development process for policies, programs, and projects. This information should be helpful not only in formulating environmental compliance plans but also in achieving compliance with NEPA and various other environmental statutes. The Guide is divided into three parts with related appendices: Part I provides guidance for developing environmental compliance plans for DOE actions; Part II is devoted to NEPA with detailed flowcharts depicting the compliance procedures required by CEQ regulations and Department of Energy NEPA Guidelines; and Part III contains a series of flowcharts for other Federal environmental requirements that may apply to DOE projects

  4. Security guide for subcontractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    This guide is provided to aid in the achievement of security objectives in the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor/subcontractor program. The objectives of security are to protect information that, if released, would endanger the common defense and security of the nation and to safeguard plants and installations of the DOE and its contractors to prevent the interruption of research and production programs. The security objective and means of achieving the objective are described. Specific security measures discussed in this guide include physical barriers, personnel identification systems, personnel and vehicular access control, classified document control, protection of classified matter in use, storing classified matter, and repository combinations. Means of dealing with security violations and security infractions are described. Maintenance of a security education program is discussed. Also discussed are methods of handling clearance terminations, visitor control, travel to sensitive countries, and shipment security. The Technical Surveillance Countermeasures Program (TSCM), the Computer Security Program, and the Operations Security Plan (OPSEC) are examined.

  5. SQL Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Gennick, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    If you're a programmer or database administrator who uses SQL in your day-to-day work, this popular pocket guide is the ideal on-the-job reference. You'll find many examples that address the language's complexity, along with key aspects of SQL used in IBM DB2 Release 9.7, MySQL 5.1, Oracle Database 11g Release 2, PostgreSQL 9.0, and Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Release 2. SQL Pocket Guide describes how these database systems implement SQL syntax for querying, managing transactions, and making changes to data. It also shows how the systems use SQL functions, regular expression syntax, and type c

  6. Publications desktop survival guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Purpose of this guide is to document and simplify the writing, reviewing, and production process for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) staff and to provide specific answers concerning the content, style, and format of UMTRA Project documents. Goal of the UMTRA Project document preparation process is to deliver to the US DOE high-quality documents that meet requirements (meets expressed client needs; accurate and consistent technical content; clear writing; well organized document; consistent style). A document review process has been established to ensure that TAC documents are accurate, consistent, and well organized. The editing process applies standard rules for style and format, spelling, grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure to make the document consistent and easier to read. This guide sets forth the rules to be applied to UMTRA Project documents.

  7. Seismic Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eagling, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Seismic Safety Guide provides facilities managers with practical guidelines for administering a comprehensive earthquake safety program. Most facilities managers, unfamiliar with earthquake engineering, tend to look for answers in techniques more sophisticated than required to solve the actual problems in earthquake safety. Often the approach to solutions to these problems is so academic, legalistic, and financially overwhelming that mitigation of actual seismic hazards simply does not get done in a timely, cost-effective way. The objective of the Guide is to provide practical advice about earthquake safety so that managers and engineers can get the job done without falling into common pitfalls, prolonged diagnosis, and unnecessary costs. It is comprehensive with respect to earthquakes in that it covers the most important aspects of natural hazards, site planning, rehabilitation of existing buildings, design of new facilities, operational safety, emergency planning, non-structural elements, life lines, and risk management. 5 references

  8. Environmental Compliance Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-01

    The Guide is intended to assist Department of Energy personnel by providing information on the NEPA process, the processes of other environmental statutes that bear on the NEPA process, the timing relationships between the NEPA process and these other processes, as well as timing relationships between the NEPA process and the development process for policies, programs, and projects. This information should be helpful not only in formulating environmental compliance plans but also in achieving compliance with NEPA and various other environmental statutes. The Guide is divided into three parts with related appendices: Part I provides guidance for developing environmental compliance plans for DOE actions; Part II is devoted to NEPA with detailed flowcharts depicting the compliance procedures required by CEQ regulations and Department of Energy NEPA Guidelines; and Part III contains a series of flowcharts for other Federal environmental requirements that may apply to DOE projects.

  9. Guide to research facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This Guide provides information on facilities at US Department of Energy (DOE) and other government laboratories that focus on research and development of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. These laboratories have opened these facilities to outside users within the scientific community to encourage cooperation between the laboratories and the private sector. The Guide features two types of facilities: designated user facilities and other research facilities. Designated user facilities are one-of-a-kind DOE facilities that are staffed by personnel with unparalleled expertise and that contain sophisticated equipment. Other research facilities are facilities at DOE and other government laboratories that provide sophisticated equipment, testing areas, or processes that may not be available at private facilities. Each facility listing includes the name and phone number of someone you can call for more information.

  10. 2012 Australasian sky guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lomb, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Compact, easy to use and reliable, this popular guide contains everything you need to know about the southern night sky with monthly star maps, diagrams and details of all the year's exciting celestial events. Wherever you are in Australia or New Zealand, easy calculations allow you to determine when the Sun, Moon and planets will rise and set throughout the year. Also included is information on the latest astronomical findings from space probes and telescopes around the world.

  11. ATLAS Style Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenhandler, E F

    2008-01-01

    This is a compendium of rules, recommendations, information and advice for writing papers and notes within the ATLAS Collaboration at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. It covers what to include in the paper, and some general guidelines and specific points about writing a scientific paper. There are sections on the use of English (though it is not a guide to grammar), punctuation, and typography. Advice about the use of LATEX is also given.

  12. XMPP The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Saint-Andre, Peter; Smith, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This practical book provides everything you need to know about the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) -- the open technology for real-time communication used in instant messaging, Voice over IP, real-time collaboration, social networking, microblogging, lightweight middleware, cloud computing, and more. XMPP: The Definitive Guide walks you through the thought processes and design decisions involved in building a complete XMPP-enabled application, and adding real-time interfaces to existing applications.

  13. Guide to Using Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ryan Phillip; Agelastos, Anthony Michael; Miller, Joel D.

    2017-04-01

    Sierra is an engineering mechanics simulation code suite supporting the Nation's Nuclear Weapons mission as well as other customers. It has explicit ties to Sandia National Labs' workfow, including geometry and meshing, design and optimization, and visualization. Dis- tinguishing strengths include "application aware" development, scalability, SQA and V&V, multiple scales, and multi-physics coupling. This document is intended to help new and existing users of Sierra as a user manual and troubleshooting guide.

  14. Guide to Using Sierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Ryan Phillip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Agelastos, Anthony Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Joel D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Sierra is an engineering mechanics simulation code suite supporting the Nation's Nuclear Weapons mission as well as other customers. It has explicit ties to Sandia National Labs' workfow, including geometry and meshing, design and optimization, and visualization. Dis- tinguishing strengths include "application aware" development, scalability, SQA and V&V, multiple scales, and multi-physics coupling. This document is intended to help new and existing users of Sierra as a user manual and troubleshooting guide.

  15. Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

  16. Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products : version 2.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Debra M.; Brittenham, Phillip W.

    2005-12-01

    This guide describes the R&A process, Common Look and Feel requirements, and preparation and publishing procedures for communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Samples of forms and examples of published communications products are provided. This guide details the processes for producing a variety of communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Figure I-1 shows the general publication development process. Because extensive supplemental material is available from Sandia on the internal Web or from external sources (Table I-1), the guide has been shortened to make it easy to find information that you need.

  17. Follow the guide

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The general public’s interest in CERN is growing all the time. You too could help to satisfy its curiosity by becoming a guide. Would you like to share your passion for your job and for science with others, meet visitors and contribute to the Laboratory’s communication drive? Well you can, by becoming an official CERN guide. Every year CERN organises over 900 visits, welcoming some 26,000 visitors in the Laboratory’s four most commonly used languages: English, French, German and Italian. For the last two years, in response to demand, visits have also been given in other languages, such as Finnish, Greek, Portuguese, Spanish and Swedish. Becoming a guide can be an exciting experience, offering the opportunity to get out and meet visitors of all ages and nationalities. "As well as coming into contact with all kinds of people, you get to know the Laboratory extremely well", says Dominique Bertola, who is in charge of the Visits Ser...

  18. Rheotaxis guides mammalian sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Kiyoshi; Clapham, David E

    2013-01-01

    Background In sea urchins, spermatozoan motility is altered by chemotactic peptides, giving rise to the assumption that mammalian eggs also emit chemotactic agents that guide spermatozoa through the female reproductive tract to the mature oocyte. Mammalian spermatozoa indeed undergo complex adaptations within the female (the process of capacitation) that are initiated by agents ranging from pH to progesterone, but these factors are not necessarily taxic. Currently, chemotaxis, thermotaxis, and rheotaxis have not been definitively established in mammals. Results Here, we show that positive rheotaxis, the ability of organisms to orient and swim against the flow of surrounding fluid, is a major taxic factor for mouse and human sperm. This flow is generated within 4 hours of sexual stimulation and coitus in female mice; prolactin-triggered oviductal fluid secretion clears the oviduct of debris, lowers viscosity, and generates the stream that guides sperm migration in the oviduct. Rheotaxic movement is demonstrated in capacitated and uncapacitated spermatozoa in low and high viscosity medium. Finally, we show that a unique sperm motion we quantify using the sperm head's rolling rate reflects sperm rotation that generates essential force for positioning the sperm in the stream. Rotation requires CatSper channels, presumably by enabling Ca2+ influx. Conclusions We propose that rheotaxis is a major determinant of sperm guidance over long distances in the mammalian female reproductive tract. Coitus induces fluid flow to guide sperm in the oviduct. Sperm rheotaxis requires rotational motion during CatSper channel-dependent hyperactivated motility. PMID:23453951

  19. Uncertainty analysis guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, T.H.

    2002-05-01

    This guide applies to the estimation of uncertainty in quantities calculated by scientific, analysis and design computer programs that fall within the scope of AECL's software quality assurance (SQA) manual. The guide weaves together rational approaches from the SQA manual and three other diverse sources: (a) the CSAU (Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty) evaluation methodology; (b) the ISO Guide,for the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement; and (c) the SVA (Systems Variability Analysis) method of risk analysis. This report describes the manner by which random and systematic uncertainties in calculated quantities can be estimated and expressed. Random uncertainty in model output can be attributed to uncertainties of inputs. The propagation of these uncertainties through a computer model can be represented in a variety of ways, including exact calculations, series approximations and Monte Carlo methods. Systematic uncertainties emerge from the development of the computer model itself, through simplifications and conservatisms, for example. These must be estimated and combined with random uncertainties to determine the combined uncertainty in a model output. This report also addresses the method by which uncertainties should be employed in code validation, in order to determine whether experiments and simulations agree, and whether or not a code satisfies the required tolerance for its application. (author)

  20. Beyond the conventional role of external-beam radiation therapy for skeletal metastases: new technologies and stereotactic directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H-H M; Hoffe, S E

    2012-04-01

    Radiation therapy is a common and effective treatment modality in the management of skeletal metastases. Recent advances in technology permitting delivery of an ablative radiation dose with an image-guided stereotactic approach improve the therapeutic threshold. The authors reviewed the literature on conventional external-beam radiation therapy and summarized the emerging data about image-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for vertebral oligometastasis. Pain control can be achieved effectively with conventional external-beam radiation therapy and may be further improved with image-guided spinal SBRT. Image-guided SBRT allows delivery of an ablative radiation dose with minimal toxicity, may potentially improve local tumor control, and may enhance clinical outcomes for histologies that are considered radioresistant. However, further understanding of long-term normal tissue toxicity is lacking. Radiotherapy options are expanding for patients with skeletal metastases. Image-guided spinal SBRT can deliver a safe ablative radiation dose to improve pain control and potentially local tumor control. Randomized clinical trials are ongoing to assess clinical benefits and outcome with spinal SBRT.