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Sample records for resistance-associated macrophage proteins

  1. Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein 1 Gene Polymorphism is Associated with Chronic Periodontitis Not Peri-Implantitis in an Iranian Population: A Cross Sectional Study

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    Mahdi Kadkhodazadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In inflammatory diseases such as peri-implantitis (PI and chronic periodontitis (CP both adaptive and innate immunity play a part. Natural resistance associated macrophage protein 1 (NRAMP1 has considerable effects on macrophage function (phagocytosis and host innate immune response against infections. The present study was to investigate the relationship of NRAMP1 gene polymorphisms with PI and CP in an Iranian population. In this cross sectional study 79 patients with CP, 38 patients with PI and 84 healthy controls presenting to the Periodontology Department of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were enrolled. DNA was extracted from fresh blood samples of arm vein of participants and transferred to KBiosience institute (United Kingdom for genotyping. X2 and Fisher’s exact tests were used by SPSS software v.19 for statistical analyzes. Significant differences were detected in the distribution of genotypes between control and CP groups both for rs17235409 and rs2276631 polymorphisms (P:0.044 and P:0.028 respectively. Distribution of genotypes differed insignificantly in comparison of PI and control groups for rs2276631 (P:0.623 and either rs17235409 (P:1 polymorphisms. Based on our results, we conclude that presence of G allele in both rs2276631 and rs17235409 location may be a protective factor against CP. More studies with a larger sample size in different populations are required for confirming NRAMP1 as a genetic determinant in periodontal disorders.

  2. The human multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP is a plasma membrane drug-efflux pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaman, G. J.; Flens, M. J.; van Leusden, M. R.; de Haas, M.; Mülder, H. S.; Lankelma, J.; Pinedo, H. M.; Scheper, R. J.; Baas, F.; Broxterman, H. J.

    1994-01-01

    The multidrug-resistance associated protein MRP is a 180- to 195-kDa membrane protein associated with resistance of human tumor cells to cytotoxic drugs. We have investigated how MRP confers drug resistance in SW-1573 human lung carcinoma cells by generating a subline stably transfected with an

  3. DMPD: Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase: potentialregulators of macrophage inflammatory activities. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12472665 Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase: potential...:545-53. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase:...le Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase: potentialregulators of macrophage inflam

  4. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance associated with cholesterol-induced activation of macrophages is prevented by high density lipoprotein.

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    Andrew L Carey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that high density lipoprotein (HDL may modulate glucose metabolism through multiple mechanisms including pancreatic insulin secretion as well as insulin-independent glucose uptake into muscle. We hypothesized that HDL may also increase skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity via cholesterol removal and anti-inflammatory actions in macrophages associated with excess adiposity and ectopic lipid deposition. METHODS: Human primary and THP-1 macrophages were treated with vehicle (PBS or acetylated low density lipoprotein (acLDL with or without HDL for 18 hours. Treatments were then removed, and macrophages were incubated with fresh media for 4 hours. This conditioned media was then applied to primary human skeletal myotubes derived from vastus lateralis biopsies taken from patients with type 2 diabetes to examine insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. RESULTS: Conditioned media from acLDL-treated primary and THP-1 macrophages reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary human skeletal myotubes compared with vehicle (primary macrophages, 168±21% of basal uptake to 104±19%; THP-1 macrophages, 142±8% of basal uptake to 108±6%; P<0.05. This was restored by co-treatment of macrophages with HDL. While acLDL increased total intracellular cholesterol content, phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinase and secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines from macrophages, none were altered by co-incubation with HDL. Insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in human skeletal myotubes exposed to conditioned media was unaltered by either treatment condition. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary human skeletal myotubes by conditioned media from macrophages pre-incubated with acLDL was restored by co-treatment with HDL. However, these actions were not linked to modulation of common pro- or anti-inflammatory mediators or insulin signaling via Akt.

  5. Localization of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 in the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium of the eye.

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    Pelis, Ryan M; Shahidullah, Mohammad; Ghosh, Sikha; Coca-Prados, Miguel; Wright, Stephen H; Delamere, Nicholas A

    2009-05-01

    The nonpigmented epithelium (NPE) of the ciliary body represents an important component of the blood-aqueous barrier of the eye. Many therapeutic drugs penetrate poorly across the NPE into the aqueous humor of the eye interior. Several of these therapeutic drugs, such as methotrexate, vincristine, and etoposide, are substrates of the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2). Abundant MRP2 protein was detected by Western blot in homogenates of human ciliary body and freshly dissected porcine NPE. In cultured porcine NPE, the intracellular accumulation of the MRP2 substrates calcein (1.8-fold), 5-(and-6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (22.1-fold), and doxorubicin (1.9-fold) was significantly increased in the presence of 50 microM MK571 ((E)-3-[[[3-[2-(7-chloro-2-quinolinyl)-ethenyl]phenyl]-[[3-dimethylamino)-3-oxopropyl]thio]methyl]thio]-propanoic acid), an MRP inhibitor. In addition, the intracellular accumulation of the MRP2 substrate glutathione methylfluorescein was increased by 50 microM MK571 (4.3-fold), 500 microM indomethacin (2.6-fold), and 50 microM cyclosporin A (2.1-fold) but not by 500 microM sulfinpyrazone. These data are consistent with MRP2-mediated transport activity in cultured NPE, and MRP2 mRNA (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) and protein (Western blot) were detected in the cultured cells. Immunolocalization studies in native human and porcine eyes showed MRP2 protein at the apical interface of the NPE and pigmented cell layers. Close examination of MRP2 immunoreactivity supported the conclusion that MRP2 is localized in the apical membrane of the NPE. MRP2 at the apical membrane of NPE cells may be involved in protecting intraocular tissues from exposure to potentially harmful toxins.

  6. R-Flurbiprofen Traps Prostaglandins within Cells by Inhibition of Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein-4.

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    Wobst, Ivonne; Ebert, Lisa; Birod, Kerstin; Wegner, Marthe-Susanna; Hoffmann, Marika; Thomas, Dominique; Angioni, Carlo; Parnham, Michael J; Steinhilber, Dieter; Tegeder, Irmgard; Geisslinger, Gerd; Grösch, Sabine

    2016-12-30

    R -flurbiprofen is the non-COX-inhibiting enantiomer of flurbiprofen and is not converted to S -flurbiprofen in human cells. Nevertheless, it reduces extracellular prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) in cancer or immune cell cultures and human extracellular fluid. Here, we show that R -flurbiprofen acts through a dual mechanism: (i) it inhibits the translocation of cPLA 2α to the plasma membrane and thereby curtails the availability of arachidonic acid and (ii) R -flurbiprofen traps PGE₂ inside of the cells by inhibiting multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4, ABCC4), which acts as an outward transporter for prostaglandins. Consequently, the effects of R -flurbiprofen were mimicked by RNAi-mediated knockdown of MRP4. Our data show a novel mechanism by which R -flurbiprofen reduces extracellular PGs at physiological concentrations, particularly in cancers with high levels of MRP4, but the mechanism may also contribute to its anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties and suggests that it reduces PGs in a site- and context-dependent manner.

  7. Molecular evidence and functional expression of multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP) in rabbit corneal epithelial cells.

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    Karla, Pradeep K; Pal, Dananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2007-01-01

    Multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP) is a major family of efflux transporters involved in drug efflux leading to drug resistance. The objective of this study was to explore physical barriers for ocular drug absorption and to verify if the role of efflux transporters. MRP-2 is a major homologue of MRP family and found to express on the apical side of cell membrane. Cultured Rabbit Corneal Epithelial Cells (rCEC) were selected as an in vitro model for corneal epithelium. [14C]-erythromycin which is a proven substrate for MRP-2 was selected as a model drug for functional expression studies. MK-571, a known specific and potent inhibitor for MRP-2 was added to inhibit MRP mediated efflux. Membrane fraction of rCEC was used for western blot analysis. Polarized transport of [14C]-erythromycin was observed in rCEC and transport from B-->A was significantly high than from A-->B. Permeability's increased significantly from A-->B in the presence of MK-571 and ketoconozole. Uptake of [14C]-erythromycin in the presence of MK-571 was significantly higher than control in rCEC. RT-PCR analysis indicated a unique and distinct band at approximately 498 bp corresponding to MRP-2 in rCEC and MDCK11-MRP-2 cells. Immunoprecipitation followed by Western Blot analysis indicated a specific band at approximately 190 kDa in membrane fraction of rCEC and MDCK11-MRP-2 cells. For the first time we have demonstrated high expression of MRP-2 in rabbit corneal epithelium and its functional activity causing drug efflux. RT-PCR, immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis further confirms the result.

  8. Multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP1 genetic variants, MRP1 protein levels and severity of COPD

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    Rutgers Bea

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP1 protects against oxidative stress and toxic compounds generated by cigarette smoking, which is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We have previously shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in MRP1 significantly associate with level of FEV1 in two independent population based cohorts. The aim of our study was to assess the associations of MRP1 SNPs with FEV1 level, MRP1 protein levels and inflammatory markers in bronchial biopsies and sputum of COPD patients. Methods Five SNPs (rs212093, rs4148382, rs504348, rs4781699, rs35621 in MRP1 were genotyped in 110 COPD patients. The effects of MRP1 SNPs were analyzed using linear regression models. Results One SNP, rs212093 was significantly associated with a higher FEV1 level and less airway wall inflammation. Another SNP, rs4148382 was significantly associated with a lower FEV1 level, higher number of inflammatory cells in induced sputum and with a higher MRP1 protein level in bronchial biopsies. Conclusions This is the first study linking MRP1 SNPs with lung function and inflammatory markers in COPD patients, suggesting a role of MRP1 SNPs in the severity of COPD in addition to their association with MRP1 protein level in bronchial biopsies.

  9. Modulation of expression and activity of intestinal multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 by xenobiotics

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    Tocchetti, Guillermo Nicolás [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, CONICET, Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Rigalli, Juan Pablo [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, CONICET, Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacoepidemiology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 410, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Arana, Maite Rocío; Villanueva, Silvina Stella Maris [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, CONICET, Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Mottino, Aldo Domingo, E-mail: amottino@unr.edu.ar [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, CONICET, Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)

    2016-07-15

    The multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2/ABCC2) is a transporter that belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. In the intestine, it is localized to the apical membrane of the enterocyte and plays a key role in limiting the absorption of xenobiotics incorporated orally. MRP2 may also play a role in systemic clearance of xenobiotics available from the serosal side of the intestine. MRP2 transports a wide range of substrates, mainly organic anions conjugated with glucuronic acid, glutathione and sulfate and its expression can be modulated by xenobiotics at transcriptional- and post-transcriptional levels. Transcriptional regulation is usually mediated by a group of nuclear receptors. The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a major member of this group. Relevant drugs described to up-regulate intestinal MRP2 via PXR are rifampicin, spironolactone and carbamazepine, among others. The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) was also reported to modulate MRP2 expression, phenobarbital being a typical activator. Dietary compounds, including micronutrients and other natural products, are also capable of regulating intestinal MRP2 expression transcriptionally. We have given them particular attention since the composition of the food ingested daily is not necessarily supervised and may result in interactions with therapeutic drugs. Post-transcriptional regulation of MRP2 activity by xenobiotics, e.g. as a consequence of inhibitory actions, is also described in this review. Unfortunately, only few studies report on drug-drug or nutrient-drug interactions as a consequence of modulation of intestinal MRP2 activity by xenobiotics. Future clinical studies are expected to identify additional interactions resulting in changes in efficacy or safety of therapeutic drugs. - Highlights: • Intestinal MRP2 (ABCC2) expression and activity can be regulated by xenobiotics. • PXR and CAR are major MRP2 modulators through a transcriptional mechanism. • Rifampicin

  10. The expression and significance of P-glycoprotein, lung resistance protein and multidrug resistance-associated protein in gastric cancer

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    Li Yan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To detect the expression of multidrug resistance molecules P-glycoprotein (P-gp, Lung resistnce protein (LRP and Multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP and analyze the relationship between them and the clinico-pathological features. Methods The expressions of P-gp, LRP and MRP in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 59 gastric cancer patients were determined by a labbelled Streptavidin-Peroxidase (SP immunohistochemical technique, and the results were analyzed in correlation with clinicopathological data. None of these patients received chemotherapy prior to surgery. Results The positive rates of P-gp, LRP, MRP were 86.4%, 84.7% and 27.1%, respectively. The difference between the positive rate of P-gp and MRP was significant statistically, as well as the difference between the expression of MRP and LRP. No significant difference was observed between P-gp and LRP, but the positively correlation between the expression of P-gp and LRP had been found. No significant correlation between the expression of P-gp, LRP, MRP and the grade of differentiation were observed. The expression of P-gp was correlated with clinical stages positively (r = 0.742, but the difference with the expression of P-gp in different stages was not significant. Conclusion The expressions of P-gp, LRP and MRP in patients with gastric cancer without prior chemotherapy are high, indicating that innate drug resistance may exist in gastric cancer.

  11. Ursodeoxycholic acid pretreatment reduces oral bioavailability of the multiple drug resistance-associated protein 2 substrate baicalin in rats.

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    Wu, Tao; Li, Xi-Ping; Xu, Yan-Jiao; Du, Guang; Liu, Dong

    2013-11-01

    Baicalin is a major bioactive component of Scutellaria baicalensis and a substrate of multiple drug resistance-associated protein 2. Expression of multiple drug resistance-associated protein 2 is regulated by NF-E2-related factor 2. The aim of this study was to explore whether ursodeoxycholic acid, an NF-E2-related factor 2 activator, could influence the oral bioavailability of baicalin. A single dose of baicalin (200 mg/kg) was given orally to rats pretreated with ursodeoxycholic acid (75 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg, per day, intragastrically) or normal saline (per day, intragastrically) for six consecutive days. The plasma concentration of baicalin was measured with the HPLC method. The result indicated that the oral bioavailability of baicalin was significantly and dose-dependently reduced in rats pretreated with ursodeoxycholic acid. Compared with control rats, the mean area under concentration-time curve of baicalin was reduced from 13.25 ± 0.24 mg/L h to 7.62 ± 0.15 mg/L h and 4.97 ± 0.21 mg/L h, and the C(max) value was decreased from 1.31 ± 0.03 mg/L to 0.62 ± 0.05 mg/L and 0.36 ± 0.04 mg/L in rats pretreated with ursodeoxycholic acid at doses of 75 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg, respectively, for six consecutive days. Hence, ursodeoxycholic acid treatment reduced the oral bioavailability of baicalin in rats, probably due to the enhanced efflux of baicalin from the intestine and liver by multiple drug resistance-associated protein 2. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Isolation and Cloning of cDNA Fragment of Gene Encoding for Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein from M. affine.

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    Utut Widyastuti Suharsono

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and Cloning of cDNA Fragment of Gene Encoding for Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein from M. affine. M. affine can grow well in acid soil with high level of soluble aluminum. One of the important proteins in the detoxifying xenobiotic stress including acid and Al stresses is a multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP encoded by mrp gene. The objective of this research is to isolate and clone the cDNA fragment of MaMrp encoding MRP from M. affine. By reverse transcription, total cDNA had been synthesized from the total RNA as template. The fragment of cDNA MaMrp had been successfully isolated by PCR by using total cDNA as template and mrp primer designed from A. thaliana, yeast, and human. This fragment was successfully inserted into pGEM-T Easy and the recombinant plasmid was successfully introduced into E. coli DH5α. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the lenght of MaMrp fragment is 633 bp encoding 208 amino acids. Local alignment analysis based on nucleotide of mRNA showed that MaMrp fragment is 69% identical to AtMrp1 and 63% to AtMrp from A. thaliana. Based on deduced amino acid sequence, MaMRP is 84% identical to part of AtMRP13, 77% to AtMRP12, and 73% to AtMRP1 from A. thaliana respectively. Alignment analysis with AtMRP1 showed that MaMRP fragment is located in TM1 and NBF1 domains and has a specific amino acid sequence QCKAQLQNMEEE.

  13. Expression of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance associated protein in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells after fractionated irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D; Maare, C; Eriksen, J

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To characterize irradiated murine tumor cells with respect to drug resistance, drug kinetics, and ATPase activity, and to evaluate the possible role of P-glycoprotein (PGP) and murine multidrug resistance associated protein (Mrp1) in the drug-resistant phenotype of these cells. METHODS...... AND MATERIALS: Sensitive Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EHR2) were in vitro exposed to fractionated irradiation (60 Gy). Western blot analysis was performed for determination of PGP and Mrp1, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for determination of mdr1a + b mRNA, and semiquantitative RT......-PCR for Mrp1 mRNA. The clonogenic assay was applied to investigate sensitivity, whereas the steady-state drug accumulation of daunorubicin (DNR), 3H-vincristine (VCR), and 3H-etoposide (VP16) was measured by spectrofluorometry and scintillation counting, respectively. For determining of ATPase activity...

  14. Protein energy malnutrition increases arginase activity in monocytes and macrophages.

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    Corware, Karina; Yardley, Vanessa; Mack, Christopher; Schuster, Steffen; Al-Hassi, Hafid; Herath, Shanthi; Bergin, Philip; Modolell, Manuel; Munder, Markus; Müller, Ingrid; Kropf, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Protein energy malnutrition is commonly associated with immune dysfunctions and is a major factor in susceptibility to infectious diseases. In this study, we evaluated the impact of protein energy malnutrition on the capacity of monocytes and macrophages to upregulate arginase, an enzyme associated with immunosuppression and increased pathogen replication. Our results show that monocytes and macrophages are significantly increased in the bone marrow and blood of mice fed on a protein low diet. No alteration in the capacity of bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from malnourished mice to phagocytose particles, to produce the microbicidal molecule nitric oxide and to kill intracellular Leishmania parasites was detected. However, macrophages and monocytes from malnourished mice express significantly more arginase both in vitro and in vivo. Using an experimental model of visceral leishmaniasis, we show that following protein energy malnutrition, the increased parasite burden measured in the spleen of these mice coincided with increased arginase activity and that macrophages provide a more permissive environment for parasite growth. Taken together, these results identify a novel mechanism in protein energy malnutrition that might contributes to increased susceptibility to infectious diseases by upregulating arginase activity in myeloid cells.

  15. THE ROLE OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE ASSOCIATED PROTEIN (MRP) IN THE BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER AND OPIOID ANALGESIA

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    Su, Wendy; Pasternak, Gavril W.

    2013-01-01

    The blood brain barrier protects the brain from circulating compounds and drugs. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is involved with the barrier, both preventing the influx of agent from the blood into the brain and facilitating the efflux of compounds from the brain into the blood, raising the possibility of a similar role for other transporters. Multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP), a 190 kDa protein similar to Pgp is also ABC transport that has been implicated in the blood brain barrier. The current study explores its role in opioid action. Immunohistochemically, it is localized in the choroid plexus in ratsand can be selectively downregulated by antisense treatment at both the level of mRNA, as shown by RT-PCR, and protein, as demonstrated immunohistochemically. Behaviorally, downregulation of MRP significantly enhances the analgesic potency of systemic morphine in MRP knockout mice and in antisense-treated rats by lowering the blood brain barrier. Following intracerebroventricular administration, a number of compounds, including some opioids, are rapidly secreted from the brain into the blood where they contribute to the overall analgesic effects by activating peripheral systems. MRP plays a role in this efflux. Downregulating MRP expression leads to a corresponding decrease in the transport and a diminished analgesic response from opioids administered intracerebroventricularly. Thus, the transporter protein MRP plays a role in maintaining the blood-brain barrier and modulates the activity of opioids. PMID:23508590

  16. Colistin resistance associated with outer membrane protein change in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter asburiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kádár, Béla; Kocsis, Béla; Tóth, Ákos; Kristóf, Katalin; Felső, Péter; Kocsis, Béla; Böddi, Katalin; Szabó, Dóra

    2017-06-01

    In this study, outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter asburiae were analyzed. One colistin-susceptible and three colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae sequence type 258 strains as well as one colistin-susceptible E. asburiae and its colistin-heteroresistant counterpart strain were involved in the study. OMP analysis of each strain was performed by microchip method. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight/mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) investigation was carried out after separation of OMPs by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and in-gel digestion. The MALDI-TOF/MS analysis of OMPs in the colistin-susceptible K. pneumoniae found 16 kDa proteins belonging to the LysM domain/BON superfamily, as well as DNA starvation proteins, whereas OmpX and OmpW were detected in the colistin-resistant counterpart strains. OmpC and OmpW were detected in the colistin-susceptible E. asburiae, whereas OmpA and OmpX were identified in the colistin-resistant counterpart. This study demonstrated that OMP differences were between colistin-susceptible and -resistant counterpart strains. The altered Gram-negative cell wall may contribute to acquired colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae.

  17. R-Flurbiprofen Traps Prostaglandins within Cells by Inhibition of Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein-4

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    Ivonne Wobst

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available R-flurbiprofen is the non-COX-inhibiting enantiomer of flurbiprofen and is not converted to S-flurbiprofen in human cells. Nevertheless, it reduces extracellular prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in cancer or immune cell cultures and human extracellular fluid. Here, we show that R-flurbiprofen acts through a dual mechanism: (i it inhibits the translocation of cPLA2α to the plasma membrane and thereby curtails the availability of arachidonic acid and (ii R-flurbiprofen traps PGE2 inside of the cells by inhibiting multidrug resistance–associated protein 4 (MRP4, ABCC4, which acts as an outward transporter for prostaglandins. Consequently, the effects of R-flurbiprofen were mimicked by RNAi-mediated knockdown of MRP4. Our data show a novel mechanism by which R-flurbiprofen reduces extracellular PGs at physiological concentrations, particularly in cancers with high levels of MRP4, but the mechanism may also contribute to its anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties and suggests that it reduces PGs in a site- and context-dependent manner.

  18. BIGH3 protein and macrophages in retinal endothelial cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragon, Albert A; Betts-Obregon, Brandi S; Moritz, Robert J; Parvathaneni, Kalpana; Navarro, Mary M; Kim, Hong Seok; Lee, Chi Fung; LeBaron, Richard G; Asmis, Reto; Tsin, Andrew T

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a pandemic disease with a higher occurrence in minority populations. The molecular mechanism to initiate diabetes-associated retinal angiogenesis remains largely unknown. We propose an inflammatory pathway of diabetic retinopathy in which macrophages in the diabetic eye provide TGFβ to retinal endothelial cells (REC) in the retinal microvasculature. In response to TGFβ, REC synthesize and secrete a pro-apoptotic BIGH3 (TGFβ-Induced Gene Human Clone 3) protein, which acts in an autocrine loop to induce REC apoptosis. Rhesus monkey retinal endothelial cells (RhREC) were treated with dMCM (cell media of macrophages treated with high glucose and LDL) and assayed for apoptosis (TUNEL), BIGH3 mRNA (qPCR), and protein (Western blots) expressions. Cells were also treated with ΤGFβ1 and 2 for BIGH3 mRNA and protein expression. Inhibition assays were carried out using antibodies for TGFβ1 and for BIGH3 to block apoptosis and mRNA expression. BIGH3 in cultured RhREC cells were identified by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Distribution of BIGH3 and macrophages in the diabetic mouse retina was examined with IHC. RhRECs treated with dMCM or TGFβ showed a significant increase in apoptosis and BIGH3 protein expression. Recombinant BIGH3 added to RhREC culture medium led to a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis. Antibodies (Ab) directed against BIGH3 and TGFβ, as well as TGFβ receptor blocker resulted in a significant reduction in apoptosis induced by either dMCM, TGFβ or BIGH3. IHC showed that cultured RhREC constitutively expressed BIGH3. Macrophage and BIGH3 protein were co-localized to the inner retina of the diabetic mouse eye. Our results support a novel inflammatory pathway for diabetic retinopathy. This pathway is initiated by TGFβ released from macrophages, which promotes synthesis and release of BIGH3 protein by REC and REC apoptosis.

  19. Macrophage Stimulating Protein Enhances Hepatic Inflammation in a NASH Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jieyi; Chanda, Dipanjan; van Gorp, Patrick J.; Jeurissen, Mike L. J.; Houben, Tom; Walenbergh, Sofie M. A.; Debets, Jacques; Oligschlaeger, Yvonne; Gijbels, Marion J. J.; Neumann, Dietbert; Shiri-Sverdlov, Ronit

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common liver disease characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation (steatosis) and inflammation. Currently, therapeutic options are poor and the long-term burden to society is constantly increasing. Previously, macrophage stimulating protein (MSP)-a serum

  20. Functional analysis of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance associated protein related multidrug resistance in AML-blasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügger, D; Herbart, H; Gekeler, V; Seitz, G; Liu, C; Klingebiel, T; Orlikowsky, T; Einsele, H; Denzlinger, C; Bader, P; Niethammer, D; Beck, J F

    1999-05-01

    Despite the high effectiveness of various P-glycoprotein (P-gp) modulating substances in vitro their clinical value e.g. for combination treatment of acute myelogenous leukemias (AML) remains still unclear. This might be explainable by recent findings that other factors than P-gp (e.g. the multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP)) may also be involved in clinical occurring drug resistance. To study P-gp and MRP mediated MDR in AML blasts from patients with relapses at the functional level we measured rhodamine 123 (RHO) efflux in combination with a P-gp specific (SDZ PSC 833) or a MRP specific (MK571) modulator, respectively. Furthermore, direct antineoplastic drug action was monitored by determination of damaged cell fraction of a blast population using flow cytometry. We generally found strongly modulated RHO efflux by SDZ PSC 833 but slight RHO-efflux modulation by MK571 in blasts from relapsed states of AML expressing MDR1 or MRP mRNA at various levels. We could not demonstrate, though, significant PSC 833 or MK571 mediated modulation of the cytotoxic effects of etoposide. The results point to the possibility that combination of etoposide and a modulator might not improve responses to chemotherapy by targeting P-gp or MRP exclusively.

  1. Modulation of trabectedin (ET-743) hepatobiliary disposition by multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrps) may prevent hepatotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Kyung; Leslie, Elaine M.; Zamek-Gliszczynski, Maciej J.; Brouwer, Kim L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Trabectedin is a promising anticancer agent, but dose-limiting hepatotoxicity was observed during phase I/II clinical trials. Dexamethasone (DEX) has been shown to significantly reduce trabectedin-mediated hepatotoxicity. The current study was designed to assess the capability of sandwich-cultured primary rat hepatocytes (SCRH) to predict the hepato-protective effect of DEX against trabectedin-mediated cytotoxicity. The role of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2; Abcc2) in trabectedin hepatic disposition also was examined. In SCRH from wild-type Wistar rats, cytotoxicity was observed after 24-h continuous exposure to trabectedin. SCRH pretreated with additional DEX (1 μM) exhibited a 2- to 3-fold decrease in toxicity at 100 nM and 1000 nM trabectedin. Unexpectedly, toxicity in SCRH from Mrp2-deficient (TR - ) compared to wild-type Wistar rats was markedly reduced. Depletion of glutathione from SCRH using buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) mitigated trabectedin toxicity associated with 100 nM and 1000 nM trabectedin. Western blot analysis demonstrated increased levels of CYP3A1/2 and Mrp2 in SCRH pretreated with DEX; interestingly, Mrp4 expression was increased in SCRH after BSO exposure. Trabectedin biliary recovery in isolated perfused livers from TR - rats was decreased by ∼ 75% compared to wild-type livers. In conclusion, SCRH represent a useful in vitro model to predict the hepatotoxicity of trabectedin observed in vivo. The protection by DEX against trabectedin-mediated cytotoxicity may be attributed, in part, to enhanced Mrp2 biliary excretion and increased metabolism by CYP3A1/2. Decreased trabectedin toxicity in SCRH from TR - rats, and in SCRH pretreated with BSO, may be due to increased basolateral excretion of trabectedin by Mrp3 and/or Mrp4

  2. Multidrug-resistance-associated protein plays a protective role in menadione-induced oxidative stress in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kyohei; Shibata, Tomohito; Oba, Tatsuya; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Yoshikawa, Masahito; Tatsunami, Ryosuke; Takahashi, Kazuhiko; Tampo, Yoshiko

    2009-02-13

    Menadione, a redox-cycling quinone known to cause oxidative stress, binds to reduced glutathione (GSH) to form glutathione S-conjugate. Glutathione S-conjugates efflux is often mediated by multidrug-resistance-associated protein (MRP). We investigated the effect of a transporter inhibitor, MK571 (3-[[3-[2-(7-chloroquinolin-2-yl)vinyl]phenyl]-(2-dimethylcarbamoylethylsulfanyl)methylsulfanyl] propionic acid), on menadione-induced oxidative stress in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). BAECs were treated with menadione and MK571, and cell viability was measured. Modulation of intracellular GSH levels was performed with buthionine sulfoximine and GSH ethyl ester treatments. Intracellular superoxide was estimated by dihydroethidium oxidation using fluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry. Expression of MRP was determined by flow cytometry using phycoerythrin-conjugated anti-MRP monoclonal antibody. Intracellular GSH depletion by buthionine sulfoximine promoted the loss of viability of BAECs exposed to menadione. Exogenous GSH, which does not permeate the cell membrane, or GSH ethyl ester protected BAECs against the loss of viability induced by menadione. The results suggest that GSH binds to menadione outside the cells as well as inside. Pretreatment of BAECs with MK571 dramatically increased intracellular levels of superoxide generated from menadione, indicating that menadione may accumulate in the intracellular milieu. Finally, we found that MK571 aggravated menadione-induced toxicity in BAECs and that MRP levels were increased in menadione-treated cells. We conclude that MRP plays a vital role in protecting BAECs against menadione-induced oxidative stress, presumably due to its ability to transport glutathione S-conjugate.

  3. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 is a bile transporter of Clonorchis sinensis simulated by in silico docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fuhong; Yoo, Won Gi; Lee, Ji-Yun; Lu, Yanyan; Pak, Jhang Ho; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2017-11-21

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4) is a member of the C subfamily of the ABC family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. MRP4 regulates ATP-dependent efflux of various organic anionic substrates and bile acids out of cells. Since Clonorchis sinensis lives in host's bile duct, accumulation of bile juice can be toxic to the worm's tissues and cells. Therefore, C. sinensis needs bile transporters to reduce accumulation of bile acids within its body. We cloned MRP4 (CsMRP4) from C. sinensis and obtained a cDNA encoding an open reading frame of 1469 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CsMRP4 belonged to the MRP/SUR/CFTR subfamily. A tertiary structure of CsMRP4 was generated by homology modeling based on multiple structures of MRP1 and P-glycoprotein. CsMRP4 had two membrane-spanning domains (MSD1 & 2) and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBD1 & 2) as common structural folds. Docking simulation with nine bile acids showed that CsMRP4 transports bile acids through the inner cavity. Moreover, it was found that CsMRP4 mRNA was more abundant in the metacercariae than in the adults. Mouse immune serum, generated against the CsMRP4-NBD1 (24.9 kDa) fragment, localized CsMRP4 mainly in mesenchymal tissues and oral and ventral suckers of the metacercariae and the adults. Our findings shed new light on MRPs and their homologs and provide a platform for further structural and functional investigations on the bile transporters and parasites' survival.

  4. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 is a bile transporter of Clonorchis sinensis simulated by in silico docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhong Dai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4 is a member of the C subfamily of the ABC family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. MRP4 regulates ATP-dependent efflux of various organic anionic substrates and bile acids out of cells. Since Clonorchis sinensis lives in host’s bile duct, accumulation of bile juice can be toxic to the worm’s tissues and cells. Therefore, C. sinensis needs bile transporters to reduce accumulation of bile acids within its body. Results We cloned MRP4 (CsMRP4 from C. sinensis and obtained a cDNA encoding an open reading frame of 1469 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CsMRP4 belonged to the MRP/SUR/CFTR subfamily. A tertiary structure of CsMRP4 was generated by homology modeling based on multiple structures of MRP1 and P-glycoprotein. CsMRP4 had two membrane-spanning domains (MSD1 & 2 and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBD1 & 2 as common structural folds. Docking simulation with nine bile acids showed that CsMRP4 transports bile acids through the inner cavity. Moreover, it was found that CsMRP4 mRNA was more abundant in the metacercariae than in the adults. Mouse immune serum, generated against the CsMRP4-NBD1 (24.9 kDa fragment, localized CsMRP4 mainly in mesenchymal tissues and oral and ventral suckers of the metacercariae and the adults. Conclusions Our findings shed new light on MRPs and their homologs and provide a platform for further structural and functional investigations on the bile transporters and parasites’ survival.

  5. Expression of multidrug resistance associated protein 5 (MRP5) on cornea and its role in drug efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karla, Pradeep K; Quinn, Tim L; Herndon, Betty L; Thomas, Priscilla; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to investigate the presence of nucleoside/nucleotide efflux transporter in cornea and to evaluate the role in ocular drug efflux. RT-PCR, immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis and immunostaining were employed to establish molecular presence of multidrug resistance associated protein 5 (MRP5) on cornea. Corneal efflux by MRP5 was studied with bis(POM)-PMEA and acyclovir using rabbit and human corneal epithelial cells along with MRP5 over expressing cells (MDCKII-MRP5). Ex vivo studies using excised rabbit cornea and in vivo ocular microdialysis in male New Zealand white rabbits were used to further evaluate the role of MRP5 in conferring ocular drug resistance. RT-PCR confirms the expression of MRP5 in both rabbit and human corneal epithelial cells along with MDCKII-MRP5 cells. Immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis using a rat (M511-54) monoclonal antibody that reacts with human epitope confirms the expression of MRP5 protein in human corneal epithelial cells and MDCKII-MRP5 cells. Immunostaining performed on human cornea indicates the localization of this efflux pump on both epithelium and endothelium. Efflux studies reveal that depletion of ATP decreased PMEA efflux significantly. MRP5 inhibitors also diminished PMEA and acyclovir efflux. However, depletion of glutathione did not alter efflux. MDR1 and MRP2 did not contribute to PMEA efflux. However, MRP2 is involved in acyclovir efflux while MDR1 do not participate in this process. TLC/autoradiography suggested the conversion of bis(POM)-PMEA to PMEA in rabbit and human corneal epithelial cells. Two well known antiglaucoma drugs, bimatoprost and latanoprost were rapidly effluxed by MRP5. Ex vivo study on intact rabbit corneas demonstrated accumulation of PMEA in cornea in the presence of ATP-depleting medium. In vivo ocular pharmacokinetics also revealed a significant increase in maximum aqueous humor concentration (C(max)) and area under the

  6. Localization of macrophage inflammatory protein : Macrophage inflammatory PROTEIN-1 expression in rat brain after peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide and focal cerebral ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gourmala, NG; Limonta, S; Bochelen, D; Sauter, A; Boddeke, HWGM

    Macrophage inflammatory protein is a member of the C-C subfamily of chemokines, which exhibits, in addition to proinflammatory activities, a potent endogenous pyrogen activity. In this study, we analysed the time-course of expression and cellular source of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha and

  7. C-reactive protein interaction with macrophages: in vitro induction of tumor cytotoxicity, and characterization of C-reactive protein binding to macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, K.A.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of C-reactive protein (CRP) to activate macrophages to tumoricidal state was examined. CRP was able to activate macrophages to kill tumor cells. The activation was shown to be due to CRP and not to low levels of other activators present in the CRP preparations, since specific removal of CRP led to abrogation of the CRP mediated activation of macrophages. The role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a contaminating activator was eliminated by showing the ability of CRP preparations to activate macrophages from LPS non-responsive strains of mice, and to activate macrophages under conditions which specifically inactivated or removed the contaminating LPS. In order to exclude the possibility of indirect activation of macrophages by other cells present in the peritoneal exudate cell population, effect of CRP on pure macrophages was examined. Bone marrow derived macrophages as well as well as macrophage cell lines exhibited a significant increase in their capacity to kill tumor cells after treatment with CRP. The nature of CRP and macrophage interaction was examined using radioiodinated CRP. Labelled CRP bound specifically to macrophages and macrophage cell lines

  8. Expression of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance associated protein in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells after fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Dorte; Maare, Christian; Eriksen, Jens; Litman, Thomas; Skovsgaard, Torben

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize irradiated murine tumor cells with respect to drug resistance, drug kinetics, and ATPase activity, and to evaluate the possible role of P-glycoprotein (PGP) and murine multidrug resistance associated protein (Mrp1) in the drug-resistant phenotype of these cells. Methods and Materials: Sensitive Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EHR2) were in vitro exposed to fractionated irradiation (60 Gy). Western blot analysis was performed for determination of PGP and Mrp1, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for determination of mdr1a + b mRNA, and semiquantitative RT-PCR for Mrp1 mRNA. The clonogenic assay was applied to investigate sensitivity, whereas the steady-state drug accumulation of daunorubicin (DNR), 3 H-vincristine (VCR), and 3 H-etoposide (VP16) was measured by spectrofluorometry and scintillation counting, respectively. For determining of ATPase activity, the release of inorganic phosphate from ATP was quantified using a colorimetric method. Results: Compared with EHR2, the irradiated cell line EHR2/irr showed increased expression of PGP (threefold), Mrp1 (eightfold), and Mrp1 mRNA (sixfold), and a slight reduction of mdr1b mRNA, whereas mdr1a was present in EHR2 but could not be detected in EHR2/irr. EHR2/irr developed sixfold resistance to VP16, twofold resistance to vincristine, but remained sensitive to DNR. Addition of the PGP inhibitor, verapamil (VER) or depletion of glutathione by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) partly reversed the resistance in EHR2/irr. In EHR2/irr, the steady-state accumulation of 3 H-VCR and 3 H-VP16 was significantly decreased as compared with EHR2, whereas the accumulation of DNR was unchanged. The ATPase activity of plasma membrane vesicles prepared from EHR2/irr cells was similar to that of wild-type EHR2 cells. The ATPase activity was neither stimulated by vinblastine nor VER. Conclusion: Irradiation induced a multidrug-resistant phenotype in sensitive tumor cells. This phenotype was

  9. Molecular and structural characteristics of multidrug resistance-associated protein 7 in Chinese liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fuhong; Yoo, Won Gi; Lee, Ji-Yun; Lu, Yanyan; Pak, Jhang Ho; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Hong, Sung-Jong

    2017-03-01

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein 7 (MRP7, ABCC10) is a C subfamily member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. MRP7 is a lipophilic anion transporter that pumps endogenous and xenobiotic substrates from the cytoplasm to the extracellular milieu. Here, we cloned and characterized CsMRP7 as a novel ABC transporter from the Chinese liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis. Full-length cDNA of CsMRP7 was 5174 nt, encoded 1636 amino acids (aa), and harbored a 147-bp 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and 116-bp 3'-UTR. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that CsMRP7 was closer to the ABCC subfamily than the ABCB subfamily. Tertiary structures of the N-terminal region (1-322 aa) and core region (323-1621 aa) of CsMRP7 were generated by homology modeling using glucagon receptor (PDB ID: 5ee7_A) and P-glycoprotein (PDB ID: 4f4c_A) as templates, respectively. CsMRP7 nucleotide-binding domain 2 (NBD2) was conserved more than NBD1, which was the sites of ATP binding and hydrolysis. Like typical long MRPs, CsMRP7 has an additional membrane-spanning domain 0 (MSD0) and cytoplasmic loop, along with a common structural fold consisting of MSD1-NBD1-MSD2-NBD2 as a single polypeptide assembly. MSD0, MSD1, and MSD2 consisted of TM1-7, TM8-13, and TM14-19, respectively. The CsMRP7 transcript was more abundant in the metacercariae than in the adult worms. Truncated NBD1 (39 kDa) and NBD2 (44 kDa) were produced in bacteria and mouse immune sera were raised. CsMRP7 was localized in the apical side of the intestinal epithelium, sperm in the testes and seminal receptacle, receptacle membrane, and mesenchymal tissue around intestine in the adult worm. These results provide molecular information and insights into structural and functional characteristics of CsMRP7 and homologs of flukes.

  10. DMPD: G-protein-coupled receptor expression, function, and signaling in macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17456803 G-protein-coupled receptor expression, function, and signaling in macropha...2007 Apr 24. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show G-protein-coupled receptor expression, function, and signali...ng in macrophages. PubmedID 17456803 Title G-protein-coupled receptor expression, function

  11. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression in macrophages is controlled by lymphocytes during macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chong; Yang, Xiqiang; Yao, Lan; Jiang, Liping; Liu, Wei; Li, Xin; Wang, Lijia

    2012-01-01

    The viewpoints on the control of innate immune cells by the adaptive immune system during sepsis remain controversial. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) is essential to the negative control of innate immunity and suppresses the activation of macrophages by inhibiting activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The purpose of the current study was to observe inflammatory response and macrophage activation in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with endotoxemia and to determine the role of MKP-1 in the control of macrophage activation by the adaptive immune system. Endotoxemia was induced in wild-type and SCID mice by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and all of the SCID mice died. SCID mice produced more inflammatory cytokines than BALB/c mice systemically and locally. TNF-α mRNA expression was higher and MKP-1 mRNA expression was lower in peritoneal macrophages (PMa) from SCID mice compared to PMa from wild-type mice after and even before LPS injection. Thioglycollate-stimulated PMa from wild-type mice were stimulated with LPS in vitro in the presence or absence of pan-T cells. The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were higher in the supernatants from PMa cultured alone compared to PMa co-cultured with pan-T cells, and PMa MKP-1 mRNA and protein expression were higher when PMa were co-cultured with pan-T cells. Therefore, pan-T cells can up-regulate MKP-1 expression in macrophages and inhibit the secretion of inflammatory cytokines secretion by macrophages. In SCID mice, lymphocyte deficiency, especially T cell deficiency, causes insufficient MKP-1 expression in macrophages, which can be responsible for the severe inflammation and bad prognosis of septic SCID mice. MKP-1 plays an important role in the control of macrophage activation by the adaptive immune system.

  12. Phagocytosis by macrophages mediated by receptors for denatured proteins - dependence on tyrosine protein kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Hespanhol

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that some components of the leukocyte cell membrane, CR3 (Mac-1, CD11b/CD18 and p150/95, are able to bind to denatured proteins. Thus, it is of interest to know which effector functions of these cells can be triggered by these receptors when they interact with particles or surfaces covered with denatured proteins. In the present study we analyzed their possible role as mediators of phagocytosis of red cells covered with denatured bovine serum albumin (BSA by mouse peritoneal macrophages. We observed that a macrophages are able to recognize (bind to these red cells, b this interaction can be inhibited by denatured BSA in the fluid phase, c there is no phagocytosis of these particles by normal macrophages, d phagocytosis mediated by denatured BSA can be, however, effectively triggered in inflammatory macrophages induced by glycogen or in macrophages activated in vivo with LPS, and e this phagocytic capacity is strongly dependent on the activity of tyrosine protein kinases in its signal transduction pathway, as demonstrated by using three kinds of enzyme inhibitors (genistein, quercetin and herbimycin A.

  13. Identification and comparison of macrophage-induced proteins and proteins induced under various stress conditions in Brucella abortus.

    OpenAIRE

    Rafie-Kolpin, M; Essenberg, R C; Wyckoff, J H

    1996-01-01

    Brucella abortus is a facultative intracellular pathogen of cattle and humans that is capable of survival inside macrophages. In order to understand how B. abortus copes with the conditions during intracellular growth in macrophages, the protein synthesis pattern of the bacteria grown inside bovine macrophages has been compared with that of bacteria grown in the cell culture medium by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Approximately 24 new proteins that are not detected in th...

  14. Expression analysis of G Protein-Coupled Receptors in mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattin, Jane E; Schroder, Kate; Su, Andrew I; Walker, John R; Zhang, Jie; Wiltshire, Tim; Saijo, Kaoru; Glass, Christopher K; Hume, David A; Kellie, Stuart; Sweet, Matthew J

    2008-04-29

    Monocytes and macrophages express an extensive repertoire of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) that regulate inflammation and immunity. In this study we performed a systematic micro-array analysis of GPCR expression in primary mouse macrophages to identify family members that are either enriched in macrophages compared to a panel of other cell types, or are regulated by an inflammatory stimulus, the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Several members of the P2RY family had striking expression patterns in macrophages; P2ry6 mRNA was essentially expressed in a macrophage-specific fashion, whilst P2ry1 and P2ry5 mRNA levels were strongly down-regulated by LPS. Expression of several other GPCRs was either restricted to macrophages (e.g. Gpr84) or to both macrophages and neural tissues (e.g. P2ry12, Gpr85). The GPCR repertoire expressed by bone marrow-derived macrophages and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages had some commonality, but there were also several GPCRs preferentially expressed by either cell population. The constitutive or regulated expression in macrophages of several GPCRs identified in this study has not previously been described. Future studies on such GPCRs and their agonists are likely to provide important insights into macrophage biology, as well as novel inflammatory pathways that could be future targets for drug discovery.

  15. Spontaneous T-cell responses against peptides derived from the Taxol resistance-associated gene-3 (TRAG-3) protein in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Anders; Hadrup, Sine Reker; Svane, Inge Marie

    2005-01-01

    for immunotherapy of cancer. To identify HLA-A* 02.01 - restricted epitopes from TRAG-3, we screened cancer patients for spontaneous cytotoxic T-cell responses against TRAG-3 - derived peptides. The TRAG-3 protein sequence was screened for 9mer and 10mer peptides possessing HLA-A* 02.01 - binding motifs. Of 12......Expression of the cancer-testis antigen Taxol resistance - associated gene-3 (TRAG-3) protein is associated with acquired paclitaxel ( Taxol) resistance, and is expressed in various cancer types; e. g., breast cancer, leukemia, and melanoma. Thus, TRAG-3 represents an attractive target...... potential binders, 9 peptides were indeed capable of binding to the HLA-A* 02.01 molecule, with binding affinities ranging from strong to weak binders. Subsequently, lymphocytes from cancer patients ( 9 breast cancer patients, 12 melanoma patients, and 13 patients with hematopoietic malignancies) were...

  16. Tyrosine and aurora kinase inhibitors diminish transport function of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP 4 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannon N. Hardwick

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine and aurora kinases are important effectors in signal transduction pathways that are often involved in aberrant cancer cell growth. Tyrosine (TKI and aurora (AKI kinase inhibitors are anti-cancer agents specifically designed to target such signaling pathways through TKI/AKI binding to the ATP-binding pocket of kinases thereby leading to diminished kinase activity. Some TKIs have been identified as inhibitors of ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, which are commonly upregulated in malignant cells. TKI/AKIs have been investigated as ABC transporter inhibitors in order to facilitate the accumulation of concomitantly administered chemo-therapeutics within cancer cells. However, ABC transporters are prominently expressed in the liver and other eliminating organs, and their inhibition has been linked to intracellular accumulation of drugs, altered disposition, and toxicity. The potential for TKIs/AKIs to inhibit other important hepatic efflux transporters, particularly multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs, remains unknown. The aim of the current study was to compare the inhibitory potency of 20 selected TKI/AKIs against MRP4 and BCRP through the use of inverted membrane vesicle assays. Relative IC50 values were estimated by determining TKI/AKI inhibition of MRP4-mediated [3H]-dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate uptake and BCRP-mediated [3H]-estrone sulfate uptake. To provide insight to the clinical relevance of TKI/AKI inhibition of ABC efflux transporters, the ratio of the steady-state maximum total plasma concentration (Css to the IC50 for each compound was calculated with Css/IC50 ratio >0.1 deemed potentially clinically relevant. Such analysis identified several potentially clinically relevant inhibitors of MRP4: alisertib, danusertib, erlotinib, lapatinib, neratinib, nilotinib, pazopanib, sorafenib, and tozasertib. The potentially clinically relevant inhibition of

  17. Macrophage fusion is controlled by the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST/PTPN12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Inmoo; Davidson, Dominique; Souza, Cleiton Martins; Vacher, Jean; Veillette, André

    2013-06-01

    Macrophages can undergo cell-cell fusion, leading to the formation of multinucleated giant cells and osteoclasts. This process is believed to promote the proteolytic activity of macrophages toward pathogens, foreign bodies, and extracellular matrices. Here, we examined the role of PTP-PEST (PTPN12), a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase, in macrophage fusion. Using a macrophage-targeted PTP-PEST-deficient mouse, we determined that PTP-PEST was not needed for macrophage differentiation or cytokine production. However, it was necessary for interleukin-4-induced macrophage fusion into multinucleated giant cells in vitro. It was also needed for macrophage fusion following implantation of a foreign body in vivo. Moreover, in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, PTP-PEST was required for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-triggered macrophage fusion into osteoclasts. PTP-PEST had no impact on expression of fusion mediators such as β-integrins, E-cadherin, and CD47, which enable macrophages to become fusion competent. However, it was needed for polarization of macrophages, migration induced by the chemokine CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), and integrin-induced spreading, three key events in the fusion process. PTP-PEST deficiency resulted in specific hyperphosphorylation of the protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2 and the adaptor paxillin. Moreover, a fusion defect was induced upon treatment of normal macrophages with a Pyk2 inhibitor. Together, these data argue that macrophage fusion is critically dependent on PTP-PEST. This function is seemingly due to the ability of PTP-PEST to control phosphorylation of Pyk2 and paxillin, thereby regulating cell polarization, migration, and spreading.

  18. Cytoskeleton-centric protein transportation by exosomes transforms tumor-favorable macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yizhi; Zhou, Yanlong; Yin, Xingfeng; Guo, Jiahui; Zhang, Gong; Wang, Tong; He, Qing-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The exosome is a key initiator of pre-metastatic niche in numerous cancers, where macrophages serve as primary inducers of tumor microenvironment. However, the proteome that can be exosomally transported from cancer cells to macrophages has not been sufficiently characterized so far. Here, we used colorectal cancer (CRC) exosomes to educate tumor-favorable macrophages. With a SILAC-based mass spectrometry strategy, we successfully traced the proteome transported from CRC exosomes to macrophages. Such a proteome primarily focused on promoting cytoskeleton rearrangement, which was biologically validated with multiple cell lines. We reproduced the exosomal transportation of functional vimentin as a proof-of-concept example. In addition, we found that some CRC exosomes could be recognized by macrophages via Fc receptors. Therefore, we revealed the active and necessary role of exosomes secreted from CRC cells to transform cancer-favorable macrophages, with the cytoskeleton-centric proteins serving as the top functional unit. PMID:27602764

  19. Cytoskeleton-centric protein transportation by exosomes transforms tumor-favorable macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhipeng; Yang, Lijuan; Cui, Yizhi; Zhou, Yanlong; Yin, Xingfeng; Guo, Jiahui; Zhang, Gong; Wang, Tong; He, Qing-Yu

    2016-10-11

    The exosome is a key initiator of pre-metastatic niche in numerous cancers, where macrophages serve as primary inducers of tumor microenvironment. However, the proteome that can be exosomally transported from cancer cells to macrophages has not been sufficiently characterized so far. Here, we used colorectal cancer (CRC) exosomes to educate tumor-favorable macrophages. With a SILAC-based mass spectrometry strategy, we successfully traced the proteome transported from CRC exosomes to macrophages. Such a proteome primarily focused on promoting cytoskeleton rearrangement, which was biologically validated with multiple cell lines. We reproduced the exosomal transportation of functional vimentin as a proof-of-concept example. In addition, we found that some CRC exosomes could be recognized by macrophages via Fc receptors. Therefore, we revealed the active and necessary role of exosomes secreted from CRC cells to transform cancer-favorable macrophages, with the cytoskeleton-centric proteins serving as the top functional unit.

  20. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 3 (Mrp3/Abcc3/Moat-D) Is Expressed in the SAE Squalus acanthias Shark Embryo–Derived Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Parton, Angela; Czechanski, Anne; Durkin, Christopher; Kong, Chi-Chon; Barnes, David

    2008-01-01

    The multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (MRP3/Mrp3) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein family of membrane transporters and related proteins that act on a variety of xenobiotic and anionic molecules to transfer these substrates in an ATP-dependent manner. In recent years, useful comparative information regarding evolutionarily conserved structure and transport functions of these proteins has accrued through the use of primitive marine animals such as cartilaginous fish. Until recently, one missing tool in comparative studies with cartilaginous fish was cell culture. We have derived from the embryo of Squalus acanthias, the spiny dogfish shark, the S. acanthias embryo (SAE) mesenchymal stem cell line. This is the first continuously proliferating cell line from a cartilaginous fish. We identified expression of Mrp3 in this cell line, cloned the molecule, and examined molecular and cellular physiological aspects of the protein. Shark Mrp3 is characterized by three membrane-spanning domains and two nucleotide-binding domains. Multiple alignments with other species showed that the shark Mrp3 amino acid sequence was well conserved. The shark sequence was overall 64% identical to human MRP3, 72% identical to chicken Mrp3, and 71% identical to frog and stickleback Mrp3. Highest identity between shark and human amino acid sequence (82%) was seen in the carboxyl-terminal nucleotide-binding domain of the proteins. Cell culture experiments showed that mRNA for the protein was induced as much as 25-fold by peptide growth factors, fetal bovine serum, and lipid nutritional components, with the largest effect mediated by a combination of lipids including unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and vitamin E. PMID:18284333

  1. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (Mrp3/Abcc3/Moat-D) is expressed in the SAE Squalus acanthias shark embryo-derived cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Parton, Angela; Czechanski, Anne; Durkin, Christopher; Kong, Chi-Chon; Barnes, David

    2007-01-01

    The multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (MRP3/Mrp3) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein family of membrane transporters and related proteins that act on a variety of xenobiotic and anionic molecules to transfer these substrates in an ATP-dependent manner. In recent years, useful comparative information regarding evolutionarily conserved structure and transport functions of these proteins has accrued through the use of primitive marine animals such as cartilaginous fish. Until recently, one missing tool in comparative studies with cartilaginous fish was cell culture. We have derived from the embryo of Squalus acanthias, the spiny dogfish shark, the S. acanthias embryo (SAE) mesenchymal stem cell line. This is the first continuously proliferating cell line from a cartilaginous fish. We identified expression of Mrp3 in this cell line, cloned the molecule, and examined molecular and cellular physiological aspects of the protein. Shark Mrp3 is characterized by three membrane-spanning domains and two nucleotide-binding domains. Multiple alignments with other species showed that the shark Mrp3 amino acid sequence was well conserved. The shark sequence was overall 64% identical to human MRP3, 72% identical to chicken Mrp3, and 71% identical to frog and stickleback Mrp3. Highest identity between shark and human amino acid sequence (82%) was seen in the carboxyl-terminal nucleotide-binding domain of the proteins. Cell culture experiments showed that mRNA for the protein was induced as much as 25-fold by peptide growth factors, fetal bovine serum, and lipid nutritional components, with the largest effect mediated by a combination of lipids including unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and vitamin E.

  2. Azurophil granule proteins constitute the major mycobactericidal proteins in human neutrophils and enhance the killing of mycobacteria in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajna Jena

    Full Text Available Pathogenic mycobacteria reside in, and are in turn controlled by, macrophages. However, emerging data suggest that neutrophils also play a critical role in innate immunity to tuberculosis, presumably by their different antibacterial granule proteins. In this study, we purified neutrophil azurophil and specific granules and systematically analyzed the antimycobacterial activity of some purified azurophil and specific granule proteins against M. smegmatis, M. bovis-BCG and M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Using gel overlay and colony forming unit assays we showed that the defensin-depleted azurophil granule proteins (AZP were more active against mycobacteria compared to other granule proteins and cytosolic proteins. The proteins showing antimycobacterial activity were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Electron microscopic studies demonstrate that the AZP disintegrate bacterial cell membrane resulting in killing of mycobacteria. Exogenous addition of AZP to murine macrophage RAW 264.7, THP-1 and peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages significantly reduced the intracellular survival of mycobacteria without exhibiting cytotoxic activity on macrophages. Immunofluorescence studies showed that macrophages actively endocytose neutrophil granular proteins. Treatment with AZP resulted in increase in co-localization of BCG containing phagosomes with lysosomes but not in increase of autophagy. These data demonstrate that neutrophil azurophil proteins may play an important role in controlling intracellular survival of mycobacteria in macrophages.

  3. Expression of P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein, glutathione-S-transferase pi and p53 in canine transmissible venereal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Gerardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overexpression of proteins P-glycoprotein (P-gp, multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1, mutant p53, and the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GSTpi are related to resistance to chemotherapy in neoplasms. This study evaluated the expression of these markers by immunohistochemistry in two groups of canine TVT, without history of prior chemotherapy (TVT1, n=9 and in TVTs presented unsatisfactory clinical response to vincristine sulfate (TVT2, n=5. The percentage of specimens positively stained for P-gp, MRP1, GSTpi and p53 were, respectively 88.8%, 0%, 44.5% and 22.2% in TVT1 and 80%, 0%, 80% and 0% in TVT2. In TVT1, one specimen presented positive expression for three markers and four specimens for two markers. In TVT2, three specimens expressed P-gp and GSTpi. In conclusion, the canine TVTs studied expressed the four markers evaluated, but just P-gp and GSTpi were significantly expressed, mainly at cytoplasm and cytoplasm and nuclei, respectively, either before chemotherapy as after vincristine sulfate exposure. Future studies are needed to demonstrate the function of these two markers in conferring multidrug resistance (MDR or predict the response to chemotherapy in canine TVT.

  4. A novel mode of regulation of the Staphylococcus aureus Vancomycin-resistance-associated response regulator VraR mediated by Stk1 protein phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, Marc J; Baronian, Grégory; Brelle, Solène; Cohen-Gonsaud, Martin; Bischoff, Markus; Molle, Virginie

    2014-04-25

    The Staphylococcus aureus Vancomycin-resistance-associated response regulator VraR is known as an important response regulator, member of the VraTSR three-component signal transduction system that modulates the expression of the cell wall stress stimulon in response to a number of different cell wall active antibiotics. Given its crucial role in regulating gene expression in response to antibiotic challenges, VraR must be tightly regulated. We report here for the first time in S. aureus convergence of two major signal transduction systems, serine/threonine protein kinase and two (three)-component systems. We demonstrate that VraR can be phosphorylated by the staphylococcal Ser/Thr protein kinase Stk1 and that phosphorylation negatively affects its DNA-binding properties. Mass spectrometric analyses and site-directed mutagenesis identified Thr106, Thr119, Thr175 and Thr178 as phosphoacceptors. A S. aureus ΔvraR mutant expressing a VraR derivative that mimics constitutive phosphorylation, VraR_Asp, still exhibited markedly decreased antibiotic resistance against different cell wall active antibiotics, when compared to the wild-type, suggesting that VraR phosphorylation may represent a novel and presumably more general mechanism of regulation of the two (three)-component systems in staphylococci. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 regulates macrophage cytotoxicity in abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiwei Wang

    Full Text Available AIMS: In abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA, macrophages are detected in the proximity of aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs. We have previously demonstrated in a murine model of AAA that apoptotic SMCs attract monocytes and other leukocytes by producing MCP-1. Here we tested whether infiltrating macrophages also directly contribute to SMC apoptosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a SMC/RAW264.7 macrophage co-culture system, we demonstrated that MCP-1-primed RAWs caused a significantly higher level of apoptosis in SMCs as compared to control macrophages. Next, we detected an enhanced Fas ligand (FasL mRNA level and membrane FasL protein expression in MCP-1-primed RAWs. Neutralizing FasL blocked SMC apoptosis in the co-culture. In situ proximity ligation assay showed that SMCs exposed to primed macrophages contained higher levels of receptor interacting protein-1 (RIP1/Caspase 8 containing cell death complexes. Silencing RIP1 conferred apoptosis resistance to SMCs. In the mouse elastase injury model of aneurysm, aneurysm induction increased the level of RIP1/Caspase 8 containing complexes in medial SMCs. Moreover, TUNEL-positive SMCs in aneurysmal tissues were frequently surrounded by CD68(+/FasL(+ macrophages. Conversely, elastase-treated arteries from MCP-1 knockout mice display a reduction of both macrophage infiltration and FasL expression, which was accompanied by diminished apoptosis of SMCs. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that MCP-1-primed macrophages are more cytotoxic. MCP-1 appears to modulate macrophage cytotoxicity by increasing the level of membrane bound FasL. Thus, we showed that MCP-1-primed macrophages kill SMCs through a FasL/Fas-Caspase8-RIP1 mediated mechanism.

  6. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Elmets, Craig A.; Robbins, David J.; Matalon, Sadis; Deshane, Jessy S.; Afaq, Farrukh; Bickers, David R.; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions

  7. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao; Chaudhary, Sandeep C. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Ballestas, Mary E. [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children' s of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Robbins, David J. [Department of Surgery, Molecular Oncology Program, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami (United States); Matalon, Sadis [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Deshane, Jessy S. [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Afaq, Farrukh [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bickers, David R. [Department of Dermatology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions.

  8. Trichinella spiralis infection enhances protein kinase C phosphorylation in guinea pig alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzik, J M; Zieliński, Z; Cieśla, J; Wałajtys-Rode, E

    2010-03-01

    To learn more about the signalling pathways involved in superoxide anion production in guinea pig alveolar macrophages, triggered by Trichinella spiralis infection, protein level and phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases and protein kinase C (PKC) were investigated. Infection with T. spiralis, the nematode having 'lung phase' during colonization of the host, enhances PKC phosphorylation in guinea pig alveolar macrophages. Isoenzymes beta and delta of PKC have been found significantly phosphorylated, although their location was not changed as a consequence of T. spiralis infection. Neither in macrophages from T. spiralis-infected guinea pig nor in platelet-activating factor (PAF)-stimulated macrophages from uninfected animals, participation of MAP kinases in respiratory burst activation was statistically significant. The parasite antigens seem to act through macrophage PAF receptors, transducing a signal for enhanced NADPH oxidase activity, as stimulating effect of newborn larvae homogenate on respiratory burst was abolished by specific PAF receptor antagonist CV 6209. A suppressive action of T. spiralis larvae on host alveolar macrophage innate immunological response was reflected by diminished protein level of ERK2 kinase and suppressed superoxide anion production, in spite of high level of PKC phosphorylation.

  9. Interaction of hepatocyte nuclear factors in transcriptional regulation of tissue specific hormonal expression of human multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (abcc2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadri, Ishtiaq; Hu, L.-J.; Iwahashi, Mieko; Al-Zuabi, Subhi; Quattrochi, Linda C.; Simon, Francis R.

    2009-01-01

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) (ABCC2) is an ATP-binding cassette membrane protein located primarily on apical surface of hepatocytes that mediates transport of conjugated xenobiotics and endogenous compounds into bile. MRP2 is highly expressed in hepatocytes, and at lower levels in small intestines, stomach and kidney. Previous reports have characterized mammalian MRP2 promoters, but none have established the molecular mechanism(s) involved in liver enriched expression. This study aims to investigate the mechanism of hepatic MRP2 regulation. A 2130 bp of MRP2 promoter was cloned from PAC-1 clone P108G1-7, to identify putative liver specific/hormone responsive functional DNA binding sites. Using deletion analysis, site specific mutagenesis and co-transfection studies, liver specific expression was determined. MRP2 promoter-LUC constructs were highly expressed in liver cell lines compared to non-liver cells. The region extending from - 3 to+ 458 bp of MRP2 promoter starting from AUG contained the potential binding sites for CAAATT box enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), hepatocytes nuclear factor 1, 3 and 4 (HNF1, HNF3, and HNF4. Only HNF1 and HNF4 co-transfection with MRP2 luciferase increased expression. Site specific mutational analysis of HNF1 binding site indicated an important role for HNF1α. HNF4α induction of MRP2 was independent of HNF1 binding site. C/EBP, HNF3, and HNF6 inhibited HNF1α while HNF4α induced MRP2 luciferase expression and glucocorticoids stimulated MRP2 expression. This study emphasizes the complex regulation of MRP2 with HNF1α and HNF4α playing a central role. The coordinated regulation of xenobiotic transporters and oxidative conjugation may determine the adaptive responses to cellular detoxification processes

  10. Lack of Contribution of Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein and Organic Anion-transporting Polypeptide to Pharmacokinetics of Regorafenib, a Novel Multi-Kinase Inhibitor, in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Kazuo; Ueyama, Jun; Tatsumi, Yasuaki; Tsukiyama, Ikuto; Sugiura, Yuka; Saito, Hiroko; Matsuura, Katsuhiko; Hasegawa, Takaaki

    2015-09-01

    We investigated whether hepatic multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (ABCC2) is involved in the hepatobiliary excretion of regorafenib, a novel multi-kinase inhibitor, using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats (EHBR) lacking the efflux transporter ABCC2. The involvement of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1 (OATP1; OATP in humans) and OATP2 in the hepatic uptake of regorafenib and their protein levels in the liver were also investigated in the two rat groups. When regorafenib (5 mg/kg) was administered intravenously, the plasma concentrations of regorafenib were higher in EHBR than those in SD rats. However, the slope of the plasma concentration-time curves was the same for the two groups. Although the apparent biliary clearance of regorafenib in EHBR was lower than that of SD rats, no significant difference in the biliary excretion rate was observed between them, suggesting that regorafenib is not a substrate for ABCC2 and is not excreted into bile by ABCC2. It was also found that the contribution of biliary excretion to the systemic elimination of regorafenib is small. The protein-binding profiles of regorafenib were found to be linear in both rat groups. The binding potency, which was very high in both rat groups (>99.5%), was significantly higher in EHBR than that in SD rats. No significant differences in the plasma concentrations of unbound regorafenib were observed between the two rat groups, suggesting that the differences observed in the pharmacokinetic behaviors of regorafenib between the two rat groups were due to differences in protein-binding. When the protein levels of hepatic OATP1 and OATP2 were measured by immunoblot analysis, the expression of both transporters in EHBR was less than 40% of that in SD rats. The present results suggest that regorafenib is not a substrate for OATP1 and OATP2. These findings suggest the possibility that ABCC2-mediated hepatobiliary excretion and OATP1/OATP2-mediated hepatic uptake do

  11. Coupling of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and multidrug resistance-associated proteins is responsible for the intestinal disposition and poor bioavailability of emodin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei; Feng, Qian; Li, Ye; Ye, Ling; Hu, Ming; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2012-01-01

    Emodin is a poorly bioavailable but promising plant-derived anticancer drug candidate. The low oral bioavailability of emodin is due to its extensive glucuronidation in the intestine and liver. Caco-2 cell culture model was used to investigate the interplay between UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and efflux transporters in the intestinal disposition of emodin. Bidirectional transport assays of emodin at different concentrations were performed in the Caco-2 monolayers with or without multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) efflux transporter chemical inhibitors. The bidirectional permeability of emodin and its glucuronide in the Caco-2 monolayers was determined. Emodin was rapidly metabolized to emodin glucuronide in Caco-2 cells. LTC4, a potent inhibitor of MRP2, decreased the efflux of emodin glucuronide and also substantially increased the intracellular glucuronide level in the basolateral-to-apical (B–A) direction. MK-571, chemical inhibitor of MRP2, MRP3, and MRP4, significantly reduced the efflux of glucuronide in the apical-to-basolateral (A–B) and B–A directions in a dose-dependent manner. However, dipyridamole, a BCRP chemical inhibitor demonstrated no effect on formation and efflux of emodin glucuronide in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, UGT is a main metabolic pathway for emodin in the intestine, and the MRP family is composed of major efflux transporters responsible for the excretion of emodin glucuronide in the intestine. The coupling of UGTs and MRP efflux transporters causes the extensive metabolism, excretion, and low bioavailability of emodin. -- Highlights: ► Glucuronidation is the main reason for the poor oral bioavailability of emodin. ► Efflux transporters are involved in the excretion of emodin glucuronide. ► The intestine is the main organ for metabolism of emodin.

  12. Coupling of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and multidrug resistance-associated proteins is responsible for the intestinal disposition and poor bioavailability of emodin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei; Feng, Qian; Li, Ye; Ye, Ling [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Hu, Ming, E-mail: mhu@uh.edu [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, 1441 Moursund Street, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Liu, Zhongqiu, E-mail: liuzq@smu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2012-12-15

    Emodin is a poorly bioavailable but promising plant-derived anticancer drug candidate. The low oral bioavailability of emodin is due to its extensive glucuronidation in the intestine and liver. Caco-2 cell culture model was used to investigate the interplay between UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and efflux transporters in the intestinal disposition of emodin. Bidirectional transport assays of emodin at different concentrations were performed in the Caco-2 monolayers with or without multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) efflux transporter chemical inhibitors. The bidirectional permeability of emodin and its glucuronide in the Caco-2 monolayers was determined. Emodin was rapidly metabolized to emodin glucuronide in Caco-2 cells. LTC4, a potent inhibitor of MRP2, decreased the efflux of emodin glucuronide and also substantially increased the intracellular glucuronide level in the basolateral-to-apical (B–A) direction. MK-571, chemical inhibitor of MRP2, MRP3, and MRP4, significantly reduced the efflux of glucuronide in the apical-to-basolateral (A–B) and B–A directions in a dose-dependent manner. However, dipyridamole, a BCRP chemical inhibitor demonstrated no effect on formation and efflux of emodin glucuronide in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, UGT is a main metabolic pathway for emodin in the intestine, and the MRP family is composed of major efflux transporters responsible for the excretion of emodin glucuronide in the intestine. The coupling of UGTs and MRP efflux transporters causes the extensive metabolism, excretion, and low bioavailability of emodin. -- Highlights: ► Glucuronidation is the main reason for the poor oral bioavailability of emodin. ► Efflux transporters are involved in the excretion of emodin glucuronide. ► The intestine is the main organ for metabolism of emodin.

  13. Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein-1 (MRP-1)-dependent Glutathione Disulfide (GSSG) Efflux as a Critical Survival Factor for Oxidant-enriched Tumorigenic Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Gayle M; Biswas, Ayan; Khanna, Savita; Spieldenner, James M; Pan, Xueliang; Sen, Chandan K

    2016-05-06

    Endothelial cell tumors are the most common soft tissue tumors in infants. Tumor-forming endothelial (EOMA) cells are able to escape cell death fate despite excessive nuclear oxidant burden. Our previous work recognized perinuclear Nox-4 as a key contributor to EOMA growth. The objective of this work was to characterize the mechanisms by which EOMA cells evade oxidant toxicity and thrive. In EOMA cells, compared with in the cytosol, the nuclear GSSG/GSH ratio was 5-fold higher. Compared to the ratio observed in healthy murine aortic endothelial (MAE) cells, GSSG/GSH was over twice as high in EOMA cells. Multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP-1), an active GSSG efflux mechanism, showed 2-fold increased activity in EOMA compared with MAE cells. Hyperactive YB-1 and Ape/Ref-1 were responsible for high MRP-1 expression in EOMA. Proximity ligand assay demonstrated MRP-1 and YB-1 binding. Such binding enabled the nuclear targeting of MRP-1 in EOMA in a leptomycin-B-sensitive manner. MRP-1 inhibition as well as knockdown trapped nuclear GSSG, causing cell death of EOMA. Disulfide loading of cells by inhibition of GSSG reductase (bischoloronitrosourea) or thioredoxin reductase (auranofin) was effective in causing EOMA death as well. In sum, EOMA cells survive a heavy oxidant burden by rapid efflux of GSSG, which is lethal if trapped within the cell. A hyperactive MRP-1 system for GSSG efflux acts as a critical survival factor for these cells, making it a potential target for EOMA therapeutics. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein-1 (MRP-1)-dependent Glutathione Disulfide (GSSG) Efflux as a Critical Survival Factor for Oxidant-enriched Tumorigenic Endothelial Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, Gayle M.; Biswas, Ayan; Khanna, Savita; Spieldenner, James M.; Pan, Xueliang; Sen, Chandan K.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cell tumors are the most common soft tissue tumors in infants. Tumor-forming endothelial (EOMA) cells are able to escape cell death fate despite excessive nuclear oxidant burden. Our previous work recognized perinuclear Nox-4 as a key contributor to EOMA growth. The objective of this work was to characterize the mechanisms by which EOMA cells evade oxidant toxicity and thrive. In EOMA cells, compared with in the cytosol, the nuclear GSSG/GSH ratio was 5-fold higher. Compared to the ratio observed in healthy murine aortic endothelial (MAE) cells, GSSG/GSH was over twice as high in EOMA cells. Multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP-1), an active GSSG efflux mechanism, showed 2-fold increased activity in EOMA compared with MAE cells. Hyperactive YB-1 and Ape/Ref-1 were responsible for high MRP-1 expression in EOMA. Proximity ligand assay demonstrated MRP-1 and YB-1 binding. Such binding enabled the nuclear targeting of MRP-1 in EOMA in a leptomycin-B-sensitive manner. MRP-1 inhibition as well as knockdown trapped nuclear GSSG, causing cell death of EOMA. Disulfide loading of cells by inhibition of GSSG reductase (bischoloronitrosourea) or thioredoxin reductase (auranofin) was effective in causing EOMA death as well. In sum, EOMA cells survive a heavy oxidant burden by rapid efflux of GSSG, which is lethal if trapped within the cell. A hyperactive MRP-1 system for GSSG efflux acts as a critical survival factor for these cells, making it a potential target for EOMA therapeutics. PMID:26961872

  15. Investigating the Role of the Host Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein Transporter Family in Burkholderia cepacia Complex Pathogenicity Using a Caenorhabditis elegans Infection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Pietro; Visone, Marco; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; Tutino, Maria Luisa; Perrin, Elena; Maida, Isabel; Fani, Renato; Ballestriero, Francesco; Santos, Radleigh; Pinilla, Clemencia; Di Schiavi, Elia; Tegos, George; de Pascale, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between host efflux system of the non-vertebrate nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) strain virulence. This is the first comprehensive effort to profile host-transporters within the context of Bcc infection. With this aim, two different toxicity tests were performed: a slow killing assay that monitors mortality of the host by intestinal colonization and a fast killing assay that assesses production of toxins. A Virulence Ranking scheme was defined, that expressed the toxicity of the Bcc panel members, based on the percentage of surviving worms. According to this ranking the 18 Bcc strains were divided in 4 distinct groups. Only the Cystic Fibrosis isolated strains possessed profound nematode killing ability to accumulate in worms' intestines. For the transporter analysis a complete set of isogenic nematode single Multidrug Resistance associated Protein (MRP) efflux mutants and a number of efflux inhibitors were interrogated in the host toxicity assays. The Bcc pathogenicity profile of the 7 isogenic C. elegans MRP knock-out strains functionality was classified in two distinct groups. Disabling host transporters enhanced nematode mortality more than 50% in 5 out of 7 mutants when compared to wild type. In particular mrp-2 was the most susceptible phenotype with increased mortality for 13 out 18 Bcc strains, whereas mrp-3 and mrp-4 knock-outs had lower mortality rates, suggesting a different role in toxin-substrate recognition. The use of MRP efflux inhibitors in the assays resulted in substantially increased (>40% on average) mortality of wild-type worms.

  16. Contribution of aquaporin 9 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 to differential sensitivity to arsenite between primary cultured chorion and amnion cells prepared from human fetal membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshino, Yuta [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Yuan, Bo, E-mail: yuanbo@toyaku.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 1550 4th St, RH584E Box 2911 San Francisco, CA 94158-2911 (United States); Kaise, Toshikazu [Laboratory of Environmental Chemodynamics, School of Life Sciences, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Takeichi, Makoto [Yoneyama Maternity Hospital, 2-12 Shin-machi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0065 (Japan); Tanaka, Sachiko; Hirano, Toshihiko [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Kroetz, Deanna L. [Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 1550 4th St, RH584E Box 2911 San Francisco, CA 94158-2911 (United States); Toyoda, Hiroo [Department of Clinical Molecular Genetics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Arsenic trioxide (arsenite, As{sup III}) has shown a remarkable clinical efficacy, whereas its side effects are still a serious concern. Therefore, it is critical to understand the effects of As{sup III} on human-derived normal cells for revealing the mechanisms underlying these side effects. We examined the effects of As{sup III} on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells prepared from human fetal membranes. A significant dose-dependent As{sup III}-mediated cytotoxicity was observed in the C-cells accompanied with an increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Higher concentrations of As{sup III} were required for the A-cells to show cytotoxicity and LDH release, suggesting that the C-cells were more sensitive to As{sup III} than the A-cells. The expression levels of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) were approximately 2 times higher in the C-cells than those in the A-cells. Both intracellular arsenic accumulation and its cytotoxicity in the C-cells were significantly abrogated by sorbitol, a competitive AQP9 inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. The protein expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 were downregulated by As{sup III} in the C-cells, but not in the A-cells. No significant differences in the expression levels of MRP1 were observed between C- and A-cells. The protein expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was hardly detected in both cells, although a detectable amount of its mRNA was observed. Cyclosporine A, a broad-spectrum inhibitor for ABC transporters, and MK571, a MRP inhibitor, but not PGP-4008, a P-gp specific inhibitor, potently sensitized both cells to As{sup III}-mediated cytotoxicity. These results suggest that AQP9 and MRP2 are involved in controlling arsenic accumulation in these normal cells, which then contribute to differential sensitivity to As{sup III} cytotoxicity between these cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examination of effect of As{sup III} on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion

  17. Contribution of aquaporin 9 and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 to differential sensitivity to arsenite between primary cultured chorion and amnion cells prepared from human fetal membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Yuta; Yuan, Bo; Kaise, Toshikazu; Takeichi, Makoto; Tanaka, Sachiko; Hirano, Toshihiko; Kroetz, Deanna L.; Toyoda, Hiroo

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (arsenite, As III ) has shown a remarkable clinical efficacy, whereas its side effects are still a serious concern. Therefore, it is critical to understand the effects of As III on human-derived normal cells for revealing the mechanisms underlying these side effects. We examined the effects of As III on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells prepared from human fetal membranes. A significant dose-dependent As III -mediated cytotoxicity was observed in the C-cells accompanied with an increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Higher concentrations of As III were required for the A-cells to show cytotoxicity and LDH release, suggesting that the C-cells were more sensitive to As III than the A-cells. The expression levels of aquaporin 9 (AQP9) were approximately 2 times higher in the C-cells than those in the A-cells. Both intracellular arsenic accumulation and its cytotoxicity in the C-cells were significantly abrogated by sorbitol, a competitive AQP9 inhibitor, in a dose-dependent manner. The protein expression levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 were downregulated by As III in the C-cells, but not in the A-cells. No significant differences in the expression levels of MRP1 were observed between C- and A-cells. The protein expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was hardly detected in both cells, although a detectable amount of its mRNA was observed. Cyclosporine A, a broad-spectrum inhibitor for ABC transporters, and MK571, a MRP inhibitor, but not PGP-4008, a P-gp specific inhibitor, potently sensitized both cells to As III -mediated cytotoxicity. These results suggest that AQP9 and MRP2 are involved in controlling arsenic accumulation in these normal cells, which then contribute to differential sensitivity to As III cytotoxicity between these cells. -- Highlights: ► Examination of effect of As III on primary cultured chorion (C) and amnion (A) cells. ► Dose-dependent As III -mediated cytotoxicity in C

  18. Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer with Gc Protein-Derived Macrophage-Activating Factor, GcMAF1

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Suyama, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

    2008-01-01

    Serum Gc protein (known as vitamin D3-binding protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage-activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of prostate cancer patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein was deglycosylated by serum α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from cancerous cells. Therefore, macrophages of prostate cancer patients having deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be activated, leading to immunosuppression. Stepwise treatment of pu...

  19. LDL Receptor-Related Protein-1 (LRP1 Regulates Cholesterol Accumulation in Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P Lillis

    Full Text Available Within the circulation, cholesterol is transported by lipoprotein particles and is taken up by cells when these particles associate with cellular receptors. In macrophages, excessive lipoprotein particle uptake leads to foam cell formation, which is an early event in the development of atherosclerosis. Currently, mechanisms responsible for foam cell formation are incompletely understood. To date, several macrophage receptors have been identified that contribute to the uptake of modified forms of lipoproteins leading to foam cell formation, but the in vivo contribution of the LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1 to this process is not known [corrected]. To investigate the role of LRP1 in cholesterol accumulation in macrophages, we generated mice with a selective deletion of LRP1 in macrophages on an LDL receptor (LDLR-deficient background (macLRP1-/-. After feeding mice a high fat diet for 11 weeks, peritoneal macrophages isolated from Lrp+/+ mice contained significantly higher levels of total cholesterol than those from macLRP1-/- mice. Further analysis revealed that this was due to increased levels of cholesterol esters. Interestingly, macLRP1-/- mice displayed elevated plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels resulting from accumulation of large, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles in the circulation. This increase did not result from an increase in hepatic VLDL biosynthesis, but rather results from a defect in catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles in macLRP1-/- mice. These studies reveal an important in vivo contribution of macrophage LRP1 to cholesterol homeostasis.

  20. Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF): isoelectric focusing pattern and tumoricidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Saharuddin Bin; Nagasawa, Hideko; Sasaki, Hideyuki; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nakagawa, Yoshinori; Kawashima, Ken; Hori, Hitoshi

    2003-01-01

    Gc protein is the precursor for Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF), with three phenotypes: Gc1f, Gc1s and Gc2, based on its electrophoretic mobility. The difference in electrophoretic mobility is because of the difference in its posttranslational sugar moiety composition. We compared the difference between Gc protein and GcMAF electrophoretic mobility using the isoelectric focusing (IEF) method. The tumoricidal activity of GcMAF-treated macrophage was evaluated after coculture with L-929 cell. The tumoricidal mechanism was investigated using TNF bioassay and nitric oxide (NO) release. The difference in Gc protein and GcMAF electrophoretic mobility was detected. The tumoricidal activity of GcMAF-treated macrophage was detected, but no release of TNF and NO was detected. The difference of isoelectric focusing mobility in Gc protein and GcMAF would be useful to develop a GcMAF detection method. GcMAF increased macrophage tumoricidal activity but TNF and NO release were not involved in the mechanism.

  1. Functional Roles of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase in Macrophage-Mediated Inflammatory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a natural host defensive process that is largely regulated by macrophages during the innate immune response. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs are proline-directed serine and threonine protein kinases that regulate many physiological and pathophysiological cell responses. p38 MAPKs are key MAPKs involved in the production of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. p38 MAPK signaling plays an essential role in regulating cellular processes, especially inflammation. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of p38 signaling in macrophage-mediated inflammation. In addition, we discuss the potential of using inhibitors targeting p38 expression in macrophages to treat inflammatory diseases.

  2. S100 Proteins As an Important Regulator of Macrophage Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Xia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The S100 proteins, a family of calcium-binding cytosolic proteins, have a broad range of intracellular and extracellular functions through regulating calcium balance, cell apoptosis, migration, proliferation, differentiation, energy metabolism, and inflammation. The intracellular functions of S100 proteins involve interaction with intracellular receptors, membrane protein recruitment/transportation, transcriptional regulation and integrating with enzymes or nucleic acids, and DNA repair. The S100 proteins could also be released from the cytoplasm, induced by tissue/cell damage and cellular stress. The extracellular S100 proteins, serving as a danger signal, are crucial in regulating immune homeostasis, post-traumatic injury, and inflammation. Extracellular S100 proteins are also considered biomarkers for some specific diseases. In this review, we will discuss the multi-functional roles of S100 proteins, especially their potential roles associated with cell migration, differentiation, tissue repair, and inflammation.

  3. Bilirubin Decreases Macrophage Cholesterol Efflux and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Protein Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongdong; Tosevska, Anela; Heiß, Elke H; Ladurner, Angela; Mölzer, Christine; Wallner, Marlies; Bulmer, Andrew; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Dirsch, Verena M; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2017-04-28

    Mild but chronically elevated circulating unconjugated bilirubin is associated with reduced total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, which is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. We aimed to investigate whether unconjugated bilirubin influences macrophage cholesterol efflux, as a potential mechanism for the altered circulating lipoprotein concentrations observed in hyperbilirubinemic individuals. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages was assessed using plasma obtained from normo- and hyperbilirubinemic (Gilbert syndrome) humans (n=60 per group) or (heterozygote/homozygote Gunn) rats (n=20 per group) as an acceptor. Hyperbilirubinemic plasma from patients with Gilbert syndrome and Gunn rats induced significantly reduced cholesterol efflux compared with normobilirubinemic plasma. Unconjugated bilirubin (3-17.1 μmol/L) exogenously added to plasma- or apolipoprotein A1-supplemented media also decreased macrophage cholesterol efflux in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. We also showed reduced protein expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a transmembrane cholesterol transporter involved in apolipoprotein A1-mediated cholesterol efflux, in THP-1 macrophages treated with unconjugated bilirubin and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from hyperbilirubinemic individuals. Furthermore, we demonstrated that bilirubin accelerates the degradation rate of the ABCA1 protein in THP-1 macrophages. Cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages is decreased in the presence of plasma obtained from humans and rats with mild hyperbilirubinemia. A direct effect of unconjugated bilirubin on cholesterol efflux was demonstrated and is associated with decreased ABCA1 protein expression. These data improve our knowledge concerning bilirubin's impact on cholesterol transport and represent an important advancement in our understanding of bilirubin's role in cardiovascular disease. © 2017 The Authors. Published on

  4. Comparative uptake of Tc-99m sestamibi and Tc-99m tetrofosmin in cancer cells and tissue expressing P-Glycoprotein or multidrug resistance associated protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jung Ah; Lee, Jae Tae; Yoo, Jung Ah

    2005-01-01

    99m Tc-sestamibi(MIBI) and 99m Tc-tetrofosmin have been used as substrates for P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP), which are closely associated with multidrug resistance of the tumors. To understand different handling of radiotracers in cancer cell lines expressing Pgp and MRP, we compared cellular uptakes of 99m Tc-MIBI and 99m Tc-tetrofosmin. The effects of cyclosporin A (CsA), well-known multidrug resistant reversing agent, on the uptake of both tracers were also compared. HCT15/CL02 human colorectal cancer cells for Pgp expressing cells, and human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells for MRP expressing cells, were used for in vitro and in vivo studies. RT-PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used for detection of Pgp and MRP. MDR-reversal effect with CsA was evaluated at different drug concentrations after incubation with MIBI or tetrofosmin. Radioactivities of supernatant and pellet were measured with gamma well counter. Tumoral uptake of the tracers were measured from tumor bearing nude mice treated with or without CsA. RT-PCR, western blot analysis of the cells and immunochemical staining revealed selective expression of Pgp and MRP for HCT15/CL02 and A549 cells, respectively. There were no significant difference in cellular uptakes of both tracers in HCT15/CL02 cells, but MIBI uptake was slightly higher than that of tetrofosmin in A549 cells. Co-incubation with CsA resulted in a increase in cellular uptakes of MIBI and tetrofosmin. Uptake of MIBI or tetrofosmin in HCT15/CL02 cells was increased by 10-and 2.4-fold, and by 7.5 and 6.3-fold in A549 cells, respectively. Percentage increase of MIBI was higher than that of tetrofosmin with CsA for both cells (ρ < 0.05). In vivo biodistribution study showed that MIBI (114% at 10 min, 257% at 60 min, 396% at 24C min) and tetrofosmin uptake (110% at 10 min, 205% at 60 min, 410% at 240 min) were progressively increased by the time, up to 240 min with CsA. But

  5. Comparative uptake of Tc-99m sestamibi and Tc-99m tetrofosmin in cancer cells and tissue expressing P-Glycoprotein or multidrug resistance associated protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jung Ah; Lee, Jae Tae; Yoo, Jung Ah [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-02-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi(MIBI) and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin have been used as substrates for P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP), which are closely associated with multidrug resistance of the tumors. To understand different handling of radiotracers in cancer cell lines expressing Pgp and MRP, we compared cellular uptakes of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin. The effects of cyclosporin A (CsA), well-known multidrug resistant reversing agent, on the uptake of both tracers were also compared. HCT15/CL02 human colorectal cancer cells for Pgp expressing cells, and human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells for MRP expressing cells, were used for in vitro and in vivo studies. RT-PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used for detection of Pgp and MRP. MDR-reversal effect with CsA was evaluated at different drug concentrations after incubation with MIBI or tetrofosmin. Radioactivities of supernatant and pellet were measured with gamma well counter. Tumoral uptake of the tracers were measured from tumor bearing nude mice treated with or without CsA. RT-PCR, western blot analysis of the cells and immunochemical staining revealed selective expression of Pgp and MRP for HCT15/CL02 and A549 cells, respectively. There were no significant difference in cellular uptakes of both tracers in HCT15/CL02 cells, but MIBI uptake was slightly higher than that of tetrofosmin in A549 cells. Co-incubation with CsA resulted in a increase in cellular uptakes of MIBI and tetrofosmin. Uptake of MIBI or tetrofosmin in HCT15/CL02 cells was increased by 10-and 2.4-fold, and by 7.5 and 6.3-fold in A549 cells, respectively. Percentage increase of MIBI was higher than that of tetrofosmin with CsA for both cells ({rho} < 0.05). In vivo biodistribution study showed that MIBI (114% at 10 min, 257% at 60 min, 396% at 24C min) and tetrofosmin uptake (110% at 10 min, 205% at 60 min, 410% at 240 min) were progressively increased by the time, up to

  6. Tumor Cells and Tumor-Associated Macrophages: Secreted Proteins as Potential Targets for Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baay, Marc; Brouwer, Anja; Pauwels, Patrick; Peeters, Marc; Lardon, Filip

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory pathways, meant to defend the organism against infection and injury, as a byproduct, can promote an environment which favors tumor growth and metastasis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which constitute a significant part of the tumor-infiltrating immune cells, have been linked to the growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis of a variety of cancers, most likely through polarization of TAMs to the M2 (alternative) phenotype. The interaction between tumor cells and macrophages provides opportunities for therapy. This paper will discuss secreted proteins as targets for intervention. PMID:22162712

  7. Tumor Cells and Tumor-Associated Macrophages: Secreted Proteins as Potential Targets for Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Baay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory pathways, meant to defend the organism against infection and injury, as a byproduct, can promote an environment which favors tumor growth and metastasis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs, which constitute a significant part of the tumor-infiltrating immune cells, have been linked to the growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis of a variety of cancers, most likely through polarization of TAMs to the M2 (alternative phenotype. The interaction between tumor cells and macrophages provides opportunities for therapy. This paper will discuss secreted proteins as targets for intervention.

  8. Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer with Gc Protein-Derived Macrophage-Activating Factor, GcMAF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Suyama, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

    2008-07-01

    Serum Gc protein (known as vitamin D(3)-binding protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage-activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of prostate cancer patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein was deglycosylated by serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from cancerous cells. Therefore, macrophages of prostate cancer patients having deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be activated, leading to immunosuppression. Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated the most potent MAF (termed GcMAF) ever discovered, which produces no adverse effect in humans. Macrophages activated by GcMAF develop a considerable variation of receptors that recognize the abnormality in malignant cell surface and are highly tumoricidal. Sixteen nonanemic prostate cancer patients received weekly administration of 100 ng of GcMAF. As the MAF precursor activity increased, their serum Nagalase activity decreased. Because serum Nagalase activity is proportional to tumor burden, the entire time course analysis for GcMAF therapy was monitored by measuring the serum Nagalase activity. After 14 to 25 weekly administrations of GcMAF (100 ng/week), all 16 patients had very low serum Nagalase levels equivalent to those of healthy control values, indicating that these patients are tumor-free. No recurrence occurred for 7 years.

  9. Effects of protein-energy malnutrition on NF-kappaB signalling in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Curi, Rui; Borges, Maria Carolina; Borelli, Primavera

    2010-04-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is an important public health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. PEM decreases resistance to infection, impairing a number of physiological processes. In unstimulated cells, NF-kappaB is kept from binding to its consensus sequence by the inhibitor I kappaB alpha, which retains NF-kappaB in the cytoplasm. Upon various signals, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), I kappaB alpha is rapidly degraded and NF-kappaB is induced to translocate into the nucleus, where it activates expression of various genes that participate in the inflammatory response, including those involved in the synthesis of TNF-alpha. TRAF-6 is a cytoplasmic adapter protein that links the stimulatory signal from Toll like receptor-4 to NF-kappaB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of malnutrition on induction of TNF-alpha by LPS in murine peritoneal macrophages. We evaluated peritoneal cellularity, the expression of MyD88, TRAF-6, IKK, I kappaB alpha and NF-kappaB, NF-kappaB activation and TNF-alpha mRNA and protein synthesis in macrophages. Two-month-old male BALB/C mice were submitted to PEM with a low-protein diet that contained 2% protein, compared to 12% protein in the control diet. When the experimental group had lost about 20% of the original body weight, it was used in the subsequent experiments. Malnourished animals presented anemia, leucopenia and severe reduction in peritoneal cavity cellularity. TNF-alpha mRNA and protein levels of macrophages stimulated with LPS were significantly lower in malnourished animals. PEM also decreased TRAF-6 expression and NF-kappaB activation after LPS stimulation. These results led us to conclude that PEM changes NF-kB signalling pathway in macrophages to LPS stimulus.

  10. Effect of 14-kDa and 47-kDa protein molecules of age garlic extract on peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmandi, Saeed; Hajimoradi, Monire; Ahmadabad, Hasan Namdar; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Roudbary, Maryam; Ghazanfari, Tooba

    2011-03-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum), traditionally being used as a spice worldwide, has different applications and is claimed to possess beneficial effects in several health ailments such as tumor and atherosclerosis. Garlic is also an immunomodulator and its different components are responsible for different properties. The present work aimed to assess the effect of protein fractions of garlic on peritoneal macrophages. 14-kDa and 47-kDa protein fractions of garlic were purified. Mice peritoneal macrophages were lavaged and cultured in a microtiter plate and exposed to different concentrations of garlic proteins. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the viability of macrophage. The amount of nitric oxide (NO) was detected in culture supernatants of macrophages by Griess reagent and furthermore, the cytotoxicity study of culture supernatants was carried out on WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cell line as tumor necrosis factor-α bioassay. MTT assay results for both 14-kDa and 47-kDa protein fractions of stimulated macrophages were not significant (P > 0.05). Both 14-kDa and 47-kDa fractions significantly suppressed production of NO from macrophages (P = 0.007 and P = 0.003, respectively). Cytotoxicity of macrophages' supernatant on WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cells was not affected by garlic protein fractions (P = 0.066 for 14-kDa and P = 0.085 for 47-kDa fractions). according to our finding, 14-kDa and 47-kDa fractions of aged garlic extract are able to suppress NO production from macrophages, which can be used as a biological advantage. These molecules had no cytotoxic effect on macrophages and do not increase tumoricidal property of macrophages.

  11. Topology of Legionella pneumophila DotA: an inner membrane protein required for replication in macrophages.

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, C R; Isberg, R R

    1997-01-01

    The Legionella pneumophila dotA gene is required for intracellular growth of the bacterium in macrophages. In this study, a structure-function analysis of the DotA protein was conducted to elucidate the role of this protein in L. pneumophila pathogenesis. Translational fusions of dotA to the Escherichia coli phoA and lacZ genes indicated that DotA is an integral cytoplasmic membrane protein with eight membrane-spanning domains. DotA contains two large periplasmic domains of approximately 503 ...

  12. Nramp1 promotes efficient macrophage recycling of iron following erythrophagocytosis in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Soe-Lin, Shan; Apte, Sameer S.; Andriopoulos, Billy; Andrews, Marc C.; Schranzhofer, Matthias; Kahawita, Tanya; Garcia-Santos, Daniel; Ponka, Prem

    2009-01-01

    Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1) is a divalent metal transporter expressed exclusively in phagocytic cells. We hypothesized that macrophage Nramp1 may participate in the recycling of iron acquired from phagocytosed senescent erythrocytes. To evaluate the role of Nramp1 in vivo, the iron parameters of WT and KO mice were analyzed after acute and chronic induction of hemolytic anemia. We found that untreated KO mice exhibited greater serum transferrin saturation and s...

  13. Translocator protein as an imaging marker of macrophage and stromal activation in RA pannus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Nehal; Owen, David; Mandhair, Harpreet; Smyth, Erica; Carlucci, Francesco; Saleem, Azeem; Gunn, Roger; Rabiner, Eugenii Ilan A; Wells, Lisa; Dakin, Stephanie; Sabokbar, Afsie; Taylor, Peter

    2018-01-04

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) radioligands targeted to Translocator protein (TSPO), offer a highly sensitive and specific means of imaging joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Through high expression of TSPO on activated macrophages, TSPO PET has been widely reported in several studies of RA as a means of imaging synovial macrophages in vivo. However, this premise does not take into account the ubiquitous expression of TSPO. This study aimed to investigate TSPO expression in major cellular constituents of RA pannus; monocytes, macrophages, fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) and CD4+ T lymphocytes, to more accurately interpret TSPO PET signal from RA synovium. Methods: 3 RA patients and 3 healthy volunteers underwent PET both knees using the TSPO radioligand 11 C-PBR28. Through synovial tissue 3H-PBR28 autoradiography and immunostaining of 6 RA patients and 6 healthy volunteers, cellular expression of TSPO in synovial tissue was evaluated. TSPO mRNA expression and 3H-PBR28 radioligand binding was assessed using in vitro monocytes, macrophages, FLS and CD4+ T-lymphocytes. Results: 11 C-PBR28 PET signal was significantly higher in RA compared to healthy joints (average SUV 0.82± 0.12 compared to 0.03± 0.004 respectively, p<0.01). Further, 3H-PBR28 specific binding in synovial tissue was approximately 10-fold higher in RA compared to healthy controls. Immunofluorescence revealed TSPO expression on macrophages, FLS and CD4+ T cells. In vitro study demonstrated highest TSPO mRNA expression and 3H-PBR28 specific binding, in activated FLS, non-activated and activated 'M2' reparative macrophages, with least TSPO expression in activated and non-activated CD4+ T lymphocytes. Conclusion: This study is the first evaluation of cellular TSPO expression in synovium, finding highest TSPO expression and PBR28 binding on activated synovial FLS and M2 phenotype macrophages. TSPO targeted PET may therefore have unique sensitivity to detect FLS and macrophage

  14. Role of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha in T-cell-mediated immunity to viral infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Andreas N; Nansen, Anneline; Christensen, Jan P

    2003-01-01

    The immune response to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in mice lacking macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) was evaluated. Generation of virus-specific effector T cells is unimpaired in MIP-1alpha-deficient mice. Furthermore, MIP-1alpha is not required for T-cell-mediated virus...... control or virus-induced T-cell-dependent inflammation. Thus, MIP-1alpha is not mandatory for T-cell-mediated antiviral immunity....

  15. Isolation of a macrophage receptor for proteins modified by advanced glycosylation end products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radoff, S.; Vlassara, H.; Cerami, A.

    1987-01-01

    The nonenzymatic reaction of glucose with protein amino groups leads to the formation of irreversible AGE, such as the recently characterized glucose-derived crosslink, [2-furoyl-4(5)-(2-furanyl)-1-H-imidazole] (FFI). These products accumulate with time in aging tissues and diabetes, and are implicated in irreversible tissue damage. The authors have recently shown that macrophages bind and degrade AGE-proteins via a specific surface receptor, which is thus selectively removing senescent macromolecules. Scatchard plot analysis of binding data has indicated 1.5 x 10 5 receptors/cell with a binding affinity (Ka) of 1.7 x 10 7 /M. They have now isolated this receptor from murine macrophage RAW 264.7 membranes, solubilized with octylglucoside/protease inhibitors, and using FFI-Sepharose affinity chromatography and FPLC. The purified receptor binds radioactive FFI-containing compounds competitively. SDS-PAGE gels under reducing conditions indicate the receptor to be composed of two polypeptides, 83 Kda and 36 Kda. Crosslinking experiments with 125 I-AGE-albumin as ligand, indicate the 83 Kda subunit to be the AGE-binding peptide. These studies further characterize a macrophage receptor which selectively recognizes time-dependent glucose-modified proteins associated with aging and diabetes

  16. Pharmacological inhibition of dynamin II reduces constitutive protein secretion from primary human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Kockx

    Full Text Available Dynamins are fission proteins that mediate endocytic and exocytic membrane events and are pharmacological therapeutic targets. These studies investigate whether dynamin II regulates constitutive protein secretion and show for the first time that pharmacological inhibition of dynamin decreases secretion of apolipoprotein E (apoE and several other proteins constitutively secreted from primary human macrophages. Inhibitors that target recruitment of dynamin to membranes (MiTMABs or directly target the GTPase domain (Dyngo or Dynole series, dose- and time- dependently reduced the secretion of apoE. SiRNA oligo's targeting all isoforms of dynamin II confirmed the involvement of dynamin II in apoE secretion. Inhibition of secretion was not mediated via effects on mRNA or protein synthesis. 2D-gel electrophoresis showed that inhibition occurred after apoE was processed and glycosylated in the Golgi and live cell imaging showed that inhibited secretion was associated with reduced post-Golgi movement of apoE-GFP-containing vesicles. The effect was not restricted to macrophages, and was not mediated by the effects of the inhibitors on microtubules. Inhibition of dynamin also altered the constitutive secretion of other proteins, decreasing the secretion of fibronectin, matrix metalloproteinase 9, Chitinase-3-like protein 1 and lysozyme but unexpectedly increasing the secretion of the inflammatory mediator cyclophilin A. We conclude that pharmacological inhibitors of dynamin II modulate the constitutive secretion of macrophage apoE as a class effect, and that their capacity to modulate protein secretion may affect a range of biological processes.

  17. Structural elucidation of transmembrane domain zero (TMD0) of EcdL: A multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) family of ATP-binding cassette transporter protein revealed by atomistic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Krishnendu; Rani, Priyanka; Kishor, Gaurav; Agarwal, Shikha; Kumar, Antresh; Singh, Durg Vijay

    2017-09-20

    ATP-Binding cassette (ABC) transporters play an extensive role in the translocation of diverse sets of biologically important molecules across membrane. EchnocandinB (antifungal) and EcdL protein of Aspergillus rugulosus are encoded by the same cluster of genes. Co-expression of EcdL and echinocandinB reflects tightly linked biological functions. EcdL belongs to Multidrug Resistance associated Protein (MRP) subfamily of ABC transporters with an extra transmembrane domain zero (TMD0). Complete structure of MRP subfamily comprising of TMD0 domain, at atomic resolution is not known. We hypothesized that the transportation of echonocandinB is mediated via EcdL protein. Henceforth, it is pertinent to know the topological arrangement of TMD0, with other domains of protein and its possible role in transportation of echinocandinB. Absence of effective template for TMD0 domain lead us to model by I-TASSER, further structure has been refined by multiple template modelling using homologous templates of remaining domains (TMD1, NBD1, TMD2, NBD2). The modelled structure has been validated for packing, folding and stereochemical properties. MD simulation for 0.1 μs has been carried out in the biphasic environment for refinement of modelled protein. Non-redundant structures have been excavated by clustering of MD trajectory. The structural alignment of modelled structure has shown Z-score -37.9; 31.6, 31.5 with RMSD; 2.4, 4.2, 4.8 with ABC transporters; PDB ID 4F4C, 4M1 M, 4M2T, respectively, reflecting the correctness of structure. EchinocandinB has been docked to the modelled as well as to the clustered structures, which reveals interaction of echinocandinB with TMD0 and other TM helices in the translocation path build of TMDs.

  18. Macrophage replication screen identifies a novel Francisella hydroperoxide resistance protein involved in virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C Llewellyn

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of tularemia. Recently, genome-wide screens have identified Francisella genes required for virulence in mice. However, the mechanisms by which most of the corresponding proteins contribute to pathogenesis are still largely unknown. To further elucidate the roles of these virulence determinants in Francisella pathogenesis, we tested whether each gene was required for replication of the model pathogen F. novicida within macrophages, an important virulence trait. Fifty-three of the 224 genes tested were involved in intracellular replication, including many of those within the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI, validating our results. Interestingly, over one third of the genes identified are annotated as hypothetical, indicating that F. novicida likely utilizes novel virulence factors for intracellular replication. To further characterize these virulence determinants, we selected two hypothetical genes to study in more detail. As predicted by our screen, deletion mutants of FTN_0096 and FTN_1133 were attenuated for replication in macrophages. The mutants displayed differing levels of attenuation in vivo, with the FTN_1133 mutant being the most attenuated. FTN_1133 has sequence similarity to the organic hydroperoxide resistance protein Ohr, an enzyme involved in the bacterial response to oxidative stress. We show that FTN_1133 is required for F. novicida resistance to, and degradation of, organic hydroperoxides as well as resistance to the action of the NADPH oxidase both in macrophages and mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that F. holarctica LVS, a strain derived from a highly virulent human pathogenic species of Francisella, also requires this protein for organic hydroperoxide resistance as well as replication in macrophages and mice. This study expands our knowledge of Francisella's largely uncharacterized intracellular lifecycle and

  19. Azurophil granule proteins constitute the major mycobactericidal proteins in human neutrophils and enhance the killing of mycobacteria in macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jena, Prajna; Mohanty, Soumitra; Mohanty, Tirthankar

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic mycobacteria reside in, and are in turn controlled by, macrophages. However, emerging data suggest that neutrophils also play a critical role in innate immunity to tuberculosis, presumably by their different antibacterial granule proteins. In this study, we purified neutrophil azurophil...... and specific granules and systematically analyzed the antimycobacterial activity of some purified azurophil and specific granule proteins against M. smegmatis, M. bovis-BCG and M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Using gel overlay and colony forming unit assays we showed that the defensin-depleted azurophil granule...... proteins (AZP) were more active against mycobacteria compared to other granule proteins and cytosolic proteins. The proteins showing antimycobacterial activity were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Electron microscopic studies demonstrate that the AZP disintegrate bacterial cell membrane...

  20. Activation of farnesoid X receptor downregulates monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in murine macrophage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Liangpeng; Zhang, Qian; Peng, Jiahe; Jiang, Chanjui; Zhang, Yan; Shen, Lili; Dong, Jinyu; Wang, Yongchao; Jiang, Yu, E-mail: yujiang0207@163.com

    2015-11-27

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, which plays important roles in bile acids/lipid homeostasis and inflammation. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) contributes to macrophage infiltration into body tissues during inflammation. Here we investigated whether FXR can regulate MCP-1 expression in murine macrophage. FXR activation down regulate MCP-1 mRNA and protein levels in ANA-1 and Raw264.7 cells. Luciferase reporter assay, Gel shift and Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays have revealed that the activated FXR bind to the FXR element located in −738 bp ∼  −723 bp in MCP-1 promoter. These results suggested that FXR may serve as a novel target for regulating MCP-1 levels for the inflammation related diseases therapies. - Highlights: • FXR is expressed in murine macrophage cell line. • FXR down regulates MCP-1 expression. • FXR binds to the DR4 in MCP-1 promoter.

  1. Transient degradation of NF-κB proteins in macrophages after interaction with mast cell granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Ito

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of the macrophage cell line, J774 to mast cell granules (MCG led to the form ation of altered nuclear transcription factor proteins (NFκBx, which had faster electrophoretic mobility than the p50 homodimer of NF-κB, but retained comparable DNA binding capacity. Antibodies to N-terminal peptides of p50, p52, p65 or c-Rel supershifted only a fraction of NF-κBx. Western blot analyses revealed that nuclear p65 and c-Rel were progressively degraded after exposure to MCG, whereas nuclear p50 appeared to be unaffected. In contrast, cytoplasmic p50, p65, c-Rel as well as IkBα remained intact after MCG treatment, although p52 was clearly degraded. In comparison to J774 cells, incubation of m ouse peritoneal macrophages with MCG resulted in more extensive alterations to NF-κB proteins. The alterations in NF-κB proteins did not affect the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS or TNF-α mRNA in J774 cells. These data indicate that exposure of J774 cells to MCG leads to generation of altered nuclear p52, p65 and c-Rel, which retain intact N-terminal peptides, specific oligonucleotide binding and transactivating activity. On the other hand, in peritoneal macrophages, MCG induce more extensive modifications to NF-κB proteins with associated inhibition of iNOS or TNF-α mRNA expression.

  2. Postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins regulate perilipin-2 and perilipin-3 lipid-droplet-associated proteins in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Lourdes M; López, Sergio; Ortega-Gómez, Almudena; Bermúdez, Beatriz; Buers, Insa; Robenek, Horst; Muriana, Francisco J G; Abia, Rocío

    2015-04-01

    Lipid accumulation in macrophages contributes to atherosclerosis. Within macrophages, lipids are stored in lipid droplets (LDs); perilipin-2 and perilipin-3 are the main LD-associated proteins. Postprandial triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins induce LD accumulation in macrophages. The role of postprandial lipoproteins in perilipin-2 and perilipin-3 regulation was studied. TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) induced the levels of intracellular TGs, LDs and perilipin-2 protein expression in THP-1 macrophages and in Apoe(-/-) mice bone-marrow-derived macrophages with low and high basal levels of TGs. Perilipin-3 was only synthesized in mice macrophages with low basal levels of TGs. The regulation was dependent on the fatty acid composition of the lipoproteins; monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) more strongly attenuated these effects compared with saturated fatty acids. In THP-1 macrophages, immunofluorescence microscopy and freeze-fracture immunogold labeling indicated that the lipoproteins translocated perilipin-3 from the cytoplasm to the LD surface; only the lipoproteins that were rich in PUFAs suppressed this effect. Chemical inhibition showed that lipoproteins induced perilipin-2 protein expression through the peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptor (PPAR) PPARα and PPARγ pathways. Overall, our data indicate that postprandial TRLs may be involved in atherosclerotic plaque formation through the regulation of perilipin-2 and perilipin-3 proteins in macrophages. Because the fatty acid composition of the lipoproteins is dependent on the type of fat consumed, the ingestion of olive oil, which is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, and fish oil, which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, can be considered a good nutritional strategy to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis by LD-associated proteins decrease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mycobacterium avium MAV2052 protein induces apoptosis in murine macrophage cells through Toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-In; Choi, Han-Gyu; Son, Yeo-Jin; Whang, Jake; Kim, Kwangwook; Jeon, Heat Sal; Park, Hye-Soo; Back, Yong Woo; Choi, Seunga; Kim, Seong-Woo; Choi, Chul Hee; Kim, Hwa-Jung

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium and its sonic extracts induce apoptosis in macrophages. However, little is known about the M. avium components regulating macrophage apoptosis. In this study, using multidimensional fractionation, we identified MAV2052 protein, which induced macrophage apoptosis in M. avium culture filtrates. The recombinant MAV2052 induced macrophage apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner. The loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), mitochondrial translocation of Bax, and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria were observed in macrophages treated with MAV2052. Further, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was required for the apoptosis induced by MAV2052. In addition, ROS and mitogen-activated protein kinases were involved in MAV2052-mediated TNF-α and IL-6 production. ROS-mediated activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-JNK pathway was a major signaling pathway for MAV2052-induced apoptosis. Moreover, MAV2052 bound to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 molecule and MAV2052-induced ROS production, ΔΨm loss, and apoptosis were all significantly reduced in TLR4(-/-) macrophages. Altogether, our results suggest that MAV2052 induces apoptotic cell death through TLR4 dependent ROS production and JNK pathway in murine macrophages.

  4. Role of CC chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, RANTES) in acute lung injury in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bless, N M; Huber-Lang, M; Guo, R F

    2000-01-01

    The role of the CC chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1 beta), monocyte chemotactic peptide-1 (MCP-1), and RANTES, in acute lung inflammatory injury induced by intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes injury in rats was determined. Rat MIP-1 beta, MCP-1, and RANTES...... were cloned, the proteins were expressed, and neutralizing Abs were developed. mRNA and protein expression for MIP-1 beta and MCP-1 were up-regulated during the inflammatory response, while mRNA and protein expression for RANTES were constitutive and unchanged during the inflammatory response....... Treatment of rats with anti-MIP-1 beta Ab significantly decreased vascular permeability by 37% (p = 0.012), reduced neutrophil recruitment into lung by 65% (p = 0.047), and suppressed levels of TNF-alpha in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids by 61% (p = 0.008). Treatment of rats with anti-rat MCP-1 or anti...

  5. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) inhibits agglomeration and macrophage uptake of toxic amine modified nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Zofi; Kendall, Michaela; Mackay, Rose-Marie; Whitwell, Harry; Elgy, Christine; Ding, Ping; Mahajan, Sumeet; Morgan, Cliff; Griffiths, Mark; Clark, Howard; Madsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The lung provides the main route for nanomaterial exposure. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is an important respiratory innate immune molecule with the ability to bind or opsonise pathogens to enhance phagocytic removal from the airways. We hypothesised that SP-A, like surfactant protein D, may interact with inhaled nanoparticulates, and that this interaction will be affected by nanoparticle (NP) surface characteristics. In this study, we characterise the interaction of SP-A with unmodified (U-PS) and amine-modified (A-PS) polystyrene particles of varying size and zeta potential using dynamic light scatter analysis. SP-A associated with both 100 nm U-PS and A-PS in a calcium-independent manner. SP-A induced significant calcium-dependent agglomeration of 100 nm U-PS NPs but resulted in calcium-independent inhibition of A-PS self agglomeration. SP-A enhanced uptake of 100 nm U-PS into macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner but in contrast inhibited A-PS uptake. Reduced association of A-PS particles in RAW264.7 cells following pre-incubation of SP-A was also observed with coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. Consistent with these findings, alveolar macrophages (AMs) from SP-A(-/-) mice were more efficient at uptake of 100 nm A-PS compared with wild type C57Bl/6 macrophages. No difference in uptake was observed with 500 nm U-PS or A-PS particles. Pre-incubation with SP-A resulted in a significant decrease in uptake of 100 nm A-PS in macrophages isolated from both groups of mice. In contrast, increased uptake by AMs of U-PS was observed after pre-incubation with SP-A. Thus we have demonstrated that SP-A promotes uptake of non-toxic U-PS particles but inhibits the clearance of potentially toxic A-PS particles by blocking uptake into macrophages.

  6. Role for macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, H; Shanley, T P; Jones, M L

    1996-01-01

    Macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) is a C-X-C chemokine that possesses chemotactic activity for neutrophils. Rat MIP-2 was cloned and expressed as a 7.9-kDa peptide that exhibited dose-dependent neutrophil chemotactic activity at concentrations from 10 to 250 nM. Rabbit polyclonal Ab to th...... instillation of LPS was found to be MIP-2-dependent. These data indicate that MIP-2 plays a significant role in LPS-induced inflammatory response in rat lungs and is required for the full recruitment of neutrophils....

  7. Major Vault Protein Regulates Class A Scavenger Receptor-mediated Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Synthesis and Apoptosis in Macrophages*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Rongmei; Zhang, Haiyang; Zhu, Xudong; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Hanwen; Li, Nan; Zhou, Xiaodan; Bai, Hui; Yang, Qing; Li, Donghai; Xu, Yong; Chen, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is considered a disease of chronic inflammation largely initiated and perpetuated by macrophage-dependent synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory mediators. Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) expressed on macrophages plays a key role in this process. However, how SR-A-mediated pro-inflammatory response is modulated in macrophages remains ill defined. Here through immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry, we reported major vault protein (MVP) as a novel binding partner for SR-A. The interaction between SR-A and MVP was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining and chemical cross-linking assay. Treatment of macrophages with fucoidan, a SR-A ligand, led to a marked increase in TNF-α production, which was attenuated by MVP depletion. Further analysis revealed that SR-A stimulated TNF-α synthesis in macrophages via the caveolin- instead of clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway linked to p38 and JNK, but not ERK, signaling pathways. Importantly, fucoidan invoked an enrichment of MVP in lipid raft, a caveolin-reliant membrane structure, and enhanced the interaction among SR-A, caveolin, and MVP. Finally, we demonstrated that MVP elimination ameliorated SR-A-mediated apoptosis in macrophages. As such, MVP may fine-tune SR-A activity in macrophages which contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:23703615

  8. The interplay of lung surfactant proteins and lipids assimilates the macrophage clearance of nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A Ruge

    Full Text Available The peripheral lungs are a potential entrance portal for nanoparticles into the human body due to their large surface area. The fact that nanoparticles can be deposited in the alveolar region of the lungs is of interest for pulmonary drug delivery strategies and is of equal importance for toxicological considerations. Therefore, a detailed understanding of nanoparticle interaction with the structures of this largest and most sensitive part of the lungs is important for both nanomedicine and nanotoxicology. Astonishingly, there is still little known about the bio-nano interactions that occur after nanoparticle deposition in the alveoli. In this study, we compared the effects of surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A and D (SP-D on the clearance of magnetite nanoparticles (mNP with either more hydrophilic (starch or hydrophobic (phosphatidylcholine surface modification by an alveolar macrophage (AM cell line (MH-S using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Both proteins enhanced the AM uptake of mNP compared with pristine nanoparticles; for the hydrophilic ST-mNP, this effect was strongest with SP-D, whereas for the hydrophobic PL-mNP it was most pronounced with SP-A. Using gel electrophoretic and dynamic light scattering methods, we were able to demonstrate that the observed cellular effects were related to protein adsorption and to protein-mediated interference with the colloidal stability. Next, we investigated the influence of various surfactant lipids on nanoparticle uptake by AM because lipids are the major surfactant component. Synthetic surfactant lipid and isolated native surfactant preparations significantly modulated the effects exerted by SP-A and SP-D, respectively, resulting in comparable levels of macrophage interaction for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic nanoparticles. Our findings suggest that because of the interplay of both surfactant lipids and proteins, the AM clearance of nanoparticles is essentially the same, regardless

  9. Induction of heat-shock proteins and phagocytic function of chicken macrophage following in vitro heat exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.; Qureshi, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The protein profiles and phagocytic ability of Sephadex-elicited chicken peritoneal macrophages were examined following heat-shock exposure. Macrophage cultures were exposed to various temperatures, time exposures and recovery periods. Densitometric analysis of SDS-PAGE autoradiographs revealed that heat-induced macrophages synthesized three major (23, 70 and 90 kD) heat-shock proteins (HSPs). The optimal temperature and time for induction of these HSPs was 45-46 degrees C for 1 h, with a variable recovery period for each HSP. Macrophages exposed to 45 degrees C for 30 and 60 min were significantly depressed in phagocytosis of uncoated sheep erythrocytes (SE) under 45 degrees C incubation conditions. However, phagocytosis of antibody-coated SE was not affected when compared to 41 degrees C control cultures. Macrophages allowed to recover at 41 degrees C following heat-shock exhibited no alterations in their phagocytic ability for either antibody-coated or uncoated SE. This study suggests that heat shock induces three major HSPs in chicken peritoneal macrophages in addition to maintaining their Fc-mediated phagocytic function while significantly depressing their nonspecific phagocytosis

  10. The influence of protein malnutrition on the production of GM-CSF and M-CSF by macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila Cunha de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is well established that protein malnutrition (PM impairs immune defenses and increases susceptibility to infection. Macrophages are cells that play a central role in innate immunity, constituting one of the first barriers against infections. Macrophages produce several soluble factors, including cytokines and growth factors, important to the immune response. Among those growth factors, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF. GM-CSF and M-CSF are important to monocyte and macrophage development and stimulation of the immune response process. Knowing the importance of GM-CSF and M-CSF, we sought to investigate the influence of PM on macrophage production of these growth factors. Two-month-old male BALB/c mice were subjected to PM with a low-protein diet (2% and compared to a control diet (12% mouse group. Nutritional status, hemogram and the number of peritoneal cells were evaluated. Additionally, peritoneal macrophages were cultured and the production of GM-CSF and M-CSF and mRNA expression were evaluated. To determine if PM altered macrophage production of GM-CSF and M-CSF, they were stimulated with TNF-α. The PM animals had anemia, leukopenia and a reduced number of peritoneal cells. The production of M-CSF was not different between groups; however, cells from PM animals, stimulated with or without TNF-α, presented reduced capability to produce GM-CSF. These data imply that PM interferes with the production of GM-CSF, and consequently would affect the production and maturation of hematopoietic cells and the immune response.

  11. Low frequency of the scrapile resistance-associated allele and presence of lysine-171 allele of the prion protein gene in Italian Biellese ovine breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acutis, P.L.; Sbaiz, L.; Verburg, F.J.; Riina, M.V.; Ru, G.; Moda, G.; Caramelli, M.; Bossers, A.

    2004-01-01

    Frequencies of polymorphisms at codons 136, 154 and 171 of the prion protein (PrP) gene were studied in 1207 pure-bred and cross-bred Italian Biellese rams, a small ovine breed of about 65 000 head in Italy. Aside from the five most common alleles (VRQ, ARQ, ARR, AHQ and ARH), the rare ARK allele

  12. Hepatic Warm Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Increase in Pulmonary Capillary Filtration Is Ameliorated by Administration of a Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 1 Inhibitor and Leukotriene D4 Antagonist (MK-571) Through Reducing Neutrophil Infiltration and Pulmonary Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, D Y-W; Yang, Y-C; Wang, J-J

    2015-05-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is the major complication subsequent to liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury after resection or transplantation of liver. Hallmarks of HPS include increases in pulmonary leukotrienes and neutrophil recruitment and infiltrating across capillaries. We aimed to investigate the protective efficacy of MK-571, a multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 inhibitor and leukotriene D4 agonist, against hepatic I/R injury-associated change in capillary filtration. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley male rats were evenly divided into a sham-operated group, a hepatic I/R group, and an MK-571-treated I/R group. MK-571 was administered intraperitoneally 15 min before hepatic ischemia and every 12 hours during reperfusion. Ischemia was conducted by occluding the hepatic artery and portal vein for 30 min, followed by removing the clamps and closing the incision. Forty-eight hours after hepatic ischemia, we assessed the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) through the use of in vitro-isolated, perfused rat lung preparation. We also measured the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio (W/D) and protein concentration in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (PCBAL). Lung inflammation and oxidative stress were evaluated by use of tissue tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and malondialdehyde levels and lavage differential macrophage and neutrophil cell count. Hepatic I/R injury markedly increased Kfc, W/D, PCBAL, tissue TNF-α level, and differential neutrophil cell count (P < .05). MK-571 treatment reduced neutrophil infiltration and lung inflammation and improved pulmonary capillary filtration, collectively suggesting lung protection. Treatment with MK-571 before and during hepatic ischemia and reperfusion protects lung against pulmonary capillary barrier function impairment through decreasing pulmonary lung inflammation and lavage neutrophils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pitavastatin Differentially Modulates MicroRNA-Associated Cholesterol Transport Proteins in Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Zhang

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence identifying microRNAs (miRNAs as mediators of statin-induced cholesterol efflux, notably through the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1 in macrophages. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, pitavastatin, on macrophage miRNAs in the presence and absence of oxidized-LDL, a hallmark of a pro-atherogenic milieu. Treatment of human THP-1 cells with pitavastatin prevented the oxLDL-mediated suppression of miR-33a, -33b and -758 mRNA in these cells, an effect which was not uniquely attributable to induction of SREBP2. Induction of ABCA1 mRNA and protein by oxLDL was inhibited (30% by pitavastatin, while oxLDL or pitavastatin alone significantly induced and repressed ABCA1 expression, respectively. These findings are consistent with previous reports in macrophages. miRNA profiling was also performed using a miRNA array. We identified specific miRNAs which were up-regulated (122 and down-regulated (107 in THP-1 cells treated with oxLDL plus pitavastatin versus oxLDL alone, indicating distinct regulatory networks in these cells. Moreover, several of the differentially expressed miRNAs identified are functionally associated with cholesterol trafficking (six miRNAs in cells treated with oxLDL versus oxLDL plus pitavastatin. Our findings indicate that pitavastatin can differentially modulate miRNA in the presence of oxLDL; and, our results provide evidence that the net effect on cholesterol homeostasis is mediated by a network of miRNAs.

  14. The Scavenger Protein Apoptosis Inhibitor of Macrophages (AIM) Potentiates the Antimicrobial Response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Enhancing Autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjurjo, Lucía; Amézaga, Núria; Vilaplana, Cristina; Cáceres, Neus; Marzo, Elena; Valeri, Marta; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Sarrias, Maria-Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophages (AIM), a scavenger protein secreted by tissue macrophages, is transcriptionally regulated by the nuclear receptor Liver X Receptor (LXR) and Retinoid X Receptor (RXR) heterodimer. Given that LXR exerts a protective immune response against M. tuberculosis, here we analyzed whether AIM is involved in this response. In an experimental murine model of tuberculosis, AIM serum levels peaked dramatically early after infection with M. tuberculosis, providing an in vivo biological link to the disease. We therefore studied the participation of AIM in macrophage response to M. tuberculosis in vitro. For this purpose, we used the H37Rv strain to infect THP-1 macrophages transfected to stably express AIM, thereby increasing infected macrophage survival. Furthermore, the expression of this protein enlarged foam cell formation by enhancing intracellular lipid content. Phagocytosis assays with FITC-labeled M. tuberculosis bacilli indicated that this protein was not involved in bacterial uptake; however, AIM expression decreased the number of intracellular cfus by up to 70% in bacterial killing assays, suggesting that AIM enhances macrophage mycobactericidal activity. Accordingly, M. tuberculosis-infected AIM-expressing cells upregulated the production of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, real-time PCR analysis showed increased mRNA levels of the antimicrobial peptides cathelicidin and defensin 4B. These increases were concomitant with greater cellular concentrations of the autophagy-related molecules Beclin 1 and LC3II, as well as enhanced acidification of mycobacterial phagosomes and LC3 co-localization. In summary, our data support the notion that AIM contributes to key macrophage responses to M. tuberculosis. PMID:24223991

  15. Cathepsin D Specifically Cleaves the Chemokines Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1α, Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1β, and SLC That Are Expressed in Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Marlene; Clark-Lewis, Ian; Buri, Caroline; Langen, Hanno; Lis, Maddalena; Mazzucchelli, Luca

    2003-01-01

    Cathepsin D (Cath-D) expression in human primary breast cancer has been associated with a poor prognosis. In search of a better understanding of the Cath-D substrates possibly involved in cancer invasiveness and metastasis, we investigated the potential interactions between this protease and chemokines. Here we report that purified Cath-D, as well as culture supernatants from the human breast carcinoma cell lines MCF-7 and T47D, selectively degrade macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α (CCL3), MIP-1β (CCL4), and SLC (CCL21). Proteolysis was totally blocked by the protease inhibitor pepstatin A, and specificity of Cath-D cleavage was demonstrated using a large chemokine panel. Whereas MIP-1α and MIP-1β degradation was rapid and complete, cleavage of SLC was slow and not complete. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that Cath-D cleaves the Leu58 to Trp59 bond of SLC producing two functionally inactive fragments. Analysis of Cath-D proteolysis of a series of monocyte chemoattractant protein-3/MIP-1β hybrids indicated that processing of MIP-1β might start by cleaving off amino acids located in the C-terminal domain. In situ hybridization studies revealed MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and Cath-D gene expression mainly in the stromal compartment of breast cancers whereas SLC transcripts were found in endothelial cells of capillaries and venules within the neoplastic tissues. Cath-D production in the breast carcinoma cell lines MCF-7 and T47D, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of culture supernatants and cell lysates, was not affected by stimulation with chemokines such as interleukin-8 (CXCL8), SDF-1 (CXCL12), and SLC. These data suggest that inactivation of chemokines by Cath-D possibly influences regulatory mechanisms in the tumoral extracellular microenvironment that in turn may affect the generation of the antitumoral immune response, the migration of cancer cells, or both processes. PMID:12651610

  16. Immunotherapy of HIV-infected patients with Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Ushijima, Naofumi; Koga, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Serum Gc protein (known as vitamin D3-binding protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of HIV-infected patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein is deglycosylated by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from HIV-infected cells. Therefore, macrophages of HIV-infected patients having deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be activated, leading to immunosuppression. Since Nagalase is the intrinsic component of the envelope protein gp120, serum Nagalase activity is the sum of enzyme activities carried by both HIV virions and envelope proteins. These Nagalase carriers were already complexed with anti-HIV immunoglobulin G (IgG) but retained Nagalase activity that is required for infectivity. Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated the most potent macrophage activating factor (termed GcMAF), which produces no side effects in humans. Macrophages activated by administration of 100 ng GcMAF develop a large amount of Fc-receptors as well as an enormous variation of receptors that recognize IgG-bound and unbound HIV virions. Since latently HIV-infected cells are unstable and constantly release HIV virions, the activated macrophages rapidly intercept the released HIV virions to prevent reinfection resulting in exhaustion of infected cells. After less than 18 weekly administrations of 100 ng GcMAF for nonanemic patients, they exhibited low serum Nagalase activities equivalent to healthy controls, indicating eradication of HIV-infection, which was also confirmed by no infectious center formation by provirus inducing agent-treated patient PBMCs. No recurrence occurred and their healthy CD + cell counts were maintained for 7 years.

  17. A macrophage inflammatory protein homolog encoded by guinea pig cytomegalovirus signals via CC chemokine receptor 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfold, Mark; Miao Zhenhua; Wang Yu; Haggerty, Shannon; Schleiss, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses encode homologs of cellular immune effector proteins, including chemokines (CKs) and CK receptor-like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Sequence of the guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) genome identified an open reading frame (ORF) which predicted a 101 amino acid (aa) protein with homology to the macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) subfamily of CC (β) CKs, designated GPCMV-MIP. To assess functionality of this CK, recombinant GPCMV-MIP was expressed in HEK293 cells and assayed for its ability to bind to and functionally interact with a variety of GPCRs. Specific signaling was observed with the hCCR1 receptor, which could be blocked with hMIP -1α in competition experiments. Migration assays revealed that GPCMV-MIP was able to induce chemotaxis in hCCR1-L1.2 cells. Antisera raised against a GST-MIP fusion protein immunoprecipitated species of ∼12 and 10 kDa from GPCMV-inoculated tissue culture lysates, and convalescent antiserum from GPCMV-infected animals was immunoreactive with GST-MIP by ELISA assay. These results represent the first substantive in vitro characterization of a functional CC CK encoded by a cytomegalovirus

  18. Anti-inflammatory effect of garlic 14-kDa protein on LPS-stimulated-J774A.1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Shahrzad Zamani Taghizadeh; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Siadat, Zahra; Rastin, Maryam; Rabe, Shahin Zamani Taghizadeh; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    Garlic 14-kDa protein is purified from garlic (Allium sativum L.) which is used in traditional medicine and exerts various immunomodulatory activities. The present study investigated the suppressive effect of garlic 14-kDa protein on LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and underlying mechanism in inflammatory macrophages. J774A.1 macrophages were treated with 14-kDa protein (5-30 μg/ml) with/without LPS (1 μg/ml) and the production of inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, and IL-1β released were measured using ELISA. Nitric oxide (NO) production was determined using the Griess method. The anti-inflammatory activity of 14-kDa protein was examined by measuring inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 proteins using western blot. The expression of nuclear NF-κB p65 subunit was assessed by western blot. Garlic 14-kDa protein significantly inhibited the excessive production of NO, PGE, TNF-α, and IL-1β in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated J774A.1 macrophages in a concentration-related manner without cytotoxic effect. Western blot analysis demonstrated that garlic 14-kDa protein suppressed corresponding inducible NO synthase expression and activated cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression. The inhibitory effect was mediated partly by a reduction in the activity and expression of transcription factor NF-κB protein. Our results suggested, for the first time, garlic 14-kDa protein exhibits anti-inflammatory properties in macrophages possibly by suppressing the inflammatory mediators via the inhibition of transcription factor NF-κB signaling pathway. The traditional use of garlic as anti-inflammatory remedy could be ascribed partly to 14-kDa protein content. This protein might be a useful candidate for controlling inflammatory diseases and further investigations in vivo.

  19. Clofazimine modulates the expression of lipid metabolism proteins in Mycobacterium leprae-infected macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degang, Yang; Akama, Takeshi; Hara, Takeshi; Tanigawa, Kazunari; Ishido, Yuko; Gidoh, Masaichi; Makino, Masahiko; Ishii, Norihisa; Suzuki, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) lives and replicates within macrophages in a foamy, lipid-laden phagosome. The lipids provide essential nutrition for the mycobacteria, and M. leprae infection modulates expression of important host proteins related to lipid metabolism. Thus, M. leprae infection increases the expression of adipophilin/adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) and decreases hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), facilitating the accumulation and maintenance of lipid-rich environments suitable for the intracellular survival of M. leprae. HSL levels are not detectable in skin smear specimens taken from leprosy patients, but re-appear shortly after multidrug therapy (MDT). This study examined the effect of MDT components on host lipid metabolism in vitro, and the outcome of rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine treatment on ADRP and HSL expression in THP-1 cells. Clofazimine attenuated the mRNA and protein levels of ADRP in M. leprae-infected cells, while those of HSL were increased. Rifampicin and dapsone did not show any significant effects on ADRP and HSL expression levels. A transient increase of interferon (IFN)-β and IFN-γ mRNA was also observed in cells infected with M. leprae and treated with clofazimine. Lipid droplets accumulated by M. leprae-infection were significantly decreased 48 h after clofazimine treatment. Such effects were not evident in cells without M. leprae infection. In clinical samples, ADRP expression was decreased and HSL expression was increased after treatment. These results suggest that clofazimine modulates lipid metabolism in M. leprae-infected macrophages by modulating the expression of ADRP and HSL. It also induces IFN production in M. leprae-infected cells. The resultant decrease in lipid accumulation, increase in lipolysis, and activation of innate immunity may be some of the key actions of clofazimine.

  20. Loss of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 alters macrophage polarization and reduces NFκB activation in the foreign body response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Laura Beth; Sawyer, Andrew J; Charokopos, Antonios; Skokos, Eleni A; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of biomaterials elicits a foreign body response characterized by fusion of macrophages to form foreign body giant cells and fibrotic encapsulation. Studies of the macrophage polarization involved in this response have suggested that alternative (M2) activation is associated with more favorable outcomes. Here we investigated this process in vivo by implanting mixed cellulose ester filters or polydimethylsiloxane disks in the peritoneal cavity of wild-type (WT) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) knockout mice. We analyzed classical (M1) and alternative (M2) gene expression via quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in both non-adherent cells isolated by lavage and implant-adherent cells. Our results show that macrophages undergo unique activation that displays features of both M1 and M2 polarization including induction of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF), which induces the expression and nuclear translocation of p50 and RelA determined by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Both processes were compromised in fusion-deficient MCP-1 KO macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, inclusion of BAY 11-7028, an inhibitor of NFκB activation, reduced nuclear translocation of RelA and fusion in WT macrophages. Our studies suggest that peritoneal implants elicit a unique macrophage polarization phenotype leading to induction of TNF and activation of the NFκB pathway. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Activation of M1 macrophages in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in response to heparin-binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xing

    Full Text Available In the early stage of sepsis, M1 macrophages result in the production of inflammatory mediators and AKI. Heparin-binding protein (HBP have been shown to play important roles in sepsis-induced AKI. In this study, we investigate the association of HBP with M1 macrophages in sepsis-induced AKI.Male C57BL6 mice were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP or sham surgery. Biochemical and histological renal damage was assessed. Macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry. RT-PCR was used to investigate the expression of heparin-binding protein (HBP, the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and arginase 1 (Arg-1 mRNAs. Western blots were performed to assay the tissue levels of HBP, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6.High levels of HBP were obviously detected 24 h after sepsis-induced AKI. Heparin inhibited HBP expression during sepsis-induced AKI. The suppression of HBP expression by heparin injection after the establishment of sepsis-induced AKI resulted in a reduction in renal injury severity accompanied with a significant repression of M1 macrophage activation and expression of TNF-α and IL-6.HBP plays an important role in the initial inflammatory reaction associated with sepsis-induced AKI, presumably by activating M1 macrophages and suppressing TNF-α and IL-6 secretion.

  2. Involvement of fractalkine and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha in moderate-severe depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Alba Merendino

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available MODERATE-severe depression (MSD is linked to overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Fractalkine (FKN and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α are, respectively, members of CX3C and C-C chemokines, and both are involved in recruiting and activating mononuclear phagocytes in the central nervous system. We analysed the presence of FKN and MIP-1α in sera of untreated MSD patients and healthy donors. High FKN levels were observed in all MSD patients as compared with values only detectable in 26% of healthy donors. MIP-1α was measurable in 20% of patients, while no healthy donors showed detectable chemokine levels. In conclusion, we describe a previously unknown involvement of FKN in the pathogenesis of MSD, suggesting that FKN may represent a target for a specific immune therapy of this disease.

  3. Immunotherapy of metastatic colorectal cancer with vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor, GcMAF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Suyama, Hirofumi; Nakazato, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Koga, Yoshihiko

    2008-07-01

    Serum vitamin D binding protein (Gc protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage-activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of colorectal cancer patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein is deglycosylated by serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from cancerous cells. Deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be converted to MAF, leading to immunosuppression. Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated the most potent macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) ever discovered, but it produces no side effect in humans. Macrophages treated with GcMAF (100 microg/ml) develop an enormous variation of receptors and are highly tumoricidal to a variety of cancers indiscriminately. Administration of 100 nanogram (ng)/ human maximally activates systemic macrophages that can kill cancerous cells. Since the half-life of the activated macrophages is approximately 6 days, 100 ng GcMAF was administered weekly to eight nonanemic colorectal cancer patients who had previously received tumor-resection but still carried significant amounts of metastatic tumor cells. As GcMAF therapy progressed, the MAF precursor activities of all patients increased and conversely their serum Nagalase activities decreased. Since serum Nagalase is proportional to tumor burden, serum Nagalase activity was used as a prognostic index for time course analysis of GcMAF therapy. After 32-50 weekly administrations of 100 ng GcMAF, all colorectal cancer patients exhibited healthy control levels of the serum Nagalase activity, indicating eradication of metastatic tumor cells. During 7 years after the completion of GcMAF therapy, their serum Nagalase activity did not increase, indicating no recurrence of cancer, which was also supported by the annual CT scans of these patients.

  4. Immunotherapy of metastatic breast cancer patients with vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Suyama, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Ushijima, Naofumi

    2008-01-15

    Serum vitamin D3-binding protein (Gc protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of breast cancer patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein was deglycosylated by serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from cancerous cells. Patient serum Nagalase activity is proportional to tumor burden. The deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be converted to MAF, resulting in no macrophage activation and immunosuppression. Stepwise incubation of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated probably the most potent macrophage activating factor (termed GcMAF) ever discovered, which produces no adverse effect in humans. Macrophages treated in vitro with GcMAF (100 pg/ml) are highly tumoricidal to mammary adenocarcinomas. Efficacy of GcMAF for treatment of metastatic breast cancer was investigated with 16 nonanemic patients who received weekly administration of GcMAF (100 ng). As GcMAF therapy progresses, the MAF precursor activity of patient Gc protein increased with a concomitant decrease in serum Nagalase. Because of proportionality of serum Nagalase activity to tumor burden, the time course progress of GcMAF therapy was assessed by serum Nagalase activity as a prognostic index. These patients had the initial Nagalase activities ranging from 2.32 to 6.28 nmole/min/mg protein. After about 16-22 administrations (approximately 3.5-5 months) of GcMAF, these patients had insignificantly low serum enzyme levels equivalent to healthy control enzyme levels, ranging from 0.38 to 0.63 nmole/min/mg protein, indicating eradication of the tumors. This therapeutic procedure resulted in no recurrence for more than 4 years. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Antitumor effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Y; Naraparaju, V R; Yamamoto, N

    1999-01-01

    Cancerous cells secrete alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NaGalase) into the blood stream, resulting in deglycosylation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein (known as Gc protein), which is a precursor for macrophage activating factor (MAF). Incubation of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generates the most potent macrophage activating factor (designated GcMAF). Administration of GcMAF to cancer-bearing hosts can bypass the inactivated MAF precursor and act directly on macrophages for efficient activation. Therapeutic effects of GcMAF on Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice were assessed by survival time and serum NaGalase activity, because serum NaGalase activity was proportional to tumor burden. A single administration of GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) to eight mice on the same day after transplantation of the tumor (5 x 10(5) cells) showed a mean survival time of 21 +/- 3 days for seven mice, with one mouse surviving more than 60 days, whereas tumor-bearing controls had a mean survival time of 13 +/- 2 days. Six of the eight mice that received two GcMAF administrations, at Day 0 and Day 4 after transplantation, survived up to 31 +/- 4 days whereas, the remaining two mice survived for more than 60 days. Further, six of the eight mice that received three GcMAF administrations with 4-day intervals showed an extended survival of at least 60 days, and serum NaGalase levels were as low as those of control mice throughout the survival period. The cure with subthreshold GcMAF-treatments (administered once or twice) of tumor-bearing mice appeared to be a consequence of sustained macrophage activation by inflammation resulting from the macrophage-mediated tumoricidal process. Therefore, a protracted macrophage activation induced by a few administrations of minute amounts of GcMAF eradicated the murine ascites tumor.

  6. Glycan structure of Gc Protein-derived Macrophage Activating Factor as revealed by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Chad R; Rehder, Douglas S

    2016-09-15

    Disagreement exists regarding the O-glycan structure attached to human vitamin D binding protein (DBP). Previously reported evidence indicated that the O-glycan of the Gc1S allele product is the linear core 1 NeuNAc-Gal-GalNAc-Thr trisaccharide. Here, glycan structural evidence is provided from glycan linkage analysis and over 30 serial glycosidase-digestion experiments which were followed by analysis of the intact protein by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Results demonstrate that the O-glycan from the Gc1F protein is the same linear trisaccharide found on the Gc1S protein and that the hexose residue is galactose. In addition, the putative anti-cancer derivative of DBP known as Gc Protein-derived Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF, which is formed by the combined action of β-galactosidase and neuraminidase upon DBP) was analyzed intact by ESI-MS, revealing that the activating E. coli β-galactosidase cleaves nothing from the protein-leaving the glycan structure of active GcMAF as a Gal-GalNAc-Thr disaccharide, regardless of the order in which β-galactosidase and neuraminidase are applied. Moreover, glycosidase digestion results show that α-N-Acetylgalactosamindase (nagalase) lacks endoglycosidic function and only cleaves the DBP O-glycan once it has been trimmed down to a GalNAc-Thr monosaccharide-precluding the possibility of this enzyme removing the O-glycan trisaccharide from cancer-patient DBP in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of extracellular matrix proteins on macrophage differentiation, growth, and function: comparison of liquid and agar culture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J. W.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Both spaceflight and skeletal unloading suppress the haematopoietic differentiation of macrophages (Sonnenfeld et al., Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 61:648-653, 1990; Armstrong et al., J. Appl. Physiol., 75:2734-2739, 1993). The mechanism behind this reduction in haematopoiesis has yet to be elucidated. However, changes in bone marrow extracellular matrix (ECM) may be involved. To further understand the role of ECM products in macrophage differentiation, we have performed experiments evaluating the effects of fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV on macrophage development and function. Bone marrow-derived macrophages cultured on four different ECM substrates in liquid culture medium showed less growth than those cultured on plastic. Significant morphological differences were seen on each of the substrates used. Phenotypically and functionally, as measured by class II major histocompatibility molecule (MHCII) expression, MAC-2 expression, and the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), these macrophages were similar. In contrast, bone marrow-derived macrophages cultured in suspension, using agar, showed no difference in growth when exposed to ECM proteins. However, IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion was affected by fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that the ECM products fibronectin, laminin, collagen type I, and collagen type IV have profound effects on macrophage development and function. Additionally, we suggest that an ECM-supplemented agar culture system provides an environment more analogous to in vivo bone marrow than does a traditional liquid culture system.

  8. Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) diminishes lipid droplet-coating proteins leading to lipolysis in adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Yoshihiro; Mori, Mayumi; Nakashima, Katsuhiko; Mikami, Toshiyuki; Murayama, Katsuhisa; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► AIM induces lipolysis in a distinct manner from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis. ► AIM ablates activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in adipocytes. ► AIM reduces mRNA levels of lipid-droplet coating proteins leading to lipolysis. -- Abstract: Under fasting conditions, triacylglycerol in adipose tissue undergoes lipolysis to supply fatty acids as energy substrates. Such lipolysis is regulated by hormones, which activate lipases via stimulation of specific signalling cascades. We previously showed that macrophage-derived soluble protein, AIM induces obesity-associated lipolysis, triggering chronic inflammation in fat tissue which causes insulin resistance. However, the mechanism of how AIM mediates lipolysis remains unknown. Here we show that AIM induces lipolysis in a manner distinct from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis, without activation or augmentation of lipases. In vivo and in vitro, AIM did not enhance phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in adipocytes, a hallmark of hormone-dependent lipolysis activation. Similarly, adipose tissue from obese AIM-deficient and wild-type mice showed comparable HSL phosphorylation. Consistent with the suppressive effect of AIM on fatty acid synthase activity, the amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids was reduced in adipocytes treated with AIM. This response ablated transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ), leading to diminished gene expression of lipid-droplet coating proteins including fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) and Perilipin, which are indispensable for triacylglycerol storage in adipocytes. Accordingly, the lipolytic effect of AIM was overcome by a PPARγ-agonist or forced expression of FSP27, while it was synergized by a PPARγ-antagonist. Overall, distinct modes of lipolysis appear to take place in different physiological situations; one is a supportive response against nutritional deprivation achieved by

  9. Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer with Gc Protein-Derived Macrophage-Activating Factor, GcMAF1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Suyama, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

    2008-01-01

    Serum Gc protein (known as vitamin D3-binding protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage-activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of prostate cancer patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein was deglycosylated by serum α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from cancerous cells. Therefore, macrophages of prostate cancer patients having deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be activated, leading to immunosuppression. Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized β-galactosidase and sialidase generated the most potent MAF (termed GcMAF) ever discovered, which produces no adverse effect in humans. Macrophages activated by GcMAF develop a considerable variation of receptors that recognize the abnormality in malignant cell surface and are highly tumoricidal. Sixteen nonanemic prostate cancer patients received weekly administration of 100 ng of GcMAF. As the MAF precursor activity increased, their serum Nagalase activity decreased. Because serum Nagalase activity is proportional to tumor burden, the entire time course analysis for GcMAF therapy was monitored by measuring the serum Nagalase activity. After 14 to 25 weekly administrations of GcMAF (100 ng/week), all 16 patients had very low serum Nagalase levels equivalent to those of healthy control values, indicating that these patients are tumor-free. No recurrence occurred for 7 years. PMID:18633461

  10. Silica-coated Gd(DOTA)-loaded protein nanoparticles enable magnetic resonance imaging of macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Michael A.; Randolph, Lauren N.; Gulati, Neetu M.; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular imaging of in vivo targets allows non-invasive disease diagnosis. Nanoparticles offer a promising platform for molecular imaging because they can deliver large payloads of imaging reagents to the site of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often preferred for clinical diagnosis because it uses non-ionizing radiation and offers both high spatial resolution and excellent penetration. We have explored the use of plant viruses as the basis of for MRI contrast reagents, specifically Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), which can assemble to form either stiff rods or spheres. We loaded TMV particles with paramagnetic Gd ions, increasing the ionic relaxivity compared to free Gd ions. The loaded TMV particles were then coated with silica maintaining high relaxivities. Interestingly, we found that when Gd(DOTA) was loaded into the interior channel of TMV and the exterior was coated with silica, the T1 relaxivities increased by three-fold from 10.9 mM−1 s−1 to 29.7 mM−1s−1 at 60 MHz compared to uncoated Gd-loaded TMV. To test the performance of the contrast agents in a biological setting, we focused on interactions with macrophages because the active or passive targeting of immune cells is a popular strategy to investigate the cellular components involved in disease progression associated with inflammation. In vitro assays and phantom MRI experiments indicate efficient targeting and imaging of macrophages, enhanced contrast-to-noise ratio was observed by shape-engineering (SNP > TMV) and silica-coating (Si-TMV/SNP > TMV/SNP). Because plant viruses are in the food chain, antibodies may be prevalent in the population. Therefore we investigated whether the silica-coating could prevent antibody recognition; indeed our data indicate that mineralization can be used as a stealth coating option to reduce clearance. Therefore, we conclude that the silica-coated protein-based contrast agent may provide an interesting candidate material for further investigation

  11. Effect of lactoferrin protein on red blood cells and macrophages: mechanism of parasite–host interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Namrata Anand,1 Rupinder K Kanwar,2 Mohan Lal Dubey,1 R K Vahishta,3 Rakesh Sehgal,1,* Anita K Verma,4 Jagat R Kanwar2,*1Department of Medical Parasitology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India; 2Nanomedicine Laboratory of Immunology and Molecular Biomedical Research, School of Medicine, Molecular and Medical Research Strategic Research Centre, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia; 3Department of Histopathology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, 4Nanobiotech Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Kirorimal College, University of Delhi, Delhi, India*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Lactoferrin is a natural multifunctional protein known to have antitumor, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activity. Apart from its antimicrobial effects, lactoferrin is known to boost the immune response by enhancing antioxidants. Lactoferrin exists in various forms depending on its iron saturation. The present study was done to observe the effect of lactoferrin, isolated from bovine and buffalo colostrum, on red blood cells (RBCs and macrophages (human monocytic cell line-derived macrophages THP1 cells.Methods: Lactoferrin obtained from both species and in different iron saturation forms were used in the present study, and treatment of host cells were given with different forms of lactoferrin at different concentrations. These treated host cells were used for various studies, including morphometric analysis, viability by MTT assay, survivin gene expression, production of reactive oxygen species, phagocytic properties, invasion assay, and Toll-like receptor-4, Toll-like receptor-9, and MDR1 expression, to investigate the interaction between lactoferrin and host cells and the possible mechanism of action with regard to parasitic infections.Results: The mechanism of interaction between host cells and lactoferrin have shown various aspects of gene

  12. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha: a link between innate immunity and familial Mediterranean fever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizdar, Omer; Kalyoncu, Umut; Karadag, Omer; Akdogan, Ali; Kiraz, Sedat; Ertenli, Ihsan; Barista, Ibrahim; Calguneri, Meral

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between chemokines and the inflammation in Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF). Forty-nine patients with FMF (41 in remission and 8 in acute attack period) and 20 healthy controls were included in the study. Serum levels of macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) were assessed in the patients and the controls, along with other parameters of disease activity, i.e., fibrinogen, C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Serum MIP-1alpha levels of the patients with FMF in acute attack period were significantly higher than the patients in remission and healthy controls (p=0.02 and p=0.038, respectively). MIP-1alpha levels were weakly correlated with CRP (r=0.32, p=0.032) levels. MIP-1alpha may have a role in the pathogenesis of FMF attacks. MIP-1alpha and other chemokines may constitute a link between the innate immune system and FMF.

  13. Preparation of Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) and its structural characterization and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Saharuddin Bin; Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Hori, Hitoshi

    2002-01-01

    Gc protein has been reported to be a precursor of Gc protein-derived macrophage activation factor (GcMAF) in the inflammation-primed macrophage activation cascade. An inducible beta-galactosidase of B cells and neuraminidase of T cells convert Gc protein to GcMAF. Gc protein from human serum was purified using 25(OH)D3 affinity column chromatography and modified to GcMAF using immobilized glycosidases (beta-galactosidase and neuraminidase) The sugar moiety structure of GcMAF was characterized by lectin blotting by Helix pomatia agglutinin. The biological activities of GcMAF were evaluated by a superoxide generation assay and a phagocytosis assay. We successfully purified Gc protein from human serum. GcMAF was detected by lectin blotting and showed a high biological activity. Our results support the importance of the terminal N-acetylgalactosamine moiety in the GcMAF-mediated macrophage activation cascade, and the existence of constitutive GcMAF in human serum. These preliminary data are important for designing small molecular GcMAF mimics.

  14. Metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by inhibiting FOXO1-mediated transcription of fatty acid-binding protein 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jun; Ren, Pingping; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Xing Li; Chen, Li; Shen, Ying H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The accumulation of lipids in macrophages contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Strategies to reduce lipid accumulation in macrophages may have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. The antidiabetic drug metformin has been reported to reduce lipid accumulation in adipocytes. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on lipid accumulation in macrophages and investigated the mechanisms involved. Methods and results: We observed that metformin significantly reduced palmitic acid (PA)-induced intracellular lipid accumulation in macrophages. Metformin promoted the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1), while reduced the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) which was involved in PA-induced lipid accumulation. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that metformin regulates FABP4 expression at the transcriptional level. We identified forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 as a positive regulator of FABP4 expression. Inhibiting FOXO1 expression with FOXO1 siRNA significantly reduced basal and PA-induced FABP4 expression. Overexpression of wild-type FOXO1 and constitutively active FOXO1 significantly increased FABP4 expression, whereas dominant negative FOXO1 dramatically decreased FABP4 expression. Metformin reduced FABP4 expression by promoting FOXO1 nuclear exclusion and subsequently inhibiting its activity. Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by repressing FOXO1-mediated FABP4 transcription. Thus, metformin may have a protective effect against lipid accumulation in macrophages and may serve as a therapeutic agent for preventing and treating atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome.

  15. Metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by inhibiting FOXO1-mediated transcription of fatty acid-binding protein 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jun [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Ren, Pingping; Zhang, Lin [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Wang, Xing Li [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Chen, Li [Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Shen, Ying H., E-mail: hyshen@bcm.edu [Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke' s Episcopal Hospital, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-02-26

    Objective: The accumulation of lipids in macrophages contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Strategies to reduce lipid accumulation in macrophages may have therapeutic potential for preventing and treating atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications. The antidiabetic drug metformin has been reported to reduce lipid accumulation in adipocytes. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on lipid accumulation in macrophages and investigated the mechanisms involved. Methods and results: We observed that metformin significantly reduced palmitic acid (PA)-induced intracellular lipid accumulation in macrophages. Metformin promoted the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-1), while reduced the expression of fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) which was involved in PA-induced lipid accumulation. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that metformin regulates FABP4 expression at the transcriptional level. We identified forkhead transcription factor FOXO1 as a positive regulator of FABP4 expression. Inhibiting FOXO1 expression with FOXO1 siRNA significantly reduced basal and PA-induced FABP4 expression. Overexpression of wild-type FOXO1 and constitutively active FOXO1 significantly increased FABP4 expression, whereas dominant negative FOXO1 dramatically decreased FABP4 expression. Metformin reduced FABP4 expression by promoting FOXO1 nuclear exclusion and subsequently inhibiting its activity. Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that metformin reduces lipid accumulation in macrophages by repressing FOXO1-mediated FABP4 transcription. Thus, metformin may have a protective effect against lipid accumulation in macrophages and may serve as a therapeutic agent for preventing and treating atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome.

  16. Burkholderia cenocepacia type VI secretion system mediates escape of type II secreted proteins into the cytoplasm of infected macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosales-Reyes

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that survives intracellularly in macrophages and causes serious respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. We have previously shown that bacterial survival occurs in bacteria-containing membrane vacuoles (BcCVs resembling arrested autophagosomes. Intracellular bacteria stimulate IL-1β secretion in a caspase-1-dependent manner and induce dramatic changes to the actin cytoskeleton and the assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex onto the BcCV membrane. A Type 6 secretion system (T6SS is required for these phenotypes but surprisingly it is not required for the maturation arrest of the BcCV. Here, we show that macrophages infected with B. cenocepacia employ the NLRP3 inflammasome to induce IL-1β secretion and pyroptosis. Moreover, IL-1β secretion by B. cenocepacia-infected macrophages is suppressed in deletion mutants unable to produce functional Type VI, Type IV, and Type 2 secretion systems (SS. We provide evidence that the T6SS mediates the disruption of the BcCV membrane, which allows the escape of proteins secreted by the T2SS into the macrophage cytoplasm. This was demonstrated by the activity of fusion derivatives of the T2SS-secreted metalloproteases ZmpA and ZmpB with adenylcyclase. Supporting this notion, ZmpA and ZmpB are required for efficient IL-1β secretion in a T6SS dependent manner. ZmpA and ZmpB are also required for the maturation arrest of the BcCVs and bacterial intra-macrophage survival in a T6SS-independent fashion. Our results uncover a novel mechanism for inflammasome activation that involves cooperation between two bacterial secretory pathways, and an unanticipated role for T2SS-secreted proteins in intracellular bacterial survival.

  17. Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) diminishes lipid droplet-coating proteins leading to lipolysis in adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamura, Yoshihiro; Mori, Mayumi; Nakashima, Katsuhiko [Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine for Pathogenesis, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mikami, Toshiyuki; Murayama, Katsuhisa [Genomic Science Laboratories, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co. Ltd., 3-1-98 Kasugadenaka, Konohana-ku, Osaka 554-0022 (Japan); Arai, Satoko [Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine for Pathogenesis, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Miyazaki, Toru, E-mail: tm@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine for Pathogenesis, Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM induces lipolysis in a distinct manner from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM ablates activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM reduces mRNA levels of lipid-droplet coating proteins leading to lipolysis. -- Abstract: Under fasting conditions, triacylglycerol in adipose tissue undergoes lipolysis to supply fatty acids as energy substrates. Such lipolysis is regulated by hormones, which activate lipases via stimulation of specific signalling cascades. We previously showed that macrophage-derived soluble protein, AIM induces obesity-associated lipolysis, triggering chronic inflammation in fat tissue which causes insulin resistance. However, the mechanism of how AIM mediates lipolysis remains unknown. Here we show that AIM induces lipolysis in a manner distinct from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis, without activation or augmentation of lipases. In vivo and in vitro, AIM did not enhance phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in adipocytes, a hallmark of hormone-dependent lipolysis activation. Similarly, adipose tissue from obese AIM-deficient and wild-type mice showed comparable HSL phosphorylation. Consistent with the suppressive effect of AIM on fatty acid synthase activity, the amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids was reduced in adipocytes treated with AIM. This response ablated transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR{gamma}), leading to diminished gene expression of lipid-droplet coating proteins including fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) and Perilipin, which are indispensable for triacylglycerol storage in adipocytes. Accordingly, the lipolytic effect of AIM was overcome by a PPAR{gamma}-agonist or forced expression of FSP27, while it was synergized by a PPAR{gamma}-antagonist. Overall, distinct modes of lipolysis appear to take place in different physiological

  18. GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor decreases ?-N-acetylgalactosaminidase levels in advanced cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Branca, Jacopo JV; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Noakes, David; Eslinger, Robert; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    ?-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical disease progression. The administration of GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) to cancer patients with elevated levels of nagalase has been associated with a decrease of serum nagalase activity and with significant clinical benefits. Here, we report the results of the administration of GcMAF to a heterogeneous cohort ...

  19. Interaction with extracellular matrix proteins influences Lsh/Ity/Bcg (candidate Nramp) gene regulation of macrophage priming/activation for tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitrite release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formica, S; Roach, T I; Blackwell, J M

    1994-05-01

    The murine resistance gene Lsh/Ity/Bcg regulates activation of macrophages for tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-dependent production of nitric oxide mediating antimicrobial activity against Leishmania, Salmonella and Mycobacterium. As Lsh is differentially expressed in macrophages from different tissue sites, experiments were performed to determine whether interaction with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins would influence the macrophage TNF-alpha response. Plating of bone marrow-derived macrophages onto purified fibrinogen or fibronectin-rich L929 cell-derived matrices, but not onto mannan, was itself sufficient to stimulate TNF-alpha release, with significantly higher levels released from congenic B10.L-Lshr compared to C57BL/10ScSn (Lshs) macrophages. Only macrophages plated onto fibrinogen also released measurable levels of nitrites, again higher in Lshr compared to Lshs macrophages. Addition of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), but not bacterial lipopolysaccharide or mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan, as a second signal enhanced the TNF-alpha and nitrite responses of macrophages plated onto fibrinogen, particularly in the Lshr macrophages. Interaction with fibrinogen and fibronectin also primed macrophages for an enhanced TNF-alpha response to leishmanial parasites, but this was only translated into enhanced nitrite responses in the presence of IFN-gamma. In these experiments, Lshr macrophages remained superior in their TNF-alpha responses throughout, but to a degree which reflected the magnitude of the difference observed on ECM alone. Hence, the specificity for the enhanced TNF-alpha responses of Lshr macrophages lay in their interaction with fibrinogen and fibronectin ECM, while a differential nitrite response was only observed with fibrinogen and/or IFN-gamma. The results are discussed in relation to the possible function of the recently cloned candidate gene Nramp, which has structural identity to eukaryote transporters and an N-terminal cytoplasmic

  20. Signal regulatory protein α associated with the progression of oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma regulates phenotype switch of macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaojing; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Rui; Zhou, Gang

    2016-12-06

    Signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) is a cell-surface protein expressed on macrophages that are regarded as an important component of the tumor microenvironment. The expression of SIRPα in oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and further explored the role of SIRPα on the phenotype, phagocytosis ability, migration, and invasion of macrophages in OSCC were investigated. The expression of SIRPα in OLK was higher than in OSCC, correlating with the expression of CD68 and CD163 on macrophages. After cultured with the conditioned media of oral cancer cells, the expression of SIRPα on THP-1 cells was decreased gradually. In co-culture system, macrophages were induced into M2 phenotype by oral cancer cells. Blockade of SIRPα inhibited phagocytosis ability and IL-6, TNF-α productions of macrophages. In addition, the proliferation, migration, and IL-10, TGF-β productions of macrophages were upregulated after blockade of SIRPα. Macrophages upregulated the expression of SIRPα and phagocytosis ability, and inhibited the migration and invasion when the activation of NF-κB was inhibited by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate ammonium (PDTC). Hence, SIRPα might play an important role in the progression of OLK and oral cancer, and could be a pivotal therapeutic target in OSCC by regulating the phenotype of macrophages via targeting NF-κB.

  1. The trypanocidal benznidazole promotes adaptive response to oxidative injury: Involvement of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and multidrug resistance associated protein 2 (MRP2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigalli, Juan Pablo; Perdomo, Virginia Gabriela; Ciriaci, Nadia; Francés, Daniel Eleazar Antonio; Ronco, María Teresa; Bataille, Amy Michele; Ghanem, Carolina Inés; Ruiz, María Laura; Manautou, José Enrique; Catania, Viviana Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a frequent cause underlying drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Benznidazole (BZL) is the only trypanocidal agent available for treatment of Chagas disease in endemic areas. Its use is associated with side effects, including increases in biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. However, BZL potential to cause oxidative stress has been poorly investigated. Here, we evaluated the effect of a pharmacologically relevant BZL concentration (200 μM) at different time points on redox status and the counteracting mechanisms in the human hepatic cell line HepG2. BZL increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 1 and 3 h of exposure, returning to normality at 24 h. Additionally, BZL increased glutathione peroxidase activity at 12 h and the oxidized glutathione/total glutathione (GSSG/GSSG + GSH) ratio that reached a peak at 24 h. Thus, an enhanced detoxification of peroxide and GSSG formation could account for ROS normalization. GSSG/GSSG + GSH returned to control values at 48 h. Expression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and GSSG efflux via MRP2 were induced by BZL at 24 and 48 h, explaining normalization of GSSG/GSSG + GSH. BZL activated the nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), already shown to modulate MRP2 expression in response to oxidative stress. Nrf2 participation was confirmed using Nrf2-knockout mice in which MRP2 mRNA expression was not affected by BZL. In summary, we demonstrated a ROS increase by BZL in HepG2 cells and a glutathione peroxidase- and MRP2 driven counteracting mechanism, being Nrf2 a key modulator of this response. Our results could explain hepatic alterations associated with BZL therapy. - Highlights: • BZL triggers a redox imbalance in the human hepatic cell line HepG2. • Concomitantly BZL triggers compensatory mechanisms to alleviate the redox injury. • Response mechanisms comprise an enhanced glutathione peroxidase and MRP2 activity. • Transcription factor Nrf2 plays a key role orchestrating

  2. Real-life prevalence of resistance-associated variants against non-structural protein 5A inhibitors and efficiency of Daclatasvir + Asunaprevir therapy in Korean patients with genotype 1b hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jung Il; Lee, Kwan Sik; Kim, Ja Kyung

    2017-08-24

    Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treatment are tolerable and highly effective in a shorter period of time than before. However, resistance-associated variants (RAVs) can affect the efficacy of DAAs. The aim of this study was to investigate the real-life prevalence of RAVs against non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) inhibitors in Korean patients with genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C. All consecutive patients with CHC genotype 1b who underwent a RAV test at a single referral hospital were enrolled. A total of 142 patients (male 53, female 89) were tested for RAVs. The average age of the patients was 58 years. Liver cirrhosis was found in 34.5% (49/142) of patients, and 19.0% (29/142) of patients had previously undergone interferon-based treatment. Twenty-nine patients (20.4%) had RAVs (Y93 or L31). Y93H, L31, or Y93H with L31 were detected in 22 (15.5%), 8 (5.6%), and 1 (0.7%) patients, respectively. The presence of RAV was not affected by previous interferon-based treatment or by the existence of liver cirrhosis. Among 113 patients without baseline NS5A RAVs, 72 patients started daclatasvir (DCV) + asunaprevir (ASV) treatment and 95% (68/72) patients achieved virologic response at week 4. Virologic response at end of treatment and sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after treatment were achieved by 94% (68/72) and 94% (68/72), respectively. In Korean patients with genotype 1b CHC, 20.4% (29 of 142) of patients showed RAVs against NS5A inhibitors. Patient without RAVs who received treatment with DCV + ASV showed high virologic response rates in Korea.

  3. The trypanocidal benznidazole promotes adaptive response to oxidative injury: Involvement of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and multidrug resistance associated protein 2 (MRP2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigalli, Juan Pablo [Institute of Experimental Physiology (IFISE-CONICET), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacoepidemiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Perdomo, Virginia Gabriela; Ciriaci, Nadia; Francés, Daniel Eleazar Antonio; Ronco, María Teresa [Institute of Experimental Physiology (IFISE-CONICET), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Bataille, Amy Michele [University of Connecticut, School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Storrs, CT (United States); Ghanem, Carolina Inés [Institute of Pharmacological Investigations (ININFA-CONICET), University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ruiz, María Laura [Institute of Experimental Physiology (IFISE-CONICET), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Manautou, José Enrique [University of Connecticut, School of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Storrs, CT (United States); Catania, Viviana Alicia, E-mail: vcatania@fbioyf.unr.edu.ar [Institute of Experimental Physiology (IFISE-CONICET), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)

    2016-08-01

    Oxidative stress is a frequent cause underlying drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Benznidazole (BZL) is the only trypanocidal agent available for treatment of Chagas disease in endemic areas. Its use is associated with side effects, including increases in biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. However, BZL potential to cause oxidative stress has been poorly investigated. Here, we evaluated the effect of a pharmacologically relevant BZL concentration (200 μM) at different time points on redox status and the counteracting mechanisms in the human hepatic cell line HepG2. BZL increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 1 and 3 h of exposure, returning to normality at 24 h. Additionally, BZL increased glutathione peroxidase activity at 12 h and the oxidized glutathione/total glutathione (GSSG/GSSG + GSH) ratio that reached a peak at 24 h. Thus, an enhanced detoxification of peroxide and GSSG formation could account for ROS normalization. GSSG/GSSG + GSH returned to control values at 48 h. Expression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and GSSG efflux via MRP2 were induced by BZL at 24 and 48 h, explaining normalization of GSSG/GSSG + GSH. BZL activated the nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), already shown to modulate MRP2 expression in response to oxidative stress. Nrf2 participation was confirmed using Nrf2-knockout mice in which MRP2 mRNA expression was not affected by BZL. In summary, we demonstrated a ROS increase by BZL in HepG2 cells and a glutathione peroxidase- and MRP2 driven counteracting mechanism, being Nrf2 a key modulator of this response. Our results could explain hepatic alterations associated with BZL therapy. - Highlights: • BZL triggers a redox imbalance in the human hepatic cell line HepG2. • Concomitantly BZL triggers compensatory mechanisms to alleviate the redox injury. • Response mechanisms comprise an enhanced glutathione peroxidase and MRP2 activity. • Transcription factor Nrf2 plays a key role orchestrating

  4. Tumor Cells and Tumor-Associated Macrophages: Secreted Proteins as Potential Targets for Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Baay, Marc; Brouwer, Anja; Pauwels, Patrick; Peeters, Marc; Lardon, Filip

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory pathways, meant to defend the organism against infection and injury, as a byproduct, can promote an environment which favors tumor growth and metastasis. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which constitute a significant part of the tumor-infiltrating immune cells, have been linked to the growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis of a variety of cancers, most likely through polarization of TAMs to the M2 (alternative) phenotype. The interaction between tumor cells and macrophages pro...

  5. Effect of Bothrops alternatus snake venom on macrophage phagocytosis and superoxide production: participation of protein kinase C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Setubal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Envenomations caused by different species of Bothrops snakes result in severe local tissue damage, hemorrhage, pain, myonecrosis, and inflammation with a significant leukocyte accumulation at the bite site. However, the activation state of leukocytes is still unclear. According to clinical cases and experimental work, the local effects observed in envenenomation by Bothrops alternatus are mainly the appearance of edema, hemorrhage, and necrosis. In this study we investigated the ability of Bothrops alternatus crude venom to induce macrophage activation. At 6 to 100 ¼g/mL, BaV is not toxic to thioglycollate-elicited macrophages; at 3 and 6 ¼g/mL, it did not interfere in macrophage adhesion or detachment. Moreover, at concentrations of 1.5, 3, and 6 ¼g/mL the venom induced an increase in phagocytosis via complement receptor one hour after incubation. Pharmacological treatment of thioglycollate-elicited macrophages with staurosporine, a protein kinase (PKC inhibitor, abolished phagocytosis, suggesting that PKC may be involved in the increase of serum-opsonized zymosan phagocytosis induced by BaV. Moreover, BaV also induced the production of anion superoxide (O2_ by thioglycollate-elicited macrophages. This BaV stimulated superoxide production was abolished after treating the cells with staurosporine, indicating that PKC is an important signaling pathway for the production of this radical. Based on these results, we suggest that phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species are involved in the pathogenesis of local tissue damage characteristic of Bothrops spp. envenomations.

  6. Silencing of OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) modifies the macrophage transcriptome, nucleoporin p62 distribution, and migration capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Béaslas, Olivier; Vihervaara, Terhi; Li, Jiwei; Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka; Yan, Daoguang; Olkkonen, Vesa M.

    2012-01-01

    ORP8 is an oxysterol/cholesterol binding protein anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear envelope, and is abundantly expressed in the macrophage. We created and characterized mouse RAW264.7 macrophages with ORP8 stably silenced using shRNA lentiviruses. A microarray transcriptome and gene ontology pathway analysis revealed significant alterations in several nuclear pathways and ones associated with centrosome and microtubule organization. ORP8 knockdown resulted in increased expression and altered subcellular distribution of an interaction partner of ORP8, nucleoporin NUP62, with an intranuclear localization aspect and association with cytoplasmic vesicular structures and lamellipodial edges of the cells. Moreover, ORP8 silenced cells displayed enhanced migration, and a more pronounced microtubule cytoskeleton than controls expressing a non-targeting shRNA. ORP8 was shown to compete with Exo70 for interaction with NUP62, and NUP62 knockdown abolished the migration enhancement of ORP8-silenced cells, suggesting that the endogenous ORP8 suppresses migration via binding to NUP62. As a conclusion, the present study reveals new, unexpected aspects of ORP8 function in macrophages not directly involving lipid metabolism, but rather associated with nuclear functions, microtubule organization, and migration capacity. -- Highlights: ► The phenotype of Raw264.7 macrophage with ORP8 silenced is characterized. ► ORP8 silencing alters mRNA levels of nuclear and microtubule/centrosome pathways. ► ORP8 silencing results in increased expression and altered distribution of NUP62. ► ORP8 silenced macrophages show enhanced migration and altered microtubule cytoskeleton. ► ORP8 competes in vitro with Exo70 for binding to NUP62.

  7. Silencing of OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) modifies the macrophage transcriptome, nucleoporin p62 distribution, and migration capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaslas, Olivier; Vihervaara, Terhi [Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, FI-00290 Helsinki (Finland); Li, Jiwei [Department of Biology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka [FIMM, Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, FI-00290 Helsinki (Finland); National Institute for Health and Welfare, Public Health Genomics Unit, FI-00290 Helsinki (Finland); Yan, Daoguang [Department of Biology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Olkkonen, Vesa M., E-mail: vesa.olkkonen@helsinki.fi [Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, FI-00290 Helsinki (Finland); Institute of Biomedicine, Anatomy, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 (Finland)

    2012-09-10

    ORP8 is an oxysterol/cholesterol binding protein anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear envelope, and is abundantly expressed in the macrophage. We created and characterized mouse RAW264.7 macrophages with ORP8 stably silenced using shRNA lentiviruses. A microarray transcriptome and gene ontology pathway analysis revealed significant alterations in several nuclear pathways and ones associated with centrosome and microtubule organization. ORP8 knockdown resulted in increased expression and altered subcellular distribution of an interaction partner of ORP8, nucleoporin NUP62, with an intranuclear localization aspect and association with cytoplasmic vesicular structures and lamellipodial edges of the cells. Moreover, ORP8 silenced cells displayed enhanced migration, and a more pronounced microtubule cytoskeleton than controls expressing a non-targeting shRNA. ORP8 was shown to compete with Exo70 for interaction with NUP62, and NUP62 knockdown abolished the migration enhancement of ORP8-silenced cells, suggesting that the endogenous ORP8 suppresses migration via binding to NUP62. As a conclusion, the present study reveals new, unexpected aspects of ORP8 function in macrophages not directly involving lipid metabolism, but rather associated with nuclear functions, microtubule organization, and migration capacity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phenotype of Raw264.7 macrophage with ORP8 silenced is characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ORP8 silencing alters mRNA levels of nuclear and microtubule/centrosome pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ORP8 silencing results in increased expression and altered distribution of NUP62. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ORP8 silenced macrophages show enhanced migration and altered microtubule cytoskeleton. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ORP8 competes in vitro with Exo70 for binding to NUP62.

  8. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) in macrophage biology and cardiovascular disease. A redox-regulated master controller of monocyte function and macrophage phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong Seok; Asmis, Reto

    2017-08-01

    MAPK pathways play a critical role in the activation of monocytes and macrophages by pathogens, signaling molecules and environmental cues and in the regulation of macrophage function and plasticity. MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) has emerged as the main counter-regulator of MAPK signaling in monocytes and macrophages. Loss of MKP-1 in monocytes and macrophages in response to metabolic stress leads to dysregulation of monocyte adhesion and migration, and gives rise to dysfunctional, proatherogenic monocyte-derived macrophages. Here we review the properties of this redox-regulated dual-specificity MAPK phosphatase and the role of MKP-1 in monocyte and macrophage biology and cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of vitamin D(3)-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) on angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Shigeru; Mochizuki, Yasushi; Miyata, Yasuyoshi; Kanetake, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Nobuto

    2002-09-04

    The vitamin D(3)-binding protein (Gc protein)-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) activates tumoricidal macrophages against a variety of cancers indiscriminately. We investigated whether GcMAF also acts as an antiangiogenic factor on endothelial cells. The effects of GcMAF on angiogenic growth factor-induced cell proliferation, chemotaxis, and tube formation were examined in vitro by using cultured endothelial cells (murine IBE cells, porcine PAE cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells [HUVECs]) and in vivo by using a mouse cornea micropocket assay. Blocking monoclonal antibodies to CD36, a receptor for the antiangiogenic factor thrombospondin-1, which is also a possible receptor for GcMAF, were used to investigate the mechanism of GcMAF action. GcMAF inhibited the endothelial cell proliferation, chemotaxis, and tube formation that were all stimulated by fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), vascular endothelial growth factor-A, or angiopoietin 2. FGF-2-induced neovascularization in murine cornea was also inhibited by GcMAF. Monoclonal antibodies against murine and human CD36 receptor blocked the antiangiogenic action of GcMAF on the angiogenic factor stimulation of endothelial cell chemotaxis. In addition to its ability to activate tumoricidal macrophages, GcMAF has direct antiangiogenic effects on endothelial cells independent of tissue origin. The antiangiogenic effects of GcMAF may be mediated through the CD36 receptor.

  10. The cellular prion protein negatively regulates phagocytosis and cytokine expression in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    Full Text Available The cellular prion protein (PrP(C is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchored glycoprotein on the cell surface. Previous studies have demonstrated contradictory roles for PrP(C in connection with the phagocytic ability of macrophages. In the present work, we investigated the function of PrP(C in phagocytosis and cytokine expression in bone marrow-derived macrophages infected with Escherichia coli. E. coli infection induced an increase in the PRNP mRNA level. Knockout of PrP(C promoted bacterial uptake; upregulated Rab5, Rab7, and Eea1 mRNA expression; and increased the recruitment of lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2 to phagosomes, suggesting enhanced microbicidal activity. Remarkably, knockout of PrP(C suppressed the proliferation of internalized bacteria and increased the expression of cytokines such as interleukin-1β. Collectively, our data reveal an important role of PrP(C as a negative regulator for phagocytosis, phagosome maturation, cytokine expression, and macrophage microbicidal activity.

  11. Macrophage Immune Response Suppression by Recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens, the ESAT-6, CFP-10, and ESAT-6/CFP-10 Fusion Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghatoleslam, Atefeh; Hemmati, Mina; Ebadat, Saeedeh; Movahedi, Bahram; Mostafavi-Pour, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Macrophage immune responses are affected by the secretory proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). This study aimed to examine the immune responses of macrophages to Mtb secretory antigens, namely ESAT-6, CFP-10, and ESAT-6/CFP-10. Methods: THP-1 cells (a human monocytic cell line) were cultured and differentiated to macrophages by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The cytotoxicity of the recombinant Mtb proteins was assessed using the MTT assay. Two important immune responses of macrophages, namely NO and ROS production, were measured in response to the ESAT-6, CFP-10, and ESAT-6/CFP-10 antigens. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with SPSS, version 16, and considered significant at Pproteins markedly reduced macrophage immune response. The treatment of the THP-1-differentiated cells with ESAT-6, CFP-10, and ESAT-6/CFP-10 reduced NO and ROS production. The treated THP-1-differentiated cells exhibited less inducible NO synthase activity than did the untreated cells. No toxic effect on macrophage viability was observed for the applied proteins at the different concentrations. Conclusion: It seems that the decline in macrophage immune response is due to the suppression of NO and ROS production pathways without any effect on cell viability. PMID:27365551

  12. Structurally well-defined macrophage activating factor derived from vitamin D3-binding protein has a potent adjuvant activity for immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R

    1998-06-01

    Freund's adjuvant produced severe inflammation that augments development of antibodies. Thus, mixed administration of antigens with adjuvant was not required as long as inflammation was induced in the hosts. Since macrophage activation for phagocytosis and antigen processing is the first step of antibody development, inflammation-primed macrophage activation plays a major role in immune development. Therefore, macrophage activating factor should act as an adjuvant for immunization. The inflammation-primed macrophage activation process is the major macrophage activating cascade that requires participation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein (DBP; human DBP is known as Gc protein) and glycosidases of B and T lymphocytes. Stepwise incubation of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase efficiently generated the most potent macrophage activating factor (designated GcMAF) we have ever encountered. Administration of GcMAF (20 or 100 pg/mouse) resulted in stimulation of the progenitor cells for extensive mitogenesis and activation of macrophages. Administration of GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) along with immunization of mice with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) produced a large number of anti-SRBC antibody secreting splenic cells in 2-4 days. Thus, GcMAF has a potent adjuvant activity for immunization. Although malignant tumours are poorly immunogenic, 4 days after GcMAF-primed immunization of mice with heat-killed Ehrlich ascites tumour cells, the ascites tumour was no longer transplantable in these mice.

  13. Functional consequences of the macrophage stimulating protein 689C inflammatory bowel disease risk allele.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E Kauder

    Full Text Available Macrophage stimulating protein (MSP is a serum growth factor that binds to and activates the receptor tyrosine kinase, Recepteur d'Origine Nantais (RON. A non-synonymous coding variant in MSP (689C has been associated with genetic susceptibility to both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, two major types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD characterized by chronic inflammation of the digestive tract. We investigated the consequences of this polymorphism for MSP-RON pathway activity and IBD pathogenesis.RON expression patterns were examined on mouse and human cells and tissues under normal and disease conditions to identify cell types regulated by MSP-RON. Recombinant MSP variants were tested for their ability to bind and stimulate RON and undergo proteolytic activation. MSP concentrations were quantified in the serum of individuals carrying the MSP 689R and 689C alleles.In intestinal tissue, RON was primarily expressed by epithelial cells under normal and disease conditions. The 689C polymorphism had no impact on the ability of MSP to bind to or signal through RON. In a cohort of normal individuals and IBD patients, carriers of the 689C polymorphism had lower concentrations of MSP in their serum.By reducing the quantities of circulating MSP, the 689C polymorphism, or a variant in linkage disequilibrium with this polymorphism, may impact RON ligand availability and thus receptor activity. Given the known functions of RON in regulating wound healing and our analysis of RON expression patterns in human intestinal tissue, these data suggest that decreased RON activity may impact the efficiency of epithelial repair and thus underlie the increased IBD susceptibility associated with the MSP 689C allele.

  14. Multiple efflux pumps are involved in the transepithelial transport of colchicine: combined effect of p-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 leads to decreased intestinal absorption throughout the entire small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Sabit, Hairat; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to thoroughly characterize the efflux transporters involved in the intestinal permeability of the oral microtubule polymerization inhibitor colchicine and to evaluate the role of these transporters in limiting its oral absorption. The effects of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitors on colchicine bidirectional permeability were studied across Caco-2 cell monolayers, inhibiting one versus multiple transporters simultaneously. Colchicine permeability was then investigated in different regions of the rat small intestine by in situ single-pass perfusion. Correlation with the P-gp/MRP2 expression level throughout different intestinal segments was investigated by immunoblotting. P-gp inhibitors [N-(4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)ethyl]-phenyl)-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide (GF120918), verapamil, and quinidine], and MRP2 inhibitors [3-[[3-[2-(7-chloroquinolin-2-yl)vinyl]phenyl]-(2-dimethylcarbamoylethylsulfanyl)methylsulfanyl] propionic acid (MK571), indomethacin, and p-aminohippuric acid (p-AH)] significantly increased apical (AP)-basolateral (BL) and decreased BL-AP Caco-2 transport in a concentration-dependent manner. No effect was obtained by the BCRP inhibitors fumitremorgin C (FTC) and pantoprazole. P-gp/MRP2 inhibitors combinations greatly reduced colchicine mucosal secretion, including complete abolishment of efflux (GF120918/MK571). Colchicine displayed low (versus metoprolol) and constant permeability along the rat small-intestine. GF120918 significantly increased colchicine permeability in the ileum with no effect in the jejunum, whereas MK571 augmented jejunal permeability without changing the ileal transport. The GF120918/MK571 combination caused an effect similar to that of MK571 alone in the jejunum and to that of GF120918 alone in the ileum. P-gp expression followed a gradient increasing from

  15. Macrophages offer a paradigm switch for CNS delivery of therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyachko, Natalia L; Haney, Matthew J; Zhao, Yuling; Manickam, Devika S; Mahajan, Vivek; Suresh, Poornima; Hingtgen, Shawn D; Mosley, R Lee; Gendelman, Howard E; Kabanov, Alexander V; Batrakova, Elena V

    2014-07-01

    Active targeted transport of the nanoformulated redox enzyme, catalase, in macrophages attenuates oxidative stress and as such increases survival of dopaminergic neurons in animal models of Parkinson's disease. Optimization of the drug formulation is crucial for the successful delivery in living cells. We demonstrated earlier that packaging of catalase into a polyion complex micelle ('nanozyme') with a synthetic polyelectrolyte block copolymer protected the enzyme against degradation in macrophages and improved therapeutic outcomes. We now report the manufacture of nanozymes with superior structure and therapeutic indices. Synthesis, characterization and therapeutic efficacy of optimal cell-based nanoformulations are evaluated. A formulation design for drug carriers typically works to avoid entrapment in monocytes and macrophages focusing on small-sized nanoparticles with a polyethylene glycol corona (to provide a stealth effect). By contrast, the best nanozymes for delivery in macrophages reported in this study have a relatively large size (≈ 200 nm), which resulted in improved loading capacity and release from macrophages. Furthermore, the cross-linking of nanozymes with the excess of a nonbiodegradable linker ensured their low cytotoxicity, and efficient catalase protection in cell carriers. Finally, the 'alternatively activated' macrophage phenotype (M2) utilized in these studies did not promote further inflammation in the brain, resulting in a subtle but statistically significant effect on neuronal regeneration and repair in vivo. The optimized cross-linked nanozyme loaded into macrophages reduced neuroinflammatory responses and increased neuronal survival in mice. Importantly, the approach for nanoformulation design for cell-mediated delivery is different from the common requirements for injectable formulations.

  16. Macrophages offer a paradigm switch for CNS delivery of therapeutic proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyachko, Natalia L; Haney, Matthew J; Zhao, Yuling; Manickam, Devika S; Mahajan, Vivek; Suresh, Poornima; Hingtgen, Shawn D; Mosley, R Lee; Gendelman, Howard E; Kabanov, Alexander V; Batrakova, Elena V

    2013-01-01

    Aims Active targeted transport of the nanoformulated redox enzyme, catalase, in macrophages attenuates oxidative stress and as such increases survival of dopaminergic neurons in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. Optimization of the drug formulation is crucial for the successful delivery in living cells. We demonstrated earlier that packaging of catalase into a polyion complex micelle (‘nanozyme’) with a synthetic polyelectrolyte block copolymer protected the enzyme against degradation in macrophages and improved therapeutic outcomes. We now report the manufacture of nanozymes with superior structure and therapeutic indices. Methods Synthesis, characterization and therapeutic efficacy of optimal cell-based nanoformulations are evaluated. Results A formulation design for drug carriers typically works to avoid entrapment in monocytes and macrophages focusing on small-sized nanoparticles with a polyethylene glycol corona (to provide a stealth effect). By contrast, the best nanozymes for delivery in macrophages reported in this study have a relatively large size (~200 nm), which resulted in improved loading capacity and release from macrophages. Furthermore, the cross-linking of nanozymes with the excess of a nonbiodegradable linker ensured their low cytotoxicity, and efficient catalase protection in cell carriers. Finally, the ‘alternatively activated’ macrophage phenotype (M2) utilized in these studies did not promote further inflammation in the brain, resulting in a subtle but statistically significant effect on neuronal regeneration and repair in vivo. Conclusion The optimized cross-linked nanozyme loaded into macrophages reduced neuroinflammatory responses and increased neuronal survival in mice. Importantly, the approach for nanoformulation design for cell-mediated delivery is different from the common requirements for injectable formulations. PMID:24237263

  17. Global protein phosphorylation dynamics during deoxynivalenol-induced ribotoxic stress response in the macrophage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Xiao [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Whitten, Douglas A. [Research Technology Support Facility, Proteomics Core, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wu, Ming [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Chan, Christina [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wilkerson, Curtis G. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Research Technology Support Facility, Proteomics Core, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Pestka, James J., E-mail: pestka@msu.edu [Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium that commonly contaminates food, is capable of activating mononuclear phagocytes of the innate immune system via a process termed the ribotoxic stress response (RSR). To encapture global signaling events mediating RSR, we quantified the early temporal (≤ 30 min) phosphoproteome changes that occurred in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage during exposure to a toxicologically relevant concentration of DON (250 ng/mL). Large-scale phosphoproteomic analysis employing stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in conjunction with titanium dioxide chromatography revealed that DON significantly upregulated or downregulated phosphorylation of 188 proteins at both known and yet-to-be functionally characterized phosphosites. DON-induced RSR is extremely complex and goes far beyond its prior known capacity to inhibit translation and activate MAPKs. Transcriptional regulation was the main target during early DON-induced RSR, covering over 20% of the altered phosphoproteins as indicated by Gene Ontology annotation and including transcription factors/cofactors and epigenetic modulators. Other biological processes impacted included cell cycle, RNA processing, translation, ribosome biogenesis, monocyte differentiation and cytoskeleton organization. Some of these processes could be mediated by signaling networks involving MAPK-, NFκB-, AKT- and AMPK-linked pathways. Fuzzy c-means clustering revealed that DON-regulated phosphosites could be discretely classified with regard to the kinetics of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. The cellular response networks identified provide a template for further exploration of the mechanisms of trichothecenemycotoxins and other ribotoxins, and ultimately, could contribute to improved mechanism-based human health risk assessment. - Highlights: ► Mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces immunotoxicity via ribotoxic stress response. ► SILAC phosphoproteomics using

  18. Gc-protein-derived macrophage activating factor counteracts the neuronal damage induced by oxaliplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morucci, Gabriele; Branca, Jacopo J V; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco; Paternostro, Ferdinando; Pacini, Alessandra; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Pacini, Stefania

    2015-02-01

    Oxaliplatin-based regimens are effective in metastasized advanced cancers. However, a major limitation to their widespread use is represented by neurotoxicity that leads to peripheral neuropathy. In this study we evaluated the roles of a proven immunotherapeutic agent [Gc-protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF)] in preventing or decreasing oxaliplatin-induced neuronal damage and in modulating microglia activation following oxaliplatin-induced damage. The effects of oxaliplatin and of a commercially available formula of GcMAF [oleic acid-GcMAF (OA-GcMAF)] were studied in human neurons (SH-SY5Y cells) and in human microglial cells (C13NJ). Cell density, morphology and viability, as well as production of cAMP and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), markers of neuron regeneration [neuromodulin or growth associated protein-43 (Gap-43)] and markers of microglia activation [ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1) and B7-2], were determined. OA-GcMAF reverted the damage inflicted by oxaliplatin on human neurons and preserved their viability. The neuroprotective effect was accompanied by increased intracellular cAMP production, as well as by increased expression of VEGF and neuromodulin. OA-GcMAF did not revert the effects of oxaliplatin on microglial cell viability. However, it increased microglial activation following oxaliplatin-induced damage, resulting in an increased expression of the markers Iba1 and B7-2 without any concomitant increase in cell number. When neurons and microglial cells were co-cultured, the presence of OA-GcMAF significantly counteracted the toxic effects of oxaliplatin. Our results demonstrate that OA-GcMAF, already used in the immunotherapy of advanced cancers, may significantly contribute to neutralizing the neurotoxicity induced by oxaliplatin, at the same time possibly concurring to an integrated anticancer effect. The association between these two powerful anticancer molecules would probably produce

  19. Global protein phosphorylation dynamics during deoxynivalenol-induced ribotoxic stress response in the macrophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Xiao; Whitten, Douglas A.; Wu, Ming; Chan, Christina; Wilkerson, Curtis G.; Pestka, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium that commonly contaminates food, is capable of activating mononuclear phagocytes of the innate immune system via a process termed the ribotoxic stress response (RSR). To encapture global signaling events mediating RSR, we quantified the early temporal (≤ 30 min) phosphoproteome changes that occurred in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage during exposure to a toxicologically relevant concentration of DON (250 ng/mL). Large-scale phosphoproteomic analysis employing stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in conjunction with titanium dioxide chromatography revealed that DON significantly upregulated or downregulated phosphorylation of 188 proteins at both known and yet-to-be functionally characterized phosphosites. DON-induced RSR is extremely complex and goes far beyond its prior known capacity to inhibit translation and activate MAPKs. Transcriptional regulation was the main target during early DON-induced RSR, covering over 20% of the altered phosphoproteins as indicated by Gene Ontology annotation and including transcription factors/cofactors and epigenetic modulators. Other biological processes impacted included cell cycle, RNA processing, translation, ribosome biogenesis, monocyte differentiation and cytoskeleton organization. Some of these processes could be mediated by signaling networks involving MAPK-, NFκB-, AKT- and AMPK-linked pathways. Fuzzy c-means clustering revealed that DON-regulated phosphosites could be discretely classified with regard to the kinetics of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. The cellular response networks identified provide a template for further exploration of the mechanisms of trichothecenemycotoxins and other ribotoxins, and ultimately, could contribute to improved mechanism-based human health risk assessment. - Highlights: ► Mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) induces immunotoxicity via ribotoxic stress response. ► SILAC phosphoproteomics using

  20. Recombinant Protein Truncation Strategy for Inducing Bactericidal Antibodies to the Macrophage Infectivity Potentiator Protein of Neisseria meningitidis and Circumventing Potential Cross-Reactivity with Human FK506-Binding Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Bielecka, Magdalena K.; Devos, Nathalie; Gilbert, Mélanie; Hung, Miao-Chiu; Weynants, Vincent; Heckels, John E.; Christodoulides, Myron

    2014-01-01

    A recombinant macrophage infectivity potentiator (rMIP) protein of Neisseria meningitidis induces significant serum bactericidal antibody production in mice and is a candidate meningococcal vaccine antigen. However, bioinformatics analysis of MIP showed some amino acid sequence similarity to human FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) in residues 166 to 252 located in the globular domain of the protein. To circumvent the potential concern over generating antibodies that could recognize human protein...

  1. Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Macrophages in Atherosclerosis with 18F-GE-180, a Radiotracer for Translocator Protein (TSPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Hellberg

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraplaque inflammation plays an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO expression is upregulated in activated macrophages, representing a potential target to identify inflamed atherosclerotic plaques. We preclinically evaluated 18F-GE-180, a novel third-generation TSPO radioligand, in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Methods. Nine hypercholesterolemic mice deficient in low density lipoprotein receptor and apolipoprotein B48 (LDLR−/−ApoB100/100 and six healthy C57BL/6N mice were injected with 10 MBq of 18F-GE-180. Specificity of binding was demonstrated in three LDLR−/−ApoB100/100 mice by injection of nonradioactive reference compound of 18F-GE-180 before 18F-GE-180. Dynamic 30-minute PET was performed followed by contrast-enhanced CT, and the mice were sacrificed at 60 minutes after injection. Tissue samples were obtained for ex vivo biodistribution measurements, and aortas were cut into serial cryosections for digital autoradiography. The presence of macrophages and TSPO was studied by immunohistochemistry. The 18F-GE-180 retention in plaque areas with different macrophage densities and lesion-free vessel wall were compared. Results. The LDLR−/−ApoB100/100 mice showed large, inflamed plaques in the aorta. Autoradiography revealed significantly higher 18F-GE-180 retention in macrophage-rich plaque areas than in noninflamed areas (count densities 150 ± 45 PSL/mm2 versus 51 ± 12 PSL/mm2, p<0.001. Prominent retention in the vessel wall without plaque was also observed (220 ± 41 PSL/mm2. Blocking with nonradioactive GE-180 diminished the difference in count densities between macrophage-rich and noninflamed areas in atherosclerotic plaques and lowered the count density in vessel wall without plaque. Conclusion. 18F-GE-180 shows specific uptake in macrophage-rich areas of atherosclerotic plaques in mice. However, retention in atherosclerotic lesions does not

  2. Usefulness of technetium-99m tetrofosmin liver imaging to detect hepatocellular carcinoma and related to expression of P-glycoprotein or multidrug resistance associated protein-a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, H.J.; Huang, W.T.; Tsai, C.S.; Chang, C.S.; Kao, A.

    2003-01-01

    Technetium-99m Tetrofsomin (Tc-TF) has been shown to be useful in identifying several types of tumors, such as breast, lung, and thyroid cancers. There was no report in the literature for Tc-TF uptake in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of Tc-TF liver imaging to detect HCC and investigate the relationship between Tc-TF liver imaging findings and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP) expression. Before any therapy, 22 patients with HCC were enrolled in this study. Tc-TF liver images were performed l0 minutes after intravenous injection of 20mCi Tc-TF. All patients had liver biopsy or surgery within l week after Tc-TF liver imaging. Immunohistochemical study of the biopsy or resected HCC specimens was performed using anti-human Pgp and MRP antibodies. Twenty of the 22 (90.9%) patients showed negative Tc-TF liver imaging results without significant Tc-TF uptake in HCC, whereas only the remaining 2 (9.1%) patients showed positive Tc-TF liver imaging results with significant Tc-TF uptake in HCC. Positive Pgp expression was observed in 13 of 20 patients with negative Tc-TF liver imaging results, whereas positive MRP expression was observed in 6 of the remaining 7 patients with negative both Tc-TF liver imaging results and Pgp expression. However, negative Pgp expression but positive MRP expression was observed in all of the remaining 2 patients with positive Tc-TF liver imaging results. The correlation between Tc-TF liver imaging findings and Pgp expression was significant and better than between Tc-TF liver imaging findings and MRP expression. Pgp or MRP expression in HCC may induce no significant Tc-TF uptake in HCC resulting in negative Tc-TF liver imaging findings. Therefore, Tc-TF liver imaging is potential to be a non-invasive method to predict Pgp or MRP expression in HCC. However, further studies with a larger series of patients and longer follow-up time are necessary to confirm

  3. Involvement of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance associated protein 1 in the transport of tanshinone IIB, a primary active diterpenoid quinone from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, across the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Xiao; Liang, Jun; Yu, Xi-Yong; Wen, Jing-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2007-08-01

    Tanshinone IIB (TSB) is a major constituent of Salvia miltiorrhiza, which is widely used in treatment of cardiovascular and central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as coronary heart disease and stroke. This study aimed to investigate the role of various drug transporters in the brain penetration of TSB using several in vitro and in vivo mouse and rat models. The uptake and efflux of TSB in rat primary microvascular endothelial cells (RBMVECs) were ATP-dependent and significantly altered in the presence of a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or multidrug resistance associated protein (Mrp1/2) inhibitor. A polarized transport of TSB was found in RBMVEC monolayers with facilitated efflux from the abluminal to luminal side. Addition of a P-gp inhibitor (e.g. verapamil) in both abluminal and luminal sides attenuated the polarized transport. In an in situ rat brain perfusion model, TSB crossed the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier at a greater rate than that for sucrose, and the brain penetration was increased in the presence of a P-gp or Mrp1/2 inhibitor. The brain levels of TSB were only about 30% of that in the plasma and it could be increased to up to 72% of plasma levels when verapamil, quinidine, or probenecid was co-administered in rats. The entry of TSB to CNS increased by 67-97% in rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion or treatment with the neurotoxin, quinolinic acid, compared to normal rats. Furthermore, The brain levels of TSB in mdr1a(-/-) and mrp1(-/-) mice were 28- to 2.6-fold higher than those in the wild-type mice. TSB has limited brain penetration through the BBB due to the contribution of P-gp and to a lesser extent of Mrp1 in rodents. Further studies are needed to confirm whether these corresponding transporters in humans are involved in limiting the penetration of TSB across the BBB and the clinical relevance.

  4. CD163-L1 is an endocytic macrophage protein strongly regulated by mediators in the inflammatory response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Jesper B; Nielsen, Marianne J; Reichhardt, Martin P

    2012-01-01

    CD163-L1 belongs to the group B scavenger receptor cysteine-rich family of proteins, where the CD163-L1 gene arose by duplication of the gene encoding the hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 in late evolution. The current data demonstrate that CD163-L1 is highly expressed and colocalizes with CD163...... on large subsets of macrophages, but in contrast to CD163 the expression is low or absent in monocytes and in alveolar macrophages, glia, and Kupffer cells. The expression of CD163-L1 increases when cultured monocytes are M-CSF stimulated to macrophages, and the expression is further increased by the acute......-phase mediator IL-6 and the anti-inflammatory mediator IL-10 but is suppressed by the proinflammatory mediators IL-4, IL-13, TNF-α, and LPS/IFN-γ. Furthermore, we show that CD163-L1 is an endocytic receptor, which internalizes independently of cross-linking through a clathrin-mediated pathway. Two cytoplasmic...

  5. Solute carrier protein family 11 member 1 (Slc11a1) activation efficiently inhibits Leishmania donovani survival in host macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nisha; Gedda, Mallikarjuna Rao; Tiwari, Neeraj; Singh, Suya P; Bajpai, Surabhi; Singh, Rakesh K

    2017-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar), a life threatening disease caused by L. donovani , is a latent threat to more than 147 million people living in disease endemic South East Asia region of the Indian subcontinent. The therapeutic option to control leishmanial infections are very limited, and at present comprise only two drugs, an antifungal amphotericin B and an antitumor miltefosine, which are also highly vulnerable for parasitic resistance. Therefore, identification and development of alternate control measures is an exigent requirement to control leishmanial infections. In this study, we report that functionally induced expression of solute carrier protein family 11 member 1 ( Slc11a1), a transmembrane divalent cationic transporter recruited on the surface of phagolysosomes after phagocytosis of parasites, effectively inhibits Leishmania donovani growth in host macrophages. Further, the increased Slc11a1 functionality also resulted in increased production of NOx, TNF-α and IL-12 by activated macrophages. The findings of this study signify the importance of interplay between Slc11a1 expression and macrophages activation that can be effectively used to control of Leishmania growth and survival.

  6. Structural definition of a potent macrophage activating factor derived from vitamin D3-binding protein with adjuvant activity for antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N

    1996-10-01

    Incubation of human vitamin D3-binding protein (Gc protein), with a mixture of immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase, efficiently generated a potent macrophage activating factor, a protein with N-acetylgalactosamine as the remaining sugar. Stepwise incubation of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase, and isolation of the intermediates with immobilized lectins, revealed that either sequence of hydrolysis of Gc glycoprotein by these glycosidases yields the macrophage-activating factor, implying that Gc protein carries a trisaccharide composed of N-acetylgalactosamine and dibranched galactose and sialic acid termini. A 3 hr incubation of mouse peritoneal macrophages with picomolar amounts of the enzymatically generated macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) resulted in a greatly enhanced phagocytic activity. Administration of a minute amount (10-50 pg/mouse) of GcMAF resulted in a seven- to nine-fold enhanced phagocytic activity of macrophages. Injection of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) along with GcMAF into mice produced a large number of anti-SRBC antibody secreting splenic cells in 2-4 days.

  7. Association of the macrophage activating factor (MAF) precursor activity with polymorphism in vitamin D-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Hideko; Sasaki, Hideyuki; Uto, Yoshihiro; Kubo, Shinichi; Hori, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    Serum vitamin D-binding protein (Gc protein or DBP) is a highly expressed polymorphic protein, which is a precursor of the inflammation-primed macrophage activating factor, GcMAF, by a cascade of carbohydrate processing reactions. In order to elucidate the relationship between Gc polymorphism and GcMAF precursor activity, we estimated the phagocytic ability of three homotypes of Gc protein, Gc1F-1F, Gc1S-1S and Gc2-2, through processing of their carbohydrate moiety. We performed Gc typing of human serum samples by isoelectric focusing (IEF). Gc protein from human serum was purified by affinity chromatography with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-sepharose. A phagocytosis assay of Gc proteins, modified using beta-glycosidase and sialidase, was carried out. The Gc1F-1F phenotype was revealed to possess Galbeta1-4GalNAc linkage by the analysis of GcMAF precursor activity using beta1-4 linkage-specific galactosidase from jack bean. The GcMAF precursor activity of the Gc1F-1F phenotype was highest among three Gc homotypes. The Gc polymorphism and carbohydrate diversity of Gc protein are significant for its pleiotropic effects.

  8. Sonicated Protein Fractions of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Induce Inflammatory Responses and Differential Gene Expression in a Murine Alveolar Macrophage Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damte, Dereje; Lee, Seung-Jin; Birhanu, Biruk Tesfaye; Suh, Joo-Won; Park, Seung-Chun

    2015-12-28

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is known to cause porcine enzootic pneumonia (EP), an important disease in swine production. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of sonicated protein fractions of M. hyopneumoniae on inflammatory response and gene expression in the murine alveolar macrophage MH-S cell line. The effects of sonicated protein fractions and intact M. hyopneumoniae on the gene expression of cytokines and iNOS were assessed using RT-PCR. The Annealing Control Primer (ACP)-based PCR method was used to screen differentially expressed genes. Increased transcription of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, COX-2, and iNOS mRNA was observed after exposure to the supernatant (SPT), precipitant (PPT), and intact M. hyopneumoniae protein. A time-dependent analysis of the mRNA expression revealed an upregulation after 4 h for IL-6 and iNOS and after 12 h for IL-1β and TNF-α, for both SPT and PPT; the fold change in COX-2 expression was less. A dose- and time-dependent correlation was observed in nitrite (NO) production for both protein fractions; however, there was no significant difference between the effects of the two protein fractions. In a differential gene analysis, PCR revealed differential expression for nine gene bands after 3 h of stimulation - only one gene was downregulated, while the remaining eight were upregulated. The results of this study provide insights that help improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of and macrophage defenses against M. hyopneumoniae assault, and suggest targets for future studies on therapeutic interventions for M. hyopneumoniae infections.

  9. Role of 14-3-3η protein on cardiac fatty acid metabolism and macrophage polarization after high fat diet induced type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, Remya; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Koga, Yusuke; Nakamura, Takashi; Harima, Meilei; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2017-07-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), a metabolic disorder, is one of the leading causes of mortality around the world and its pathogenesis involves cardiac inflammation and altered metabolic profile. Altered fatty acid metabolism during DCM can cause macrophage polarization in which inflammatory M1 phenotype dominates over the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. Hence, it is essential to identify a specific target, which could revert the metabolic profile and thereby reducing the M1 macrophage polarization. 14-3-3η protein has several cellular protective functions especially in the heart as plenty of reports available in various animal models of heart failure including diabetes mellitus. However, its role in the cardiac fatty acid metabolism and macrophage polarization remains unidentified. The present study has been designed to delineate the effect of cardiospecific dominant negative mutation of 14-3-3η protein (DN14-3-3) on various lipid metabolism related marker proteins expressions and cardiac macrophage phenotype in high fat diet (HFD) fed mice. Feeding HFD for 12 weeks has produced significant increase in body weight in the DN14-3-3 (TG) mice than C57BL6/J (WT) mice. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining analysis of the heart tissue has revealed an increase in the expression of markers of cardiac fatty acid synthesis related proteins in addition to the reduced expression of fatty acid oxidation related proteins in TG mice fed HFD than WT mice fed HFD. Furthermore, the M1 macrophage marker proteins were increasingly expressed while M2 markers expressions were reduced in the hearts of TG mice fed HFD. In conclusion, our current study has identified that there is a definite role for the 14-3-3η protein against the pathogenesis of heart failure via regulation of cardiac fatty acid metabolism and macrophage polarization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Functional relevance of protein glycosylation to the pro-inflammatory effects of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) on monocytes/macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Heng; Yuan, Wei; Liu, Jidong; He, Qing; Ding, Song; Pu, Jun; He, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) is an important pro-inflammatory protein involved in the cellular functions of monocytes/macrophages. We have hypothesized that high-level heterogeneousness of protein glycosylation of EMMPRIN may have functional relevance to its biological effects and affect the inflammatory activity of monocytes/macrophages. The glycosylation patterns of EMMPRIN expressed by monocytes/macrophages (THP-1 cells) in response to different extracellular stimuli were observed, and the structures of different glycosylation forms were identified. After the purification of highly- and less-glycosylated proteins respectively, the impacts of different glycosylation forms on the pro-inflammatory effects of EMMPRIN were examined in various aspects, such as cell adhesion to endothelial cells, cell migrations, cytokine expression, and activation of inflammatory signalling pathway. 1) It was mainly the highly-glycosylated form of EMMPRIN (HG-EMMPRIN) that increased after being exposed to inflammatory signals (PMA and H2O2). 2) Glycosylation of EMMPRIN in monocytes/macrophages led to N-linked-glycans being added to the protein, with the HG form containing complex-type glycans and the less-glycosylated form (LG) the simple type. 3) Only the HG-EMMPRIN but not the LG-EMMPRIN exhibited pro-inflammatory effects and stimulated inflammatory activities of the monocytes/macrophages (i.e., activation of ERK1/2 and NF-κB pathway, enhanced monocyte-endothelium adhesion, cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase -9 expression). Post-transcriptional glycosylation represents an important mechanism that determines the biological effects of EMMPRIN in monocytes/macrophages. Glycosylation of EMMPRIN may serve as a potential target for regulating the inflammatory activities of monocytes/macrophages.

  11. Functional relevance of protein glycosylation to the pro-inflammatory effects of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN on monocytes/macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Ge

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN is an important pro-inflammatory protein involved in the cellular functions of monocytes/macrophages. We have hypothesized that high-level heterogeneousness of protein glycosylation of EMMPRIN may have functional relevance to its biological effects and affect the inflammatory activity of monocytes/macrophages.The glycosylation patterns of EMMPRIN expressed by monocytes/macrophages (THP-1 cells in response to different extracellular stimuli were observed, and the structures of different glycosylation forms were identified. After the purification of highly- and less-glycosylated proteins respectively, the impacts of different glycosylation forms on the pro-inflammatory effects of EMMPRIN were examined in various aspects, such as cell adhesion to endothelial cells, cell migrations, cytokine expression, and activation of inflammatory signalling pathway.1 It was mainly the highly-glycosylated form of EMMPRIN (HG-EMMPRIN that increased after being exposed to inflammatory signals (PMA and H2O2. 2 Glycosylation of EMMPRIN in monocytes/macrophages led to N-linked-glycans being added to the protein, with the HG form containing complex-type glycans and the less-glycosylated form (LG the simple type. 3 Only the HG-EMMPRIN but not the LG-EMMPRIN exhibited pro-inflammatory effects and stimulated inflammatory activities of the monocytes/macrophages (i.e., activation of ERK1/2 and NF-κB pathway, enhanced monocyte-endothelium adhesion, cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase -9 expression.Post-transcriptional glycosylation represents an important mechanism that determines the biological effects of EMMPRIN in monocytes/macrophages. Glycosylation of EMMPRIN may serve as a potential target for regulating the inflammatory activities of monocytes/macrophages.

  12. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of macrophage growth locus A (MglA) protein from Francisella tularensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subburaman, Priadarsini; Austin, Brian P.; Shaw, Gary X.; Waugh, David S.; Ji, Xinhua

    2010-01-01

    The macrophage growth locus A (MglA) protein from F. tularensis crystallized in the hexagonal space group P6 1 or P6 5 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 125, c = 54 Å. Francisella tularensis, a potential bioweapon, causes a rare infectious disease called tularemia in humans and animals. The macrophage growth locus A (MglA) protein from F. tularensis associates with RNA polymerase to positively regulate the expression of multiple virulence factors that are required for its survival and replication within macrophages. The MglA protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 7.5 Å resolution at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory and belonged to the hexagonal space group P6 1 or P6 5 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 125, c = 54 Å

  13. An autoantibody against Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL): Possible involvement in the removal of CEL-modified proteins by macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mera, Katsumi; Nagai, Ryoji; Takeo, Kazuhiro; Izumi, Miyoko; Maruyama, Toru; Otagiri, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A higher amount of autoantibody against CEL than that of other AGEs was observed in human plasma. → The purified human anti-CEL autoantibody specifically reacted with CEL. → Anti-CEL antibody accelerated the uptake of 125 I-CEL-HSA by macrophage in vitro. → Endocytic uptake of 125 I-CEL-HSA by mice liver was accelerated in the presence of anti-CEL antibody. -- Abstract: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are believed to play a significant role in the development of diabetic complications. In this study, we measured the levels of autoantibodies against several AGE structures in healthy human plasma and investigated the physiological role of the autoantibodies. A high titer of the autoantibody against N ε -(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) was detected in human plasma compared with other AGE structures such as CML and pentosidine. The purified human anti-CEL autoantibody reacted with CEL-modified human serum albumin (CEL-HSA), but not CML-HSA. A rabbit polyclonal anti-CEL antibody, used as a model autoantibody against CEL, accelerated the uptake of CEL-HSA by macrophages, but did not enhance the uptake of native HSA. Furthermore, when 125 I-labeled CEL-HSA was injected into the tail vein of mice, accumulation of 125 I-CEL-HSA in the liver was accelerated by co-injection of the rabbit anti-CEL antibody. These results demonstrate that the autoantibody against CEL in plasma may play a role in the macrophage uptake of CEL-modified proteins.

  14. The Orosomucoid 1 protein is involved in the vitamin D – mediated macrophage de-activation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemelli, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.gemelli@unimore.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41125 Modena (Italy); Center for Regenerative Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Gottardi 100, 41125 Modena (Italy); Martello, Andrea; Montanari, Monica; Zanocco Marani, Tommaso; Salsi, Valentina; Zappavigna, Vincenzo; Parenti, Sandra; Vignudelli, Tatiana; Selmi, Tommaso; Ferrari, Sergio; Grande, Alexis [Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2013-12-10

    Orosomucoid 1 (ORM1), also named Alpha 1 acid glycoprotein A (AGP-A), is an abundant plasma protein characterized by anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties. The present study was designed to identify a possible correlation between ORM1 and Vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), a hormone exerting a widespread effect on cell proliferation, differentiation and regulation of the immune system. In particular, the data described here indicated that ORM1 is a 1,25(OH)2D3 primary response gene, characterized by the presence of a VDRE element inside the 1 kb sequence of its proximal promoter region. This finding was demonstrated with gene expression studies, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation and luciferase transactivation experiments and confirmed by VDR full length and dominant negative over-expression. In addition, several experiments carried out in human normal monocytes demonstrated that the 1,25(OH)2D3 – VDR – ORM1 pathway plays a functional role inside the macrophage de-activation process and that ORM1 may be considered as a signaling molecule involved in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and remodeling. - Highlights: • ORM1 is a Vitamin D primary response gene. • VD and its receptor VDR are involved in the de-activation process mediated by human resident macrophages. • The signaling pathway VD-VDR-ORM1 plays an important role in the control of macrophage de-activation process. • ORM1 may be defined as a signaling molecule implicated in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and remodeling.

  15. MIR144* inhibits antimicrobial responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human monocytes and macrophages by targeting the autophagy protein DRAM2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kyung; Lee, Hye-Mi; Park, Ki-Sun; Shin, Dong-Min; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Yi Sak; Suh, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Soo Yeon; Kim, In Soo; Kim, Jin-Man; Son, Ji-Woong; Sohn, Kyung Mok; Jung, Sung Soo; Chung, Chaeuk; Han, Sang-Bae; Yang, Chul-Su; Jo, Eun-Kyeong

    2017-02-01

    Autophagy is an important antimicrobial effector process that defends against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the human pathogen causing tuberculosis (TB). MicroRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous noncoding RNAs, are involved in various biological functions and act as post-transcriptional regulators to target mRNAs. The process by which miRNAs affect antibacterial autophagy and host defense mechanisms against Mtb infections in human monocytes and macrophages is largely uncharacterized. In this study, we show that Mtb significantly induces the expression of MIR144*/hsa-miR-144-5p, which targets the 3'-untranslated region of DRAM2 (DNA damage regulated autophagy modulator 2) in human monocytes and macrophages. Mtb infection downregulated, whereas the autophagy activators upregulated, DRAM2 expression in human monocytes and macrophages by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. In addition, overexpression of MIR144* decreased DRAM2 expression and formation of autophagosomes in human monocytes, whereas inhibition of MIR144* had the opposite effect. Moreover, the levels of MIR144* were elevated, whereas DRAM2 levels were reduced, in human peripheral blood cells and tissues in TB patients, indicating the clinical significance of MIR144* and DRAM2 in human TB. Notably, DRAM2 interacted with BECN1 and UVRAG, essential components of the autophagic machinery, leading to displacement of RUBCN from the BECN1 complex and enhancement of Ptdlns3K activity. Furthermore, MIR144* and DRAM2 were critically involved in phagosomal maturation and enhanced antimicrobial effects against Mtb. Our findings identify a previously unrecognized role of human MIR144* in the inhibition of antibacterial autophagy and the innate host immune response to Mtb. Additionally, these data reveal that DRAM2 is a key coordinator of autophagy activation that enhances antimicrobial activity against Mtb.

  16. The Orosomucoid 1 protein is involved in the vitamin D – mediated macrophage de-activation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemelli, Claudia; Martello, Andrea; Montanari, Monica; Zanocco Marani, Tommaso; Salsi, Valentina; Zappavigna, Vincenzo; Parenti, Sandra; Vignudelli, Tatiana; Selmi, Tommaso; Ferrari, Sergio; Grande, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Orosomucoid 1 (ORM1), also named Alpha 1 acid glycoprotein A (AGP-A), is an abundant plasma protein characterized by anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties. The present study was designed to identify a possible correlation between ORM1 and Vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), a hormone exerting a widespread effect on cell proliferation, differentiation and regulation of the immune system. In particular, the data described here indicated that ORM1 is a 1,25(OH)2D3 primary response gene, characterized by the presence of a VDRE element inside the 1 kb sequence of its proximal promoter region. This finding was demonstrated with gene expression studies, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation and luciferase transactivation experiments and confirmed by VDR full length and dominant negative over-expression. In addition, several experiments carried out in human normal monocytes demonstrated that the 1,25(OH)2D3 – VDR – ORM1 pathway plays a functional role inside the macrophage de-activation process and that ORM1 may be considered as a signaling molecule involved in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and remodeling. - Highlights: • ORM1 is a Vitamin D primary response gene. • VD and its receptor VDR are involved in the de-activation process mediated by human resident macrophages. • The signaling pathway VD-VDR-ORM1 plays an important role in the control of macrophage de-activation process. • ORM1 may be defined as a signaling molecule implicated in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and remodeling

  17. Reliable and inexpensive expression of large, tagged, exogenous proteins in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages using a second generation lentiviral system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Miller

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, researchers have struggled to efficiently express foreign DNA in primary macrophages, impeding research progress. The applications of lipofection, electroporation, microinjection, and viral-mediated transfer typically result in disruptions in macrophage differentiation and function, low expression levels of exogenous proteins, limited efficiency and high cell mortality. In this report, after extensive optimization, we present a method of expressing large tagged proteins at high efficiency, consistency, and low cost using lentiviral infection. This method utilizes laboratory-propagated second generation plasmids to produce efficient virus that can be stored for later use. The expression of proteins up to 150 kDa in size is achieved in 30–70% of cells while maintaining normal macrophage differentiation and morphology as determined by fluorescence microscopy and Western blot analysis. This manuscript delineates the reagents and methods used to produce lentivirus to express exogenous DNA in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages sufficient for single cell microscopy as well as functional assays requiring large numbers of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages.

  18. Nuclear proteins interacting with the promoter region of the human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, M.F.; Gamble, J.R.; Vadas, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The gene for human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is expressed in a tissue-specific as well as an activation-dependent manner. The interaction of nuclear proteins with the promoter region of the GM-CSF gene that is likely to be responsible for this pattern of GM-CSF expression was investigated. The authors show that nuclear proteins interact with DNA fragments from the GM-CSF promoter in a cell-specific manner. A region spanning two cytokine-specific sequences, cytokine 1 (CK-1, 5', GAGATTCCAC 3') and cytokine 2 (CK-2, 5' TCAGGTA 3') bound two nuclear proteins from GM-CSF-expressing cells in gel retardation assays. NF-GMb was inducible with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and accompanied induction of GM-CSF message. NF-GMb was absent in cell lines not producing GM-CSF, some of which had other distinct binding proteins. NF-GMa and NF-GMb eluted from a heparin-Sepharose column at 0.3 and 0.6 M KCl, respectively. They hypothesize that the sequences CK-1 and CK-2 bind specific proteins and regulate GM-CSF transcription

  19. The cytotoxic activity of miltefosine against Leishmania and macrophages is associated with dynamic changes in plasma membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Kelly Souza; de Souza, Paulo Eduardo Narcizo; Dorta, Miriam Leandro; Alonso, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we combined electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with an analysis of biophysical cellular parameters to study the mechanisms underlying the in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of miltefosine (MT). A thiol-specific spin label attached to membrane-bound proteins of Leishmania amazonensis and peritoneal macrophages indicated that MT may bind to plasma membrane proteins in large quantities via a detergent-like action and cause structural changes associated with a marked increase in dynamics and exposure to an aqueous environment. EPR spectra of a spin-labeled stearic acid indicated strong interactions between the probe and membrane proteins and a marked increase in the membrane fluidity of MT-treated cells. The cytotoxicity of MT was found to depend on the cell concentration used in the assay. This dependence was described by an equation involving the 50% inhibitory concentrations of MT in the aqueous medium (c w50 ) and the cell membrane (c m50 ) and the membrane-aqueous medium partition coefficient of MT (K). With a c w50 of 8.7μM, macrophages were less sensitive to MT than amastigotes and promastigotes of Leishmania, which had c w50 values of 2.4-3.1μM. The estimated c m50 of MT for Leishmania was 1.8M, which appears sufficient to cause ruptures or formation of pores in the plasma membrane. Additionally, we demonstrated that the changes in the plasma membrane detected by EPR spectroscopy occurred at cytotoxic concentrations of MT, as assessed through in vitro assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Overexpression of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Increases Macrophage-Derived Foam Cell Accumulation in Atherosclerotic Lesions of Transgenic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoucui Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High levels of plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C are inversely associated with the risk of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases; thus, pharmacological inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is considered to be a therapeutic method of raising HDL-C levels. However, many CETP inhibitors have failed to achieve a clinical benefit despite raising HDL-C. In the study, we generated transgenic (Tg rabbits that overexpressed the human CETP gene to examine the influence of CETP on the development of atherosclerosis. Both Tg rabbits and their non-Tg littermates were fed a high cholesterol diet for 16 weeks. Plasma lipids and body weight were measured every 4 weeks. Gross lesion areas of the aortic atherosclerosis along with lesional cellular components were quantitatively analyzed. Overexpression of human CETP did not significantly alter the gross atherosclerotic lesion area, but the number of macrophages in lesions was significantly increased. Overexpression of human CETP did not change the plasma levels of total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but lowered plasma HDL-C and increased triglycerides. These data revealed that human CETP may play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis mainly by decreasing HDL-C levels and increasing the accumulation of macrophage-derived foam cells.

  1. The SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein is selectively recognized by lung surfactant protein D and activates macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Zhong, Fei; Chow, Vincent T K

    2007-01-01

    Da glycosylated protein. It was not secreted in the presence of tunicamycin and was detected as a 130 kDa protein in the cell lysate. The purified S-protein bound to Vero but not 293T cells and was itself recognized by lung surfactant protein D (SP-D), a collectin found in the lung alveoli. The binding required...

  2. Proteomic Analysis of ABCA1-Null Macrophages Reveals a Role for Stomatin-Like Protein-2 in Raft Composition and Toll-Like Receptor Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Saiful M; Zhu, Xuewei; Aloor, Jim J; Azzam, Kathleen M; Gabor, Kristin A; Ge, William; Addo, Kezia A; Tomer, Kenneth B; Parks, John S; Fessler, Michael B

    2015-07-01

    Lipid raft membrane microdomains organize signaling by many prototypical receptors, including the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) of the innate immune system. Raft-localization of proteins is widely thought to be regulated by raft cholesterol levels, but this is largely on the basis of studies that have manipulated cell cholesterol using crude and poorly specific chemical tools, such as β-cyclodextrins. To date, there has been no proteome-scale investigation of whether endogenous regulators of intracellular cholesterol trafficking, such as the ATP binding cassette (ABC)A1 lipid efflux transporter, regulate targeting of proteins to rafts. Abca1(-/-) macrophages have cholesterol-laden rafts that have been reported to contain increased levels of select proteins, including TLR4, the lipopolysaccharide receptor. Here, using quantitative proteomic profiling, we identified 383 proteins in raft isolates from Abca1(+/+) and Abca1(-/-) macrophages. ABCA1 deletion induced wide-ranging changes to the raft proteome. Remarkably, many of these changes were similar to those seen in Abca1(+/+) macrophages after lipopolysaccharide exposure. Stomatin-like protein (SLP)-2, a member of the stomatin-prohibitin-flotillin-HflK/C family of membrane scaffolding proteins, was robustly and specifically increased in Abca1(-/-) rafts. Pursuing SLP-2 function, we found that rafts of SLP-2-silenced macrophages had markedly abnormal composition. SLP-2 silencing did not compromise ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux but reduced macrophage responsiveness to multiple TLR ligands. This was associated with reduced raft levels of the TLR co-receptor, CD14, and defective lipopolysaccharide-induced recruitment of the common TLR adaptor, MyD88, to rafts. Taken together, we show that the lipid transporter ABCA1 regulates the protein repertoire of rafts and identify SLP-2 as an ABCA1-dependent regulator of raft composition and of the innate immune response. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and

  3. Proteomic Analysis of ABCA1-Null Macrophages Reveals a Role for Stomatin-Like Protein-2 in Raft Composition and Toll-Like Receptor Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Saiful M.; Zhu, Xuewei; Aloor, Jim J.; Azzam, Kathleen M.; Gabor, Kristin A.; Ge, William; Addo, Kezia A.; Tomer, Kenneth B.; Parks, John S.; Fessler, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid raft membrane microdomains organize signaling by many prototypical receptors, including the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) of the innate immune system. Raft-localization of proteins is widely thought to be regulated by raft cholesterol levels, but this is largely on the basis of studies that have manipulated cell cholesterol using crude and poorly specific chemical tools, such as β-cyclodextrins. To date, there has been no proteome-scale investigation of whether endogenous regulators of intracellular cholesterol trafficking, such as the ATP binding cassette (ABC)A1 lipid efflux transporter, regulate targeting of proteins to rafts. Abca1−/− macrophages have cholesterol-laden rafts that have been reported to contain increased levels of select proteins, including TLR4, the lipopolysaccharide receptor. Here, using quantitative proteomic profiling, we identified 383 proteins in raft isolates from Abca1+/+ and Abca1−/− macrophages. ABCA1 deletion induced wide-ranging changes to the raft proteome. Remarkably, many of these changes were similar to those seen in Abca1+/+ macrophages after lipopolysaccharide exposure. Stomatin-like protein (SLP)-2, a member of the stomatin-prohibitin-flotillin-HflK/C family of membrane scaffolding proteins, was robustly and specifically increased in Abca1−/− rafts. Pursuing SLP-2 function, we found that rafts of SLP-2-silenced macrophages had markedly abnormal composition. SLP-2 silencing did not compromise ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux but reduced macrophage responsiveness to multiple TLR ligands. This was associated with reduced raft levels of the TLR co-receptor, CD14, and defective lipopolysaccharide-induced recruitment of the common TLR adaptor, MyD88, to rafts. Taken together, we show that the lipid transporter ABCA1 regulates the protein repertoire of rafts and identify SLP-2 as an ABCA1-dependent regulator of raft composition and of the innate immune response. PMID:25910759

  4. A novel role for a major component of the vitamin D axis: vitamin D binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor induces human breast cancer cell apoptosis through stimulation of macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Fiore, Maria Giulia; Magherini, Stefano; Branca, Jacopo J V; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-07-08

    The role of vitamin D in maintaining health appears greater than originally thought, and the concept of the vitamin D axis underlines the complexity of the biological events controlled by biologically active vitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D3), its two binding proteins that are the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF). In this study we demonstrate that GcMAF stimulates macrophages, which in turn attack human breast cancer cells, induce their apoptosis and eventually phagocytize them. These results are consistent with the observation that macrophages infiltrated implanted tumors in mice after GcMAF injections. In addition, we hypothesize that the last 23 hydrophobic amino acids of VDR, located at the inner part of the plasma membrane, interact with the first 23 hydrophobic amino acids of the GcMAF located at the external part of the plasma membrane. This allows 1,25(OH)(2)D3 and oleic acid to become sandwiched between the two vitamin D-binding proteins, thus postulating a novel molecular mode of interaction between GcMAF and VDR. Taken together, these results support and reinforce the hypothesis that GcMAF has multiple biological activities that could be responsible for its anti-cancer effects, possibly through molecular interaction with the VDR that in turn is responsible for a multitude of non-genomic as well as genomic effects.

  5. A Novel Role for a Major Component of the Vitamin D Axis: Vitamin D Binding Protein-Derived Macrophage Activating Factor Induces Human Breast Cancer Cell Apoptosis through Stimulation of Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ruggiero

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of vitamin D in maintaining health appears greater than originally thought, and the concept of the vitamin D axis underlines the complexity of the biological events controlled by biologically active vitamin D (1,25(OH(2D3, its two binding proteins that are the vitamin D receptor (VDR and the vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF. In this study we demonstrate that GcMAF stimulates macrophages, which in turn attack human breast cancer cells, induce their apoptosis and eventually phagocytize them. These results are consistent with the observation that macrophages infiltrated implanted tumors in mice after GcMAF injections. In addition, we hypothesize that the last 23 hydrophobic amino acids of VDR, located at the inner part of the plasma membrane, interact with the first 23 hydrophobic amino acids of the GcMAF located at the external part of the plasma membrane. This al1ows 1,25(OH(2D3 and oleic acid to become sandwiched between the two vitamin D-binding proteins, thus postulating a novel molecular mode of interaction between GcMAF and VDR. Taken together, these results support and reinforce the hypothesis that GcMAF has multiple biological activities that could be responsible for its anti-cancer effects, possibly through molecular interaction with the VDR that in turn is responsible for a multitude of non-genomic as well as genomic effects.

  6. Preparation, characterization, and safety evaluation of poly(lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles for protein delivery into macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guedj AS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anne-Sophie Guedj,1 Arnold J Kell,2 Michael Barnes,2 Sandra Stals,1 David Gonçalves,3 Denis Girard,3 Carole Lavigne11National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB, 2National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON, 3Laboratoire de recherche en inflammation et physiologie des granulocytes, Université du Québec, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, QC, CanadaAbstract: Following infection, HIV establishes reservoirs within tissues that are inaccessible to optimal levels of antiviral drugs or within cells where HIV lies latent, thus escaping the action of anti-HIV drugs. Macrophages are a persistent reservoir for HIV and may contribute to the rebound viremia observed after antiretroviral treatment is stopped. In this study, we further investigate the potential of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA-based nanocarriers as a new strategy to enhance penetration of therapeutic molecules into macrophages. We have prepared stable PLGA nanoparticles (NPs and evaluated their capacity to transport an active molecule into the human monocyte/macrophage cell line THP-1 using bovine serum albumin (BSA as a proof-of-concept compound. Intracellular localization of fluorescent BSA molecules encapsulated into PLGA NPs was monitored in live cells using confocal microscopy, and cellular uptake was quantified by flow cytometry. In vitro and in vivo toxicological studies were performed to further determine the safety profile of PLGA NPs including inflammatory effects. The size of the PLGA NPs carrying BSA (PLGA-BSA in culture medium containing 10% serum was ~126 nm in diameter, and they were negatively charged at their surface (zeta potential =-5.6 mV. Our confocal microscopy studies and flow cytometry data showed that these PLGA-BSA NPs are rapidly and efficiently taken up by THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs at low doses. We found that PLGA-BSA NPs increased cellular uptake and internalization of the protein in vitro. PLGA

  7. Effects of prenatal low protein and postnatal high fat diets on visceral adipose tissue macrophage phenotypes and IL-6 expression in Sprague Dawley rat offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) are implicated in adipose tissue inflammation and obesity-related insulin resistance. Maternal low protein models result in fetal programming of obesity. However, it is not known whether maternal undernutrition increases ATM phenotypic expression in F1 offspring. Us...

  8. CXC-chemokines KC and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) synergistically induce leukocyte recruitment to the central nervous system in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenburg, Petra J. G.; Polfliet, Machteld M. J.; Florquin, Sandrine; van den Berg, Timo K.; Dijkstra, Christine D.; van Deventer, Sander J. H.; Roord, John J.; van der Poll, Tom; van Furth, A. Marceline

    2003-01-01

    Intracisternal injection of the CXC-chemokines KC or macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 induced a pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of rats in a dose dependent way. MIP-2 was much more potent than KC. The concurrent injection of both chemokines revealed a profound synergistic effect

  9. Induction of macrophage chemotaxis by aortic extracts from patients with Marfan syndrome is related to elastin binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Guo

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder of connective tissue with prominent skeletal, ocular, and cardiovascular manifestations. Aortic aneurysm and dissection are the major determinants of premature death in untreated patients. In previous work, we showed that extracts of aortic tissues from the mgR mouse model of Marfan syndrome showed increased chemotactic stimulatory activity related to the elastin-binding protein. Aortic samples were collected from 6 patients with Marfan syndrome and 8 with isolated aneurysms of the ascending aorta. Control samples were obtained from 11 organ donors without known vascular or connective tissue diseases. Soluble proteins extracted from the aortic samples of the two patient groups were compared against buffer controls and against the aortic samples from controls with respect to the ability to induce macrophage chemotaxis as measured using a modified Boyden chamber, as well as the reactivity to a monoclonal antibody BA4 against bioactive elastin peptides using ELISA. Samples from Marfan patients displayed a statistically significant increase in chemotactic inductive activity compared to control samples. Additionally, reactivity to BA4 was significantly increased. Similar statistically significant increases were identified for the samples from patients with idiopathic thoracic aortic aneurysm. There was a significant correlation between the chemotactic index and BA4 reactivity, and the increases in chemotactic activity of extracts from Marfan patients could be inhibited by pretreatment with lactose, VGVAPG peptides, or BA4, which indicates the involvement of EBP in mediating the effects. Our results demonstrate that aortic extracts of patients with Marfan syndrome can elicit macrophage chemotaxis, similar to our previous study on aortic extracts of the mgR mouse model of Marfan syndrome (Guo et al., Circulation 2006; 114:1855-62.

  10. Induction of Macrophage Chemotaxis by Aortic Extracts from Patients with Marfan Syndrome Is Related to Elastin Binding Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Gao; Gehle, Petra; Doelken, Sandra; Martin-Ventura, José Luis; von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Hetzer, Roland; Robinson, Peter N.

    2011-01-01

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder of connective tissue with prominent skeletal, ocular, and cardiovascular manifestations. Aortic aneurysm and dissection are the major determinants of premature death in untreated patients. In previous work, we showed that extracts of aortic tissues from the mgR mouse model of Marfan syndrome showed increased chemotactic stimulatory activity related to the elastin-binding protein. Aortic samples were collected from 6 patients with Marfan syndrome and 8 with isolated aneurysms of the ascending aorta. Control samples were obtained from 11 organ donors without known vascular or connective tissue diseases. Soluble proteins extracted from the aortic samples of the two patient groups were compared against buffer controls and against the aortic samples from controls with respect to the ability to induce macrophage chemotaxis as measured using a modified Boyden chamber, as well as the reactivity to a monoclonal antibody BA4 against bioactive elastin peptides using ELISA. Samples from Marfan patients displayed a statistically significant increase in chemotactic inductive activity compared to control samples. Additionally, reactivity to BA4 was significantly increased. Similar statistically significant increases were identified for the samples from patients with idiopathic thoracic aortic aneurysm. There was a significant correlation between the chemotactic index and BA4 reactivity, and the increases in chemotactic activity of extracts from Marfan patients could be inhibited by pretreatment with lactose, VGVAPG peptides, or BA4, which indicates the involvement of EBP in mediating the effects. Our results demonstrate that aortic extracts of patients with Marfan syndrome can elicit macrophage chemotaxis, similar to our previous study on aortic extracts of the mgR mouse model of Marfan syndrome (Guo et al., Circulation 2006; 114:1855-62). PMID:21647416

  11. DMPD: Post-transcriptional regulation of proinflammatory proteins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15075353 Post-transcriptional regulation of proinflammatory proteins. Anderson P, P...l) (.csml) Show Post-transcriptional regulation of proinflammatory proteins. PubmedID 15075353 Title Post-tr...anscriptional regulation of proinflammatory proteins. Authors Anderson P, Phillip

  12. DMPD: LPS-binding proteins and receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9665271 LPS-binding proteins and receptors. Fenton MJ, Golenbock DT. J Leukoc Biol.... 1998 Jul;64(1):25-32. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show LPS-binding proteins and receptors. PubmedID 9665271 Title LPS-binding prot...eins and receptors. Authors Fenton MJ, Golenbock DT. Publication J Leukoc Biol. 199

  13. BET protein function is required for inflammation: Brd2 genetic disruption and BET inhibitor JQ1 impair mouse macrophage inflammatory responses1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, Anna C.; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S.; Denis, Gerald V.

    2013-01-01

    Histone acetylation regulates activation and repression of multiple inflammatory genes known to play critical roles in chronic inflammatory diseases. However, proteins responsible for translating the histone acetylation code into an orchestrated pro-inflammatory cytokine response remain poorly characterized. Bromodomain extra terminal (BET) proteins are “readers” of histone acetylation marks with demonstrated roles in gene transcription, but the ability of BET proteins to coordinate the response of inflammatory cytokine genes through translation of histone marks is unknown. We hypothesize that members of the BET family of dual bromodomain-containing transcriptional regulators directly control inflammatory genes. We examined the genetic model of brd2 lo mice, a BET protein hypomorph, to show that Brd2 is essential for pro-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. Studies that utilize siRNA knockdown and a small molecule inhibitor of BET protein binding, JQ1, independently demonstrate BET proteins are critical for macrophage inflammatory responses. Furthermore, we show that Brd2 and Brd4 physically associate with the promoters of inflammatory cytokine genes in macrophages. This association is absent in the presence of BET inhibition by JQ1. Finally, we demonstrate that JQ1 ablates cytokine production in vitro and blunts the “cytokine storm” in endotoxemic mice by reducing levels of IL-6 and TNF-α while rescuing mice from LPS-induced death. We propose that targeting BET proteins with small molecule inhibitors will benefit hyper-inflammatory conditions associated with high levels of cytokine production. PMID:23420887

  14. BET protein function is required for inflammation: Brd2 genetic disruption and BET inhibitor JQ1 impair mouse macrophage inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, Anna C; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S; Denis, Gerald V

    2013-04-01

    Histone acetylation regulates activation and repression of multiple inflammatory genes known to play critical roles in chronic inflammatory diseases. However, proteins responsible for translating the histone acetylation code into an orchestrated proinflammatory cytokine response remain poorly characterized. Bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins are "readers" of histone acetylation marks, with demonstrated roles in gene transcription, but the ability of BET proteins to coordinate the response of inflammatory cytokine genes through translation of histone marks is unknown. We hypothesize that members of the BET family of dual bromodomain-containing transcriptional regulators directly control inflammatory genes. We examined the genetic model of brd2 lo mice, a BET protein hypomorph, to show that Brd2 is essential for proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. Studies that use small interfering RNA knockdown and a small-molecule inhibitor of BET protein binding, JQ1, independently demonstrate BET proteins are critical for macrophage inflammatory responses. Furthermore, we show that Brd2 and Brd4 physically associate with the promoters of inflammatory cytokine genes in macrophages. This association is absent in the presence of BET inhibition by JQ1. Finally, we demonstrate that JQ1 ablates cytokine production in vitro and blunts the "cytokine storm" in endotoxemic mice by reducing levels of IL-6 and TNF-α while rescuing mice from LPS-induced death. We propose that targeting BET proteins with small-molecule inhibitors will benefit hyperinflammatory conditions associated with high levels of cytokine production.

  15. Metabolic reprogramming through fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1 regulates macrophage inflammatory potential and adipose inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy R. Johnson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A novel approach to regulate obesity-associated adipose inflammation may be through metabolic reprogramming of macrophages (MΦs. Broadly speaking, MΦs dependent on glucose are pro-inflammatory, classically activated MΦs (CAM, which contribute to adipose inflammation and insulin resistance. In contrast, MΦs that primarily metabolize fatty acids are alternatively activated MΦs (AAM and maintain tissue insulin sensitivity. In actuality, there is much flexibility and overlap in the CAM-AAM spectrum in vivo dependent upon various stimuli in the microenvironment. We hypothesized that specific lipid trafficking proteins, e.g. fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1, would direct MΦ fatty acid transport and metabolism to limit inflammation and contribute to the maintenance of adipose tissue homeostasis. Methods: Bone marrow derived MΦs (BMDMs from Fatp1−/− and Fatp1+/+ mice were used to investigate FATP1-dependent substrate metabolism, bioenergetics, metabolomics, and inflammatory responses. We also generated C57BL/6J chimeric mice by bone marrow transplant specifically lacking hematopoetic FATP1 (Fatp1B−/− and controls Fatp1B+/+. Mice were challenged by high fat diet (HFD or low fat diet (LFD and analyses including MRI, glucose and insulin tolerance tests, flow cytometric, histologic, and protein quantification assays were conducted. Finally, an FATP1-overexpressing RAW 264.7 MΦ cell line (FATP1-OE and empty vector control (FATP1-EV were developed as a gain of function model to test effects on substrate metabolism, bioenergetics, metabolomics, and inflammatory responses. Results: Fatp1 is downregulated with pro-inflammatory stimulation of MΦs. Fatp1−/− BMDMs and FATP1-OE RAW 264.7 MΦs demonstrated that FATP1 reciprocally controled metabolic flexibility, i.e. lipid and glucose metabolism, which was associated with inflammatory response. Supporting our previous work demonstrating the positive relationship between glucose

  16. Phosphorylation of the adaptor protein SH2B1β regulates its ability to enhance growth hormone-dependent macrophage motility

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Hsiao-Wen; Lanning, Nathan J.; Morris, David L.; Argetsinger, Lawrence S.; Lumeng, Carey N.; Carter-Su, Christin

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that growth hormone (GH) recruits the adapter protein SH2B1β to the GH-activated, GH receptor-associated tyrosine kinase JAK2, implicating SH2B1β in GH-dependent actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and suggesting that phosphorylation at serines 161 and 165 in SH2B1β releases SH2B1β from the plasma membrane. Here, we examined the role of SH2B1β in GH regulation of macrophage migration. We show that GH stimulates migration of cultured RAW264.7 macrophages, and primary cul...

  17. Cholesterol Corrects Altered Conformation of MHC-II Protein in Leishmania donovani Infected Macrophages: Implication in Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Saikat; Roy, Syamal

    2016-01-01

    Background Previously we reported that Kala-azar patients show progressive decrease in serum cholesterol as a function of splenic parasite burden. Splenic macrophages (MΦ) of Leishmania donovani (LD) infected mice show decrease in membrane cholesterol, while LD infected macrophages (I-MΦ) show defective T cell stimulating ability that could be corrected by liposomal delivery of cholesterol. T helper cells recognize peptide antigen in the context of class II MHC molecule. It is known that the conformation of a large number of membrane proteins is dependent on membrane cholesterol. In this investigation we tried to understand the influence of decreased membrane cholesterol in I-MΦ on the conformation of MHC-II protein and peptide-MHC-II stability, and its bearing on the antigen specific T-cell activation. Methodology/Principal Findings MΦ of CBA/j mice were infected with Leishmania donovani (I-MΦ). Two different anti-Aκ mAbs were used to monitor the status of MHC-II protein under parasitized condition. One of them (11.5–2) was conformation specific, whereas the other one (10.2.16) was not. Under parasitized condition, the binding of 11.5–2 decreased significantly with respect to the normal counterpart, whereas that of 10.2.16 remained unaltered. The binding of 11.5–2 was restored to normal upon liposomal delivery of cholesterol in I-MΦ. By molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies we found that there was considerable conformational fluctuation in the transmembrane domain of the MHC-II protein in the presence of membrane cholesterol than in its absence, which possibly influenced the distal peptide binding groove. This was evident from the faster dissociation of the cognate peptide from peptide-MHC complex under parasitized condition, which could be corrected by liposomal delivery of cholesterol in I-MΦ. Conclusion The decrease in membrane cholesterol in I-MΦ may lead to altered conformation of MHC II, and this may contribute to a faster dissociation of

  18. Modulation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway by glutamine in peritoneal macrophages of a murine model of protein malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Lima, Fabiana; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Ramos, Mayara Caldas; Borelli, Primavera; Fock, Ricardo Ambrósio

    2013-06-01

    Protein malnutrition affects resistance to infection by impairing the inflammatory response, modifying the function of effector cells, such as macrophages. Recent studies have revealed that glutamine-a non-essential amino acid, which could become conditionally essential in some situations like trauma, infection, post-surgery and sepsis-is able to modulate the synthesis of cytokines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of glutamine on the expression of proteins involved in the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway of peritoneal macrophages from malnourished mice. Two-month-old male Balb/c mice were submitted to protein-energy malnutrition (n = 10) with a low-protein diet containing 2 % protein, whereas control mice (n = 10) were fed a 12 % protein-containing diet. The haemogram and analysis of plasma glutamine and corticosterone were evaluated. Peritoneal macrophages were pre-treated in vitro with glutamine (0, 0.6, 2 and 10 mmol/L) for 24 h and then stimulated with 1.25 μg LPS for 30 min, and the synthesis of TNF-α and IL-1α and the expression of proteins related to the NF-κB pathway were evaluated. Malnourished animals had anaemia, leucopoenia, lower plasma glutamine and increased corticosterone levels. TNF-α production of macrophages stimulated with LPS was significantly lower in cells from malnourished animals when cultivated in supraphysiological (2 and 10 mmol/L) concentrations of glutamine. Further, glutamine has a dose-dependent effect on the activation of macrophages, in both groups, when stimulated with LPS, inducing a decrease in TNF-α and IL-1α production and negatively modulating the NF-κB signalling pathway. These data lead us to infer that the protein malnutrition state interferes with the activation of macrophages and that higher glutamine concentrations, in vitro, have the capacity to act negatively in the NF-κB signalling pathway.

  19. Design, synthesis, and protein crystallography of biaryltriazoles as potent tautomerase inhibitors of macrophage migration inhibitory factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Pawel; Cisneros, José A; Robertson, Michael J; Hare, Alissa A; Danford, Nadia E; Baxter, Richard H G; Jorgensen, William L

    2015-03-04

    Optimization is reported for biaryltriazoles as inhibitors of the tautomerase activity of human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine associated with numerous inflammatory diseases and cancer. A combined approach was taken featuring organic synthesis, enzymatic assaying, crystallography, and modeling including free-energy perturbation (FEP) calculations. X-ray crystal structures for 3a and 3b bound to MIF are reported and provided a basis for the modeling efforts. The accommodation of the inhibitors in the binding site is striking with multiple hydrogen bonds and aryl-aryl interactions. Additional modeling encouraged pursuit of 5-phenoxyquinolinyl analogues, which led to the very potent compound 3s. Activity was further enhanced by addition of a fluorine atom adjacent to the phenolic hydroxyl group as in 3w, 3z, 3aa, and 3bb to strengthen a key hydrogen bond. It is also shown that physical properties of the compounds can be modulated by variation of solvent-exposed substituents. Several of the compounds are likely the most potent known MIF tautomerase inhibitors; the most active ones are more than 1000-fold more active than the well-studied (R)-ISO-1 and more than 200-fold more active than the chromen-4-one Orita-13.

  20. Design of Recombinant Stem Cell Factor macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Fusion Proteins and their Biological Activity In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Yang, Jie; Wang, Yuelang; Zhan, Chenyang; Zang, Yuhui; Qin, Junchuan

    2005-05-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) can act in synergistic way to promote the growth of mononuclear phagocytes. SCF-M-CSF fusion proteins were designed on the computer using the Homology and Biopolymer modules of the software packages InsightII. Several existing crystal structures were used as templates to generate models of the complexes of receptor with fusion protein. The structure rationality of the fusion protein incorporated a series of flexible linker peptide was analyzed on InsightII system. Then, a suitable peptide GGGGSGGGGSGG was chosen for the fusion protein. Two recombinant SCF-M-CSF fusion proteins were generated by construction of a plasmid in which the coding regions of human SCF (1-165aa) and M-CSF (1-149aa) cDNA were connected by this linker peptide coding sequence followed by subsequent expression in insect cell. The results of Western blot and activity analysis showed that these two recombinant fusion proteins existed as a dimer with a molecular weight of 84 KD under non-reducing conditions and a monomer of 42 KD at reducing condition. The results of cell proliferation assays showed that each fusion protein induced a dose-dependent proliferative response. At equimolar concentration, SCF/M-CSF was about 20 times more potent than the standard monomeric SCF in stimulating TF-1 cell line growth, while M-CSF/SCF was 10 times of monomeric SCF. No activity difference of M-CSF/SCF or SCF/M-CSF to M-CSF (at same molar) was found in stimulating the HL-60 cell linear growth. The synergistic effect of SCF and M-CSF moieties in the fusion proteins was demonstrated by the result of clonogenic assay performed with human bone mononuclear, in which both SCF/M-CSF and M-CSF/SCF induced much higher number of CFU-M than equimolar amount of SCF or M-CSF or that of two cytokines mixture.

  1. Scavenger receptor-mediated recognition of maleyl bovine plasma albumin and the demaleylated protein in human monocyte macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberland, M.E.; Fogelman, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Maleyl bovine plasma albumin competed on an equimolar basis with malondialdehyde low density lipoprotein (LDL) in suppressing the lysosomal hydrolysis of 125 I-labeled malondialdehyde LDL mediated by the scavenger receptor of human monocyte macrophages. Maleyl bovine plasma albumin, in which 94% of the amino groups were modified, exhibited an anodic mobility in agarose electrophoresis 1.7 times that of the native protein. Incubation of maleyl bovine plasma albumin at pH 3.5 regenerated the free amino groups and restored the protein to the same electrophoretic mobility as native albumin. Although ligands recognized by the scavenger receptor typically are anionic, the authors propose that addition of new negative charge achieved by maleylation, rather than directly forming the receptor binding site(s), induces conformational changes in albumin as a prerequisite to expression of the recognition domain(s). They conclude that the primary sequence of albumin, rather than addition of new negative charge, provides the recognition determinant(s) essential for interaction of maleyl bovine plasma albumin with the scavenger receptor

  2. A microsystem to evaluate the synthesis of [3H]leucine labeled proteins by macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varesio, L.; Eva, A.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for evaluating protein synthesis by adherent MPHI by measuring the incorporation of [ 3 H]leucine into TCA precipitable material. By using guanidine-HCl it was possible to remove completely the radiolabeled proteins from the adherent cells that were cultured in microwells, and retain TCA precipitable material. This procedure enabled the authors to harvest the TCA precipitable proteins with a semiautomatic cell harvester. The guanidine-HCl treatment did not affect the recovery of the radioactive proteins and did not alter the sensitivity of the assay. This method is very simple and rapid and, since it is suitable for processing microcultures, permits detailed studies on the biology of small numbers of MPHI. (Auth.)

  3. Inactivation of lipoprotein lipase occurs on the surface of THP-1 macrophages where oligomers of angiopoietin-like protein 4 are formed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makoveichuk, Elena; Sukonina, Valentina; Kroupa, Olessia [Department of Medical Biosciences, Physiological Chemistry Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Thulin, Petra; Ehrenborg, Ewa [Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Olivecrona, Thomas [Department of Medical Biosciences, Physiological Chemistry Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Olivecrona, Gunilla, E-mail: Gunilla.Olivecrona@medbio.umu.se [Department of Medical Biosciences, Physiological Chemistry Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity is controlled by ANGPTL4 in THP-1 macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both LPL and ANGPTL4 bind to THP-1 macrophages in a heparin-releasable fashion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only monomers of ANGPTL4 are present within THP-1 macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Covalent oligomers of ANGPTL4 appear on cell surface and in medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of LPL coincide with ANGPTL4 oligomer formation on cell surfaces. -- Abstract: Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes triglycerides in plasma lipoproteins causing release of fatty acids for metabolic purposes in muscles and adipose tissue. LPL in macrophages in the artery wall may, however, promote foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. Angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL) 4 inactivates LPL and ANGPTL4 expression is controlled by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). The mechanisms for inactivation of LPL by ANGPTL4 was studied in THP-1 macrophages where active LPL is associated with cell surfaces in a heparin-releasable form, while LPL in the culture medium is mostly inactive. The PPAR{delta} agonist GW501516 had no effect on LPL mRNA, but increased ANGPTL4 mRNA and caused a marked reduction of the heparin-releasable LPL activity concomitantly with accumulation of inactive, monomeric LPL in the medium. Intracellular ANGPTL4 was monomeric, while dimers and tetramers of ANGPTL4 were present in the heparin-releasable fraction and medium. GW501516 caused an increase in the amount of ANGPTL4 oligomers on the cell surface that paralleled the decrease in LPL activity. Actinomycin D blocked the effects of GW501516 on ANGPTL4 oligomer formation and prevented the inactivation of LPL. Antibodies against ANGPTL4 interfered with the inactivation of LPL. We conclude that inactivation of LPL in THP-1 macrophages primarily occurs on the cell surface where oligomers of ANGPTL4 are formed.

  4. Inactivation of lipoprotein lipase occurs on the surface of THP-1 macrophages where oligomers of angiopoietin-like protein 4 are formed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makoveichuk, Elena; Sukonina, Valentina; Kroupa, Olessia; Thulin, Petra; Ehrenborg, Ewa; Olivecrona, Thomas; Olivecrona, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity is controlled by ANGPTL4 in THP-1 macrophages. ► Both LPL and ANGPTL4 bind to THP-1 macrophages in a heparin-releasable fashion. ► Only monomers of ANGPTL4 are present within THP-1 macrophages. ► Covalent oligomers of ANGPTL4 appear on cell surface and in medium. ► Inactivation of LPL coincide with ANGPTL4 oligomer formation on cell surfaces. -- Abstract: Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes triglycerides in plasma lipoproteins causing release of fatty acids for metabolic purposes in muscles and adipose tissue. LPL in macrophages in the artery wall may, however, promote foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. Angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL) 4 inactivates LPL and ANGPTL4 expression is controlled by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). The mechanisms for inactivation of LPL by ANGPTL4 was studied in THP-1 macrophages where active LPL is associated with cell surfaces in a heparin-releasable form, while LPL in the culture medium is mostly inactive. The PPARδ agonist GW501516 had no effect on LPL mRNA, but increased ANGPTL4 mRNA and caused a marked reduction of the heparin-releasable LPL activity concomitantly with accumulation of inactive, monomeric LPL in the medium. Intracellular ANGPTL4 was monomeric, while dimers and tetramers of ANGPTL4 were present in the heparin-releasable fraction and medium. GW501516 caused an increase in the amount of ANGPTL4 oligomers on the cell surface that paralleled the decrease in LPL activity. Actinomycin D blocked the effects of GW501516 on ANGPTL4 oligomer formation and prevented the inactivation of LPL. Antibodies against ANGPTL4 interfered with the inactivation of LPL. We conclude that inactivation of LPL in THP-1 macrophages primarily occurs on the cell surface where oligomers of ANGPTL4 are formed.

  5. The pro-atherogenic effects of macrophages are reduced upon formation of a complex between C-reactive protein and lysophosphatidylcholine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Mi-Kyung

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rationale C-reactive protein (CRP and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC are phosphorylcholine-(PC-containing oxidized phospholipids (oxPLs found in oxidized LDL (oxLDL, which trigger pro-atherogenic activities of macrophages during the process of atherosclerosis. It has been previously reported that CRP binds to the PC head group of oxLDL in a calcium-dependent manner. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of binding between CRP and LPC to the pro-atherogenic activities of macrophages. Objectives and findings A chemiluminescent immunoassay and HPLC showed that human recombinant CRP formed a stable complex with LPC in the presence of calcium. The Kd value of the binding of the CRP-LPC complex to the receptors FcγRIA or FcγRIIA was 3–5 fold lower than that of CRP alone. The CRP-LPC complex triggered less potent generation of reactive oxygen species and less activation of the transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kB by human monocyte-derived macrophages in comparison to CRP or LPC alone. However, CRP did not affect activities driven by components of oxLDL lacking PC, such as upregulation of PPRE, ABCA1, CD36 and PPARγ and the enhancement of cholesterol efflux by human macrophages. The presence of CRP inhibited the association of Dil-labelled oxLDL to human macrophages. Conclusions The formation of complexes between CRP and PC-containing oxPLs, such as LPC, suppresses the pro-atherogenic effects of CRP and LPC on macrophages. This effect may in part retard the progression of atherosclerosis.

  6. IAP survivin regulates atherosclerotic macrophage survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanc-Brude, Olivier P.; Teissier, Elisabeth; Castier, Yves; Lesèche, Guy; Bijnens, Ann-Pascal; Daemen, Mat; Staels, Bart; Mallat, Ziad; Tedgui, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Inflammatory macrophage apoptosis is critical to atherosclerotic plaque formation, but its mechanisms remain enigmatic. We hypothesized that inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) survivin regulates macrophage death in atherosclerosis. Western blot analysis revealed discrete survivin expression in

  7. Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis recombinant proteins modulate antimycobacterial functions of bovine macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been shown that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) activates the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) p38 pathway, yet it is unclear which components of M. paratuberculosis are involved in the process. Therefore, a set of 42 M. paratuberculosis recombinan...

  8. Induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice deficient in either the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha or its CCR5 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, E H; Kuziel, W A; Owens, T

    2000-01-01

    -type mice in Th1 cytokine gene expression, the kinetics and severity of disease, and infiltration of the central nervous system by lymphocytes, macrophages and granulocytes. RNase protection assays showed comparable accumulation of mRNA for the chemokines interferon-inducible protein-10, RANTES, macrophage...... and its CCR5 receptor in the induction of EAE by immunizing C57BL / 6 mice deficient in either MIP-1alpha or CCR5 with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). We found that MIP-1alpha-deficient mice were fully susceptible to MOG-induced EAE. These knockout animals were indistinguishable from wild...... chemoattractant protein-1, MIP-1beta, MIP-2, lymphotactin and T cell activation gene-3 during the course of the disease. CCR5-deficient mice were also susceptible to disease induction by MOG. The dispensability of MIP-1alpha and CCR5 for MOG-induced EAE in C57BL / 6 mice supports the idea that differential...

  9. Suitability of macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta production by THP-1 cells in differentiating skin sensitizers from irritant chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yeon-Mi; Moon, Seong-Joon; An, Su-Sun; Lee, Soo-Jin; Kim, Seo-Young; Chang, Ih-Seop; Park, Kui-Lea; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2008-04-01

    Worldwide restrictions in animal use for research have driven efforts to develop alternative methods. The study aimed to test the efficacy of the macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta (MIP-1beta) assay for testing chemicals' skin-sensitizing capacity. The assay was performed using 9 chemicals judged to be sensitizing and 7 non-sensitizing by the standard in vivo assays. THP-1 cells were cultured in the presence or absence of 4 doses, 0.01x, 0.1x, 0.5x, or 1x IC(50) (50% inhibitory concentration for THP-1 cell proliferation) of these chemicals for 24 hr, and the MIP-1beta level in the supernatants was determined. Skin sensitization by the test chemicals was determined by MIP-1beta production rates. The MIP-1beta production rate was expressed as the relative increase in MIP-1beta production in response to chemical treatment compared with vehicle treatment. When the threshold MIP-1beta production rate used was 100% or 105% of dimethyl sulfoxide, all the sensitizing chemicals tested (dinitrochlorobenzene, hexyl cinnamic aldehyde, eugenol, hydroquinone, dinitrofluorobenzene, benzocaine, nickel, chromium, and 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one) were positive, and all the non-sensitizing chemicals (methyl salicylate, benzalkonium chloride, lactic acid, isopropanol, and salicylic acid), with the exception of sodium lauryl sulfate, were negative for MIP-1beta production. These results indicate that MIP-1beta could be a biomarker for classification of chemicals as sensitizers or non-sensitizers.

  10. The effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on macrophage migration inhibitory factor, C-reactive protein and fetuin-a levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Kebapcilar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori eradication on blood levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, macrophage migration inhibitory factor and fetuin-A in patients with dyspepsia who are concurrently infected with H. pylori. METHODS: H.pylori infection was diagnosed based on the 14C urea breath test (UBT and histology. Lansoprazole 30 mg twice daily, amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, and clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily were given to all infected patients for 14 days; 14C UBT was then re-measured. In 30 subjects, migration inhibitory factor, fetuin-A and hs-CRP levels were examined before and after the eradication of H. pylori infection and compared to levels in 30 healthy subjects who tested negative for H. pylori infection. RESULTS: Age and sex distribution were comparable between patients and controls. Migration inhibitory factor and hs-CRP levels were higher, and fetuin-A levels were lower, in H. pylori-infected patients (p0.05. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that H. pylori eradication reduces the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as migration inhibitory factor and hs-CRP and also results in a significant increase in anti-inflammatory markers such as fetuin-A.

  11. Protein kinase D is increased and activated in lung epithelial cells and macrophages in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Huachen; McKenzie, Raymond; Hao, Qin; Idell, Steven; Tang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a relentlessly progressive and usually fatal lung disease of unknown etiology for which no effective treatments currently exist. Hence, there is a profound need for the identification of novel drugable targets to develop more specific and efficacious therapeutic intervention in IPF. In this study, we performed immunohistochemical analyses to assess the cell type-specific expression and activation of protein kinase D (PKD) family kinases in normal and IPF lung tissue sections. We also analyzed PKD activation and function in human lung epithelial cells. We found that PKD family kinases (PKD1, PKD2 and PKD3) were increased and activated in the hyperplastic and regenerative alveolar epithelial cells lining remodeled fibrotic alveolar septa and/or fibroblast foci in IPF lungs compared with normal controls. We also found that PKD family kinases were increased and activated in alveolar macrophages, bronchiolar epithelium, and honeycomb cysts in IPF lungs. Interestingly, PKD1 was highly expressed and activated in the cilia of IPF bronchiolar epithelial cells, while PKD2 and PKD3 were expressed in the cell cytoplasm and nuclei. In contrast, PKD family kinases were not apparently increased and activated in IPF fibroblasts or myofibroblasts. We lastly found that PKD was predominantly activated by poly-L-arginine, lysophosphatidic acid and thrombin in human lung epithelial cells and that PKD promoted epithelial barrier dysfunction. These findings suggest that PKD may participate in the pathogenesis of IPF and may be a novel target for therapeutic intervention in this disease.

  12. Effects of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor on human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Stefania; Punzi, Tiziana; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Searching for additional therapeutic tools to fight breast cancer, we investigated the effects of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor (DBP-MAF, also known as GcMAF) on a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). The effects of DBP-MAF on proliferation, morphology, vimentin expression and angiogenesis were studied by cell proliferation assay, phase-contrast microscopy, immunohistochemistry and western blotting, and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. DBP-MAF inhibited human breast cancer cell proliferation and cancer cell-stimulated angiogenesis. MCF-7 cells treated with DBP-MAF predominantly grew in monolayer and appeared to be well adherent to each other and to the well surface. Exposure to DBP-MAF significantly reduced vimentin expression, indicating a reversal of the epithelial/mesenchymal transition, a hallmark of human breast cancer progression. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the known anticancer efficacy of DBP-MAF can be ascribed to different biological properties of the molecule that include inhibition of tumour-induced angiogenesis and direct inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, migration and metastatic potential.

  13. GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor decreases α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase levels in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyer, Lynda; Ward, Emma; Smith, Rodney; Branca, Jacopo Jv; Morucci, Gabriele; Gulisano, Massimo; Noakes, David; Eslinger, Robert; Pacini, Stefania

    2013-08-01

    α- N -acetylgalactosaminidase (nagalase) accumulates in the serum of cancer patients and its activity correlates with tumor burden, aggressiveness and clinical disease progression. The administration of GC protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) to cancer patients with elevated levels of nagalase has been associated with a decrease of serum nagalase activity and with significant clinical benefits. Here, we report the results of the administration of GcMAF to a heterogeneous cohort of patients with histologically diverse, advanced neoplasms, generally considered as "incurable" diseases. In most cases, GcMAF therapy was initiated at late stages of tumor progression. As this is an open-label, non-controlled, retrospective analysis, caution must be employed when establishing cause-effect relationships between the administration GcMAF and disease outcome. However, the response to GcMAF was generally robust and some trends emerged. All patients (n = 20) presented with elevated serum nagalase activity, well above normal values. All patients but one showed a significant decrease of serum nagalase activity upon weekly GcMAF injections. Decreased nagalase activity was associated with improved clinical conditions and no adverse side effects were reported. The observations reported here confirm and extend previous results and pave the way to further studies aimed at assessing the precise role and indications for GcMAF-based anticancer immunotherapy.

  14. Astrocyte production of the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-2 is inhibited by the spice principle curcumin at the level of gene transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita, Michiyo; Holman, Brita J; Santoro, Christopher P; Santoro, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background In neuropathological processes associated with neutrophilic infiltrates, such as experimental allergic encephalitis and traumatic injury of the brain, the CXC chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) is thought to play a pivotal role in the induction and perpetuation of inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). The origin of MIP-2 in inflammatory disorders of the brain has not been fully defined but astrocytes appear to be a dominant source of this chem...

  15. Overexpression and deletion of phospholipid transfer protein reduce HDL mass and cholesterol efflux capacity but not macrophage reverse cholesterol transport[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwano, Takashi; Bi, Xin; Cipollari, Eleonora; Yasuda, Tomoyuki; Lagor, William R.; Szapary, Hannah J.; Tohyama, Junichiro; Millar, John S.; Billheimer, Jeffrey T.; Lyssenko, Nicholas N.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) may affect macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (mRCT) through its role in the metabolism of HDL. Ex vivo cholesterol efflux capacity and in vivo mRCT were assessed in PLTP deletion and PLTP overexpression mice. PLTP deletion mice had reduced HDL mass and cholesterol efflux capacity, but unchanged in vivo mRCT. To directly compare the effects of PLTP overexpression and deletion on mRCT, human PLTP was overexpressed in the liver of wild-type animals using an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector, and control and PLTP deletion animals were injected with AAV-null. PLTP overexpression and deletion reduced plasma HDL mass and cholesterol efflux capacity. Both substantially decreased ABCA1-independent cholesterol efflux, whereas ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux remained the same or increased, even though preβ HDL levels were lower. Neither PLTP overexpression nor deletion affected excretion of macrophage-derived radiocholesterol in the in vivo mRCT assay. The ex vivo and in vivo assays were modified to gauge the rate of cholesterol efflux from macrophages to plasma. PLTP activity did not affect this metric. Thus, deviations in PLTP activity from the wild-type level reduce HDL mass and ex vivo cholesterol efflux capacity, but not the rate of macrophage cholesterol efflux to plasma or in vivo mRCT. PMID:28137768

  16. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Interacts with the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta to Induce Genes Affecting Fatty Acid Oxidation in Human Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kemmerer

    Full Text Available AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK maintains energy homeostasis by suppressing cellular ATP-consuming processes and activating catabolic, ATP-producing pathways such as fatty acid oxidation (FAO. The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ also affects fatty acid metabolism, stimulating the expression of genes involved in FAO. To question the interplay of AMPK and PPARδ in human macrophages we transduced primary human macrophages with lentiviral particles encoding for the constitutively active AMPKα1 catalytic subunit, followed by microarray expression analysis after treatment with the PPARδ agonist GW501516. Microarray analysis showed that co-activation of AMPK and PPARδ increased expression of FAO genes, which were validated by quantitative PCR. Induction of these FAO-associated genes was also observed upon infecting macrophages with an adenovirus coding for AMPKγ1 regulatory subunit carrying an activating R70Q mutation. The pharmacological AMPK activator A-769662 increased expression of several FAO genes in a PPARδ- and AMPK-dependent manner. Although GW501516 significantly increased FAO and reduced the triglyceride amount in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL-loaded foam cells, AMPK activation failed to potentiate this effect, suggesting that increased expression of fatty acid catabolic genes alone may be not sufficient to prevent macrophage lipid overload.

  17. Effects of oxaliplatin and oleic acid Gc-protein-derived macrophage-activating factor on murine and human microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branca, Jacopo J V; Morucci, Gabriele; Malentacchi, Francesca; Gelmini, Stefania; Ruggiero, Marco; Pacini, Stefania

    2015-09-01

    The biological properties and characteristics of microglia in rodents have been widely described, but little is known about these features in human microglia. Several murine microglial cell lines are used to investigate neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory conditions; however, the extrapolation of the results to human conditions is frequently met with criticism because of the possibility of species-specific differences. This study compares the effects of oxaliplatin and of oleic acid Gc-protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (OA-GcMAF) on two microglial cell lines, murine BV-2 cells and human C13NJ cells. Cell viability, cAMP levels, microglial activation, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression were evaluated. Our data demonstrate that oxaliplatin induced a significant decrease in cell viability in BV-2 and in C13NJ cells and that this effect was not reversed with OA-GcMAF treatment. The signal transduction pathway involving cAMP/VEGF was activated after treatment with oxaliplatin and/or OA-GcMAF in both cell lines. OA-GcMAF induced a significant increase in microglia activation, as evidenced by the expression of the B7-2 protein, in BV-2 as well as in C13NJ cells that was not associated with a concomitant increase in cell number. Furthermore, the effects of oxaliplatin and OA-GcMAF on coculture morphology and apoptosis were evaluated. Oxaliplatin-induced cell damage and apoptosis were nearly completely reversed by OA-GcMAF treatment in both BV-2/SH-SY5Y and C13NJ/SH-SY5Y cocultures. Our data show that murine and human microglia share common signal transduction pathways and activation mechanisms, suggesting that the murine BV-2 cell line may represent an excellent model for studying human microglia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Lysophosphatidylcholine Promotes Phagosome Maturation and Regulates Inflammatory Mediator Production Through the Protein Kinase A–Phosphatidylinositol 3 Kinase–p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway During Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Mouse Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Ji Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is caused by the infectious agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb. Mtb has various survival strategies, including blockade of phagosome maturation and inhibition of antigen presentation. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC is a major phospholipid component of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and is involved in various cellular responses, such as activation of second messengers and bactericidal activity in neutrophils. In this study, macrophages were infected with a low infectious dose of Mtb and treated with LPC to investigate the bactericidal activity of LPC against Mtb. In macrophages infected with Mtb strain, H37Ra or H37Rv, LPC suppressed bacterial growth; however, this effect was suppressed in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs isolated from G2A (a G protein-coupled receptor involved in some LPC actions knockout mice. LPC also promoted phagosome maturation via phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K–p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK-mediated reactive oxygen species production and intracellular Ca2+ release during Mtb infection. In addition, LPC induced increased levels of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β in Mtb-infected macrophages. Protein kinase A (PKA-induced phosphorylation of GSK3β suppressed activation of NF-κB in LPC-treated macrophages during Mtb infection, leading to decreased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines. These results suggest that LPC can effectively control Mtb growth by promoting phagosome maturation via cAMP-induced activation of the PKA–PI3K–p38 MAPK pathway. Moreover, LPC can regulate excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with bacterial infection of macrophages.

  19. Macrophage-stimulating protein attenuates gentamicin-induced inflammation and apoptosis in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ko Eun [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 501-757 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Young [Department of Physiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 501-757 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Seong; Choi, Joon Seok; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 501-757 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Keun [Department of Pharmacology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 501-757 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Un [Department of Physiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 501-757 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo Wan, E-mail: skimw@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju 501-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •MSP/RON system is activated in rat kidney damaged by gentamicin. •MSP inhibits GM-induced cellular apoptosis and inflammation in HK-2 cells. •MSP attenuates GM-induced activation of MAPKs and NF-κB pathways in HK-2 cells. -- Abstract: The present study aimed to investigate whether macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP) treatment attenuates renal apoptosis and inflammation in gentamicin (GM)-induced tubule injury and its underlying molecular mechanisms. To examine changes in MSP and its receptor, recepteur d’origine nantais (RON) in GM-induced nephropathy, rats were injected with GM for 7 days. Human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells were incubated with GM for 24 h in the presence of different concentrations of MSP and cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry of cells stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated annexin V protein and propidium iodide. Expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), IκB-α, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was analyzed by semiquantitative immunoblotting. MSP and RON expression was significantly greater in GM-treated rats, than in untreated controls. GM-treatment reduced HK-2 cell viability, an effect that was counteracted by MSP. Flow cytometry and DAPI staining revealed GM-induced apoptosis was prevented by MSP. GM reduced expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and induced expression of Bax and cleaved caspase 3; these effects and GM-induced expression of COX-2 and iNOS were also attenuated by MSP. GM caused MSP-reversible induction of phospho-ERK, phospho-JNK, and phospho-p38. GM induced NF-κB activation and degradation of IκB-α; the increase in nuclear NF-κB was blocked by inhibitors of ERK, JNK, p-38, or MSP pretreatment. These findings suggest that MSP attenuates GM-induced inflammation and apoptosis by inhibition of the MAPKs

  20. Inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis and its derived carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyohara, Yukiyo; Hashitani, Susumu; Kishimoto, Hiromitsu; Noguchi, Kazuma; Yamamoto, Nobuto; Urade, Masahiro

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) on carcinogenesis and tumor growth, using a 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model, as well as the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages against HCPC-1, a cell line established from DMBA-induced cheek pouch carcinoma. DMBA application induced squamous cell carcinoma in all 15 hamsters of the control group at approximately 10 weeks, and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden within 20 weeks. By contrast, 2 out of the 14 hamsters with GcMAF administration did not develop tumors and the remaining 12 hamsters showed a significant delay of tumor development for approximately 3.5 weeks. The growth of tumors formed was significantly suppressed and none of the hamsters died within the 20 weeks during which they were observed. When GcMAF administration was stopped at the 13th week of the experiment in 4 out of the 14 hamsters in the GcMAF-treated group, tumor growth was promoted, but none of the mice died within the 20-week period. On the other hand, when GcMAF administration was commenced after the 13th week in 5 out of the 15 hamsters in the control group, tumor growth was slightly suppressed and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden. However, the mean survival time was significantly extended. GcMAF treatment activated peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo, and these activated macrophages exhibited a marked cytocidal effect on HCPC-1 cells. Furthermore, the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages was enhanced by the addition of tumor-bearing hamster serum. These findings indicated that GcMAF possesses an inhibitory effect on tumor development and growth in a DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model.

  1. Interaction between M-like protein and macrophage thioredoxin facilitates antiphagocytosis for Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Ma

    Full Text Available Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus, S.z is one of the common pathogens that can cause septicemia, meningitis, and mammitis in domesticated species. M-like protein (SzP is an important virulence factor of S. zooepidemicus and contributes to bacterial infection and antiphagocytosis. The interaction between SzP of S. zooepidemicus and porcine thioredoxin (TRX was identified by the yeast two-hybrid and further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. SzP interacted with both reduced and the oxidized forms of TRX without inhibiting TRX activity. Membrane anchored SzP was able to recruit TRX to the surface, which would facilitate the antiphagocytosis of the bacteria. Further experiments revealed that TRX regulated the alternative complement pathway by inhibiting C3 convertase activity and associating with factor H (FH. TRX alone inhibited C3 cleavage and C3a production, and the inhibitory effect was additive when FH was also present. TRX inhibited C3 deposition on the bacterial surface when it was recruited by SzP. These new findings indicated that S. zooepidemicus used SzP to recruit TRX and regulated the alternative complement pathways to evade the host immune phagocytosis.

  2. Interaction between M-Like Protein and Macrophage Thioredoxin Facilitates Antiphagocytosis for Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhe; Zhang, Hui; Zheng, Junxi; Li, Yue; Yi, Li; Fan, Hongjie; Lu, Chengping

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus, S.z) is one of the common pathogens that can cause septicemia, meningitis, and mammitis in domesticated species. M-like protein (SzP) is an important virulence factor of S. zooepidemicus and contributes to bacterial infection and antiphagocytosis. The interaction between SzP of S. zooepidemicus and porcine thioredoxin (TRX) was identified by the yeast two-hybrid and further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. SzP interacted with both reduced and the oxidized forms of TRX without inhibiting TRX activity. Membrane anchored SzP was able to recruit TRX to the surface, which would facilitate the antiphagocytosis of the bacteria. Further experiments revealed that TRX regulated the alternative complement pathway by inhibiting C3 convertase activity and associating with factor H (FH). TRX alone inhibited C3 cleavage and C3a production, and the inhibitory effect was additive when FH was also present. TRX inhibited C3 deposition on the bacterial surface when it was recruited by SzP. These new findings indicated that S. zooepidemicus used SzP to recruit TRX and regulated the alternative complement pathways to evade the host immune phagocytosis. PMID:22384152

  3. Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase (RSK-2 as a central effector molecule in RON receptor tyrosine kinase mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition induced by macrophage-stimulating protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Rui-Wen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT occurs during cancer cell invasion and malignant metastasis. Features of EMT include spindle-like cell morphology, loss of epithelial cellular markers and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Activation of the RON receptor tyrosine kinase by macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP has been implicated in cellular EMT program; however, the major signaling determinant(s responsible for MSP-induced EMT is unknown. Results The study presented here demonstrates that RSK2, a downstream signaling protein of the Ras-Erk1/2 pathway, is the principal molecule that links MSP-activated RON signaling to complete EMT. Using MDCK cells expressing RON as a model, a spindle-shape based screen was conducted, which identifies RSK2 among various intracellular proteins as a potential signaling molecule responsible for MSP-induced EMT. MSP stimulation dissociated RSK2 with Erk1/2 and promoted RSK2 nuclear translocation. MSP strongly induced RSK2 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. These effects relied on RON and Erk1/2 phosphorylation, which is significantly potentiated by transforming growth factor (TGF-β1, an EMT-inducing cytokine. Specific RSK inhibitor SL0101 completely prevented MSP-induced RSK phosphorylation, which results in inhibition of MSP-induced spindle-like morphology and suppression of cell migration associated with EMT. In HT-29 cancer cells that barely express RSK2, forced RSK2 expression results in EMT-like phenotype upon MSP stimulation. Moreover, specific siRNA-mediated silencing of RSK2 but not RSK1 in L3.6pl pancreatic cancer cells significantly inhibited MSP-induced EMT-like phenotype and cell migration. Conclusions MSP-induced RSK2 activation is a critical determinant linking RON signaling to cellular EMT program. Inhibition of RSK2 activity may provide a therapeutic opportunity for blocking RON-mediated cancer cell migration and subsequent invasion.

  4. MicroRNA 27a-3p Regulates Antimicrobial Responses of Murine Macrophages Infected by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis by Targeting Interleukin-10 and TGF-β-Activated Protein Kinase 1 Binding Protein 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Hussain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP persistently survive and replicate in mononuclear phagocytic cells by adopting various strategies to subvert host immune response. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 upregulation via inhibition of macrophage bactericidal activity is a critical step for MAP survival and pathogenesis within the host cell. Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 signaling cascade plays a crucial role in the elevation of IL-10 and progression of MAP pathogenesis. The contribution of microRNAs (miRNAs and their influence on the activation of macrophages during MAP pathogenesis are still unclear. In the current study, we found that miRNA-27a-3p (miR-27a expression is downregulated during MAP infection both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, miR-27a is also downregulated in toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2-stimulated murine macrophages (RAW264.7 and bone marrow-derived macrophage. ELISA and real-time qRT-PCR results confirm that overexpression of miR-27a inhibited MAP-induced IL-10 production in macrophages and upregulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, while miR-27a inhibitor counteracted these effects. Luciferase reporter assay results revealed that IL-10 and TGF-β-activated protein kinase 1 binding protein 2 (TAB 2 are potential targets of miR-27a. In addition, we demonstrated that miR-27a negatively regulates TAB 2 expression and diminishes TAB 2-dependent p38/JNK phosphorylation, ultimately downregulating IL-10 expression in MAP-infected macrophages. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-27a significantly inhibited the intracellular survival of MAP in infected macrophages. Our data show that miR-27a augments antimicrobial activities of macrophages and inhibits the expression of IL-10, demonstrating that miR-27a regulates protective innate immune responses during MAP infection and can be exploited as a novel therapeutic target in the control of intracellular pathogens, including paratuberculosis.

  5. Identification of Protein Targets of 12/15-Lipoxygenase-Derived Lipid Electrophiles in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages Using Omega-Alkynyl Fatty Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Yosuke; Kawashima, Yusuke; Ishihara, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Kenji; Ohara, Osamu; Arita, Makoto

    2018-04-20

    The 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) enzyme introduces peroxyl groups, in a position-specific manner, into polyunsaturated fatty acids to form various kinds of bioactive lipid metabolites, including lipid-derived electrophiles (LDE). The resident peritoneal macrophage is the site of highest 12/15-LOX expression in the mouse. However, the role of the enzyme in the regulation of resident macrophages is not fully understood. Here, we describe a chemoproteomic method to identify the targets of enzymatically generated LDE. By treating mouse peritoneal macrophages with omega-alkynyl arachidonic acid (aAA), we identified a series of proteins adducted by LDE generated through a 12/15-LOX catalyzed reaction. Pathway analysis revealed a dramatic enrichment of proteins involved in energy metabolism and found that glycolytic flux and mitochondrial respiration were significantly affected by the expression of 12/15-LOX. Our findings thus highlight the utility of chemoproteomics using aAA for identifying intracellular targets of enzymatically generated LDE.

  6. Activation of nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor containing protein 3 inflammasome in dendritic cells and macrophages by Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Ayumi; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Hasebe, Akira; Kamezaki, Ryousuke; Fujita, Mari; Nakazawa, Futoshi; Shibata, Ken-Ichiro

    2017-03-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is frequently isolated from the blood of patients with infective endocarditis and contributes to the pathology of this disease through induction of interleukin (IL)-1β responsible for the development of the disease. However, the mechanism of IL-1β induction remains unknown. In this study, S. sanguinis activated a murine dendritic cell (DC) to induce IL-1β and this activity was attenuated by silencing the mRNAs of nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor containing protein 3 (NLRP3) and caspase-1. S. sanguinis induced IL-1β production in murine bone marrow-derived macrophage, but this activity was significantly reduced in bone marrow-derived macrophages from NLRP3-, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain-, and caspase-1-deficient mice. DC phagocytosed S. sanguinis cells, followed by the release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The ATP-degradating enzyme attenuated the release of ATP and IL-1β. The inhibitors for ATP receptor reduced IL-1β release in DC. These results strongly suggest that S. sanguinis has the activity to induce IL-1β through the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophage and DC and interaction of purinergic receptors with ATP released is involved in expression of the activity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Blood-flow restricted training leads to myocelullar macrophage infiltration and upregulation of heat-shock proteins, but no apparent muscle damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob L; Aagaard, Per; Prokhorova, Tatyana A

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that low-load muscle contractions performed under local blood-flow restriction (BFR) may initially induce muscle damage and stress. However, whether these factors are evoked with longitudinal BFR training remains unexplored at the myocellular level. Two distinct study...... into the intervention (Mid8) and 3 and 10 days after training cessation (Post3,Post10) to examine macrophage (M1/M2) content as well as heat-shock protein (HSP27/70) and tenascin-C expression. Blood samples (1 wk) were collected before and after (0.1-24 h) the first and last training session to examine markers...... of muscle damage (CK), oxidative stress (TAC,GSH) and inflammation (MCP1,IL-6,TNFa). M1-macrophage content increased 108-165% with BFRE and LLE at Post3 (P

  8. The elusive antifibrotic macrophage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhyatmika eAdhyatmika

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibrotic diseases, especially of the liver, the cardiovascular system, the kidneys, and the lungs account for approximately 45% of deaths in Western societies. Fibrosis is a serious complication associated with aging and/or chronic inflammation or injury and cannot be treated effectively yet. It is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM proteins by myofibroblasts and impaired degradation by macrophages. This ultimately destroys the normal structure of an organ, which leads to loss of function. Most efforts to develop drugs have focused on inhibiting ECM production by myofibroblasts and have not yielded many effective drugs yet. Another option is to stimulate the cells that are responsible for degradation and uptake of excess ECM, i.e. antifibrotic macrophages. However, macrophages are plastic cells that have many faces in fibrosis, including profibrotic behaviour stimulating ECM production. This can be dependent on their origin, as the different organs have tissue-resident macrophages with different origins and a various influx of incoming monocytes in steady-state conditions and during fibrosis. To be able to pharmacologically stimulate the right kind of behaviour in fibrosis, a thorough characterization of antifibrotic macrophages is necessary, as well as an understanding of the signals they need to degrade ECM. In this review we will summarize the current state of the art regarding the antifibrotic macrophage phenotype and the signals that stimulate its behaviour.

  9. Effects of high-fat diet on somatic growth, metabolic parameters and function of peritoneal macrophages of young rats submitted to a maternal low-protein diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alheiros-Lira, Maria Cláudia; Jurema-Santos, Gabriela Carvalho; da-Silva, Helyson Tomaz; da-Silva, Amanda Cabral; Moreno Senna, Sueli; Ferreira E Silva, Wylla Tatiana; Ferraz, José Candido; Leandro, Carol Góis

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a post-weaning high-fat (HF) diet on somatic growth, food consumption, metabolic parameters, phagocytic rate and nitric oxide (NO) production of peritoneal macrophages in young rats submitted to a maternal low-protein (LP) diet. Male Wistar rats (aged 60 d) were divided in two groups (n 22/each) according to their maternal diet during gestation and lactation: control (C, dams fed 17 % casein) and LP (dams fed 8 % casein). At weaning, half of the groups were fed HF diet and two more groups were formed (HF and low protein-high fat (LP-HF)). Somatic growth, food and energy intake, fat depots, serum glucose, cholesterol and leptin concentrations were evaluated. Phagocytic rate and NO production were analysed in peritoneal macrophages under stimulation of zymosan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)+interferon γ (IFN-γ), respectively. The maternal LP diet altered the somatic parameters of growth and development of pups. LP and LP-HF pups showed a higher body weight gain and food intake than C pups. HF and LP-HF pups showed increased retroperitoneal and epididymal fat depots, serum level of TAG and total cholesterol compared with C and LP pups. After LPS+IFN-γ stimulation, LP and LP-HF pups showed reduced NO production when compared with their pairs. Increased phagocytic activity and NO production were seen in LP but not LP-HF peritoneal macrophages. However, peritoneal macrophages of LP pups were hyporesponsive to LPS+IFN-γ induced NO release, even after a post-weaning HF diet. Our data demonstrated that there was an immunomodulation related to dietary fatty acids after the maternal LP diet-induced metabolic programming.

  10. Chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha}, suppress amyloid {beta}-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, Dayanidhi; Milatovic, Snjezana-Zaja [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Milatovic, Dejan [Department of Pediatrics/Pediatric Toxicology, Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Splittgerber, Ryan [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Fan, Guo-Huang [Department of Neurobiology and Neurotoxicology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37221 (United States); Richmond, Ann, E-mail: ann.richmond@vanderbilt.edu [VA Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and accumulation of neurotoxic oligomeric peptides amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}). Although the molecular events are not entirely known, it has become evident that inflammation, environmental and other risk factors may play a causal, disruptive and/or protective role in the development of AD. The present study investigated the ability of the chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}), the respective ligands for chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4, to suppress A{beta}-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha} significantly protected neurons from A{beta}-induced dendritic regression and apoptosis in vitro through activation of Akt, ERK1/2 and maintenance of metalloproteinase ADAM17 especially with SDF-1{alpha}. Intra-cerebroventricular (ICV) injection of A{beta} led to reduction in dendritic length and spine density of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and increased oxidative damage 24 h following the exposure. The A{beta}-induced morphometric changes of neurons and increase in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F{sub 2}-isoprostanes, were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with the chemokines MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha}. Additionally, MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha} was able to suppress the aberrant mislocalization of p21-activated kinase (PAK), one of the proteins involved in the maintenance of dendritic spines. Furthermore, MIP-2 also protected neurons against A{beta} neurotoxicity in CXCR2-/- mice, potentially through observed up regulation of CXCR1 mRNA. Understanding the neuroprotective potential of chemokines is crucial in defining the role for their employment during the early stages of neurodegeneration. -- Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neuroprotective ability of the chemokines MIP2 and CXCL12 against A{beta} toxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MIP

  11. Chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and stromal cell-derived factor-1α, suppress amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, Dayanidhi; Milatovic, Snjezana-Zaja; Milatovic, Dejan; Splittgerber, Ryan; Fan, Guo-Huang; Richmond, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and accumulation of neurotoxic oligomeric peptides amyloid-β (Aβ). Although the molecular events are not entirely known, it has become evident that inflammation, environmental and other risk factors may play a causal, disruptive and/or protective role in the development of AD. The present study investigated the ability of the chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), the respective ligands for chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4, to suppress Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with MIP-2 or SDF-1α significantly protected neurons from Aβ-induced dendritic regression and apoptosis in vitro through activation of Akt, ERK1/2 and maintenance of metalloproteinase ADAM17 especially with SDF-1α. Intra-cerebroventricular (ICV) injection of Aβ led to reduction in dendritic length and spine density of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and increased oxidative damage 24 h following the exposure. The Aβ-induced morphometric changes of neurons and increase in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F 2 -isoprostanes, were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with the chemokines MIP-2 or SDF-1α. Additionally, MIP-2 or SDF-1α was able to suppress the aberrant mislocalization of p21-activated kinase (PAK), one of the proteins involved in the maintenance of dendritic spines. Furthermore, MIP-2 also protected neurons against Aβ neurotoxicity in CXCR2−/− mice, potentially through observed up regulation of CXCR1 mRNA. Understanding the neuroprotective potential of chemokines is crucial in defining the role for their employment during the early stages of neurodegeneration. -- Research highlights: ► Neuroprotective ability of the chemokines MIP2 and CXCL12 against Aβ toxicity. ► MIP-2 or CXCL12 prevented dendritic regression and apoptosis in vitro. ► Neuroprotection through activation of Akt, ERK

  12. Is chondroitin sulfate responsible for the biological effects attributed to the GC protein-derived Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Marco; Reinwald, Heinz; Pacini, Stefania

    2016-09-01

    We hypothesize that a plasma glycosaminoglycan, chondroitin sulfate, may be responsible for the biological and clinical effects attributed to the Gc protein-derived Macrophage Activating Factor (GcMAF), a protein that is extracted from human blood. Thus, Gc protein binds chondroitin sulfate on the cell surface and such an interaction may occur also in blood, colostrum and milk. This interpretation would solve the inconsistencies encountered in explaining the effects of GcMAF in vitro and in vivo. According to our model, the Gc protein or the GcMAF bind to chondroitin sulfate both on the cell surface and in bodily fluids, and the resulting multimolecular complexes, under the form of oligomers trigger a transmembrane signal or, alternatively, are internalized and convey the signal directly to the nucleus thus eliciting the diverse biological effects observed for both GcMAF and chondroitin sulfate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased cerebrospinal fluid levels of cytokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, H R; Escamilla-Ocañas, C E; Camara-Lemarroy, C R; González-Garza, M T; Moreno-Cuevas, J; García Sarreón, M A

    2017-10-10

    Neuroinflammation has recently been described in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the precise role of such proinflammatory cytokines as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β) in ALS has not yet been determined. In this study, we determined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MCP-1 and MIP-1β levels and assessed their association with the duration and severity of ALS. Concentrations of MCP-1 and MIP-1β were determined in the CSF of 77 patients diagnosed with ALS and 13 controls. Cytokine levels were analysed in relation to ALS duration (12months) and severity (30points on the ALS Functional Rating Scale administered at hospital admission). Higher CSF MIP-1β (10.68pg/mL vs. 4.69pg/mL, P<.0001) and MCP-1 (234.89pg/mL vs. 160.95pg/mL, P=.011) levels were found in the 77 patients with ALS compared to controls. There were no differences in levels of either cytokine in relation to disease duration or severity. However, we did observe a significant positive correlation between MIP-1β and MCP-1 in patients with ALS. The increase in MIP-1β and MCP-1 levels suggests that these cytokines may have a synergistic effect on ALS pathogenesis. However, in our cohort, no association was found with either the duration or the clinical severity of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Studies on the biosynthesis of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in delayed hypersensitivity, 1. Effects of inhibitors of nucleic acid and protein synthesis on the production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizoguchi, Y; Yamamoto, S; Morisawa, S [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1973-03-01

    Specific antigenic stimulation of sensitized lymphocytes leads to the production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Production of MIF is inhibited by mitomycin C, actinomycin D, and puromycin. These inhibition effects are studied by using thymidine-/sup 3/H. The first two of these antibiotics only inhibit MIF production when added to the culture medium at a very early stage of antigenic stimulation. In contrast, puromycin exerts its inhibitory effect several hours after the antigenic stimulation, but not at an earlier stage. MIF behaves like a protein, so it seems likely that synthesis of RNA is necessary for MIF formation and MIF synthesis may start as early as a few hours after specific antigenic activation of the sensitized lymphocytes. The inhibitory effects of the antibiotics are discussed in relation to the kinetics of MIF production.

  15. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded BARF1 protein is a decoy receptor for macrophage colony stimulating factor and interferes with macrophage differentiation and activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoebe, Eveline K.; Le Large, Tessa Y. S.; Tarbouriech, Nicolas; Oosterhoff, Dinja; de Gruijl, Tanja D.; Middeldorp, Jaap M.; Greijer, Astrid E.

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), like many other persistent herpes viruses, has acquired numerous mechanisms for subverting or evading immune surveillance. This study investigates the role of secreted EBV-encoded BARF1 protein (sBARF1) in creating an immune evasive microenvironment. Wild-type consensus

  16. Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II is necessary for macrophage M1 polarization and phagocytosis via toll-like receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Ting; You, Huey-Ling; Li, Changgui; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Chang, Shun-Jen; Chen, Chung-Jen

    2015-05-01

    Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII; PRKG2) phosphorylates a variety of biological targets and has been identified as a gout-susceptible gene. However, the regulatory role of cGKII in triggering gout disease has yet to be clarified. Thus, we plan to explore the specific function of cGKII in macrophages related to gout disease. By using cGKII gene knockdown method, we detected macrophage M1/M2 polarization, phagocytosis, and their responses to stimulation by monosodium urate (MSU). cGKII was highly expressed in M1 phenotype, but not in M2, and cGKII knockdown significantly inhibited macrophage M1 polarization by decreasing M1 chemokine markers (CXCL10 and CCL2) and downregulating phagocytosis function. We further identified that cGKII-associated phagocytosis was mediated by upregulating toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) expression, but not by TLR4. Mimicking gout condition by MSU treatments, we found that MSU alone induced cGKII and TLR2 expression with increased M1 polarization markers and phagocytosis activity. It means that cGKII knockdown significantly inhibited this MSU-induced cGKII-TLR2-phagocytosis axis. Our study showed that cGKII plays a key role in M1 polarization, especially in TLR2-mediated phagocytosis under MSU exposure. The findings provide evidence for the possible role of cGKII as an inflammation exciter in gout disease. Gout-susceptible gene cGKII is necessary for macrophage M1 polarization. cGKII regulates M1 phagocytosis function via TLR2. Monosodium urate treatments increase cGKII expression and related function. This study reveals the role of cGKII in enhancing gouty inflammatory responses.

  17. Helicobacter pylori protein HP0986 (TieA) interacts with mouse TNFR1 and triggers proinflammatory and proapoptotic signaling pathways in cultured macrophage cells (RAW 264.7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Suhail A; Devi, Savita; Tenguria, Shivendra; Kumar, Ashutosh; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2014-08-01

    HP0986 protein of Helicobacter pylori has been shown to trigger induction of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8 and TNF-α) through the activation of NF-κB and also to induce Fas mediated apoptosis of human macrophage cells (THP-1). In this study, we unravel mechanistic details of the biological effects of this protein in a murine macrophage environment. Up regulation of MCP-1 and TNF-α in HP0986-induced RAW 264.7 cells occurred subsequent to the activation and translocation of NF-κB to the cell nucleus. Further, HP0986 induced apoptosis of RAW 264.7 cells through Fas activation and this was in agreement with previous observations made with THP-1 cells. Our studies indicated activation of TNFR1 through interaction with HP0986 and this elicited the aforementioned responses independent of TLR2, TLR4 or TNFR2. We found that mouse TNFR1 activation by HP0986 facilitates formation of a complex comprising of TNFR1, TRADD and TRAF2, and this occurs upstream of NF-κB activation. Furthermore, FADD also forms a second complex, at a later stage, together with TNFR1 and TRADD, resulting in caspase-8 activation and thereby the apoptosis of RAW 264.7 cells. In summary, our observations reveal finer details of the functional activity of HP0986 protein in relation to its behavior in a murine macrophage cell environment. These findings reconfirm the proinflammatory and apoptotic role of HP0986 signifying it to be an important trigger of innate responses. These observations form much needed baseline data entailing future in vivo studies of the functions of HP0986 in a murine model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrated cancer therapy combined radiotherapy and immunotherapy. The challenge of using Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) as a key molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uto, Yoshihiro; Hori, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Radiation oncologists know the conflict between radiotherapy and immunotherapy, but now challenged trails of the integrative cancer therapies combined radiation therapy and various immunoreaction/immune therapies begin. We therefore review the recent results of basic research and clinical trial of the integrated cancer therapies which combined radiotherapy and various immune therapies/immunoreaction, and the challenged studies of combined use of radiotherapy and our developed cancer immunotherapy using serum GcMAF which is human serum containing Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF). (author)

  19. Requirement for C-X-C chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant) in IgG immune complex-induced lung injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanley, T P; Schmal, H; Warner, R L

    1997-01-01

    chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC). Both mRNA and protein for MIP-2 and CINC appeared in a time-dependent manner after initiation of IgG immune complex deposition in lung. There exists a 69% homology between the amino acid sequences...... for these proteins, and we found cross-reactivity between polyclonal Abs raised to these chemokines. By purifying the blocking Abs using double affinity methods (with Ag-immobilized beads), this cross-reactivity was removed. Individually, anti-MIP-2 and anti-CINC Ab significantly reduced lung injury (as measured...... activity in BAL fluids collected 2 h after injury from animals undergoing immune complex deposition could be shown to be chiefly due to the combined contributions of MIP-2 (39%), CINC (28%), and C5a (21%). When either MIP-2 or CINC was blocked in vivo, up-regulation of Mac-1 expression on neutrophils...

  20. Activation of an immune-regulatory macrophage response and inhibition of lung inflammation in a mouse model of COPD using heat-shock protein alpha B-crystallin-loaded PLGA microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, J.M.; Bsibsi, M.; Nacken, P.J.; Gerritsen, W.H.; Amor, S.; Holtman, I.R.; Boddeke, E.; van Ark, I.; Leusink-Muis, T.; Folkerts, G.; Hennink, W.E.; Amidi, M.

    2013-01-01

    As an extracellular protein, the small heat-shock protein alpha B-crystallin (HSPB5) has anti-inflammatory effects in several mouse models of inflammation. Here, we show that these effects are associated with the ability of HSPB5 to activate an immune-regulatory response in macrophages via

  1. Activation of an immune-regulatory macrophage response and inhibition of lung inflammation in a mouse model of COPD using heat-shock protein alpha B-crystallin-loaded PLGA microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, Johannes M.; Bsibsi, Malika; Nacken, Peter J.; Gerritsen, Wouter H.; Amor, Sandra; Holtman, Inge R.; Boddeke, Erik; van Ark, Ingrid; Leusink-Muis, Thea; Folkerts, Gert; Hennink, Wim E.; Amidi, Maryam

    As an extracellular protein, the small heat-shock protein alpha B-crystallin (HSPB5) has anti-inflammatory effects in several mouse models of inflammation. Here, we show that these effects are associated with the ability of HSPB5 to activate an immune-regulatory response in macrophages via

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipomannan blocks TNF biosynthesis by regulating macrophage MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) and microRNA miR-125b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Murugesan V S; Ni, Bin; Morris, Jessica D; Brooks, Michelle N; Carlson, Tracy K; Bakthavachalu, Baskar; Schoenberg, Daniel R; Torrelles, Jordi B; Schlesinger, Larry S

    2011-10-18

    Contact of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) with the immune system requires interactions between microbial surface molecules and host pattern recognition receptors. Major M.tb-exposed cell envelope molecules, such as lipomannan (LM), contain subtle structural variations that affect the nature of the immune response. Here we show that LM from virulent M.tb (TB-LM), but not from avirulent Myocobacterium smegmatis (SmegLM), is a potent inhibitor of TNF biosynthesis in human macrophages. This difference in response is not because of variation in Toll-like receptor 2-dependent activation of the signaling kinase MAPK p38. Rather, TB-LM stimulation leads to destabilization of TNF mRNA transcripts and subsequent failure to produce TNF protein. In contrast, SmegLM enhances MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 phosphorylation, which is critical for maintaining TNF mRNA stability in part by contributing microRNAs (miRNAs). In this context, human miRNA miR-125b binds to the 3' UTR region of TNF mRNA and destabilizes the transcript, whereas miR-155 enhances TNF production by increasing TNF mRNA half-life and limiting expression of SHIP1, a negative regulator of the PI3K/Akt pathway. We show that macrophages incubated with TB-LM and live M.tb induce high miR-125b expression and low miR-155 expression with correspondingly low TNF production. In contrast, SmegLM and live M. smegmatis induce high miR-155 expression and low miR-125b expression with high TNF production. Thus, we identify a unique cellular mechanism underlying the ability of a major M.tb cell wall component, TB-LM, to block TNF biosynthesis in human macrophages, thereby allowing M.tb to subvert host immunity and potentially increase its virulence.

  3. Role of macrophage CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis in collagen-induced arthritic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Hua Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (CEBPD has frequently been observed in macrophages in age-associated disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, the role of macrophage CEBPD in the pathogenesis of RA is unclear. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA score and the number of affected paws in Cebpd(-/- mice were significantly decreased compared with the wild-type (WT mice. The histological analysis revealed an attenuated CIA in Cebpd(-/- mice, as shown by reduced pannus formation and greater integrity of joint architecture in affected paws of Cebpd(-/- mice compared with WT mice. In addition, immunohistochemistry analysis revealed decreased pannus proliferation and angiogenesis in Cebpd(-/- mice compared with WT mice. CEBPD activated in macrophages played a functional role in promoting the tube formation of endothelial cells and the migration and proliferation of synoviocytes. In vivo DNA binding assays and reporter assays showed that CEBPD up-regulated CCL20, CXCL1, IL23A and TNFAIP6 transcripts through direct binding to their promoter regions. CCL20, IL23A, CXCL1 and TNFAIP6 contributed to the migration and proliferation of synoviocytes, and the latter two proteins were involved in tube formation of endothelial cells. Finally, two anti-inflammatory chemicals, inotilone and rosmanol, reduced the expression of CEBPD and its downstream targets and mitigated the above phenomena. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, our findings suggest that CEBPD and its downstream effectors could be biomarkers for the diagnosis of RA and potentially serve as therapeutic targets for RA therapy.

  4. Myelin down-regulates myelin phagocytosis by microglia and macrophages through interactions between CD47 on myelin and SIRPα (signal regulatory protein-α on phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichert Fanny

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic injury to axons produces breakdown of axons and myelin at the site of the lesion and then further distal to this where Wallerian degeneration develops. The rapid removal of degenerated myelin by phagocytosis is advantageous for repair since molecules in myelin impede regeneration of severed axons. Thus, revealing mechanisms that regulate myelin phagocytosis by macrophages and microglia is important. We hypothesize that myelin regulates its own phagocytosis by simultaneous activation and down-regulation of microglial and macrophage responses. Activation follows myelin binding to receptors that mediate its phagocytosis (e.g. complement receptor-3, which has been previously studied. Down-regulation, which we test here, follows binding of myelin CD47 to the immune inhibitory receptor SIRPα (signal regulatory protein-α on macrophages and microglia. Methods CD47 and SIRPα expression was studied by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, and myelin phagocytosis by ELISA. Results We first document that myelin, oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells express CD47 without SIRPα and further confirm that microglia and macrophages express both CD47 and SIRPα. Thus, CD47 on myelin can bind to and subsequently activate SIRPα on phagocytes, a prerequisite for CD47/SIRPα-dependent down-regulation of CD47+/+ myelin phagocytosis by itself. We then demonstrate that phagocytosis of CD47+/+ myelin is augmented when binding between myelin CD47 and SIRPα on phagocytes is blocked by mAbs against CD47 and SIRPα, indicating that down-regulation of phagocytosis indeed depends on CD47-SIRPα binding. Further, phagocytosis in serum-free medium of CD47+/+ myelin is augmented after knocking down SIRPα levels (SIRPα-KD in phagocytes by lentiviral infection with SIRPα-shRNA, whereas phagocytosis of myelin that lacks CD47 (CD47-/- is not. Thus, myelin CD47 produces SIRPα-dependent down-regulation of CD47+/+ myelin phagocytosis in phagocytes

  5. Effect of Enzymatic Digestion of Protein Derivatives Obtained from Mucuna pruriens L. on Production of Proinflammatory Mediators by BALB/c Mouse Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Leo, Edwin E; Arana Argáez, Victor E; Acevedo Fernández, Juan J; Puc, Rosa Moo; Segura Campos, Maira R

    2018-04-25

    Inflammation is considered to be a major risk factor for the pathogenesis of chronic non-communicable diseases. Macrophages are important immune cells, which regulate inflammation and host defense by secretion of proinflammatory mediators. Obtaining biopeptides by enzymatic hydrolysis adds value to proteins of vegetative origin, such as Mucuna pruriens L. The present study evaluated the effect of enzymatic digestion of protein derivatives obtained from M. pruriens L. on the production of proinflammatory mediators by BALB/c mouse macrophages. Five different molecular weight peptide fractions were obtained (F > 10, 5-10, 3-5, 1-3, and < 1 kDa, respectively). At 300 μg/mL, F5-10 kDa inhibited 50.26 and 61.00% NO and H 2 O 2 production, respectively. Moreover, F5-10 kDa reduced the IL-6 and TNFα levels to 60.25 and 69.54%, respectively. After enzymatic digestive simulation, F5-10 kDa decreased the inflammatory mediators.

  6. Recombinant protein truncation strategy for inducing bactericidal antibodies to the macrophage infectivity potentiator protein of Neisseria meningitidis and circumventing potential cross-reactivity with human FK506-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecka, Magdalena K; Devos, Nathalie; Gilbert, Mélanie; Hung, Miao-Chiu; Weynants, Vincent; Heckels, John E; Christodoulides, Myron

    2015-02-01

    A recombinant macrophage infectivity potentiator (rMIP) protein of Neisseria meningitidis induces significant serum bactericidal antibody production in mice and is a candidate meningococcal vaccine antigen. However, bioinformatics analysis of MIP showed some amino acid sequence similarity to human FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) in residues 166 to 252 located in the globular domain of the protein. To circumvent the potential concern over generating antibodies that could recognize human proteins, we immunized mice with recombinant truncated type I rMIP proteins that lacked the globular domain and the signal leader peptide (LP) signal sequence (amino acids 1 to 22) and contained the His purification tag at either the N or C terminus (C-term). The immunogenicity of truncated rMIP proteins was compared to that of full (i.e., full-length) rMIP proteins (containing the globular domain) with either an N- or C-terminal His tag and with or without the LP sequence. By comparing the functional murine antibody responses to these various constructs, we determined that C-term His truncated rMIP (-LP) delivered in liposomes induced high levels of antibodies that bound to the surface of wild-type but not Δmip mutant meningococci and showed bactericidal activity against homologous type I MIP (median titers of 128 to 256) and heterologous type II and III (median titers of 256 to 512) strains, thereby providing at least 82% serogroup B strain coverage. In contrast, in constructs lacking the LP, placement of the His tag at the N terminus appeared to abrogate bactericidal activity. The strategy used in this study would obviate any potential concerns regarding the use of MIP antigens for inclusion in bacterial vaccines. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Recombinant Protein Truncation Strategy for Inducing Bactericidal Antibodies to the Macrophage Infectivity Potentiator Protein of Neisseria meningitidis and Circumventing Potential Cross-Reactivity with Human FK506-Binding Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecka, Magdalena K.; Devos, Nathalie; Gilbert, Mélanie; Hung, Miao-Chiu; Weynants, Vincent; Heckels, John E.

    2014-01-01

    A recombinant macrophage infectivity potentiator (rMIP) protein of Neisseria meningitidis induces significant serum bactericidal antibody production in mice and is a candidate meningococcal vaccine antigen. However, bioinformatics analysis of MIP showed some amino acid sequence similarity to human FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) in residues 166 to 252 located in the globular domain of the protein. To circumvent the potential concern over generating antibodies that could recognize human proteins, we immunized mice with recombinant truncated type I rMIP proteins that lacked the globular domain and the signal leader peptide (LP) signal sequence (amino acids 1 to 22) and contained the His purification tag at either the N or C terminus (C-term). The immunogenicity of truncated rMIP proteins was compared to that of full (i.e., full-length) rMIP proteins (containing the globular domain) with either an N- or C-terminal His tag and with or without the LP sequence. By comparing the functional murine antibody responses to these various constructs, we determined that C-term His truncated rMIP (−LP) delivered in liposomes induced high levels of antibodies that bound to the surface of wild-type but not Δmip mutant meningococci and showed bactericidal activity against homologous type I MIP (median titers of 128 to 256) and heterologous type II and III (median titers of 256 to 512) strains, thereby providing at least 82% serogroup B strain coverage. In contrast, in constructs lacking the LP, placement of the His tag at the N terminus appeared to abrogate bactericidal activity. The strategy used in this study would obviate any potential concerns regarding the use of MIP antigens for inclusion in bacterial vaccines. PMID:25452551

  8. Ethanolic extract of Passiflora edulis Sims leaves inhibits protein glycation and restores the oxidative burst in diabetic rat macrophages after Candida albicans exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fernandes Ribas Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the ethanolic extract of Passiflora edulis leaves on blood glucose, protein glycation, NADPH oxidase activity and macrophage phagocytic capacity after Candida albicans exposure in diabetic rats. The Passiflora edulis Sims leaves were dried to 40°C, powdered, extracted by maceration in 70% ethanol, evaporated under reduced pressure and lyophilised. The biochemical tests performed were total phenolic content (TP as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, trapping potential DPPH assay and total iron-reducing potential. Diabetes was induced by alloxan injection. Protein glycation was determined by AGE and fructosamine serum concentrations. Extract-treated diabetic animals demonstrated lower fructosamine concentrations compared with the diabetic group. Our results suggest that ethanolic Passiflora edulis Sims leaf extraction may have beneficial effects on diabetes and may improve glycaemic control in diabetic rats.

  9. Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Translocation Protein 1 Positively Modulates Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Production in Alveolar Macrophages upon Toll-Like Receptor 7 Signaling and Influenza Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsiang Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV infection causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 degrades extracellular matrix and is involved in the pathology of influenza. It has been reported that MMP-9 mediates neutrophil migration in IAV infection. Whether alveolar macrophages, the first immune cells that encounter IAV, produce MMP-9, and the mechanism of its regulation have never been investigated. As Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7 is one of the receptors in innate immune cells that recognize IAV, we used TLR7 agonists and IAV to stimulate alveolar macrophage MH-S cells, primary macrophages, and bone marrow neutrophils. Results showed that MMP-9 expression in macrophages is inducible by TLR7 agonists and IAV, yet, MMP-9 production by neutrophils is not inducible by either one of them. We hypothesized that MMP-9 production in macrophages is mediated through TLR7-NF-κB pathway and used microarray to analyze TLR7 agonist-induced NF-κB-related genes. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 (MALT1, a positive regulator of NF-κB, is amongst the top highly induced genes. By use of MALT1 inhibitor (z-VRPR-fmk and alveolar macrophages from MALT1-deficient mice, we found that MMP-9 production is MALT1-dependent. While MALT1 can act as a paracaspase in lymphocytes through degrading various signaling proteins, we discovered that MALT1 functions to reduce a negative regulator of NF-κB, cylindromatosis (CYLD, in alveolar macrophages. IAV-induced MMP-9, TNF, and IL-6 in lungs of MALT1-deficient mice are significantly lower than in wild-type mice after intratracheal infection. MALT1-deficient mice also have less body weight loss and longer survival after infection. Taken together, we demonstrated a novel role of MALT1 in regulating alveolar macrophage MMP-9 production whose presence exacerbates the severity of influenza.

  10. An autoantibody against N{sup {epsilon}}-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL): Possible involvement in the removal of CEL-modified proteins by macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mera, Katsumi [Department of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Nagai, Ryoji, E-mail: nagai-883@umin.ac.jp [Department of Food and Nutrition, Laboratory of Nutritional Science and Biochemistry, Japan Women' s University, Tokyo (Japan); Takeo, Kazuhiro; Izumi, Miyoko [Department of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Maruyama, Toru [Department of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Center for Clinical Pharmaceutical Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Otagiri, Masaki [Department of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sojo University, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} A higher amount of autoantibody against CEL than that of other AGEs was observed in human plasma. {yields} The purified human anti-CEL autoantibody specifically reacted with CEL. {yields} Anti-CEL antibody accelerated the uptake of {sup 125}I-CEL-HSA by macrophage in vitro. {yields} Endocytic uptake of {sup 125}I-CEL-HSA by mice liver was accelerated in the presence of anti-CEL antibody. -- Abstract: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are believed to play a significant role in the development of diabetic complications. In this study, we measured the levels of autoantibodies against several AGE structures in healthy human plasma and investigated the physiological role of the autoantibodies. A high titer of the autoantibody against N{sup {epsilon}}-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) was detected in human plasma compared with other AGE structures such as CML and pentosidine. The purified human anti-CEL autoantibody reacted with CEL-modified human serum albumin (CEL-HSA), but not CML-HSA. A rabbit polyclonal anti-CEL antibody, used as a model autoantibody against CEL, accelerated the uptake of CEL-HSA by macrophages, but did not enhance the uptake of native HSA. Furthermore, when {sup 125}I-labeled CEL-HSA was injected into the tail vein of mice, accumulation of {sup 125}I-CEL-HSA in the liver was accelerated by co-injection of the rabbit anti-CEL antibody. These results demonstrate that the autoantibody against CEL in plasma may play a role in the macrophage uptake of CEL-modified proteins.

  11. Loss of Macrophage Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 1 Confers Resistance to the Antiatherogenic Effects of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Giunzioni, Ilaria; Tavori, Hagai; Covarrubias, Roman; Ding, Lei; Zhang, Youmin; Ormseth, Michelle; Major, Amy S; Stafford, John M; Linton, MacRae F; Fazio, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    Antiatherosclerotic effects of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) blockade in patients with systemic inflammatory states are not conclusively demonstrated, which suggests that effects depend on the cause of inflammation. Macrophage LRP1 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1) and apoE contribute to inflammation through different pathways. We studied the antiatherosclerosis effects of TNF-α blockade in hyperlipidemic mice lacking either LRP1 (MΦLRP1(-/-)) or apoE from macrophages. Lethally irradiated low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)(-/-) mice were reconstituted with bone marrow from either wild-type, MΦLRP1(-/-), apoE(-/-) or apoE(-/-)/MΦLRP1(-/-)(DKO) mice, and then treated with the TNF-α inhibitor adalimumab while fed a Western-type diet. Adalimumab reduced plasma TNF-α concentration, suppressed blood ly6C(hi) monocyte levels and their migration into the lesion, and reduced lesion cellularity and inflammation in both wild-type→LDLR(-/-) and apoE(-/-)→LDLR(-/-) mice. Overall, adalimumab reduced lesion burden by 52% to 57% in these mice. Adalimumab reduced TNF-α and blood ly6C(hi) monocyte levels in MΦLRP1(-/-)→LDLR(-/-) and DKO→LDLR(-/-) mice, but it did not suppress ly6C(hi) monocyte migration into the lesion or atherosclerosis progression. Our results show that TNF-α blockade exerts antiatherosclerotic effects that are dependent on the presence of macrophage LRP1. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Quantitative GPCR and ion channel transcriptomics in primary alveolar macrophages and macrophage surrogates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groot-Kormelink Paul J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alveolar macrophages are one of the first lines of defence against invading pathogens and play a central role in modulating both the innate and acquired immune systems. By responding to endogenous stimuli within the lung, alveolar macrophages contribute towards the regulation of the local inflammatory microenvironment, the initiation of wound healing and the pathogenesis of viral and bacterial infections. Despite the availability of protocols for isolating primary alveolar macrophages from the lung these cells remain recalcitrant to expansion in-vitro and therefore surrogate cell types, such as monocyte derived macrophages and phorbol ester-differentiated cell lines (e.g. U937, THP-1, HL60 are frequently used to model macrophage function. Methods The availability of high throughput gene expression technologies for accurate quantification of transcript levels enables the re-evaluation of these surrogate cell types for use as cellular models of the alveolar macrophage. Utilising high-throughput TaqMan arrays and focussing on dynamically regulated families of integral membrane proteins, we explore the similarities and differences in G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR and ion channel expression in alveolar macrophages and their widely used surrogates. Results The complete non-sensory GPCR and ion channel transcriptome is described for primary alveolar macrophages and macrophage surrogates. The expression of numerous GPCRs and ion channels whose expression were hitherto not described in human alveolar macrophages are compared across primary macrophages and commonly used macrophage cell models. Several membrane proteins known to have critical roles in regulating macrophage function, including CXCR6, CCR8 and TRPV4, were found to be highly expressed in macrophages but not expressed in PMA-differentiated surrogates. Conclusions The data described in this report provides insight into the appropriate choice of cell models for

  13. The Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins MIP1α (CCL3 and MIP2α (CXCL2 in Implant-Associated Osteomyelitis: Linking Inflammation to Bone Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Dapunt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections of bones remain a serious complication of endoprosthetic surgery. These infections are difficult to treat, because many bacterial species form biofilms on implants, which are relatively resistant towards antibiotics. Bacterial biofilms elicit a progressive local inflammatory response, resulting in tissue damage and bone degradation. In the majority of patients, replacement of the prosthesis is required. To address the question of how the local inflammatory response is linked to bone degradation, tissue samples were taken during surgery and gene expression of the macrophage inflammatory proteins MIP1α (CCL3 and MIP2α (CXCL2 was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. MIPs were expressed predominantly at osteolytic sites, in close correlation with CD14 which was used as marker for monocytes/macrophages. Colocalisation of MIPs with monocytic cells could be confirmed by histology. In vitro experiments revealed that, aside from monocytic cells, also osteoblasts were capable of MIP production when stimulated with bacteria; moreover, CCL3 induced the differentiation of monocytes to osteoclasts. In conclusion, the multifunctional chemokines CCL3 and CXCL2 are produced locally in response to bacterial infection of bones. In addition to their well described chemokine activity, these cytokines can induce generation of bone resorbing osteoclasts, thus providing a link between bacterial infection and osteolysis.

  14. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae-derived lipid-associated membrane proteins induce apoptosis in porcine alveolar macrophage via increasing nitric oxide production, oxidative stress, and caspase-3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fangfang; Ni, Bo; Liu, Maojun; Feng, Zhixin; Xiong, Qiyan; Xiao, Shaobo; Shao, Guoqing

    2013-09-15

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the primary etiological agent of enzootic pneumonia in swine. Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMP) of mycoplasma are the main pathogenicity factors in mycoplasma diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of M. hyopneumoniae LAMP on porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) 3D4/21 cell line. Apoptotic features, such as chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies, were observed in LAMP-treated PAM 3D4/21 cells. Moreover, LAMP significantly increased the number of TUNEL positive apoptotic cells in PAM 3D4/21 cells compared with the untreated control. In addition, flow cytometric analysis using dual staining with annexin-V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) showed that LAMP of M. hyopneumoniae induced a time-dependent apoptosis in PAM 3D4/21 cells. Moreover, increased levels of superoxide anion production and activated caspase-3 in PAM 3D4/21 cells were observed after exposure to LAMP. Increased production of nitric oxide (NO) was also confirmed in the cell supernatants. Besides, apoptotic rates increase and caspase-3 activation were suppressed by NOS inhibitor or antioxidant. It is suggested that LAMP of M. hyopneumoniae induced apoptosis in porcine alveolar macrophage via NO production, superoxide anion production, and caspase-3 activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Production of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha and MIP-1beta by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils stimulated with Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyun Jung; Lim, Sung Sam

    2002-11-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the capacity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) to secrete Macrophage Inflammatory Protein (MIP)-1alpha and MIP-1beta after stimulation with Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Escherichia coli LPS was used as a positive control. Venous blood was collected and PMNs were isolated from healthy volunteers. Cells were cultured with various concentrations of LPS for different periods of time. Cell supernatants were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of chemokine secretion in PMNs stimulated with each LPS were found to be significantly higher than in the unstimulated control cells (p endodontalis LPS. These findings demonstrated that P. endodontalis LPS is capable of stimulating PMNs to produce chemotactic cytokines and suggested that PMNs stimulated with P. endodontalis LPS may play a crucial role in the inflammatory and immunopathological reactions of pulpal and periapical diseases.

  16. DMPD: Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 2, a protein with multiple functions. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17070092 Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 2, a protein with multiple function...Epub 2006 Oct 27. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 2, a protein with multiple function...SOCS) 2, a protein with multiple functions. Authors Rico-Bautista E, Flores-Morales A, Fernandez-Perez L. Pu

  17. DMPD: Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-mediated disorders. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14643884 Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-m...g) (.html) (.csml) Show Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-mediated di...sorders. PubmedID 14643884 Title Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to contro

  18. DMPD: The role of Toll-like receptors and Nod proteins in bacterial infection. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15476921 The role of Toll-like receptors and Nod proteins in bacterial infection. P...of Toll-like receptors and Nod proteins in bacterial infection. PubmedID 15476921 Title The role of Toll-like receptors and Nod prote...ins in bacterial infection. Authors Philpott DJ, Girardi

  19. DMPD: Regulation of innate immunity by suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)proteins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18406369 Regulation of innate immunity by suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)proteins...svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Regulation of innate immunity by suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)proteins. ...PubmedID 18406369 Title Regulation of innate immunity by suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)proteins

  20. Administration of Protein kinase D1 induce an immunomodulatory effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal inflammation in a co-culture model of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ditte Søvsø Gundelund; Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    the effects of human PKD1 in relation to intestinal inflammation, using a co-culture model of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and RAW264.7 macrophages. An inflammatory response was induced in the macrophages by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), upregulating the expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF......-α), interleukin- (IL-) 1β, and IL-6 besides increasing the secretion of TNF-α protein. The effect of administering PKD1 to Caco-2 was evaluated in relation to both amelioration of inflammation and the ability to suppress inflammation initiation. Administration of PKD1 (10–100 ng/ml) following induction...

  1. Heterochromatin protein 1 gamma and IκB kinase alpha interdependence during tumour necrosis factor gene transcription elongation in activated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, James L; Ouboussad, Lylia; Lefevre, Pascal F

    2012-09-01

    IκB kinase α (IKKα) is part of the cytoplasmic IKK complex regulating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) release and translocation into the nucleus in response to pro-inflammatory signals. IKKα can also be recruited directly to the promoter of NF-κB-dependent genes by NF-κB where it phosphorylates histone H3 at serine 10, triggering recruitment of the bromodomain-containing protein 4 and the positive transcription elongation factor b. Herein, we report that IKKα travels with the elongating form of ribonucleic acid polymerase II together with heterochromatin protein 1 gamma (HP1γ) at NF-κB-dependent genes in activated macrophages. IKKα binds to and phosphorylates HP1γ, which in turn controls IKKα binding to chromatin and phosphorylation of the histone variant H3.3 at serine 31 within transcribing regions. Downstream of transcription end sites, IKKα accumulates with its inhibitor the CUE-domain containing protein 2, suggesting a link between IKKα inactivation and transcription termination.

  2. Immunotherapy of BALB/c mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor with vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R

    1997-06-01

    Vitamin D3-binding protein (DBP; human DBP is known as Gc protein) is the precursor of macrophage activating factor (MAF). Treatment of mouse DBP with immobilized beta-galactosidase or treatment of human Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated a remarkably potent MAF, termed DBPMAF or GcMAF, respectively. The domain of Gc protein responsible for macrophage activation was cloned and enzymatically converted to the cloned MAF, designated CdMAF. In Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice, tumor-specific serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NaGalase) activity increased linearly with time as the transplanted tumor cells grew in the peritoneal cavity. Therapeutic effects of DBPMAF, GcMAF, and CdMAF on mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumor were assessed by survival time, the total tumor cell count in the peritoneal cavity, and serum NaGalase activity. Mice that received a single administration of DBPMAF or GcMAF (100 pg/mouse) on the same day after transplantation of tumor (1 x 10(5) cells) showed a mean survival time of 35 +/- 4 days, whereas tumor-bearing controls had a mean survival time of 16 +/- 2 days. When mice received the second DBPMAF or GcMAF administration at day 4, they survived more than 50 days. Mice that received two DBPMAF administrations, at days 4 and 8 after transplantation of 1 x 10(5) tumor cells, survived up to 32 +/- 4 days. At day 4 posttransplantation, the total tumor cell count in the peritoneal cavity was approximately 5 x 10(5) cells. Mice that received two DBPMAF administrations, at days 0 and 4 after transplantation of 5 x 10(5) tumor cells, also survived up to 32 +/- 4 days, while control mice that received the 5 x 10(5) ascites tumor cells only survived for 14 +/- 2 days. Four DBPMAF, GcMAF, or CdMAF administrations to mice transplanted with 5 x 10(5) Ehrlich ascites tumor cells with 4-day intervals showed an extended survival of at least 90 days and an insignificantly low serum NaGalase level between days 30 and 90.

  3. Effects of prenatal low protein and postnatal high fat diets on visceral adipose tissue macrophage phenotypes and IL-6 expression in Sprague Dawley rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linglin Xie

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue macrophages (ATM are implicated in adipose tissue inflammation and obesity-related insulin resistance. Maternal low protein models result in fetal programming of obesity. The study aims to answer whether maternal undernutrition by protein restriction affects the ATM M1 or M2 phenotype under postnatal high fat diet in F1 offspring. Using a rat model of prenatal low protein (LP, 8% protein diet followed by a postnatal high fat energy diet (HE, 45% fat or low fat normal energy diet (NE, 10% fat for 12 weeks, we investigated the effects of these diets on adiposity, programming of the offspring ATM phenotype, and the associated inflammatory response in adipose tissue. Fat mass in newborn and 12-week old LP fed offspring was lower than that of normal protein (20%; NP fed offspring; however, the adipose tissue growth rate was higher compared to the NP fed offspring. While LP did not affect the number of CD68+ or CD206+ cells in adipose tissue of NE offspring, it attenuated the number of these cells in offspring fed HE. In offspring fed HE, LP offspring had a lower percentage of CD11c+CD206+ ATMs, whose abundancy was correlated with the size of the adipocytes. Noteworthy, similar to HE treatment, LP increased gene expression of IL-6 within ATMs. Two-way ANOVA showed an interaction of prenatal LP and postnatal HE on IL-6 and IL-1β transcription. Overall, both LP and HE diets impact ATM phenotype by affecting the ratio of CD11c+CD206+ ATMs and the expression of IL-6.

  4. Effects of diets with whole plant-origin proteins added with different ratios of taurine:methionine on the growth, macrophage activity and antioxidant capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fingerlings

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    Omar Ezequiel Aguillón Hernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A 70-days feeding trial was performed to determine the effect of diets with whole plant-origin proteins added with different ratios of taurine:methionine on the growth, macrophage burst activity and antioxidant capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fingerlings. Triplicated groups of 70 fingerlings of an initial weight of 0.54±0.1 g (mean±±SD were fed diets with soy protein isolate and Spirulina powder as protein sources (46% crude protein and added (10 g/kg diet with different taurine and methionine ratios: 0.0 and 10.0 (diet T0/M100, 2.5 and 7.5 (diet T25/M75, 5.0 and 5.0 (diet T50/M50, 7.5 and 2.5 (diet T75/M25 and 10.0 and 0.0 (diet T100/M0, respectively. At the end of the trial, growth performance, lipid and protein contents in liver and muscle, macrophage burst activity and liver antioxidant activity, were determined. The growth performance, macrophage burst activity and antioxidant activity were improved as the taurine increased in the diets. The ratio of 7.5 and 2.5 g/kg of taurine:methionine in diets with SPI and Spirulina powder as protein sources (diet T75/M25, seems to be the best inclusion for rainbow trout fingerlings.

  5. Active spice-derived components can inhibit inflammatory responses of adipose tissue in obesity by suppressing inflammatory actions of macrophages and release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 from adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hae-Mi; Kang, Ji-Hye; Kawada, Teruo; Yoo, Hoon; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Yu, Rina

    2007-02-13

    Inflammation plays a key role in obesity-related pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and several types of cancer. Obesity-induced inflammation entails the enhancement of the recruitment of macrophages into adipose tissue and the release of various proinflammatory proteins from fat tissue. Therefore, the modulation of inflammatory responses in obesity may be useful for preventing or ameliorating obesity-related pathologies. Some spice-derived components, which are naturally occurring phytochemicals, elicit antiobesity and antiinflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated whether active spice-derived components can be applied to the suppression of obesity-induced inflammatory responses. Mesenteric adipose tissue was isolated from obese mice fed a high-fat diet and cultured to prepare an adipose tissue-conditioned medium. Raw 264.7 macrophages were treated with the adipose tissue-conditioned medium with or without active spice-derived components (i.e., diallyl disulfide, allyl isothiocyanate, piperine, zingerone and curcumin). Chemotaxis assay was performed to measure the degree of macrophage migration. Macrophage activation was estimated by measuring tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), nitric oxide, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) concentrations. The active spice-derived components markedly suppressed the migration of macrophages induced by the mesenteric adipose tissue-conditioned medium in a dose-dependent manner. Among the active spice-derived components studied, allyl isothiocyanate, zingerone, and curcumin significantly inhibited the cellular production of proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha and nitric oxide, and significantly inhibited the release of MCP-1 from 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our findings suggest that the spice-derived components can suppress obesity-induced inflammatory responses by suppressing adipose tissue macrophage accumulation or activation and inhibiting MCP-1 release from adipocytes

  6. Modulation of cyclic amp-dependent protein kinase isozyme expression associated with activation of a macrophage cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justement, L.B.; Aldrich, W.A.; Wenger, G.D.; O'Dorisio, M.S.; Zwilling, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    The RAW 264.7 macrophage (MO) cell line was used to study cAMPdPK isozymes during activation by lymphokine (LK) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Untreated cells were found to have two isozymes of cAMPdPK in their cytosol. PKI and PKII were differentiated based on the M/sub r/ of their regulatory subunits (RI, 45,500; and RII, 52,000, respectively) as determined by photoactivated incorporation of the cAMP analog 8-N 3 -[ 32 P]cAMP. Loss of the RI subunit of PKI occurred in association with activation of the cell line by suboptimal concentrations of LK and LPS. No modulation of the RII subunit of PKII was observed under these conditions. The addition of a suboptimal concentration of LPS after LK or a high dose of LPS alone was required for acquisition of cytolytic activity and loss of RI. The antitumor activity of the RAW 264.7 cell line was transiently expressed after activation. Cells no longer exhibited tumoricidal activity 48 hr after the removal of activating agents. It was observed that the loss of cytolytic function was accompanied by the reexpression of RI in the cytosol. This study provides evidence that modulation of cAMPdPK isozymes occurs during activation, suggesting a potential mechanism for controlling the effects of cAMP on the MO

  7. DMPD: Pellino proteins: novel players in TLR and IL-1R signalling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17635639 Pellino proteins: novel players in TLR and IL-1R signalling. Schauvliege R..., Janssens S, Beyaert R. J Cell Mol Med. 2007 May-Jun;11(3):453-61. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Pellino proteins: novel player...s in TLR and IL-1R signalling. PubmedID 17635639 Title Pellino proteins: novel player...tml) CSML File (.csml) Open .csml file with CIOPlayer Open .csml file with CIOPlayer - ※CIO Playerのご利用上の注意 Open .csml file with CIO Open .csml file with CIO - ※CIOのご利用上の注意 ...

  8. Burkholderia pseudomallei Evades Nramp1 (Slc11a1- and NADPH Oxidase-Mediated Killing in Macrophages and Exhibits Nramp1-Dependent Virulence Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerachat Muangsombut

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial survival in macrophages can be affected by the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1; also known as solute carrier family 11 member a1 or Slc11a1 which localizes to phagosome membranes and transports divalent cations, including iron. Little is known about the role of Nramp1 in Burkholderia infection, in particular whether this differs for pathogenic species like Burkholderia pseudomallei causing melioidosis or non-pathogenic species like Burkholderia thailandensis. Here we show that transfected macrophages stably expressing wild-type Nramp1 (Nramp1+ control the net replication of B. thailandensis, but not B. pseudomallei. Control of B. thailandensis was associated with increased cytokine responses, and could be abrogated by blocking NADPH oxidase-mediated production of reactive oxygen species but not by blocking generation of reactive nitrogen species. The inability of Nramp1+ macrophages to control B. pseudomallei was associated with rapid escape of bacteria from phagosomes, as indicated by decreased co-localization with LAMP1 compared to B. thailandensis. A B. pseudomallei bipB mutant impaired in escape from phagosomes was controlled to a greater extent than the parent strain in Nramp1+ macrophages, but was also attenuated in Nramp1− cells. Consistent with reduced escape from phagosomes, B. thailandensis formed fewer multinucleated giant cells in Nramp1+ macrophages at later time points compared to B. pseudomallei. B. pseudomallei exhibited elevated transcription of virulence-associated genes of Type VI Secretion System cluster 1 (T6SS-1, the Bsa Type III Secretion System (T3SS-3 and the bimA gene required for actin-based motility in Nramp1+ macrophages. Nramp1+ macrophages were found to contain decreased iron levels that may impact on expression of such genes. Our data show that B. pseudomallei is able to evade Nramp1- and NADPH oxidase-mediated killing in macrophages and that expression of virulence

  9. Comparative proteomic analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ppGpp-deficient mutant to identify a novel virulence protein required for intracellular survival in macrophages

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    Kumagai Yoshinori

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global ppGpp-mediated stringent response in pathogenic bacteria plays an important role in the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium, several genes, including virulence genes, are regulated by ppGpp when bacteria are under the stringent response. To understand the control of virulence genes by ppGpp in S. Typhimurium, agarose 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE combined with mass spectrometry was used and a comprehensive 2-DE reference map of amino acid-starved S. Typhimurium strain SH100, a derivative of ATCC 14028, was established. Results Of the 366 examined spots, 269 proteins were successfully identified. The comparative analysis of the wild-type and ppGpp0 mutant strains revealed 55 proteins, the expression patterns of which were affected by ppGpp. Using a mouse infection model, we further identified a novel virulence-associated factor, STM3169, from the ppGpp-regulated and Salmonella-specific proteins. In addition, Salmonella strains carrying mutations in the gene encoding STM3169 showed growth defects and impaired growth within macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, we found that expression of stm3169 was controlled by ppGpp and SsrB, a response regulator of the two-component system located on Salmonella pathogenicity island 2. Conclusions A proteomic approach using a 2-DE reference map can prove a powerful tool for analyzing virulence factors and the regulatory network involved in Salmonella pathogenesis. Our results also provide evidence of a global response mediated by ppGpp in S. enterica.

  10. Iron storage proteins are essential for the survival and pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in THP-1 macrophages and the guinea pig model of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P Vineel; Puri, Rupangi Verma; Khera, Aparna; Tyagi, Anil K

    2012-02-01

    Iron is one of the crucial elements required for the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, excess free iron becomes toxic for the cells because it catalyzes the production of reactive oxygen radicals, leading to oxidative damage. Hence, it is essential for the pathogen to have the ability to store intracellular iron in an iron-rich environment and utilize it under iron depletion. M. tuberculosis has two iron storage proteins, namely BfrA (Rv1876; a bacterioferritin) and BfrB (Rv3841; a ferritin-like protein). However, the demonstration of biological significance requires the disruption of relevant genes and the evaluation of the resulting mutant for its ability to survive in the host and cause disease. In this study, we have disrupted bfrA and bfrB of M. tuberculosis and demonstrated that these genes are crucial for the storage and supply of iron for the growth of bacteria and to withstand oxidative stress in vitro. In addition, the bfrA bfrB double mutant (H37Rv ΔbfrA ΔbfrB) exhibited a marked reduction in its ability to survive inside human macrophages. Guinea pigs infected with H37Rv ΔbfrA ΔbfrB exhibited a marked diminution in the dissemination of the bacilli to spleen compared to that of the parental strain. Moreover, guinea pigs infected with H37Rv ΔbfrA ΔbfrB exhibited significantly reduced pathological damage in spleen and lungs compared to that of animals infected with the parental strain. Our study clearly demonstrates the importance of these iron storage proteins in the survival and pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis in the host and establishes them as attractive targets for the development of new inhibitors against mycobacterial infections.

  11. Protein kinase activity associated with Fcγ/sub 2a/ receptor of a murine macrophage like cell line, P388D1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    1987-01-01

    The properties of protein kinase activity associated with Fc receptor specific for IgG/sub 2a/(Fcγ/sub 2a/R) of a murine macrophage like cell line, P388D 1 , were investigated. IgG/sub 2a/-binding protein isolated from the detergent lysate of P388D 1 cells by affinity chromatography of IgG-Sepharose was found to contain four distinct proteins of M/sub r/ 50,000, 43,000, 37,000, and 17,000, which could be autophosphorylated upon incubation with [γ- 32 P]ATP. The autophosphorylation of Fcγ/sub 2a/ receptor complex ceased when exogenous phosphate acceptors (casein or histone) were added in the reaction mixture. Phosphorylation of casein catalyzed by Fcγ/sub 2a/ receptor complex was dependent on casein concentration, increased with time or temperature, was dependent on the concentration of ATP and Mg 2+ , and was maximum at pH near 8. Casein phosphorylation was significantly inhibited by a high concentration of Mn 2+ or KCl or by a small amount of heparin and was enhanced about 2-fold by protamine. Casein kinase activity associated with Fcγ/sub 2a/ receptor used ATP as substrate with an apparent K/sub m/ of 2 μM as well as GTP with an apparent K/sub m/ of 10 μM. Prior heating (60 0 C for 15 min) or treatment with protease (trypsin or Pronase) of Fcγ/sub 2a/ receptor complex almost totally abolished casein kinase activity. Thin-layer chromatography of a partial acid hydrolysate of the phosphorylated casein showed that the site of phosphorylation is at a seryl residue. These results suggest that Fcγ 2 /sub a/ receptor forms a molecule complex with protein kinase, whose characteristics resemble those of type II casein kinase but are different from those of cyclic nucleotide dependent protein kinase or from those of C protein kinase

  12. BMP pathway regulation of and by macrophages.

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    Megha Talati

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a disease of progressively increasing pulmonary vascular resistance, associated with mutations of the type 2 receptor for the BMP pathway, BMPR2. The canonical signaling pathway for BMPR2 is through the SMAD family of transcription factors. BMPR2 is expressed in every cell type, but the impact of BMPR2 mutations affecting SMAD signaling, such as Bmpr2delx4+, had only previously been investigated in smooth muscle and endothelium. In the present study, we created a mouse with universal doxycycline-inducible expression of Bmpr2delx4+ in order to determine if broader expression had an impact relevant to the development of PAH. We found that the most obvious phenotype was a dramatic, but patchy, increase in pulmonary inflammation. We crossed these double transgenic mice onto an NF-κB reporter strain, and by luciferase assays on live mice, individual organs and isolated macrophages, we narrowed down the origin of the inflammatory phenotype to constitutive activation of tissue macrophages. Study of bone marrow-derived macrophages from mutant and wild-type mice suggested a baseline difference in differentiation state in Bmpr2 mutants. When activated with LPS, both mutant and wild-type macrophages secrete BMP pathway inhibitors sufficient to suppress BMP pathway activity in smooth muscle cells (SMC treated with conditioned media. Functionally, co-culture with macrophages results in a BMP signaling-dependent increase in scratch closure in cultured SMC. We conclude that SMAD signaling through BMP is responsible, in part, for preventing macrophage activation in both live animals and in cells in culture, and that activated macrophages secrete BMP inhibitors in sufficient quantity to cause paracrine effect on vascular smooth muscle.

  13. DMPD: Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 receptor adaptor proteins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17667936 Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 receptor adaptor prote... (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 receptor adaptor proteins. ...PubmedID 17667936 Title Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 recep

  14. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein through TLR4 signaling induces mitochondrial DNA fragmentation and regulates macrophage cell death after trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Fan, Erica K; Liu, Jinghua; Scott, Melanie J; Li, Yuehua; Li, Song; Xie, Wen; Billiar, Timothy R; Wilson, Mark A; Jiang, Yong; Wang, Ping; Fan, Jie

    2017-05-11

    Trauma is a major cause of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Macrophages (Mφ) direct trauma-induced inflammation, and Mφ death critically influences the progression of the inflammatory response. In the current study, we explored an important role of trauma in inducing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in Mφ and the subsequent regulation of Mφ death. Using an animal pseudo-fracture trauma model, we demonstrated that tissue damage induced NADPH oxidase activation and increased the release of reactive oxygen species via cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP)-TLR4-MyD88 signaling. This in turn, activates endonuclease G, which serves as an executor for the fragmentation of mtDNA in Mφ. We further showed that fragmented mtDNA triggered both p62-related autophagy and necroptosis in Mφ. However, autophagy activation also suppressed Mφ necroptosis and pro-inflammatory responses. This study demonstrates a previously unidentified intracellular regulation of Mφ homeostasis in response to trauma.

  15. Negative regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity by macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) family members in non-small cell lung carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Stephanie E; Rendon, Beatriz E; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha; Mitchell, Robert A

    2012-11-02

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a nutrient- and metabolic stress-sensing enzyme activated by the tumor suppressor kinase, LKB1. Because macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and its functional homolog, d-dopachrome tautomerase (d-DT), have protumorigenic functions in non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) but have AMPK-activating properties in nonmalignant cell types, we set out to investigate this apparent paradox. Our data now suggest that, in contrast to MIF and d-DTs AMPK-activating properties in nontransformed cells, MIF and d-DT act cooperatively to inhibit steady-state phosphorylation and activation of AMPK in LKB1 wild type and LKB1 mutant human NSCLC cell lines. Our data further indicate that MIF and d-DT, acting through their shared cell surface receptor, CD74, antagonize NSCLC AMPK activation by maintaining glucose uptake, ATP production, and redox balance, resulting in reduced Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase β-dependent AMPK activation. Combined, these studies indicate that MIF and d-DT cooperate to inhibit AMPK activation in an LKB1-independent manner.

  16. Adipocyte-Macrophage Cross-Talk in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Ayse Basak

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is characterized by the chronic low-grade activation of the innate immune system. In this respect, macrophage-elicited metabolic inflammation and adipocyte-macrophage interaction has a primary importance in obesity. Large amounts of macrophages are accumulated by different mechanisms in obese adipose tissue. Hypertrophic adipocyte-derived chemotactic monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) pathway also promotes more macrophage accumulation into the obese adipose tissue. However, increased local extracellular lipid concentrations is a final mechanism for adipose tissue macrophage accumulation. A paracrine loop involving free fatty acids and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) between adipocytes and macrophages establishes a vicious cycle that aggravates inflammatory changes in the adipose tissue. Adipocyte-specific caspase-1 and production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) by macrophages; both adipocyte and macrophage induction by toll like receptor-4 (TLR4) through nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation; free fatty acid-induced and TLR-mediated activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-related pro-inflammatory pathways in CD11c+ immune cells; are effective in macrophage accumulation and in the development of adipose tissue inflammation. Old adipocytes are removed by macrophages through trogocytosis or sending an "eat me" signal. The obesity-induced changes in adipose tissue macrophage numbers are mainly due to increases in the triple-positive CD11b+ F4/80+ CD11c+ adipose tissue macrophage subpopulation. The ratio of M1-to-M2 macrophages is increased in obesity. Furthermore, hypoxia along with higher concentrations of free fatty acids exacerbates macrophage-mediated inflammation in obesity. The metabolic status of adipocytes is a major determinant of macrophage inflammatory output. Macrophage/adipocyte fatty-acid-binding proteins act at the interface of metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Both macrophages and

  17. Ketamine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 gene expressions in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages through suppression of toll-like receptor 4-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation and activator protein-1 activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, G.-J.; Chen, T.-L.; Ueng, Y.-F.; Chen, R.-M.

    2008-01-01

    Our previous study showed that ketamine, an intravenous anesthetic agent, has anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we further evaluated the effects of ketamine on the regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) gene expressions and its possible signal-transducing mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. Exposure of macrophages to 1, 10, and 100 μM ketamine, 100 ng/ml LPS, or a combination of ketamine and LPS for 1, 6, and 24 h was not cytotoxic to macrophages. A concentration of 1000 μM of ketamine alone or in combined treatment with LPS caused significant cell death. Administration of LPS increased cellular TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Meanwhile, treatment with ketamine concentration- and time-dependently alleviated the enhanced effects. LPS induced TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA syntheses. Administration of ketamine at a therapeutic concentration (100 μM) significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expressions. Application of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) small interfering (si)RNA into macrophages decreased cellular TLR4 levels. Co-treatment of macrophages with ketamine and TLR4 siRNA decreased the LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 productions more than alone administration of TLR4 siRNA. LPS stimulated phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos from the cytoplasm to nuclei. However, administration of ketamine significantly decreased LPS-induced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos. LPS increased the binding of nuclear extracts to activator protein-1 consensus DNA oligonucleotides. Administration of ketamine significantly ameliorated LPS-induced DNA binding activity of activator protein-1. Therefore, a clinically relevant concentration of ketamine can inhibit TNF-α and IL-6 gene expressions in LPS-activated macrophages. The suppressive mechanisms occur through suppression of TLR4-mediated

  18. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1, RANTES and macrophage migration inhibitory factor levels in gingival crevicular fluid of metabolic syndrome patients with gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkan, Ali; Eren, Gülnihal; Çetinkalp, Şevki; Akçay, Yasemin Delen; Emingil, Gülnur; Atilla, Gül

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted protein (RANTES) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in metabolic syndrome patients with gingivitis. Twenty metabolic syndrome patients with gingivitis (MSG), 20 MetS patients with clinically healthy periodontium (MSH), 20 systemically healthy subjects with gingivitis and 20 subjects who were both systemically and periodontally healthy were included. Periodontal and systemical parameters were recorded. GCF MCP-1, RANTES and MIF levels were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. MSG and MSH groups had elevated blood pressure, triglyceride, waist circumference and fasting glucose values in comparison to gingivitis and healthy groups (Pgingivitis groups when compared to those of the MSH and healthy groups (Pgingivitis group had higher MCP-1, RANTES and MIF levels compared to the healthy group (P=0.011, P=0.0001, P=0.011 respectively). The RANTES level of MSG group was significantly higher than those of the gingivitis group (P=0.01), but MCP-1 and MIF levels were similar in the MSG and gingivitis groups (P>0.05). Elevated levels of GCF RANTES in MetS patients with gingivitis might associate with the presence of increased gingival inflammation by MetS. Low-grade systemic inflammation associated with MetS and adipose tissue-derived RANTES might lead to altered GCF RANTES levels in the presence of gingival inflammation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The integrated endoplasmic reticulum stress response in Leishmania amazonensis macrophage infection: the role of X-box binding protein 1 transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Teixeira, Karina Luiza; Calegari-Silva, Teresa Cristina; dos Santos, Guilherme R R M; Vitorino Dos Santos, José; Lima, Carolina; Medina, Jorge Mansur; Aktas, Bertal Huseyin; Lopes, Ulisses G

    2016-04-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress triggers the integrated ER-stress response (IERSR) that ensures cellular survival of ER stress and represents a primordial form of innate immunity. We investigated the role of IERSR duringLeishmania amazonensisinfection. Treatment of RAW 264.7 infected macrophages with the ER stress-inducing agent thapsigargin (TG; 1 μM) increasedL. amazonensisinfectivity in an IFN1-α receptor (IFNAR)-dependent manner. In Western blot assays, we showed thatL. amazonensisactivates the inositol-requiring enzyme (IRE1)/ X-box binding protein (XBP)-1-splicing arms of the IERSR in host cells. In chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, we showed an increased occupancy of enhancer and promoter sequences for theIfnbgene by XBP1 in infected RAW 264.7 cells. Knocking down XBP1 expression by transducing RAW 264.7 cells with the short hairpin XBP1 lentiviral vector significantly reduced the parasite proliferation associated with impaired translocation of phosphorylated IFN regulatory transcription factor (IRF)-3 to the nucleus and a decrease in IFN1-β expression. Knocking down XBP1 expression also increased NO concentration, as determined by Griess reaction and reduced the expression of antioxidant genes, such as heme oxygenase (HO)-1, that protect parasites from oxidative stress. We conclude thatL. amazonensisactivation of XBP1 plays a critical role in infection by protecting the parasites from oxidative stress and increasing IFN1-β expression.-Dias-Teixeira, K. L., Calegari-Silva, T. C., Dos Santos, G. R. R. M., Vitorino dos Santos, J., Lima, C., Medina, J. M., Aktas, B. H., Lopes, U. G. The integrated endoplasmic reticulum stress response inLeishmania amazonensismacrophage infection: the role of X-box binding protein 1 transcription factor. © FASEB.

  20. Radiation-Induced Thymidine Phosphorylase Upregulation in Rectal Cancer Is Mediated by Tumor-Associated Macrophages by Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 From Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Dong; Li Ge; Song, Kyoung-Sub; Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Jun-Sang; Kim, Jong-Seok; Yun, Eun-Jin; Park, Jong-Il; Park, Hae-Duck; Hwang, Byung-Doo; Lim, Kyu; Yoon, Wan-Hee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The mechanisms of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) regulation induced by radiation therapy (XRT) in various tumors are poorly understood. We investigated the effect and mechanisms of preoperative XRT on TP expression in rectal cancer tissues. Methods and Materials: TP expression and CD68 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels in rectal cancer tissues and cancer cell lines were evaluated before and after XRT in Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunoassay, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction studies. Isolated peripheral blood monocytes were used in the study of chemotaxis under the influence of MCP-1 released by irradiated colon cancer cells. Results: Expression of TP was significantly elevated by 9 Gy of XRT in most rectal cancer tissues but not by higher doses of XRT. In keeping with the close correlation of the increase in both TP expression and the number of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), anti-TP immunoreactivity was found in the CD68-positive TAMs and not the neoplastic cells. Expression of MCP-1 was increased in most cases after XRT, and this increase was strongly correlated with TP expression. However, this increase in MCP-1 expression occurred in tumor cells and not stromal cells. The XRT upregulated MCP-1 mRNA and also triggered the release of MCP-1 protein from cultured colon cancer cells. The supernatant of irradiated colon cancer cells showed strong chemotactic activity for monocyte migration, but this activity was completely abolished by neutralizing antibody. Conclusions: Use of XRT induces MCP-1 expression in cancer cells, which causes circulating monocytes to be recruited into TAMs, which then upregulate TP expression in rectal cancer tissues

  1. Wip1-dependent modulation of macrophage migration and phagocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yiting; Pan, Bing; Zhou, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Macrophage accumulation within the vascular wall is a hallmark of atherosclerosis. Controlling macrophage conversion into foam cells remains a major challenge for treatment of atherosclerotic diseases. Here, we show that Wip1, a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases, modulates...... macrophage migration and phagocytosis associated with atherosclerotic plaque formation. Wip1 deficiency increases migratory and phagocytic activities of the macrophage under stress conditions. Enhanced migration of Wip1-/- macrophages is mediated by Rac1-GTPase and PI3K/AKT signalling pathways. Elevated...... phagocytic ability of Wip1-/- macrophages is linked to CD36 plasma membrane recruitment that is regulated by AMPK activity. Our study identifies Wip1 as an intrinsic negative regulator of macrophage chemotaxis. We propose that Wip1-dependent control of macrophage function may provide avenues for preventing...

  2. miR-126-5p by direct targeting of JNK-interacting protein-2 (JIP-2) plays a key role in Theileria-infected macrophage virulence

    KAUST Repository

    Haidar, Malak; Rchiad, ‍ Zineb; Ansari, Hifzur Rahman; Ben Rached, Fathia; Tajeri, Shahin; Latre De Late, Perle; Langsley, Gordon; Pain, Arnab

    2018-01-01

    Theileria annulata is an apicomplexan parasite that infects and transforms bovine macrophages that disseminate throughout the animal causing a leukaemia-like disease called tropical theileriosis. Using deep RNAseq of T. annulata-infected B cells

  3. miR-126-5p by direct targeting of JNK-interacting protein-2 (JIP-2) plays a key role in Theileria-infected macrophage virulence

    KAUST Repository

    Haidar, Malak

    2018-03-23

    Theileria annulata is an apicomplexan parasite that infects and transforms bovine macrophages that disseminate throughout the animal causing a leukaemia-like disease called tropical theileriosis. Using deep RNAseq of T. annulata-infected B cells and macrophages we identify a set of microRNAs induced by infection, whose expression diminishes upon loss of the hyper-disseminating phenotype of virulent transformed macrophages. We describe how infection-induced upregulation of miR-126-5p ablates JIP-2 expression to release cytosolic JNK to translocate to the nucleus and trans-activate AP-1-driven transcription of mmp9 to promote tumour dissemination. In non-disseminating attenuated macrophages miR-126-5p levels drop, JIP-2 levels increase, JNK1 is retained in the cytosol leading to decreased c-Jun phosphorylation and dampened AP-1-driven mmp9 transcription. We show that variation in miR-126-5p levels depends on the tyrosine phosphorylation status of AGO2 that is regulated by Grb2-recruitment of PTP1B. In attenuated macrophages Grb2 levels drop resulting in less PTP1B recruitment, greater AGO2 phosphorylation, less miR-126-5p associated with AGO2 and a consequent rise in JIP-2 levels. Changes in miR-126-5p levels therefore, underpin both the virulent hyper-dissemination and the attenuated dissemination of T. annulata-infected macrophages.

  4. Surfactant protein A (SP-A)-mediated clearance of Staphylococcus aureus involves binding of SP-A to the staphylococcal adhesin eap and the macrophage receptors SP-A receptor 210 and scavenger receptor class A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever-Chroneos, Zvjezdana; Krupa, Agnieszka; Davis, Jeremy; Hasan, Misbah; Yang, Ching-Hui; Szeliga, Jacek; Herrmann, Mathias; Hussain, Muzafar; Geisbrecht, Brian V; Kobzik, Lester; Chroneos, Zissis C

    2011-02-11

    Staphylococcus aureus causes life-threatening pneumonia in hospitals and deadly superinfection during viral influenza. The current study investigated the role of surfactant protein A (SP-A) in opsonization and clearance of S. aureus. Previous studies showed that SP-A mediates phagocytosis via the SP-A receptor 210 (SP-R210). Here, we show that SP-R210 mediates binding and control of SP-A-opsonized S. aureus by macrophages. We determined that SP-A binds S. aureus through the extracellular adhesin Eap. Consequently, SP-A enhanced macrophage uptake of Eap-expressing (Eap(+)) but not Eap-deficient (Eap(-)) S. aureus. In a reciprocal fashion, SP-A failed to enhance uptake of Eap(+) S. aureus in peritoneal Raw264.7 macrophages with a dominant negative mutation (SP-R210(DN)) blocking surface expression of SP-R210. Accordingly, WT mice cleared infection with Eap(+) but succumbed to sublethal infection with Eap- S. aureus. However, SP-R210(DN) cells compensated by increasing non-opsonic phagocytosis of Eap(+) S. aureus via the scavenger receptor scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), while non-opsonic uptake of Eap(-) S. aureus was impaired. Macrophages express two isoforms: SP-R210(L) and SP-R210(S). The results show that WT alveolar macrophages are distinguished by expression of SP-R210(L), whereas SR-A(-/-) alveolar macrophages are deficient in SP-R210(L) expressing only SP-R210(S). Accordingly, SR-A(-/-) mice were highly susceptible to both Eap(+) and Eap(-) S. aureus. The lungs of susceptible mice generated abnormal inflammatory responses that were associated with impaired killing and persistence of S. aureus infection in the lung. In conclusion, alveolar macrophage SP-R210(L) mediates recognition and killing of SP-A-opsonized S. aureus in vivo, coordinating inflammatory responses and resolution of S. aureus pneumonia through interaction with SR-A.

  5. Astrocyte production of the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-2 is inhibited by the spice principle curcumin at the level of gene transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoro Thomas J

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In neuropathological processes associated with neutrophilic infiltrates, such as experimental allergic encephalitis and traumatic injury of the brain, the CXC chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2 is thought to play a pivotal role in the induction and perpetuation of inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS. The origin of MIP-2 in inflammatory disorders of the brain has not been fully defined but astrocytes appear to be a dominant source of this chemokine. Curcumin is a spice principle in, and constitutes approximately 4 percent of, turmeric. Curcumin's immunomodulating and antioxidant activities suggest that it might be a useful adjunct in the treatment of neurodegenerative illnesses characterized by inflammation. Relatively unexplored, but relevant to its potential therapeutic efficacy in neuroinflammatory syndromes is the effect of curcumin on chemokine production. To examine the possibility that curcumin may influence CNS inflammation by mechanisms distinct from its known anti-oxidant activities, we studied the effect of this spice principle on the synthesis of MIP-2 by astrocytes. Methods Primary astrocytes were prepared from neonatal brains of CBA/CaJ mice. The cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide in the presence or absence of various amount of curcumin or epigallocatechin gallate. MIP-2 mRNA was analyzed using semi-quantitative PCR and MIP-2 protein production in the culture supernatants was quantified by ELISA. Astrocytes were transfected with a MIP-2 promoter construct, pGL3-MIP-2, and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide in the presence or absence of curcumin. Results The induction of MIP-2 gene expression and the production of MIP-2 protein were inhibited by curcumin. Curcumin also inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced transcription of the MIP-2 promoter reporter gene construct in primary astrocytes. However MIP-2 gene induction by lipopolysaccharide was not inhibited by another anti

  6. Astrocyte production of the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-2 is inhibited by the spice principle curcumin at the level of gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Michiyo; Holman, Brita J; Santoro, Christopher P; Santoro, Thomas J

    2005-02-25

    BACKGROUND: In neuropathological processes associated with neutrophilic infiltrates, such as experimental allergic encephalitis and traumatic injury of the brain, the CXC chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) is thought to play a pivotal role in the induction and perpetuation of inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). The origin of MIP-2 in inflammatory disorders of the brain has not been fully defined but astrocytes appear to be a dominant source of this chemokine.Curcumin is a spice principle in, and constitutes approximately 4 percent of, turmeric. Curcumin's immunomodulating and antioxidant activities suggest that it might be a useful adjunct in the treatment of neurodegenerative illnesses characterized by inflammation. Relatively unexplored, but relevant to its potential therapeutic efficacy in neuroinflammatory syndromes is the effect of curcumin on chemokine production. To examine the possibility that curcumin may influence CNS inflammation by mechanisms distinct from its known anti-oxidant activities, we studied the effect of this spice principle on the synthesis of MIP-2 by astrocytes. METHODS: Primary astrocytes were prepared from neonatal brains of CBA/CaJ mice. The cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide in the presence or absence of various amount of curcumin or epigallocatechin gallate. MIP-2 mRNA was analyzed using semi-quantitative PCR and MIP-2 protein production in the culture supernatants was quantified by ELISA. Astrocytes were transfected with a MIP-2 promoter construct, pGL3-MIP-2, and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide in the presence or absence of curcumin. RESULTS: The induction of MIP-2 gene expression and the production of MIP-2 protein were inhibited by curcumin. Curcumin also inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced transcription of the MIP-2 promoter reporter gene construct in primary astrocytes. However MIP-2 gene induction by lipopolysaccharide was not inhibited by another anti-oxidant, epigallocatechin

  7. Macrophage Capping Protein CapG Is a Putative Oncogene Involved in Migration and Invasiveness in Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Glaser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The actin binding protein CapG modulates cell motility by interacting with the cytoskeleton. CapG is associated with tumor progression in different nongynecologic tumor entities and overexpression in breast cancer cell lines correlates with a more invasive phenotype in vitro. Here, we report a significant CapG overexpression in 18/47 (38% of ovarian carcinomas (OC analyzed by qRealTime-PCR analyses. Functional analyses in OC cell lines through siRNA mediated CapG knockdown and CapG overexpression showed CapG-dependent cell migration and invasiveness. A single nucleotide polymorphism rs6886 inside the CapG gene was identified, affecting a CapG phosphorylation site and thus potentially modifying CapG function. The minor allele frequency (MAF of SNP rs6886 (c.1004A/G was higher and the homozygous (A/A, His335 genotype was significantly more prevalent in patients with fallopian tube carcinomas (50% as in controls (10%. With OC being one of the most lethal cancer diseases, the detection of novel biomarkers such as CapG could reveal new diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Moreover, in-depth analyses of SNP rs6886 related to FTC and OC will contribute to a better understanding of carcinogenesis and progression of OC.

  8. Effects of as-cast and wrought Cobalt-Chrome-Molybdenum and Titanium-Aluminium-Vanadium alloys on cytokine gene expression and protein secretion in J774A.1 macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Larsen, Agnete; Stoltenberg, Meredin

    2007-01-01

    the cell viability. Surface properties of the discs were characterised with a profilometer and with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We here report, for the first time, that the prosthetic material surface (non-phagocytable) of as-cast high carbon CoCrMo reduces the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6......Insertion of metal implants is associated with a possible change in the delicate balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory proteins, probably leading to an unfavourable predominantly pro-inflammatory milieu. The most likely cause is an inappropriate activation of macrophages in close relation...... to the metal implant and wear-products. The aim of the present study was to compare surfaces of as-cast and wrought Cobalt-Chrome-Molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys and Titanium-Aluminium-Vanadium (TiAlV) alloy when incubated with mouse macrophage J774A.1 cell cultures. Changes in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines...

  9. Loss of PPAR gamma in immune cells impairs the ability of abscisic acid to improve insulin sensitivity by suppressing monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression and macrophage infiltration into white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, Amir J; Hontecillas, Raquel; Ferrer, Gerardo; Casagran, Oriol; Wankhade, Umesh; Noble, Alexis M; Eizirik, Decio L; Ortis, Fernanda; Cnop, Miriam; Liu, Dongmin; Si, Hongwei; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2008-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a natural phytohormone and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonist that significantly improves insulin sensitivity in db/db mice. Although it has become clear that obesity is associated with macrophage infiltration into white adipose tissue (WAT), the phenotype of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and the mechanisms by which insulin-sensitizing compounds modulate their infiltration remain unknown. We used a loss-of-function approach to investigate whether ABA ameliorates insulin resistance through a mechanism dependent on immune cell PPARgamma. We characterized two phenotypically distinct ATM subsets in db/db mice based on their surface expression of F4/80. F4/80(hi) ATMs were more abundant and expressed greater concentrations of chemokine receptor (CCR) 2 and CCR5 when compared to F4/80(lo) ATMs. ABA significantly decreased CCR2(+) F4/80(hi) infiltration into WAT and suppressed monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in WAT and plasma. Furthermore, the deficiency of PPARgamma in immune cells, including macrophages, impaired the ability of ABA to suppress the infiltration of F4/80(hi) ATMs into WAT, to repress WAT MCP-1 expression and to improve glucose tolerance. We provide molecular evidence in vivo demonstrating that ABA improves insulin sensitivity and obesity-related inflammation by inhibiting MCP-1 expression and F4/80(hi) ATM infiltration through a PPARgamma-dependent mechanism.

  10. CD1d-restricted IFN-γ-secreting NKT cells promote immune complex-induced acute lung injury by regulating macrophage-inflammatory protein-1α production and activation of macrophages and dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Chung, Doo Hyun

    2011-02-01

    Immune complex-induced acute lung injury (IC-ALI) has been implicated in various pulmonary disease states. However, the role of NKT cells in IC-ALI remains unknown. Therefore, we explored NKT cell functions in IC-ALI using chicken egg albumin and anti-chicken egg albumin IgG. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of CD1d(-/-) and Jα18(-/-) mice contained few Ly6G(+)CD11b(+) granulocytes, whereas levels in B6 mice were greater and were increased further by α-galactosyl ceramide. IFN-γ and MIP-1α production in the lungs was greater in B6 than CD1d(-/-) mice. Adoptive transfer of wild type (WT) but not IFN-γ-, MIP-1α-, or FcγR-deficient NKT cells into CD1d(-/-) mice caused recruitment of inflammatory cells to the lungs. Moreover, adoptive transfer of IFN-γR-deficient NKT cells enhanced MIP-1α production and cell recruitment in the lungs of CD1d(-/-) or CD1d(-/-)IFN-γ(-/-) mice, but to a lesser extent than WT NKT cells. This suggests that IFN-γ-producing NKT cells enhance MIP-1α production in both an autocrine and a paracrine manner. IFN-γ-deficient NKT cells induced less IL-1β and TNF-α production by alveolar macrophages and dendritic cells in CD1d(-/-) mice than did WT NKT cells. Taken together, these data suggest that CD1d-restricted IFN-γ-producing NKT cells promote IC-ALI by producing MIP-1α and enhancing proinflammatory cytokine production by alveolar macrophages and dendritic cells.

  11. Specific deletion of LDL receptor-related protein on macrophages has skewed in vivo effects on cytokine production by invariant natural killer T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Covarrubias

    Full Text Available Expression of molecules involved in lipid homeostasis such as the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr on antigen presenting cells (APCs has been shown to enhance invariant natural killer T (iNKT cell function. However, the contribution to iNKT cell activation by other lipoprotein receptors with shared structural and ligand binding properties to the LDLr has not been described. In this study, we investigated whether a structurally related receptor to the LDLr, known as LDL receptor-related protein (LRP, plays a role in iNKT cell activation. We found that, unlike the LDLr which is highly expressed on all immune cells, the LRP was preferentially expressed at high levels on F4/80+ macrophages (MΦ. We also show that CD169+ MΦs, known to present antigen to iNKT cells, exhibited increased expression of LRP compared to CD169- MΦs. To test the contribution of MΦ LRP to iNKT cell activation we used a mouse model of MΦ LRP conditional knockout (LRP-cKO. LRP-cKO MΦs pulsed with glycolipid alpha-galactosylceramide (αGC elicited normal IL-2 secretion by iNKT hybridoma and in vivo challenge of LRP-cKO mice led to normal IFN-γ, but blunted IL-4 response in both serum and intracellular expression by iNKT cells. Flow cytometric analyses show similar levels of MHC class-I like molecule CD1d on LRP-cKO MΦs and normal glycolipid uptake. Survey of the iNKT cell compartment in LRP-cKO mice revealed intact numbers and percentages and no homeostatic disruption as evidenced by the absence of programmed death-1 and Ly-49 surface receptors. Mixed bone marrow chimeras showed that the inability iNKT cells to make IL-4 is cell extrinsic and can be rescued in the presence of wild type APCs. Collectively, these data demonstrate that, although MΦ LRP may not be necessary for IFN-γ responses, it can contribute to iNKT cell activation by enhancing early IL-4 secretion.

  12. Yersinia pestis and host macrophages: immunodeficiency of mouse macrophages induced by YscW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yujing; Du, Zongmin; Han, Yanping; Guo, Zhaobiao; Tan, Yafang; Zhu, Ziwen; Yang, Ruifu

    2009-09-01

    The virulence of the pathogenic Yersinia species depends on a plasmid-encoded type III secretion system (T3SS) that transfers six Yersinia outer protein (Yop) effector proteins into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, leading to disruption of host defence mechanisms. It is shown in this study that Yersinia pestis YscW, a protein of the T3SS injectisome, contributes to the induction of a deficiency in phagocytosis in host macrophages and a reduction in their antigen-presenting capacity. A Y. pestis strain lacking yscW had no effect on uptake by host macrophages. In mice infected with wild-type Y. pestis, the yscW mutant or a complement strain, immunodeficiency was observed in host macrophages compared with those from uninfected mice. However, the phagocytosis and antigen presenting capacities of macrophages infected by yscW mutant strain both in vivo and in vitro were significantly higher than those by wild type strain. Consistent with this finding, when YscW was expressed in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, phagocytosis and antigen-presenting capacities were significantly lower than those of the control groups. These results indicate that Y. pestis YscW may directly induce immunodeficiency in murine macrophages by crippling their phagocytosis and antigen-presenting capacities. These data provide evidences to Y. pestis pathogenesis that some proteins in T3SS injectisome, such as YscW protein, might play independent roles in disrupting host defense apart from their known functions.

  13. Macrophage heterogeneity and cholesterol homeostasis: classically-activated macrophages are associated with reduced cholesterol accumulation following treatment with oxidized LDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Eugene M; Tai, Daven C; Beer, Jennifer L; Hill, John S

    2013-02-01

    Macrophages are centrally involved during atherosclerosis development and are the predominant cell type that accumulates cholesterol in the plaque. Macrophages however, are heterogeneous in nature reflecting a variety of microenvironments and different phenotypes may be more prone to contribute towards atherosclerosis progression. Using primary human monocyte-derived macrophages, we sought to evaluate one aspect of atherogenic potential of different macrophage phenotypes by determining their propensity to associate with and accumulate oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Classically-activated macrophages treated simultaneously with interferon γ (IFNγ) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) associated with less oxLDL and accumulated less cholesterol compared to untreated controls. The combined treatment of IFNγ and TNFα reduced the mRNA expression of CD36 and the expression of both cell surface CD36 and macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1) protein. Under oxLDL loaded conditions, IFNγ and TNFα did not reduce macrophage protein expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-actived receptor γ (PPARγ) which is known to positively regulate CD36 expression. However, macrophages treated with IFNγ attenuated the ability of the PPARγ-specific agonist rosiglitazone from upregulating cell surface CD36 protein expression. Our results demonstrate that the observed reduction of cholesterol accumulation in macrophages treated with IFNγ and TNFα following oxLDL treatment was due at least in part to reduced cell surface CD36 and MSR1 protein expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nramp1 promotes efficient macrophage recycling of iron following erythrophagocytosis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soe-Lin, Shan; Apte, Sameer S; Andriopoulos, Billy; Andrews, Marc C; Schranzhofer, Matthias; Kahawita, Tanya; Garcia-Santos, Daniel; Ponka, Prem

    2009-04-07

    Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1 (Nramp1) is a divalent metal transporter expressed exclusively in phagocytic cells. We hypothesized that macrophage Nramp1 may participate in the recycling of iron acquired from phagocytosed senescent erythrocytes. To evaluate the role of Nramp1 in vivo, the iron parameters of WT and KO mice were analyzed after acute and chronic induction of hemolytic anemia. We found that untreated KO mice exhibited greater serum transferrin saturation and splenic iron content with higher duodenal ferroportin (Fpn) and divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) expression. Furthermore, hepatocyte iron content and hepcidin mRNA levels were dramatically lower in KO mice, indicating that hepcidin levels can be regulated by low-hepatocyte iron stores despite increased transferrin saturation. After acute treatment with the hemolytic agent phenylhydrazine (Phz), KO mice experienced a significant decrease in transferrin saturation and hematocrit, whereas WT mice were relatively unaffected. After a month-long Phz regimen, KO mice retained markedly increased quantities of iron within the liver and spleen and exhibited more pronounced splenomegaly and reticulocytosis than WT mice. After injection of (59)Fe-labeled heat-damaged reticulocytes, KO animals accumulated erythrophagocytosed (59)Fe within their liver and spleen, whereas WT animals efficiently recycled phagocytosed (59)Fe to the marrow and erythrocytes. These data imply that without Nramp1, iron accumulates within the liver and spleen during erythrophagocytosis and hemolytic anemia, supporting our hypothesis that Nramp1 promotes efficient hemoglobin iron recycling in macrophages. Our observations suggest that mutations in Nramp1 could result in a novel form of human hereditary iron overload.

  15. Degradation of connective tissue matrices by macrophages. III. Morphological and biochemical studies on extracellular, pericellular, and intracellular events in matrix proteolysis by macrophages in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werb, Z.; Bainton, D.F.; Jones, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the localization of macrophage-mediated degradation of matrix proteins. The sites of matrix degradation were examined ultrastructurally, and the effects of modulation of macrophage secretion, endocytosis, and activity of macrophage hydrolases on matrix degradation were monitored biochemically

  16. Uncaria rhynchophylla inhibits the production of nitric oxide and interleukin-1β through blocking nuclear factor κB, Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Bae, Chang Hwan; Park, Sun Young; Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, YoungHee

    2010-10-01

    The stems with hook of Uncaria rhynchophylla have been used in traditional medicine as an antipyretic, antihypertensive, and anticonvulsant in China and Korea. In this study, we investigated the mechanism responsible for anti-inflammatory effects of U. rhynchophylla in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The aqueous extract of U. rhynchophylla inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin (IL)-1β secretion as well as inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression, without affecting cell viability. Furthermore, U. rhynchophylla suppressed LPS-induced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation, phosphorylation, and degradation of inhibitory protein IκB (IκB)-α, phosphorylation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38 kinase, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. These results suggest that U. rhynchophylla has the inhibitory effects on LPS-induced NO and IL-1β production in macrophages through blockade in the phosphorylation of Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases, following IκB-α degradation and NF-κB activation.

  17. Moderate restriction of macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by SAMHD1 in monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taya, Kahoru; Nakayama, Emi E; Shioda, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains are able to grow to high titers in human monocyte-derived macrophages. However, it was recently reported that cellular protein SAMHD1 restricts HIV-1 replication in human cells of the myeloid lineage, including monocyte-derived macrophages. Here we show that degradation of SAMHD1 in monocyte-derived macrophages was associated with moderately enhanced growth of the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strain. SAMHD1 degradation was induced by treating target macrophages with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein-pseudotyped human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) particles containing viral protein X. For undifferentiated monocytes, HIV-2 particle treatment allowed undifferentiated monocytes to be fully permissive for productive infection by the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strain. In contrast, untreated monocytes were totally resistant to HIV-1 replication. These results indicated that SAMHD1 moderately restricts even a macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strain in monocyte-derived macrophages, whereas the protein potently restricts HIV-1 replication in undifferentiated monocytes.

  18. M1 Macrophages but Not M2 Macrophages Are Characterized by Upregulation of CRP Expression via Activation of NFκB: a Possible Role for Ox-LDL in Macrophage Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Marielle; Shur, Anna; Tendler, Yvgeny

    2018-04-23

    Arterial macrophages comprise a heterogeneous population: pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2). Since C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced by macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions, understanding of CRP regulation in macrophages could be crucial to decipher inflammatory patterns in atherogenesis. We aimed to analyze CRP expression in M1/M2 macrophages and to question whether it involves NFκB signaling pathway. Furthermore, we questioned whether oxidative stress affect macrophage phenotype and modulate macrophage CRP expression. M1/M2 macrophage polarization was validated using THP-1 macrophages. CRP mRNA and protein expression were determined using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Involvement of NFκB was determined by nuclear translocation of p50 subunit and the use of NFκB inhibitor. Involvement of oxidative stress in macrophage phenotypes induction was studied using oxidized-LDL (Ox-LDL) and antioxidants. M1 macrophages were characterized by elevated CRP mRNA expression (by 67%), CRP protein levels (by 108%), and upregulation of NFκB activation compared to control, but these features were not shared by M2 macrophages. Macrophages incubation with Ox-LDL led to a moderate M1 phenotype combined with a M2 phenotype, correlated with increased CRP mRNA expression. Antioxidants inhibited by up to 86% IL6 expression but did not significantly affect IL10 secretion. Antioxidants significantly inhibited CRP expression in M1 macrophages, but not in M2 macrophages. Elevated expression of CRP was characteristic of M1 macrophages rather than M2 through NFκB activation. Oxidative stress could be one of the endogenous triggers for macrophage activation to a mixed M1 and M2 phenotype, in association with increased expression of CRP.

  19. Macrophages in synovial inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling eKennedy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSynovial macrophages are one of the resident cell types in synovial tissue and while they remain relatively quiescent in the healthy joint, they become activated in the inflamed joint and, along with infiltrating monocytes/macrophages, regulate secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes involved in driving the inflammatory response and joint destruction. Synovial macrophages are positioned throughout the sub-lining layer and lining layer at the cartilage-pannus junction and mediate articular destruction. Sub-lining macrophages are now also considered as the most reliable biomarker for disease severity and response to therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. There is a growing understanding of the molecular drivers of inflammation and an appreciation that the resolution of inflammation is an active process rather than a passive return to homeostasis, and this has implications for our understanding of the role of macrophages in inflammation. Macrophage phenotype determines the cytokine secretion profile and tissue destruction capabilities of these cells. Whereas inflammatory synovial macrophages have not yet been classified into one phenotype or another it is widely known that TNFα and IL-l, characteristically released by M1 macrophages, are abundant in RA while IL-10 activity, characteristic of M2 macrophages, is somewhat diminished.Here we will briefly review our current understanding of macrophages and macrophage polarisation in RA as well as the elements implicated in controlling polarisation, such as cytokines and transcription factors like NFκB, IRFs and NR4A, and pro-resolving factors, such as LXA4 and other lipid mediators which may promote a non-inflammatory, pro-resolving phenotype and may represent a novel therapeutic paradigm.

  20. Macrophages and nerve fibres in peritoneal endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Lu Vinh Phuc; Tokushige, Natsuko; Berbic, Marina; Markham, Robert; Fraser, Ian S

    2009-04-01

    Endometriosis is considered to be an inflammatory disease, and macrophages are the most numerous immune cells in endometriotic lesions. However, the mechanisms underlying the elevation of macrophages and their role in the pathogenesis and manifestations of endometriosis still remain unclear. The number of macrophages stained for CD68 in endometriotic lesions (n = 24) and in peritoneum distant from the lesions (n = 14) from women with endometriosis was compared with the number of macrophages in normal peritoneum from women without endometriosis (n = 18). Peritoneal lesions were also double-stained for CD68 and protein gene product 9.5 to study the relationship between macrophages and nerve fibres. The densities of macrophages in peritoneal endometriotic lesions and unaffected peritoneum from women with endometriosis were both significantly higher than that in normal peritoneum from women without endometriosis (P peritoneal lesions from women with endometriosis compared with normal peritoneum from women without endometriosis. These cells may well play roles in the growth and development of endometriotic lesions and in the generation of pain through interaction with nerve fibres.

  1. Lysine Deacetylases and Regulated Glycolysis in Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespear, Melanie R; Iyer, Abishek; Cheng, Catherine Youting; Das Gupta, Kaustav; Singhal, Amit; Fairlie, David P; Sweet, Matthew J

    2018-06-01

    Regulated cellular metabolism has emerged as a fundamental process controlling macrophage functions, but there is still much to uncover about the precise signaling mechanisms involved. Lysine acetylation regulates the activity, stability, and/or localization of metabolic enzymes, as well as inflammatory responses, in macrophages. Two protein families, the classical zinc-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) and the NAD-dependent HDACs (sirtuins, SIRTs), mediate lysine deacetylation. We describe here mechanisms by which classical HDACs and SIRTs directly regulate specific glycolytic enzymes, as well as evidence that links these protein deacetylases to the regulation of glycolysis-related genes. In these contexts, we discuss HDACs and SIRTs as key control points for regulating immunometabolism and inflammatory outputs from macrophages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Macrophages in human semen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Beatriz Reina; Brufman, Adriana Silvia; Paparella, Cecilia Vicenta; Feldman, Rodolfo Nestor; Gatti, Vanda Nora; Solis, Edita Amalia

    2003-11-01

    To investigate the presence of macrophages in human semen samples and the function they carry out in the seminal fluid. Their presence was studied in relation to spermatic morphology, percentage of spermatozoids with native DNA, and presence of antispermatic antibodies. The work was performed with semen samples from 31 unfertile males from 63 couples in which the "female factor" was ruled out as the cause of infertility. Sperm study according to WHO (1992) was carried out in all samples, in addition to: DNA study with acridine orange as fluorocrom, macrophage concentration by neutral red in a Neubauer camera, and detection of antispermatic antibodies with a mixed agglutination test (TAC II) (validated with Mar Screen-Fertility technologies). Sperm morphology was evaluated by Papanicolaou test. 19/31 selected sperm samples (61.3%) showed increased concentration of macrophages, 13 of them (41.9%) with denaturalized DNA, and 8 (25.8%) abnormal morphology. Six samples showed increased macrophage concentration and predominance of native DNA, whereas 11 samples showed increased macrophages and abnormal morphology. Among 18 (58.1%) samples showing antispermatic antibodies 14 (77.7%) had an increased concentration of macrophages. Statistical analysis resulted in a high correlation between macrophage concentration and increased percentage of spermatozoids with denaturalized DNA (p < 0.05). An increased concentration of macrophages is associated with the presence of antispermatic antibodies (p < 0.05). There was not evidence of significant association between concentration of macrophages and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoids (p < 0.05). We can conclude that macrophages are present in human semen and participate in immunovigilance contributing to improve the seminal quality.

  3. Macrophage-secreted factors induce adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permana, Paska A.; Menge, Christopher; Reaven, Peter D.

    2006-01-01

    Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue increases with obesity, a condition associated with low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. We investigated the direct effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance. 3T3-L1 adipocytes incubated with media conditioned by RAW264.7 macrophages (RAW-CM) showed dramatically increased transcription of several inflammation-related genes, greater nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity, and enhanced binding of U937 monocytes. All of these effects were prevented by co-incubation with pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, an NF-κB inhibitor. Adipocytes incubated with RAW-CM also released more non-esterified fatty acids and this increased lipolysis was not suppressed by insulin. In addition, RAW-CM treatment decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that macrophage-secreted factors induce inflammatory responses and reduce insulin responsiveness in adipocytes. These effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocytes may contribute significantly to the systemic inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity

  4. Adipocyte fetuin-A contributes to macrophage migration into adipose tissue and polarization of macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Priyajit; Seal, Soma; Mukherjee, Sandip; Kundu, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Ray, Sukanta; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Majumdar, Subeer S; Bhattacharya, Samir

    2013-09-27

    Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue during obesity and their phenotypic conversion from anti-inflammatory M2 to proinflammatory M1 subtype significantly contributes to develop a link between inflammation and insulin resistance; signaling molecule(s) for these events, however, remains poorly understood. We demonstrate here that excess lipid in the adipose tissue environment may trigger one such signal. Adipose tissue from obese diabetic db/db mice, high fat diet-fed mice, and obese diabetic patients showed significantly elevated fetuin-A (FetA) levels in respect to their controls; partially hepatectomized high fat diet mice did not show noticeable alteration, indicating adipose tissue to be the source of this alteration. In adipocytes, fatty acid induces FetA gene and protein expressions, resulting in its copious release. We found that FetA could act as a chemoattractant for macrophages. To simulate lipid-induced inflammatory conditions when proinflammatory adipose tissue and macrophages create a niche of an altered microenvironment, we set up a transculture system of macrophages and adipocytes; the addition of fatty acid to adipocytes released FetA into the medium, which polarized M2 macrophages to M1. This was further confirmed by direct FetA addition to macrophages. Taken together, lipid-induced FetA from adipocytes is an efficient chemokine for macrophage migration and polarization. These findings open a new dimension for understanding obesity-induced inflammation.

  5. Immune-enhancing effect of nano-DNA vaccine encoding a gene of the prME protein of Japanese encephalitis virus and BALB/c mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yongzhen; Zhou, Yan; Li, Ximei; Feng, Guohe

    2015-07-01

    Plasmid-encoded granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM‑CSF) is an adjuvant for genetic vaccines; however, how GM-CSF enhances immunogenicity remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was demonstrated that injection of a plasmid encoding the premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) protein of Japanese encephalitis virus and mouse GM-CSF (pJME/GM-CSF) into mouse muscle recruited large and multifocal conglomerates of macrophages and granulocytes, predominantly neutrophils. During the peak of the infiltration, an appreciable number of immature dendritic cells (DCs) appeared, although no T and B-cells was detected. pJME/GM-CSF increased the number of splenic DCs and the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) on splenic DC, and enhanced the antigenic capture, processing and presentation functions of splenic DCs, and the cell-mediated immunity induced by the vaccine. These findings suggested that the immune-enhancing effect by pJME/GM-CSF was associated with infiltrate size and the appearance of integrin αx (CD11c)+cells. Chitosan-pJME/GM-CSF nanoparticles, prepared by coacervation via intramuscular injection, outperformed standard pJME/GM-CSF administrations in DC recruitment, antigen processing and presentation, and vaccine enhancement. This revealed that muscular injection of chitosan‑pJME/GM-CSF nanoparticles may enhance the immunoadjuvant properties of GM-CSF.

  6. β-Glucan from Lentinus edodes inhibits nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α production and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojuan; Yasuda, Michiko; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Mizuno, Masashi; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2012-01-06

    Lentinan (LNT), a β-glucan from the fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes, is well known to have immunomodulatory activity. NO and TNF-α are associated with many inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of LNT extracted by sonication (LNT-S) on the NO and TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results suggested that treatment with LNT-S not only resulted in the striking inhibition of TNF-α and NO production in LPS-activated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, but also the protein expression of inducible NOS (iNOS) and the gene expression of iNOS mRNA and TNF-α mRNA. It is surprising that LNT-S enhanced LPS-induced NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and NF-κB luciferase activity, but severely inhibited the phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and ERK1/2. The neutralizing antibodies of anti-Dectin-1 and anti-TLR2 hardly affected the inhibition of NO production. All of these results suggested that the suppression of LPS-induced NO and TNF-α production was at least partially attributable to the inhibition of JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation. This work discovered a promising molecule to control the diseases associated with overproduction of NO and TNF-α.

  7. Candida albicans induces pro-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic signals in macrophages as revealed by quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reales-Calderón, Jose Antonio; Sylvester, Marc; Strijbis, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages play a pivotal role in the prevention of Candida albicans infections. Yeast recognition and phagocytosis by macrophages is mediated by Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) that initiate downstream signal transduction cascades by protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. We exposed...

  8. Effects of periodontal therapy on serum C-reactive protein, sE-selectin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by peripheral blood-derived macrophages in diabetes. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalla, E; Kaplan, S; Yang, J; Roth, G A; Papapanou, P N; Greenberg, S

    2007-06-01

    Diabetes is associated with an increased risk for vascular disease and periodontitis. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of periodontal treatment in diabetes with respect to alterations in the pro-inflammatory potential of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Ten patients with diabetes and moderate to severe periodontitis received full-mouth subgingival debridement. Blood samples for serum/plasma and mononuclear cell isolation were collected prior to and 4 wk after therapy. Mononuclear cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or ionomycin/phorbol ester to determine the pro-inflammatory capacity of macrophages and lymphocytes, respectively. Following periodontal treatment, all patients demonstrated a significant improvement in clinical periodontal status (p C-reactive protein significantly decreased by 37% (p periodontal therapy and a potential impact on atherosclerosis-related complications in diabetic individuals.

  9. Use of plasma C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, neutrophils,macrophage migration inhibitory factor, soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in combination to diagnose infections: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Andersen, Ove; Kronborg, Gitte

    2007-01-01

    the diagnostic characteristics of novel and routinely used biomarkers of sepsis alone and in combination. Methods: This prospective cohort study included patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome who were suspected of having community-acquired infections. It was conducted in a medical emergency...... department and department of infectious diseases at a university hospital. A multiplex immunoassay measuring soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator (suPAR) and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (sTREM)-1 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was used in parallel...... with standard measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and neutrophils. Two composite markers were constructed – one including a linear combination of the three best performing markers and another including all six – and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC...

  10. Mutation of neutralizing/antibody-dependent enhancing epitope on spike protein and 7b gene of feline infectious peritonitis virus: influences of viral replication in monocytes/macrophages and virulence in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Tomomi; Tomiyama, Yoshika; Katoh, Yasuichiroh; Nakamura, Michiyo; Satoh, Ryoichi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2011-03-01

    We previously prepared neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb)-resistant (mar) mutant viruses using a laboratory strain feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) 79-1146 (Kida et al., 1999). Mar mutant viruses are mutated several amino acids of the neutralizing epitope of Spike protein, compared with the parent strain, FIPV 79-1146. We clarified that MAb used to prepare mar mutant viruses also lost its activity to enhance homologous mar mutant viruses, strongly suggesting that neutralizing and antibody-dependent enhancing epitopes are present in the same region in the strain FIPV 79-1146. We also discovered that amino acid mutation in the neutralizing epitope reduced viral replication in monocytes/macrophages. We also demonstrated that the mutation or deletion of two nucleotides in 7b gene abrogate the virulence of strain FIPV 79-1146. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. L-Plastin promotes podosome longevity and supports macrophage motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Julie Y.; Szasz, Taylor P.; Stewart-Hutchinson, Phillip J.; Sivapalan, Janardan; Todd, Elizabeth M.; Deady, Lauren E.; Cooper, John A.; Onken, Michael D.; Morley, S. Celeste

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the molecular regulation of macrophage migration is essential for understanding the patho-physiology of multiple human diseases, including host responses to infection and autoimmune disorders. Macrophage migration is supported by dynamic rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton, with formation of actin-based structures such as podosomes and lamellipodia. Here we provide novel insights into the function of the actin-bundling protein l-plastin (LPL) in primary macrophages. We found that podosome stability is disrupted in primary resident peritoneal macrophages from LPL−/− mice. Live-cell imaging of F-actin using resident peritoneal macrophages from LifeACT-RFP+ mice demonstrated that loss of LPL led to decreased longevity of podosomes, without reducing the number of podosomes initiated. Additionally, macrophages from LPL−/− mice failed to elongate in response to chemotactic stimulation. These deficiencies in podosome stabilization and in macrophage elongation correlated with impaired macrophage transmigration in culture and decreased monocyte migration into murine peritoneum. Thus, we have identified a role for LPL in stabilizing long-lived podosomes and in enabling macrophage motility. PMID:27614263

  12. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase up-regulates LPS-induced NF-κB activation in the development of lung injury and RAW 264.7 macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee J.; Lee, Hui S.; Chong, Young H.; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2006-01-01

    Clarification of the key regulatory steps that lead to nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) under cellular and pathological conditions is very important. The action of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) on the upstream of NF-κB activation remains controversial. To examine this issue using an in vivo lung injury model, SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor was given intraorally 1 h prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment (intratracheally). The mice were sacrificed 4 h after LPS treatment. SB203580 substantially suppressed LPS-induced rises in p38 MAPK phosphorylation, neutrophil recruitment, total protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and apoptosis of bronchoalveolar cells. Furthermore, SB203580 blocked LPS-induced NF-κB activation in lung tissue through down-regulation of serine phosphorylation, degradation of IκB-α, and consequent translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB to the nucleus. It is likely that, in cultured RAW 264.7 macrophages, SB203580 also blocked LPS-induced NF-κB activation in a dose-dependent manner. SB203580 inhibited LPS-induced serine phosphorylation, degradation of IκB-α, and tyrosine phosphorylation of p65 NF-κB. These data indicate that p38 MAPK acts upstream of LPS-induced NF-κB activation by modulating the phosphorylation of IκB-α and p65 NF-κB during acute lung injury. Because LPS-stimulated macrophages may contribute to inflammatory lung injury, the inhibition of the p38 MAPK-mediated intracellular signaling pathway leading to NF-κB activation represents a target for the attenuation of lung inflammation and parenchymal damage

  13. Effects of as-cast and wrought Cobalt-Chrome-Molybdenum and Titanium-Aluminium-Vanadium alloys on cytokine gene expression and protein secretion in J774A.1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Stig S; Larsen, A; Stoltenberg, M; Bruun, J M; Soballe, K

    2007-09-11

    Insertion of metal implants is associated with a possible change in the delicate balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory proteins, probably leading to an unfavourable predominantly pro-inflammatory milieu. The most likely cause is an inappropriate activation of macrophages in close relation to the metal implant and wear-products. The aim of the present study was to compare surfaces of as-cast and wrought Cobalt-Chrome-Molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys and Titanium-Aluminium-Vanadium (TiAlV) alloy when incubated with mouse macrophage J774A.1 cell cultures. Changes in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-10) and proteins known to induce proliferation (M-CSF), chemotaxis (MCP-1) and osteogenesis (TGF-beta, OPG) were determined by ELISA and Real Time reverse transcriptase - PCR (Real Time rt-PCR). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was measured in the medium to asses the cell viability. Surface properties of the discs were characterised with a profilometer and with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We here report, for the first time, that the prosthetic material surface (non-phagocytable) of as-cast high carbon CoCrMo reduces the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 transcription, the chemokine MCP-1 secretion, and M-CSF secretion by 77%, 36%, and 62%, respectively. Furthermore, we found that reducing surface roughness did not affect this reduction. The results suggest that as-cast CoCrMo alloy is more inert than wrought CoCrMo and wrought TiAlV alloys and could prove to be a superior implant material generating less inflammation which might result in less osteolysis.

  14. Alternatively Activated (M2) Macrophage Phenotype Is Inducible by Endothelin-1 in Cultured Human Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldano, Stefano; Pizzorni, Carmen; Paolino, Sabrina; Trombetta, Amelia Chiara; Montagna, Paola; Brizzolara, Renata; Ruaro, Barbara; Sulli, Alberto; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Alternatively activated (M2) macrophages are phenotypically characterized by the expression of specific markers, mainly macrophage scavenger receptors (CD204 and CD163) and mannose receptor-1 (CD206), and participate in the fibrotic process by over-producing pro-fibrotic molecules, such as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFbeta1) and metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is implicated in the fibrotic process, exerting its pro-fibrotic effects through the interaction with its receptors (ETA and ETB). The study investigated the possible role of ET-1 in inducing the transition from cultured human macrophages into M2 cells. Cultured human monocytes (THP-1 cell line) were activated into macrophages (M0 macrophages) with phorbol myristate acetate and subsequently maintained in growth medium (M0-controls) or treated with either ET-1 (100nM) or interleukin-4 (IL-4, 10ng/mL, M2 inducer) for 72 hours. Similarly, primary cultures of human peripheral blood monocyte (PBM)-derived macrophages obtained from healthy subjects, were maintained in growth medium (untreated cells) or treated with ET-1 or IL-4 for 6 days. Both M0 and PBM-derived macrophages were pre-treated with ET receptor antagonist (ETA/BRA, bosentan 10-5M) for 1 hour before ET-1 stimulation. Protein and gene expression of CD204, CD206, CD163, TGFbeta1 were analysed by immunocytochemistry, Western blotting and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Gene expression of interleukin(IL)-10 and macrophage derived chemokine (CCL-22) was evaluated by qRT-PCR. MMP-9 production was investigated by gel zymography. ET-1 significantly increased the expression of M2 phenotype markers CD204, CD206, CD163, IL-10 and CCL-22, and the production of MMP-9 in both cultures of M0 and PBM-derived macrophages compared to M0-controls and untreated cells. In cultured PBM-derived macrophages, ET-1 increased TGFbeta1 protein and gene expression compared to untreated cells. The ET-1-mediated effects were

  15. Macrophage mitochondrial oxidative stress promotes atherosclerosis and nuclear factor-κB-mediated inflammation in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Gary Z; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Tabas, Ira

    2014-01-31

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress (mitoOS) has been shown to correlate with the progression of human atherosclerosis. However, definitive cell type-specific causation studies in vivo are lacking, and the molecular mechanisms of potential proatherogenic effects remain to be determined. Our aims were to assess the importance of macrophage mitoOS in atherogenesis and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. We first validated Western diet-fed Ldlr(-/-) mice as a model of human mitoOS-atherosclerosis association by showing that non-nuclear oxidative DNA damage, a marker of mitoOS in lesional macrophages, correlates with aortic root lesion development. To investigate the importance of macrophage mitoOS, we used a genetic engineering strategy in which the OS suppressor catalase was ectopically expressed in mitochondria (mCAT) in macrophages. MitoOS in lesional macrophages was successfully suppressed in these mice, and this led to a significant reduction in aortic root lesional area. The mCAT lesions had less monocyte-derived cells, less Ly6c(hi) monocyte infiltration into lesions, and lower levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1. The decrease in lesional monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was associated with the suppression of other markers of inflammation and with decreased phosphorylation of RelA (NF-κB p65), indicating decreased activation of the proinflammatory NF-κB pathway. Using models of mitoOS in cultured macrophages, we showed that mCAT suppressed monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression by decreasing the activation of the IκB-kinase β-RelA NF-κB pathway. MitoOS in lesional macrophages amplifies atherosclerotic lesion development by promoting NF-κB-mediated entry of monocytes and other inflammatory processes. In view of the mitoOS-atherosclerosis link in human atheromata, these findings reveal a potentially new therapeutic target to prevent the progression of atherosclerosis.

  16. Identification of a new adapter protein that may link the common beta subunit of the receptor for granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin (IL)-3, and IL-5 to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jücker, M; Feldman, R A

    1995-11-17

    Binding of human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) to its receptor induces the rapid activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI 3-kinase). As hGM-CSF receptor (hGMR) does not contain a consensus sequence for binding of PI 3-kinase, hGMR must use a distinct mechanism for its association with and activation of PI 3-kinase. Here, we describe the identification of a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein of 76-85 kDa (p80) that associates with the common beta subunit of hGMR and with the SH2 domains of the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase in hGM-CSF-stimulated cells. Src/Yes and Lyn were tightly associated with the p80.PI 3-kinase complex, suggesting that p80 and other phosphotyrosyl proteins present in the complex were phosphorylated by Src family kinases. Tyrosine phosphorylation of p80 was only detected in hGM-CSF or human interleukin-3-stimulated cells, suggesting that activation of p80 might be specific for signaling via the common beta subunit. We postulate that p80 functions as an adapter protein that may participate in linking the hGM-CSF receptor to the PI 3-kinase signaling pathway.

  17. Involvement of Src tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C in the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in HL-1 mouse cardiac muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, F. [Department of Cardiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Research Center of Medical Sciences, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Deng, C.Y. [Research Center of Medical Sciences, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Q.H.; Xue, Y.M. [Department of Cardiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Xiao, D.Z.; Kuang, S.J.; Lin, Q.X.; Shan, Z.X.; Liu, X.Y.; Zhu, J.N. [Research Center of Medical Sciences, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Yu, X.Y. [Department of Cardiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Research Center of Medical Sciences, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Wu, S.L. [Department of Cardiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-09-06

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a pleiotropic cytokine, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation; however, the upstream regulation of MIF in atrial myocytes remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether and how MIF is regulated in response to the renin-angiotensin system and oxidative stress in atrium myocytes (HL-1 cells). MIF protein and mRNA levels in HL-1 cells were assayed using immunofluorescence, real-time PCR, and Western blot. The result indicated that MIF was expressed in the cytoplasm of HL-1 cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), but not angiotensin II, stimulated MIF expression in HL-1 cells. H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced MIF protein and gene levels increased in a dose-dependent manner and were completely abolished in the presence of catalase. H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced MIF production was completely inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and PP1, as well as by protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X, suggesting that redox-sensitive MIF production is mediated through tyrosine kinase and PKC-dependent mechanisms in HL-1 cells. These results suggest that MIF is upregulated by HL-1 cells in response to redox stress, probably by the activation of Src and PKC.

  18. Essential Role of DAP12 Signaling in Macrophage Programming into a Fusion-Competent State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helming, Laura; Tomasello, Elena; Kyriakides, Themis R.; Martinez, Fernando O.; Takai, Toshiyuki; Gordon, Siamon; Vivier, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Multinucleated giant cells, formed by fusion of macrophages, are a hallmark of granulomatous inflammation. With a genetic approach, we show that signaling through the adaptor protein DAP12 (DNAX activating protein of 12 kD), its associated receptor triggering receptor expressed by myeloid cells 2 (TREM-2), and the downstream protein tyrosine kinase Syk is required for the cytokine-induced formation of giant cells and that overexpression of DAP12 potentiates macrophage fusion. We also present evidence that DAP12 is a general macrophage fusion regulator and is involved in modulating the expression of several macrophage-associated genes, including those encoding known mediators of macrophage fusion, such as DC-STAMP and Cadherin 1. Thus, DAP12 is involved in programming of macrophages through the regulation of gene and protein expression to induce a fusion-competent state. PMID:18957693

  19. Soluble ICAM-1 activates lung macrophages and enhances lung injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, H; Czermak, B J; Lentsch, A B

    1998-01-01

    production of TNF-alpha and the CXC chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). Alveolar macrophages exhibited cytokine responses to both sICAM-1 and immobilized sICAM-1, while rat PBMCs failed to demonstrate similar responses. Exposure of alveolar macrophages to sICAM-1 resulted in NFkappa......B activation (which was blocked by the presence of the aldehyde peptide inhibitor of 28S proteosome and by genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor). As expected, cross-linking of CD18 on macrophages with Ab resulted in generation of TNF-alpha and MIP-2. This response was also inhibited in the presence...... of TNF-alpha and MIP-2 and increased neutrophil recruitment. Therefore, through engagement of beta2 integrins, sICAM-1 enhances alveolar macrophage production of MIP-2 and TNF-alpha, the result of which is intensified lung injury after intrapulmonary disposition of immune complexes....

  20. Effect of apigenin, kaempferol and resveratrol on the gene expression and protein secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in RAW-264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacz-Wrobel, Marta; Borkowska, Paulina; Paul-Samojedny, Monika; Kowalczyk, Malgorzata; Fila-Danilow, Anna; Suchanek-Raif, Renata; Kowalski, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Polyphenols such as apigenin, kaempferol or resveratrol are typically found in plants, including fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices, which have a wide range of biological functions such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, vasodilative, anticoagulative and proapoptotic. Discovering such multifunctional compounds in widely consumed plant-based products - ones that both inhibit the release of TNF-α from tissue macrophages and at the same time enhance the secretion of IL-10 - would be an important signpost in the quest for effective pharmacological treatment of numerous diseases that have an inflammatory etiology. The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of biologically active polyphenols such as apigenin, resveratrol and kaempferol on gene expression and protein secretion of IL-10 and TNF-α in line RAW-264.7. Cells were cultured under standard conditions. IL-10 and TNF-α genes expression were examined using QRT-PCR and to assess cytokines concentration ELISA have been used. Apigenin, kaempferol and resveratrol at a dose 30μM significantly decrease the TNF-α expression and secretion. Apigenin decrease the IL-10 expression and secretion. Furthermore, increase in IL-10 secretion after administration of kaempferol and resveratrol were observed. In the process of administration of tested compounds before LPS, which activate macrophages, decrease of TNF-α secretion after apigenin and kaempferol and increase of IL-10 secretion after resveratrol were observed. The results of present work indicate that 1) apigenin, resveratrol and kaempferol may reduce the intensity of inflammatory processes by inhibiting the secretion of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α, and resveratrol and kaempferol additionally by increasing the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 2) the studies indicate the potentially beneficial - anti-inflammatory - impact of diet rich in products including apigenin, resveratrol and kaempferol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  1. Expression profile of Rab5, Rab7, tryptophan aspartate-containing coat protein, leprae lipoarabinomannan, and phenolic glycolipid-1 on the failure of the phagolysosome process in macrophages of leprosy patients as a viability marker of Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakoeswa, Cita Rosita Sigit; Wahyuni, Ratna; Iswahyudi; Adriaty, Dinar; Yusuf, Irawan; Sutjipto; Agusni, Indropo; Izumi, Shinzo

    2016-06-01

    Phagolysosome process in macrophage of leprosy patients' is important in the early phase of eliminating Mycobacterium leprae invasion. This study was to clarify the involvement of Rab5, Rab7, and trytophan aspartate-containing coat protein (TACO) from host macrophage and leprae lipoarabinomannan (Lep-LAM) and phenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) from M. leprae cell wall as the reflection of phagolysosome process in relation to 16 subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) M. leprae as a marker of viability of M. leprae. Using a cross sectional design study, skin biopsies were obtained from 47 newly diagnosed, untreated leprosy at Dr Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia. RNA isolation and complementary DNA synthesis were performed. Samples were divided into two groups: 16S rRNA M. leprae-positive and 16S rRNA M. leprae-negative. The expressions of Rab5, Rab7, TACO, Lep-LAM, and PGL-1 were assessed with an immunohistochemistry technique. Using Mann-Whitney U analysis, a significant difference in the expression profile of Rab5, Rab7, Lep-LAM, and PGL-1 was found (p.05). Spearman analysis revealed that there was a significant correlation between the score of Rab5, Rab7, Lep-LAM, and PGL-1 and the score of 16S rRNA M. leprae (pleprae infection, Rab5, Rab7, and Lep-LAM play important roles in the failure of phagolysosome process via a membrane trafficking pathway, while PGL-1 plays a role via blocking lysosomal activities. These inventions might be used for the development of an early diagnostic device in the future. Copyright © 2016 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. DMPD: Manipulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB-signalingcascades during intracellular Toxoplasma gondii infection. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15361242 Manipulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB-sig...mmunol Rev. 2004 Oct;201:191-205. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Manipulation of mitogen-activated prote... gondii infection. PubmedID 15361242 Title Manipulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/nuclear factor-k

  3. Relationship Between Serum Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Level and Insulin Resistance, High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Visceral Fat Mass in Prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgir, Oktay; Gökçen, Belma; Bilgir, Ferda; Guler, Aslı; Calan, Mehmet; Yuksel, Arif; Aslanıpour, Behnaz; Akşit, Murat; Bozkaya, Giray

    2018-01-01

    Growing evidence suggest that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) plays a vital role in glucose metabolism. We aimed to ascertain whether MIF levels are altered in subjects with prediabetes and also to determine the relationship between MIF and metabolic parameters as well as visceral fat mass. This cross-sectional study included 40 subjects with prediabetes and 40 age-, body mass index (BMI)- and sex-matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance. Circulating MIF levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Metabolic parameters of recruited subjects were evaluated. Visceral fat mass was measured using bioelectrical impedance method. Circulating MIF levels were found to be elevated in subjects with prediabetes compared to controls (26.46 ± 16.98 versus 17.44 ± 11.80 ng/mL, P = 0.007). MIF positively correlated with BMI, visceral fat mass and indirect indices of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. In linear regression model, an independent association was found between MIF levels and metabolic parameters, including BMI, visceral fat mass and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the odds ratio for prediabetes was higher in subjects in the highest quartile of MIF compared to those in the lowest quartile, after adjusting for potential confounders. Increased MIF levels are associated with the elevation of prediabetic risk. Copyright © 2018 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Macrophages are critical effectors of antibody therapies for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskopf, Kipp; Weissman, Irving L

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are innate immune cells that derive from circulating monocytes, reside in all tissues, and participate in many states of pathology. Macrophages play a dichotomous role in cancer, where they promote tumor growth but also serve as critical immune effectors of therapeutic antibodies. Macrophages express all classes of Fcγ receptors, and they have immense potential to destroy tumors via the process of antibody-dependent phagocytosis. A number of studies have demonstrated that macrophage phagocytosis is a major mechanism of action of many antibodies approved to treat cancer. Consequently, a number of approaches to augment macrophage responses to therapeutic antibodies are under investigation, including the exploration of new targets and development of antibodies with enhanced functions. For example, the interaction of CD47 with signal-regulatory protein α (SIRPα) serves as a myeloid-specific immune checkpoint that limits the response of macrophages to antibody therapies, and CD47-blocking agents overcome this barrier to augment phagocytosis. The response of macrophages to antibody therapies can also be enhanced with engineered Fc variants, bispecific antibodies, or antibody-drug conjugates. Macrophages have demonstrated success as effectors of cancer immunotherapy, and further investigation will unlock their full potential for the benefit of patients.

  5. Differential S1P Receptor Profiles on M1- and M2-Polarized Macrophages Affect Macrophage Cytokine Production and Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jan; von Bernstorff, Wolfram; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Schulze, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Introduction . Macrophages are key players in complex biological processes. In response to environmental signals, macrophages undergo polarization towards a proinflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lysophospholipid that acts via 5 G-protein coupled receptors (S1P 1-5 ) in order to influence a broad spectrum of biological processes. This study assesses S1P receptor expression on macrophages before and after M1 and M2 polarization and performs a comparative analysis of S1P signalling in the two activational states of macrophages. Methods . Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) from C57 BL/6 mice were cultured under either M1- or M2-polarizing conditions. S1P-receptor expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Influence of S1P on macrophage activation, migration, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion was assessed in vitro. Results . All 5 S1P receptor subclasses were expressed in macrophages. Culture under both M1- and M2-polarizing conditions led to significant downregulation of S1P 1 . In contrast, M1-polarized macrophages significantly downregulated S1P 4 . The expression of the remaining three S1P receptors did not change. S1P increased expression of iNOS under M2-polarizing conditions. Furthermore, S1P induced chemotaxis in M1 macrophages and changed cytokine production in M2 macrophages. Phagocytosis was not affected by S1P-signalling. Discussion . The expression of different specific S1P receptor profiles may provide a possibility to selectively influence M1- or M2-polarized macrophages.

  6. Mycobacteria, Metals, and the Macrophage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederweis, Michael; Wolschendorf, Frank; Mitra, Avishek; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a facultative intracellular pathogen that thrives inside host macrophages. A key trait of M. tuberculosis is to exploit and manipulate metal cation trafficking inside infected macrophages to ensure survival and replication inside the phagosome. Here we describe the recent fascinating discoveries that the mammalian immune system responds to infections with M. tuberculosis by overloading the phagosome with copper and zinc, two metals which are essential nutrients in small quantities but are toxic in excess. M. tuberculosis has developed multi-faceted resistance mechanisms to protect itself from metal toxicity including control of uptake, sequestration inside the cell, oxidation, and efflux. The host response to infections combines this metal poisoning strategy with nutritional immunity mechanisms that deprive M. tuberculosis from metals such as iron and manganese to prevent bacterial replication. Both immune mechanisms rely on the translocation of metal transporter proteins to the phagosomal membrane during the maturation process of the phagosome. This review summarizes these recent findings and discusses how metal-targeted approaches might complement existing TB chemotherapeutic regimens with novel anti-infective therapies. PMID:25703564

  7. Cell Elasticity Determines Macrophage Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Naimish R.; Bole, Medhavi; Chen, Cheng; Hardin, Charles C.; Kho, Alvin T.; Mih, Justin; Deng, Linhong; Butler, James; Tschumperlin, Daniel; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Koziel, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages serve to maintain organ homeostasis in response to challenges from injury, inflammation, malignancy, particulate exposure, or infection. Until now, receptor ligation has been understood as being the central mechanism that regulates macrophage function. Using macrophages of different origins and species, we report that macrophage elasticity is a major determinant of innate macrophage function. Macrophage elasticity is modulated not only by classical biologic activators such as LPS and IFN-γ, but to an equal extent by substrate rigidity and substrate stretch. Macrophage elasticity is dependent upon actin polymerization and small rhoGTPase activation, but functional effects of elasticity are not predicted by examination of gene expression profiles alone. Taken together, these data demonstrate an unanticipated role for cell elasticity as a common pathway by which mechanical and biologic factors determine macrophage function. PMID:23028423

  8. Cell elasticity determines macrophage function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naimish R Patel

    Full Text Available Macrophages serve to maintain organ homeostasis in response to challenges from injury, inflammation, malignancy, particulate exposure, or infection. Until now, receptor ligation has been understood as being the central mechanism that regulates macrophage function. Using macrophages of different origins and species, we report that macrophage elasticity is a major determinant of innate macrophage function. Macrophage elasticity is modulated not only by classical biologic activators such as LPS and IFN-γ, but to an equal extent by substrate rigidity and substrate stretch. Macrophage elasticity is dependent upon actin polymerization and small rhoGTPase activation, but functional effects of elasticity are not predicted by examination of gene expression profiles alone. Taken together, these data demonstrate an unanticipated role for cell elasticity as a common pathway by which mechanical and biologic factors determine macrophage function.

  9. Unique proteomic signatures distinguish macrophages and dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Becker

    Full Text Available Monocytes differentiate into heterogeneous populations of tissue macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs that regulate inflammation and immunity. Identifying specific populations of myeloid cells in vivo is problematic, however, because only a limited number of proteins have been used to assign cellular phenotype. Using mass spectrometry and bone marrow-derived cells, we provided a global view of the proteomes of M-CSF-derived macrophages, classically and alternatively activated macrophages, and GM-CSF-derived DCs. Remarkably, the expression levels of half the plasma membrane proteins differed significantly in the various populations of cells derived in vitro. Moreover, the membrane proteomes of macrophages and DCs were more distinct than those of classically and alternatively activated macrophages. Hierarchical cluster and dual statistical analyses demonstrated that each cell type exhibited a robust proteomic signature that was unique. To interrogate the phenotype of myeloid cells in vivo, we subjected elicited peritoneal macrophages harvested from wild-type and GM-CSF-deficient mice to mass spectrometric and functional analysis. Unexpectedly, we found that peritoneal macrophages exhibited many features of the DCs generated in vitro. These findings demonstrate that global analysis of the membrane proteome can help define immune cell phenotypes in vivo.

  10. DMPD: Function of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and CD14, thereceptor for LPS/LBP complexes: a short review. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eptor for LPS/LBP complexes: a short review. Schumann RR. Res Immunol. 1992 Jan;143(1):11-5. (.png) (.svg) (...ride (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and CD14, thereceptor for LPS/LBP complexes: a short review. Authors Schuma.../LBP complexes: a short review. PubmedID 1373512 Title Function of lipopolysaccha....html) (.csml) Show Function of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and CD14, thereceptor for LPS

  11. Proliferating macrophages prevail in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Gwendalyn J

    2013-09-01

    Macrophages accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions during the inflammation that is part of atherosclerosis development and progression. A new study in mice indicates that the accumulation of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques depends on local macrophage proliferation rather than the recruitment of circulating monocytes.

  12. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor primes interleukin-13 production by macrophages via protease-activated receptor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Manabu; Yamaguchi, Rui; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Ishimaru, Yasuji; Ono, Tomomichi; Sakamoto, Arisa; Narahara, Shinji; Sugiuchi, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Eiji; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2015-04-01

    Chronic inflammation is often linked to the presence of type 2-polarized macrophages, which are induced by the T helper type 2 cytokines interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 (IL-13). IL-13 is a key mediator of tissue fibrosis caused by T helper type 2-based inflammation. Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. This study investigated the priming effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on IL-13 expression by macrophages stimulated with HNE. Adherent macrophages were obtained from primary cultures of human mononuclear cells. Expression of IL-13 mRNA and protein by GM-CSF-dependent macrophages was investigated after stimulation with HNE, using the polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. GM-CSF had a priming effect on IL-13 mRNA and protein expression by macrophages stimulated with HNE, while this effect was not observed for various other cytokines. GM-CSF-dependent macrophages showed a significant increase in the expression of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) mRNA and protein. The response of IL-13 mRNA to HNE was significantly decreased by pretreatment with alpha1-antitrypsin, a PAR-2 antibody (SAM11), or a PAR-2 antagonist (ENMD-1068). These findings suggest that stimulation with HNE can induce IL-13 production by macrophages, especially GM-CSF-dependent macrophages. Accordingly, neutrophil elastase may have a key role in fibrosis associated with chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of autophagy in THP-1 macrophages resistance to HIV- vpr-induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hua-ying, E-mail: zhouhuaying_2004@126.com; Zheng, Yu-huang; He, Yan; Chen, Zi; He, Bo

    2017-02-01

    Macrophages are resistant to cell death and are one of HIV reservoirs. HIV viral protein Vpr has the potential to promote infection of and survival of macrophages, which could be a highly significant factor in the development and/or maintenance of macrophage viral reservoirs. However, the impact of vpr on macrophages resistance to apoptosis is yet to be comprehended. Autophagy is a cell survival mechanism under stress state. In this study, we investigated whether autophagy is involved in macrophages resistant to vpr-induced apoptosis. Using the THP1 macrophages, we studied the interconnection between macrophages resistance to apoptosis and autophagy. We found that vpr is able to trigger autophagy in transfected THP-1 macrophages confirmed by electron microscopy (EM) and western blot analysis, and inhibition of autophagy with 3MA increased vpr-induced apoptosis. The results indicate that autophagy may be responsible for maintenance of macrophage HIV reservoirs. - Highlights: • HIV Vpr is able to trigger autophagy in transfected THP-1 macrophages. • Autophagy inhibition increases vpr-transfected THP1-macrophages apoptosis. • Autophagy is involved in THP-1 macrophages resistant to vpr-induced apoptosis.

  14. Molecular Characterization of Macrophage-Biomaterial Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Laura Beth; Kyriakides, Themis R.

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of biomaterials in vascularized tissues elicits the sequential engagement of molecular and cellular elements that constitute the foreign body response. Initial events include the non-specific adsorption of proteins to the biomaterial surface that render it adhesive for cells such as neutrophils and macrophages. The latter undergo unique activation and in some cases undergo cell-cell fusion to form foreign body giant cells that contribute to implant damage and fibrotic encapsulati...

  15. Recombinant CC16 protein inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines via NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathways in LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Pang; Guoping Zheng; Baofeng Yu; Hailong Wang; Yangyang Yuan; Dong Wang; Ting Li; Dan Wang; Xiaohong Shi; Min Guo; Chunfang Wang; Xinri Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that Clara cell protein-16 (CC16) has anti-inflammatory functions,although the involved molecular pathways have not been completely elucidated.Here,we evaluated the effect of recombinant rat CC16 (rCC16) on the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α),interleukin-6 (IL-6),and IL-8 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms.It was found that rCC16 inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α,IL-6,and IL-8 expression at both the messenger ribonucleicacid (mRNA) level and protein level in a concentration-dependent manner,as demonstrated by realtime reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Such suppressive effects were accompanied by the inhibition of transcriptional activity and the deoxyribonucleic acid binding activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB but not activator protein (AP)-1.Western blot analysis further revealed that rCC16 inhibited the increase of nuclear NF-κB and the reduction of cytosolic NF-κB,the phosphorylation and reduction of NF-κB inhibitory protein IκBα,and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent NF-κB activation by phosphoryl-ation at Ser276 of its p65 subunit.Furthermore,rCC16 was found to have no effect on the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase,c-Jun,or the nuclear translocation of c-Jun.In addition,reduction of TNF-α,IL-6,and IL-8 were reversed when the level of endogenous uteroglobin-binding protein was reduced by RNA interference in rCC16-and LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells.Our data suggest that rCC16 suppresses LPS-mediated inflammatory mediator TNF-α,IL-6,and IL-8 production by inactivating NF-κB and p38 MAPK but not AP-1 in RAW264.7 cells.

  16. Dendritic cells that phagocytose apoptotic macrophages loaded with mycobacterial antigens activate CD8 T cells via cross-presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa-Cueto, Patricia; Magallanes-Puebla, Alejandro; Castellanos, Carlos; Mancilla, Raul

    2017-01-01

    While homeostatic apoptosis is immunologically silent, macrophage apoptosis during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection can potentially induce an immune response against the mycobacteria. To examine the role of dendritic cells in this response, macrophage apoptosis was induced by incubating the macrophage with cell wall extracts of mycobacteria expressing LpqH. The apoptogenic proteins of the cell wall extracts were engulfed by the macrophage and then were translocated from the cytosol to the...

  17. The calcium-binding protein complex S100A8/A9 has a crucial role in controlling macrophage-mediated renal repair following ischemia/reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessing, Mark C.; Tammaro, Alessandra; Pulskens, Wilco P.; Teske, Gwendoline J.; Butter, Loes M.; Claessen, Nike; van Eijk, Marco; van der Poll, Tom; Vogl, Thomas; Roth, Johannes; Florquin, Sandrine; Leemans, Jaklien C.

    2015-01-01

    Upon ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury, several damage-associated molecular patterns are expressed including the calcium-binding protein S100A8/A9 complex. S100A8/A9 can be recognized by Toll-like receptor-4 and its activation is known to deleteriously contribute to renal I/R-induced injury.

  18. Pegylated silica nanoparticles: cytotoxicity and macrophage uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorani, Giulia; Marin, Riccardo; Canton, Patrizia; Pinto, Marcella; Conti, Giamaica; Fracasso, Giulio; Riello, Pietro

    2017-08-01

    Here, we present a thorough study of pegylated silica nanoparticle (SNP) interaction with different biological environments. The SNPs have a mean diameter of about 40 nm and are coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) of different molecular weights. The physicochemical characterization of SNPs allowed the confirmation of the binding of PEG chains to the silica surface, the reproducibility of the synthesis and the narrow size-dispersion. In view of clarifying the SNP interaction with biological environments, we first assessed the SNP reactivity after the incubation with two cell lines (macrophages RAW 264.7 and primary human fibroblasts), observing a reduced toxicity of pegylated SNPs compared to the bare ones. Then, we investigated the effect of the protein adsorption on the SNP surface using the model serum protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). We found that the protein adsorption takes place more heavily on poorly pegylated SNPs, promoting the uptake of the latter by macrophages and leading to an increased mortality of these cells. To better understand this mechanism by means of flow cytometry, the dye Ru(bpy)3Cl2 was incorporated in the SNPs. The overall results highlight the SNP potentialities as a drug delivery system, thanks to the low interactions with the macrophages.

  19. The influence of macrophage growth factors on Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus (TMEV) infection and activation of macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Karin M; Watson, Neva B; Minchenberg, Scott B; Massa, Paul T

    2018-02-01

    Macrophages are common targets for infection and innate immune activation by many pathogenic viruses including the neurotropic Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus (TMEV). As both infection and innate activation of macrophages are key determinants of viral pathogenesis especially in the central nervous system (CNS), an analysis of macrophage growth factors on these events was performed. C3H mouse bone-marrow cells were differentiated in culture using either recombinant macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), inoculated with TMEV (BeAn) and analyzed at various times thereafter. Cytokine RNA and protein analysis, virus titers, and flow cytometry were performed to characterize virological parameters under these culture conditions. GM-CSF-differentiated macrophages showed higher levels of TMEV viral RNA and proinflammatory molecules compared to infected M-CSF-differentiated cells. Thus, GM-CSF increases both TMEV infection and TMEV-induced activation of macrophages compared to that seen with M-CSF. Moreover, while infectious viral particles decreased from a peak at 12h to undetectable levels at 48h post infection, TMEV viral RNA remained higher in GM-CSF- compared to M-CSF-differentiated macrophages in concert with increased proinflammatory gene expression. Analysis of a possible basis for these differences determined that glycolytic rates contributed to heightened virus replication and proinflammatory cytokine secretion in GM-CSF compared to M-CSF-differentiated macrophages. In conclusion, we provide evidence implicating a role for GM-CSF in promoting virus replication and proinflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages, indicating that GM-CSF may be a key factor for TMEV infection and the induction of chronic TMEV-induced immunopathogenesis in the CNS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) stimulates cAMP formation in human mononuclear cells and inhibits angiogenesis in chick embryo chorionallantoic membrane assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Stefania; Morucci, Gabriele; Punzi, Tiziana; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco

    2011-04-01

    The effects of Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) have been studied in cancer and other conditions where angiogenesis is deregulated. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the mitogenic response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to GcMAF was associated with 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) formation. The effect was dose dependent, and maximal stimulation was achieved using 0.1 ng/ml. Heparin inhibited the stimulatory effect of GcMAF on PBMCs. In addition, we demonstrate that GcMAF (1 ng/ml) inhibited prostaglandin E(1)- and human breast cancer cell-stimulated angiogenesis in chick embryo chorionallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Finally, we tested different GcMAF preparations on CAM, and the assay proved to be a reliable, reproducible and inexpensive method to determine the relative potencies of different preparations and their stability; we observed that storage at room temperature for 15 days decreased GcMAF potency by about 50%. These data could prove useful for upcoming clinical trials on GcMAF.

  1. Cathepsin E deficiency impairs autophagic proteolysis in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Tsukuba

    Full Text Available Cathepsin E is an endosomal aspartic proteinase that is predominantly expressed in immune-related cells. Recently, we showed that macrophages derived from cathepsin E-deficient (CatE(-/- mice display accumulation of lysosomal membrane proteins and abnormal membrane trafficking. In this study, we demonstrated that CatE(-/- macrophages exhibit abnormalities in autophagy, a bulk degradation system for aggregated proteins and damaged organelles. CatE(-/- macrophages showed increased accumulation of autophagy marker proteins such as LC3 and p62, and polyubiquitinated proteins. Cathepsin E deficiency also altered autophagy-related signaling pathways such as those mediated by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, Akt, and extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK. Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy analyses showed that LC3-positive vesicles were merged with acidic compartments in wild-type macrophages, but not in CatE(-/- macrophages, indicating inhibition of fusion of autophagosome with lysosomes in CatE(-/- cells. Delayed degradation of LC3 protein was also observed under starvation-induced conditions. Since the autophagy system is involved in the degradation of damaged mitochondria, we examined the accumulation of damaged mitochondria in CatE(-/- macrophages. Several mitochondrial abnormalities such as decreased intracellular ATP levels, depolarized mitochondrial membrane potential, and decreased mitochondrial oxygen consumption were observed. Such mitochondrial dysfunction likely led to the accompanying oxidative stress. In fact, CatE(-/- macrophages showed increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production and up-regulation of oxidized peroxiredoxin-6, but decreased antioxidant glutathione. These results indicate that cathepsin E deficiency causes autophagy impairment concomitantly with increased aberrant mitochondria as well as increased oxidative stress.

  2. Localization of the ABCG2 mitoxantrone resistance-associated protein in normal tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetsch, Patricia A; Abati, Andrea; Litman, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    was consistently found in alveolar pneumocytes, sebaceous glands, transitional epithelium of bladder, interstitial cells of testes, prostate epithelium, endocervical cells of uterus, squamous epithelium of cervix, small and large intestinal mucosa/epithelial cells, islet and acinar cells of pancreas, zona...... ABCG2 have a significant secretory function. These data suggest a dual function for ABCG2 in some tissues: the excretion of toxins and xenobiotics including anti-cancer agents and a potential, as-yet undefined role in the secretion of endogenous substrates....

  3. Multidrug resistance-associated proteins are crucial for the viability of activated rat hepatic stellate cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannivoort, Rebekka A.; Dunning, Sandra; Borght, Sara Vander; Schroyen, Ben; Woudenberg, Jannes; Oakley, Fiona; Buist-Homan, Manon; van den Heuvel, Fiona A. J.; Geuken, Mariska; Geerts, Albert; Roskams, Tania; Faber, Klaas Nico; Moshage, Han

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) survive and proliferate in the chronically injured liver. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play a crucial role in cell viability by transporting toxic metabolites or xenobiotics out of the cell. ABC transporter expression in HSCs and its relevance to cell

  4. SIRT2 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ae Sin; Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, Dal; Nguyen-Thanh, Tung; Kang, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sik; Park, Sung Kwang; Kim, Won

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Knockout of SIRT2 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression. • Lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production is decreased in SIRT2 KO macrophage. • SIRT2 deficiency suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced ROS production in macrophage. • M1-macrophage related factors are decreased in SIRT2 deficient cells. • SIRT2 deficiency decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NFκB. - Abstract: Introduction: SIRT2 is a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases and associated with numerous processes such as infection, carcinogenesis, DNA damage and cell cycle regulation. However, the role of SIRT2 in inflammatory process in macrophage remains unclear. Materials and methods: In the present study, we have evaluated the regulatory effects of SIRT2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages isolated from SIRT2 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice or Raw264.7 macrophage cells. As inflammatory parameters, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the productions of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and M1-macrophage-related factors were evaluated. We also examined the effects of SIRT2 on activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) signaling. Results: SIRT2 deficiency inhibits LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein expression in bone marrow derived macrophages. SIRT2-siRNA transfection also suppressed LPS-induced iNOS expression in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. Bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from SIRT2 KO mice produced lower nitric oxide and expressed lower levels of M1-macrophage related markers including iNOS and CD86 in response to LPS than WT mice. Decrease of SIRT2 reduced the LPS-induced reactive oxygen species production. Deficiency of SIRT2 resulted in inhibition of NFκB activation through reducing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. The phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 was significantly decreased in SIRT2-deficient macrophages after LPS stimulation. Discussion: Our data suggested that

  5. SIRT2 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ae Sin; Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, Dal; Nguyen-Thanh, Tung [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kyung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sik [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Kwang [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won, E-mail: kwon@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Knockout of SIRT2 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression. • Lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production is decreased in SIRT2 KO macrophage. • SIRT2 deficiency suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced ROS production in macrophage. • M1-macrophage related factors are decreased in SIRT2 deficient cells. • SIRT2 deficiency decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NFκB. - Abstract: Introduction: SIRT2 is a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases and associated with numerous processes such as infection, carcinogenesis, DNA damage and cell cycle regulation. However, the role of SIRT2 in inflammatory process in macrophage remains unclear. Materials and methods: In the present study, we have evaluated the regulatory effects of SIRT2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages isolated from SIRT2 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice or Raw264.7 macrophage cells. As inflammatory parameters, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the productions of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and M1-macrophage-related factors were evaluated. We also examined the effects of SIRT2 on activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) signaling. Results: SIRT2 deficiency inhibits LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein expression in bone marrow derived macrophages. SIRT2-siRNA transfection also suppressed LPS-induced iNOS expression in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. Bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from SIRT2 KO mice produced lower nitric oxide and expressed lower levels of M1-macrophage related markers including iNOS and CD86 in response to LPS than WT mice. Decrease of SIRT2 reduced the LPS-induced reactive oxygen species production. Deficiency of SIRT2 resulted in inhibition of NFκB activation through reducing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. The phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 was significantly decreased in SIRT2-deficient macrophages after LPS stimulation. Discussion: Our data suggested that

  6. Alternative activation of macrophages and pulmonary fibrosis are modulated by scavenger receptor, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Shubha; Larson-Casey, Jennifer L; Ryan, Alan J; He, Chao; Kobzik, Lester; Carter, A Brent

    2015-08-01

    Alternative activation of alveolar macrophages is linked to fibrosis following exposure to asbestos. The scavenger receptor, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), provides innate immune defense against inhaled particles and pathogens; however, a receptor for asbestos has not been identified. We hypothesized that MARCO acts as an initial signaling receptor for asbestos, polarizes macrophages to a profibrotic M2 phenotype, and is required for the development of asbestos-induced fibrosis. Compared with normal subjects, alveolar macrophages isolated from patients with asbestosis express higher amounts of MARCO and have greater profibrotic polarization. Arginase 1 (40-fold) and IL-10 (265-fold) were higher in patients. In vivo, the genetic deletion of MARCO attenuated the profibrotic environment and pulmonary fibrosis in mice exposed to chrysotile. Moreover, alveolar macrophages from MARCO(-/-) mice polarize to an M1 phenotype, whereas wild-type mice have higher Ym1 (>3.0-fold) and nearly 7-fold more active TGF-β1 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (BALF). Arg(432) and Arg(434) in domain V of MARCO are required for the polarization of macrophages to a profibrotic phenotype as mutation of these residues reduced FIZZ1 expression (17-fold) compared with cells expressing MARCO. These observations demonstrate that a macrophage membrane protein regulates the fibrotic response to lung injury and suggest a novel target for therapeutic intervention. © FASEB.

  7. Human macrophage hemoglobin-iron metabolism in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, G.; Balcerzak, S.; Rinehart, J.

    1982-01-01

    An entirely in vitro technique was employed to characterize hemoglobin-iron metabolism by human macrophages obtained by culture of blood monocytes and pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Macrophages phagocytized about three times as many erythrocytes as monocytes and six times as many erythrocytes as pulmonary alveolar macrophages. The rate of subsequent release of 59 Fe to the extracellular transferrin pool was two- to fourfold greater for macrophages as compared to the other two cell types. The kinetics of 59 Fe-transferrin release were characterized by a relatively rapid early phase (hours 1-4) followed by a slow phase (hours 4-72) for all three cell types. Intracellular movement of iron was characterized by a rapid shift from hemoglobin to ferritin that was complete with the onset of the slow phase of extracellular release. A transient increase in 59 Fe associated with an intracellular protein eluting with transferrin was also observed within 1 hour after phagocytosis. The process of hemoglobin-iron release to extracellular transferrin was inhibited at 4 degrees C but was unaffected by inhibitory of protein synthesis, glycolysis, microtubule function, and microfilament function. These data emphasize the rapidity of macrophage hemoglobin iron metabolism, provide a model for characterization of this process in vitro, and in general confirm data obtained utilizing in vivo animal models

  8. Species-Dependent Functionality of the Human Cytolytic Fusion Proteins Granzyme B-H22(scFv and H22(scFv-Angiogenin in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Thepen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human cytolytic fusion proteins (hCFPs are comprised of a specific cell-surface-binding moiety and an effector molecule of human origin. In contrast to common immunotoxins, including bacterial or plant toxins, they are considered not to be immunogenic. Two examples for human pro-apoptotic effector proteins are the serine protease Granzyme B and the RNase Angiogenin. Pre-clinical testing of functionality in in vitro and in vivo studies is essential for therapeutics. Establishing relevant animal models that have predictive value for therapeutic success is a great challenge in biomedical research. In this study, we investigated the species-dependent cytotoxic activity of two hCFPs prior to their application in a murine inflammation model. We found that in vitro and ex vivo either hCFP was able to kill human cells only, leaving murine cells unaffected. In contrast, no species-dependency was found for the bacterial Pseudomonas exotoxin A based immunotoxin H22(scFv-ETA’. This species-dependent functioning has to be carefully considered when performing pre-clinical studies in animal models.

  9. HIV-1 Nef in Macrophage-Mediated Disease Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Susanna L.; Fogel, Gary B.; Singer, Elyse J.; Salemi, Marco; Nolan, David J.; Huysentruyt, Leanne C.; McGrath, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) has significantly reduced the number of AIDS-associated illnesses and changed the course of HIV-1 disease in developed countries. Despite the ability of cART to maintain high CD4+ T-cell counts, a number of macrophage-mediated diseases can still occur in HIV-infected subjects. These diseases include lymphoma, metabolic diseases, and HIV-associated neurological disorders. Within macrophages, the HIV-1 regulatory protein “Nef” can modulate surface receptors, interact with signaling pathways, and promote specific environments that contribute to each of these pathologies. Moreover, genetic variation in Nef may also guide the macrophage response. Herein, we review findings relating to the Nef–macrophage interaction and how this relationship contributes to disease pathogenesis. PMID:23215766

  10. Macrophage immunoregulatory pathways in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Murugesan V S; Ni, Bin; Dodd, Claire E; Schlesinger, Larry S

    2014-12-01

    Macrophages, the major host cells harboring Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), are a heterogeneous cell type depending on their tissue of origin and host they are derived from. Significant discord in macrophage responses to M.tb exists due to differences in M.tb strains and the various types of macrophages used to study tuberculosis (TB). This review will summarize current concepts regarding macrophage responses to M.tb infection, while pointing out relevant differences in experimental outcomes due to the use of divergent model systems. A brief description of the lung environment is included since there is increasing evidence that the alveolar macrophage (AM) has immunoregulatory properties that can delay optimal protective host immune responses. In this context, this review focuses on selected macrophage immunoregulatory pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), cytokines, negative regulators of inflammation, lipid mediators and microRNAs (miRNAs). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biology of Bony Fish Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgkinson, Jordan W.; Grayfer, Leon; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are found across all vertebrate species, reside in virtually all animal tissues, and play critical roles in host protection and homeostasis. Various mechanisms determine and regulate the highly plastic functional phenotypes of macrophages, including antimicrobial host defenses (pro-inflammatory, M1-type), and resolution and repair functions (anti-inflammatory/regulatory, M2-type). The study of inflammatory macrophages in immune defense of teleosts has garnered much attention, and ...

  12. Molecular Characterization of Macrophage-Biomaterial Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Laura Beth; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of biomaterials in vascularized tissues elicits the sequential engagement of molecular and cellular elements that constitute the foreign body response. Initial events include the non-specific adsorption of proteins to the biomaterial surface that render it adhesive for cells such as neutrophils and macrophages. The latter undergo unique activation and in some cases undergo cell-cell fusion to form foreign body giant cells that contribute to implant damage and fibrotic encapsulation. In this review, we discuss the molecular events that contribute to macrophage activation and fusion with a focus on the role of the inflammasome, signaling pathways such as JAK/STAT and NF-κB, and the putative involvement of micro RNAs in the regulation of these processes.

  13. The role of HFE genotype in macrophage phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Anne M; Neely, Elizabeth; Simpson, Ian A; Connor, James R

    2018-02-01

    Iron regulation is essential for cellular energy production. Loss of cellular iron homeostasis has critical implications for both normal function and disease progression. The H63D variant of the HFE gene is the most common gene variant in Caucasians. The resulting mutant protein alters cellular iron homeostasis and is associated with a number of neurological diseases and cancer. In the brain, microglial and infiltrating macrophages are critical to maintaining iron homeostasis and modulating inflammation associated with the pathogenic process in multiple diseases. This study addresses whether HFE genotype affects macrophage function and the implications of these findings for disease processes. Bone marrow macrophages were isolated from wildtype and H67D HFE knock-in mice. The H67D gene variant in mice is the human equivalent of the H63D variant. Upon differentiation, the macrophages were used to analyze iron regulatory proteins, cellular iron release, migration, phagocytosis, and cytokine expression. The results of this study demonstrate that the H67D HFE genotype significantly impacts a number of critical macrophage functions. Specifically, fundamental activities such as proliferation in response to iron exposure, L-ferritin expression in response to iron loading, secretion of BMP6 and cytokines, and migration and phagocytic activity were all found to be impacted by genotype. Furthermore, we demonstrated that exposure to apo-Tf (iron-poor transferrin) can increase the release of iron from macrophages. In normal conditions, 70% of circulating transferrin is unsaturated. Therefore, the ability of apo-Tf to induce iron release could be a major regulatory mechanism for iron release from macrophages. These studies demonstrate that the HFE genotype impacts fundamental components of macrophage phenotype that could alter their role in degenerative and reparative processes in neurodegenerative disorders.

  14. Soluble human leukocyte antigen G5 polarizes differentiation of macrophages toward a decidual macrophage-like phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheuk-Lun; Guo, YiFan; So, Kam-Hei; Vijayan, Madhavi; Guo, Yue; Wong, Vera H H; Yao, YuanQing; Lee, Kai-Fai; Chiu, Philip C N; Yeung, William S B

    2015-10-01

    What are the actions of soluble human leukocyte antigen G5 (sHLAG5) on macrophage differentiation? sHLAG5 polarizes the differentiation of macrophages toward a decidual macrophage-like phenotype, which could regulate fetomaternal tolerance and placental development. sHLAG5 is a full-length soluble isoform of human leukocyte antigen implicated in immune tolerance during pregnancy. Low or undetectable circulating level of sHLAG5 in first trimester of pregnancy is associated with pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia and spontaneous abortion. Decidual macrophages are located in close proximity to invasive trophoblasts, and are involved in regulating fetomaternal tolerance and placental development. Human peripheral blood monocytes were differentiated into macrophages by treatment with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the presence or absence of recombinant sHLAG5 during the differentiation process. The phenotypes and the biological activities of the resulting macrophages were compared. Recombinant sHLAG5 was produced in Escherichia coli BL21 and the protein identity was verified by tandem mass spectrometry. The expression of macrophage markers were analyzed by flow cytometry and quantitative PCR. Phagocytosis was determined by flow cytometry. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 expression and activity were measured by western blot analysis and kynurenine assay, respectively. Cell proliferation and cell cycling were determined by fluorometric cell proliferation assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Cytokine secretion was determined by cytokine array and ELISA kits. Intracellular cytokine expression was measured by flow cytometry. Cell invasion and migration were determined by trans-well invasion and migration assay, respectively. sHLAG5 drove the differentiation of macrophages with 'immuno-modulatory' characteristics, including reduced expression of M1 macrophage marker CD86 and increased expression of M2 macrophage marker CD163. sHLAG5-polarized

  15. Bioelectric modulation of macrophage polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Levin, Michael; Kaplan, David L.

    2016-02-01

    Macrophages play a critical role in regulating wound healing and tissue regeneration by changing their polarization state in response to local microenvironmental stimuli. The native roles of polarized macrophages encompass biomaterials and tissue remodeling needs, yet harnessing or directing the polarization response has been largely absent as a potential strategy to exploit in regenerative medicine to date. Recent data have revealed that specific alteration of cells’ resting potential (Vmem) is a powerful tool to direct proliferation and differentiation in a number of complex tissues, such as limb regeneration, craniofacial patterning and tumorigenesis. In this study, we explored the bioelectric modulation of macrophage polarization by targeting ATP sensitive potassium channels (KATP). Glibenclamide (KATP blocker) and pinacidil (KATP opener) treatment not only affect macrophage polarization, but also influence the phenotype of prepolarized macrophages. Furthermore, modulation of cell membrane electrical properties can fine-tune macrophage plasticity. Glibenclamide decreased the secretion and gene expression of selected M1 markers, while pinacidil augmented M1 markers. More interestingly, glibencalmide promoted macrophage alternative activation by enhancing certain M2 markers during M2 polarization. These findings suggest that control of bioelectric properties of macrophages could offer a promising approach to regulate macrophage phenotype as a useful tool in regenerative medicine.

  16. Conditioned medium from alternatively activated macrophages induce mesangial cell apoptosis via the effect of Fas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yuan; Luo, Fangjun; Li, Hui; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Nong

    2013-01-01

    During inflammation in the glomerulus, the proliferation of myofiroblast-like mesangial cells is commonly associated with the pathological process. Macrophages play an important role in regulating the growth of resident mesangial cells in the glomeruli. Alternatively activated macrophage (M2 macrophage) is a subset of macrophages induced by IL-13/IL-4, which is shown to play a repair role in glomerulonephritis. Prompted by studies of development, we performed bone marrow derived macrophage and rat mesangial cell co-culture study. Conditioned medium from IL-4 primed M2 macrophages induced rat mesangial cell apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic effect of M2 macrophages was demonstrated by condensed nuclei stained with Hoechst 33258, increased apoptosis rates by flow cytometry analysis and enhanced caspase-3 activation by western blot. Fas protein was up-regulated in rat mesangial cells, and its neutralizing antibody ZB4 partly inhibited M2 macrophage-induced apoptosis. The up-regulated arginase-1 expression in M2 macrophage also contributed to this apoptotic effect. These results indicated that the process of apoptosis triggered by conditioned medium from M2 macrophages, at least is partly conducted through Fas in rat mesangial cells. Our findings provide compelling evidence that M2 macrophages control the growth of mesangial cells in renal inflammatory conditions. - Highlights: • Conditioned-medium from M2 macrophages induces rat mesangial cell (MsC) apoptosis. • M2 macrophage conditioned medium exerts its pro-apoptotic effects via Fas ligand. • Arginase-1 activity in M2 macrophages plays a role in inducing apoptosis in rat MsC

  17. Conditioned medium from alternatively activated macrophages induce mesangial cell apoptosis via the effect of Fas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yuan; Luo, Fangjun; Li, Hui; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Nong, E-mail: nzhang@fudan.edu.cn

    2013-11-15

    During inflammation in the glomerulus, the proliferation of myofiroblast-like mesangial cells is commonly associated with the pathological process. Macrophages play an important role in regulating the growth of resident mesangial cells in the glomeruli. Alternatively activated macrophage (M2 macrophage) is a subset of macrophages induced by IL-13/IL-4, which is shown to play a repair role in glomerulonephritis. Prompted by studies of development, we performed bone marrow derived macrophage and rat mesangial cell co-culture study. Conditioned medium from IL-4 primed M2 macrophages induced rat mesangial cell apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic effect of M2 macrophages was demonstrated by condensed nuclei stained with Hoechst 33258, increased apoptosis rates by flow cytometry analysis and enhanced caspase-3 activation by western blot. Fas protein was up-regulated in rat mesangial cells, and its neutralizing antibody ZB4 partly inhibited M2 macrophage-induced apoptosis. The up-regulated arginase-1 expression in M2 macrophage also contributed to this apoptotic effect. These results indicated that the process of apoptosis triggered by conditioned medium from M2 macrophages, at least is partly conducted through Fas in rat mesangial cells. Our findings provide compelling evidence that M2 macrophages control the growth of mesangial cells in renal inflammatory conditions. - Highlights: • Conditioned-medium from M2 macrophages induces rat mesangial cell (MsC) apoptosis. • M2 macrophage conditioned medium exerts its pro-apoptotic effects via Fas ligand. • Arginase-1 activity in M2 macrophages plays a role in inducing apoptosis in rat MsC.

  18. Stimulation of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression by Beta Interferon Increases Necrotic Death of Macrophages upon Listeria monocytogenes Infection▿

    OpenAIRE

    Zwaferink, Heather; Stockinger, Silvia; Reipert, Siegfried; Decker, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Murine macrophage death upon infection with Listeria monocytogenes was previously shown to be increased by beta interferon, produced by the infected cells. We saw that interferon-upregulated caspase activation or other interferon-inducible, death-associated proteins, including TRAIL, protein kinase R, and p53, were not necessary for cell death. Macrophage death was reduced when inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was inhibited during infection, and iNOS-deficient macrophages were less susc...

  19. Macrophage inflammatory protein-3α influences growth of K562 leukemia cells in co-culture with anticancer drug-pretreated HS-5 stromal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.C.; Chiou, T.-J.; Tzeng, W.-F.; Chu, S.T.

    2008-01-01

    Stromal cell monolayers have been an important means of studying the regulation of hematopoiesis, because they produce cytokines. Cytosine arabinoside, vincristine, daunorubicin, and doxorubicin are common drugs for hematological cancer therapy, and they may have some effects on bone marrow stroma during chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to elucidate interactions between the bone marrow stromal microenvironment and leukemic cells after drug treatment. We tested the hypothesis that human HS-5 stromal cells, pretreated with anticancer drugs, affected the growth of leukemic K562 cells by changing the cytokines in the culture microenvironment. Thereafter, proliferation of K562 cells increased nearly 2.5-fold compared the co-cultivation with drugs-pretreated HS-5 stromal cells and drugs-untreated HS-5 stromal cells. The results indicated that co-cultivation with HS-5 stromal cells pretreated with drugs caused significant K562 cell proliferation. Cytokines in the microenvironment were detected via the RayBio Human Cytokine Antibody Array Membrane. The levels of the cytokines CKβ, IL-12, IL-13, IGFBP-2, MCP-1, MCP-3, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1β and MIP-1δ were decreased, with a particularly marked decrease in MIP-3α. In co-culture medium, there was a 20-fold decrease in MIP-3α in daunorubicin-pretreated HS-5 cells and at least a 3-fold decrease in Ara-C-pretreated cells. This indicated a significant effect of anticancer drugs on the stromal cell line. Using phosphorylated Erk and pRb proteins as cell proliferation markers, we found that phosphorylation of these markers in K562 cells was inhibited during co-cultivation with drug-pretreated stromal cells in MIP-3α-supplemented medium and restored by MIP-3α antibody supplement. In conclusion, anticancer drug pretreatment suppresses the negative control exerted by HS-5 cells on leukemic cell proliferation, via modulation of cytokines in the microenvironment, especially at the level of MIP-3α

  20. Involvement of both the V2 and V3 Regions of the CCR5-Tropic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope in Reduced Sensitivity to Macrophage Inflammatory Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yosuke; Foda, Mohamed; Matsushita, Shuzo; Harada, Shinji

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether C-C chemokines play an important role in the phenotype switch of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from CCR5 to CXCR4 usage during the course of an infection in vivo, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α-resistant variants were isolated from CCR5-tropic (R5) HIV-1 in vitro. The selected variants displayed reduced sensitivities to MIP-1α (fourfold) through CCR5-expressing CD4-HeLa/long terminal repeat–β-galactosidase (MAGI/CCR5) cells. The variants were also resistant to other natural ligands for CCR5, namely, MIP-1β (>4-fold) and RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) (6-fold). The env sequence analyses revealed that the variants had amino acid substitutions in V2 (valine 166 to methionine) and V3 (serine 303 to glycine), although the same V3 substitution appeared in virus passaged without MIP-1α. A single-round replication assay using a luciferase reporter HIV-1 strain pseudotyped with mutant envelopes confirmed that mutations in both V2 and V3 were necessary to confer the reduced sensitivity to MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES. However, the double mutant did not switch its chemokine receptor usage from CCR5 to CXCR4, indicating the altered recognition of CCR5 by this mutant. These results indicated that V2 combined with the V3 region of the CCR5-tropic HIV-1 envelope modulates the sensitivity of HIV-1 to C-C chemokines without altering the ability to use chemokine receptors. PMID:10644351

  1. Triglyceride-induced macrophage cell death is triggered by caspase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sin Jee; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Lim, Jaewon; Kim, Tae Ue; Kim, Tack-Joong; Kim, Yoon Suk

    2013-01-01

    Triglyceride (TG) induces macrophage cell death which contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. We confirmed that exogenous TG accumulates in human THP-1 macrophages and causes cell death. TG treated THP-1 macrophages exhibited no change in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-18, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and IL-1R1 receptor mRNA expression. However, there was a marked decrease in IL-1β mRNA expression but an increase in IL-1β protein secretion. Decreased expression of IL-1β mRNA and increased secretion of IL-1β protein was not the direct cause of cell death. Until now, TG was assumed to induce necrotic cell death in macrophages. Since caspase-1 is known to be involved in activation and secretion of IL-1β protein and pyroptotic cell death, next we determined whether caspase-1 is associated with TG-induced macrophage cell death. We found an increase in caspase-1 activity in TG-treated THP-1 macrophages and inhibition of caspase-1 activity using a specific inhibitor partially rescued cell death. These results suggest activation of the pyroptotic pathway by TG. This is the first report implicating the activation of caspase-1 and the triggering of the pyroptosis pathway in TG-induced macrophage cell death.

  2. Epigenetic regulation of macrophage function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a lipid-driven chronic inflammatory disorder with a key role for macrophages in all disease stages. Macrophages are involved as scavengers of lipids, regulate inflammation, attract other immune cells and contribute to the resolution of inflammation, fibrosis and plaque stability.

  3. Biology of Bony Fish Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan W. Hodgkinson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are found across all vertebrate species, reside in virtually all animal tissues, and play critical roles in host protection and homeostasis. Various mechanisms determine and regulate the highly plastic functional phenotypes of macrophages, including antimicrobial host defenses (pro-inflammatory, M1-type, and resolution and repair functions (anti-inflammatory/regulatory, M2-type. The study of inflammatory macrophages in immune defense of teleosts has garnered much attention, and antimicrobial mechanisms of these cells have been extensively studied in various fish models. Intriguingly, both similarities and differences have been documented for the regulation of lower vertebrate macrophage antimicrobial defenses, as compared to what has been described in mammals. Advances in our understanding of the teleost macrophage M2 phenotypes likewise suggest functional conservation through similar and distinct regulatory strategies, compared to their mammalian counterparts. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing teleost macrophage functional heterogeneity, including monopoetic development, classical macrophage inflammatory and antimicrobial responses as well as alternative macrophage polarization towards tissues repair and resolution of inflammation.

  4. Biology of Bony Fish Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Jordan W; Grayfer, Leon; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2015-11-30

    Macrophages are found across all vertebrate species, reside in virtually all animal tissues, and play critical roles in host protection and homeostasis. Various mechanisms determine and regulate the highly plastic functional phenotypes of macrophages, including antimicrobial host defenses (pro-inflammatory, M1-type), and resolution and repair functions (anti-inflammatory/regulatory, M2-type). The study of inflammatory macrophages in immune defense of teleosts has garnered much attention, and antimicrobial mechanisms of these cells have been extensively studied in various fish models. Intriguingly, both similarities and differences have been documented for the regulation of lower vertebrate macrophage antimicrobial defenses, as compared to what has been described in mammals. Advances in our understanding of the teleost macrophage M2 phenotypes likewise suggest functional conservation through similar and distinct regulatory strategies, compared to their mammalian counterparts. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing teleost macrophage functional heterogeneity, including monopoetic development, classical macrophage inflammatory and antimicrobial responses as well as alternative macrophage polarization towards tissues repair and resolution of inflammation.

  5. Activation of peritoneal macrophages to cytoxicity against B16 melanoma cells by Serratia marcescens polyribosome fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    Serratia marcescens polyribosomes (SMPR) have been shown to elicit an anti-tumor response in vivo. The in-vitro effects of SMPR on macrophages as the nonspecific mediators of the anti-tumor response have not previously been examined. The first objective of this research project is to corroborate and analyze the in-vivo results by the development and application of an in-vitro cytotoxicity assay. The second objective is to examine the effect of SMPR upon previously unstimulated peritoneal macrophages as representing the mechanism of cytotoxicity. The third objective is to identify the minimal effective component of SMPR responsible for an effect on macrophages. Results revealed that SMPR preparations exert a number of effects upon macrophages. Morphologic changes included increased spreading and increased perinuclear vacuolization. Macrophages were shown to be metabolically activate by two lines of evidence. SMPR-treated macrophages exhibited increased cellular metabolism by the increased uptake of 3 H-thymidine and by the increased levels of secreted leucine aminopeptidase as compared to control macrophages. Results also showed that SMPR activates macrophages to cytotoxicity against syngeneic tumor target cells. Buoyant-density fractions were isolated and assayed for macrophage activating ability. Results showed 50S ribosomal subunits to be the smallest fraction effective for macrophage activation. Both the RNA and protein were necessary for complete effectiveness

  6. Rictor/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 promotes macrophage activation and kidney fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiafa; Li, Jianzhong; Feng, Ye; Shu, Bingyan; Gui, Yuan; Wei, Wei; He, Weichun; Yang, Junwei; Dai, Chunsun

    2017-08-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling controls many essential cellular functions. However, the role of Rictor/mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) in regulating macrophage activation and kidney fibrosis remains largely unknown. We report here that Rictor/mTORC2 was activated in macrophages from the fibrotic kidneys of mice. Ablation of Rictor in macrophages reduced kidney fibrosis, inflammatory cell accumulation, macrophage proliferation and polarization after unilateral ureter obstruction or ischaemia/reperfusion injury. In bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs), deletion of Rictor or blockade of protein kinase Cα inhibited cell migration. Additionally, deletion of Rictor or blockade of Akt abolished interleukin-4-stimulated or transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-stimulated macrophage M2 polarization. Furthermore, deletion of Rictor downregulated TGF-β1-stimulated upregulation of multiple profibrotic cytokines, including platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor and connective tissue growth factor, in BMMs. Conditioned medium from TGF-β1-pretreated Rictor -/- macrophages stimulated fibroblast activation less efficiently than that from TGF-β1-pretreated Rictor +/+ macrophages. These results demonstrate that Rictor/mTORC2 signalling can promote macrophage activation and kidney fibrosis. Targeting this signalling pathway in macrophages may shine light on ways to protect against kidney fibrosis in patients with chronic kidney diseases. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. SP-A binding sites on bovine alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaga, S; Plattner, H; Schlepper-Schaefer, J

    1998-11-25

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) binding to bovine alveolar macrophages was examined in order to characterize SP-A binding proteins on the cell surface and to isolate putative receptors from these cells that could be obtained in large amounts. Human SP-A, unlabeled or labeled with gold particles, was bound to freshly isolated macrophages and analyzed with ELISA or the transmission electron microscope. Binding of SP-A was inhibited by Ca2+ chelation, by an excess of unlabeled SP-A, or by the presence of 20 mg/ml mannan. We conclude that bovine alveolar macrophages expose binding sites for SP-A that are specific and that depend on Ca2+ and on mannose residues. For isolation of SP-A receptors with homologous SP-A as ligand we isolated SP-A from bovine lung lavage. SDS-PAGE analysis of the purified SP-A showed a protein of 32-36 kDa. Functional integrity of the protein was demonstrated. Bovine SP-A bound to Dynabeads was used to isolate SP-A binding proteins. From the fractionated and blotted proteins of the receptor preparation two proteins bound SP-A in a Ca2+-dependent manner, a 40-kDa protein showing mannose dependency and a 210-kDa protein, showing no mannose sensitivity. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  8. Liver X Receptor (LXR) activation negatively regulates visfatin expression in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayi, Therese Hervee; Rigamonti, Elena [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); INSERM UR1011, F-59000 Lille (France); UDSL, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France); Pattou, Francois [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Department of Endocrine Surgery, University Hospital, Lille (France); U859 Biotherapies for Diabetes, INSERM, Lille (France); Staels, Bart, E-mail: bart.staels@pasteur-lille.fr [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); INSERM UR1011, F-59000 Lille (France); UDSL, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France); Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); INSERM UR1011, F-59000 Lille (France); UDSL, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Synthetic LXR ligands decreased visfatin expression in human macrophages. {yields} LXR activation leads to a modest and transient decrease of NAD{sup +} concentration. {yields} LXR activation decreased PPAR{gamma}-induced visfatin in human macrophages. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) are the major source of visfatin, a visceral fat adipokine upregulated during obesity. Also known to play a role in B cell differentiation (pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF)) and NAD biosynthesis (nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT)), visfatin has been suggested to play a role in inflammation. Liver X Receptor (LXR) and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR){gamma} are nuclear receptors expressed in macrophages controlling the inflammatory response. Recently, we reported visfatin as a PPAR{gamma} target gene in human macrophages. In this study, we examined whether LXR regulates macrophage visfatin expression. Synthetic LXR ligands decreased visfatin gene expression in a LXR-dependent manner in human and murine macrophages. The decrease of visfatin mRNA was paralleled by a decrease of protein secretion. Consequently, a modest and transient decrease of NAD{sup +} concentration was observed. Interestingly, LXR activation decreased the PPAR{gamma}-induced visfatin gene and protein secretion in human macrophages. Our results identify visfatin as a gene oppositely regulated by the LXR and PPAR{gamma} pathways in human macrophages.

  9. A defect in the inflammation-primed macrophage-activation cascade in osteopetrotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N; Lindsay, D D; Naraparaju, V R; Ireland, R A; Popoff, S N

    1994-05-15

    Macrophages were activated by administration of lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-Pc) or dodecylglycerol (DDG) to wild-type rats but not in osteopetrotic (op) mutant rats. In vitro treatment of wild-type rat peritoneal cells with lyso-Pc or DDG efficiently activated macrophages whereas treatment of op mutant rat peritoneal cells with lyso-Pc or DDG did not activate macrophages. The inflammation-primed macrophage activation cascade in rats requires participation of B lymphocytes and vitamin D binding protein (DBP). Lyso-Pc-inducible beta-galactosidase of wild-type rat B lymphocytes can convert DBP to the macrophage-activating factor (MAF), whereas B lymphocytes of the op mutant rats were shown to be deficient in lyso-Pc-inducible beta-galactosidase. DBP is conserved among mammalian species. Treatment of human DBP (Gc1 protein) with commercial glycosidases yields an extremely high titrated MAF as assayed on mouse and rat macrophages. Because the enzymatically generated MAF (GcMAF) bypasses the role of lymphocytes in macrophage activation, the op mutant rat macrophages were efficiently activated by administration of a small quantity (100 pg/rat) of GcMAF. Likewise, in vitro treatment of op rat peritoneal cells with as little as 40 pg GcMAF/ml activated macrophages.

  10. Monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD) positively regulates ERK and Akt activation and TNF-α and NO production in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Zheng, Jin; Yin, Dan-Dan; Xiang, Jie; He, Fei; Wang, Yao-Chun; Liang, Liang; Qin, Hong-Yan; Liu, Li; Liang, Ying-Min; Han, Hua

    2012-05-01

    Macrophage activation is modulated by both environmental cues and endogenous programs. In the present study, we investigated the role of a PAQR family protein, monocyte to macrophage differentiation-associated (MMD), in macrophage activation and unveiled its underlying molecular mechanism. Our results showed that while MMD expression could be detected in all tissues examined, its expression level is significantly up-regulated upon monocyte differentiation. Within cells, EGFP-MMD fusion protein could be co-localized to endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, but not lysosomes and cytoplasm. MMD expression is up-regulated in macrophages after LPS stimulation, and this might be modulated by RBP-J, the critical transcription factor of Notch signaling. Overexpression of MMD in macrophages increased the production of TNF-α and NO upon LPS stimulation. We found that MMD overexpression enhanced ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in macrophages after LPS stimulation. Blocking Erk or Akt by pharmacological agent reduced TNF-α or NO production in MMD-overexpressing macrophages, respectively. These results suggested that MMD modulates TNF-α and NO production in macrophages, and this process might involves Erk or Akt.

  11. Imaging micro-glial/macrophage activation in spinal cords of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis rats by Positron Emission Tomography using the mitochondrial 18 kDa translocator protein radioligand [18F]DPA-714

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abourbeh, Galith; Theze, Benoit; Dubois, Albertine; Tavitian, Bertrand; Boisgard, Raphael; Maroy, Renaud; Brulon, Vincent; Fontyn, Yoann; Dolle, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS. Activated micro-glia/macrophages play a key role in the immuno-pathogenesis of MS and its corresponding animal models, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Micro-glia activation begins at early stages of the disease and is associated with elevated expression of the 18 kDa mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO). Thus, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of micro-glial activation using TSPO-specific radioligands could be valuable for monitoring disease-associated neuro-inflammatory processes. EAE was induced in rats using a fragment of myelin basic protein, yielding acute clinical disease that reflects extensive spinal cord inflammation. Enhanced TSPO expression in spinal cords of EAE rats versus those of controls was confirmed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Biodistribution studies in control and EAE rats were performed using the TSPO radioligand [ 18 F]DPA-714 [N,N-diethyl-2-(2-(4-(2-fluoroethoxy)phenyl)-5,7-dimethylpyrazolo[1,5- a]pyrimidin-3-yl)acetamide]. At 1 h after injection, almost fivefold higher levels of [ 18 F]DPA-714 were measured in spinal cords of EAE rats versus controls. The specific binding of [ 18 F]DPA-714 to TSPO in spinal cords was confirmed in competition studies, using unlabeled (R,S)-PK11195 [(R,S)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-1-(2-chlorophenyl) - isoquinoline-3-carboxamide)] or DPA-714 in excess. MicroPET studies affirm that this differential radioactivity uptake in spinal cords of EAE versus control rats could be detected and quantified. Using [ 18 F]DPA-714, neuro-inflammation in spinal cords of EAE-induced rats could be visualized by PET, offering a sensitive technique for monitoring neuro-inflammatory lesions in the CNS and particularly in the spinal cord. In addition to current MRI protocols, this approach could provide molecular images of neuro-inflammation for detection, monitoring, and research in MS. (authors)

  12. Burkholderia pseudomallei transcriptional adaptation in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieng Sylvia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen of phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. How the bacterium interacts with host macrophage cells is still not well understood and is critical to appreciate the strategies used by this bacterium to survive and how intracellular survival leads to disease manifestation. Results Here we report the expression profile of intracellular B. pseudomallei following infection of human macrophage-like U937 cells. During intracellular growth over the 6 h infection period, approximately 22 % of the B. pseudomallei genome showed significant transcriptional adaptation. B. pseudomallei adapted rapidly to the intracellular environment by down-regulating numerous genes involved in metabolism, cell envelope, motility, replication, amino acid and ion transport system and regulatory function pathways. Reduced expression in catabolic and housekeeping genes suggested lower energy requirement and growth arrest during macrophage infection, while expression of genes encoding anaerobic metabolism functions were up regulated. However, whilst the type VI secretion system was up regulated, expression of many known virulence factors was not significantly modulated over the 6hours of infection. Conclusions The transcriptome profile described here provides the first comprehensive view of how B. pseudomallei survives within host cells and will help identify potential virulence factors and proteins that are important for the survival and growth of B. pseudomallei within human cells.

  13. Macrophages under pressure: the role of macrophage polarization in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwani, Sailesh C

    2018-01-01

    Hypertension is a multifactorial disease involving the nervous, renal, and cardiovascular systems. Macrophages are the most abundant and ubiquitous immune cells, placing them in a unique position to serve as key mediators between these components. The polarization of macrophages confers vast phenotypic and functional plasticity, allowing them to act as proinflammatory, homeostatic, and anti-inflammatory agents. Key differences between the M1 and M2 phenotypes, the 2 subsets at the extremes of this polarization spectrum, place macrophages at a juncture to mediate many mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Neuronal and non-neuronal regulation of the immune system, that is, the "neuroimmuno" axis, plays an integral role in the polarization of macrophages. In hypertension, the neuroimmuno axis results in synchronization of macrophage mobilization from immune cell reservoirs and their chemotaxis, via increased expression of chemoattractants, to end organs critical in the development of hypertension. This complicated system is largely coordinated by the dichotomous actions of the autonomic neuronal and non-neuronal activation of cholinergic, adrenergic, and neurohormonal receptors on macrophages, leading to their ability to "switch" between phenotypes at sites of active inflammation. Data from experimental models and human studies are in concordance with each other and support a central role for macrophage polarization in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. M1 and M2 macrophages derived from THP-1 cells differentially modulate the response of cancer cells to etoposide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genin, Marie; Clement, Francois; Fattaccioli, Antoine; Raes, Martine; Michiels, Carine

    2015-01-01

    Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are present in high density in solid tumors. TAMs share many characteristics with alternatively activated macrophages, also called M2. They have been shown to favor tumor development and a role in chemoresistance has also been suggested. Here, we investigated the effects of M2 in comparison to M1 macrophages on cancer cell sensitivity to etoposide. We set up a model of macrophage polarization, starting from THP-1 monocytes differentiated into macrophages using PMA (Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate). Once differentiated (M0 macrophages), they were incubated with IL-4 and IL-13 in order to obtain M2 polarized macrophages or with IFN-gamma and LPS for classical macrophage activation (M1). To mimic the communication between cancer cells and TAMs, M0, M1 or M2 macrophages and HepG2 or A549 cancer cells were co-cultured during respectively 16 (HepG2) or 24 (A549) hours, before etoposide exposure for 24 (HepG2) or 16 (A549) hours. After the incubation, the impact of etoposide on macrophage polarization was studied and cancer cell apoptosis was assessed by western-blot for cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP-1 protein, caspase activity assay and FACS analysis of Annexin V and PI staining. mRNA and protein expression of M1 and M2 markers confirmed the polarization of THP-1-derived macrophages, which provide a new, easy and well-characterized model of polarized human macrophages. Etoposide-induced cancer cell apoptosis was markedly reduced in the presence of THP-1 M2 macrophages, while apoptosis was increased in cells co-cultured with M1 macrophages. On the other hand, etoposide did not influence M1 or M2 polarization. These results evidence for the first time a clear protective effect of M2 on the contrary to M1 macrophages on etoposide-induced cancer cell apoptosis

  15. Assessment of Antibody-based Drugs Effects on Murine Bone Marrow and Peritoneal Macrophage Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozicky, Lisa; Sly, Laura M

    2017-12-26

    Macrophages are phagocytic innate immune cells, which initiate immune responses to pathogens and contribute to healing and tissue restitution. Macrophages are equally important in turning off inflammatory responses. We have shown that macrophages stimulated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) can produce high amounts of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 10 (IL-10), and low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). IVIg is a polyvalent antibody, primarily immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs), pooled from the plasma of more than 1,000 blood donors. It is used to supplement antibodies in patients with immune deficiencies or to suppress immune responses in patients with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions. Infliximab, a therapeutic anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) antibody, has also been shown to activate macrophages to produce IL-10 in response to inflammatory stimuli. IVIg and other antibody-based biologics can be tested to determine their effects on macrophage activation. This paper describes methods for derivation, stimulation, and assessment of murine bone marrow macrophages activated by antibodies in vitro and murine peritoneal macrophages activated with antibodies in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate the use of western blotting to determine the contribution of specific cell signaling pathways to anti-inflammatory macrophage activity. These protocols can be used with genetically modified mice, to determine the effect of a specific protein(s) on anti-inflammatory macrophage activation. These techniques can also be used to assess whether specific biologics may act by changing macrophages to an IL-10-producing anti-inflammatory activation state that reduces inflammatory responses in vivo. This can provide information on the role of macrophage activation in the efficacy of biologics during disease models in mice, and provide insight into a potential new mechanism of action in people. Conversely, this may caution

  16. Experimental Stroke Differentially Affects Discrete Subpopulations of Splenic Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura McCulloch

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes to the immune system after stroke are complex and can result in both pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive consequences. Following ischemic stroke, brain resident microglia are activated and circulating monocytes are recruited to the injury site. In contrast, there is a systemic deactivation of monocytes/macrophages that may contribute to immunosuppression and the high incidence of bacterial infection experienced by stroke patients. The manipulation of macrophage subsets may be a useful therapeutic strategy to reduce infection and improve outcome in patients after stroke. Recent research has enhanced our understanding of the heterogeneity of macrophages even within the same tissue. The spleen is the largest natural reservoir of immune cells, many of which are mobilized to the site of injury after ischemic stroke and is notable for the diversity of its functionally distinct macrophage subpopulations associated with specific micro-anatomical locations. Here, we describe the effects of experimental stroke in mice on these distinct splenic macrophage subpopulations. Red pulp (RP and marginal zone macrophages (MZM specifically showed increases in density and alterations in micro-anatomical location. These changes were not due to increased recruitment from the bone marrow but may be associated with increases in local proliferation. Genes associated with phagocytosis and proteolytic processing were upregulated in the spleen after stroke with increased expression of the lysosome-associated protein lysosomal-associated membrane proteins specifically increased in RP and MZM subsets. In contrast, MHC class II expression was reduced specifically in these populations. Furthermore, genes associated with macrophage ability to communicate with other immune cells, such as co-stimulatory molecules and inflammatory cytokine production, were also downregulated in the spleen after stroke. These findings suggest that selective splenic macrophage functions

  17. Macrophage Efferocytosis and Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    E) ELISA for total CXCL1 and CXCL5 levels in supernatants of MΦs alone or cocultured with RM1(HA) or PC3(HA). (F) Transcriptional activ- ity cell...marrow macrophages (Fig- ure 1D). ELISA evaluation for CXCL1 and CXCL5 proteins in the coculture media for apoptotic cancer cells (Figure 1E) confirmed... ELISA analysis of total pro- tein lysates from VEH- (n = 10) and AP-treated (n = 11) tumor vossicles. (G) Graphs depicting the correlation between

  18. Siderocalin inhibits the intracellular replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Erin E; Srikanth, Chittur V; Sandgren, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Siderocalin is a secreted protein that binds to siderophores to prevent bacterial iron acquisition. While it has been shown to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) in extracellular cultures, its effect on this pathogen within macrophages is not clear. Here, we show that sideroc...

  19. Proteomic Investigation of the Time Course Responses of RAW 264.7 Macrophages to Infection with Salmonella enterica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Liang; Chowdhury, Saiful M.; Smallwood, Heather S.; Yoon, Hyunjin; Mottaz-Brewer, Heather M.; Norbeck, Angela D.; McDermott, Jason E.; Clauss, Therese RW; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2009-08-01

    Macrophages plan important roles in controlling Salmonella-mediated systemic infection. To investigate the responses of macrophages to Salmonella infection, we infected RAW 264.7 macrophages with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STM) and then performed a comparative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry [LC-MS(/MS)]-based proteomics analysis of the infected macrophages. A total of 1006 macrophage and 115 STM proteins were indentified from this study. Most of STM proteins were found at late stage of the time course of infection, consistent with the fact that STM proliferates inside RAW 264.7 macrophages. Majority of the identified macrophage proteins were house keeping-related, including cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), whose peptide abundances were relatively constant during the time course of infection. Compared to those in no infection control, the peptide abundances of 244 macrophage proteins (or 24% of total indentified macrophage proteins) changed considerably after STM infection. The functions of these STM infection-affected macrophage proteins were diverse and ranged from production of antibacterial nitric oxide (i.e., inducible nitric oxide synthase or iNOS) or production of prostaglandin H2 (i.e., prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, also know as cyclooxygenase-2 or COX-2) to regulation of intracellular traffic (e.g., sorting nexin or SNX 5, 6 and 9), demonstrating a global impact of STM infection on macrophage proteome. Western-blot analysis not only confirmed the LC-MS(/MS) results of SOD1, COX-2 and iNOS, but also revealed that the protein abundances of mitochondrial SOD2 increased after STM infection, indicating an infection-induced oxidative stress in mitochondria.

  20. Xanthohumol from Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) Is an Efficient Inhibitor of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-a Release in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Mouse Macrophages and U937 Human Monocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupinacci, E.; Meijerink, J.; Vincken, J.P.; Gabriele, B.; Gruppen, H.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    Activated macrophages in adipose tissue play a major role in the chronic inflammatory process that has been linked to the complications of overweight and obesity. The hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.) has been described to possess both anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects. In the present study,

  1. Progress on macrophage's proinflammatory products as markers of acute endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Ziętek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To provide the review of the macrophage activity products as pathophysiological markers of endometriosis by literature survey (PubMed, Cochrane. Immunoreactive cells and several of their synthesis products concentrations are elevated in the serum and peritoneal fluid in patients with endometriosis. The enhanced reactive proteins contributed to local inflammation and aggregation of endometriotic lesions. Immune response and immune surveillance of tissue play an important role in pathogenesis of endometriosis. Activated macrophages in peritoneal environment secrete immunoreactive cytokines which are responsible for inflammatory cascade of reactions. The immunoreactive cytokines should be a target not only as a disease marker but also as a part of therapeutic protocol.

  2. The macrophage-histiocytic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, A

    1971-04-01

    The macrophage-histiocytic system is primarily concerned with the phagocytosis and degradation either of foreign material that enters the organism or of senile and damaged cells belonging to the organism itself. The system includes various kinds of cells with the common ability to process and eventually degrade and digest the ingested material. Two morphological characteristics of these cells are linked to their phagocytic functions: intra-cytoplasmic vacuoles and lysosomes. Although endothelial and fibroblastic cells can ingest particles, it seems that most cells of the macrophage-histiocytic system belong to the monocyte series. The stem cell of the system is still a matter for discussion and the mature cells have attracted a large and confusing array of names. Most of the experimental work with irradiation has involved macrophages of the peritoneal cavity and lymph nodes. It is likely that the other cells of the macrophage-histiocytic system are affected in the same way by irradiation, but this is not certain.

  3. Critical illness induces alternative activation of M2 macrophages in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langouche, Lies; Marques, Mirna B; Ingels, Catherine; Gunst, Jan; Derde, Sarah; Vander Perre, Sarah; D'Hoore, André; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue of critically ill patients. Classically activated macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue is a known feature of obesity, where it is linked with increasing insulin resistance. However, the characteristics of adipose tissue macrophage accumulation in critical illness remain unknown. We studied macrophage markers with immunostaining and gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue from healthy control subjects (n = 20) and non-surviving prolonged critically ill patients (n = 61). For comparison, also subcutaneous in vivo adipose tissue biopsies were studied from 15 prolonged critically ill patients. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue biopsies from non-surviving prolonged critically ill patients displayed a large increase in macrophage staining. This staining corresponded with elevated gene expression of "alternatively activated" M2 macrophage markers arginase-1, IL-10 and CD163 and low levels of the "classically activated" M1 macrophage markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS). Immunostaining for CD163 confirmed positive M2 macrophage staining in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies from critically ill patients. Surprisingly, circulating levels and tissue gene expression of the alternative M2 activators IL-4 and IL-13 were low and not different from controls. In contrast, adipose tissue protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a nuclear receptor required for M2 differentiation and acting downstream of IL-4, was markedly elevated in illness. In subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsies from surviving critically ill patients, we could confirm positive macrophage staining with CD68 and CD163. We also could confirm elevated arginase-1 gene expression and elevated PPARγ protein levels. Unlike obesity, critical illness evokes adipose tissue accumulation of alternatively activated M2

  4. Zinc and zinc transporters in macrophages and their roles in efferocytosis in COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys Hamon

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have shown that nutritional zinc restriction exacerbates airway inflammation accompanied by an increase in caspase-3 activation and an accumulation of apoptotic epithelial cells in the bronchioles of the mice. Normally, apoptotic cells are rapidly cleared by macrophage efferocytosis, limiting any secondary necrosis and inflammation. We therefore hypothesized that zinc deficiency is not only pro-apoptotic but also impairs macrophage efferocytosis. Impaired efferocytic clearance of apoptotic epithelial cells by alveolar macrophages occurs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cigarette-smoking and other lung inflammatory diseases. We now show that zinc is a factor in impaired macrophage efferocytosis in COPD. Concentrations of zinc were significantly reduced in the supernatant of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with COPD who were current smokers, compared to healthy controls, smokers or COPD patients not actively smoking. Lavage zinc was positively correlated with AM efferocytosis and there was decreased efferocytosis in macrophages depleted of Zn in vitro by treatment with the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN. Organ and cell Zn homeostasis are mediated by two families of membrane ZIP and ZnT proteins. Macrophages of mice null for ZIP1 had significantly lower intracellular zinc and efferocytosis capability, suggesting ZIP1 may play an important role. We investigated further using the human THP-1 derived macrophage cell line, with and without zinc chelation by TPEN to mimic zinc deficiency. There was no change in ZIP1 mRNA levels by TPEN but a significant 3-fold increase in expression of another influx transporter ZIP2, consistent with a role for ZIP2 in maintaining macrophage Zn levels. Both ZIP1 and ZIP2 proteins were localized to the plasma membrane and cytoplasm in normal human lung alveolar macrophages. We propose that zinc homeostasis in macrophages involves the coordinated action of ZIP1 and ZIP2

  5. Mechanism of interleukin-13 production by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent macrophages via protease-activated receptor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Rui; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Sakamoto, Arisa; Ishimaru, Yasuji; Narahara, Shinji; Sugiuchi, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Eiji; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) promotes classically activated M1 macrophages. GM-CSF upregulates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) protein expression and activation of PAR-2 by human neutrophil elastase (HNE) regulates cytokine production. This study investigated the mechanism of PAR-2-mediated interleukin (IL)-13 production by GM-CSF-dependent macrophages stimulated with HNE. Adherent macrophages were obtained from primary cultures of human mononuclear cells. After stimulation with HNE to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathway, IL-13 mRNA and protein levels were assessed by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. PAR-2 protein was detected in GM-CSF-dependent macrophages by Western blotting. Unexpectedly, PD98059 (an ERK1 inhibitor) increased IL-13 production, even at higher concentrations. Interestingly, U0126 (an ERK1/2 inhibitor) reduced IL-13 production in a concentration-dependent manner. Neither SB203580 (a p38alpha/p38beta inhibitor) nor BIRB796 (a p38gamma/p38delta inhibitor) affected IL-13 production, while TMB-8 (a calcium chelator) diminished IL-13 production. Stimulation with HNE promoted the production of IL-13 (a Th2 cytokine) by GM-CSF-dependent M1 macrophages. PAR-2-mediated IL-13 production may be dependent on the Ca(2+)/ERK2 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gene expression in IFN-g-activated murine macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are critical for natural immunity and play a central role in specific acquired immunity. The IFN-gamma activation of macrophages derived from A/J or BALB/c mice yielded two different patterns of antiviral state in murine hepatitis virus 3 infection, which were related to a down-regulation of the main virus receptor. Using cDNA hybridization to evaluate mRNA accumulation in the cells, we were able to identify several genes that are differently up- or down-regulated by IFN-gamma in A/J (267 and 266 genes, respectively, up- and down-regulated or BALB/c (297 and 58 genes, respectively, up- and down-regulated mouse macrophages. Macrophages from mice with different genetic backgrounds behave differently at the molecular level and comparison of the patterns of non-activated and IFN-gamma-activated A/J or BALB/c mouse macrophages revealed, for instance, an up-regulation and a down-regulation of genes coding for biological functions such as enzymatic reactions, nucleic acid synthesis and transport, protein synthesis, transport and metabolism, cytoskeleton arrangement and extracellular matrix, phagocytosis, resistance and susceptibility to infection and tumors, inflammation, and cell differentiation or activation. The present data are reported in order to facilitate future correlation of proteomic/transcriptomic findings as well as of results obtained from a classical approach for the understanding of biological phenomena. The possible implication of the role of some of the gene products relevant to macrophage biology can now be further scrutinized. In this respect, a down-regulation of the main murine hepatitis virus 3 receptor gene was detected only in IFN-gamma-activated macrophages of resistant mice.

  7. Surface plasma functionalization influences macrophage behavior on carbon nanowalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ion, Raluca [University of Bucharest, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 91-95 Spl. Independentei, 050095 Bucharest (Romania); Vizireanu, Sorin [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, PO Box MG-36, 077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Stancu, Claudia Elena [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, PO Box MG-36, 077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald), Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Luculescu, Catalin [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, PO Box MG-36, 077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Cimpean, Anisoara, E-mail: anisoara.cimpean@bio.unibuc.ro [University of Bucharest, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 91-95 Spl. Independentei, 050095 Bucharest (Romania); Dinescu, Gheorghe [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor, PO Box MG-36, 077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-03-01

    The surfaces of carbon nanowall samples as scaffolds for tissue engineering applications were treated with oxygen or nitrogen plasma to improve their wettability and to functionalize their surfaces with different functional groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle results illustrated the effective conversion of the carbon nanowall surfaces from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and the incorporation of various amounts of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen functional groups during the treatments. The early inflammatory responses elicited by un-treated and modified carbon nanowall surfaces were investigated by quantifying tumor necrosis factor-alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha released by attached RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence studies were employed to investigate the changes in macrophage morphology and adhesive properties, while MTT assay was used to quantify cell proliferation. All samples sustained macrophage adhesion and growth. In addition, nitrogen plasma treatment was more beneficial for cell adhesion in comparison with un-modified carbon nanowall surfaces. Instead, oxygen plasma functionalization led to increased macrophage adhesion and spreading suggesting a more activated phenotype, confirmed by elevated cytokine release. Thus, our findings showed that the chemical surface alterations which occur as a result of plasma treatment, independent of surface wettability, affect macrophage response in vitro. - Highlights: • N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} plasma treatments alter the CNW surface chemistry and wettability. • Cells seeded on CNW scaffolds are viable and metabolically active. • Surface functional groups, independent of surface wettability, affect cell response. • O{sub 2} plasma treatment of CNW leads to a more activated macrophage phenotype.

  8. DMPD: The actions of bacterial DNA on murine macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10534106 The actions of bacterial DNA on murine macrophages. Sester DP, Stacey KJ, ... Show The actions of bacterial DNA on murine macrophages. PubmedID 10534106 Title The actions of bacterial DNA on murine macrophage

  9. Peptide secreted by human alveolar macrophages releases neutrophil granule contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, C.K.; Miller, E.J.; Cohen, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was developed against an 8000-kDa enzyme-releasing peptide (ERP) released from human alveolar macrophages. ERP was isolated on an immunoaffinity column containing the antibody bound to staphylococcal protein A-Sepharose, and by autoradiography. Release of ERP from the macrophages is not changed by plastic adherence, phagocytosis, calcium ionophore, or phorbol esters. The peptide was not antigenically similar to interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor, or interleukin lα or 1β. The release of constituents from azurophilic and specific granules was the main identified biologic function of ERP. ERP was a more effective secretagogue in the untreated neutrophils and f-met-leu-phe was more effective in the cytochalasin B-treated neutrophils. Absorption of ERP from macrophage-conditioned medium removed a small amount of the chemotactic activity; however, the immunopurified peptide was not chemotactic or chemokinetic for neutrophils, and at high concentrations, it suppressed base line chemokinesis. Treatment of washed macrophages with trypsin released active ERP of approximately the same m.w. of spontaneously secreted ERP. These studies showed that human alveolar macrophages release a peptide which is a secretagogue for human neutrophils under conditions which may be encountered in the lungs during certain disease states. Proteolytic enzymes which are free in the lungs may release the peptide and lead to the secretion of neutrophil enzymes

  10. Induction of ER stress in macrophages of tuberculosis granulomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracie A Seimon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress pathway known as the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR is an adaptive survival pathway that protects cells from the buildup of misfolded proteins, but under certain circumstances it can lead to apoptosis. ER stress has been causally associated with macrophage apoptosis in advanced atherosclerosis of mice and humans. Because atherosclerosis shares certain features with tuberculosis (TB with regard to lesional macrophage accumulation, foam cell formation, and apoptosis, we investigated if the ER stress pathway is activated during TB infection.Here we show that ER stress markers such as C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP; also known as GADD153, phosphorylated inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha (Ire1α and eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α, and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3 are expressed in macrophage-rich areas of granulomas in lungs of mice infected with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb. These areas were also positive for numerous apoptotic cells as assayed by TUNEL. Microarray analysis of human caseous TB granulomas isolated by laser capture microdissection reveal that 73% of genes involved in the UPR are upregulated at the mRNA transcript level. The expression of two ER stress markers, ATF3 and CHOP, were also increased in macrophages of human TB granulomas when assayed by immunohistochemistry. CHOP has been causally associated with ER stress-induced macrophage apoptosis. We found that apoptosis was more abundant in granulomas as compared to non-granulomatous tissue isolated from patients with pulmonary TB, and apoptosis correlated with CHOP expression in areas surrounding the centralized areas of caseation.In summary, ER stress is induced in macrophages of TB granulomas in areas where apoptotic cells accumulate in mice and humans. Although macrophage apoptosis is generally thought to be beneficial in initially protecting the host from Mtb infection, death of infected macrophages in

  11. Normal autophagic activity in macrophages from mice lacking Gαi3, AGS3, or RGS19.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Vural

    Full Text Available In macrophages autophagy assists antigen presentation, affects cytokine release, and promotes intracellular pathogen elimination. In some cells autophagy is modulated by a signaling pathway that employs Gαi3, Activator of G-protein Signaling-3 (AGS3/GPSM1, and Regulator of G-protein Signaling 19 (RGS19. As macrophages express each of these proteins, we tested their importance in regulating macrophage autophagy. We assessed LC3 processing and the formation of LC3 puncta in bone marrow derived macrophages prepared from wild type, Gnai3(-/-, Gpsm1(-/-, or Rgs19(-/- mice following amino acid starvation or Nigericin treatment. In addition, we evaluated rapamycin-induced autophagic proteolysis rates by long-lived protein degradation assays and anti-autophagic action after rapamycin induction in wild type, Gnai3(-/-, and Gpsm1(-/- macrophages. In similar assays we compared macrophages treated or not with pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of GPCR (G-protein couple receptor triggered Gαi nucleotide exchange. Despite previous findings, the level of basal autophagy, autophagic induction, autophagic flux, autophagic degradation and the anti-autophagic action in macrophages that lacked Gαi3, AGS3, or RGS19; or had been treated with pertussis toxin, were similar to controls. These results indicate that while Gαi signaling may impact autophagy in some cell types it does not in macrophages.

  12. [Clinical significance of drug resistance-associated mutations in treatment of hepatitis C with direct-acting antiviral agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Chen, Z W; Ren, H; Hu, P

    2017-03-20

    Direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) achieve a high sustained virologic response rate in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. However, drug resistance-associated mutations play an important role in treatment failure and have attracted more and more attention. This article elaborates on the clinical significance of drug resistance-associated mutations from the aspects of their definition, association with genotype, known drug resistance-associated mutations and their prevalence rates, the impact of drug resistance-associated mutations on treatment naive and treatment-experienced patients, and the role of clinical detection, in order to provide a reference for clinical regimens with DAAs and help to achieve higher sustained virologic response rates.

  13. Imaging of macrophage-related lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, Katharina; Hansell, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Macrophage-related pulmonary diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by macrophage accumulation, activation or dysfunction. These conditions include smoking-related interstitial lung diseases, metabolic disorders such as Niemann-Pick or Gaucher disease, and rare primary lung tumors. High-resolution computed tomography abnormalities include pulmonary ground-glass opacification secondary to infiltration by macrophages, centrilobular nodules or interlobular septal thickening reflecting peribronchiolar or septal macrophage accumulation, respectively, emphysema caused by macrophage dysfunction, and honeycombing following macrophage-related lung matrix remodeling. (orig.)

  14. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Gene Editing in Human iPSC-Derived Macrophage Reveals Lysosomal Acid Lipase Function in Human Macrophages-Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanrui; Shi, Jianting; Hachet, Melanie A; Xue, Chenyi; Bauer, Robert C; Jiang, Hongfeng; Li, Wenjun; Tohyama, Junichiro; Millar, John; Billheimer, Jeffrey; Phillips, Michael C; Razani, Babak; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P

    2017-11-01

    To gain mechanistic insights into the role of LIPA (lipase A), the gene encoding LAL (lysosomal acid lipase) protein, in human macrophages. We used CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) technology to knock out LIPA in human induced pluripotent stem cells and then differentiate to macrophage (human-induced pluripotent stem cells-derived macrophage [IPSDM]) to explore the human macrophage LIPA loss-of-function phenotypes. LIPA was abundantly expressed in monocyte-derived macrophages and was markedly induced on IPSDM differentiation to comparable levels as in human monocyte-derived macrophage. IPSDM with knockout of LIPA ( LIPA -/- ) had barely detectable LAL enzymatic activity. Control and LIPA -/- IPSDM were loaded with [ 3 H]-cholesteryl oleate-labeled AcLDL (acetylated low-density lipoprotein) followed by efflux to apolipoprotein A-I. Efflux of liberated [ 3 H]-cholesterol to apolipoprotein A-I was abolished in LIPA -/- IPSDM, indicating deficiency in LAL-mediated lysosomal cholesteryl ester hydrolysis. In cells loaded with [ 3 H]-cholesterol-labeled AcLDL, [ 3 H]-cholesterol efflux was, however, not different between control and LIPA -/- IPSDM. ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1) expression was upregulated by AcLDL loading but to a similar extent between control and LIPA -/- IPSDM. In nonlipid loaded state, LIPA -/- IPSDM had high levels of cholesteryl ester mass compared with minute amounts in control IPSDM. Yet, with AcLDL loading, overall cholesteryl ester mass was increased to similar levels in both control and LIPA -/- IPSDM. LIPA -/- did not impact lysosomal apolipoprotein-B degradation or expression of IL1B , IL6 , and CCL5. CONCLUSIONS: LIPA -/- IPSDM reveals macrophage-specific hallmarks of LIPA deficiency. CRISPR/Cas9 and IPSDM provide important tools to study human macrophage biology and more broadly for future studies of disease-associated LIPA genetic variation in human

  15. Fibronectin induces macrophage migration through a SFK-FAK/CSF-1R pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiacomo, Graziana; Tusa, Ignazia; Bacci, Marina; Cipolleschi, Maria Grazia; Dello Sbarba, Persio; Rovida, Elisabetta

    2017-07-04

    Integrins, following binding to proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM) including collagen, laminin and fibronectin (FN), are able to transduce molecular signals inside the cells and to regulate several biological functions such as migration, proliferation and differentiation. Besides activation of adaptor molecules and kinases, integrins transactivate Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTK). In particular, adhesion to the ECM may promote RTK activation in the absence of growth factors. The Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor (CSF-1R) is a RTK that supports the survival, proliferation, and motility of monocytes/macrophages, which are essential components of innate immunity and cancer development. Macrophage interaction with FN is recognized as an important aspect of host defense and wound repair. The aim of the present study was to investigate on a possible cross-talk between FN-elicited signals and CSF-1R in macrophages. FN induced migration in BAC1.2F5 and J774 murine macrophage cell lines and in human primary macrophages. Adhesion to FN determined phosphorylation of the Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Src Family Kinases (SFK) and activation of the SFK/FAK complex, as witnessed by paxillin phosphorylation. SFK activity was necessary for FAK activation and macrophage migration. Moreover, FN-induced migration was dependent on FAK in either murine macrophage cell lines or human primary macrophages. FN also induced FAK-dependent/ligand-independent CSF-1R phosphorylation, as well as the interaction between CSF-1R and β1. CSF-1R activity was necessary for FN-induced macrophage migration. Indeed, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of CSF-1R prevented FN-induced macrophage migration. Our results identified a new SFK-FAK/CSF-1R signaling pathway that mediates FN-induced migration of macrophages.

  16. Controlled release of cytokines using silk-biomaterials for macrophage polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Andrew R D; Spiller, Kara L; Freytes, Donald O; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Kaplan, David L

    2015-12-01

    Polarization of macrophages into an inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype is important for clearing pathogens and wound repair, however chronic activation of either type of macrophage has been implicated in several diseases. Methods to locally control the polarization of macrophages is of great interest for biomedical implants and tissue engineering. To that end, silk protein was used to form biopolymer films that release either IFN-γ or IL-4 to control the polarization of macrophages. Modulation of the solubility of the silk films through regulation of β-sheet (crystalline) content enabled a short-term release (4-8 h) of either cytokine, with smaller amounts released out to 24 h. Altering the solubility of the films was accomplished by varying the time that the films were exposed to water vapor. The released IFN-γ or IL-4 induced polarization of THP-1 derived macrophages into the M1 or M2 phenotypes, respectively. The silk biomaterials were able to release enough IFN-γ or IL-4 to repolarize the macrophage from M1 to M2 and vice versa, demonstrating the well-established plasticity of macrophages. High β-sheet content films that are not soluble and do not release the trapped cytokines were also able to polarize macrophages that adhered to the surface through degradation of the silk protein. Chemically conjugating IFN-γ to silk films through disulfide bonds allowed for longer-term release to 10 days. The release of covalently attached IFN-γ from the films was also able to polarize M1 macrophages in vitro. Thus, the strategy described here offers new approaches to utilizing biomaterials for directing the polarization of macrophages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Substance P enhances tissue factor release from granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent macrophages via the p22phox/β-arrestin 2/Rho A signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Rui; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Sakamoto, Arisa; Ishimaru, Yasuji; Narahara, Shinji; Sugiuchi, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2016-03-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induces procoagulant activity of macrophages. Tissue factor (TF) is a membrane-bound glycoprotein and substance P (SP) is a pro-inflammatory neuropeptide involved in the formation of membrane blebs. This study investigated the role of SP in TF release by GM-CSF-dependent macrophages. SP significantly decreased TF levels in whole-cell lysates of GM-CSF-dependent macrophages. TF was detected in the culture supernatant by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after stimulation of macrophages by SP. Aprepitant (an SP/neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist) reduced TF release from macrophages stimulated with SP. Pretreatment of macrophages with a radical scavenger(pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate) also limited the decrease of TF in whole-cell lysates after stimulation with SP. A protein kinase C inhibitor (rottlerin) partially blocked this macrophage response to SP, while it was significantly inhibited by a ROCK inhibitor (Y-27632) or a dynamin inhibitor (dinasore). An Akt inhibitor (perifosine) also partially blocked this response. Furthermore, siRNA targeting p22phox, β-arrestin 2, or Rho A, blunted the release of TF from macrophages stimulated with SP. In other experiments, visceral adipocytes derived from cryopreserved preadipocytes were found to produce SP. In conclusion, SP enhances the release of TF from macrophages via the p22phox/β-arrestin 2/Rho A signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibition of HIV Expression and Integration in Macrophages by Methylglyoxal-Bis-Guanylhydrazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xia; McGrath, Michael S; Xu, Hua

    2015-11-01

    Macrophages are a target for infection with HIV and represent one of the viral reservoirs that are relatively resistant to current antiretroviral drugs. Here we demonstrate that methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone (MGBG), a polyamine analog and potent S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase inhibitor, decreases HIV expression in monocytes and macrophages. MGBG is selectively concentrated by these cells through a mechanism consistent with active transport by the polyamine transporter. Using a macrophage-tropic reporter virus tagged with the enhanced green fluorescent protein, we demonstrate that MGBG decreases the frequency of HIV-infected cells. The effect is dose dependent and correlates with the production of HIV p24 in culture supernatants. This anti-HIV effect was further confirmed using three macrophage-tropic primary HIV isolates. Viral life cycle mapping studies show that MGBG inhibits HIV DNA integration into the cellular DNA in both monocytes and macrophages. Our work demonstrates for the first time the selective concentration of MGBG by monocytes/macrophages, leading to the inhibition of HIV-1 expression and a reduction in proviral load within macrophage cultures. These results suggest that MGBG may be useful in adjunctive macrophage-targeted therapy for HIV infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Cysteamine-mediated clearance of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in human cystic fibrosis macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra L Shrestha

    Full Text Available Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex are virulent, multi-drug resistant pathogens that survive and replicate intracellularly in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. We have discovered that B. cenocepacia cannot be cleared from CF macrophages due to defective autophagy, causing continued systemic inflammation and infection. Defective autophagy in CF is mediated through constitutive reactive oxygen species (ROS activation of transglutaminase-2 (TG2, which causes the sequestration (accumulation of essential autophagy initiating proteins. Cysteamine is a TG2 inhibitor and proteostasis regulator with the potential to restore autophagy. Therefore, we sought to examine the impact of cysteamine on CF macrophage autophagy and bacterial killing. Human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs and alveolar macrophages were isolated from CF and non-CF donors. Macrophages were infected with clinical isolates of relevant CF pathogens. Cysteamine caused direct bacterial growth killing of live B. cenocepacia, B. multivorans, P. aeruginosa and MRSA in the absence of cells. Additionally, B. cenocepacia, B. multivorans, and P. aeruginosa invasion were significantly decreased in CF MDMs treated with cysteamine. Finally, cysteamine decreased TG2, p62, and beclin-1 accumulation in CF, leading to increased Burkholderia uptake into autophagosomes, increased macrophage CFTR expression, and decreased ROS and IL-1β production. Cysteamine has direct anti-bacterial growth killing and improves human CF macrophage autophagy resulting in increased macrophage-mediated bacterial clearance, decreased inflammation, and reduced constitutive ROS production. Thus, cysteamine may be an effective adjunct to antibiotic regimens in CF.

  20. Differential activation of Fyn kinase distinguishes saturated and unsaturated fats in mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabra, Elena; An Lee, Ting-Wen; Zammit, Victor A; Vatish, Manu; Yamada, Eijiro; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Bastie, Claire C

    2017-10-17

    Diet-induced obesity is associated with increased adipose tissue activated macrophages. Yet, how macrophages integrate fatty acid (FA) signals remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that Fyn deficiency ( fynKO ) protects against high fat diet-induced adipose tissue macrophage accumulation. Herein, we show that inflammatory markers and reactive oxygen species are not induced in fynKO bone marrow-derived macrophages exposed to the saturated FA palmitate, suggesting that Fyn regulates macrophage function in response to FA signals. Palmitate activates Fyn and re-localizes Fyn into the nucleus of RAW264.7, J774 and wild-type bone marrow-derived macrophages. Similarly, Fyn activity is increased in cells of adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction of high fat-fed control mice, with Fyn protein being located in the nucleus of these cells. We demonstrate that Fyn modulates palmitate-dependent oxidative stress in macrophages. Moreover, Fyn catalytic activity is necessary for its nuclear re-localization and downstream effects, as Fyn pharmacological inhibition abolishes palmitate-induced Fyn nuclear redistribution and palmitate-dependent increase of oxidative stress markers. Importantly, mono-or polyunsaturated FAs do not activate Fyn, and fail to re-localize Fyn to the nucleus. Together these data demonstrate that macrophages integrate nutritional FA signals via a differential activation of Fyn that distinguishes, at least partly, the effects of saturated versus unsaturated fats.

  1. ACAT1 deletion in murine macrophages associated with cytotoxicity and decreased expression of collagen type 3A1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Annabelle; Ashen, M. Dominique; Chen, Edward S.

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to some published studies of murine macrophages, we previously showed that ACAT inhibitors appeared to be anti-atherogenic in primary human macrophages in that they decreased foam cell formation without inducing cytotoxicity. Herein, we examined foam cell formation and cytotoxicity in murine ACAT1 knockout (KO) macrophages in an attempt to resolve the discrepancies. Elicited peritoneal macrophages from normal C57BL6 and ACAT1 KO mice were incubated with DMEM containing acetylated LDL (acLDL, 100 μg protein/ml) for 48 h. Cells became cholesterol enriched and there were no differences in the total cholesterol mass. Esterified cholesterol mass was lower in ACAT1 KO foam cells compared to normal macrophages (p 14 C]adenine from macrophages, was approximately 2-fold greater in ACAT1 KO macrophages as compared to normal macrophages (p < 0.0001), and this was independent of cholesterol enrichment. cDNA microarray analysis showed that ACAT1 KO macrophages expressed substantially less collagen type 3A1 (26-fold), which was confirmed by RT-PCR. Total collagen content was also significantly reduced (57%) in lung homogenates isolated from ACAT1 KO mice (p < 0.02). Thus, ACAT1 KO macrophages show biochemical changes consistent with increased cytotoxicity and also a novel association with decreased expression of collagen type 3A1

  2. Microbial stasis of Leishmania enriettii in activated guinea pig macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groocock, C.M.; Soulsby, E.J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) from Leishmania-sensitized guinea pigs were cultured in vitro in the presence (activated) or absence (non-activated) of leishmanial antigen for 24 or 48 hours. These were then labelled with 51 Cr and challenged with 125 I-labelled promastigotes. The changing relationship between the macrophage and the parasite was monitored by observing changes in the ratio of the cell-associated isotopes. Highly significant differences in the ratio change developed during culture. These differences were a result of the activated cultures showing a higher release of 51 Cr and a lower release of 125 I when compared with the non-activated cells, at 12 hours the percentage release of 125 I from the parasite within the activated macrophage was fourfold less than that released by parasites within non-activated cells (9.2% versus 38.3%) and tenfold less than that released from glutaraldehyde-killed organisms phagocytosed by activated macrophages (91.6%). These studies indicate that stasis rather than killing of leishmaniae occurs in the activated macrophage in vitro. Parallel experiments evaluated by the visual counting of leishmaniae within the macrophages support these data. PEC from tuberculin-sensitized guinea pigs activated in vitro by purified protein derivative showed little or no activity against leishmaniae, indicating a specific requirement for this microbial stasis by activated macrophages. As a corollary of this, peritoneal exudate lymphocytes separated from the same preparations of PEC were shown to be specifically reactive to leishmanial antigen by transformation and incorporation of 3 H-thymidine. (author)

  3. Macrophage polarization alters the expression and sulfation pattern of glycosaminoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Pierre; Denys, Agnès; Delos, Maxime; Sikora, Anne-Sophie; Carpentier, Mathieu; Julien, Sylvain; Pestel, Joël; Allain, Fabrice

    2015-05-01

    Macrophages are major cells of inflammatory process and take part in a large number of physiological and pathological processes. According to tissue environment, they can polarize into pro-inflammatory (M1) or alternative (M2) cells. Although many evidences have hinted to a potential role of cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the functions of macrophages, the effect of M1 or M2 polarization on the biosynthesis of these polysaccharides has not been investigated so far. GAGs are composed of repeat sulfated disaccharide units. Heparan (HS) and chondroitin/dermatan sulfates (CS/DS) are the major GAGs expressed at the cell membrane. They are involved in numerous biological processes, which rely on their ability to selectively interact with a large panel of proteins. More than 20 genes encoding sulfotransferases have been implicated in HS and CS/DS biosynthesis, and the functional repertoire of HS and CS/DS has been related to the expression of these isoenzymes. In this study, we analyzed the expression of sulfotransferases as a response to macrophage polarization. We found that M1 and M2 activation drastically modified the profiles of expression of numerous HS and CS/DS sulfotransferases. This was accompanied by the expression of GAGs with distinct structural features. We then demonstrated that GAGs of M2 macrophages were efficient to present fibroblast growth factor-2 in an assay of tumor cell proliferation, thus indicating that changes in GAG structure may contribute to the functions of polarized macrophages. Altogether, our findings suggest a regulatory mechanism in which fine modifications in GAG biosynthesis may participate to the plasticity of macrophage functions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Role of Osteal Macrophages in Bone Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wook Cho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages have been shown to have pleiotropic functions in various pathophysiologies, especially in terms of anti-inflammatory and regenerative activity. Recently, the novel functions of bone marrow resident macrophages (called osteal macrophages were intensively studied in bone development, remodeling and tissue repair processes. This review discusses the current evidence for a role of osteal macrophages in bone modeling, remodeling, and fracture healing processes.

  5. Inhibition of 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway Attenuates Acute Liver Failure by Inhibiting Macrophage Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the role of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO in acute liver failure (ALF and changes in macrophage activation by blocking it. ALF was induced in rats by administration of D-galactosamine (D-GalN/lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with AA-861 (a specific 5-LO inhibitor, 24 hr before D-GalN/LPS administration. After D-GalN/LPS injection, the liver tissue was collected for assessment of histology, macrophage microstructure, macrophage counts, 5-LO mRNA formation, protein expression, and concentration of leukotrienes. Serum was collected for detecting alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, total bilirubin (Tbil, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-α. Twenty-four hours after injection, compared with controls, ALF rats were characterized by widespread hepatocyte necrosis and elevated ALT, AST, and Tbil, and 5-LO protein expression reached a peak. Liver leukotriene B4 was also significantly elevated. However, 5-LO mRNA reached a peak 8 hr after D-GalN/LPS injection. Simultaneously, the microstructure of macrophages was changed most significantly and macrophages counts were increased significantly. Moreover, serum TNF-α was also elevated. By contrast, AA-861 pretreatment significantly decreased liver necrosis as well as all of the parameters compared with the rats without pretreatment. Macrophages, via the 5-LO pathway, play a critical role in ALF, and 5-LO inhibitor significantly alleviates ALF, possibly related to macrophage inhibition.

  6. TLR Stimulation Dynamically Regulates Heme and Iron Export Gene Expression in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic bacteria have evolved multiple mechanisms to capture iron or iron-containing heme from host tissues or blood. In response, organisms have developed defense mechanisms to keep iron from pathogens. Very little of the body’s iron store is available as free heme; rather nearly all body iron is complexed with heme or other proteins. The feline leukemia virus, subgroup C (FeLV-C receptor, FLVCR, exports heme from cells. It was unknown whether FLVCR regulates heme-iron availability after infection, but given that other heme regulatory proteins are upregulated in macrophages in response to bacterial infection, we hypothesized that macrophages dynamically regulate FLVCR. We stimulated murine primary macrophages or macrophage cell lines with LPS and found that Flvcr is rapidly downregulated in a TLR4/MD2-dependent manner; TLR1/2 and TLR3 stimulation also decreased Flvcr expression. We identified several candidate TLR-activated transcription factors that can bind to the Flvcr promoter. Macrophages must balance the need to sequester iron from systemic circulating or intracellular pathogens with the macrophage requirement for heme and iron to produce reactive oxygen species. Our findings underscore the complexity of this regulation and point to a new role for FLVCR and heme export in macrophages responses to infection and inflammation.

  7. Inflammation and ER Stress Downregulate BDH2 Expression and Dysregulate Intracellular Iron in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu M. Zughaier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages play a very important role in host defense and in iron homeostasis by engulfing senescent red blood cells and recycling iron. Hepcidin is the master iron regulating hormone that limits dietary iron absorption from the gut and limits iron egress from macrophages. Upon infection macrophages retain iron to limit its bioavailability which limits bacterial growth. Recently, a short chain butyrate dehydrogenase type 2 (BDH2 protein was reported to contain an iron responsive element and to mediate cellular iron trafficking by catalyzing the synthesis of the mammalian siderophore that binds labile iron; therefore, BDH2 plays a crucial role in intracellular iron homeostasis. However, BDH2 expression and regulation in macrophages have not yet been described. Here we show that LPS-induced inflammation combined with ER stress led to massive BDH2 downregulation, increased the expression of ER stress markers, upregulated hepcidin expression, downregulated ferroportin expression, caused iron retention in macrophages, and dysregulated cytokine release from macrophages. We also show that ER stress combined with inflammation synergistically upregulated the expression of the iron carrier protein NGAL and the stress-inducible heme degrading enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 leading to iron liberation. This is the first report to show that inflammation and ER stress downregulate the expression of BDH2 in human THP-1 macrophages.

  8. miR-181a Induces Macrophage Polarized to M2 Phenotype and Promotes M2 Macrophage-mediated Tumor Cell Metastasis by Targeting KLF6 and C/EBPα

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Bi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages can acquire a variety of polarization status and functions: classically activated macrophages (M1 macrophages; alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages. However, the molecular basis of the process is still unclear. Here, this study addresses that microRNA-181a (miR-181a is a key molecule controlling macrophage polarization. We found that miR-181a is overexpressed in M2 macrophages than in M1 macrophages. miR-181a expression was decreased when M2 phenotype converted to M1, whereas it increased when M1 phenotype converted to M2. Overexpression of miR-181a in M1 macrophages diminished M1 phenotype expression while promoting polarization to the M2 phenotype. In contrast, knockdown of miR-181a in M2 macrophages promoted M1 polarization and diminished M2 phenotype expression. Mechanistically, Bioinformatic analysis revealed that Kruppel-like factor 6 (KLF6 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα is a potential target of miR-181a and luciferase assay confirmed that KLF6 and C/EBPα translation is suppressed by miR-181a through interaction with the 3′UTR of KLF6 and C/EBPα mRNA. Further analysis showed that induction of miR-181a suppressed KLF6 and C/EBPα protein expression. Importantly, miR-181a also diminishes M2 macrophages-mediated migration and invasion capacity of tumor cells. Collectively, our results suggest that miR-181a plays a significant role in regulating macrophage polarization through directly target KLF6 and C/EBPα.

  9. HIV-1 and the macrophage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, Sebastiaan M.; Cobos-Jimenez, Viviana; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; van 't Wout, Angelique B.

    2011-01-01

    Macrophages and CD4(+) T cells are natural target cells for HIV-1, and both cell types contribute to the establishment of the viral reservoir that is responsible for continuous residual virus replication during antiretroviral therapy and viral load rebound upon treatment interruption. Scientific

  10. Regulation and control of nitric oxide (NO) in macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacevic, Zaklina; Sahni, Sumit; Lok, K.H.

    2017-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that a novel storage and transport mechanism for nitric oxide (NO) mediated by glutathione-S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1), protects M1-macrophage (M1-MØ) models from large quantities of endogenous NO. This system stores and transp......We recently demonstrated that a novel storage and transport mechanism for nitric oxide (NO) mediated by glutathione-S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1), protects M1-macrophage (M1-MØ) models from large quantities of endogenous NO. This system stores...... be responsible for delivering cytotoxic NO as DNICs via MRP1 from M1-MØs, to tumor cell targets....

  11. Siderocalin inhibits the intracellular replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Erin E; Srikanth, Chittur V; Sandgren, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Siderocalin is a secreted protein that binds to siderophores to prevent bacterial iron acquisition. While it has been shown to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) in extracellular cultures, its effect on this pathogen within macrophages is not clear. Here, we show that sideroc......Siderocalin is a secreted protein that binds to siderophores to prevent bacterial iron acquisition. While it has been shown to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) in extracellular cultures, its effect on this pathogen within macrophages is not clear. Here, we show...... findings are consistent with an important role for siderocalin in protection against M.tb infection and suggest that exogenously administered siderocalin may have therapeutic applications in tuberculosis....

  12. CCR5 Signal Transduction in Macrophages by Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Arthos, James; Rubbert, Andrea; Rabin, Ronald L.; Cicala, Claudia; Machado, Elizabeth; Wildt, Kathryne; Hanbach, Meredith; Steenbeke, Tavis D.; Swofford, Ruth; Farber, Joshua M.; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2000-01-01

    The capacity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) envelopes to transduce signals through chemokine coreceptors on macrophages was examined by measuring the ability of recombinant envelope proteins to mobilize intracellular calcium stores. Both HIV and SIV envelopes mobilized calcium via interactions with CCR5. The kinetics of these responses were similar to those observed when macrophages were treated with MIP-1β. Distinct differences in the capacity o...

  13. Macrophage Interaction with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Yeast Cells Modulates Fungal Metabolism and Generates a Response to Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Alves Parente-Rocha

    Full Text Available Macrophages are key players during Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. However, the relative contribution of the fungal response to counteracting macrophage activity remains poorly understood. In this work, we evaluated the P. brasiliensis proteomic response to macrophage internalization. A total of 308 differentially expressed proteins were detected in P. brasiliensis during infection. The positively regulated proteins included those involved in alternative carbon metabolism, such as enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids catabolism. The down-regulated proteins during P. brasiliensis internalization in macrophages included those related to glycolysis and protein synthesis. Proteins involved in the oxidative stress response in P. brasiliensis yeast cells were also up-regulated during macrophage infection, including superoxide dismutases (SOD, thioredoxins (THX and cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP. Antisense knockdown mutants evaluated the importance of CCP during macrophage infection. The results suggested that CCP is involved in a complex system of protection against oxidative stress and that gene silencing of this component of the antioxidant system diminished the survival of P. brasiliensis in macrophages and in a murine model of infection.

  14. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Distinct Metabolic Differences Between Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) and Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (M-CSF) Grown Macrophages Derived from Murine Bone Marrow Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yi Rang; Hong, Ji Hye; Lee, Min Yong; Jung, Jae Hun; Jung, Daun; Kim, Young Won; Son, Dain; Choi, Murim; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Seok, Seung Hyeok

    2015-10-01

    Macrophages are crucial in controlling infectious agents and tissue homeostasis. Macrophages require a wide range of functional capabilities in order to fulfill distinct roles in our body, one being rapid and robust immune responses. To gain insight into macrophage plasticity and the key regulatory protein networks governing their specific functions, we performed quantitative analyses of the proteome and phosphoproteome of murine primary GM-CSF and M-CSF grown bone marrow derived macrophages (GM-BMMs and M-BMMs, respectively) using the latest isobaric tag based tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Strikingly, metabolic processes emerged as a major difference between these macrophages. Specifically, GM-BMMs show significant enrichment of proteins involving glycolysis, the mevalonate pathway, and nitrogen compound biosynthesis. This evidence of enhanced glycolytic capability in GM-BMMs is particularly significant regarding their pro-inflammatory responses, because increased production of cytokines upon LPS stimulation in GM-BMMs depends on their acute glycolytic capacity. In contrast, M-BMMs up-regulate proteins involved in endocytosis, which correlates with a tendency toward homeostatic functions such as scavenging cellular debris. Together, our data describes a proteomic network that underlies the pro-inflammatory actions of GM-BMMs as well as the homeostatic functions of M-BMMs. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Macrophage reaction against biomaterials in the mouse model - Phenotypes, functions and markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfleisch, R

    2016-10-01

    The foreign body reaction (FBR) is a response of the host tissue against more or less degradation-resistant foreign macromolecular material. The reaction is divided into five different phases which involve most aspects of the innate and the adaptive immune system: protein adsorption, acute and chronic inflammation, foreign body giant cell formation and fibrosis. It is long known, that macrophages play a central role in all of these phases except for protein adsorption. Initially it was believed that the macrophage driven FBR has a complete negative effect on biocompatibility. Recent progress in biomaterial and macrophage research however describe macrophages as more than pure antigen phagocytosing and presenting cells and thus pro-inflammatory cells involved in biomaterial encapsulation and failure. Quite contrary, both, pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, the diverse regulatory M2 macrophage subtypes and even foreign body giant cells (FBGC) are after necessary for integration of non-degradable biomaterials and degradation and replacement of degradable biomaterials. This review gives a comprehensive overview on the taxonomy of the currently known macrophage subtypes. Their diverging functions, metabolism and markers are summarized and the relevance of this more diverse macrophage picture for the design of biomaterials is shortly discussed. The view on role of macrophages in the foreign body reaction against biomaterials is rapidly changing. Despite the initial idea that macrophage are mainly involved in undesired degradation and biomaterial rejection it becomes now clear that they are nevertheless necessary for proper integration of non-degradable biomaterials and degradation of placeholder, degradable biomaterials. As a pathologist I experienced a lack on a good summary on the current taxonomy, functions and phenotypes of macrophages in my recent projects on the biocompatibility of biomaterials in the mouse model. The submitted review therefore intends to gives a

  16. Spliced XBP1 promotes macrophage survival and autophagy by interacting with Beclin-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Ping-Ge [Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515 (China); Jiang, Zhi-Xin [Centre Laboratory, The 305th Hospital of the People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100017 (China); Li, Jian-Hua [Department of Geriatric Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hosptial, Beijing 100853 (China); Zhou, Zhe, E-mail: zhouzhe76@126.com [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Zhang, Qing-Hua, E-mail: 1056055170@qq.com [Department of Cardiology, The 305th Hospital of the People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100017 (China)

    2015-08-07

    Macrophage autophagy plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, but the precise mechanism mediating this process is unclear. The potential role of the X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), a crucial transduction factor that is involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response, in bone marrow-derived macrophage autophagy is unknown. This study mainly explores the roles of XBP1 mRNA splicing in bone marrow-derived macrophage autophagy. The present study shows that the transient overexpression of spliced XBP1 via adenovirus-mediated gene transfer induces autophagy and promotes proliferation in bone marrow-derived macrophages via the down-regulation of Beclin-1, but that the sustained overexpression of spliced XBP1 leads to apoptosis. When XBP1 is down-regulated in bone marrow-derived macrophages using siRNA, rapamycin-induced autophagosome formation is ablated. Furthermore, we have detected the overexpression of XBP1 in areas of atherosclerotic plaques in the arteries of ApoE−/− mice. These results demonstrate that XBP1 mRNA splicing plays an important role in maintaining the function of bone marrow-derived macrophages and provide new insight into the study and treatment of atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • XBP1 was up-regulated in atherosclerotic plaques of ApoE−/− mice. • Transient spliced XBP1 overexpression induced macrophages autophagy via Beclin-1. • Sustained spliced XBP1 overexpression triggered macrophages apoptosis. • Spliced XBP1 plays a key role in maintaining the macrophages survival.

  17. Rac2 controls tumor growth, metastasis and M1-M2 macrophage differentiation in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Joshi

    Full Text Available Although it is well-established that the macrophage M1 to M2 transition plays a role in tumor progression, the molecular basis for this process remains incompletely understood. Herein, we demonstrate that the small GTPase, Rac2 controls macrophage M1 to M2 differentiation and the metastatic phenotype in vivo. Using a genetic approach, combined with syngeneic and orthotopic tumor models we demonstrate that Rac2-/- mice display a marked defect in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Microarray, RT-PCR and metabolomic analysis on bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from the Rac2-/- mice identify an important role for Rac2 in M2 macrophage differentiation. Furthermore, we define a novel molecular mechanism by which signals transmitted from the extracellular matrix via the α4β1 integrin and MCSF receptor lead to the activation of Rac2 and potentially regulate macrophage M2 differentiation. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a macrophage autonomous process by which the Rac2 GTPase is activated downstream of the α4β1 integrin and the MCSF receptor to control tumor growth, metastasis and macrophage differentiation into the M2 phenotype. Finally, using gene expression and metabolomic data from our Rac2-/- model, and information related to M1-M2 macrophage differentiation curated from the literature we executed a systems biologic analysis of hierarchical protein-protein interaction networks in an effort to develop an iterative interactome map which will predict additional mechanisms by which Rac2 may coordinately control macrophage M1 to M2 differentiation and metastasis.

  18. Fenspiride and membrane transduction signals in rat alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Féray, J C; Mohammadi, K; Taouil, K; Brunet, J; Garay, R P; Hannaert, P

    1997-07-15

    Fenspiride inhibits the calcium signal evoked by the inflammatory peptide formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) in peritoneal macrophages, but at concentrations (approximately 1 mM) far above the therapeutic range (approximately 1 microM). Here, in rat alveolar macrophages, high fenspiride concentrations (1 mM) were required to inhibit the calcium signals evoked by the calcium agonist Bay K8644 or by ionomycin. Moreover, fenspiride (1 mM) was a poor inhibitor of the cell membrane depolarization induced by gramicidine D. By contrast, fenspiride blocked Na+-H+ antiport activation by (i) fMLP with an IC50 = 3.1 +/- 1.9 nM and (ii) PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) with an IC50 = 9.2 +/- 3.1 nM. Finally, protein kinase C (PKC) activity of macrophage homogenate was not significantly modified by 10 or 100 microM fenspiride (at 100 microM: 2.57 +/- 1.60 vs. 2.80 +/- 1.71 pmol/10(6) cells/min). In conclusion, fenspiride inhibits fMLP- and PMA-induced pH signals in rat alveolar macrophages, probably by acting distally on the PKC transduction signal. This pH antagonistic action may be relevant for the antiinflammatory mechanism of fenspiride and requires further investigation.

  19. Micro RNA in Exosomes from HIV-Infected Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Roth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are small membrane-bound vesicles secreted by cells that function to shuttle RNA and proteins between cells. To examine the role of exosomal micro RNA (miRNA during the early stage of HIV-1 infection we characterized miRNA in exosomes from HIV-infected macrophages, compared with exosomes from non-infected macrophages. Primary human monocytes from uninfected donors were differentiated to macrophages (MDM which were either mock-infected or infected with the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 BaL strain. Exosomes were recovered from culture media and separated from virus particles by centrifugation on iodixanol density gradients. The low molecular weight RNA fraction was prepared from purified exosomes. After pre-amplification, RNA was hybridized to microarrays containing probes for 1200 miRNA species of known and unknown function. We observed 48 miRNA species in both infected and uninfected MDM exosomes. Additionally, 38 miRNAs were present in infected-cell exosomes but not uninfected-cell exosomes. Of these, 13 miRNAs were upregulated in exosomes from HIV-infected cells, including 4 miRNA species that were increased by more than 10-fold. Though numerous miRNA species have been identified in HIV-infected cells, relatively little is known about miRNA content in exosomes from these cells. In the future, we plan to investigate whether the upregulated miRNA species we identified are increased in exosomes from HIV-1-positive patients.

  20. Visualisation of chicken macrophages using transgenic reporter genes: insights into the development of the avian macrophage lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balic, Adam; Garcia-Morales, Carla; Vervelde, Lonneke; Gilhooley, Hazel; Sherman, Adrian; Garceau, Valerie; Gutowska, Maria W; Burt, David W; Kaiser, Pete; Hume, David A; Sang, Helen M

    2014-08-01

    We have generated the first transgenic chickens in which reporter genes are expressed in a specific immune cell lineage, based upon control elements of the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) locus. The Fms intronic regulatory element (FIRE) within CSF1R is shown to be highly conserved in amniotes and absolutely required for myeloid-restricted expression of fluorescent reporter genes. As in mammals, CSF1R-reporter genes were specifically expressed at high levels in cells of the macrophage lineage and at a much lower level in granulocytes. The cell lineage specificity of reporter gene expression was confirmed by demonstration of coincident expression with the endogenous CSF1R protein. In transgenic birds, expression of the reporter gene provided a defined marker for macrophage-lineage cells, identifying the earliest stages in the yolk sac, throughout embryonic development and in all adult tissues. The reporter genes permit detailed and dynamic visualisation of embryonic chicken macrophages. Chicken embryonic macrophages are not recruited to incisional wounds, but are able to recognise and phagocytose microbial antigens. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. [Macrophage activation in atherosclerosis. Message 1: Activation of macrophages normally and in atherosclerotic lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, N G; Kornienko, V Y; Karagodin, V P; Orekhov, A N

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages play important role in initiation and progression of inflammation in atherosclerosis. Plaque macrophages were shown to exhibit a phenotypic range that is intermediate between two extremes, M1 (proinflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory). Indeed, in atherosclerosis, macrophages demonstrate phenotypic plasticity to rapidly adjust to changing microenvironmental conditions. In plaque macrophages demonstrate different phenotypes, and besides macrophage phenotypes could be changed. Phenotypes M1, M2, M4, Mhem, HA-mac, M(Hb) u Mox are described in the article. Ability of macrophages change their phenotype also considered.

  2. Characteristics and potential role of M2 macrophages in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Shengyang He, Lihua Xie, Junjuan Lu, Shenghua SunDepartment of Respiratory Medicine, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China Background: COPD is a multi-pathogenesis disease mainly caused by smoking. A further understanding of the mechanism of smoking-related COPD might contribute to preventions and treatments of this disease in the early stages. This study was designed to identify the characteristics of M2 macrophages in COPD for a better understanding about their potential role.Materials and methods: COPD models were built in the C57BL/6 mouse by cigarette smoke (CS exposure combined with intraperitoneal injection of cigarette smoke extract (CSE. The modeling efficiency was evaluated by lung function and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. The number of different macrophage phenotypes was detected by immunohistochemical staining (IHS of CD206, CD86 and CD68 on the lung tissue paraffin section. The RAW264.7 cells were polarized toward the M2 phenotype by interleukin IL-4 and confirmed by a flow cytometer. The gene expression levels of TGF-βRII, Smad2, Smad3 and Smad7 in CSE-treated M2 macrophages were detected by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The expression levels of TGF-β/Smad pathway-related makers (TGF-βRII, p-Smad2, p-Smad3, Smad7 and TGF-β in alveolar M2 macrophages were detected by two consecutive paraffin section IHS.Results: The COPD model is well established, which is confirmed by the lung function test and lung H&E staining. The whole number of macrophages and the ratio of M2/M1 phenotype are both increased (p<0.05. The level of CD206+ cells in IL-4-stimulated RAW264.7 cells is up to 93.4%, which is confirmed by a flow cytometer. The gene expression of TGF-βRII, Smad2, Smad3 and Smad7 are all enhanced (p<0.05 in CES-treated M2 macrophages, which is detected by RT-PCR. The protein levels of TGF-β/Smad pathway-related markers are

  3. Enhanced SCAP glycosylation by inflammation induces macrophage foam cell formation.

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    Chao Zhou

    Full Text Available Inflammatory stress promotes foam cell formation by disrupting LDL receptor feedback regulation in macrophages. Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins (SREBPs Cleavage-Activating Protein (SCAP glycosylation plays crucial roles in regulating LDL receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCoAR feedback regulation. The present study was to investigate if inflammatory stress disrupts LDL receptor and HMGCoAR feedback regulation by affecting SCAP glycosylation in THP-1 macrophages. Intracellular cholesterol content was assessed by Oil Red O staining and quantitative assay. The expression of molecules controlling cholesterol homeostasis was examined using real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. The translocation of SCAP from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER to the Golgi was detected by confocal microscopy. We demonstrated that exposure to inflammatory cytokines increased lipid accumulation in THP-1 macrophages, accompanying with an increased SCAP expression even in the presence of a high concentration of LDL. These inflammatory cytokines also prolonged the half-life of SCAP by enhancing glycosylation of SCAP due to the elevated expression of the Golgi mannosidase II. This may enhance translocation and recycling of SCAP between the ER and the Golgi, escorting more SREBP2 from the ER to the Golgi for activation by proteolytic cleavages as evidenced by an increased N-terminal of SREBP2 (active form. As a consequence, the LDL receptor and HMGCoAR expression were up-regulated. Interestingly, these effects could be blocked by inhibitors of Golgi mannosidases. Our results indicated that inflammation increased native LDL uptake and endogenous cholesterol de novo synthesis, thereby causing foam cell formation via increasing transcription and protein glycosylation of SCAP in macrophages. These data imply that inhibitors of Golgi processing enzymes might have a potential vascular-protective role in prevention of atherosclerotic foam

  4. Reactions of macrophages exposed to particles <10 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monn, Christian; Naef, Roland; Koller, Theo

    2003-01-01

    This study describes experiments on cytotoxic effects and the production of oxidative radicals and the proinflammatory cytokine tumor growth factor alpha (TNFα) in a cell line of rat lung macrophages exposed to aqueou extracts from ambient air particles 10 ) collected on Teflon filters. The particles were collected during the four seasons at two urban sites, one rural site, and one alpine site in Switzerland. Cytotoxic effects determined as a reduction in the metabolic activity, were found in particle extracts from all sites and seasons. Taking together the data from all site and seasons, a dose-response function was observed between the particle mass on the filter and toxicity (r 2 =0.633, linear regression). The release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα as well as of oxidative radicals was most pronounced in particles collected in spring-summer and autumn. While a Montana (alpine), the stimulation of the cells was positively correlated with the particle mass on the filters, this correlation was negative at the urban sites Zuerich and Lugano. It is interpreted that at high PM 10 levels, as in these cities, macrophages are inhibited by increasing air pollution due to toxic effects. Cytotoxic effects and the release of oxidative radicals could be inhibited when the extracts were treated with an endotoxin-neutralizing protein. This suggests that endotoxin, a cell-wall constituent of gram-negative bacteria, is one of the factors which modulates macrophag activity. All together, the experiments indicate that in the PM 10 fraction water-soluble macrophage-toxic and macrophage-stimulating compounds ar present. The data offer an explanation for at least some of the known harmful effects of PM 10 , and confirm endotoxin as a possible reactant

  5. Resistance-associated polymorphisms in Dutch hepatitis C genotype 1a patients with and without HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieveld, Faydra I.; Swaans, Niels; Newsum, Astrid M.; Ho, Cynthia K. Y.; Schinkel, Janke; Molenkamp, Richard; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Arends, Joop E.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; Wensing, Anne M. J.; Siersema, Peter D.; van Erpecum, Karel J.; Boland, Greet J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim. Resistance-associated variants (RAVs) on the NS3 region of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) may be relevant for antiviral therapy, but data in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfected patients are scarce. We assessed frequencies of NS3 RAVs in patients infected with HCV genotype

  6. ISG15 governs mitochondrial function in macrophages following vaccinia virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Baldanta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The interferon (IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15 encodes one of the most abundant proteins induced by interferon, and its expression is associated with antiviral immunity. To identify protein components implicated in IFN and ISG15 signaling, we compared the proteomes of ISG15-/- and ISG15+/+ bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM after vaccinia virus (VACV infection. The results of this analysis revealed that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS were pathways altered in ISG15-/- BMDM treated with IFN. Mitochondrial respiration, Adenosine triphosphate (ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS production was higher in ISG15+/+ BMDM than in ISG15-/- BMDM following IFN treatment, indicating the involvement of ISG15-dependent mechanisms. An additional consequence of ISG15 depletion was a significant change in macrophage polarization. Although infected ISG15-/- macrophages showed a robust proinflammatory cytokine expression pattern typical of an M1 phenotype, a clear blockade of nitric oxide (NO production and arginase-1 activation was detected. Accordingly, following IFN treatment, NO release was higher in ISG15+/+ macrophages than in ISG15-/- macrophages concomitant with a decrease in viral titer. Thus, ISG15-/- macrophages were permissive for VACV replication following IFN treatment. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that ISG15 governs the dynamic functionality of mitochondria, specifically, OXPHOS and mitophagy, broadening its physiological role as an antiviral agent.

  7. Monocytes/Macrophages Control Resolution of Transient Inflammatory Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemen, Hanneke L. D. M.; Eijkelkamp, Niels; Carbajal, Anibal Garza; Wang, Huijing; Mack, Matthias; Zijlstra, Jitske; Heijnen, Cobi J.; Kavelaars, Annemieke

    2014-01-01

    Insights into mechanisms governing resolution of inflammatory pain are of great importance for many chronic pain–associated diseases. Here we investigate the role of macrophages/monocytes and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the resolution of transient inflammatory pain. Depletion of mice from peripheral monocytes/macrophages delayed resolution of intraplantar IL-1β- and carrageenan-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia from 1 to 3 days to >1 week. Intrathecal administration of a neutralizing IL-10 antibody also markedly delayed resolution of IL-1β- and carrageenan-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia. Recently, we showed that IL-1β- and carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia is significantly prolonged in LysM-GRK2+/− mice, which have reduced levels of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) in LysM+ myeloid cells. Here we show that adoptive transfer of wild-type, but not of GRK2+/−, bone marrow-derived monocytes normalizes the resolution of IL-1β-induced hyperalgesia in LysM-GRK2+/− mice. Adoptive transfer of IL-10−/− bone marrow-derived monocytes failed to normalize the duration of IL-1β-induced hyperalgesia in LysM-GRK2+/− mice. Mechanistically, we show that GRK2+/− macrophages produce less IL-10 in vitro. In addition, intrathecal IL-10 administration attenuated IL-1β-induced hyperalgesia in LysM-GRK2+/− mice, whereas it had no effect in wild-type mice. Our data uncover a key role for monocytes/macrophages in promoting resolution of inflammatory hyperalgesia via a mechanism dependent on IL-10 signaling in dorsal root ganglia. Perspective We show that IL-10-producing monocytes/macrophages promote resolution of transient inflammatory hyperalgesia. Additionally, we show that reduced monocyte/macrophage GRK2 impairs resolution of hyperalgesia and reduces IL-10 production. We propose that low GRK2 expression and/or impaired IL-10 production by monocytes/macrophages represent peripheral biomarkers for the risk of developing

  8. Oral Colostrum Macrophage-activating Factor for Serious Infection and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Three Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Toshio; Kubo, Kentaro; Kuchiike, Daisuke; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nishikata, Takahito; Sakamoto, Norihiro; Mette, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) immunotherapy has been steadily advancing over the last two decades. Oral colostrum macrophage-activating factor (MAF) produced from bovine colostrum has shown high macrophage phagocytic activity. GcMAF-based immunotherapy has a wide application for use in treating many diseases via macrophage activation or for use as supportive therapy. Three case studies demonstrate that oral colostrum MAF can be used for serious infection and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) without adverse effects. We demonstrate that colostrum MAF shows promising clinical results in patients with infectious diseases and for symptoms of fatigue, which is common in many chronic diseases. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. Purple perilla extracts allay ER stress in lipid-laden macrophages.

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    Sin-Hye Park

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence that excess lipids, hypoxic stress and other inflammatory signals can stimulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress in metabolic diseases. However, the pathophysiological importance and the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon remain unknown. The current study investigated that 50 ng/ml oxidized LDL promoted unfolded protein response (UPR and ER stress in J774A1 murine macrophages, which was blocked by extracts (PPE of purple Perilla frutescens, a plant of the mint family Lamiaceae. The ER stressor tunicamycin was employed as a positive control. Treating 1-10 µg/ml oxidized LDL for 24 h elicited lipotoxic apoptosis in macrophages with obvious nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation, which was inhibited by PPE. Tunicamycin and oxidized LDL activated and induced the UPR components of activating transcription factor 6 and ER resident chaperone BiP/Grp78 in temporal manners and such effects were blocked by ≥5 µg/ml PPE. In addition, PPE suppressed the enhanced mRNA transcription and splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1 by tunicamycin and oxidized LDL. The protein induction and nuclear translocation of XBP1 were deterred in PPE-treated macrophages under ER stress. The induction of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1, scavenger receptor-B1 (SR-B1 and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 was abolished by the ER stressor in activated macrophages. The protein induction of ABCA1 and ICAM1 but not SR-B1 was retrieved by adding 10 µg/ml PPE to cells. These results demonstrate that PPE inhibited lipotoxic apoptosis and demoted the induction and activation of UPR components in macrophages. PPE restored normal proteostasis in activated macrophages oxidized LDL. Therefore, PPE was a potent agent antagonizing macrophage ER stress due to lipotoxic signals associated with atherosclerosis.

  10. Viral infection of human lung macrophages increases PDL1 expression via IFNβ.

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    Karl J Staples

    Full Text Available Lung macrophages are an important defence against respiratory viral infection and recent work has demonstrated that influenza-induced macrophage PDL1 expression in the murine lung leads to rapid modulation of CD8+ T cell responses via the PD1 receptor. This PD1/PDL1 pathway may downregulate acute inflammatory responses to prevent tissue damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of PDL1 regulation by human macrophages in response to viral infection. Ex-vivo viral infection models using influenza and RSV were established in human lung explants, isolated lung macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM and analysed by flow cytometry and RT-PCR. Incubation of lung explants, lung macrophages and MDM with X31 resulted in mean cellular infection rates of 18%, 18% and 29% respectively. Viral infection significantly increased cell surface expression of PDL1 on explant macrophages, lung macrophages and MDM but not explant epithelial cells. Infected MDM induced IFNγ release from autologous CD8+ T cells, an effect enhanced by PDL1 blockade. We observed increases in PDL1 mRNA and IFNβ mRNA and protein release by MDM in response to influenza infection. Knockdown of IFNβ by siRNA, resulted in a 37.5% reduction in IFNβ gene expression in response to infection, and a significant decrease in PDL1 mRNA. Furthermore, when MDM were incubated with IFNβ, this cytokine caused increased expression of PDL1 mRNA. These data indicate that human macrophage PDL1 expression modulates CD8+ cell IFNγ release in response to virus and that this expression is regulated by autologous IFNβ production.

  11. Toll-like receptor 4-positive macrophages protect mice from Pasteurella pneumotropica-induced pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Marcia L.; Mosier, Derek A.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-positive macrophages in early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacteria. TLR4 is a trans-membrane receptor that is the primary recognition molecule for lipopolysaccharide of gram-negative bacteria. The TLR4(Lps-del) mouse strains C57BL10/ScN (B10) and STOCK Abb(tm1) TLR4(Lps-del) Slc11a1(s)(B10 x C2D) are susceptible to pulmonary infections and develop pneumonia when naturally or experimentally infected by the opportunistic bacterium Pasteurella pneumotropica. Since these mice have the TLR4(Lps-del) genotype, we hypothesized that reconstitution of mice with TLR4-positive macrophages would provide resistance to this bacterium. A cultured macrophage cell line (C2D macrophages) and bone marrow cells from C2D mice were adoptively transferred to B10 and B10 x C2D mice by intraperitoneal injection. C2D macrophages increased B10 and B10 x C2D mouse resistance to P. pneumotropica. In C2D-recipient mice there was earlier transcription of tumor necrosis factor alpha and chemokines JE and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) in the lungs of B10 and B10 x C2D mice, and there was earlier transcription of KC and MIP-1alpha in B10 x C2D mice. In addition, the course of inflammation following experimental Pasteurella challenge was altered in C2D recipients. C2D macrophages also protected B10 x C2D mice, which lack CD4(+) T cells. These data indicate that macrophages are critical for pulmonary immunity and can provide host resistance to P. pneumotropica. This study indicates that TLR4-positive macrophages are important for early recognition and clearance of pulmonary bacterial infections.

  12. Dexamethasone palmitate ameliorates macrophages-rich graft-versus-host disease by inhibiting macrophage functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Satoshi; Nakayama, Takayuki; Murata, Makoto; Nishida, Tetsuya; Terakura, Seitaro; Saito, Shigeki; Kato, Tomonori; Mizuno, Hiroki; Imahashi, Nobuhiko; Seto, Aika; Ozawa, Yukiyasu; Miyamura, Koichi; Ito, Masafumi; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Kato, Hidefumi; Toyokuni, Shinya; Nagao, Keisuke; Ueda, Ryuzo; Naoe, Tomoki

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage infiltration of skin GVHD lesions correlates directly with disease severity, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear and GVHD with many macrophages is a therapeutic challenge. Here, we characterize the macrophages involved in GVHD and report that dexamethasone palmitate (DP), a liposteroid, can ameliorate such GVHD by inhibiting macrophage functions. We found that host-derived macrophages could exacerbate GVHD in a mouse model through expression of higher levels of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IFN-γ, and lower levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 than resident macrophages in mice without GVHD. DP significantly decreased the viability and migration capacity of primary mouse macrophages compared to conventional dexamethasone in vitro. DP treatment on day 7 and day 14 decreased macrophage number, and attenuated GVHD score and subsequent mortality in a murine model. This is the first study to provide evidence that therapy for GVHD should be changed on the basis of infiltrating cell type.

  13. DMPD: Macrophage differentiation and function in health and disease. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in health and disease. PubmedID 18251777 Title Macrophage differentiation and function in health and disease...thol Int. 2008 Mar;58(3):143-55. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Macrophage differentiation and function

  14. Prevalence of NS5B resistance-associated variants in treatment-naïve Asian patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song; Xing, Huichun; Feng, Shenghu; Ju, Wei; Liu, Shunai; Wang, Xiaomei; Ou, Weini; Cheng, Jun; Pan, Calvin Q

    2018-02-01

    There is little information on the association between baseline non-structural protein (NS) 5b resistance-associated variants (RAVs) and treatment failure in hepatitis C patients. This study examined the frequencies of natural hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B resistance-associated variants (RAVs) in an Asian cohort. Samples from Asian HCV patients enrolled between October 2009 and September 2014 were analyzed for NS5B RAVs within the region from amino acid 230 to 371. Serum samples were tested by PCR genotyping, with sequence alignment performed using the neighbor-joining method. NS5B was detected by Sanger sequencing followed by Geno2pheno analysis. NS5B RAVs were detected in 80.52% (1199/1489) of patients; 68.4% (1019/1489) and 79.7% (1186/1489) were associated with resistance to sofosbuvir (SOF) and dasabuvir (DSV), respectively. These RAVs were present in 95% (1004/1058) of genotype 1b patients. When genotypes 1b and 2a were compared, SOF-associated RAVs were detected at a higher frequency in genotype 1b (94.8% [1004/1058] vs. 2.9% [9/309]; χ 2 = 1054.433, P C316H/N was more common in genotype 1b (94.7% [1002/1058] vs. 0% [0/309]; χ 2 = 1096.014, P C316Y/H/N/W was higher in genotype 1b (94.7% [1002/1058] vs. 0% [0/309]; χ 2 = 1096.014, P < 0.001). In conclusion, baseline SOF and DSV RAVs are common in Asian HCV patients and predominantly occur in genotype 1b.

  15. Mesenchymal stem cell-educated macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Eggenhofer Elke; Hoogduijn Martin J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) mediate their immunosuppressive effects via a variety of mechanisms. One of these mechanisms involves the induction of macrophages with immunomodulatory capacities. This effect of MSC may be exploited when MSC are used as a cell therapeutic product. Furthermore, MSC are resident in tissues where they may locally target infiltrating macrophages to adapt more regulatory properties. The present review discusses the interaction between MSC and macrophages, th...

  16. Notch signaling regulates expression of Mcl-1 and apoptosis in PPD-treated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaga, Tanapat; Ratanabunyong, Siriluk; Pattarakankul, Thitiporn; Sangphech, Naunpun; Wongchana, Wipawee; Hadae, Yukihiro; Kueanjinda, Patipark

    2013-09-01

    Macrophages are cellular targets for infection by bacteria and viruses. The fate of infected macrophages plays a key role in determining the outcome of the host immune response. Apoptotic cell death of macrophages is considered to be a protective host defense that eliminates pathogens and infected cells. In this study, we investigated the involvement of Notch signaling in regulating apoptosis in macrophages treated with tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD). Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) treated with PPD or infected with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) induced upregulation of Notch1. This upregulation correlated well with the upregulation of the anti-apoptotic gene mcl-1 both at the transcriptional and translational levels. Decreased levels of Notch1 and Mcl-1 were observed in BMM treated with PPD when a gamma secretase inhibitor (GSI), which inhibits the processing of Notch receptors, was used. Moreover, silencing Notch1 in the macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 decreased Mcl-1 protein expression, suggesting that Notch1 is critical for Mcl-1 expression in macrophages. A significant increase in apoptotic cells was observed upon treatment of BMM with PPD in the presence of GSI compared to the vehicle-control treated cells. Finally, analysis of the mcl-1 promoter in humans and mice revealed a conserved potential CSL/RBP-Jκ binding site. The association of Notch1 with the mcl-1 promoter was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Taken together, these results indicate that Notch1 inhibits apoptosis of macrophages stimulated with PPD by directly controlling the mcl-1 promoter.

  17. Drug resistance associated genetic polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax collected in Honduras, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovel, Irina T; Mejía, Rosa E; Banegas, Engels; Piedade, Rita; Alger, Jackeline; Fontecha, Gustavo; Ferreira, Pedro E; Veiga, Maria I; Enamorado, Irma G; Bjorkman, Anders; Ursing, Johan

    2011-12-19

    In Honduras, chloroquine and primaquine are recommended and still appear to be effective for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of resistance associated genetic polymorphisms in P. falciparum and P. vivax collected in Honduras. Blood samples were collected from patients seeking medical attention at the Hospital Escuela in Tegucigalpa from 2004 to 2006 as well as three regional hospitals, two health centres and one regional laboratory during 2009. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt), multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1), dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps) genes and in P. vivax multidrug resistance 1 (pvmdr1) and dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) genes were detected using PCR based methods. Thirty seven P. falciparum and 64 P. vivax samples were collected. All P. falciparum infections acquired in Honduras carried pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhps and pfdhfr alleles associated with chloroquine, amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine sensitivity only. One patient with parasites acquired on a Pacific Island had pfcrt 76 T and pfmdr1 86Y alleles. That patient and a patient infected in West Africa had pfdhfr 51I, 59 R and 108 N alleles. Pvmdr1 976 F was found in 7/37 and two copies of pvmdr1 were found in 1/37 samples. Pvdhfr 57 L + 58 R was observed in 2/57 samples. The results indicate that P. falciparum from Honduras remain sensitive to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. This suggests that chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine should be efficacious for treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, supporting current national treatment guidelines. However, genetic polymorphisms associated with chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine tolerance were detected in local P. vivax and imported P. falciparum infections. Continuous monitoring of the prevalence of drug resistant/tolerant P

  18. Macrophage antioxidant protection within atherosclerotic plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieseg, Steven P; Leake, David S; Flavall, Elizabeth M; Amit, Zunika; Reid, Linzi; Yang, Ya-Ting

    2009-01-01

    Macrophage cells within inflammatory lesions are exposed to a wide range of degrading and cytotoxic molecules including reactive oxygen species. Unlike neutrophils, macrophages do not normally die in this environment but continue to generate oxidants, phagocytose cellular remains, and release a range of cyto-active agents which modulate the immune response. It is this potential of the macrophage cell to survive in an oxidative environment that allows the growth and complexity of advanced atherosclerotic plaques. This review will examine the oxidants encountered by macrophages within an atherosclerotic plaque and describe some of the potential antioxidant mechanisms which enable macrophages to function within inflammatory lesions. Ascorbate, a-tocopherol, and glutathione appear to be central to the protection of macrophages yet additional antioxidant mechanisms appear to be involved. Gamma-Interferon causes macrophages to generate 7,8-dihydroneopterin, neopterin and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid both of which have antioxidant properties. Manganese superoxide dismutase is also upregulated in macrophages. The evidence that these antioxidants provide further protection, so allowing the macrophage cells to survive within sites of chronic inflammation such as atherosclerotic plaques, will be described.

  19. MONOCYTES AND MACROPHAGES IN PREGNANCY AND PREECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke M Faas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is an important complication in pregnancy, characterized byhypertension and proteinuria in the second half of pregnancy. Generalizedactivation of the inflammatory response is thought to play a role in thepathogenesis of preeclampsia. Monocytes may play a central role in thisinflammatory response. Monocytes are short lived cells, that mature in thecirculation and invade into tissues upon an inflammatory stimulus anddevelop into macrophages. Macrophages are abundantly present in theendometrium and play a role in implantation and placentation in normalpregnancy. In preeclampsia, these macrophages appear to be present in largernumbers and are also activated. In the present review we focused on the roleof monocytes and macrophages in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia.

  20. Macrophage Plasticity in Skeletal Muscle Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rigamonti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are one of the first barriers of host defence against pathogens. Beyond their role in innate immunity, macrophages play increasingly defined roles in orchestrating the healing of various injured tissues. Perturbations of macrophage function and/or activation may result in impaired regeneration and fibrosis deposition as described in several chronic pathological diseases. Heterogeneity and plasticity have been demonstrated to be hallmarks of macrophages. In response to environmental cues they display a proinflammatory (M1 or an alternative anti-inflammatory (M2 phenotype. A lot of evidence demonstrated that after acute injury M1 macrophages infiltrate early to promote the clearance of necrotic debris, whereas M2 macrophages appear later to sustain tissue healing. Whether the sequential presence of two different macrophage populations results from a dynamic shift in macrophage polarization or from the recruitment of new circulating monocytes is a subject of ongoing debate. In this paper, we discuss the current available information about the role that different phenotypes of macrophages plays after injury and during the remodelling phase in different tissue types, with particular attention to the skeletal muscle.

  1. Integrin-directed modulation of macrophage responses to biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveri, Toral D; Lewis, Jamal S; Dolgova, Natalia V; Clare-Salzler, Michael J; Keselowsky, Benjamin G

    2014-04-01

    Macrophages are the primary mediator of chronic inflammatory responses to implanted biomaterials, in cases when the material is either in particulate or bulk form. Chronic inflammation limits the performance and functional life of numerous implanted medical devices, and modulating macrophage interactions with biomaterials to mitigate this response would be beneficial. The integrin family of cell surface receptors mediates cell adhesion through binding to adhesive proteins nonspecifically adsorbed onto biomaterial surfaces. In this work, the roles of integrin Mac-1 (αMβ2) and RGD-binding integrins were investigated using model systems for both particulate and bulk biomaterials. Specifically, the macrophage functions of phagocytosis and inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to a model particulate material, polystyrene microparticles were investigated. Opsonizing proteins modulated microparticle uptake, and integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins were found to control microparticle uptake in an opsonin-dependent manner. The presence of adsorbed endotoxin did not affect microparticle uptake levels, but was required for the production of inflammatory cytokines in response to microparticles. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins influence the in vivo foreign body response to a bulk biomaterial, subcutaneously implanted polyethylene terephthalate. A thinner foreign body capsule was formed when integrin Mac-1 was absent (~30% thinner) or when RGD-binding integrins were blocked by controlled release of a blocking peptide (~45% thinner). These findings indicate integrin Mac-1 and RGD-binding integrins are involved and may serve as therapeutic targets to mitigate macrophage inflammatory responses to both particulate and bulk biomaterials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. DMPD: Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17056121 Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. Hasko ...tml) (.csml) Show Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. PubmedID 17056121 Titl...e Shaping of monocyte and macrophage function by adenosine receptors. Authors Has

  3. DMPD: Macrophage activation by endogenous danger signals. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18161744 Macrophage activation by endogenous danger signals. Zhang X, Mosser DM. J ...Pathol. 2008 Jan;214(2):161-78. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Macrophage activation by endogenous dange...r signals. PubmedID 18161744 Title Macrophage activation by endogenous danger signals. Authors Zhang X, Moss

  4. DMPD: Regulation of endogenous apolipoprotein E secretion by macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18388328 Regulation of endogenous apolipoprotein E secretion by macrophages. Kockx ...svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Regulation of endogenous apolipoprotein E secretion by macrophages. PubmedID 18388...328 Title Regulation of endogenous apolipoprotein E secretion by macrophages. Aut

  5. DMPD: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor and host innate immune responses tomicrobes. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14620137 Macrophage migration inhibitory factor and host innate immune responses to...microbes. Calandra T. Scand J Infect Dis. 2003;35(9):573-6. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Macrophage migration... inhibitory factor and host innate immune responses tomicrobes. PubmedID 14620137 Title Macrophage migration

  6. DMPD: Cellular signaling in macrophage migration and chemotaxis. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11073096 Cellular signaling in macrophage migration and chemotaxis. Jones GE. J Leu...koc Biol. 2000 Nov;68(5):593-602. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Cellular signaling in macrophage migration... and chemotaxis. PubmedID 11073096 Title Cellular signaling in macrophage migration and chemotaxis. Autho

  7. DMPD: Monocyte/macrophage traffic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12960230 Monocyte/macrophage traffic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. Kim WK, Corey S, ...Alvarez X, Williams K. J Leukoc Biol. 2003 Nov;74(5):650-6. Epub 2003 Aug 11. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Monocyte/macrophage... traffic in HIV and SIV encephalitis. PubmedID 12960230 Title Monocyte/macrophage tr

  8. DMPD: CSF-1 and cell cycle control in macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8981359 CSF-1 and cell cycle control in macrophages. Hamilton JA. Mol Reprod Dev. 1...997 Jan;46(1):19-23. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show CSF-1 and cell cycle control in macrophages. PubmedI...D 8981359 Title CSF-1 and cell cycle control in macrophages. Authors Hamilton JA. Publication Mol Reprod Dev

  9. DMPD: Silica binding and toxicity in alveolar macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18226603 Silica binding and toxicity in alveolar macrophages. Hamilton RF Jr, Thaku...l) Show Silica binding and toxicity in alveolar macrophages. PubmedID 18226603 Title Silica binding and toxicity in alveolar macropha...ges. Authors Hamilton RF Jr, Thakur SA, Holian A. Public

  10. DMPD: Iron regulation of hepatic macrophage TNFalpha expression. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11841920 Iron regulation of hepatic macrophage TNFalpha expression. Tsukamoto H. Fr...ee Radic Biol Med. 2002 Feb 15;32(4):309-13. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Iron regulation of hepatic macrophage... TNFalpha expression. PubmedID 11841920 Title Iron regulation of hepatic macrophage TNFalpha expres

  11. Degalactosylated/desialylated human serum containing GcMAF induces macrophage phagocytic activity and in vivo antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchiike, Daisuke; Uto, Yoshihiro; Mukai, Hirotaka; Ishiyama, Noriko; Abe, Chiaki; Tanaka, Daichi; Kawai, Tomohito; Kubo, Kentaro; Mette, Martin; Inui, Toshio; Endo, Yoshio; Hori, Hitoshi

    2013-07-01

    The group-specific component protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) has various biological activities, such as macrophage activation and antitumor activity. Clinical trials of GcMAF have been carried out for metastatic breast cancer, prostate cancer, and metastatic colorectal cancer. In this study, despite the complicated purification process of GcMAF, we used enzymatically-treated human serum containing GcMAF with a considerable macrophage-stimulating activity and antitumor activity. We detected GcMAF in degalactosylated/desialylated human serum by western blotting using an anti-human Gc globulin antibody, and Helix pomatia agglutinin lectin. We also found that GcMAF-containing human serum significantly enhanced the phagocytic activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages and extended the survival time of mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumors. We demonstrated that GcMAF-containing human serum can be used as a potential macrophage activator for cancer immunotherapy.

  12. Transport of the coumarin metabolite 7-hydroxycoumarin glucuronide is mediated via multidrug resistance-associated proteins 3 and 4.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittgen, H.G.M.; Heuvel, J.J.M.W. van den; Broek, P.H.H. van den; Siissalo, S.; Groothuis, G.M.; Graaf, I.A. de; Koenderink, J.B.; Russel, F.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Coumarin (1,2-benzopyrone) is a natural compound that has been used as a fragrance in the food and perfume industry and could have therapeutic usefulness in the treatment of lymphedema and different types of cancer. Several previous pharmacokinetic studies of coumarin have been performed in humans,

  13. Transport of the Coumarin Metabolite 7-Hydroxycoumarin Glucuronide Is Mediated via Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins 3 and 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittgen, Hanneke G. M.; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J. M. W.; van den Broek, Petra H. H.; Siissalo, Sanna; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Koenderink, Jan B.; Russel, Frans G. M.

    Coumarin (1,2-benzopyrone) is a natural compound that has been used as a fragrance in the food and perfume industry and could have therapeutic usefulness in the treatment of lymphedema and different types of cancer. Several previous pharmacokinetic studies of coumarin have been performed in humans,

  14. Use of peptide antibodies to probe for the mitoxantrone resistance-associated protein MXR/BCRP/ABCP/ABCG2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litman, Thomas; Jensen, Ulla; Hansen, Alastair

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have characterized the ABC half-transporter associated with mitoxantrone resistance in human cancer cell lines. Encoded by the ABCG2 gene, overexpression confers resistance to camptothecins, as well as to mitoxantrone. We developed four polyclonal antibodies against peptides corres...

  15. Effects of as-cast and wrought Cobalt-Chrome-Molybdenum and Titanium-Aluminium-Vanadium alloys on cytokine gene expression and protein secretion in J774A.1 macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Larsen, Agnete; Stoltenberg, Meredin

    2007-01-01

    to the metal implant and wear-products. The aim of the present study was to compare surfaces of as-cast and wrought Cobalt-Chrome-Molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys and Titanium-Aluminium-Vanadium (TiAlV) alloy when incubated with mouse macrophage J774A.1 cell cultures. Changes in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines...... transcription, the chemokine MCP-1 secretion, and M-CSF secretion by 77%, 36%, and 62%, respectively. Furthermore, we found that reducing surface roughness did not affect this reduction. The results suggest that as-cast CoCrMo alloy is more inert than wrought CoCrMo and wrought TiAlV alloys and could prove...... the cell viability. Surface properties of the discs were characterised with a profilometer and with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We here report, for the first time, that the prosthetic material surface (non-phagocytable) of as-cast high carbon CoCrMo reduces the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6...

  16. Structures of class A macrophage scavenger receptors. Electron microscopic study of flexible, multidomain, fibrous proteins and determination of the disulfide bond pattern of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, D; Chatterton, J E; Schwartz, K; Slayter, H; Krieger, M

    1996-10-25

    Structures of secreted forms of the human type I and II class A macrophage scavenger receptors were studied using biochemical and biophysical methods. Proteolytic analysis was used to determine the intramolecular disulfide bonds in the type I-specific scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain: Cys2-Cys7, Cys3-Cys8, and Cys5-Cys6. This pattern is likely to be shared by the highly homologous domains in the many other members of the SRCR domain superfamily. Electron microscopy using rotary shadowing and negative staining showed that the type I and II receptors are extended molecules whose contour lengths are approximately 440 A. They comprised two adjacent fibrous segments, an alpha-helical coiled-coil ( approximately 230 A, including a contribution from the N-terminal spacer domain) and a collagenous triple helix ( approximately 210 A). The type I molecules also contained a C-terminal globular structure ( approximately 58 x 76 A) composed of three SRCR domains. The fibrous domains were joined by an extremely flexible hinge. The angle between these domains varied from 0 to 180 degrees and depended on the conditions of sample preparation. Unexpectedly, at physiologic pH, the prevalent angle seen using rotary shadowing was 0 degrees , resulting in a structure that is significantly more compact than previously suggested. The apparent juxtaposition of the fibrous domains at neutral pH provides a framework for future structure-function studies of these unusual multiligand receptors.

  17. Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus dysregulates the expression of cytokines in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, F; Machado, J; Bertoni, G; Seow, H F; Dobbelaere, D A; Peterhans, E

    1997-01-01

    Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a lentivirus of goats that leads to chronic mononuclear infiltration of various tissues, in particular, the radiocarpal joints. Cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage are the major host cells of CAEV in vivo. We have shown that infection of cultured goat macrophages with CAEV results in an alteration of cytokine expression in vitro. Constitutive expression of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) was increased in infected macrophages, whereas transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA was down-regulated. When macrophages were infected with a CAEV clone lacking the trans-acting nuclear regulatory gene tat, IL-8 and MCP-1 were also increased. No significant differences from cells infected with the wild-type clone were observed, suggesting that Tat is not required for the increased expression of IL-8 and MCP-1 in infected macrophages. Furthermore, infection with CAEV led to an altered pattern of cytokine expression in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes plus gamma interferon, or fixed cells of Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I. In infected macrophages, tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 mRNA expression was reduced in response to all stimuli tested whereas changes in expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor depended on the stimulating agent. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that, in contrast to effects of human immunodeficiency virus infection of macrophages, CAEV infection had no effect on the level of constitutive nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity or on the level of LPS-stimulated NF-kappaB activity, suggesting that NF-kappaB is not involved in altered regulation of cytokine expression in CAEV-infected cells. In contrast, activator protein 1 (AP-1) binding activity was decreased in infected macrophages. These data show that CAEV infection may result in a dysregulation of

  18. Macrophage phenotypic subtypes diametrically regulate epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min; Ma, Bo; Shao, Hanshuang; Clark, Amanda M.; Wells, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic progression of breast cancer involves phenotypic p