WorldWideScience

Sample records for resistance training produced

  1. Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine produces enhanced anaerobic work capacity with reduced lactate accumulation in resistance trained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orem Ihsan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has indicated that short term administration of glycine propionyl-L-carnitine (GPLC significantly elevates levels of nitric oxide metabolites at rest and in response to reactive hyperaemia. However, no scientific evidence exists that suggests such supplementation enhances exercise performance in healthy, trained individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of GPLC on the performance of repeated high intensity stationary cycle sprints with limited recovery periods in resistance trained male subjects. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, twenty-four male resistance trained subjects (25.2 ± 3.6 years participated in two test sessions separated by one week. Testing was performed 90 minutes following oral ingestion of either 4.5 grams GPLC or 4.5 grams cellulose (PL, in randomized order. The exercise testing protocol consisted of five 10-second Wingate cycle sprints separated by 1-minute active recovery periods. Peak (PP and mean values (MP of sprint power output and percent decrement of power (DEC were determined per bout and standardized relative to body masss. Heart rate (HR and blood lactate (LAC were measured prior to, during and following the five sprint bouts. Results Significant main effects (p Conclusion These findings indicate that short-term oral supplementation of GPLC can enhance peak power production in resistance trained males with significantly less LAC accumulation.

  2. Use of anabolic androgenic steroids produces greater oxidative stress responses to resistance exercise in strength-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, Hamid; Mohammadjafari, Heidar; Asadi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) use on oxidative stress responses to a single session of resistance exercise in strength-trained men. Twenty-three strength trained men, with 11 self-reporting regular AAS use and 12 self-reporting never taking AAS (NAAS) volunteered to participate in this study. Blood draws were obtained pre and post resistance exercise in order to evaluate changes in oxidative stress biomarkers levels (i.e., 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG], malondialdehyde [MDA], and nitric oxide [NO]), antioxidant defense systems (i.e., glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and catalase [CAT]), and glucose (GLU) levels. The AAS users had higher level of 8-OHdG (77.3 ± 17 vs. 57.7 ± 18.2 ng/mg), MDA (85.6 ± 17.8 vs. 52.3 ± 15.1 ng/mL), and GPx (9.1 ± 2.3 vs. 7.1 ± 1.3 mu/mL) compared to NAAS at pre exercise (p < 0.05). Both the experimental groups showed increases in 8-OHdG (p = 0.001), MDA (p = 0.001), GPx (p = 0.001), NO (p = 0.04), CAT (p = 0.02) and GLU (p = 0.001) concentrations after resistance exercise, and the AAS group indicated significant differences in 8-OHdG (p = 0.02) and MDA (p = 0.05) concentrations compared with NAAS users at post exercise. In conclusion, use of AAS is associated with alterations in immune function resulting in oxidative stress, and cell damage; however, high-intensity resistance exercise could increase greater oxidative stress biomarkers in strength-trained men.

  3. Use of anabolic androgenic steroids produces greater oxidative stress responses to resistance exercise in strength-trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS use on oxidative stress responses to a single session of resistance exercise in strength-trained men. Twenty-three strength trained men, with 11 self-reporting regular AAS use and 12 self-reporting never taking AAS (NAAS volunteered to participate in this study. Blood draws were obtained pre and post resistance exercise in order to evaluate changes in oxidative stress biomarkers levels (i.e., 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG], malondialdehyde [MDA], and nitric oxide [NO], antioxidant defense systems (i.e., glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and catalase [CAT], and glucose (GLU levels. The AAS users had higher level of 8-OHdG (77.3 ± 17 vs. 57.7 ± 18.2 ng/mg, MDA (85.6 ± 17.8 vs. 52.3 ± 15.1 ng/mL, and GPx (9.1 ± 2.3 vs. 7.1 ± 1.3 mu/mL compared to NAAS at pre exercise (p < 0.05. Both the experimental groups showed increases in 8-OHdG (p = 0.001, MDA (p = 0.001, GPx (p = 0.001, NO (p = 0.04, CAT (p = 0.02 and GLU (p = 0.001 concentrations after resistance exercise, and the AAS group indicated significant differences in 8-OHdG (p = 0.02 and MDA (p = 0.05 concentrations compared with NAAS users at post exercise. In conclusion, use of AAS is associated with alterations in immune function resulting in oxidative stress, and cell damage; however, high-intensity resistance exercise could increase greater oxidative stress biomarkers in strength-trained men. Keywords: ROS, Strength exercise, Anabolic

  4. Heavy resistance training and lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Karlsmark, Tonny; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2014-01-01

    , and identify associations between progressive resistance training with heavy loads, and the development of BCRL. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a descriptive study. POPULATION: Women treated for breast cancer (n = 149), who had participated in the 'Body and Cancer' exercise intervention between 1 January 2010......BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge regarding progressive resistance training during adjuvant chemotherapy and the risk of developing breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Furthermore, no studies have investigated the safety of resistance training with heavy loads (> 80% 1 repetition maximum......) in this population. 'Body and Cancer' is a six-week, nine-hour weekly, supervised, multimodal exercise intervention utilizing progressive resistance training with heavy loads for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of BCRL in former participants...

  5. Intermittent hypoxic resistance training: is metabolic stress the key moderator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brendan R; Slattery, Katie M; Dascombe, Ben J

    2015-02-01

    Traditionally, researchers and practitioners have manipulated acute resistance exercise variables to elicit the desired responses to training. However, recent research indicates that altering the muscular environment during resistance training, namely by implementing a hypoxic stimulus, can augment muscle hypertrophy and strength. Intermittent hypoxic resistance training (IHRT), whereby participants inspire hypoxic air during resistance training, has been previously demonstrated to increase muscle cross-sectional area and maximum strength by significantly greater amounts than the equivalent training in normoxia. However, some recent evidence has provided conflicting results, reporting that the use of systemic hypoxia during resistance training provided no added benefit. While the definitive mechanisms that may augment muscular responses to IHRT are not yet fully understood, an increased metabolic stress is thought to be important for moderating many downstream processes related to hypertrophy. It is likely that methodological differences between conflicting IHRT studies have resulted in different degrees of metabolic stress during training, particularly when considering the inter-set recovery intervals used. Given that the most fundamental physiological stresses resulting from hypoxia are disturbances to oxidative metabolism, it becomes apparent that resistance training may only benefit from additional hypoxia if the exercise is structured to elicit a strong metabolic response. We hypothesize that for IHRT to be more effective in producing muscular hypertrophy and increasing strength than the equivalent normoxic training, exercise should be performed with relatively brief inter-set recovery periods, with the aim of providing a potent metabolic stimulus to enhance anabolic responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of gravity-resisted and gym-based core training on core ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a gravity-resisted core training intervention is likely to produce beneficial gains in core endurance for resistance trained males to a greater extent than a programme of similar exercises conducted conventionally in a gym. Keywords: Gravity-resisted core training; Exercise; Rehabilitation; Core endurance ...

  7. Does Resistance Training Stimulate Cardiac Muscle Hypertrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the left ventricular structural adaptations induced by resistance/strength exercise, focusing on human work, particularly well-trained strength athletes engaged in regular, moderate- to high-intensity resistance training (RT). The article discusses both genders and examines the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in…

  8. Resistance training during preadolescence. Issues and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blimkie, C J

    1993-06-01

    High intensity resistance training appears to be effective in increasing strength in preadolescents. Children make similar relative (percentage improvement), but smaller absolute, strength gains compared with adolescents and young adults in response to similar resistance training programmes. Resistance training appears to have little if any effect on muscle size, and strength gains during training have been associated with increases in levels of neuromuscular activation and changes in intrinsic contractile characteristics of muscle. Although unsubstantiated, improved motor coordination probably also contributes to the increase in strength, especially for more complex strength manoeuvres. On the basis of limited information, training-induced strength gains are lost during detraining, and the decay in strength has been associated with a reduction in neuromuscular activation. Short term resistance training appears to have no effect on somatic growth (height or weight) and body composition, and no proven positive influence on sports performance, injury rate or recovery from injury during preadolescence. Weightlifting has proved injurious to some children, especially when unsupervised and without instruction in proper weightlifting technique and load selection. In contrast, the risk of injury from prudently prescribed and closely supervised resistance training appears to be low during preadolescence. Lastly, short term resistance training appears to have no detrimental effect during preadolescence on either cardiorespiratory fitness or resting blood pressure.

  9. RESISTANCE TRAINING FOR YOUTH: MYTHS AND FACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Radovanović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using resistance training with the aim of developing muscle strength among youth is still a matter of debate and often receives severe criticism. Previous research, which has not noted an increase in muscle strength, led to the conclusion that resistance training is ineffective among youth. However, the results of numerous more recent studies which have closely followed the published statements and recommendations obtained by leading global professional and health organizations, indicate that if carried out properly, resistance training among youth can have very positive results. In addition to its positive influence on muscle strength and endurance, as well as the potential increase in the success rate of motor performance, regular resistance training can result in the improvement of body composition, increased bone mineral density, an improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, as well as its influence on one’s psychological well-being. The most commonly used types of load for resistance training include free weights and weight machines, which can have standard dimensions, but are also specially designed for younger people. It is also often the case that these training programs consist of body weight exercises, exercises with a medicine ball, expanders and elastic bands. Current findings from well-organized and monitored studies involving samples of youth indicated a very small possibility of injury during resistance training, provided that all the training recommendations for the given age group are adhered to.

  10. Resistance Training for Pediatric Female Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Hanson, Emily; Kiefer, Adam W; Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D

    2016-01-01

    Resistance training often is not an inherent component of current dance training for pediatric female dancers. Reasons for this include concerns surrounding injury to the immature skeleton and diminishing dancer aesthetic appearance, as well as questions related to the effectiveness of such training for increasing dancer strength and muscle endurance. Many forms of dance demand sufficient muscle strength and endurance for prolonged periods of high intensity dance, power generation during leaps and jumps, as well as stabilization of the lower extremity to prevent injury. The benefits of resistance training for the pediatric female dancer are multiple, including improved muscle strength and bone health and decreased risk for stress related injuries to the actively growing skeleton. Understanding the biomechanical changes that occur during growth that may predispose the female dancer to injury is important, as well as initiating individualized resistance training protocols early in training that may serve to improve performance and prevent future injury.

  11. Resistance training is medicine: effects of strength training on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Wayne L

    2012-01-01

    Inactive adults experience a 3% to 8% loss of muscle mass per decade, accompanied by resting metabolic rate reduction and fat accumulation. Ten weeks of resistance training may increase lean weight by 1.4 kg, increase resting metabolic rate by 7%, and reduce fat weight by 1.8 kg. Benefits of resistance training include improved physical performance, movement control, walking speed, functional independence, cognitive abilities, and self-esteem. Resistance training may assist prevention and management of type 2 diabetes by decreasing visceral fat, reducing HbA1c, increasing the density of glucose transporter type 4, and improving insulin sensitivity. Resistance training may enhance cardiovascular health, by reducing resting blood pressure, decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Resistance training may promote bone development, with studies showing 1% to 3% increase in bone mineral density. Resistance training may be effective for reducing low back pain and easing discomfort associated with arthritis and fibromyalgia and has been shown to reverse specific aging factors in skeletal muscle.

  12. Relationship between resistance training and selfreported habitual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similar to the non-exercising control group, resistance training resulted in no significant (p > 0.05) changes in the habitual intake of daily intake of total ... as a mode of training may not be an effective mode of exercise to promote overall physical activity in an attempt to modify the patterns of macronutrient and energy intake.

  13. Measuring Learning Resistance to Workplace Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan E.; Lounsbury, John

    2016-01-01

    Training Transfer has been a topic bearing considerable mention over the past several decades. This article focuses on the connection between training transfer and learning resistance and presents research findings describing the design, creation, and testing of the Learning Efficiency Inventory (LEI). The LEI was designed to measure learning…

  14. Why do seniors leave resistance training programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton E

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Elissa Burton,1 Anne-Marie Hill,1 Simone Pettigrew,2 Gill Lewin,3 Liz Bainbridge,1 Kaela Farrier,1 Phil Airey,4 Keith D Hill1 1School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, 2School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, 3School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, Curtin University, 4Council on the Ageing, Perth, WA, Australia Purpose: The proportion of the population, that is older, is growing at a faster rate than other age groups. Physical activity is important for older people because it assists in living independently. Participating in resistance training on a regular basis (twice weekly is recommended for older people; yet, fewer than 15% of people over 60 years achieve this level. The aim of this article was to investigate the factors contributing to older people’s decisions to stop participation in a resistance training program.Participants and methods: Participants were older people who had chosen to participate in a structured resistance training program specifically designed for seniors and then after a period of time discontinued. This population received a questionnaire in the mail focused on factors contributing to their cessation of resistance training exercise. Qualitative results were analyzed using inductive content analysis.Results: Fifty-six survey responses were received (average age 71.5 years, SD =9.0; 79% females. Injury, illness, and holidaying were the main reasons for ceasing participation. A small but important number of responses (11% reported that they considered they were not provided with sufficient support during the resistance training programs.Conclusions: To attract and retain their senior clients, the results indicate that program organizers need to provide tailored support to return to resistance training after injury and offer flexible and individualized services that accommodate older people’s life choices in retirement. Keywords: older people, strength training, gymnasium, retention, aging

  15. Is inertial flywheel resistance training superior to gravity-dependent resistance training in improving muscle strength?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicens-Bordas, J; Esteve, E; Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, A

    2018-01-01

    -dependent resistance training in improving other muscular adaptations. DESIGN: A systematic review with meta-analyses of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials with no publication date......OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this systematic review was to determine if inertial flywheel resistance training is superior to gravity-dependent resistance training in improving muscle strength. The secondary aim was to determine whether inertial flywheel resistance training is superior to gravity...... restrictions until November 2016. We performed meta-analyses on randomised and non-randomised controlled trials to determine the standardized mean difference between the effects of inertial flywheel and gravity-dependent resistance training on muscle strength. A total of 76 and 71 participants were included...

  16. Manual Resistance versus Conventional Resistance Training: Impact on Strength and Muscular Endurance in Recreationally Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulvi-Medrano, Iván; Rial, Tamara; Cortell-Tormo, Juan M; Alakhdar, Yasser; La Scala Teixeira, Caue V; Masiá-Tortosa, Laura; Dorgo, Sandor

    2017-09-01

    Manual resistance training (MRT) has been widely used in the field of physical therapy. It has also been used as a strength training method due to the accommodating resistance nature of this modality. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of an 8-week MRT program on maximum strength and muscular endurance in comparison to conventional resistance training in recreationally trained men. Twenty healthy recreationally trained male subjects were recruited and divided into a MRT training group and a conventional training (CT) group. CT group performed bench press and lat pull-down exercises, and the MRT group performed similar movements with resistance provided by a personal trainer. Both groups completed similar training protocol and training load: 2 training sessions weekly for 3 sets of 8 repetitions at an intensity of 8 to 10 on the perceived exertion scale of 0-10. Initial maximum strength differences were not significant between the groups. Neither group showed significant changes in muscular strength or endurance. Despite the statistically non-significant pre- to post differences, a trend for improvement was observed and effect size (ES) calculations indicated greater magnitude of effects for strength and endurance changes in the MRT group in lat pulldown (g=0.84) compared to CT group. Effectiveness of MRT is similar to CT for improving muscular strength and endurance. MRT can be used as a supplemental or alternative strength training modality for recreationally trained subjects, or be considered by personal trainers especially in low equipped facility conditions.

  17. Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on psychological health in adolescents with obesity: The HEARTY randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S; Kenny, Glen P; Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Phillips, Penny; Tulloch, Heather; Malcolm, Janine; Doucette, Steve; Wells, George A; Ma, Jinhui; Cameron, Jameason D; Sigal, Ronald J

    2015-12-01

    To determine the effects of aerobic training, resistance training, and combined training on mood, body image, and self-esteem in adolescents with obesity. After a 4-week prerandomization treatment, 304 postpubertal adolescents (91 males, 213 females) with obesity ages 14-18 years were randomized to 1 of 4 groups for 22 weeks: aerobic training (n = 75), resistance training (n = 78), combined aerobic and resistance training (n = 75), or nonexercising control (n = 76). All participants received dietary counseling, with a daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. Mood was measured using the Brunel Mood Scale. Body image was assessed using the Multiple Body Self-Relations Questionnaire, and physical self-perceptions and global self-esteem were measured using the Harter Physical Self-Perceptions Questionnaire. Median adherence was 62%, 56%, and 64% in aerobic, resistance, and combined training, respectively. Resistance and combined training produced greater improvements than control on vigor, and resistance training reduced depressive symptoms. All groups improved on body image and physical self-perceptions, but combined showed greater increases than control on perceived physical conditioning, while only resistance training showed greater increases than controls on global self-esteem. Both combined and resistance training demonstrated greater increases in perceived strength than control. Psychological benefits were more related to better adherence and reductions in body fat than changes in strength or fitness. Resistance training, alone or in combination with aerobic training, may provide psychological benefits in adolescents with overweight or obesity, and therefore could be an alternative to aerobic training for some individuals in the biological and psychological management of adolescent obesity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Concurrent Training Followed by Detraining: Does the Resistance Training Intensity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, António C; Marinho, Daniel A; Gil, Maria H; Izquierdo, Mikel; Rodríguez-Rosell, David; Neiva, Henrique P; Marques, Mário C

    2018-03-01

    Sousa, AC, Marinho, DA, Gil, MH, Izquierdo, M, Rodríguez-Rosell, D, Neiva, HP, and Marques, MC. Concurrent training followed by detraining: does the resistance training intensity matter? J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 632-642, 2018-The aim of this study was to analyze the training and detraining (DT) effects of concurrent aerobic training and resistance training against 3 different external loads on strength and aerobic variables. Thirty-two men were randomly assigned to 4 groups: low-load (LLG, n = 9), moderate-load (MLG, n = 9), high-load (HLG, n = 8), and control group (CG, n = 6). Resistance training consisted of full squat (FS) with a low load (40-55% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), a moderate load (55-70% 1RM), or a high load (70-85% 1RM) combined with jump and sprint exercises. Aerobic training was performed at 75% of the maximal aerobic speed for 15-20 minutes. The training period lasted for 8-week, followed by 4-week DT. Pretraining, post-training, and post-DT evaluations included 20-m running sprints (0-10 m: T10; 0-20 m: T20), shuttle run test, countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) test, and loading test (1RM) in FS. All the experimental groups showed improvements (p ≤ 0.05) in all the parameters assessed, except the LLG for T10 and the HLG for T20. The LLG, MLG, and HLG showed great changes in 1RM and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max compared with the CG (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the HLG and MLG showed a greater percentage change than the CG in T10 (p training programs with low, moderate, or high external loads combined with low-intensity aerobic training could be effective for producing significant gains in strength and aerobic capacities. Moreover, the higher loads used increased gains in explosive efforts.

  19. NNDSS - Table II. Carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000...

  20. NNDSS - Table II. Carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000...

  1. Menopause: highlighting the effects of resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, R D; Prestes, J; Pereira, G B; Shiguemoto, G E; Perez, S E A

    2010-11-01

    The increase in lifespan and in the proportion of elderly women has increased the focus on menopause induced physiological alterations. These modifications are associated with the elevated risk of several pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fat liver disease, among others. Because of estrogen levels decline, many tissue and organs (muscular, bone, adipose tissue and liver) are affected. Additionally, body composition suffers important modifications. In this sense, there is a growing body of concern in understanding the physiological mechanisms involved and establishing strategies to prevent and reverse the effects of menopause. The hormone reposition therapy, diet and physical exercise have been recommended. Among the diverse exercise modalities, resistance training is not commonly used as a therapeutic intervention in the treatment of menopause. Thus, the aim of this review was to analyze the physiological alterations on several organs and systems induced by menopause and ovariectomy (experimental model to reproduce menopause), as well as, to study the effects of resistance training in preventing and reverting these modifications. In conclusion, resistance training promotes beneficial effects on several organs and systems, mainly, on muscular, bone and adipose tissue, allowing for a better quality of life in this population.

  2. Resistance Training in Children and Young Adults: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rami Shenouda; Mark Wilson; Scott Fletcher

    2017-01-01

    Resistance training is a method used by many athletes to increase their levels of performance. The benefits of this method are known to be increased strength, power and endurance. Resistance training in children has been a topic that has been long debated and there are some widely accepted beliefs and principles that guide clinicians involved in the discipline of sport and exercise medicine. While weight training is a form of resistance training that has proven beneficial effects on health an...

  3. Hyper-resistivity produced by tearing mode turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    Tearing mode turbulence produces a hyper-resistivity or effective anomalous electron viscosity. The hyper-resistivity is calculated for the mean magnetic field quasilinearly, and for long-wavelength modes using the direct interaction approximation. The hyper-resistivity accounts for current relaxation in reversed-field pinch experiments, and gives a magnetic fluctuation sealing of S -1 /sup // 3 . It causes enhanced tearing mode growth rates in the turbulent phase of tokamak disruptions. In astrophysics, it limits magnetic energy growth due to the dynamo effect, and may explain rapid reconnection phenomena such as solar flares

  4. Dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes from antibiotic producers to pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xinglin; Ellabaan, Mostafa M Hashim; Charusanti, Pep

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that some antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) found in pathogenic bacteria derive from antibiotic-producing actinobacteria. Here we provide bioinformatic and experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis. We identify genes in proteobacteria, including some pathogens......, that appear to be closely related to actinobacterial ARGs known to confer resistance against clinically important antibiotics. Furthermore, we identify two potential examples of recent horizontal transfer of actinobacterial ARGs to proteobacterial pathogens. Based on this bioinformatic evidence, we propose...... results support the existence of ancient and, possibly, recent transfers of ARGs from antibiotic-producing actinobacteria to proteobacteria, and provide evidence for a defined mechanism....

  5. resistance training and changes to plasma lipoproteins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to resistance training, HDL-cholesterol was reduced in women aged 54 - 71 years over 12 weeks. 12 ... the effect of a 24-week progressive resistance training programme on the blood lipid profiles of a sample ..... cise training on cardiovascular risk factors of sedentary, overweight, pre- menopausal and postmenopausal ...

  6. Effect of resistance training on total, central and abdominal adiposity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resistance training had no impact on the measures of centrally located and abdominal adiposity. Body mass and BMI should be used with caution in risk calculations and measures of total adiposity in individuals engaging in resistance training due to this mode of training increasing lean mass (and thus body mass and BMI) ...

  7. The Impact of Resistance Training on Swimming Performance: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Emmet; Harrison, Andrew J; Lyons, Mark

    2017-11-01

    The majority of propulsive forces in swimming are produced from the upper body, with strong correlations between upper body strength and sprint performance. There are significant gaps in the literature relating to the impact of resistance training on swimming performance, specifically the transfer to swimming performance. The aims of this systematic literature review are to (1) explore the transfer of resistance-training modalities to swimming performance, and (2) examine the effects of resistance training on technical aspects of swimming. Four online databases were searched with the following inclusion criteria: (1) journal articles with outcome measures related to swimming performance, and (2) competitive swimmers participating in a structured resistance-training programme. Exclusion criteria were (1) participants with a mean age force resistance-training programmes are optimal. Stroke length is best achieved through resistance training with low repetitions at a high velocity/force. Resisted swims are the most appropriate training modality for improving stroke rate. Future research is needed with respect to the effects of long-term resistance-training interventions on both technical parameters of swimming and overall swimming performance. The results of such work will be highly informative for the scientific community, coaches and athletes.

  8. Resistance Training in Children and Young Adults: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Shenouda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance training is a method used by many athletes to increase their levels of performance. The benefits of this method are known to be increased strength, power and endurance. Resistance training in children has been a topic that has been long debated and there are some widely accepted beliefs and principles that guide clinicians involved in the discipline of sport and exercise medicine. While weight training is a form of resistance training that has proven beneficial effects on health and wellbeing, powerlifting and heavy weight training should be avoided, as lifting maximal weights through various ranges of motion as fast as possible can lead to serious limb injuries. In order to determine the risks and benefits of resistance training in children and adolescents, it is important to review the literature to find a clear consensus. Further prospective research should be completed to determine the long-term sequelae of resistance training in children in comparison to the general population.

  9. Comparison of the effects of aerobic and resistance training on cardiac autonomic adaptations in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Larissa C R; Tezini, Geisa C S V; Schujmann, Débora S; Porto, Jaqueline M; Rossi, Bruno R O; Souza, Hugo C D

    2011-07-05

    We have compared the effects of two types of physical training on the cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized and sham-operated rats according to different approaches: double autonomic blockade (DAB) with methylatropine and propranolol; baroreflex sensibility (BRS) and spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Wistar female rats (±250g) were divided into two groups: sham-operated and ovariectomized. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups: sedentary rats, rats submitted to aerobic trained and rats submitted to resistance training. Ovariectomy did not change arterial pressure, basal heart rate (HR), DAB and BRS responses, but interfered with HRV by reducing the low-frequency oscillations (LF=0.20-0.75Hz) in relation to sedentary sham-operated rats. The DAB showed that both types of training promoted an increase in the predominance of vagal tonus in sham-operated rats, but HR variations due to methylatropine were decreased in the resistance trained rats compared to sedentary rats. Evaluation of BRS showed that resistance training for sham-operated and ovariectomized rats reduced the tachycardic responses in relation to aerobic training. Evaluation of HRV in trained rats showed that aerobic training reduced LF oscillations in sham-operated rats, whereas resistance training had a contrary effect. In the ovariectomized rats, aerobic training increased high frequency oscillations (HF=0.75-2.5Hz), whereas resistance training produced no effect. In sham-operated rats, both types of training increased the vagal autonomic tonus, but resistance training reduced HF oscillations and BRS as well. In turn, both types of training had similar results in ovariectomized rats, except for HRV, as aerobic training promoted an increase in HF oscillations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of low-volume resistance training with and without advanced techniques in trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieβsing, Jùrgen; Fisher, James; Steele, James; Rothe, Frank; Raubold, Kristin; Eichmann, Björn

    2016-03-01

    This study examined low-volume resistance training (RT) in trained participants with and without advanced training methods. Trained participants (RT experience 4±3 years) were randomised to groups performing single-set RT: ssRM (N.=21) performing repetitions to self-determined repetition maximum (RM), ssMMF (N.=30) performing repetitions to momentary muscular failure (MMF), and ssRP (N.=28) performing repetitions to self-determined RM using a rest pause (RP) method. Each performed supervised RT twice/week for 10 weeks. Outcomes included maximal isometric strength and body composition using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The ssRM group did not significantly improve in any outcome. The ssMMF and ssRP groups both significantly improved strength (p groups. Strength ES's were considered large for ssMMF (0.91 to 1.57) and ranging small to large for ssRP (0.42 to 1.06). Body composition data revealed significant improvements (PTraining to self-determined RM is not efficacious for trained participants. Training to MMF produces greatest improvements in strength and body composition, however, RP style training does offer some benefit.

  11. Cardioprotective Properties of Aerobic and Resistance Training Against Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, C A; Souza, G I H; Oliveira, J C M F; Silva, L M; Mostarda, C T; Dourado, P M M; Oyama, L M; Lira, F S; Irigoyen, M C; Rodrigues, B

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise training on ventricular morphometry and function, physical capacity, autonomic function, as well as on ventricular inflammatory status in trained rats prior to myocardial infarction. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: sedentary+Sham, sedentary+myocardial infarction, aerobic trained+myocardial infarction, and resistance trained+myocardial infarction. Sham and myocardial infarction were performed after training periods. In the days following the surgeries, evaluations were performed. Aerobic training prevents aerobic (to a greater extent) and resistance capacity impairments, ventricular dysfunction, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic disorders (vagal tonus decrease and sympathetic tonus increase) triggered by myocardial infarction. Resistance training was able to prevent negative changes to aerobic and resistance capacity (to a greater extent) but not to ventricular dysfunction, and it prevented cardiovascular sympathetic increments. Additionally, both types of training reduced left ventricle inflammatory cytokine concentration. Our results suggest that aerobic and, for the first time, dynamic resistance training were able to reduce sympathetic tonus to the heart and vessels, as well as preventing the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the left ventricle of trained groups. These data emphasizes the positive effects of aerobic and dynamic resistance training on the prevention of the negative changes triggered by myocardial infarction. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Effects of an Intensive Resistant Training Sessions and Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive and acute exercise trainings may induce oxidative stress, but antioxidant supplements may attenuate its degenerative consequences. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of green tea supplementation on the oxidative stress indices after an intensive resistance training session. Materials and Methods: 40 non-athletes (without regular physical activity women were randomly divided into 4 equal (n=10 groups including green tea supplementation, green tea supplementation plus resistance training, resistance training, and control groups. After supplementation period (600 mg/day, 14 days, resistance training and green tea supplementation plus resistance training groups performed an intensive resistance training session at 75-85 % of one repetition maximum. The malondialdehyde and total thiol were measured as oxidative stress indices. Data were analyzed by using of repeated measure ANOVA and LSD tests at p<0.056T. Results: Results showed that after 14 days of green tea consumption, malondialdehyde significantly decreased in green tea supplementation (p=0.03 and green tea supplementation plus resistance training (p=0.01 groups, while total thiol increased significantly (p=0.01 in two green tea supplementation groups. However, an intensive resistance training session increased malondialdehyde (p=0.01 without any significantly changes in total thiol (p=0.426T. Conclusion: It seems that green tea supplementation can inhibit exercise-induced protein and lipid oxidation in non-athletes women via enhancement of antioxidant defense system of the body6T.6T

  13. Modeling the Responses to Resistance Training in an Animal Experiment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony G. Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to test whether systems models of training effects on performance in athletes can be used to explore the responses to resistance training in rats. 11 Wistar Han rats (277 ± 15 g underwent 4 weeks of resistance training consisting in climbing a ladder with progressive loads. Training amount and performance were computed from total work and mean power during each training session. Three systems models relating performance to cumulated training bouts have been tested: (i with a single component for adaptation to training, (ii with two components to distinguish the adaptation and fatigue produced by exercise bouts, and (iii with an additional component to account for training-related changes in exercise-induced fatigue. Model parameters were fitted using a mixed-effects modeling approach. The model with two components was found to be the most suitable to analyze the training responses (R2=0.53; P<0.001. In conclusion, the accuracy in quantifying training loads and performance in a rodent experiment makes it possible to model the responses to resistance training. This modeling in rodents could be used in future studies in combination with biological tools for enhancing our understanding of the adaptive processes that occur during physical training.

  14. Comparing the effects of two distinct eccentric modalities to traditional resistance training in resistance trained, higher functioning older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluchowski, Ashley; Dulson, Deborah; Merien, Fabrice; Plank, Lindsay; Harris, Nigel

    2017-11-01

    The effects of eccentric resistance exercise are of interest in the older adult cohort, but to our knowledge, there is no research on the relative effects of different eccentric modalities on a range of outcomes in higher functioning, resistance trained older adults. 33 resistance-trained older adults (aged 67±4.5years) were randomized into one of three supervised training groups: traditional (TRE), eccentric only (ERE) or eccentrically biased resistance exercise (EBRE) on a 45°, plate-loaded leg press machine. Participants trained twice per week with maximal strength, functional capacity, body composition and blood biomarkers measured before and after the eight-week intervention. Both eccentric and concentric strength, and important functional tasks for independent living significantly improved independent of group. Body composition and blood biomarkers were found to significantly improve in the EBRE group only however, no statistical differences were found between groups. Compared to traditional resistance training, the two eccentric modalities investigated here were equally effective for improvements in maximum muscular strength, functional capacity, body composition and metabolic biomarkers. When training the resistance trained older adult, very heavy isoinertial external loads (at least 70% of one repetition maximum) are effective irrespective of contraction mode. With heavy strength training, resistance trained older adults can continue to expect improvements in health and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Wrist Resistance Training Improves Motor Control and Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Edward; Kim, You-Sin; Hill, Genevieve; Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Kim, Chang Kook; Shim, Jae Kun

    2018-04-01

    Chu, E, Kim, Y-S, Hill, G, Kim, YH, Kim, CK, and Shim, JK. Wrist resistance training improves motor control and strength. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 962-969, 2018-The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 6-week direction-specific resistance training program on isometric torque control and isokinetic torque strength of the wrist joint. Nineteen subjects were randomly assigned to either the wrist training group (n = 9) or the control group (n = 10). The training group performed wrist exercises in 6 directions (flexion, extension, pronation, supination, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation), whereas the control group did not. Data were collected on the isometric torque control, 1-repetition maximum (1RM) strength, and isokinetic maximum torque (angular velocity of 60° per second wrist movements) before and after 6 weeks of resistance training and at 2-week intervals during training. The training group showed significant decreases in isometric torque control error in all 6 directions after 2 weeks of resistance training, whereas the control group did not show significant increase or decrease. After 4 weeks of training, the training group showed significant increases in maximum strength in all 6 directions as assessed by 1RM strength and isokinetic strength tests, whereas the control group did not show any statistically significant changes. This study shows that motor control significantly improves within the first 2 weeks of resistance training, whereas the wrist strength significantly improves within the first 4 weeks of resistance training. Based on the findings of this study, coaches and trainers should consider wrist resistance training to improve athletes' muscular strength and control of the wrist muscles.

  16. Dealing with Learner Resistance to Technology-Delivered Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of student resistance to technology-delivered training focuses on strategies at the IRS (Internal Revenue Service) that overcame learner resistance by maintaining a personal relationship with each student and flexibly addressing each student's personal style and concerns. Considers reasons for student resistance and the continued need…

  17. Resistance training and cardiac hypertrophy: unravelling the training effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haykowsky, Mark J; Dressendorfer, Rudolph; Taylor, Dylan; Mandic, Sandra; Humen, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Resistance training (RT) is a popular method of conditioning to enhance sport performance as well as an effective form of exercise to attenuate the age-mediated decline in muscle strength and mass. Although the benefits of RT on skeletal muscle morphology and function are well established, its effect on left ventricular (LV) morphology remains equivocal. Some investigations have found that RT is associated with an obligatory increase in LV wall thickness and mass with minimal alteration in LV internal cavity dimension, an effect called concentric hypertrophy. However, others report that short- (18 years) RT does not alter LV morphology, arguing that concentric hypertrophy is not an obligatory adaptation secondary to this form of exertion. This disparity between studies on whether RT consistently results in cardiac hypertrophy could be caused by: (i) acute cardiopulmonary mechanisms that minimise the increase in transmural pressure (i.e. ventricular pressure minus intrathoracic pressure) and LV wall stress during exercise; (ii) the underlying use of anabolic steroids by the athletes; or (iii) the specific type of RT performed. We propose that when LV geometry is altered after RT, the pattern is usually concentric hypertrophy in Olympic weightlifters. However, the pattern of eccentric hypertrophy (increased LV mass secondary to an increase in diastolic internal cavity dimension and wall thickness) is not uncommon in bodybuilders. Of particular interest, nearly 40% of all RT athletes have normal LV geometry, and these athletes are typically powerlifters. RT athletes who use anabolic steroids have been shown to have significantly higher LV mass compared with drug-free sport-matched athletes. This brief review will sort out some of the factors that may affect the acute and chronic outcome of RT on LV morphology. In addition, a conceptual framework is offered to help explain why cardiac hypertrophy is not always found in RT athletes.

  18. Implications of Impaired Endurance Performance following Single Bouts of Resistance Training: An Alternate Concurrent Training Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doma, Kenji; Deakin, Glen B; Bentley, David J

    2017-11-01

    A single bout of resistance training induces residual fatigue, which may impair performance during subsequent endurance training if inadequate recovery is allowed. From a concurrent training standpoint, such carry-over effects of fatigue from a resistance training session may impair the quality of a subsequent endurance training session for several hours to days with inadequate recovery. The proposed mechanisms of this phenomenon include: (1) impaired neural recruitment patterns; (2) reduced movement efficiency due to alteration in kinematics during endurance exercise and increased energy expenditure; (3) increased muscle soreness; and (4) reduced muscle glycogen. If endurance training quality is consistently compromised during the course of a specific concurrent training program, optimal endurance development may be limited. Whilst the link between acute responses of training and subsequent training adaptation has not been fully established, there is some evidence suggesting that cumulative effects of fatigue may contribute to limiting optimal endurance development. Thus, the current review will (1) explore cross-sectional studies that have reported impaired endurance performance following a single, or multiple bouts, of resistance training; (2) identify the potential impact of fatigue on chronic endurance development; (3) describe the implications of fatigue on the quality of endurance training sessions during concurrent training, and (4) explain the mechanisms contributing to resistance training-induced attenuation on endurance performance from neurological, biomechanical and metabolic standpoints. Increasing the awareness of resistance training-induced fatigue may encourage coaches to consider modulating concurrent training variables (e.g., order of training mode, between-mode recovery period, training intensity, etc.) to limit the carry-over effects of fatigue from resistance to endurance training sessions.

  19. Effects of creatine supplementation along with resistance training on urinary formaldehyde and serum enzymes in wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Azadeh; Jafari, Afshar

    2016-04-01

    Formaldehyde is a cytotoxic agent produced from creatine through a metabolic pathway, and in this regard, it has been claimed that creatine supplementation could be cytotoxic. Even though the cytotoxic effects of creatine supplementation have been widely studied, yet little is known about how resistance training can alter these toxic effects. This study aimed to determine the effects of short-term creatine supplementation plus resistance training on the level of urinary formaldehyde and concentrations of serum enzymes in young male wrestlers. In a double-blind design twenty-one subjects were randomized into creatine supplementation (Cr), creatine supplementation plus resistance training (Cr + T) and placebo plus resistance training (Pl + T) groups. Participants ingested creatine (0.3 g/kg/day) or placebo for 7 days. The training protocol consisted of 3 sessions in one week, each session including three sets of 6-9 repetitions at 80-85% of one-repetition maximum for whole-body exercise. Urine and blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the supplementation. Creatine supplementation significantly increased the excretion rate of urinary formaldehyde in the Cr and Cr + T groups by 63.4% and 30.4%, respectively (P0.05). These findings indicate that resistance training may lower the increase of urinary formaldehyde excretion induced by creatine supplementation, suggesting that creatine consumption could be relatively less toxic when combined with resistance training.

  20. Region specific patella tendon hypertrophy in humans following resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, M.; Reitelseder, S; Pedersen, T.G.

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine if cross-sectional area (CSA) differs along the length of the human patellar tendon (PT), and if there is PT hypertrophy in response to resistance training. METHODS: Twelve healthy young men underwent baseline and post-training assessments. Maximal isometric knee extension strength......, subjects performed 12 weeks of heavy resistance knee extension training with one leg (Heavy-leg), and light resistance knee extension training with the other leg (Light-leg). RESULTS: The MVC increased for heavy-leg (15 +/- 4%, P .... CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this study is the first to report tendon hypertrophy following resistance training. Further, the data show that the human PT CSA varies along the length of the tendon....

  1. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation.

  2. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C.; Irigoyen, M.C.; De Angelis, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation

  3. Physiological changes with periodized resistance training in women tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Hakkinen, Keijo; Triplett-Mcbride, N Travis; Fry, Andrew C; Koziris, L Perry; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Bauer, Jeffrey E; Volek, Jeff S; McConnell, Tim; Newton, Robert U; Gordon, Scott E; Cummings, Don; Hauth, John; Pullo, Frank; Lynch, J Michael; Fleck, Steven J; Mazzetti, Scott A; Knuttgen, Howard G

    2003-01-01

    To compare the physiological and performance adaptations between periodized and nonperiodized resistance training in women collegiate tennis athletes. Thirty women (19 +/- 1 yr) were assigned to either a periodized resistance training group (P), nonperiodized training group (NV), or a control group (C). Assessments for body composition, anaerobic power, VO2(max), speed, agility, maximal strength, jump height, tennis-service velocity, and resting serum hormonal concentrations were performed before and after 4, 6, and 9 months of resistance training performed 2-3 d.wk (-1). Nine months of resistance training resulted in significant increases in fat-free mass; anaerobic power; grip strength; jump height; one-repetition maximum (1-RM) leg press, bench press, and shoulder press; serve, forehand, and backhand ball velocities; and resting serum insulin-like growth factor-1, testosterone, and cortisol concentrations. Percent body fat and VO2(max) decreased significantly in the P and NV groups after training. During the first 6 months, periodized resistance training elicited significantly greater increases in 1-RM leg press (9 +/- 2 vs 4.5 +/- 2%), bench press (22 +/- 5 vs 11 +/- 8%), and shoulder press (24 +/- 7 vs 18 +/- 6%) than the NV group. The absolute 1-RM leg press and shoulder press values in the P group were greater than the NV group after 9 months. Periodized resistance training also resulted in significantly greater improvements in jump height (50 +/- 9 vs 37 +/- 7%) and serve (29 +/- 5 vs 16 +/- 4%), forehand (22 +/- 3 vs 17 +/- 3%), and backhand ball velocities (36 +/- 4 vs 14 +/- 4%) as compared with nonperiodized training after 9 months. These data demonstrated that periodization of resistance training over 9 months was superior for enhancing strength and motor performance in collegiate women tennis players.

  4. Effects of arachidonic acid supplementation on training adaptations in resistance-trained males

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood Mike; Rasmussen Chris; Cooke Matthew; Harvey Travis; Wilborn Colin D; Campbell Bill; Taylor Lem W; Kerksick Chad M; Iosia Mike; Roberts Michael D; Wilson Ronald; Jitomir Jean; Willoughby Darryn; Kreider Richard B

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background To determine the impact of AA supplementation during resistance training on body composition, training adaptations, and markers of muscle hypertrophy in resistance-trained males. Methods In a randomized and double blind manner, 31 resistance-trained male subjects (22.1 ± 5.0 years, 180 ± 0.1 cm, 86.1 ± 13.0 kg, 18.1 ± 6.4% body fat) ingested either a placebo (PLA: 1 g·day-1 corn oil, n = 16) or AA (AA: 1 g·day-1 AA, n = 15) while participating in a standardized 4 day·week-...

  5. Impact of integrated gastrointestinal nematode management training for U.S. goat and sheep producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, N C; Oh, S-H; Lee, S J; Schoenian, S; Kaplan, R M; Storey, B; Terrill, T H; Mobini, S; Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Perdue, M A

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of integrated parasite management (IPM) training, including FAMACHA(©) eyelid color scoring, on the ability of U.S. sheep and goat producers to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) on their farms. A survey was developed and provided to over 2000 producers trained from 2004 to 2008 in IPM with questions involving farm size (number of sheep/goats), location (U.S. state), impact of training on parasite control efforts and parasite problems on farm, and IPM practices used. Responses were divided into U.S. Census regions of the U.S. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to describe results. Most of the 729 respondents were from the southern region of the U.S. (54.3%) and were small-scale producers (50 or less animals; 64.8%). Nearly all of the respondents (95.1%) agreed that IPM workshop attendance made a difference in their ability to control and monitor parasitism in their herd or flock and employed IPM practices to control GIN (96.3%). The most popular practices respondents used were rotational grazing (71.2%), genetic selection (choosing a parasite resistant breed and/or culling susceptible animals; 52.7%), grain supplementation on pasture to improve nutrition (44.0%), and increased height of plants being grazed (41.8%). Although reporting using a practice decreased (Preporting fewer problems, for each 1-point increase in the number of practices which producers employed to control internal parasitism in their herd or flock, they were 16% more likely to report fewer GIN problems (Pbenefit of IPM on their farm (Preporting savings of over $80 were more likely to report fewer problems (Preporting no economic benefit were less likely to report fewer problems with GIN (P<0.001). Overall, IPM training resulted in positive impacts for producers responding to the survey and should continue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The interactions between hemostasis and resistance training: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Neto, Frederico Ribeiro; de Santana, Frederico Santos; da Silva, Renato André Sousa; dos Santos-Neto, Leopoldo; Balsamo, Sandor

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is strongly associated with changes in arterial structure. Regular physical activity and exercise contributes to the prevention of coronary artery disease. Therefore, cardiovascular and resistance training improve hemostatic parameters and promote a less thrombotic blood profile. This review highlights the studies, mechanisms, and outcomes relating to the effectiveness of resistance training on the process of hemostasis. The Pubmed, Scopus, Medline, Scielo, Lilacs, Ibecs, and Cochrane databases were used to locate the original articles. Seventeen studies were found during the research process. Of these, ten articles were excluded. Those protocols using a high volume of training for young adults showed a greater fibrinolytic response, and training protocols with intensities above 80% of 1 maximum repetition showed an increased platelet activity. In subjects with coronary artery disease, just one session of resistance training resulted in improvement in the fibrinolytic system (tissue plasminogen activator) without raising potential thrombotic markers. PMID:22419885

  7. Muscle fiber size increases following resistance training in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Stenager, Egon; Jakobsen, J

    2010-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that lower body progressive resistance training (PRT) leads to an increase of the muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and a shift in the proportion of fiber types in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).......To test the hypothesis that lower body progressive resistance training (PRT) leads to an increase of the muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and a shift in the proportion of fiber types in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS)....

  8. Reaching Resisters in a Teaching Assistant Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carolyn I.

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been limited longitudinal qualitative research examining the effects of training programs on graduate students' teaching performance. One gap in this research is a discussion of Teaching Assistants (TAs) who resist such programs and an examination of strategies for overcoming this resistance. This action research…

  9. Identifying the optimal resistive load for complex training in male rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comyns, Thomas M; Harrison, Andrew J; Hennessy, Liam; Jensen, Randall L

    2007-01-01

    Alternating a resistance exercise with a plyometric exercise is referred to as "complex training". In this study, we examined the effect of various resistive loads on the biomechanics of performance of a fast stretch-shortening cycle activity to determine if an optimal resistive load exists for complex training. Twelve elite rugby players performed three drop jumps before and after three back squat resistive loads of 65%, 80%, and 93% of a single repetition maximum (1-RM) load. All drop jumps were performed on a specially constructed sledge and force platform apparatus. Flight time, ground contact time, peak ground reaction force, reactive strength index, and leg stiffness were the dependent variables. Repeated-measures analysis of variance found that all resistive loads reduced (P benefit performance. However, it is unknown if these acute changes will produce any long-term adaptations to muscle function.

  10. Mirror training to augment cross-education during resistance training: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howatson, Glyn; Zult, Tjerk; Farthing, Jonathan P; Zijdewind, Inge; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2013-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been shown to be a potent stimulus for neuromuscular adaptations. These adaptations are not confined to the exercising muscle and have been consistently shown to produce increases in strength and neural activity in the contralateral, homologous resting muscle; a phenomenon known as cross-education. This observation has important clinical applications for those with unilateral dysfunction given that cross-education increases strength and attenuates atrophy in immobilized limbs. Previous evidence has shown that these improvements in the transfer of strength are likely to reside in areas of the brain, some of which are common to the mirror neuron system (MNS). Here we examine the evidence for the, as yet, untested hypothesis that cross-education might benefit from observing our own motor action in a mirror during unimanual resistance training, thereby activating the MNS. The hypothesis is based on neuroanatomical evidence suggesting brain areas relating to the MNS are activated when a unilateral motor task is performed with a mirror. This theory is timely because of the growing body of evidence relating to the efficacy of cross-education. Hence, we consider the clinical applications of mirror training as an adjuvant intervention to cross-education in order to engage the MNS, which could further improve strength and reduce atrophy in dysfunctional limbs during rehabilitation.

  11. Elastic Bands as a Component of Periodized Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Jordan M; Lowery, Ryan P; Oliveira de Souza, Eduardo; Wilson, Jacob M

    2016-08-01

    Joy, JM, Lowery, RP, Oliveira de Souza, E, and Wilson, JM. Elastic bands as a component of periodized resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2100-2106, 2016-Variable resistance training (VRT) has recently become a component of strength and conditioning programs. Prior research has demonstrated increases in power and/or strength using low loads of variable resistance. However, no study has examined using high loads of variable resistance as a part of a periodized training protocol to examine VRT within the context of a periodized training program and to examine a greater load of variable resistance than has been examined in prior research. Fourteen National Collegiate Athletic Association division II male basketball players were recruited for this study. Athletes were divided equally into either a variable resistance or control group. The variable resistance group added 30% of their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) as band tension to their prescribed weight 1 session per week. Rate of power development (RPD), peak power, strength, body composition, and vertical jump height were measured pretreatment and posttreatment. No baseline differences were observed between groups for any measurement of strength, power, or body composition. A significant group by time interaction was observed for RPD, in which RPD was greater in VRT posttraining than in the control group. Significant time effects were observed for all other variables including squat 1RM, bench press 1RM, deadlift 1RM, clean 3RM, vertical jump, and lean mass. Although there were no significant group ×-time interactions, the VRT group's percent changes and effect sizes indicate a larger treatment effect in the squat and bench press 1RM values and the vertical jump performed on the force plate and vertec. These results suggest that when using variable resistance as a component of a periodized training program, power and strength can be enhanced. Therefore, athletes who add variable resistance to 1 training

  12. Effects of resistance training on performance in previously trained endurance runners: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Ibañez, Manuel; Rodríguez-Pérez, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work was to identify, synthesize and evaluate the results of randomized controlled trials examining the effects of resistance training on performance indicators in previously trained endurance runners. A database search was carried out in PubMed, Science Direct, OvidSPMedLine, Wiley, Web of Science, ProQuest and Google Scholar. In accordance with the PRISMA checklist, 18 published articles dated prior to May 2016 involving 321 endurance runners were reviewed using the PEDro scale. Resistance training led to general improvements in muscular strength, running economy, muscle power factors, and direct performance in distances between 1,500 and 10,000 m. Such improvements were not accompanied by a significant increase in body mass or signs of overtraining. However, improvements did not occur in all cases, suggesting that they might depend on the specific characteristics of the resistance training applied. Although current evidence supports the effectiveness of resistance training to improve performance in already trained endurance runners, the methodological inconsistencies identified suggest that the results should be interpreted with caution. Future studies ought to investigate the benefits of resistance training in endurance runners while considering the existence of possible differentiated effects based on the specific characteristics of the resistance training carried out.

  13. FLOW RESTRICTED RESISTANCE TRAINING ATTENUATES MYOSTATIN GENE EXPRESSION IN A PATIENT WITH INCLUSION BODY MYOSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion body myositis is a rare idiopathic inflammatory myopathy that produces extreme muscle weakness. Blood flow restricted resistance training has been shown to improve muscle strength and muscle hypertrophy in inclusion body myositis. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a resistance training programme on the expression of genes related to myostatin (MSTN signalling in one inclusion body myositis patient. Methods: A 65-year-old man with inclusion body myositis underwent blood flow restricted resistance training for 12 weeks. The gene expression of MSTN, follistatin, follistatin-like 3, activin II B receptor, SMAD-7, MyoD, FOXO-3, and MURF-2 was quantified. Results: After 12 weeks of training, a decrease (25% in MSTN mRNA level was observed, whereas follistatin and follistatin-like 3 gene expression increased by 40% and 70%, respectively. SMAD-7 mRNA level was augmented (20%. FOXO-3 and MURF-2 gene expression increased by 40% and 20%, respectively. No change was observed in activin II B receptor or MyoD gene expression. Conclusions: Blood flow restricted resistance training attenuated MSTN gene expression and also increased expression of myostatin endogenous inhibitors. Blood flow restricted resistance training evoked changes in the expression of genes related to MSTN signalling pathway that could in part explain the muscle hypertrophy previously observed in a patient with inclusion body myositis.

  14. Youth resistance training: past practices, new perspectives, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; Lloyd, Rhodri S; Myer, Gregory D

    2013-11-01

    Since the publication of the seminal review on youth resistance training by Kraemer and colleagues in 1989, a compelling body of evidence has found that resistance training can be a safe, effective, and worthwhile method of conditioning for children and adolescents. New perspectives for promoting resistance exercise as part of a long-term approach to youth physical development highlight the importance of integrating resistance training into youth fitness programs. Youth who do not enhance their muscular strength and motor skill proficiency early in life may not develop the prerequisite skills and abilities that would allow them to participate in a variety of activities and sports with confidence and vigor later in life. The identification of asymptomatic children with muscular weaknesses or imbalances may facilitate the development of a management plan which should rectify movement limitations and educate children and their families about the importance of daily physical activity.

  15. Effects of aquatic exercise training using water-resistance equipment in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Yoshihiro; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Ueda, Shin-Ya; Usui, Tatsuya; Sotobayashi, Daisuke; Nakao, Hayato; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Okumoto, Tamiko; Fujimoto, Shigeo

    2010-03-01

    To prevent falls in Japan, both gait and resistance training of the lower extremities are recommended. However, resistance training for the elderly induces muscle damage. Recently, aquatic exercise using water buoyancy and resistance have commonly been performed by the elderly. We have now produced new water-resistance equipment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of aquatic exercise training using the new equipment for the elderly. Subjects were divided into two groups: a resistance group of 12 subjects (using water-resistance equipment) and a non-resistance group of eight subjects (without the equipment). The aquatic exercise training was 90 min, three times per week for 8 weeks, and mostly consisted of walking. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, physical performance testing, and profile of mood states (POMS). Significant improvements were observed in muscle strength in plantar flexion, and the timed up and go test (TUG) in both groups. Additionally, 10-m obstacle walking and 5-m maximum walking speed and length with eye-open were significantly improved in the resistance group. Also, a low negative correlation was found between the degree of change in TUG and POMS (tension and anxiety) scores in the resistance group. As it became easier to maintain posture, stand, and move, tension and anxiety in everyday life were alleviated with improvement of strength of the lower extremities and balance function. The present aquatic exercise training using water-resistance equipment may be used by the elderly to improve balance and walking ability, which are associated with the prevention of falls.

  16. Effect of Movement Velocity During Resistance Training on Dynamic Muscular Strength: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Timothy B; Kuang, Kenny; Orr, Rhonda; Halaki, Mark; Hackett, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Movement velocity is an acute resistance-training variable that can be manipulated to potentially optimize dynamic muscular strength development. However, it is unclear whether performing faster or slower repetitions actually influences dynamic muscular strength gains. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of movement velocity during resistance training on dynamic muscular strength. Five electronic databases were searched using terms related to movement velocity and resistance training. Studies were deemed eligible for inclusion if they met the following criteria: randomized and non-randomized comparative studies; published in English; included healthy adults; used isotonic resistance-exercise interventions directly comparing fast or explosive training to slower movement velocity training; matched in prescribed intensity and volume; duration ≥4 weeks; and measured dynamic muscular strength changes. A total of 15 studies were identified that investigated movement velocity in accordance with the criteria outlined. Fast and moderate-slow resistance training were found to produce similar increases in dynamic muscular strength when all studies were included. However, when intensity was accounted for, there was a trend for a small effect favoring fast compared with moderate-slow training when moderate intensities, defined as 60-79% one repetition maximum, were used (effect size 0.31; p = 0.06). Strength gains between conditions were not influenced by training status and age. Overall, the results suggest that fast and moderate-slow resistance training improve dynamic muscular strength similarly in individuals within a wide range of training statuses and ages. Resistance training performed at fast movement velocities using moderate intensities showed a trend for superior muscular strength gains as compared to moderate-slow resistance training. Both training practices should be considered for novice to advanced, young and older

  17. Protein Supplementation Does Not Affect Myogenic Adaptations to Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Paul T; Fry, Christopher S; Igbinigie, Sherry; Deer, Rachel R; Jennings, Kristofer; Cope, Mark B; Mukherjea, Ratna; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B

    2017-06-01

    It has been proposed that protein supplementation during resistance exercise training enhances muscle hypertrophy. The degree of hypertrophy during training is controlled in part through the activation of satellite cells and myonuclear accretion. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of protein supplementation (and the type of protein) during traditional resistance training on myofiber cross-sectional area, satellite cell content, and myonuclear addition. Healthy young men participated in supervised whole-body progressive resistance training 3 d·wk for 12 wk. Participants were randomized to one of three groups ingesting a daily 22-g macronutrient dose of soy-dairy protein blend (PB, n = 22), whey protein isolate (WP, n = 15), or an isocaloric maltodextrin placebo (MDP, n = 17). Lean mass, vastus lateralis myofiber-type-specific cross-sectional area, satellite cell content, and myonuclear addition were assessed before and after resistance training. PB and the pooled protein treatments (PB + WP = PRO) exhibited a greater whole-body lean mass %change compared with MDP (P = 0.057 for PB) and (P = 0.050 for PRO), respectively. All treatments demonstrated similar leg muscle hypertrophy and vastus lateralis myofiber-type-specific cross-sectional area (P supplementation during resistance training has a modest effect on whole-body lean mass as compared with exercise training without protein supplementation, and there was no effect on any outcome between protein supplement types (blend vs whey). However, protein supplementation did not enhance resistance exercise-induced increases in myofiber hypertrophy, satellite cell content, or myonuclear addition in young healthy men. We propose that as long as protein intake is adequate during muscle overload, the adaptations in muscle growth and function will not be influenced by protein supplementation.

  18. The training system for technical personnel of producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleiner, E.

    1980-01-01

    The training system of BBC Mannheim for technical personnel is divided in different activities, according to the different target groups and tenors. Different departments take care of this activities, which supply one another. Problem, training activities and methods are described. (orig.) [de

  19. Addressing muscle performance impairments in cerebral palsy: Implications for upper extremity resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Noelle G; Gannotti, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Case study and literature review. Muscle performance consists of not only strength but also muscle power, rate of force development, and endurance. Therefore, resistance training programs should address not only the force-generating capacity of the muscle but also the ability to produce force quickly. To discuss the National Strength and Conditioning Association's resistance training guidelines for youth as specifically related to optimal dosing for muscle strength versus muscle power. Dosing parameters of frequency, volume, intensity, duration, and velocity are discussed independently for strength and power. We describe how resistance training principles can be applied to the upper extremity in CP through a case study. The case describes an individual with spastic CP, who has a severe motor disability and is non-ambulatory, but has been able to perform resistance training focused on speed, power, and strength. Recommendations to optimize the dosing of this individual's resistance training program are made. Copyright © 2015 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Systematic Review of Resistance Training Versus Endurance Training in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Ringbaek, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE:: Endurance training (ET) as part of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been shown to improve exercise capacity and health-related quality of life, but dyspnea limits the exercise intensity. Therefore, resistance training (RT), which...

  1. Corticosteroid injections, eccentric decline squat training and heavy slow resistance training in patellar tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, M.; Kovanen, V.; Aagaard, P.

    2009-01-01

    A randomized-controlled single-blind trial was conducted to investigate the clinical, structural and functional effects of peritendinous corticosteroid injections (CORT), eccentric decline squat training (ECC) and heavy slow resistance training (HSR) in patellar tendinopathy. Thirty-nine male...

  2. A genetic-based algorithm for personalized resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Jones

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Association studies have identified dozens of genetic variants linked to training responses and sport-related traits. However, no intervention studies utilizing the idea of personalised training based on athlete’s genetic profile have been conducted. Here we propose an algorithm that allows achieving greater results in response to high- or low-intensity resistance training programs by predicting athlete’s potential for the development of power and endurance qualities with the panel of 15 performance-associated gene polymorphisms. To develop and validate such an algorithm we performed two studies in independent cohorts of male athletes (study 1: athletes from different sports (n=28; study 2: soccer players (n=39. In both studies athletes completed an eight-week high- or low-intensity resistance training program, which either matched or mismatched their individual genotype. Two variables of explosive power and aerobic fitness, as measured by the countermovement jump (CMJ and aerobic 3-min cycle test (Aero3 were assessed pre and post 8 weeks of resistance training. In study 1, the athletes from the matched groups (i.e. high-intensity trained with power genotype or low-intensity trained with endurance genotype significantly increased results in CMJ (P=0.0005 and Aero3 (P=0.0004. Whereas, athletes from the mismatched group (i.e. high-intensity trained with endurance genotype or low-intensity trained with power genotype demonstrated non-significant improvements in CMJ (P=0.175 and less prominent results in Aero3 (P=0.0134. In study 2, soccer players from the matched group also demonstrated significantly greater (P<0.0001 performance changes in both tests compared to the mismatched group. Among non- or low responders of both studies, 82% of athletes (both for CMJ and Aero3 were from the mismatched group (P<0.0001. Our results indicate that matching the individual’s genotype with the appropriate training modality leads to more effective resistance

  3. The interactions between hemostasis and resistance training: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento DC

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dahan da Cunha Nascimento1–3, Frederico Ribeiro Neto2, Frederico Santos de Santana1,2, Renato André Sousa da Silva1,4,5, Leopoldo dos Santos-Neto6,7, Sandor Balsamo1,2,61Physical Education Department, UNIEURO University Center, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 2GEPEEFS (Resistance training and Health Research Group, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 3Faculty of Physical Education, University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 4Center of Excellence in Medicine of Exercise (CEMEx Brasília, DF, Brazil; 5Postgraduate Program on Physical Activity and Health, Catholic University of Brasília-UCB, Taguatinga DF, Brazil; 6Graduation Program – Medical Sciences Faculty, University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 7General Internal Medical Center – University Hospital Brasília, University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, BrazilAbstract: Physical inactivity is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is strongly associated with changes in arterial structure. Regular physical activity and exercise contributes to the prevention of coronary artery disease. Therefore, cardiovascular and resistance training improve hemostatic parameters and promote a less thrombotic blood profile. This review highlights the studies, mechanisms, and outcomes relating to the effectiveness of resistance training on the process of hemostasis. The Pubmed, Scopus, Medline, Scielo, Lilacs, Ibecs, and Cochrane databases were used to locate the original articles. Seventeen studies were found during the research process. Of these, ten articles were excluded. Those protocols using a high volume of training for young adults showed a greater fibrinolytic response, and training protocols with intensities above 80% of 1 maximum repetition showed an increased platelet activity. In subjects with coronary artery disease, just one session of resistance training resulted in improvement in the fibrinolytic system (tissue plasminogen activator without raising potential thrombotic markers

  4. Whey protein supplementation during resistance training augments lean body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volek, Jeff S; Volk, Brittanie M; Gómez, Ana L; Kunces, Laura J; Kupchak, Brian R; Freidenreich, Daniel J; Aristizabal, Juan C; Saenz, Catherine; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Ballard, Kevin D; Quann, Erin E; Kawiecki, Diana L; Flanagan, Shawn D; Comstock, Brett A; Fragala, Maren S; Earp, Jacob E; Fernandez, Maria L; Bruno, Richard S; Ptolemy, Adam S; Kellogg, Mark D; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J

    2013-01-01

    Compared to soy, whey protein is higher in leucine, absorbed quicker and results in a more pronounced increase in muscle protein synthesis. To determine whether supplementation with whey promotes greater increases in muscle mass compared to soy or carbohydrate, we randomized non-resistance-trained men and women into groups who consumed daily isocaloric supplements containing carbohydrate (carb; n = 22), whey protein (whey; n = 19), or soy protein (soy; n = 22). All subjects completed a supervised, whole-body periodized resistance training program consisting of 96 workouts (~9 months). Body composition was determined at baseline and after 3, 6, and 9 months. Plasma amino acid responses to resistance exercise followed by supplement ingestion were determined at baseline and 9 months. Daily protein intake (including the supplement) for carb, whey, and soy was 1.1, 1.4, and 1.4 g·kg body mass⁻¹, respectively. Lean body mass gains were significantly (p mass decreased slightly but there were no differences between groups. Fasting concentrations of leucine were significantly elevated (20%) and postexercise plasma leucine increased more than 2-fold in whey. Fasting leucine concentrations were positively correlated with lean body mass responses. Despite consuming similar calories and protein during resistance training, daily supplementation with whey was more effective than soy protein or isocaloric carbohydrate control treatment conditions in promoting gains in lean body mass. These results highlight the importance of protein quality as an important determinant of lean body mass responses to resistance training.

  5. SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS WITH BLOOD FLOW RESTRICTED RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Kacin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood flow restricted resistance (BFRR training with pneumatic tourniquet has been suggested as an alternative for conventional weight training due to the proven benefits for muscle strength and hypertrophy using relatively low resistance, hence reducing the mechanical stress across a joint. As such, it has become an important part of rehabilitation programs used in either injured or operated athletes. Despite a general consensus on effectiveness of BFRR training for muscle conditioning, there are several uncertainties regarding the interplay of various extrinsic and intrinsic factors on its safety and efficiency, which are being reviewed from a clinical perspective. Among extrinsic factors tourniquet cuff pressure, size and shape have been identified as key for safety and efficiency. Among intrinsic factors, limb anthropometrics, patient history and presence of cardiac, vascular, metabolic or peripheral neurologic conditions have been recognized as most important. Though there are a few potential safety concerns connected to BFRR training, the following have been identified as the most probable and health-hazardous: (a mechanical injury to the skin, muscle, and peripheral nerves, (b venous thrombosis due to vascular damage and disturbed hemodynamics and (c augmented arterial blood pressure responses due to combined high body exertion and increased peripheral vascular resistance. Based on reviewed literature and authors’ personal experience with the use of BFRR training in injured athletes, some guidelines for its safe application are outlined. Also, a comprehensive risk assessment tool for screening of subjects prior to their inclusion in a BFRR training program is being introduced.

  6. Effects of two programs of metabolic resistance training on strength and hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Brandt Meister

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The effects of low intensity resistance training combined with vascular occlusion have been investigated by several studies. Similar results on strength and hypertrophy have been observed when such method was compared to high intensity protocols. However, due to the specific apparatus needed to apply vascular occlusion (ex.: Kaatsu on some exercises, alternative forms of metabolic training might be used. In the present study, an isometric contraction was performed within each concentric-eccentric transition phase, for every repetition, to elicit metabolic stress. Objective: The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of two resistance training protocols with metabolic characteristics on strength (1MR, circumference (CIRC and muscle thickness (measured with ultrasonography [MT]. Subjective perception of discomfort was also recorded with an analogical-visual pain scale (AVP. Methods: Twelve young, healthy men were trained with two different methods during 10 weeks. The right limb was trained with an isometric contraction within each concentric-eccentric transition phases for every repetition (ISO whereas the left limb was trained with a pneumatic cuff to apply vascular occlusion (OC on the knee extensor muscles. Both methods were trained at 20% 1MR. Results: It was observed increases on medial tight CIRC, proximal MT, medial MT, distal MT and 1MR, with no difference between both methods. The perception of discomfort was greater for ISO at the end of the third set and lower than reported by OC, at the beginning and end of the training program. Conclusions: Both protocols produced similar gains on strength and hypertrophy. The advantages of training with low loads are important to elderly or rehabilitation training programs. Other studies that compare this method with conventional resistance training are warranted.

  7. Moderate volume of high relative training intensity produces greater strength gains compared with low and high volumes in competitive weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Badillo, Juan José; Izquierdo, Mikel; Gorostiaga, Esteban M

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 3 volumes of heavy resistance, average relative training intensity (expressed as a percentage of 1 repetition maximum that represented the absolute kilograms lifted divided by the number of repetitions performed) programs on maximal strength (1RM) in Snatch (Sn), Clean & Jerk (C&J), and Squat (Sq). Twenty-nine experienced (>3 years), trained junior weightlifters were randomly assigned into 1 of 3 groups: low-intensity group (LIG; n = 12), moderate-intensity group (MIG; n = 9), and high-intensity group (HIG; n = 8). All subjects trained for 10 weeks, 4-5 days a week, in a periodized routine using the same exercises and training volume (expressed as total number of repetitions performed at intensities equal to or greater than 60% of 1RM), but different programmed total repetitions at intensities of >90-100% of 1RM for the entire 10-week period: LIG (46 repetitions), MIG (93 repetitions), and HIG (184 repetitions). During the training period, MIG and LIG showed a significant increase (p strength gains in the MIG than in HIG or LIG. There were no significant differences between LIG and HIG training volume-induced strength gains. All the subjects in HIG were unable to fully accomplish the repetitions programmed at relative intensities greater than 90% of 1RM. The present results indicate that short-term resistance training using moderate volumes of high relative intensity tended to produce higher enhancements in weightlifting performance compared with low and high volumes of high relative training intensities of equal total volume in experienced, trained young weightlifters. Therefore, for the present population of weightlifters, it may be beneficial to use the MIG training protocol to improve the weightlifting program at least in a short-term (10 weeks) cycle of training.

  8. Resistance training and aerobic training improve muscle strength and aerobic capacity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars H; Overgaard, Kristian; Heje, Karen

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We investigated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). METHODS: Eighteen CIDP patients treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin performed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 12 weeks of resistance exercise...... after a run-in period of 12 weeks without exercise. Three times weekly the participants performed aerobic exercise on an ergometer bike or resistance exercise with unilateral training of knee and elbow flexion/extension. Primary outcomes were maximal oxygen consumption velocity (VO2 -max) and maximal...... resulted in an increase of 13.8% ± 16.0% (P = 0.0004) in cIKS. DISCUSSION: Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training improve fitness and strength in CIDP patients. Muscle Nerve, 2017....

  9. Creatine supplementation alters homocysteine level in resistance trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereket-Yücel, S

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of creatine loading and resistance training on the homocysteine and lipid profiles of young males. Sixty male University students (22.34 ± 2.19 years, 1.79 ± 0.08 m, 77.18 ± 12.57 kg, 15.48 ± 4.57% body fat) were randomly divided in to three groups; control (CG=20), creatine supplement (CEG=20) and placebo (PEG=20). Both CEG and PEG participated in a same resistance-training regimen and either taking a creatine supplement (25 g/d for the first 5 days followed 5 g/d thereafter) or the same amount of placebo for 8 weeks. Participants in CG did not take any creatine supplementation and not engage any exercise program. After the body composition were assessed, the homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations, blood lipids, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels of all the participants were measured at the beginning and end of the eight weeks of resistance training. The analysis of the data indicated that the Hcy levels of the CEG after resistance training and receiving the creatine supplement (9.33 ± 4.60) was significantly lower than that of baseline (12.66 ± 5.89) measurements, F(1,18)=12.28, P=0.00. No significant differences were seen in the Hcy levels of the PEG (15.01 ± 10.87) after 8 weeks of training and receiving a placebo (12.46 ± 12.50), F(1,16)=4.65, P=0.05. Furthermore, there were no significant differences among groups in terms of Hcy levels, F(2,52)=1.72, P=0.19. The present study suggests that as well as strength gain; creatine supplementation with resistance training may afford some protection against emerging cardiovascular risk factors.

  10. Inadequate sleep and muscle strength: Implications for resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Olivia E; Drinkwater, Eric J; Urwin, Charles S; Lamon, Séverine; Aisbett, Brad

    2018-02-02

    Inadequate sleep (e.g., an insufficient duration of sleep per night) can reduce physical performance and has been linked to adverse metabolic health outcomes. Resistance exercise is an effective means to maintain and improve physical capacity and metabolic health, however, the outcomes for populations who may perform resistance exercise during periods of inadequate sleep are unknown. The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation (i.e. no sleep) and sleep restriction (i.e. a reduced sleep duration) on resistance exercise performance. A secondary aim was to explore the effects on hormonal indicators or markers of muscle protein metabolism. A systematic search of five electronic databases was conducted with terms related to three combined concepts: inadequate sleep; resistance exercise; performance and physiological outcomes. Study quality and biases were assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project quality assessment tool. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria and were rated as 'moderate' or 'weak' for global quality. Sleep deprivation had little effect on muscle strength during resistance exercise. In contrast, consecutive nights of sleep restriction could reduce the force output of multi-joint, but not single-joint movements. Results were conflicting regarding hormonal responses to resistance training. Inadequate sleep impairs maximal muscle strength in compound movements when performed without specific interventions designed to increase motivation. Strategies to assist groups facing inadequate sleep to effectively perform resistance training may include supplementing their motivation by training in groups or ingesting caffeine; or training prior to prolonged periods of wakefulness. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Study - Sprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Moore, Alan; Ryder, Jeffrey; Everett, Meg; Bloomberg, Jacob; Sibonga, Jean; Shackelford, Linda; Platts, Steven; Martin, David; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; hide

    2010-01-01

    Space flight causes reductions in fitness/health: (1) Cardiovascular -- reduced VO2max, cardiac output (2) Bone -- reduced bone mineral density (3) Muscle -- reduced mass, strength and endurance. Exercise is the primary countermeasure to protect against these changes and was made operational before completely mature. Research continues to identify most effective/efficient exercise programs. Crew medical tests (cardio, muscle, bone) do not yield sufficient information to fine tune the effectiveness of exercise programs, thus there is a need for more detailed testing aimed at identifying the most effective training program. The objective of this program was to obtain detailed information about crew physical fitness pre-and post-flight and evaluate new evidence based exercise prescription with higher intensity, lower duration and frequency.

  12. Comparison of home- and gymnasium-based resistance training on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aging results in a natural loss of flexibility, which is especially essential in the maintenance of functional abilities of the aged to perform activities of daily living. Resistance training may provide a stimulus for flexibility, in addition to its extensive health benefits, since its action is through a full range of motion. The purpose of ...

  13. Resistance training and predicted risk of coronary heart disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of resistance training, designed to prevent the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) based on the Framingham Risk Assessment (FRA) score. Twenty-five healthy sedentary men with low CHD risk were assigned to participate in a 16-week (three days per week) ...

  14. Musculoskeletal adaptations to training with the advanced resistive exercise device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, James A; Lee, Stuart M C; English, Kirk L; Sibonga, Jean; Smith, Scott M; Spiering, Barry A; Hagan, R Donald

    2011-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been used as a means to prevent the musculoskeletal losses associated with spaceflight. Therefore, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration designed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to replace the initial device flown on the International Space Station. The ARED uses vacuum cylinders and inertial flywheels to simulate, in the absence of gravity, the constant mass and inertia, respectively, of free weight (FW) exercise. To compare the musculoskeletal effects of resistance exercise training using the ARED with the effects of training with FW. Previously untrained, ambulatory subjects exercised using one of two modalities: FW (6 men and 3 women) or ARED (8 men and 3 women). Subjects performed squat, heel raise, and dead lift exercises 3 d·wk(-1) for 16 wk. Squat, heel raise, and dead lift strength (one-repetition maximum; using FW and ARED), bone mineral density (via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), and vertical jump were assessed before, during, and after training. Muscle mass (via magnetic resonance imaging) and bone morphology (via quantitative computed tomography) were measured before and after training. Bone biomarkers and circulating hormones were measured before training and after 4, 8, and 16 wk. Muscle strength, muscle volume, vertical jump height, and lumbar spine bone mineral density (via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative computed tomography) significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) in both groups. There were no significant differences between groups in any of the dependent variables at any time. After 16 wk of training, ARED exercise resulted in musculoskeletal effects that were not significantly different from the effects of training with FW. Because FW training mitigates bed rest-induced deconditioning, the ARED may be an effective countermeasure for spaceflight-induced deconditioning and should be validated during spaceflight.

  15. Robot-Applied Resistance Augments the Effects of Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training on Stepping and Synaptic Plasticity in a Rodent Model of Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinahon, Erika; Estrada, Christina; Tong, Lin; Won, Deborah S; de Leon, Ray D

    2017-08-01

    The application of resistive forces has been used during body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) to improve walking function after spinal cord injury (SCI). Whether this form of training actually augments the effects of BWSTT is not yet known. To determine if robotic-applied resistance augments the effects of BWSTT using a controlled experimental design in a rodent model of SCI. Spinally contused rats were treadmill trained using robotic resistance against horizontal (n = 9) or vertical (n = 8) hind limb movements. Hind limb stepping was tested before and after 6 weeks of training. Two control groups, one receiving standard training (ie, without resistance; n = 9) and one untrained (n = 8), were also tested. At the terminal experiment, the spinal cords were prepared for immunohistochemical analysis of synaptophysin. Six weeks of training with horizontal resistance increased step length, whereas training with vertical resistance enhanced step height and movement velocity. None of these changes occurred in the group that received standard (ie, no resistance) training or in the untrained group. Only standard training increased the number of step cycles and shortened cycle period toward normal values. Synaptophysin expression in the ventral horn was highest in rats trained with horizontal resistance and in untrained rats and was positively correlated with step length. Adding robotic-applied resistance to BWSTT produced gains in locomotor function over BWSTT alone. The impact of resistive forces on spinal connections may depend on the nature of the resistive forces and the synaptic milieu that is present after SCI.

  16. Hamstring activation during lower body resistance training exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, William P

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in hamstring activation during lower body resistance training exercises. This study also sought to assess differences in hamstring-to-quadriceps muscle activation ratios and gender differences therein. A randomized repeated measures design was used to compare six resistance training exercises that are commonly believed to train the hamstrings, including the squat, seated leg curl, stiff leg dead lift, single leg stiff leg dead lift, good morning, and Russian curl. Subjects included 34 college athletes. Outcome measures included the biceps femoris (H) and rectus femoris (Q) electromyography (EMG) and the H-to-Q EMG ratio, for each exercise. Main effects were found for the H (P ratio when analyzed for all subjects (P ratios of men, for the exercises assessed. In a separate analysis of strength matched women and men, women achieved between 35.9 to 76.0% of the H-to-Q ratios of men, for these exercises. Hamstring resistance training exercises offer differing degrees of H and Q activation and ratios. Women compared with men, are less able to activate the hamstrings and/or more able to activate the quadriceps. Women may require disproportionately greater training for the hamstrings compared with the quadriceps.

  17. Progressive resistance training increases strength after stroke but this may not carry over to activity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, Simone; Ada, Louise; Alloggia, Daniella

    2018-04-01

    Does progressive resistance training improve strength and activity after stroke? Does any increase in strength carry over to activity? Systematic review of randomised trials with meta-analysis. Adults who have had a stroke. Progressive resistance training compared with no intervention or placebo. The primary outcome was change in strength. This measurement had to be of maximum voluntary force production and performed in muscles congruent with the muscles trained in the intervention. The secondary outcome was change in activity. This measurement had to be a direct measure of performance that produced continuous or ordinal data, or with scales that produced ordinal data. Eleven studies involving 370 participants were included in this systematic review. The overall effect of progressive resistance training on strength was examined by pooling change scores from six studies with a mean PEDro score of 5.8, representing medium quality. The effect size of progressive resistance training on strength was 0.98 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.29, I 2 =0%). The overall effect of progressive resistance training on activity was examined by pooling change scores from the same six studies. The effect size of progressive resistance training on activity was 0.42 (95% CI -0.08 to 0.91, I 2 =54%). After stroke, progressive resistance training has a large effect on strength compared with no intervention or placebo. There is uncertainty about whether these large increases in strength carry over to improvements in activity. PROSPERO CRD42015025401. [Dorsch S, Ada L, Alloggia D (2018) Progressive resistance training increases strength after stroke but this may not carry over to activity: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 64: 84-90]. Copyright © 2018 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of resistance training in individuals with knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Cordeiro Aguiar

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA, the most common form of arthritis, is considered the main cause of pain and disability in the elderly. Objective: To evaluate the effect of systematic muscle strength training on functional performance and quality of life in individuals with knee OA. Methods: Subjects with knee OA (n = 27, 46 - 76 years completed the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC, Medical Outcomes Short-Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36, and visual analog scale (VAS questionnaires, musculoskeletal assessments, and 10-repetition maximum and timed 10-meter walk tests both before and after training. The training consisted of an exercise resistance program and stretches for 12 weeks (three sessions of 80 each per week. Results: Twenty-two subjects completed the training. Reduced overall scores and WOMAC physical function indicated improved functional performance (p < 0.001 as well as increased gait speed (p < 0.001. The perception of pain decreased after training, as evidenced by the VAS, WOMAC pain domain, and SF-36 scores (p < 0.001. Quality of life improvements occurred primarily in the areas of pain, functional capacity, and SF-36 physical aspects. No change in body mass index was noted (p = 0.93. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the combination of resistance training for the quadriceps, gluteus, and abdominal muscles could be a viable alternative to improving functionality and quality of life in patients with knee OA. However, more studies are necessary to confirm our findings.

  19. Aerobic training prevents dexamethasone-induced peripheral insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionísio, T J; Louzada, J C A; Viscelli, B A; Dionísio, E J; Martuscelli, A M; Barel, M; Perez, O A B; Bosqueiro, J R; Brozoski, D T; Santos, C F; Amaral, S L

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated how proteins of the insulin signaling cascade could modulate insulin resistance after dexamethasone (Dexa) treatment and aerobic training. Rats were distributed into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary+Dexa (SD), trained control (TC), and trained+Dexa (TD), and underwent aerobic training for 70 days or remained sedentary. Dexa was administered during the last 10 days (1 mg · kg(-1) per day i. p.). After 70 days, an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (ipGTT) was performed. Protein levels of IRS-1, AKT, and PKC-α in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle were identified using Western blots. Dexa treatment increased blood glucose and the area under the curve (AUC) of ipGTT. Training attenuated the hyperglycemia and the AUC induced by Dexa. Dexa reduced IRS-1 (- 16%) and AKT (- 43%) protein level with no changes in PKC-α levels. Moreover, these effects on IRS-1 and AKT protein level were prevented in trained animals. These results show for the first time that aerobic exercise prevented reductions of IRS-1 and AKT level induced by Dexa in the TA muscle, suggesting that aerobic exercise is a good strategy to prevent Dexa-induced peripheral insulin resistance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Resistance training intensity and volume affect changes in rate of force development in resistance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Wang, Ran; Gonzalez, Adam M; Townsend, Jeremy R; Wells, Adam J; Jajtner, Adam R; Beyer, Kyle S; Boone, Carleigh H; Miramonti, Amelia A; LaMonica, Michael B; Fukuda, David H; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2016-12-01

    To compare the effects of two different resistance training programs, high intensity (INT) and high volume (VOL), on changes in isometric force (FRC), rate of force development (RFD), and barbell velocity during dynamic strength testing. Twenty-nine resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either the INT (n = 15, 3-5 RM, 3-min rest interval) or VOL (n = 14, 10-12 RM, 1-min rest interval) training group for 8 weeks. All participants completed a 2-week preparatory phase prior to randomization. Measures of barbell velocity, FRC, and RFD were performed before (PRE) and following (POST) the 8-week training program. Barbell velocity was determined during one-repetition maximum (1RM) testing of the squat (SQ) and bench press (BP) exercises. The isometric mid-thigh pull was used to assess FRC and RFD at specific time bands ranging from 0 to 30, 50, 90, 100, 150, 200, and 250 ms. Analysis of covariance revealed significant (p resistance-trained men.

  1. Resistance strength training exercise in children with spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewelt, Aga; Krosschell, Kristin J; Stoddard, Gregory J; Weng, Cindy; Xue, Mei; Marcus, Robin L; Gappmaier, Eduard; Viollet, Louis; Johnson, Barbara A; White, Andrea T; Viazzo-Trussell, Donata; Lopes, Philippe; Lane, Robert H; Carey, John C; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2015-10-01

    Preliminary evidence in adults with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and in SMA animal models suggests exercise has potential benefits in improving or stabilizing muscle strength and motor function. We evaluated feasibility, safety, and effects on strength and motor function of a home-based, supervised progressive resistance strength training exercise program in children with SMA types II and III. Up to 14 bilateral proximal muscles were exercised 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. Nine children with SMA, aged 10.4 ± 3.8 years, completed the resistance training exercise program. Ninety percent of visits occurred per protocol. Training sessions were pain-free (99.8%), and no study-related adverse events occurred. Trends in improved strength and motor function were observed. A 12-week supervised, home-based, 3-day/week progressive resistance training exercise program is feasible, safe, and well tolerated in children with SMA. These findings can inform future studies of exercise in SMA. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Synergistic effects of resistance training and protein intake: practical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Cholewa, Jason Michael; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Zhi, X I A; Magagnin, Daiane; de Sá, Rafaele Bis Dal Ponte; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Teixeira, Tamiris da Silva; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2014-10-01

    Resistance training is a potent stimulus to increase skeletal muscle mass. The muscle protein accretion process depends on a robust synergistic action between protein intake and overload. The intake of protein after resistance training increases plasma amino acids, which results in the activation of signaling molecules leading to increased muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle hypertrophy. Although both essential and non-essential amino acids are necessary for hypertrophy, the intake of free L-leucine or high-leucine whole proteins has been specifically shown to increase the initiation of translation that is essential for elevated MPS. The literature supports the use of protein intake following resistance-training sessions to enhance MPS; however, less understood are the effects of different protein sources and timing protocols on MPS. The sum of the adaptions from each individual training session is essential to muscle hypertrophy, and thus highlights the importance of an optimal supplementation protocol. The aim of this review is to present recent findings reported in the literature and to discuss the practical application of these results. In that light, new speculations and questions will arise that may direct future investigations. The information and recommendations generated in this review should be of benefit to clinical dietitians as well as those engaged in sports. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of arachidonic acid supplementation on training adaptations in resistance-trained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenwood Mike

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the impact of AA supplementation during resistance training on body composition, training adaptations, and markers of muscle hypertrophy in resistance-trained males. Methods In a randomized and double blind manner, 31 resistance-trained male subjects (22.1 ± 5.0 years, 180 ± 0.1 cm, 86.1 ± 13.0 kg, 18.1 ± 6.4% body fat ingested either a placebo (PLA: 1 g·day-1 corn oil, n = 16 or AA (AA: 1 g·day-1 AA, n = 15 while participating in a standardized 4 day·week-1 resistance training regimen. Fasting blood samples, body composition, bench press one-repetition maximum (1RM, leg press 1RM and Wingate anaerobic capacity sprint tests were completed after 0, 25, and 50 days of supplementation. Percutaneous muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis on days 0 and 50. Results Wingate relative peak power was significantly greater after 50 days of supplementation while the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was significantly lower after 25 days of supplementation in the AA group. PGE2 levels tended to be greater in the AA group. However, no statistically significant differences were observed between groups in body composition, strength, anabolic and catabolic hormones, or markers of muscle hypertrophy (i.e. total protein content or MHC type I, IIa, and IIx protein content and other intramuscular markers (i.e. FP and EP3 receptor density or MHC type I, IIa, and IIx mRNA expression. Conclusion AA supplementation during resistance-training may enhance anaerobic capacity and lessen the inflammatory response to training. However, AA supplementation did not promote statistically greater gains in strength, muscle mass, or influence markers of muscle hypertrophy.

  4. Effects of arachidonic acid supplementation on training adaptations in resistance-trained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael D; Iosia, Mike; Kerksick, Chad M; Taylor, Lem W; Campbell, Bill; Wilborn, Colin D; Harvey, Travis; Cooke, Matthew; Rasmussen, Chris; Greenwood, Mike; Wilson, Ronald; Jitomir, Jean; Willoughby, Darryn; Kreider, Richard B

    2007-11-28

    To determine the impact of AA supplementation during resistance training on body composition, training adaptations, and markers of muscle hypertrophy in resistance-trained males. In a randomized and double blind manner, 31 resistance-trained male subjects (22.1 +/- 5.0 years, 180 +/- 0.1 cm, 86.1 +/- 13.0 kg, 18.1 +/- 6.4% body fat) ingested either a placebo (PLA: 1 g.day-1 corn oil, n = 16) or AA (AA: 1 g.day-1 AA, n = 15) while participating in a standardized 4 day.week-1 resistance training regimen. Fasting blood samples, body composition, bench press one-repetition maximum (1RM), leg press 1RM and Wingate anaerobic capacity sprint tests were completed after 0, 25, and 50 days of supplementation. Percutaneous muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis on days 0 and 50. Wingate relative peak power was significantly greater after 50 days of supplementation while the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was significantly lower after 25 days of supplementation in the AA group. PGE2 levels tended to be greater in the AA group. However, no statistically significant differences were observed between groups in body composition, strength, anabolic and catabolic hormones, or markers of muscle hypertrophy (i.e. total protein content or MHC type I, IIa, and IIx protein content) and other intramuscular markers (i.e. FP and EP3 receptor density or MHC type I, IIa, and IIx mRNA expression). AA supplementation during resistance-training may enhance anaerobic capacity and lessen the inflammatory response to training. However, AA supplementation did not promote statistically greater gains in strength, muscle mass, or influence markers of muscle hypertrophy.

  5. Perceptual effects and efficacy of intermittent or continuous blood flow restriction resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitschen, P J; Kistler, B M; Jeong, J H; Chung, H R; Wu, P T; Walsh, M J; Wilund, K R

    2014-09-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) exercise may be an alternative form of resistance training; however, a side of effect of BFR resistance exercise is acute muscle pain. Typically, BFR exercise studies restrict blood flow with a cuff continuously during the exercise bout, including rest periods. However, others have used intermittent BFR where the cuff is inflated only during sets. We performed two studies to compare intermittent and continuous BFR exercise. In study one, eleven subjects randomly proceeded through three treatments of unilateral leg extensions to failure: (i) continuous BFR, (ii) intermittent BFR and (iii) control (exercise without BFR). Pain measurements were taken immediately after each set. In study two, subjects (n = 32) underwent a 5-week resistance training programme after random assignment to one of the three conditions. Lean mass and strength were assessed at baseline and after training. Continuous BFR resulted in significantly greater pain than intermittent BFR or control. Both BFR conditions resulted in significantly fewer repetitions to failure than control. This suggests that an acute bout of intermittent BFR exercise may produce as much muscle fatigue as an acute bout of continuous BFR exercise, but with less pain. With training, maximal knee extension (P = 0·033) and maximum knee flexion (P = 0·007) strength increased among all groups. There were no significant differences between groups in strength or lean mass. These results suggest that short-term low-load resistance training increases muscle strength to a similar extent as low-load resistance training without BFR. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Prior exercise training produces NO-dependent increases in collateral blood flow after acute arterial occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H T; Ren, Jie; Laughlin, M Harold; Terjung, Ronald L

    2002-01-01

    We previously reported that prior training improves collateral blood flow (BF) to the calf muscles after acute-onset occlusion of the femoral artery (Yang HT et al. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 279: H1890-H1897, 2000). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that increased release of nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthase (likely endothelial NOS) contributes to the increased BF to calf muscles of trained rats after acute femoral artery occlusion. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (~325 g) were limited to cage activity and were sedentary (SED; n = 28) or exercise trained (TR; n = 30) for 6 wk by treadmill running. On the day of the investigation, rats were anesthetized with ketamine-acepromazine and instrumented for determination of BF (using (141)Ce- and (85)Sr-labeled microspheres) and distal limb arterial pressure, and femoral arteries were occluded bilaterally. Four hours after surgery, collateral BF was determined twice during treadmill running: first at a demanding speed (20 m/min, 15% grade) and second, after a brief rest and at a faster running speed (25 m/min, 15% grade). The fact that BF did not increase further at the higher running speed indicated that maximal collateral BF was measured. Approximately half of the rats in each group received 20 mg/kg body wt N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) intra-arterially 30 min before treadmill exercise and BF measurement to block production of NO by NOS. Results indicate that prior training improved collateral-dependent BF to the skeletal muscle of rats after acute femoral artery occlusion due primarily to an increase in the conductance of the upstream collateral circuit. Blockade of NOS with L-NAME produced decreased vascular conductance, both in the upstream collateral circuit and in the distal skeletal muscle microcirculation, and the difference between collateral vascular conductance in TR and SED rats was abolished. Our results indicate that the primary determinant of the increased collateral BF

  7. Antimicrobial Drug-Resistant Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infections, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sanjana; Mosci, Rebekah E; Anderson, Chase M; Snyder, Brian A; Collins, James; Rudrik, James T; Manning, Shannon D

    2017-09-01

    High frequencies of antimicrobial drug resistance were observed in O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains recovered from patients in Michigan during 2010-2014. Resistance was more common in non-O157 strains and independently associated with hospitalization, indicating that resistance could contribute to more severe disease outcomes.

  8. Effect of specific resistance training on musculoskeletal pain symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Andersen, Lars Louis; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Pedersen, MT, Andersen, LL, Jørgensen, MB, Søgaard, K, and Sjøgaard, G. Effect of specific resistance training on musculoskeletal pain symptoms: Dose-response relationship. J Strength Cond Res 27(1): 229-235, 2013-The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-response of strength...... training for relieving musculoskeletal pain in female office workers. The relation between the dose of training in terms of total training volume (sets × repetitions × load reported in training diaries) during a 16-week strength training program and changes in pain (calculated as pain index, 0-100%, from...... index in SRT and APE decreased significantly from baseline to follow-up (-25%/-22%) compared with changes in REF (-15%). In the dose-response analysis within the SRT group (n = 125), the total volume of training (mean 18.056 kg, SD = 13.798) was negatively correlated with changes in pain index (ß = -0...

  9. Effect of Lower-Body Resistance Training on Upper-Body Strength Adaptation in Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, Sandro; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Merni, Franco

    2018-01-01

    Bartolomei, S, Hoffman, JR, Stout, JR, and Merni, F. Effect of lower-body resistance training on upper-body strength adaptation in trained men. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 13-18, 2018-The aim of this study was to examine the effect of 2 different lower-body strength training schemes on upper-body adaptations to resistance training. Twenty resistance-trained men (4.25 ± 1.6 years of experience) were randomly assigned to either a high intensity (HI; n = 9; age = 24.9 ± 2.9 years; body mass = 88.7 ± 17.2 kg; height = 177.0 ± 5.6 cm) or a mixed high volume and HI resistance training program (MP; n = 11; age = 26.0 ± 4.7 years; body mass = 82.8 ± 9.1 kg; height = 177.54 ± 5.9 cm). High-intensity group followed a HI training for both upper and lower body (4-5 reps at 88%-90% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM)), whereas the MP group performed high-volume training sessions focused on muscle hypertrophy for lower body (10-12 reps at 65%-70% of 1-RM) and a HI protocol for the upper body. Maximal strength and power testing occurred before and after the 6-week training program. Analysis of covariance was used to compare performance measures between the groups. Greater increases in MP groups compared with HI groups were observed for bench press 1RM (p = 0.007), bench press power at 50% of 1RM (p = 0.011), and for arm muscle area (p = 0.046). Significant difference between the 2 groups at posttest were also observed for fat mass (p = 0.009). Results indicated that training programs focused on lower-body muscle hypertrophy and maximal strength for upper body can stimulate greater strength and power gains in the upper body compared with HI resistance training programs for both the upper and lower body.

  10. Resistance training, insulin sensitivity and muscle function in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Kjaer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Ageing is associated with a loss in both muscle mass and in the metabolic quality of skeletal muscle. This leads to sarcopenia and reduced daily function, as well as to an increased risk for development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. A major part, but not all, of these changes...... are associated with an age-related decrease in the physical activity level and can be counteracted by increased physical activity of a resistive nature. Strength training has been shown to improve insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in both healthy elderly individuals and patients with manifest diabetes...

  11. Practicing the Test Produces Strength Equivalent to Higher Volume Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattocks, Kevin T; Buckner, Samuel L; Jessee, Matthew B; Dankel, Scott J; Mouser, J Grant; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2017-09-01

    To determine if muscle growth is important for increasing muscle strength or if changes in strength can be entirely explained from practicing the strength test. Thirty-eight untrained individuals performed knee extension and chest press exercise for 8 wk. Individuals were randomly assigned to either a high-volume training group (HYPER) or a group just performing the one repetition maximum (1RM) strength test (TEST). The HYPER group performed four sets to volitional failure (~8RM-12RM), whereas the TEST group performed up to five attempts to lift as much weight as possible one time each visit. Data are presented as mean (90% confidence interval). The change in muscle size was greater in the HYPER group for both the upper and lower bodies at most but not all sites. The change in 1RM strength for both the upper body (difference of -1.1 [-4.8, 2.4] kg) and lower body (difference of 1.0 [-0.7, 2.8] kg for dominant leg) was not different between groups (similar for nondominant). Changes in isometric and isokinetic torque were not different between groups. The HYPER group observed a greater change in muscular endurance (difference of 2 [1,4] repetitions) only in the dominant leg. There were no differences in the change between groups in upper body endurance. There were between-group differences for exercise volume (mean [95% confidence interval]) of the dominant (difference of 11,049.3 [9254.6-12,844.0] kg) leg (similar for nondominant) and chest press with the HYPER group completing significantly more total volume (difference of 13259.9 [9632.0-16,887.8] kg). These findings suggest that neither exercise volume nor the change in muscle size from training contributed to greater strength gains compared with just practicing the test.

  12. Synergistic Activity of Colistin plus Rifampin against Colistin-Resistant KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Tascini, Carlo; Tagliaferri, Enrico; Giani, Tommaso; Leonildi, Alessandro; Flammini, Sarah; Casini, Beatrice; Lewis, Russell; Ferranti, Simone; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Menichetti, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae are responsible for high rates of mortality and represent a major therapeutic challenge, especially when the isolates are also resistant to colistin. We used the checkerboard method to evaluate the synergistic activity of 10 antibiotic combinations against 13 colistin-resistant KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates (colistin MIC range of 8 to 128 mg/liter). Colistin plus rifampin was the only combination that demonst...

  13. Effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training on maximal strength and power in trained athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ataee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accommodation resistance is a training technique that may improve strength and power gains beyond those achieved by traditional free weights. In this method, chains are either added on a free-weight bar and combined with traditional plates or added to the bar as the entire load.Purpose. The aim of the current study was to compare the effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training methods during a four-week period on maximal strength and power in trained athletes.Methods. This study was comprised of 24 trained athletes, including 16 trained males [8 Wushu athletes (Kung-Fu and 8 wrestlers, age: 20.5 ± 2.00 yrs. old]. Participants were initially tested on weight, body circumference, fat percent, upper and lower body maximal strength, determined by the 1-repetition maximum (1RM test, which determines the greatest amount of weight a person can successfully lift, and upper and lower body power. Participants were equally randomized to either accommodation or constant resistance training groups. Both groups underwent resistance training for a four-week period that consisted of three sessions per week. Multivariate repeated-measures analyses of variance of the data were used to verify significant differences in strength and power between groups. The modified Bonferroni post hoc test was used to compare the obtained results in pre-, mid-, and post test.Results. In the accommodation resistance group, there was a significant difference in lower body maximal strength compared to the constant group (163.12 ± 18.82 kg in the accommodation group vs. 142.25 ± 20.04 kg in the constant group, P = 0.04. No significant differences were found in upper body power, lower body power, and upper body maximal strength between the two groups (P > 0.05.Conclusion. Although there was only a significant difference in lower body maximal strength between groups, accommodation resistance training may induce a physiological training response by improving the

  14. Inertial flywheel resistance training and muscle oxygen saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timón, Rafael; Ponce-González, Jesús G; González-Montesinos, José L; Olcina, Guillermo; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro; Castro-Piñero, José

    2017-07-24

    The inertial flywheel device causes an increase in eccentric overload during training. The aim was to study muscle oxygen saturation produced during an inertial flywheel squat training, comparing it with a barbell squat training. Twelve male adults performed a barbell squat training (3 x 8 reps, 75-80% 1RM) and a flywheel squat training (3 x 8 reps, all-out). Muscle oxygen saturation (%SmO2), total hemoglobin (tHb), reoxygenation, heart rate (HR), lactate, vertical jumps, maximal voluntary isometric contraction and rated perceived exertion (RPE) were studied. Both protocols produced a significant decrease in %SmO2 and tHB during the sets of squats, and a significant increase in HR, lactate sdand RPE after training. The flywheel squat protocol caused a greater decrease in %SmO2 than the barbell squat protocol in each of the sets of exercises (1st set:- 67.5 ± 7.2vs -53.7 ± 16.2 %; 2nd set: - 67.2 ± 13.5vs -53.6 ± 15.4 %; 3rdset: -68.1 ± 13.0vs -55.0 ± 17.0 %), as well as a longer reoxygenation after finishing the training (61.7 ± 12.6 vs 55.7 ± 13.7 s.). Although no differences were found on a muscle fatigue level, the flywheel training brought on greater physiological stress than the barbell squat training, observing a greater decrease in muscle oxygen saturation and a longer reoxygenation.

  15. Effect of whole body resistance training on arterial compliance in young men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakobowchuk, M.; McGowan, C.L.; Groot, P.C.E. de; Bruinsma, D.; Hartman, J.W.; Phillips, S.M.; MacDonald, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of resistance training on arterial stiffening is controversial. We tested the hypothesis that resistance training would not alter central arterial compliance. Young healthy men (age, 23 +/- 3.9 (mean +/- s.e.m.) years; n = 28,) were whole-body resistance trained five times a week for 12

  16. Effects of Training Attendance on Muscle Strength of Young Men after 11 Weeks of Resistance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Paulo; Bottaro, Martim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Training attendance is an important variable for attaining optimal results after a resistance training (RT) program, however, the association of attendance with the gains of muscle strength is not well defined. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to verify if attendance would affect muscle strength gains in healthy young males. Methods Ninety two young males with no previous RT experience volunteered to participate in the study. RT was performed 2 days a week for 11 weeks. One repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press and knee extensors peak torque (PT) were measured before and after the training period. After the training period, a two step cluster analysis was used to classify the participants in accordance to training attendance, resulting in three groups, defined as high (92 to 100%), intermediate (80 to 91%) and low (60 to 79%) training attendance. Results According to the results, there were no significant correlations between strength gains and training attendance, however, when attendance groups were compared, the low training attendance group showed lower increases in 1RM bench press (8.8%) than the other two groups (17.6% and 18.0% for high and intermediate attendance, respectively). Conclusions Although there is not a direct correlation between training attendance and muscle strength gains, it is suggested that a minimum attendance of 80% is necessary to ensure optimal gains in upper body strength. PMID:23802051

  17. Evaluation of Performance Improvements After Either Resistance Training or Sprint Interval-Based Concurrent Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Richard H; Elmer, David J; Barberio, Matthew D; Salom, Lorena P; Lee, Khalil A; Pascoe, David D

    2016-11-01

    Laird IV, RH, Elmer, DJ, Barberio, MD, Salom, LP, Lee, KA, and Pascoe, DD. Evaluation of performance improvements after either resistance training or sprint interval-based concurrent training. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3057-3065, 2016-The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of concurrent sprint interval and resistance training (CST) vs. resistance training (RT) on measures of strength, power, and aerobic fitness in recreationally active women. Twenty-eight women (20.3 ± 1.7 years; 63.0 ± 9.1; 51.1 ± 7.1 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) back squat (kg); V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 35.4 ± 4.1 ml·kg·min) were recruited to complete an 11-week training program. Participants were matched-pair assigned to CST or RT cohorts after preliminary testing, which consisted of 1-RM back squats, maximal isometric squats, anaerobic power evaluations, and maximal oxygen consumption. All subjects trained 3 days per week with sprint-interval training occurring at least 4 hours after RT in the CST cohort. Both CST and RT resulted in significant improvements (p ≤ 0.05) in the 1-RM back squat (37.5 ± 7.8; 40.0 ± 9.6 kg), maximal isometric force (55.7 ± 51.3; 53.7 ± 36.7 kg), average peak anaerobic power testing (7.4 ± 6.2; 7.6 ± 6.4%), and zero-incline treadmill velocity, resulting in maximal oxygen consumption (1.8 ± 0.6; 0.8 ± 0.6 km·h). Only zero-incline treadmill velocity demonstrated a group-by-time interaction with a greater improvement after CST (p training might supplement programs already in place.

  18. Strategies for Optimizing Strength, Power, and Muscle Hypertrophy in Women: Contribution of Upper Body Resistance Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraemer, William

    1999-01-01

    To determine the performance and physiological effects of various physical conditioning programs in women, total body, upper-body resistance training groups, field training and aerobic training groups (n = 11 to 21...

  19. Recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: resistance and cardiovascular training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, E R; Fitschen, P J; Aragon, A A; Cronin, J; Schoenfeld, B J

    2015-03-01

    The anabolic effect of resistance training can mitigate muscle loss during contest preparation. In reviewing relevant literature, we recommend a periodized approach be utilized. Block and undulating models show promise. Muscle groups should be trained 2 times weekly or more, although high volume training may benefit from higher frequencies to keep volume at any one session from becoming excessive. Low to high (~3-15) repetitions can be utilized but most repetitions should occur in the 6-12 range using 70-80% of 1 repetition maximum. Roughly 40-70 reps per muscle group per session should be performed, however higher volume may be appropriate for advanced bodybuilders. Traditional rest intervals of 1-3 minutes are adequate, but longer intervals can be used. Tempo should allow muscular control of the load; 1-2 s concentric and 2-3 s eccentric tempos. Training to failure should be limited when performing heavy loads on taxing exercises, and primarily relegated to single-joint exercises and higher repetitions. A core of multi-joint exercises with some single-joint exercises to address specific muscle groups as needed should be used, emphasizing full range of motion and proper form. Cardiovascular training can be used to enhance fat loss. Interference with strength training adaptations increases concomitantly with frequency and duration of cardiovascular training. Thus, the lowest frequency and duration possible while achieving sufficient fat loss should be used. Full-body modalities or cycling may reduce interference. High intensities may as well; however, require more recovery. Fasted cardiovascular training may not have benefits over fed-state and could be detrimental.

  20. Corrosion and wear resistant metallic layers produced by electrochemical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lasse; Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1999-01-01

    Corrosion and wear-corrosion properties of novel nickel alloy coatings with promising production characteristics have been compared with conventional bulk materials and hard platings. Corrosion properties in neutral and acidic environments have been investigated with electrochemical methods....... Determination of polarisation resistance during 100 hours followed by stepwise anodic polarisation seems to be a promising technique to obtain steady state data on slowly corroding coatings with transient kinetics. A slurry test enables determination of simultaneous corrosion and abrasive wear. Comparison...... of AISI 316, hard chromium and hardened Ni-P shows that there is no universal correlation between surface hardness and wear-corrosion loss. The possible relation between questionable passivity of Ni-P coatings and their high wear-corrosion loss rate compared to hard chromium is discussed....

  1. Control and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria in food-producing animals in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased antimicrobial resistance in bacteria that cause infections in humans is a threat to public health. The use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals in the form of veterinary medicine and feed additives may lead to the emergence or spread of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of animal origin. In Japan, the use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals is regulated by the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law and Feed Safety Law to minimise the risk of emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Since December 2003, all antimicrobials used in food-producing animals have been subjected to risk assessment by the Food Safety Commission. In addition, an antimicrobial resistance monitoring programme has been in place since 2000 to monitor the evolution of resistance to different antimicrobials in bacteria in food-producing animals.

  2. Effects of resistance training and aerobic training on ambulation in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severinsen, Kaare; Jakobsen, Johannes K; Pedersen, Asger R; Overgaard, Kristian; Andersen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of aerobic training (AT) with progressive resistance training (RT) after stroke to determine whether AT-induced fitness gains or RT-induced strength gains translate into improved ambulation across a 12-wk intervention and whether gains are retained 1 yr after cessation of formal training. This study is a randomized controlled 12-wk intervention trial with a 1-yr follow-up. Forty-three community-dwelling independent walkers with a chronic ischemic hemiparetic stroke were allocated to AT using a cycle ergometer (n = 13), RT using training machines (n = 14), or low-intensity sham training of the arms (n = 16). The main outcome measures were 6-min walk distance and fast 10-m walking speed. Comparisons between AT, RT, and sham training revealed no clinically relevant effects on walking velocity or walking distance. Muscle strength improved after RT (P muscle strength or aerobic capacity using non-task-specific training methods does not result in improved ambulation in patients with chronic stroke. Muscle strength gains were maintained at follow-up, whereas all improvements of aerobic capacity were lost, indicating a long-lasting effect of intensive RT even without maintenance training.

  3. Resistance training vs. static stretching: effects on flexibility and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Sam K; Whitehead, James R; Brinkert, Ronald H; Caine, Dennis J

    2011-12-01

    Morton, SK, Whitehead, JR, Brinkert, RH, and Caine, DJ. Resistance training vs. static stretching: Effects on flexibility and strength. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3391-3398, 2011-The purpose of this study was to determine how full-range resistance training (RT) affected flexibility and strength compared to static stretching (SS) of the same muscle-joint complexes in untrained adults. Volunteers (n = 25) were randomized to an RT or SS training group. A group of inactive volunteers (n = 12) served as a convenience control group (CON). After pretesting hamstring extension, hip flexion and extension, shoulder extension flexibility, and peak torque of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, subjects completed 5-week SS or RT treatments in which the aim was to stretch or to strength train the same muscle-joint complexes over similar movements and ranges. Posttests of flexibility and strength were then conducted. There was no difference in hamstring flexibility, hip flexion, and hip extension improvement between RT and SS, but both were superior to CON values. There were no differences between groups on shoulder extension flexibility. The RT group was superior to the CON in knee extension peak torque, but there were no differences between groups on knee flexion peak torque. The results of this preliminary study suggest that carefully constructed full-range RT regimens can improve flexibility as well as the typical SS regimens employed in conditioning programs. Because of the potential practical significance of these results to strength and conditioning programs, further studies using true experimental designs, larger sample sizes, and longer training durations should be conducted with the aim of confirming or disproving these results.

  4. Shoulder injuries attributed to resistance training: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolber, Morey J; Beekhuizen, Kristina S; Cheng, Ming-Shun S; Hellman, Madeleine A

    2010-06-01

    The popularity of resistance training (RT) is evident by the more than 45 million Americans who engage in strength training regularly. Although the health and fitness benefits ascribed to RT are generally agreed upon, participation is not without risk. Acute and chronic injuries attributed to RT have been cited in the epidemiological literature among both competitive and recreational participants. The shoulder complex in particular has been alluded to as one of the most prevalent regions of injury. The purpose of this manuscript is to present an overview of documented shoulder injuries among the RT population and where possible discern mechanisms of injury and risk factors. A literature search was conducted in the PUBMED, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and OVID databases to identify relevant articles for inclusion using combinations of key words: resistance training, shoulder, bodybuilding, weightlifting, shoulder injury, and shoulder disorder. The results of the review indicated that up to 36% of documented RT-related injuries and disorders occur at the shoulder complex. Trends that increased the likelihood of injury were identified and inclusive of intrinsic risk factors such as joint and muscle imbalances and extrinsic risk factors, namely, that of improper attention to exercise technique. A majority of the available research was retrospective in nature, consisting of surveys and descriptive epidemiological reports. A paucity of research was available to identify predictive variables leading to injury, suggesting the need for future prospective-based investigations.

  5. Parent training in nonviolent resistance for adult entitled dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Eli; Dolberger, Dan; Nortov, Efi; Omer, Haim

    2012-03-01

    "Adult entitled dependence" is a condition characterized by the extreme dependence of grown children on their family and by levels of dysfunction, seemingly excessive in light of their apparent capacity to function. The family and the dependent adult become involved in an interaction in which the very attempts to alleviate the problem may aggravate it. Parent-training in nonviolent resistance (NVR) is an intervention that has been shown to be helpful to parents of behaviorally disturbed youth. Parent training in NVR offers parents means to shift away from a stance of helplessness toward realistic goals that are accomplishable without the collaboration of their offspring. We report on the parents of 27 entitled dependent grown children who participated in parent training in NVR. Additionally, we present 2 detailed case studies that exemplify the problem and the therapeutic process. Before treatment, the dependent adults were not working or studying, drew heavily on parental services (financial or otherwise), and were resistant to parental attempts to change the situation. Most parents succeeded in overcoming their helplessness and reducing the provision of parental services. In a considerable proportion of cases, the grown children started working or studying or moved to independent lodgings. © FPI, Inc.

  6. Effects of Resistance Training on Ventricular Function and Hypertrophy in a Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barauna, Valério Garrone; Rosa, Kaleizu Teodoro; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to follow the ventricular function and cardiac hypertrophy in rats undergoing a resistance-training program for a period of 3 months. Design: Forty animals were divided into two major groups: control (n=16) and resistance trained (n=24). From the resistance-trained group, 12 animals were resistance trained for 1 month and another 12 for 3 months. The resistance-training protocol was performed with 4 sets of 12 repetitions using 65% to 75% of one repetition maximum (maximum lifted weight with the exercise apparatus). Methods: Echocardiographic analysis was performed at the beginning of the resistance-training period and at the end of each month. The repetition maximum was measured every 2 weeks. Cardiac hypertrophy was determined by echocardiography, by the absolute weight of the cardiac chambers and by histology of the left ventricle. Results: Before resistance training, both groups had similar repetition maximums, ranging from 1.8-fold to 2-fold the body weight; however, at the end of the resistance-training period, the repetition maximum of the resistance-trained group was 6-fold greater than the body weight. The left ventricular mass as assessed by echocardiography was 8%, 12% and 16% larger in the resistance-trained group than in the control group in the first, second and third months, respectively. This hypertrophy showed a similar increase in the interventricular septum and in the free posterior wall mass. There was no reduction in the end-diastolic left ventricular internal diameter during the 3-month resistance-training period. Systolic function did not differ between the groups throughout the resistance-training period. Conclusion: Resistance training induces the development of concentric cardiac hypertrophy without ventricular dysfunction or cavity reduction. Although diastolic function was not completely investigated, we cannot exclude the possibility that resistance training results in diastolic dysfunction. PMID

  7. Evaluation of muscle activity during a standardized shoulder resistance training bout in novice individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2012-01-01

    Momentary fatigue is an important variable in resistance training periodization programs. Although several studies have examined neuromuscular activity during single repetitions of resistance training, information is lacking in regard to neuromuscular fatigue indices throughout a full resistance......, infraspinatus, and serratus anterior increased, and MPF decreased within each set-indicating momentary neuromuscular fatigue. By contrast, no such change was observed between the 3 sets. This indicates that momentary neuromuscular fatigue in shoulder resistance training is induced more efficiently within a set...

  8. Training Volume, Not Frequency, Indicative of Maximal Strength Adaptations to Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquhoun, Ryan J; Gai, Christopher M; Aguilar, Danielle; Bove, Daniel; Dolan, Jeffrey; Vargas, Andres; Couvillion, Kaylee; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Campbell, Bill I

    2018-01-05

    To compare the effects of a high- versus a moderate-training frequency on maximal strength and body composition. 28 young, healthy resistance-trained males were randomly assigned to either: 3x/week (3x; n=16) or 6x/week (6x; n=12). Dependent variables (DVs) assessed at baseline and after the 6-week training intervention included: squat 1RM (SQ1RM), bench press 1RM (BP1RM), deadlift 1RM (DL1RM), powerlifting total (PLT), Wilk's coefficient (WC), fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM). Data for each DV was analyzed via a 2x2 between-within factorial repeated measures ANOVA. There was a main effect for time (p < 0.001) for SQ1RM (3x: + 16.8 kg; 6x: + 16.7 kg), BP1RM (3x: + 7.8 kg; 6x: + 8.8 kg), DL1RM (3x: + 19 kg; 6x: + 21 kg), PLT (3x: + 43.6 kg; 6x: + 46.5 kg), WC (3x: + 27; 6x: + 27.1), and FFM (3x: + 1.7 kg; 6x: + 2.6 kg). There were no group x time interactions or main effects for group. The primary finding was that 6-weeks of resistance training lead to significant increases in maximal strength and fat-free mass. Additionally, it appears that increased training frequency does not lead to additional strength improvements when volume and intensity are equated. Practical Application: High frequency (6x/wk) resistance training does not appear to offer additional strength and hypertrophy benefits over lower frequency (3x/wk), when volume and intensity are equated. Coaches and practitioners can therefore expect similar increases in strength and lean body mass with both 3- and 6-weekly sessions.

  9. Corticosteroid injections, eccentric decline squat training and heavy slow resistance training in patellar tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, M; Kovanen, V; Aagaard, P

    2009-01-01

    A randomized-controlled single-blind trial was conducted to investigate the clinical, structural and functional effects of peritendinous corticosteroid injections (CORT), eccentric decline squat training (ECC) and heavy slow resistance training (HSR) in patellar tendinopathy. Thirty-nine male...... patients were randomized to CORT, ECC or HSR for 12 weeks. We assessed function and symptoms (VISA-p questionnaire), tendon pain during activity (VAS), treatment satisfaction, tendon swelling, tendon vascularization, tendon mechanical properties and collagen crosslink properties. Assessments were made at 0...

  10. Antimicrobial resistance prevalence of pathogenic and commensal Escherichia coli in food-producing animals in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Chantziaras, Ilias; Dewulf, Jeroen; Boyen, Filip; Callens, Benedicte; Butaye, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In this article, detailed studies on antimicrobial resistance to commensal E. coli (in pigs, meat-producing bovines, broiler chickens and veal calves) and pathogenic E. coli (in pigs and bovines) in Belgium are presented for 2011. Broiler chicken and veal calf isolates of commensal E. coli demonstrated higher antimicrobial resistance prevalence than isolates from pigs and bovines. Fifty percent of E. coli isolates from broiler chickens were resistant to at least five antimicrobials, whereas s...

  11. The Effect of Eight Weeks Resistance Training on Leptin and Insulin Resistance in Obese Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khalili

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Leptin , the main peptide secreted by adipose tissue, is considered an alarming factor in the regulation of body fat content . With regard to the physiological effect of exercise as one of the potential regulators of leptin secretion from adipose tissue , this study was performed to examine the effects of resistance exercise on leptin. Materials & Methods: Twenty inactive and obese female students (10 controls and 10 experi-mentals participated in this study. The subjects in the experimental group performed an 8 week resistance training program (chest press, leg press, lat pull down, leg curl, bicep curl, leg extension with 60 - 70 percent of 1RM. ELISA was used to measure leptin. Results: The results of this study showed that 8 weeks of resistance training significantly decreased BMI (31.32 kg/m2 versus 29.73 kg/m2 , P=0.0001, weight body (80.5kg versus 76.25kg, P=0.0001, WHR (0.93 ver-sus0.89, P=0.0001 and body fat percent (27.48 versus 24.85, P=0.0001 in EG. Statistically significant differ-ences were not seen in leptin (P=0.939, insulin (P=0.336, glucose (P=0.264 and insulin resistance (P=0.306 between CG and EG. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that , there was no significant difference in leptin levels and insulin resistance between the control and experimental groups, after 8 weeks of resistance training. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (1:59-65

  12. mcr-1 Colistin Resistance in ESBL-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, Yvan; Maillet, Mylène; Pavese, Patricia; Francony, Gilles; Brion, Jean-Paul; Mallaret, Marie-Reine; Bonnet, Richard; Robin, Frédéric; Beyrouthy, Racha; Maurin, Max

    2017-05-01

    We report intestinal carriage of an extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae strain with high-level resistance to colistin (MIC 24 mg/L) in a patient in France who had been hospitalized for fungal meningitis. The strain had the mcr-1 plasmid gene and an inactivated mgrB gene, which are associated with colistin resistance.

  13. Epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance and the effect of interventions in food-producing animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorado Garcia, A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores the animal-human interface of the emerging antimicrobial resistance (AMR) problem. It focuses on two relevant bacterial species imposing a burden for human health: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and (extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC-producing)

  14. Metabolic Response to Four Weeks of Muscular Endurance Resistance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Farrell III

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous investigations have shown that muscular endurance resistance training (MERT is conducive in improving the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA. However, the metabolic response and time course for adaption is still unclear. Objective: The aims of the current study were to evaluate and track the metabolic response to an individual session of MERT as well as to assess performance adaptations of supplementing an aerobic exercise training program with four weeks of MERT. Methods: Seventeen aerobically active men were randomly assigned to either the experimental (EX or control group (CON, 9 EX and 8 CON. Baseline measures included a graded exercise test (GXT and 1-repetition maximum (1RM testing for leg press (LP, leg curl (LC, and leg extension (LE. CON continued their regular aerobic activity while the EX supplemented their regular aerobic exercise with 4 weeks of MERT. Results: No significant group differences were observed for all pre-training variables. Following four weeks of training no significant differences in cardiorespiratory or metabolic variables were observed for either group. However, significant improvements in LC and LE 1-RM were observed in EX compared to CON. Substantial accumulations in blood lactate were observed following each MERT session. Conclusion: Four weeks of MERT did not improve cardiorespiratory or metabolic variables, but did significantly improve LC and LE. MERT was also observed to induce a blood lactate response similar to that of HIIT. These findings suggest greater than four weeks is need to see metabolic adaptations conducive for improved aerobic performance using MERT.

  15. Creatine supplementation elicits greater muscle hypertrophy in upper than lower limbs and trunk in resistance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Ribeiro, Alex S; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Tomeleri, Crisieli M; Avelar, Ademar; Trindade, Michele Cc; Nabuco, Hellen Cg; Cavalcante, Edilaine F; Junior, Paulo Sugihara; Fernandes, Rodrigo R; Carvalho, Ferdinando O; Cyrino, Edilson S

    2017-12-01

    Creatine (Cr) supplementation associated with resistance training produces greater muscular strength improvements in the upper compared with the lower body; however, no study has investigated if such region-specific results are seen with gains in muscle mass. We aimed to evaluate the effect of Cr supplementation in combination with resistance training on lean soft tissue changes in the upper and lower limbs and trunk in resistance-trained young adult men. In a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled design, 43 resistance-trained men (22.7 ± 3.0 years, 72.9 ± 8.7 kg, 177.9 ± 5.7 cm, 23.0 ± 2.5 kg/m 2 ) received either creatine (Cr, n = 22) or placebo (PLA, n = 21) over an 8-week study period. The supplementation protocol included a loading phase (7 days, four doses of 0.3 g/kg per day) and a maintenance phase (7 weeks, single dose of 0.03 g/kg per day). During the same period, subjects performed resistance training four times per week using the following two-way split routine: Monday and Thursday = pectoral, shoulders, triceps, and abdomen, Tuesday and Friday = back, biceps, thighs, and calves. Lean soft tissue of the upper limbs (ULLST), lower limbs (LLLST), and trunk (TLST) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before and after the intervention. Both groups showed significant ( p trained young adult men, particularly in the upper limbs.

  16. Concurrent training and caffeine supplementation on resistance training performance - A short research report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Ugatti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the influence of caffeine supplementation (4.5 mg⋅kg−1 on lower body resistance training (RT performance preceded with and without an acute bout of endurance exercise. In a double-blinded crossover study, 10 moderately active males (20.6±2.1 yo carried out six exercise sessions (2 x 1RM sessions; 2 x resistance sessions; 2 concurrent sessions. Resistance exercise sessions (CAF+RES and PLA+RES were carried out with 4 maximum sets of leg press, leg extension and leg curl to volitional fatigue at 65% of 1RM for each exercise with 1 min inter-set and inter-session rest interval. Sessions consisted on 4 maximum sets to volitional fatigue at 65% of 1RM for each exercise with 1 min of rest interval between sets and exercises. Concurrent training sessions (CAF+CON and PLA+CON were identical but were preceded by 30 min of continuous treadmill running at 75-85% HRmax. Physical performance showed a significant main effect for treatment (p < 0.0001, protocol (p < 0.02, exercises (p < 0.0001 and sets (p < 0.0001. Physical performance during RES was reduced after endurance exercise, indicating a cumulative effect of CON. Caffeine supplementation blunted this cumulative effect. We conclude that caffeine supplementation could be used to improve the RT performance when it is done immediately after an aerobic training.

  17. The effects of high resistance-few repetitions and low resistance-high repetitions resistance training on climbing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Espen; Andersen, Vidar; Saeterbakken, Atle Hole

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of different strength training intensities on climbing performance, climbing-specific tests and a general strength test. Thirty lower grade and intermediate-level climbers participated in a 10-week training programme. The participants were randomized into three groups: high resistance-few repetitions training groups (HR-FR), low resistance-high repetitions training groups (LR-HR) and a control group (CON) which continued climbing/training as usual. Post-testing results demonstrated statistical tendencies for climbing performance improvements in the HR-FR and LR-HR (p = 0.088-0.090, effect size = 0.55-0.73), but no differences were observed between the groups (p = 0.950). For the climbing-specific tests, no differences were observed between the groups (p = 0.507-1.000), but the HR-FR and LR-HR improved their time in both Dead-hang (p = 0.004-0.026) and Bent-arm hang (p training groups reduced their climbing sessions during the intervention compared to the CON group (p = 0.057-0.074). In conclusion, HR-FR and LR-HR training programmes demonstrated an 11% and 12% non-significant improvement in climbing performance despite a 50% reduction in climbing sessions, but improved the results in strength and climbing-specific tests. None of the training intensities was superior compared to the others.

  18. Training small producers in Good Manufacturing Practices for the development of goat milk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Noemí RAMÓN

    Full Text Available Abstract Training in Good Manufacturing Practices enhances quality during food processing. This paper evaluates GMP training aimed at improving the chemical, sensory and microbiological quality of goat milk cheese. We worked with 26 families that produce cheese as their main source of income. Semi-structured interviews and observation were conducted to select relevant topics. The manufacturing processes were compared and samples were analyzed before and after GMP training. We trained 80% of the producers. Before receiving training, they used to make cheese from raw milk in unhygienic conditions and with little equipment. The products obtained had bad sensory characteristics, cracks, eyes on the pasta, a high number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and total coliforms. After training, the producers pasteurized the milk and standardized processing procedures, resulting in final products that contained higher protein and calcium content, suitable sensory characteristics, and a significant reduction in microorganisms, with total coliforms falling to ≤ 5.103 UFC/g. Therefore, this study shows that the manufacturing process and the chemical, sensory and microbiological parameters of goat milk cheese improved after GMP training.

  19. Mirror training to augment cross-education during resistance training : a hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howatson, Glyn; Zult, Tjerk; Farthing, Jonathan P.; Zijdewind, Inge; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    2013-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been shown to be a potent stimulus for neuromuscular adaptations. These adaptations are not confined to the exercising muscle and have been consistently shown to produce increases in strength and neural activity in the contralateral, homologous resting muscle; a phenomenon

  20. Resistance training with vascular occlusion in inclusion body myositis: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualano, Bruno; Neves, Manoel; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pinto, Ana Lúcia De Sá; Laurentino, Gilberto; Borges, Claudia; Baptista, Luciana; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha; Moriscot, Anselmo; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Bonfá, Eloísa; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is a rare idiopathic inflammatory myopathy that produces remarkable muscle weakness. Resistance training with vascular occlusion has been shown to improve muscle strength and cross-sectional area in other muscle wasting conditions. We evaluated the efficacy of a moderate-intensity resistance training program combined with vascular occlusion by examining functional capacity, muscle morphology, and changes in the expression of genes related to muscle protein synthesis and proteolysis in a patient with IBM. A 65-yr-old man with IBM resistant to all proposed treatments underwent resistance training with vascular occlusion for 12 wk. Leg press one-repetition maximum; thigh cross-sectional area; balance, mobility, and muscle function; quality of life; and blood markers of inflammation and muscle damage were assessed at baseline and after the 12-wk program. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of mechanogrowth factor, mammalian target of rapamycin, atrogin-1, and muscle RING finger-1 were also quantified. After the 12-wk training program, the patient's leg press one-repetition maximum, balance and mobility function, and thigh cross-sectional area increased 15.9%, 60%, and 4.7%, respectively. All Short Form-36 Health Survey Questionnaire subscales demonstrated improvements as well, varying from 18% to 600%. mRNA expression of mechanogrowth factor increased 3.97-fold, whereas that of atrogin-1 decreased 0.62-fold. Muscle RING finger-1 and mammalian target of rapamycin mRNA levels were only slightly altered, 1.18- and 1.28-fold, respectively. Importantly, the exercise did not induce disease flare. We describe a novel, and likely the first, nonpharmacological therapeutic tool that might be able to counteract the muscle atrophy and the declining strength that usually occur in IBM.

  1. The Comparison of Two Methods of Exercise (intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on Fasting Sugar, Insulin and Insulin Resistance in Women with Mellitus Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bazyar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise is an important component of health and an integral approach to the management of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on fasting sugar, insulin and insulin resistance in women with mellitus diabetes.   Methods: Fifty-two overweight female diabetic type 2 patients (aged 45-60 years old with fasting blood glucose≥ 126 mg/dl were selected to participate in the present study. Participants were assigned to intense interval training group (N=17, concurrent resistance- endurance training group (N=17 and control group (N=18. The exercises incorporated 10 weeks of concurrent resistance- endurance training and intense interval training. Fasting blood sugar, serum insulin concentrations levels were measured. Concurrent training group trained eight weeks, three times a week of endurance training at 60% of maximum heart rate (MHR and two resistance training sessions per week with 70% of one repetition maximum (1-RM. Intense interval training group trained for eight weeks, three sessions per week for 4 to 10 repeats Wingate test on the ergometer 30s performed with maximum effort. The control group did no systematic exercise. At the end of experiment 42 subjects were succeed and completed the study period, and 10 subjects were removed due to illness and absence in the exercise sessions. Fasting blood sugar and insulin levels 24 hours before and 48 hours after the last training session was measured.   Results: The findings indicated that in periodic fasting, the blood sugar in intensive training group had a marked decrease (p= 0.000 however, the fasting blood sugar of exercise and power stamina groups reduced significantly (p=0.062. The results showed no significant difference between the groups (171/0 p =0.171. Fasting insulin (p <0.001 and insulin resistance (0001/0 = p=0.001 in periodic intensive training group were

  2. Caffeine enhances upper body strength in resistance-trained women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penhollow Tina

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has indicated that low-to-moderate dosages of caffeine supplementation are ergogenic for sustained endurance efforts as well as high-intensity exercise. The effects of caffeine supplementation on strength-power performance are equivocal, with some studies indicating a benefit and others demonstrating no change in performance. The majority of research that has examined the effects of caffeine supplementation on strength-power performance has been carried out in both trained and untrained men. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the acute effects of caffeine supplementation on strength and muscular endurance in resistance-trained women. Methods In a randomized manner, 15 women consumed caffeine (6 mg/kg or placebo (PL seven days apart. Sixty min following supplementation, participants performed a one-repetition maximum (1RM barbell bench press test and repetitions to failure at 60% of 1RM. Heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were assessed at rest, 60 minutes post-consumption, and immediately following completion of repetitions to failure. Results Repeated measures ANOVA indicated a significantly greater bench press maximum with caffeine (p ≤ 0.05 (52.9 ± 11.1 kg vs. 52.1 ± 11.7 kg with no significant differences between conditions in 60% 1RM repetitions (p = 0.81. Systolic blood pressure was significantly greater post-exercise, with caffeine (p Conclusions These findings indicate a moderate dose of caffeine may be sufficient for enhancing strength performance in resistance-trained women.

  3. Diminished Baroreflex Control of Forearm Vascular Resistance Following Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, G. W.; Thompson, C. A.; Doerr, D. F.; Nadel, E. R.; Convertino, V. A.

    1991-01-01

    The stimulus-response characteristics of cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance (FVR units in mm Hg x min x I00 ml/ml) were studied in 14 volunteers before and after 10 wk of endurance training. We assessed the relationship betaleen reflex stimulus (changes in central venous pressure, CVP) and response (FVR) during unloading of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors with lower body negative pressure (LBNP, 0 to - 2O mm Hg). Changes in CVP during LBNP were estimated from pressure changes in a large peripheral vein in the dependent arm of the subject in the right lateral decubitus position. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(sub 2max)) and total blood volume increased with endurance training from 37.8 +/- 1.4 ml/min x kg and 63.6 +/- 2.1 ml/kg to 45.3 +/- 1.4 ml/ min x kg and 69.3 +/- 2.8 ml/kg respectively (P less than 0.05). Reflex forearm vasoconstriction occurred in response to a reduction in estimated CVP, and the absolute change in FVR per unit of CVP was reduced from -5.96 +/- 0.79 to -4.06 +/- 0.52 units x mm/ Hg (P less than 0.05) following exercise training but was unchanged from -6.10 to 0.57 to -6.22 +/- 0.94 units x mm/ Hg for the time control group (N = 7). Resting values for FVR were similar before and after exercise training; however, resting estimated CVP was elevated from 9.5 +/- 0.5 mm x Hg before training to 11.3 +/- 0.6 mm x Hg after training. The reduction in sensitivity of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of FVR was linearly related to the increase in blood volume (r = 0.65, P less than 0.05). suggesting that diminished cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of FVR in physically fit individuals is related, in part, to a training-induced blood volume expansion.

  4. Branched-chain aminoacid supplementation attenuates a decrease in power-producing ability following acute strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Thomas I; Deniel, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation on recovery of power-producing ability following a strength training (ST) session. Eleven resistance-trained males, performed baseline measures of a countermovement jump (CMJ) and a seated shot-put throw (SSPT). In a counterbalanced fashion, participants were provided with either 20-g of BCAA or a placebo. Each dose was divided into two equal quantities and consumed before and after a ST session consisting of various multi-joint barbell exercises. For both conditions, the CMJ and SSPT were repeated at 24-h post-ST, in addition participants attributed their perceived muscle soreness level via a 200-mm visual analogue scale. Following ST there were significant decrements in CMJ (baseline; 55.2±7.4-cm, BCAA; 52.8±5.9-cm placebo; 50.6±7.3-cm) and SSPT (baseline; 4.55±0.56-m, BCAA; 4.37±0.61-m, placebo; 4.22±0.64-m) for both conditions in comparison to baseline values (P<0.05). However, BCAA was shown to attenuate the decrements in CMJ and SSPT performance compared to placebo (P<0.05). Muscle soreness was significantly increased following ST for both conditions, however there were no differences in attributed values following BCAA and placebo ingestion. BCAA administered acutely before and following intensive ST attenuates a decrease in power-producing ability experienced by resistance-trained males. The apparent small but significant effects on functional power suggest that BCAA is an effective ergogenic aid for athletes who require augmented recovery of power-producing ability following intensive ST.

  5. Resistance training among young athletes: safety, efficacy and injury prevention effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, A D; Myer, G D

    2010-01-01

    A literature review was employed to evaluate the current epidemiology of injury related to the safety and efficacy of youth resistance training. Several case study reports and retrospective questionnaires regarding resistance exercise and the competitive sports of weightlifting and powerlifting reveal that injuries have occurred in young lifters, although a majority can be classified as accidental. Lack of qualified instruction that underlies poor exercise technique and inappropriate training loads could explain, at least partly, some of the reported injuries. Current research indicates that resistance training can be a safe, effective and worthwhile activity for children and adolescents provided that qualified professionals supervise all training sessions and provide age-appropriate instruction on proper lifting procedures and safe training guidelines. Regular participation in a multifaceted resistance training programme that begins during the preseason and includes instruction on movement biomechanics may reduce the risk of sports-related injuries in young athletes. Strategies for enhancing the safety of youth resistance training are discussed.

  6. Effects of Classic Progressive Resistance Training Versus Eccentric-Enhanced Resistance Training in People With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrocinio de Oliveira, Claudia Eliza; Moreira, Osvaldo Costa; Carrión-Yagual, Zoila Marilú; Medina-Pérez, Carlos; de Paz, José Antonio

    2017-11-27

    To compare the effects of classic progressive resistance training (PRT) versus eccentric strength-enhanced training (EST) on the performance of functional tests and different strength manifestations in the lower limb of people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Experimental trial. Strength training program. PwMS (N=52; 19 men, 33 women) belonging to MS associations from the Castilla y León, Spain. Participants were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: a control group that performed PRT or an experimental group that performed EST. In both groups, the knee extensor muscles were trained for 12 weeks. Before and after 12 weeks of training, maximal voluntary isometric contraction and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) of the knee extensors were evaluated, as were the Chair Stand Test (CST) and Timed 8-Foot Up and Go (TUG) functional tests. No differences were found between the groups in the initial values for different tests. Intragroup comparisons found significant differences in CST (F=69.4; P<.001), TUG (F=40.0; P<.001), and 1RM (F=57.8; P<.001). For intergroup comparisons, EST presented better results than PRT in the CST (EST, 4.7%±2.8%; PRT, 1.9%±2.8%; F=13.1; P=.001) and TUG (EST, -2.9±4.7; PRT, -.41±5.6; F=5.6; P=.022). In PwMS, EST leads to improvements in 1RM, TUG, and CST that are similar to those of PRT. However, for patients who participated in this study, the EST seems to promote a better transfer of strength adaptations to the functional tests, which are closer to daily-living activities. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute Effects of Two Different Resistance Circuit Training Protocols on Performance and Perceived Exertion in Semiprofessional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Tomás T; Calleja-González, Julio; Alarcón, Francisco; Alcaraz, Pedro E

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two different resistance circuit training protocols on basketball players' physical and technical performance and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). In a repeated-measures, crossover experimental design, 9 semiprofessional basketball players performed a Power Circuit Training (PCT; 45% 1RM) and a High-Resistance Circuit Training (HRC; 6RM), on consecutive weeks. Vertical and horizontal jump performance, 3-points shooting accuracy, repeated-sprint ability (RSA), agility, and upper body power output were measured before and after training. The RPE was assessed 20 minutes after resistance training. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance showed performance decrements in vertical jump height and peak power, horizontal jump distance, 3-points percentage, bench-press power output, RSA total and ideal time, and agility T-Test at total time following HRC, but not PCT (p ≤ 0.05). The RPE was higher in HRC compared with PCT. The results of this study indicated that HRC was perceived as being harder and produced higher fatigue levels, which in turn lowered acute performance. However, low-to-moderate intensity loads did not negatively affect performance. Thus, completing a PCT session may be the most appropriate option before a practice or game as it avoids acute-resistance-training-induced performance decrements. However, if the objective of the basketball session is to develop or perfect technical skills during fatiguing conditions, HRC may be the more suitable option.

  8. Resistance Training in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats with Severe Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vanerson Passos Neves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Resistance training (RT has been recommended as a non-pharmacological treatment for moderate hypertension. In spite of the important role of exercise intensity on training prescription, there is still no data regarding the effects of RT intensity on severe hypertension (SH. Objective: This study examined the effects of two RT protocols (vertical ladder climbing, performed at different overloads of maximal weight carried (MWC, on blood pressure (BP and muscle strength of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR with SH. Methods: Fifteen male SHR ENT#091;206 ± 10 mmHg of systolic BP (SBPENT#093; and five Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY; 119 ± 10 mmHg of SBP were divided into 4 groups: sedentary (SED-WKY and SHR (SED-SHR; RT1-SHR training relative to body weight (~40% of MWC; and RT2-SHR training relative to MWC test (~70% of MWC. Systolic BP and heart rate (HR were measured weekly using the tail-cuff method. The progression of muscle strength was determined once every fifteen days. The RT consisted of 3 weekly sessions on non-consecutive days for 12-weeks. Results: Both RT protocols prevented the increase in SBP (delta - 5 and -7 mmHg, respectively; p > 0.05, whereas SBP of the SED-SHR group increased by 19 mmHg (p 0.05. Conclusions: Our data indicated that both RT protocols were effective in preventing chronic elevation of SBP in SH. Additionally, a higher RT overload induced a greater increase in muscle strength.

  9. Noninvasive optical imaging of resistance training adaptations in human muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Robert V.; Cotter, Joshua; Ganesan, Goutham; Le, Lisa; Agustin, Janelle P.; Duarte, Bridgette; Cutler, Kyle; O'Sullivan, Thomas; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2017-12-01

    A quantitative and dynamic analysis of skeletal muscle structure and function can guide training protocols and optimize interventions for rehabilitation and disease. While technologies exist to measure body composition, techniques are still needed for quantitative, long-term functional imaging of muscle at the bedside. We evaluate whether diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI) can be used for long-term assessment of resistance training (RT). DOSI measures of tissue composition were obtained from 12 adults before and after 5 weeks of training and compared to lean mass fraction (LMF) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Significant correlations were detected between DXA LMF and DOSI-measured oxy-hemo/myoglobin, deoxy-hemo/myoglobin, total-hemo/myoglobin, water, and lipid. RT-induced increases of ˜6% in oxy-hemo/myoglobin (3.4±1.0 μM, p=0.00314) and total-hemo/myoglobin (4.9±1.1 μM, p=0.00024) from the medial gastrocnemius were detected with DOSI and accompanied by ˜2% increases in lean soft tissue mass (36.4±12.4 g, p=0.01641) and ˜60% increases in 1 rep-max strength (41.5±6.2 kg, p = 1.9E-05). DOSI measures of vascular and/or muscle changes combined with correlations between DOSI and DXA suggest that quantitative diffuse optical methods can be used to evaluate body composition, provide feedback on long-term interventions, and generate new insight into training-induced muscle adaptations.

  10. Number of repetition after different rest intervals between static stretching and resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dias

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Therefore, 30-minute interval between static stretching and resistance exercises was needed to achieve greater repetition performance. Thus, static stretching for lower limbs may be avoided before a resistance training session.

  11. Multidrug Resistant CTX-M-Producing Escherichia coli: A Growing Threat among HIV Patients in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavaram Padmavathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBLs confer resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and CTX-M types have emerged as the most prominent ESBLs worldwide. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of CTX-M positive ESBL-producing urinary E. coli isolates from HIV patients and to establish the association of multidrug resistance, phylogeny, and virulence profile with CTX-M production. A total of 57 ESBL producers identified among 76 E. coli strains isolated from HIV patients from South India were screened for blaCTX-M, AmpC production, multidrug resistance, and nine virulence associated genes (VAGs, fimH, pap, afa/dra, sfa/foc, iutA, fyuA, iroN, usp, and kpsMII. The majority (70.2% of the ESBL producers harbored blaCTX-M and were AmpC coproducers. Among the CTX-M producers, 47.5% were found to be UPEC, 10% harbored as many as 7 VAGs, and 45% possessed kpsMII. Multidrug resistance (CIPRSXTRGENR was significantly more common among the CTX-M producers compared to the nonproducers (70% versus 41.2%. However, 71.4% of the multidrug resistant CTX-M producers exhibited susceptibility to nitrofurantoin thereby making it an effective alternative to cephalosporins/fluoroquinolones. The emergence of CTX-M-producing highly virulent, multidrug resistant uropathogenic E. coli is of significant public health concern in countries like India with a high burden of HIV/AIDS.

  12. Effects of load-volume on EPOC after acute bouts of resistance training in resistance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, George J; Greer, Beau K; Campbell, Sara C; Panton, Lynn B

    2013-07-01

    Recent investigations have shown excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) to be elevated for up to 48 hours in both untrained and trained subjects after resistance training (RT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of load-volume on EPOC. Eight trained men (aged 22 ± 3 years) participated in 2 randomized RT bouts separated by at least 1 week with total load-volumes of 10,000 and 20,000 kg, respectively. Intensity of RT (85% 1 repetition maximum) did not differ between trials. Exercise energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured by indirect calorimetry at 8.5 hours before, 1.5 hours before, and during RT bouts and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after exercise. Creatine kinase (CK) was measured before and after RT, and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours postexercise; ratings of perceived muscle soreness were measured on a similar time course save the immediate postexercise time point. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to analyze dependent variables. During the 20,000 kg trial, subjects expended significantly (p EPOC above baseline RMR.

  13. Evidence for Resistance Training as a Treatment Therapy in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Strasser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, investigators have paid increasing attention to the effects of resistance training (RT on several metabolic syndrome variables. Evidence suggests that skeletal muscle is responsible for up to 40% of individuals' total body weight and may be influential in modifying metabolic risk factors via muscle mass development. Due to the metabolic consequences of reduced muscle mass, it is understood that normal aging and/or decreased physical activity may lead to a higher prevalence of metabolic disorders. The purpose of this review is to (1 evaluate the potential clinical effectiveness and biological mechanisms of RT in the treatment of obesity and (2 provide up-to-date evidence relating to the impact of RT in reducing major cardiovascular disease risk factors (including dyslipidaemia and type 2 diabetes. A further aim of this paper is to provide clinicians with recommendations for facilitating the use of RT as therapy in obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders.

  14. Importance of mind-muscle connection during progressive resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Vinstrup, Jonas; Jakobsen, Markus Due

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluates whether focusing on using specific muscles during bench press can selectively activate these muscles. METHODS: Altogether 18 resistance-trained men participated. Subjects were familiarized with the procedure and performed one-maximum repetition (1RM) test during...... electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded for the triceps brachii and pectoralis major muscles. Subsequently, peak EMG of the filtered signals were normalized to maximum maximorum EMG of each muscle. RESULTS: In both muscles, focusing on using the respective muscles increased muscle activity at relative loads...... between 20 and 60 %, but not at 80 % of 1RM. Overall, a threshold between 60 and 80 % rather than a linear decrease in selective activation with increasing intensity appeared to exist. The increased activity did not occur at the expense of decreased activity of the other muscle, e.g. when focusing...

  15. Order effects of concurrent endurance and resistance training on post-exercise response of non-trained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Blasio, Andrea; Gemello, Eugenio; Di Iorio, Angelo; Di Giacinto, Gabriella; Celso, Tiziana; Di Renzo, Donatella; Sablone, Andrea; Ripari, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    Physical exercise is used for the promotion and maintenance of good health and for the improvement of physical fitness. Both endurance and resistance exercises are needed to carry out a complete training program. Because time may be a barrier to physical exercise practice, the aim of this study was to verify whether the order of execution of endurance and resistance exercises, in concurrent training, has different effects on the metabolic responses during recovery. Thirteen healthy women [24.40 (1.67) years, Mean (SD)] were investigated for energy expenditure (EE), oxygen consumption (VO2), ventilation (Ve), respiratory frequency (RF), proportion of oxygen in expired air (FeO2) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) both before and after three concurrent endurance and resistance trainings, carried out in different orders: endurance-resistance training (ERT), resistance-endurance training (RET) and alternating endurance-resistance training (AERT). AERT elicited a significantly greater increase of EE, VO2, and Ve and a greater decrease of FeO2. ERT elicited a lower increase of RPE. Acute post-exercise physiological responses to concurrent endurance and resistance physical exercise seem to depend on the order of execution of the two parts: among the selected protocols, AERT seems to elicit the best responses. Key pointsThe concurrent execution of both endurance and resistance exercise, in the same training session, could be a practical solution to conform to guidelines for health in the presence of lack of time.The order of concurrent execution of both endurance and resistance exercise, in the same training session, influences the amplitude of some post-exercise physiological responses.

  16. Arabidopsis thaliana resistance to insects, mediated by an earthworm-produced organic soil amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoza, Yasmin J

    2011-02-01

    Vermicompost is an organic soil amendment produced by earthworm digestion of organic waste. Studies show that plants grown in soil amended with vermicompost grow faster, are more productive and are less susceptible to a number of arthropod pests. In light of these studies, the present study was designed to determine the type of insect resistance (antixenosis or antibiosis) present in plants grown in vermicompost-amended potting soil. Additionally, the potential role of microarthropods, entomopathogenic organisms and non-pathogenic microbial flora found in vermicompost on insect resistance induction was investigated. Findings show that vermicompost from two different sources (Raleigh, North Carolina, and Portland, Oregon) were both effective in causing Arabidopsis plants to be resistant to the generalist herbivore Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). However, while the Raleigh (Ral) vermicompost plant resistance was expressed as both non-preference (antixenosis) and milder (lower weight and slower development) toxic effect (antibiosis) resistance, Oregon (OSC) vermicompost plant resistance was expressed as acute antibiosis, resulting in lower weights and higher mortality rates. Vermicompost causes plants to have non-preference (antixenosis) and toxic (antibiosis) effects on insects. This resistance affects insect development and survival on plants grown in vermicompost-amended soil. Microarthropods and entomopathogens do not appear to have a role in the resistance, but it is likely that resistance is due to interactions between the microbial communities in vermicompost with plant roots, as is evident from vermicompost sterilization assays conducted in this study. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Elevation of cardiac troponins measured after recreational resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savukoski, Tanja; Mehtälä, Laura; Lindahl, Bertil; Venge, Per; Pettersson, Kim

    2015-08-01

    Whereas elevated cardiac troponin (cTn) concentrations i.e. above the 99th percentile of healthy reference population (recommended cutoff for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction) are well-documented in healthy individuals after prolonged and/or intensive exercises such as marathons, data on less-strenuous sports are scarce. Therefore, our aim was to investigate cTnI and cTnT release in response to recreational resistance training, here a single-bout of 1-h kettlebell workout. Serum samples were collected from 11 apparently healthy volunteers the previous day (pre-exercise), three hours after the kettlebell class (post-exercise), the next day and three days later. The aliquoted samples were analyzed with Abbott Laboratories' Architect high-sensitivity (hs)-cTnI assay (limit of detection, LoD = 2 ng/L), our 3+1-type cTnI assay free from cTn-specific autoantibody interference (LoD = 3 ng/L) and Roche Diagnostics' hs-cTnT assay (LoD = 5 ng/L). The post-exercise cTn concentrations were significantly higher than the pre-exercise values (median 5.5-9.6 ng/L vs. 26 ng/L, n = 2) and/or hs-cTnT (>14 ng/L, n = 4). The cTn concentrations returned to baseline during the three days of follow-up. Our study demonstrates abnormally elevated cTns with well-validated sensitive cTn assays after resistance training. This confirms that different kinds of recreational physical activity are yet another confounder that may affect the determination and use of 99th percentile reference values. Therefore, exercise-associated changes should be carefully addressed as part of the evaluation what is "normal cTn". Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bacteriocins produced by L. fermentum and L .acidophilus can inhibit cephalosporin resistant E .coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Riaz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Reemerging infections occur due to resistant bacteria. Such infections create restrictions for clinicians and microbiologists in drug selection. Such problems demand new strategies for solution. Use of bacteriocins for this purpose may be fruitful. In the present research work, the inhibitory effects of bactericins on cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli are used as model system for the control of antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria. Cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli strain was isolated from pus by using conventional methodology. For bacteriocin production, Lactobacilli strains were selected by using selective media. Out of seventy two strains isolated from yogurt, fecal materials of human, chick, parrot and cat, only two strains (strain 45 and strain 52 were found to produce bacteriocins having antimicrobial potential against cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli. Biochemical characterization showed that strain 45 belonged to group of Lactobacillus fermentum and strain 52 to Lactobacillus acidophilus. Both strains showed maximum growth at 25°C and 35°C respectively. Suitable pH was 5.5 and 6.0 for Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus acidophilus respectively. Bacteriocins produced by both strains were found stable at 50, 75 and 100°C for 60min. Function of bacteriocin was also not disturbed due to change in pH. These findings suggest that bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus acidophilus can be used for the infection control of cephalosporin resistant Escherichia coli.

  19. Safety and efficacy of resistance training in germ cell cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Frank; Jones, L W; Tolver, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Bleomycin–etoposid–cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy is curative in most patients with disseminated germ cell cancer (GCC) but also associated with toxic actions and dysfunction in non-targeted tissues. We investigated changes in muscle function during BEP and the safety and effic...... blunted several positive adaptations observed in healthy controls. Thus, our study does not support the general application of resistance training in this setting but larger-scaled trials are required to confirm this finding....... and efficacy of resistance training to modulate these changes. Methods: Thirty GCC patients were randomly assigned to resistance training (resistance training group (INT), n=15) or usual care (CON, n=15) during 9 weeks of BEP therapy. Resistance training consisted of thrice weekly sessions of four exercises, 3...... changes compared with the INT-group (PResistance training was safe and attenuated dysfunction in selected endpoints, but BEP...

  20. Chronic Resistance Training Does Not Ameliorate Unloading-Induced Decrements in Neuromuscular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschenes, Michael R; McCoy, Raymond W; Mangis, Katherine A

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of long-term resistance training in preventing the detrimental effects of muscle unloading on neuromuscular function. Eleven untrained men and 11 men with extensive backgrounds in resistance training were tested for several parameters of neuromuscular function at various isokinetic contractile velocities before and after 7 days of muscle unloading. Measurements included muscle mass, strength, power, total work, electromyography, and neuromuscular transmission efficiency using superimposed electrical stimulation of maximally contracting muscles. Muscle performance was superior in resistance-trained subjects before and after unloading. In both groups of participants, unloading resulted in significantly (P neuromuscular transmission efficiency was significantly altered by unloading in trained or untrained participants. Chronic resistance training was found to be ineffective in neutralizing the deleterious effects of unloading on neuromuscular function. It appears that positive adaptations associated with long-term resistance training provide no prophylactic effect when neuromuscular systems are subjected to unloading.

  1. Erosion resistance and adhesion of composite metal/ceramic coatings produced by plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, D.A.J.; Hutchings, I.M.; Clyne, T.W.

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic coatings can exhibit greater erosion resistance than most metallic coatings. Such coatings are conveniently produced by thermal spraying. Unfortunately, thermally sprayed ceramic coatings often exhibit poor adhesion, partly as a consequence of the development of residual stresses during spraying and subsequent cooling. Composite coatings have been studied using aluminium/alumina deposits on steel substrates. The incorporation of ceramics within a ductile matrix has potential for sharply reducing the erosive wear at high erodent impact angles, whilst retaining the good erosion resistance of ceramics at low angles. It is shown that the proportion of metal and ceramic at the free surface can be specified so as to optimise the erosion resistance. Experiments have also been carried out on the resistance of the coatings to debonding during four-point bending of the coated substrate. Progress is being made towards the tailoring of composition profiles in graded coatings so as to optimise the combination of erosion resistance and adhesion. (orig.)

  2. Effect of Resistance Training on Serum Meteorin-like Hormone Level and Insulin Resistance Index in Overweight Adolescent Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Alizadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Adipose tissue's phenotypic alteration due to exercise training is a new theory. However, the cellular–molecular mechanisms for these phenotypic alterations are not yet clearly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of six weeks resistance training on Meteorin-like hormone level and insulin resistance index in overweight adolescent boys. Materials and Methods: Twenty overweight adolescent boys (average age 18.5±1 years old, average weight 81.1±4.5 kg, and BMI 27.7±0.7 kg/m2 participated in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: control (N=10 and resistance training (N=10. Subjects in training group performed six-week resistance training program 3 days/week. Anthropometrics parameters and fasting serum of Meteorin-like hormone levels, insulin and glucose were measured at the baseline and at the end of study. Results: The level of Meteorin-like hormone was significantly decreased in control group (p=0.008, but that of Meteorin-like hormone in resistance training was increased insignificantly (p=0.311. The variations of Meteorin-like hormone levels between two groups were significant (p=0.004. The changes of insulin resistance were increased in both groups which were statistically significant (p=0.032 and insignificant (p=0.632 for control and training groups respectively. We found a negative and insignificant correlation between changes in Meteorin-like hormone levels and changes in insulin resistance index (p=0.273. Conclusion: The results showed that six weeks’ resistance training has no effect on increasing Meteorin-like hormone serum level and improving insulin resistance index and body composition in overweight adolescent boys.

  3. Resist diabetes: A randomized clinical trial for resistance training maintenance in adults with prediabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda M Davy

    Full Text Available To determine whether a social cognitive theory (SCT-based intervention improves resistance training (RT maintenance and strength, and reduces prediabetes prevalence.Sedentary, overweight/obese (BMI: 25-39.9 kg/m2 adults aged 50-69 (N = 170 with prediabetes participated in the 15-month trial. Participants completed a supervised 3-month RT (2×/wk phase and were randomly assigned (N = 159 to one of two 6-month maintenance conditions: SCT or standard care. Participants continued RT at a self-selected facility. The final 6-month period involved no contact. Assessments occurred at baseline and months 3, 9, and 15. The SCT faded-contact intervention consisted of nine tailored transition (i.e., supervised training to training alone and nine follow-up sessions. Standard care involved six generic follow-up sessions. Primary outcomes were prevalence of normoglycemia and muscular strength.The retention rate was 76%. Four serious adverse events were reported. After 3 months of RT, 34% of participants were no longer prediabetic. This prevalence of normoglycemia was maintained through month 15 (30%, with no group difference. There was an 18% increase in the odds of being normoglycemic for each % increase in fat-free mass. Increases in muscular strength were evident at month 3 and maintained through month 15 (P<0.001, which represented improvements of 21% and 14% for chest and leg press, respectively. Results did not demonstrate a greater reduction in prediabetes prevalence in the SCT condition.Resistance training is an effective, maintainable strategy for reducing prediabetes prevalence and increasing muscular strength. Future research which promotes RT initiation and maintenance in clinical and community settings is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01112709.

  4. FORCE-VELOCITY, IMPULSE-MOMENTUM RELATIONSHIPS: IMPLICATIONS FOR EFFICACY OF PURPOSEFULLY SLOW RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K. Schilling

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this brief review is to explain the mechanical relationship between impulse and momentum when resistance exercise is performed in a purposefully slow manner (PS. PS is recognized by ~10s concentric and ~4-10s eccentric actions. While several papers have reviewed the effects of PS, none has yet explained such resistance training in the context of the impulse-momentum relationship. A case study of normal versus PS back squats was also performed. An 85kg man performed both normal speed (3 sec eccentric action and maximal acceleration concentric action and PS back squats over a several loads. Normal speed back squats produced both greater peak and mean propulsive forces than PS action when measured across all loads. However, TUT was greatly increased in the PS condition, with values fourfold greater than maximal acceleration repetitions. The data and explanation herein point to superior forces produced by the neuromuscular system via traditional speed training indicating a superior modality for inducing neuromuscular adaptation

  5. Changes of explosive strength in professional basketball players after a six week training cycle with plyometric training and resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Explosive strength of the lower extremities and agility are important parts of game performance in basketball. Although numerous studies have focused on the assessment of the training effect of plyometric training, studies focusing on elite players are missing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find out what changes in explosive strength of the lower extremities take place after a 6 week strength training with plyometric exercises and resistance exercises in elite basketball players. METHODS: Elite basketball players (n = 12; age 24.71 ± 1.5 years; height 197.0 ± 7.6 cm; weight 95.8 ± 8.1 kg performed during pre-season a 6 week training program with plyometric exercises and resistance exercises which were conducted biweekly during the pre-season. The changes in explosive strength were measured by the squat jump without arms, the counter movement jump without arms, the counter movement jump free arms and the 2 step run up jump. The players participated in two measurements. The 1st (pretesting was performed on the first day of pre-season and the 2nd (posttesting was completed two days after terminating the PT programme. The differences between the average values of the monitored parameters were determined by the Wilcoxon paired test. To calculate the effect size formula according to Fritz, Morris, and Richler (2012: R = Z/√N was used. RESULTS: Analysis of intra-group changes confirmed significant differences between the two measurements in tests of vertical jump squat (Z = 2.58, p = .01, r = .75, vertical jump from the point of the swing arm (Z = 2.49, p = .01, r = .72 and vertical jump from place without the swing arm (Z = 2.75, p = .01, r = .79. In case of the two step run up jump significant differences were not found (Z = 1.60, p = .11, r = .56. Analysis of intra-individual changes showed the significant interindividual differences in the changes of the explosive power of the lower limbs after a 6 week training. The

  6. Fatigue resistance of engine-driven rotary nickel-titanium instruments produced by new manufacturing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarini, Gianluca; Grande, Nicola Maria; Plotino, Gianluca; Somma, Francesco; Garala, Manish; De Luca, Massimo; Testarelli, Luca

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cyclic fatigue resistance is increased for nickel-titanium instruments manufactured by using new processes. This was evaluated by comparing instruments produced by using the twisted method (TF; SybronEndo, Orange, CA) and those using the M-wire alloy (GTX; Dentsply Tulsa-Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) with instruments produced by a traditional NiTi grinding process (K3, SybronEndo). Tests were performed with a specific cyclic fatigue device that evaluated cycles to failure of rotary instruments inside curved artificial canals. Results indicated that size 06-25 TF instruments showed a significant increase (p 0.05) in the mean number of cycles to failure when compared with size 06-20 GT series X instruments. The new manufacturing process produced nickel-titanium rotary files (TF) significantly more resistant to fatigue than instruments produced with the traditional NiTi grinding process. Instruments produced with M-wire (GTX) were not found to be more resistant to fatigue than instruments produced with the traditional NiTi grinding process.

  7. Strategy for Manipulation of Cheese Flora Using Combinations of Lacticin 3147-Producing and -Resistant Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Máire P.; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop adjunct strains which can grow in the presence of bacteriocin produced by lacticin 3147-producing starters in fermented products such as cheese. A Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei strain (DPC5336) was isolated from a well-flavored, commercial cheddar cheese and exposed to increasing concentrations (up to 4,100 arbitrary units [AU]/ml) of lantibiotic lacticin 3147. This approach generated a stable, more-resistant variant of the isolate (DPC5337), which was 32 times less sensitive to lacticin 3147 than DPC5336. The performance of DPC5336 was compared to that of DPC5337 as adjunct cultures in two separate trials using either Lactococcus lactis DPC3147 (a natural producer) or L. lactis DPC4275 (a lacticin 3147-producing transconjugant) as the starter. These lacticin 3147-producing starters were previously shown to control adventitious nonstarter lactic acid bacteria in cheddar cheese. Lacticin 3147 was produced and remained stable during ripening, with levels of either 1,280 or 640 AU/g detected after 6 months of ripening. The more-resistant adjunct culture survived and grew in the presence of the bacteriocin in each trial, reaching levels of 107 CFU/g during ripening, in contrast to the sensitive strain, which was present at levels 100- to 1,000-fold lower. Furthermore, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR was employed to demonstrate that the resistant adjunct strain comprised the dominant microflora in the test cheeses during ripening. PMID:11375183

  8. Low-Load Resistance Training with Blood Flow Occlusion as a Countermeasure to Disuse Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Cook, S. B.

    2009-01-01

    Decreases in strength and neuromuscular function are observed following prolonged disuse. Exercise countermeasures to prevent muscle dysfunction during disuse typically involve high intensity resistance training. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of low-load resistance training with a blood flow occlusion to mitigate muscle loss and dysfunction during 30 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS).

  9. Format of Basic Instruction Program Resistance Training Classes: Effect on Fitness Change in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, J. P.; Channell, Brian; Pugh, Chip; Tuck, Matt; Pendel, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    New resistance training programs such as CrossFit are gaining favor among college-aged students. CrossFit and related commercial resistance training programs may provide a valuable elective option within basic instruction program (BIP) curricula, but the fitness benefits of this course have not been compared with those of existing BIP resistance…

  10. Resistance training and testosterone levels in male patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Andersen, Jesper L.; Eidemak, Inge

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels' associations with muscle fibre size and resistance training in male dialysis patients. METHODS: Male patients were included in a 16-week control period followed by 16 weeks of resistance training thric...

  11. National Strength and Conditioning Association Position Statement: Health Aspects of Resistance Exercise and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Michael S.; Rozenek, Ralph

    2001-01-01

    Resistance training may enhance cardiovascular health, improve body composition, increase bone mineral density, reduce anxiety and depression, reduce the risk of injury during other sports, and increase muscular strength and endurance. The paper describes the effects of resistance training on: the cardiovascular system, energy expenditure and body…

  12. Detection of VIM-2-, IMP-1- and NDM-1-producing multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Siew Mun; Rajasekaram, Ganeswrei; Puthucheary, Savithri D; Chua, Kek Heng

    2018-02-09

    The increasing incidence of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa along with the discovery of novel metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) is of concern. In this study, the isolation of Malaysian MBL-producing P. aeruginosa clinical strains was investigated. Fifty-three P. aeruginosa clinical strains were isolated from different patients in Sultanah Aminah Hospital, Johor Bahru, Malaysia in 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was conducted. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of imipenem and meropenem were determined by Etest. The carbapenem-resistant strains were screened for MBL production by IMP-EDTA double disk synergy test (DDST), MBL imipenem/imipenem-inhibitor (IP/IPI) Etest and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Genotyping was performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. Three (5.7%) clinical strains were identified as MBL producers. Multidrug resistance was observed in the three strains, and two were resistant to all the antimicrobials tested. Sequencing analysis confirmed the three strains to harbour carbapenemase genes: one with bla IMP-1 , one with bla VIM-2 and the other with bla NDM-1 genes. These multidrug resistant strains were identified as sequence type (ST) 235 and ST308. None of the bla IMP-1 and bla NDM-1 genes have been reported in Malaysian P. aeruginosa. The emergence of imipenemase 1 (IMP-1)- and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1)-producing P. aeruginosa in Malaysia maybe travel-associated. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Effects of different volume-equated resistance training loading strategies on muscular adaptations in well-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Peterson, Mark D; Contreras, Bret; Sonmez, G T; Alvar, Brent A

    2014-10-01

    Regimented resistance training has been shown to promote marked increases in skeletal muscle mass. Although muscle hypertrophy can be attained through a wide range of resistance training programs, the principle of specificity, which states that adaptations are specific to the nature of the applied stimulus, dictates that some programs will promote greater hypertrophy than others. Research is lacking, however, as to the best combination of variables required to maximize hypertophic gains. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscular adaptations to a volume-equated bodybuilding-type training program vs. a powerlifting-type routine in well-trained subjects. Seventeen young men were randomly assigned to either a hypertrophy-type resistance training group that performed 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum (RM) with 90 seconds rest or a strength-type resistance training (ST) group that performed 7 sets of 3RM with a 3-minute rest interval. After 8 weeks, no significant differences were noted in muscle thickness of the biceps brachii. Significant strength differences were found in favor of ST for the 1RM bench press, and a trend was found for greater increases in the 1RM squat. In conclusion, this study showed that both bodybuilding- and powerlifting-type training promote similar increases in muscular size, but powerlifting-type training is superior for enhancing maximal strength.

  14. Phenotypic evaluation of biofilm producing ability in Methicillin resistant Staphylococ¬cus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Moori-Bakhtiari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Like genomic changes, the ability for biofilm production is considered as one of the antibiotic resistant factors in bacteria which can cause recurrent infections. The infection resulted from Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus is the most common form of such complications manifested as recurrent infections. The aim of this study was to investigate biofilm production ability among isolated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in patients with different types of clinical infection. Material and Methods: Fifty Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from different specimens and identified by biochemical and species-specific PCR tests. Methicillin- resistance specificity of isolates was confirmed by disk diffusion method and mecA gene presence; the biofilm- forming ability was evaluated by crystal violet microtiter plate assay and Congo red agar (CRA. Results: Using turbidimetry with no acetic acid, the ability for biofim production was seen at 550 and 492 nm in 34 (68% and 28 isolates (56%, respectively. In both methods, the most of isolates were weak biofilm producers. In CRA, 94% of isolates were biofilm producers which most (72.3% of them were moderate producers. Conclusions: While with the consideration of three studied methods high percentages of isolates were biofilm producers and despite the significant correlation seen between their results, there was a higher correlation coefficient between the results obtained from crystalviolet-treated microtiter plates with two reading methods.

  15. Multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial resistance in Enterococcus faecium isolates from fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, M José Grande; Aguayo, M Carmen López; Pulido, Rubén Pérez; Gálvez, Antonio; López, Rosario Lucas

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the relatedness of Enterococcus faecium isolates from fresh produce to E. faecium strains from other sources by using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and to determine the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates. MLST analysis of 22 E. faecium isolates from fresh produce revealed 7 different sequence types (ST 22, ST 26, ST 43, ST 46, ST 55, ST 94 and ST 296). Most isolates belonged to ST 296 (40.9 %), followed by ST 94 (27.3 %). All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and to imipenem, and only one was resistant to ampicillin (MIC 32 mg/l). However, all were resistant to cefotaxime and ceftazidine. E. faecium isolates from fresh produce were inhibited by quaternary compounds (benzalkonium chloride, cetrimide, hexadecylpyridinium chloride, didecyldimethylammonium bromide), biguanides (chlorhexidine), polyguanides [poly-(hexamethylene guanidinium) hydrochloride], bisphenols (triclosan, hexachlorophene) and biocidal solutions of P3 oxonia and P3 topax 66. Didecyldimethylammonium bromide and triclosan were the least effective biocides in growth inhibition, while hexadecylpyridinium chloride was the most effective. Results from MLST typing and antibiotic resistance suggest that the studied E. faecium isolates from fresh produce are not related to the clinically-relevant clonal complex CC17.

  16. Alternative Pathway to a Glycopeptide-Resistant Cell Wall in the Balhimycin Producer Amycolatopsis balhimycina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasch, Hans-Joerg; Kalan, Lindsay; Kilian, Regina; Martin, Tobias; Wright, Gerard D; Stegmann, Evi

    2015-06-12

    Balhimycin, a vancomycin-type glycopeptide, is a lipid II targeting antibiotic produced by Amycolatopsis balhimycina. A. balhimycina has developed a self-resistance mechanism based on the synergistic action of different enzymes resulting in modified peptidoglycan. The canonical resistance mechanism against glycopeptides is the synthesis of peptidoglycan precursors ending with acyl-d-alanyl-d-lactate (d-Ala-d-Lac) rather than acyl-d-alanyl-d-alanine (d-Ala-d-Ala). This reprogramming is the result of the enzymes VanH, VanA, and VanX. VanH and VanA are required to produce d-Ala-d-Lac; VanX cleaves cytosolic pools of d-Ala-d-Ala, thereby ensuring that peptidoglycan is enriched in d-Ala-d-Lac. In A. balhimycina, the ΔvanHAXAb mutant showed a reduced glycopeptide resistance in comparison to the wild type. Nevertheless, ΔvanHAXAb was paradoxically still able to produce d-Ala-d-Lac containing resistant cell wall precursors suggesting the presence of a novel alternative glycopeptide resistance mechanism. In silico analysis, inactivation studies, and biochemical assays led to the characterization of an enzyme, Ddl1Ab, as a paraloguous chromosomal d-Ala-d-Lac ligase able to complement the function of VanAAb in the ΔvanHAXAb mutant. Furthermore, A. balhimycina harbors a vanYAb gene encoding a d,d-carboxypeptidase. Transcriptional analysis revealed an upregulated expression of vanYAb in the ΔvanHAXAb mutant. VanYAb cleaves the endstanding d-Ala from the pentapeptide precursors, reducing the quantity of sensitive cell wall precursors in the absence of VanXAb. These findings represent an unprecedented coordinated layer of resistance mechanisms in a glycopeptide antibiotic producing bacterium.

  17. Clinical laboratory detection of carbapenem-resistant and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shelley; Humphries, Romney M

    2016-08-01

    Carbapenemases, enzymes that hydrolyze carbapenem-class antimicrobials, pose serious clinical and diagnostic challenges, including their recent rapid spread among members of the Enterobacteriaceae, a family with no inherent carbapenem resistance. Currently there is no one-size-fits-all method for detecting carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in the laboratory, nor how to differentiate carbapenemase-producers (CP) from isolates that are carbapenem-resistant via other or combined mechanisms. This article reviews definitions for CRE and CP-CRE, and discusses current phenotypic and molecular methods available to the clinical laboratory for the detection of both CP and non-CP CRE. Expert commentary: Routine evaluation of carbapenem resistance mechanism by the routine clinical laboratory are not necessary for patient care, as clinical breakpoints best predict response. However, evaluation for carbapenemase is integral to infection control efforts, and laboratories should have the capacity to do such testing, either in house or by submitting isolates to a reference laboratory.

  18. Effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and weightlifting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Eric S; Volek, Jeff S

    2003-11-01

    Creatine monohydrate has become the supplement of choice for many athletes striving to improve sports performance. Recent data indicate that athletes may not be using creatine as a sports performance booster per se but instead use creatine chronically as a training aid to augment intense resistance training workouts. Although several studies have evaluated the combined effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and weightlifting performance, these data have not been analyzed collectively. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effects of creatine supplementation on muscle strength and weightlifting performance when ingested concomitant with resistance training. The effects of gender, interindividual variability, training status, and possible mechanisms of action are discussed. Of the 22 studies reviewed, the average increase in muscle strength (1, 3, or 10 repetition maximum [RM]) following creatine supplementation plus resistance training was 8% greater than the average increase in muscle strength following placebo ingestion during resistance training (20 vs. 12%). Similarly, the average increase in weightlifting performance (maximal repetitions at a given percent of maximal strength) following creatine supplementation plus resistance training was 14% greater than the average increase in weightlifting performance following placebo ingestion during resistance training (26 vs. 12%). The increase in bench press 1RM ranged from 3 to 45%, and the improvement in weightlifting performance in the bench press ranged from 16 to 43%. Thus there is substantial evidence to indicate that creatine supplementation during resistance training is more effective at increasing muscle strength and weightlifting performance than resistance training alone, although the response is highly variable.

  19. Number of repetition after different rest intervals between static stretching and resistance training

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, H.; Paz, G.A.; Maia, M. de F.; Leite, T.; Miranda, H.; Simão, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different intervals between static stretching for hip adductor, quadriceps and hamstring muscles and resistance training in repetition performance. Method: Twenty-two trained men were submitted to the 10 repetition maximum test and retest for leg extension, leg curl and hip adduction exercises. Three protocols were conducted in a randomized design – PWI: resistance training immediately after static stretching; P15: fift...

  20. Effects of nonlinear resistance and aerobic interval training on cytokines and insulin resistance in sedentary men who are obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikseresht, Mahmoud; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid; Azarbayjani, Mohammad A; Ebrahim, Khosrow

    2014-09-01

    Regular exercise training has been shown to reduce systemic inflammation, but there is limited research directly comparing different types of training. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of nonlinear resistance training (NRT) and aerobic interval training (AIT) on serum interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-20, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, insulin resistance index (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), and aerobic capacity in middle-aged men who are obese. Sedentary volunteers were assigned to NRT (n = 12), AIT (n = 12), and (CON, n = 10) control groups. The experimental groups performed 3 weekly sessions for 12 weeks, whereas the CON grouped maintained a sedentary lifestyle. Nonlinear resistance training consisted of 40-65 minutes of weight training at different intensities with flexible periodization. Aerobic interval training consisted of running on a treadmill (4 sets of 4 minutes at 80-90% of maximal heart rate, with 3-minute recovery intervals). Serum IL-10, IL-20, and TNF-α levels did not change significantly in response to training (all p > 0.05), but IL-10:TNF-α ratio increased significantly with AIT compared with CON (2.95 ± 0.84 vs. 2.52 ± 0.65; p = 0.02). After the training period, maximal oxygen uptake increased significantly in AIT and NRT compared with CON (both p resistance (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance) (both p ≤ 0.05; AIT: 0.84 ± 0.34, NRT: 0.84 ± 0.27, and CON: 1.62 ± 0.56) and fasting insulin levels (both p ≤ 0.05; AIT: 3.61 ± 1.48, NRT: 3.66 ± 0.92, and CON: 6.20 ± 2.64 μU·ml), but the AIT seems to have better anti-inflammatory effects (as indicated by the IL-10:TNF-α ratio) compared with NRT.

  1. Resistance Training and Testosterone Levels in Male Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Undergoing Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Molsted

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We investigated serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 levels’ associations with muscle fibre size and resistance training in male dialysis patients. Methods. Male patients were included in a 16-week control period followed by 16 weeks of resistance training thrice weekly. Blood samples were obtained to analyse testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH, IGF-1, and IGF-binding protein 3. Muscle fibres’ size was analysed in biopsies from m. vastus lateralis. Results. The patients’ testosterone levels were within the normal range at baseline (n=20 (19.5 (8.2–52.1 nmol/L versus 17.6 (16.1–18.0, resp. whereas LH levels were higher (13.0 (5.5–82.8 U/L versus 4.3 (3.3–4.6, P<0.001, resp.. IGF-1 and IGF-binding protein 3 levels were higher in the patients compared with reference values (203 (59–590 ng/mL versus 151 (128–276, P=0.014, and 5045 (3370–9370 ng/mL versus 3244 (3020–3983, P<0.001, resp.. All hormone levels and muscle fibre size (n=12 remained stable throughout the study. Age-adjusted IGF-1 was associated with type 1 and 2 fibre sizes (P<0.05. Conclusion. Patients’ total testosterone values were normal due to markedly increased LH values, which suggest a compensated primary insufficiency of the testosterone producing Leydig cell. Even though testosterone values were normal, resistance training was not associated with muscle hypertrophy. This trial is registered with ISRCTN72099857.

  2. Effects of Resistance Training on the Sit-and-Reach Test in Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; Santarem Jose Maria; Filho, Wilson Jacob; Marucci, Maria de Fatima Nunes

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week resistance training program on older women's flexibility (evaluated through the sit- and-reach test performed before and after the training program). Participants were compared to inactive older women. The training program resulted in significant increases in participants' flexibility, suggesting that weight…

  3. Is inertial flywheel resistance training superior to gravity-dependent resistance training in improving muscle strength? A systematic review with meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicens-Bordas, J; Esteve, E; Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, A; Bandholm, T; Thorborg, K

    2018-01-01

    The primary aim of this systematic review was to determine if inertial flywheel resistance training is superior to gravity-dependent resistance training in improving muscle strength. The secondary aim was to determine whether inertial flywheel resistance training is superior to gravity-dependent resistance training in improving other muscular adaptations. A systematic review with meta-analyses of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials. We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials with no publication date restrictions until November 2016. We performed meta-analyses on randomised and non-randomised controlled trials to determine the standardized mean difference between the effects of inertial flywheel and gravity-dependent resistance training on muscle strength. A total of 76 and 71 participants were included in the primary and secondary analyses, respectively. After systematic review, we included three randomised and four non-randomised controlled trials. In the primary analysis for the primary outcome muscle strength, the pooled results from randomised controlled trials showed no difference (SMD=-0.05; 95%CI -0.51 to 0.40; p=0.82; I 2 =0%). In the secondary analyses of the primary outcome, the pooled results from non-randomised controlled trials showed no difference (SMD=0.02; 95%CI -0.45 to 0.49; p=0.93; I 2 =0%; and SMD=0.03; 95%CI -0.43 to 0.50; p=0.88; I 2 =0%). Meta-analysis on secondary outcomes could not be performed. Based on the available data, inertial flywheel resistance training was not superior to gravity-dependent resistance training in enhancing muscle strength. Data for other strength variables and other muscular adaptations was insufficient to draw firm conclusions from. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of resistance training on cardiovascular health in non-obese active adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Clare Chung-Wah; McManus, Alison Mary; So, Hung-Kwan; Chook, Ping; Au, Chun-Ting; Li, Albert Martin; Kam, Jack Tat-Chi; So, Raymond Chi-Hung; Lam, Christopher Wai-Kei; Chan, Iris Hiu-Shuen; Sung, Rita Yn-Tz

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the benefits of a 10-wk resistance training programme on cardiovascular health in non-obese and active adolescents. METHODS This is a pragmatic randomised controlled intervention. The study was carried out in a Hong Kong Government secondary school. Thirty-eight lean and active boys and girls were randomised to either the resistance training group or the control group. Students in the resistance training group received in-school 10-wk supervised resistance training twice per week, with each session lasting 70 min. Main outcome measures taken before and after training included brachial endothelial dependent flow-mediated dilation, body composition, fasting serum lipids, fasting glucose and insulin, high sensitive C-reactive protein, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure and aerobic fitness. RESULTS The only training related change was in endothelial dependent flow-mediated dilation which increased from 8.5% to 9.8%. A main effect of time and an interaction (P < 0.005) indicated that this improvement was a result of the 10-wk resistance training. Main effects for time (P < 0.05) in a number of anthropometric, metabolic and vascular variables were noted; however, there were no significant interactions indicating the change was more likely an outcome of normal growth and development as opposed to a training effect. CONCLUSION Ten weeks of resistance training in school appears to have some vascular benefit in active, lean children PMID:27610345

  5. Changes in circulating angiogenic factors after an acute training bout before and after resistance training with or without whole-body-vibration training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijer, Åsa; Degens, Hans; May, Francisca; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Joern; Rosenberger, Andre

    2012-07-01

    Both Resistance Exercise and Whole-Body-Vibration training are currently considered as countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Here we investigated the effects of whole-body vibration superimposed upon resistance exercise. Within this context, the present study focuses on changes in circulating angiogenic factors as indicators of skeletal muscle adaption. Methods: Twenty-six healthy male subjects (25.2 ± 4.2 yr) were included in this two-group parallel-designed study and randomly assigned to one of the training interventions: either resistance exercise (RE) or resistance vibration exercise (RVE). Participants trained 2-3 times per week for 6 weeks (completing 16 training sessions), where one session took 9 ± 1 min. Participants trained with weights on a guided barbell. The individual training load was set at 80% of their 1-Repetition-Maximum. Each training session consisted of three sets with 8 squats and 12 heel raises, following an incremental training design with regards to weight (RE and RVE) and vibration frequency (RVE only). The vibration frequency was increased from 20 Hz in the first week till 40 Hz during the last two weeks with 5-Hz weekly increments. At the first and 16 ^{th} training session, six blood samples (pre training and 2 min, 5 min, 15 min, 35 min and 75 min post training) were taken. Circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Endostatin and Matrix Metalloproteinases -2 and -9 (MMPs) were determined in serum using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays. Results: MMP-2 levels increased by 7.0% (SE = 2.7%, P resistance exercise, both with and without superimposed vibration, leads to a transient rise in circulating angiogenic factors, 2) which is not altered after a period of resistance exercise with or without vibration.

  6. Changes in Sprint and Jump Performances After Traditional, Plyometric, and Combined Resistance Training in Male Youth Pre- and Post-Peak Height Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Rhodri S; Radnor, John M; De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Cronin, John B; Oliver, Jon L

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 6-week training interventions using different modes of resistance (traditional strength, plyometric, and combined training) on sprinting and jumping performances in boys before and after peak height velocity (PHV). Eighty school-aged boys were categorized into 2 maturity groups (pre- or post-PHV) and then randomly assigned to (a) plyometric training, (b) traditional strength training, (c) combined training, or (d) a control group. Experimental groups participated in twice-weekly training programs for 6 weeks. Acceleration, maximal running velocity, squat jump height, and reactive strength index data were collected pre- and postintervention. All training groups made significant gains in measures of sprinting and jumping irrespective of the mode of resistance training and maturity. Plyometric training elicited the greatest gains across all performance variables in pre-PHV children, whereas combined training was the most effective in eliciting change in all performance variables for the post-PHV cohort. Statistical analysis indicated that plyometric training produced greater changes in squat jump and acceleration performances in the pre-PHV group compared with the post-PHV cohort. All other training responses between pre- and post-PHV cohorts were not significant and not clinically meaningful. The study indicates that plyometric training might be more effective in eliciting short-term gains in jumping and sprinting in boys who are pre-PHV, whereas those who are post-PHV may benefit from the additive stimulus of combined training.

  7. Vastus lateralis exhibits non-homogenous adaptation to resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Adam J; Fukuda, David H; Hoffman, Jay R; Gonzalez, Adam M; Jajtner, Adam R; Townsend, Jeremy R; Mangine, Gerald T; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2014-11-01

    Variations in transverse point of measure on the vastus lateralis (VL) may significantly affect the relationship between structure and function. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in muscle architecture at 2 commonly used points of measure (VL0 and VL5). Maximal strength (1-repetition maximum [1RM] barbell squat) and muscle architecture were assessed PRE and POST 15 weeks of periodized resistance training. VL0 was 50% of the straight line distance between the greater trochanter and lateral epicondyle of the femur. VL5 was 5cm medial to VL0. Increases in 1RM strength (3.7 ± 2.4 kg; P = 0.004) were observed. Changes in muscle thickness (MT) at VL5 were significantly greater than at VL0 (P = 0.006). Changes in strength correlated with changes in muscle architecture at VL0 only (MT: r = 0.561; fascicle length: r = 0.503). Changes in muscle architecture appear to occur in a non-homogeneous manner. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Factors associated with participation in resistance training: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Lubans, David R; Karunamuni, Nandini; Kennedy, Sarah; Plotnikoff, Ronald

    2017-10-01

    Regular participation in resistance training (RT) is critical to health and recommended in most international physical activity guidelines. Few people, however, participate in RT. The purpose of this review was to assess the demographic, behavioural, intrapersonal, interpersonal and environmental factors associated with participating in RT. Eligible studies were from English peer-reviewed published articles that examined correlates or determinants of RT in adult samples. Searches were performed from August 2015 to April 2016 in six databases. We identified 51 independent data sets, from nine countries, primarily of moderate to high quality, and 23 factors related to participating in RT. Education, perceived health status, quality of life, affective judgements, self-efficacy, intention, self-regulation behaviours, subjective norm and programme leadership were associated with RT. Low education levels and poor health status were associated with low participation rates in RT. Intrapersonal factors including affective judgements, self-efficacy, and self-regulation behaviours, and interpersonal factors including subjective norms and programme leadership may be important for promoting RT behaviours. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Effects of Weight Resistance Training on Swimmers with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Víquez Ulate y Andrea Mora Campos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of weight resistance training on strength in swimmers with Down Syndrome (DS. Seven swimmers with DS participated in the study: 6 men and 1 woman, 23.14 years of age ± 4.59 and with 6.14 years ± 2.34 years of swimming. Instruments: One repetition maximum (RM test to determine the individual’s maximum muscular strength. Procedure: the study was conducted for 10 weeks (2 weeks at baseline, 6 weeks of treatment and 2 weeks to see the effects of retention. Results: significantly positive changes were detected in the maximum strength of pectoral muscles (F=5.768; p=0.006, dorsal muscles (F = 26.770; p=7.45e-007, femoral biceps (F = 32.530; p=1.76e-007, quadriceps (F = 8.391; p=0.001, triceps (F = 11.217; p=0.0002 and these adjustments were maintained with no significant changes for two weeks, while the biceps muscle (F=4.145; p=0.021 behaved differently since it suffered no significant adjustments during the program.

  10. On-Board Video Recording Unravels Bird Behavior and Mortality Produced by High-Speed Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eladio L. García de la Morena

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Large high-speed railway (HSR networks are planned for the near future to accomplish increased transport demand with low energy consumption. However, high-speed trains produce unknown avian mortality due to birds using the railway and being unable to avoid approaching trains. Safety and logistic difficulties have precluded until now mortality estimation in railways through carcass removal, but information technologies can overcome such problems. We present the results obtained with an experimental on-board system to record bird-train collisions composed by a frontal recording camera, a GPS navigation system and a data storage unit. An observer standing in the cabin behind the driver controlled the system and filled out a form with data of collisions and bird observations in front of the train. Photographs of the train front taken before and after each journey were used to improve the record of killed birds. Trains running the 321.7 km line between Madrid and Albacete (Spain at speeds up to 250–300 km/h were equipped with the system during 66 journeys along a year, totaling approximately 14,700 km of effective recording. The review of videos produced 1,090 bird observations, 29.4% of them corresponding to birds crossing the infrastructure under the catenary and thus facing collision risk. Recordings also showed that 37.7% bird crossings were of animals resting on some element of the infrastructure moments before the train arrival, and that the flight initiation distance of birds (mean ± SD was between 60 ± 33 m (passerines and 136 ± 49 m (raptors. Mortality in the railway was estimated to be 60.5 birds/km year on a line section with 53 runs per day and 26.1 birds/km year in a section with 25 runs per day. Our results are the first published estimation of bird mortality in a HSR and show the potential of information technologies to yield useful data for monitoring the impact of trains on birds via on-board recording systems. Moreover

  11. Effects of interset whole-body vibration on bench press resistance training in trained and untrained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timon, Rafael; Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Olcina, Guillermo; Gusi, Narcis

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated positive effects of acute vibration exercise on concentric strength and power, but few have observed the effects of vibration exposure on resistance training. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of whole body vibration applied to the chest via hands on bench press resistance training in trained and untrained individuals. Nineteen participants (10 recreationally trained bodybuilders and 9 untrained students) performed two randomized sessions of resistance training on separate days. Each strength session consisted of 3 bench press sets with a load of 75% 1RM to failure in each set, with 2 minutes' rest between sets. All subjects performed the same strength training with either, vibration exposure (12 Hz, 4 mm) of 30 seconds immediately before each bench press set or without vibration. Number of total repetitions, kinematic parameters, blood lactate and perceived exertion were analyzed. In the untrained group, vibration exposure caused a significant increase in the mean velocity (from 0.36±0.02 to 0.39±0.03 m/s) and acceleration (from 0.75±0.10 to 0.86±0.09 m/s2), as well as a decrease in perceived effort (from 8±0.57 to 7.35±0.47) in the first bench press set, but no change was observed in the third bench press set. In the recreationally trained bodybuilders, vibration exposure did not cause any improvement on the performance of bench press resistance training. These results suggest that vibration exposure applied just before the bench press exercise could be a good practice to be implemented by untrained individuals in resistance training.

  12. Molecular characterization of metallo β-lactamase producing multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa from various clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaivani Ramakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a potent opportunistic nosocomial human pathogen among Gram-negative bacteria causing various life-threatening infections in patients from Intensive Care Units. This bacterium has become resistant to almost all commonly available antibiotics with limited treatment options. Multi drug resistant P. aeruginosa (MDRPA is a major cause of concern among hospital acquired infections. It uses distinctive resistant mechanisms virtually to all the available antibiotics such as Metallo β-lactamases (MBL production, extended spectrum β-lactamase production (ESBL, up regulation of efflux systems related genes and decreased outer membrane permeability. This study was carried out to find one the predominant resistance mechanisms among MDRPA and the prevalence of corresponding resistance genes. Materials and Methods: MDRPA isolates collected from various clinical samples for a period of 1-year (November 2009-Octo ber 2010 were included to detect the predominant mechanism of resistance using phenotypic and molecular methods. Molecular characterization of all these isolates was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the presence of blaVIM-2, blaIMP-1, blaOXA-23, and blaNDM-1 genes with specific primers. Results: Among 75 MDRPA isolates 84% (63 were MBL producers. Molecular characterization studied by PCR showed the presence of blaVIM-2 gene in 13% of MBL producers. Conclusion: The prevalence of MBLs has been increasing worldwide, particularly among P. aeruginosa, leading to severe limitations in the therapeutic options for the management. Thus, proper resistance screening measures and appropriate antibiotic policy can be strictly adopted by all the healthcare facility providers to overcome these superbugs.

  13. Comparative Effectiveness of Low-Volume Time-Efficient Resistance Training Versus Endurance Training in Patients With Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Gregers Winding; Birgitte Rosenmeier, Jaya; Petersen, Morten

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiorespiratory fitness is positively related to heart failure (HF) prognosis, but lack of time and low energy are barriers for adherence to exercise. We, therefore, compared the effect of low-volume time-based resistance exercise training (TRE) with aerobic moderate-intensity cycling...... (AMC) on maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, health-related quality of life, and vascular function. METHODS: Twenty-eight HF patients (New York Heart Association class I-II) performed AMC (n = 14) or TRE (n = 14). Maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, health-related quality of life......, and vascular function were evaluated before and after a 6-wk training intervention with 3 training sessions per week. The AMC group and the TRE group trained for 45 and 25 min per training session, respectively. During the training sessions, the TRE and AMC groups trained at 60 ± 4% and 59 ± 2% (mean...

  14. Effect of specific resistance training on forearm pain and work disability in industrial technicians: cluster randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Louis; Jakobsen, Markus D; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of specific resistance training on forearm pain and work disability in industrial technicians.......To determine the effect of specific resistance training on forearm pain and work disability in industrial technicians....

  15. Effect of 8-Week Resistance Training on Hypertrophy, Strength, and Myostatin Concentration in Old and Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoof Negaresh

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion Resistance training was associated with a decline in myostatin level and increase in the muscle mass and cross-sectional area. Hence, the beneficial effect of resistance training may decrease age-related muscle atrophy and affect elderly health.

  16. Concurrent training: a meta-analysis examining interference of aerobic and resistance exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jacob M; Marin, Pedro J; Rhea, Matthew R; Wilson, Stephanie M C; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Anderson, Jody C

    2012-08-01

    The primary objective of this investigation was to identify which components of endurance training (e.g., modality, duration, frequency) are detrimental to resistance training outcomes. A meta-analysis of 21 studies was performed with a total of 422 effect sizes (ESs). Criteria for the study included were (a) compare strength training alone to strength plus endurance training (concurrent) or to compare combinations of concurrent training; (b) the outcome measures include at least one measure of strength, power, or hypertrophy; and (c) the data necessary to calculate ESs must be included or available. The mean ES for hypertrophy for strength training was 1.23; for endurance training, it was 0.27; and for concurrent training, it was 0.85, with strength and concurrent training being significantly greater than endurance training only. The mean ES for strength development for strength training was 1.76; for endurance training, it was 0.78; and for concurrent training, it was 1.44. Strength and concurrent training was significantly greater than endurance training. The mean ES for power development for strength training only was 0.91; for endurance training, it was 0.11; and for concurrent training, it was 0.55. Significant differences were found between all the 3 groups. For moderator variables, resistance training concurrently with running, but not cycling, resulted in significant decrements in both hypertrophy and strength. Correlational analysis identified significant negative relationships between frequency (-0.26 to -0.35) and duration (-0.29 to -0.75) of endurance training for hypertrophy, strength, and power. Significant relationships (p training are a factor of the modality, frequency, and duration of the endurance training selected.

  17. Resistance training for explosive and maximal strength: effects on early and late rate of force development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Felipe B D; Oliveira, Anderson S C; Rizatto, Guilherme F; Denadai, Benedito S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify whether strength training designed to improve explosive and maximal strength would influence rate of force development (RFD). Nine men participated in a 6-week knee extensors resistance training program and 9 matched subjects participated as controls. Throughout the training sessions, subjects were instructed to perform isometric knee extension as fast and forcefully as possible, achieving at least 90% maximal voluntary contraction as quickly as possible, hold it for 5 s, and relax. Fifteen seconds separated each repetition (6-10), and 2 min separated each set (3). Pre- and post-training measurements were maximal isometric knee extensor (MVC), RFD, and RFD relative to MVC (i.e., %MVC·s(-1)) in different time-epochs varying from 10 to 250 ms from the contraction onset. The MVC (Nm) increased by 19% (275.8 ± 64.9 vs. 329.8 ± 60.4, p resistance training for explosive and maximal strength. This time-specific RFD adaptation highlight that resistance training programs should consider the specific neuromuscular demands of each sport. Key PointsThe time-specific RFD adaptation evoked by resistance training highlight that the method of analyzing RFD is essential for the interpretation of results.Confirming previous data, maximal contractile RFD and maximal force can be differently influenced by resistance training. Thus, the resistance training programs should consider the specific neuromuscular demands of each sport.In active non-strength trained individuals, a short-term resistance training program designed to increase both explosive and maximal strength seems to reduce the adaptive response (i.e. increased RFDMAX) evoked by training with an intended ballistic effort (i.e. high-RFD contraction).

  18. Antibiotic resistance and integrons in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Colello

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC cause hemorrhagic colitis (HC and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans (HUS. Cattle are the main reservoir of STEC and transmission to humans occurs through contaminated food and water. Antibiotics are used in pig production systems to combat disease and improve productivity and play a key role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes to the bacteria. Integrons have been identified in resistant bacteria allowing for the acquisition and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. STEC strains isolated from humans and animals have developed antibiotic resistance. In our laboratory, 21 non-157 STEC strains isolated from pigs were analyzed to detect class 1 and 2 integrons by PCR. Eight carried integrons, 7 of them harbored intl2. In another study 545 STEC strains were also analyzed for the presence of intl1 and intl2. Strains carrying intl1 belonged to isolates from environment (n = 1, chicken hamburger (n = 2, dairy calves (n = 4 and pigs (n = 8. Two strains isolated from pigs harbored intl2 and only one intl1/intl2, highlighting the presence of intl2 in pigs. The selection for multiresistant strains may contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogens and facilitate the spreading of the mobile resistance elements to other bacteria.

  19. Comparison of the effects of endurance, resistance and concurrent training on insulin resistance and adiponectin-leptin ratio in diabetic rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Saremi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The obesity-related hormones leptin and adiponectin are independently and oppositely associated with insulin resistance. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of endurance, resistance and concurrent training on insulin resistance and adiponectin-leptin ratio in diabetic rats. Methods: Ten out of 50 male Wistar rats were separated as healthy subjects. Then diabetes was induced in the remaining rats by the injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats divided into 4 groups: Control, resistance training (5 sessions/week, 4 reps/3 sets, endurance training (5 sets per week of treadmill running and concurrent training. The resistance training protocol consisted of ten weeks climbing up the ladder, while endurance training performed on treadmill for ten weeks. Concurrent training group completed a combination of both resistances and endurance treadmill training. Blood samples were taken to assess leptin, adiponectin and insulin resistance. Findings: Endurance, resistance and concurrent training significantly decreased insulin resistance and glucose (P0.05. On the one hand, adiponctin level and adiponctin-leptin ratio significantly increased in all of training groups (P<0.05. Conclusion: Exercise training, as defined in this study, leads to improvements in adiponectin-leptin ratio and concurrent training has more impact on insulin resistance index in diabetic rats.

  20. Inflammation relates to resistance training-induced hypertrophy in elderly patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norheim, Kristoffer L.; Cullum, Christopher K.; Andersen, Jesper L.

    2017-01-01

    on the relationship between systemic inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and changes in muscle mass, as well as the influence of resistance training upon muscle mass. Method: Unilateral leg press resistance exercise was conducted daily during the hospital period. Outcomes included changes in whole body...... although our findings are potentially affected by changes in hydration status. Resistance training during hospitalization increases skeletal muscle mass, and patients with high levels of systemic inflammation demonstrate less ability to increase or preserve muscle mass in response to resistance training...... = 84.8 T 1.9 yr, mean T SE). Lean mass at the midthigh region of the trained leg increased by 2.4% T 1.1% (P G 0.05) after the intervention period. There was a negative association between changes in midthigh lean mass of the trained leg and CRP (rs = j0.53, P G 0.05). Leg extension power increased...

  1. Not all instability training devices enhance muscle activation in highly resistance-trained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Michael J; Behm, David G

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the soleus, bicep femoris, rectus femoris, lower abdominal, and lumbosacral erector spinae (LSES) muscles with a variety of (a) instability devices, (b) stable and unstable (Dyna Disc) exercises, and (c) a fatiguing exercise in 16 highly conditioned individuals. The device protocol had participants assume standing and squatting postures while balancing on a variety of unstable platforms (Dyna Disc, BOSU ball, wobble board, and a Swiss ball) and a stable floor. The exercise protocol had subjects performing, static front lunges, static side lunges, 1-leg hip extensions, 1-leg reaches, and calf raises on a floor or an unstable Dyna Disc. For the fatigue experiment, a wall sit position was undertaken under stable and unstable (BOSU ball) conditions. Results for the device experiment demonstrated increased activity for all muscles when standing on a Swiss ball and all muscles other than the rectus femoris when standing on a wobble board. Only lower abdominals and soleus EMG activity increased while squatting on a Swiss ball and wobble board. Devices such as the Dyna Disc and BOSU ball did not exhibit significant differences in muscle activation under any conditions, except the LSES in the standing Dyna Disc conditions. During the exercise protocol, there were no significant changes in muscle activity between stable and unstable (Dyna Disc) conditions. With the fatigue protocol, soleus EMG activity was 51% greater with a stable base. These results indicate that the use of moderately unstable training devices (i.e., Dyna Disc, BOSU ball) did not provide sufficient challenges to the neuromuscular system in highly resistance-trained individuals. Since highly trained individuals may already possess enhanced stability from the use of dynamic free weights, a greater degree of instability may be necessary.

  2. Potential benefits of resistance exercise training on nutritional status in renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, C; Grossi, L; Dwyer, J

    1998-01-01

    Resistance or strength exercise training may help reverse the malnutrition common among patients in chronic renal failure and delay the progression of renal disease. Resistance training is characterized by resisting, lifting, and lowering weights. It results in muscle mass accretion, improved physical function, and slowed progression of muscle wasting. Resistance exercise training for a period of 8 to 12 weeks results in significant increases in muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle function in frail "healthy" elderly individuals as well as in specific patient populations. States of malnutrition leading to muscle wasting directly affect lean tissue mass and functional capacity. Even at dietary protein intake below the Recommended Dietary Allowances, resistance training appears to exert an anabolic effect by improving energy intake and protein use allowing nitrogen retention. The potential benefits of resistance exercise extend beyond this direct impact on protein metabolism. They include improvements in functional capacity such as gait, balance, mobility, strength, exercise tolerance, improved glucose uptake, insulin sensitivity, and self-efficacy and self-esteem. Currently, the effects of resistance exercise in renal patients are unknown, although they are well shown in the case of other diseases. The potential benefits that resistance exercise training may have on muscle mass and function, nutritional status, hyperglycemia, disease progression, and the overall mental well-being of renal patients deserve further investigation. As an adjunct to current treatment modalities for chronic renal failure, resistance exercise may serve as a cost-effective, interdisciplinary, noninvasive approach to counteract malnutrition and improve the quality of life.

  3. Let the Pleasure Guide Your Resistance Training Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsangedy, Hassan Mohamed; da Silva Machado, Daniel Gomes; Krinski, Kleverton; Duarte do Nascimento, Paulo Henrique; de Amorim Oliveira, Gledson Tavares; Santos, Tony Meireles; Hargreaves, Elaine A; Parfitt, Gaynor

    2018-02-09

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of the Feeling Scale (FS) to self-regulate resistance training (RT) intensity. Sixteen sedentary men (39.7±7.5 years) performed 3 familiarization sessions, 2 one repetition maximum testing (1RM), and 16 RT sessions (4 sessions for each FS descriptor; randomized). The FS descriptors were "very good" (FS+5), "good" (FS+3), "fairly good" (FS+1), and "fairly bad" (FS-1). Resistance exercises were leg press, chest press, knee extension, and seated biceps curl. Participants were instructed to select a load associated with the verbal/numerical descriptor of the FS to perform 3 sets of 10 repetitions. Participants lifted a significantly greater %1RM as the FS level decreased from FS+5 to FS-1 (P<0.001). Mean %1RM for the FS descriptors of +5, +3, +1, and -1, respectively, were: leg press 42.5%±9.5; 58.2%±7.4; 69.9%±7.0; 80.7%±5.4; knee extensor 37.4%±9.6; 54.5%±9.3; 65.3±8.7; 78.2%±5.9; chest press 42.4%±11.3; 54.9%±11.4; 66.4%±12.6; 78.2%±13.5; and biceps curl 39.0%±8.1; 54.0%±9.7; 68.4%±5.9; 83.2%±3.0. The interclass correlation coefficient over the 4 experimental sessions ranged from 0.73 and 0.99 for %1RM, and 0.77 and 0.99 for weight lifted, with a coefficient of variation of approximately 7%, 4%, 2%, and 2% for FS descriptors of +5, +3, +1, and -1, respectively. This study is the first to demonstrate that the FS can be used to self-regulate exercise intensity in RT. The lower the FS descriptor the higher the weight lifted. In addition, the load self-selected for each FS descriptor was reliable across the four sessions.

  4. Simultaneous activation of salicylate production and fungal resistance in transgenic chrysanthemum producing caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun-Soo; Lim, Soon; Yoda, Hiroshi; Choi, Chang-Sun; Choi, Yong-Eui

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine functions in the chemical defense against biotic attackers in a few plant species including coffee and tea. Transgenic tobacco plants that endogenously produced caffeine by expressing three N-methyltransferases involved in the caffeine biosynthesis pathway exhibited a strong resistance to pathogens and herbivores. Here we report that transgenic Chrysanthemum, which produced an equivalent level of caffeine as the tobacco plants at approximately 3 µg g−1 fresh tissues, also exhibited a resistance against grey mold fungal attack. Transcripts of PR-2 gene, a marker for pathogen response, were constitutively accumulated in mature leaves without pathogen attack. The levels of salicylic acid and its glucoside conjugate in mature leaves of the transgenic lines were found to be 2.5-fold higher than in the wild type control. It is suggested that endogenous caffeine stimulated production and/or deposition of salicylates, which possibly activated a series of defense reactions even under non-stressed conditions. PMID:21346420

  5. Molecular Biological basis for statin resistance in naturally statin-producing organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rems, Ana; Frandsen, Rasmus John Normand

    Secondary metabolites can be toxic to the organism producing them; therefore gene clusters for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites often include genes responsible for the organism’s self-resistance to the toxic compounds. One such gene cluster is the compactin (ML-236B) cluster in Penicillium...... secretion [1]. The mlcD gene encodes a putative ‘HMG-CoA reductase-like protein’, and mlcE encodes a putative efflux pump. However, the function of these two putative proteins has not yet been confirmed. We aim to elucidate the biological basis for compactin resistance in the compactin-producing organism......, which leads to the synthesis of ergosterol. Following deletion of HMG1 and HMG2 genes in S. cerevisiae, we inserted the mlcD gene into the knockout mutants, and tested the resulted strains for sensitivity to lovastatin. The HMG1 and HMG2 knockout mutants were unable to grow on minimal media and had...

  6. Characterization of Multidrug Resistant ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Hospitals in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King-Ting Lim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Escherichia coli that produce extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs and are multidrug resistant (MDR poses antibiotic management problems. Forty-seven E. coli isolates from various public hospitals in Malaysia were studied. All isolates were sensitive to imipenem whereas 36 were MDR (resistant to 2 or more classes of antibiotics. PCR detection using gene-specific primers showed that 87.5% of the ESBL-producing E. coli harbored the blaTEM gene. Other ESBL-encoding genes detected were blaOXA, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M. Integron-encoded integrases were detected in 55.3% of isolates, with class 1 integron-encoded intI1 integrase being the majority. Amplification and sequence analysis of the 5′CS region of the integrons showed known antibiotic resistance-encoding gene cassettes of various sizes that were inserted within the respective integrons. Conjugation and transformation experiments indicated that some of the antibiotic resistance genes were likely plasmid-encoded and transmissible. All 47 isolates were subtyped by PFGE and PCR-based fingerprinting using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, repetitive extragenic palindromes (REPs, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC. These isolates were very diverse and heterogeneous. PFGE, ERIC, and REP-PCR methods were more discriminative than RAPD in subtyping the E. coli isolates.

  7. Effects of Methoxyisoflavone, Ecdysterone, and Sulfo-Polysaccharide Supplementation on Training Adaptations in Resistance-Trained Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenwood Michael

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Methoxyisoflavone (M, 20-hydroxyecdysone (E, and sulfo-polysaccharide (CSP3 have been marketed to athletes as dietary supplements that can increase strength and muscle mass during resistance-training. However, little is known about their potential ergogenic value. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these supplements affect training adaptations and/or markers of muscle anabolism/catabolism in resistance-trained athletes. Methods Forty-five resistance-trained males (20.5 ± 3 yrs; 179 ± 7 cm, 84 ± 16 kg, 17.3 ± 9% body fat were matched according to FFM and randomly assigned to ingest in a double blind manner supplements containing either a placebo (P; 800 mg/day of M; 200 mg of E; or, 1,000 mg/day of CSP3 for 8-weeks during training. At 0, 4, and 8-weeks, subjects donated fasting blood samples and completed comprehensive muscular strength, muscular endurance, anaerobic capacity, and body composition analysis. Data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. Results No significant differences (p > 0.05 were observed in training adaptations among groups in the variables FFM, percent body fat, bench press 1 RM, leg press 1 RM or sprint peak power. Anabolic/catabolic analysis revealed no significant differences among groups in active testosterone (AT, free testosterone (FT, cortisol, the AT to cortisol ratio, urea nitrogen, creatinine, the blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio. In addition, no significant differences were seen from pre to post supplementation and/or training in AT, FT, or cortisol. Conclusion Results indicate that M, E, and CSP3 supplementation do not affect body composition or training adaptations nor do they influence the anabolic/catabolic hormone status or general markers of catabolism in resistance-trained males.

  8. Bioactive Compound Rich Indian Spices Suppresses the Growth of β-lactamase Produced Multidrug Resistant Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Eadlapalli Siddhartha; Vemula Sarojamma; Vadde Ramakrishna

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multidrug Resistance (MDR) among bacteria become a global concern due to failure of antibiotics, is drawn attention for best antimicrobials from the spices which have been using ancient days in Indian culinary and traditional medicine. Aim and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the bioactive compounds and their antibacterial activity in routinely used culinary Indian spices against β-lactamase produced MDR bacteria. Material and Methods: Ethanolic extracts p...

  9. Erosion resistance and adhesion of composite metal/ceramic coatings produced by plasma spraying

    OpenAIRE

    Ramm , D.; Hutchings , I.; Clyne , T.

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic coatings can exhibit greater erosion resistance than most metallic coatings. Such coatings are conveniently produced by thermal spraying. Unfortunately, thermally sprayed ceramic coatings often exhibit poor adhesion, partly as a consequence of the development of residual stresses during spraying and subsequent cooling. Composite coatings have been studied using aluminium/alumina deposits on steel substrates. The incorporation of ceramics within a ductile matrix has potential for sharp...

  10. Outcomes of exertional rhabdomyolysis following high-intensity resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, A; Leong, K; Jones, N; Crump, N; Russell, D; Anderson, M; Steinfort, D; Johnson, D F

    2016-05-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HIRT) programmes are increasingly popular amongst personal trainers and those attending gymnasiums. We report the experience of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) at two tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. To compare the clinical outcomes of ER with other causes of rhabdomyolysis. Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients presenting with a serum creatine kinase (CK) of greater than 25 000 units/L from 1 September 2013 to 31 August 2014 at two tertiary referral hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Records were examined to identify care measures implemented during hospital stay, clinical outcomes during admission and on subsequent follow up. Thirty four cases of rhabdomyolysis with a CK of greater than 25 000 units/L (normal range: 20-180 units/L) were identified during the 12-month study period. Twelve of the 34 cases (35%) had ER with 10 of 12 related to HIRT. No acute kidney injury, intensive care admission or death were seen among those with ER. All cases were managed conservatively, with 11 admitted and 9 receiving intravenous fluids only. In contrast, patients with rhabdomyolysis from other causes experienced significantly higher rates of intensive care admission (64%, P = 0.0002), acute kidney injury (82%, P = 0.0001) and death (27%, P = 0.069). ER resulting from HIRT appears to have a benign course compared with rhabdomyolysis of other aetiologies in patients with a serum CK greater than 25 000 units/L. Conservative management of ER appears to be adequate, although this requires confirmation in future prospective studies. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  11. Music Training and Education Slow the Deterioration of Music Perception Produced by Presbycusis in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe N. Moreno-Gómez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The perception of music depends on the normal function of the peripheral and central auditory system. Aged subjects without hearing loss have altered music perception, including pitch and temporal features. Presbycusis or age-related hearing loss is a frequent condition in elderly people, produced by neurodegenerative processes that affect the cochlear receptor cells and brain circuits involved in auditory perception. Clinically, presbycusis patients have bilateral high-frequency hearing loss and deteriorated speech intelligibility. Music impairments in presbycusis subjects can be attributed to the normal aging processes and to presbycusis neuropathological changes. However, whether presbycusis further impairs music perception remains controversial. Here, we developed a computerized version of the Montreal battery of evaluation of amusia (MBEA and assessed music perception in 175 Chilean adults aged between 18 and 90 years without hearing complaints and in symptomatic presbycusis patients. We give normative data for MBEA performance in a Latin-American population, showing age and educational effects. In addition, we found that symptomatic presbycusis was the most relevant factor determining global MBEA accuracy in aged subjects. Moreover, we show that melodic impairments in presbycusis individuals were diminished by music training, while the performance in temporal tasks were affected by the educational level and music training. We conclude that music training and education are important factors as they can slow the deterioration of music perception produced by age-related hearing loss.

  12. Music Training and Education Slow the Deterioration of Music Perception Produced by Presbycusis in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Gómez, Felipe N; Véliz, Guillermo; Rojas, Marcos; Martínez, Cristián; Olmedo, Rubén; Panussis, Felipe; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Delgado, Carolina; Delano, Paul H

    2017-01-01

    The perception of music depends on the normal function of the peripheral and central auditory system. Aged subjects without hearing loss have altered music perception, including pitch and temporal features. Presbycusis or age-related hearing loss is a frequent condition in elderly people, produced by neurodegenerative processes that affect the cochlear receptor cells and brain circuits involved in auditory perception. Clinically, presbycusis patients have bilateral high-frequency hearing loss and deteriorated speech intelligibility. Music impairments in presbycusis subjects can be attributed to the normal aging processes and to presbycusis neuropathological changes. However, whether presbycusis further impairs music perception remains controversial. Here, we developed a computerized version of the Montreal battery of evaluation of amusia (MBEA) and assessed music perception in 175 Chilean adults aged between 18 and 90 years without hearing complaints and in symptomatic presbycusis patients. We give normative data for MBEA performance in a Latin-American population, showing age and educational effects. In addition, we found that symptomatic presbycusis was the most relevant factor determining global MBEA accuracy in aged subjects. Moreover, we show that melodic impairments in presbycusis individuals were diminished by music training, while the performance in temporal tasks were affected by the educational level and music training. We conclude that music training and education are important factors as they can slow the deterioration of music perception produced by age-related hearing loss.

  13. Comparison of Periodized and Non-Periodized Resistance Training on Maximal Strength: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tyler D; Tolusso, Danilo V; Fedewa, Michael V; Esco, Michael R

    2017-10-01

    Periodization is a logical method of organizing training into sequential phases and cyclical time periods in order to increase the potential for achieving specific performance goals while minimizing the potential for overtraining. Periodized resistance training plans are proposed to be superior to non-periodized training plans for enhancing maximal strength. The primary aim of this study was to examine the previous literature comparing periodized resistance training plans to non-periodized resistance training plans and determine a quantitative estimate of effect on maximal strength. All studies included in the meta-analysis met the following inclusion criteria: (1) peer-reviewed publication; (2) published in English; (3) comparison of a periodized resistance training group to a non-periodized resistance training group; (4) maximal strength measured by 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat, bench press, or leg press. Data were extracted and independently coded by two authors. Random-effects models were used to aggregate a mean effect size (ES), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and potential moderators. The cumulative results of 81 effects gathered from 18 studies published between 1988 and 2015 indicated that the magnitude of improvement in 1RM following periodized resistance training was greater than non-periodized resistance training (ES = 0.43, 95% CI 0.27-0.58; P training status (β = -0.59; P = 0.0305), study length (β = 0.03; P = 0.0067), and training frequency (β = 0.46; P = 0.0123) were associated with a change in 1RM. These results indicate that undulating programs were more favorable for strength gains. Improvements in 1RM were greater among untrained participants. Additionally, higher training frequency and longer study length were associated with larger improvements in 1RM. These results suggest that periodized resistance training plans have a moderate effect on 1RM compared to non-periodized training plans. Variation in training stimuli

  14. Maximal power output during incremental exercise by resistance and endurance trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivelavan, D S; Sumathilatha, S

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the maximal power output by resistance trained and endurance trained athletes during incremental exercise. Thirty male athletes who received resistance training (Group I) and thirty male athletes of similar age group who received endurance training (Group II) for a period of more than 1 year were chosen for the study. Physical parameters were measured and exercise stress testing was done on a cycle ergometer with a portable gas analyzing system. The maximal progressive incremental cycle ergometer power output at peak exercise and carbon dioxide production at VO2max were measured. Highly significant (P biofeedback and perk up the athlete's performance.

  15. Concurrent speed endurance and resistance training improves performance, running economy and muscle NHE1 in moderately trained runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christensen, Peter Møller; Larsen, Sonni

    2014-01-01

    -week intervention period (INT) 21 male runners (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2-max): 59±1 mL/min/kg; mean ± SE) either maintained their training (CON, n=11) or performed high intensity concurrent training (HICT, n=12) consisting of two weekly sessions of SET followed by HRT and two weekly sessions......The purpose of this study was to examine whether speed endurance training (SET, repeated 30-s sprints) and heavy resistance training (HRT, 80-90% of 1 repetition maximum) performed in succession are compatible and leads to performance improvements in moderately trained endurance runners. For an 8...... of aerobic training with an average reduction in running distance of 42%. After 4-weeks of HICT, performance was improved (P

  16. Multiple Antibiotic-Resistant, Extended Spectrum-β-Lactamase (ESBL-Producing Enterobacteria in Fresh Seafood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem Sanjit Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Members of the family Enterobacteriaceae include several human pathogens that can be acquired through contaminated food and water. In this study, the incidence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing enterobacteria was investigated in fresh seafood sold in retail markets. The ESBL-positive phenotype was detected in 169 (78.60% isolates, with Escherichia coli being the predominant species (53, followed by Klebsiella oxytoca (27, and K. pneumoniae (23. More than 90% of the isolates were resistant to third generation cephalosporins, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefpodoxime. Sixty-five percent of the isolates were resistant to the monobactam drug aztreonam, 40.82% to ertapenem, and 31.36% to meropenem. Resistance to at least five antibiotics was observed in 38.46% of the isolates. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR analysis of ESBL-encoding genes detected blaCTX, blaSHV, and blaTEM genes in 76.92%, 63.3%, and 44.37% of the isolates, respectively. Multiple ESBL genes were detected in majority of the isolates. The recently discovered New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene (blaNDM-1 was detected in two ESBL+ isolates. Our study shows that secondary contamination of fresh seafood with enteric bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics may implicate seafood as a potential carrier of antibiotic resistant bacteria and emphasizes an urgent need to prevent environmental contamination and dissemination of such bacteria.

  17. COMPARISON OF THE PRODUCED AND PERCEIVED VOICE RANGE PROFILES IN UNTRAINED AND TRAINED CLASSICAL SINGERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Eric J.; Švec, Jan G.; Titze, Ingo R.

    2016-01-01

    Frequency and intensity ranges (in true dB SPL re 20 μPa at 1 meter) of voice production in trained and untrained vocalists were compared to the perceived dynamic range (phons) and units of loudness (sones) of the ear. Results were reported in terms of standard Voice Range Profiles (VRPs), perceived VRPs (as predicted by accepted measures of auditory sensitivities), and a new metric labeled as an Overall Perceptual Level Construct. Trained classical singers made use of the most sensitive part of the hearing range (around 3–4 KHz) through the use of the singer’s formant. When mapped onto the contours of equal-loudness (depicting non-uniform spectral and dynamic sensitivities of the auditory system), the formant is perceived at an even higher sound level, as measured in phons, than a flat or A-weighted spectrum would indicate. The contributions of effects like the singer’s formant and the sensitivities of the auditory system helped the trained singers produce 20–40 percent more units of loudness, as measured in sones, than the untrained singers. Trained male vocalists had a maximum Overall Perceptual Level Construct that was 40% higher than the untrained male vocalists. While the A-weighted spectrum (commonly used in VRP measurement) is a reasonable first order approximation of auditory sensitivities, it misrepresents the most salient part of the sensitivities (where the singer’s formant is found) by nearly 10 dB. PMID:16325373

  18. Resistance training for activity limitations in older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papa EV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evan V Papa,1 Xiaoyang Dong,2 Mahdi Hassan1 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Physical Therapy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA Abstract: Human aging results in a variety of changes to skeletal muscle. Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of muscle mass and is one of the main contributors to musculoskeletal impairments in the elderly. Previous research has demonstrated that resistance training can attenuate skeletal muscle function deficits in older adults, however few articles have focused on the effects of resistance training on functional mobility. The purpose of this systematic review was to 1 present the current state of literature regarding the effects of resistance training on functional mobility outcomes for older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits and 2 provide clinicians with practical guidelines that can be used with seniors during resistance training, or to encourage exercise. We set forth evidence that resistance training can attenuate age-related changes in functional mobility, including improvements in gait speed, static and dynamic balance, and fall risk reduction. Older adults should be encouraged to participate in progressive resistance training activities, and should be admonished to move along a continuum of exercise from immobility, toward the recommended daily amounts of activity. Keywords: aging, strength training, sarcopenia, mobility, balance

  19. A Scientific Rationale to Improve Resistance Training Prescription in Exercise Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairman, Ciaran M; Zourdos, Michael C; Helms, Eric R; Focht, Brian C

    2017-08-01

    To date, the prevailing evidence in the field of exercise oncology supports the safety and efficacy of resistance training to attenuate many oncology treatment-related adverse effects, such as risk for cardiovascular disease, increased fatigue, and diminished physical functioning and quality of life. Moreover, findings in the extant literature supporting the benefits of exercise for survivors of and patients with cancer have resulted in the release of exercise guidelines from several international agencies. However, despite research progression and international recognition, current exercise oncology-based exercise prescriptions remain relatively basic and underdeveloped, particularly in regards to resistance training. Recent publications have called for a more precise manipulation of training variables such as volume, intensity, and frequency (i.e., periodization), given the large heterogeneity of a cancer population, to truly optimize clinically relevant patient-reported outcomes. Indeed, increased attention to integrating fundamental principles of exercise physiology into the exercise prescription process could optimize the safety and efficacy of resistance training during cancer care. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the current state of resistance training prescription and discuss novel methods that can contribute to improving approaches to exercise prescription. We hope this article may facilitate further evaluation of best practice regarding resistance training prescription, monitoring, and modification to ultimately optimize the efficacy of integrating resistance training as a supportive care intervention for survivors or and patients with cancer.

  20. Resistance Training in Youth: Laying the Foundation for Injury Prevention and Physical Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolski, Christin; Quatman-Yates, Catherine; Paterno, Mark V

    The rising incidence of physical activity- and sports-related injuries has prompted the present-day investigation of resistance training as a potential means of injury prevention and physical literacy development among youth. Relevant studies on the topics of athlete development, physical literacy, resistance training, and injury prevention in children and adolescents were reviewed (PubMed and Sports Discus, 1982-2016). Recommendations from consensus guidelines and position statements applicable to resistance training and injury prevention in youth, in addition to young athlete development, were reviewed. Additionally, hand searches, expert requests, article reference lists, and gray literature were utilized and reviewed for pertinent content. Clinical review. Level 4. Youth throughout the physical activity spectrum are at risk for physical activity- and sports-related injury. Of highest priority are early specializers, physically inactive youth, and young girls, owing to increased injury rates. Resistance training among these at-risk populations has been shown to reduce injury risk by up to 68% and improve sports performance and health measures, in addition to accelerating the development of physical literacy. Recent recommendations, position statements, and national initiatives advocate for the incorporation of resistance training with qualified instruction among these groups. Resistance training in addition to free play and other structured physical activity training can serve as a protective means against injury and a positive catalyst for the development of physical literacy to offset the impact of diminishing physical activity and early sport specialization in today's youth.

  1. Does progressive resistance strength training as additional training have any measured effect on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Andersen, Christina W.; Pedersen, Sigrid F

    2014-01-01

    . PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 71 patients were successively included and randomized either to the treatment group (TG) (n = 36) or the control group (CG) (n = 35). Fifteen participants dropped out (TG n = 7; CG n = 8), leaving 56 participants with a mean age of 79 (SD 7). INTERVENTION: Participants...... = 0.05). Analysis by the mixed-effects model showed that the treatment group improved more than the control group in all outcome variables. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that for older hospitalized patients progressive resistance strength training as additional training may have an effect compared......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of progressive resistance strength training as additional training measured on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients. DESIGN: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Department of Geriatric Rehabilitation in university hospital...

  2. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance

    OpenAIRE

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, J?ssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12?weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60?75?years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n?=?15) or power training group (PT; n?=?15). Participants trained twice a week for 12?weeks using six exercises...

  3. Emergence of pan-resistance in KPC-2 carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Crete, Greece : a close call

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bathoorn, E.; Tsioutis, C.; Da Silva-Voorham, Júlia; Scoulica, E. V.; Ioannidou, E.; Zhou, K.; Rossen, J. W.; Gikas, A.; Friedrich, A. W.; Grundmann, H.

    Molecular resistance markers for pan-resistant isolates of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae were identified and showed core-genome MLST to be a promising tool for tracking outbreaks and transmission pathways.KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-KP) ST258 has been rapidly expanding and is

  4. Interference between concurrent resistance and endurance exercise: molecular bases and the role of individual training variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Bishop, David J; Stepto, Nigel K

    2014-06-01

    Concurrent training is defined as simultaneously incorporating both resistance and endurance exercise within a periodized training regime. Despite the potential additive benefits of combining these divergent exercise modes with regards to disease prevention and athletic performance, current evidence suggests that this approach may attenuate gains in muscle mass, strength, and power compared with undertaking resistance training alone. This has been variously described as the interference effect or concurrent training effect. In recent years, understanding of the molecular mechanisms mediating training adaptation in skeletal muscle has emerged and provided potential mechanistic insight into the concurrent training effect. Although it appears that various molecular signaling responses induced in skeletal muscle by endurance exercise can inhibit pathways regulating protein synthesis and stimulate protein breakdown, human studies to date have not observed such molecular 'interference' following acute concurrent exercise that might explain compromised muscle hypertrophy following concurrent training. However, given the multitude of potential concurrent training variables and the limitations of existing evidence, the potential roles of individual training variables in acute and chronic interference are not fully elucidated. The present review explores current evidence for the molecular basis of the specificity of training adaptation and the concurrent interference phenomenon. Additionally, insights provided by molecular and performance-based concurrent training studies regarding the role of individual training variables (i.e., within-session exercise order, between-mode recovery, endurance training volume, intensity, and modality) in the concurrent interference effect are discussed, along with the limitations of our current understanding of this complex paradigm.

  5. Do metabolites that are produced during resistance exercise enhance muscle hypertrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankel, Scott J; Mattocks, Kevin T; Jessee, Matthew B; Buckner, Samuel L; Mouser, J Grant; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2017-11-01

    Many reviews conclude that metabolites play an important role with respect to muscle hypertrophy during resistance exercise, but their actual physiologic contribution remains unknown. Some have suggested that metabolites may work independently of muscle contraction, while others have suggested that metabolites may play a secondary role in their ability to augment muscle activation via inducing fatigue. Interestingly, the studies used as support for an anabolic role of metabolites use protocols that are not actually designed to test the importance of metabolites independent of muscle contraction. While there is some evidence in vitro that metabolites may induce muscle hypertrophy, the only study attempting to answer this question in humans found no added benefit of pooling metabolites within the muscle post-exercise. As load-induced muscle hypertrophy is thought to work via mechanotransduction (as opposed to being metabolically driven), it seems likely that metabolites simply augment muscle activation and cause the mechanotransduction cascade in a larger proportion of muscle fibers, thereby producing greater muscle growth. A sufficient time under tension also appears necessary, as measurable muscle growth is not observed after repeated maximal testing. Based on current evidence, it is our opinion that metabolites produced during resistance exercise do not have anabolic properties per se, but may be anabolic in their ability to augment muscle activation. Future studies are needed to compare protocols which produce similar levels of muscle activation, but differ in the magnitude of metabolites produced, or duration in which the exercised muscles are exposed to metabolites.

  6. Burn Patients Infected With Metallo-Beta-Lactamase-Producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Multidrug-Resistant Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvarinejad, Mojtaba; Japoni, Aziz; Rafaatpour, Noroddin; Mardaneh, Jalal; Abbasi, Pejman; Amin Shahidi, Maneli; Dehyadegari, Mohammad Ali; Alipour, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the burn patients is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and remains a serious health concern among the clinicians. Objectives: The aim of this study was to detect MBL-producing P. aeruginosa in burn patients and determine multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains, and respective resistance patterns. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 270 strains of P. aeruginosa were isolated from the burn patients referred to Ghotbeddin Burn Hospital, Shiraz, Iran. Among them, 55 MBL-producing P. aeruginosa strains were isolated from 55 patients hospitalized in burn unit. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and MBLs were determined by the E-test method. Results: Of the 55 burn cases, 29 (53%) were females and 26 (47%) males. Injured burn patients’ ages ranged from 16 to 87 years, with maximum number of cases in the age group of 16 to 36 years (n, 40; 72.7%). Overall, 32 cases were accidental (60%), and 22 were suicidal burns (40%). Of the 55 burn patients, 17 cases were expired (30%). All deaths were due to chemical exposures. In antibiotic susceptibility testing by E-test method, ceftazidime was the most effective one and 35 isolates (63.5%) were resistant to all the 11 tested antibiotics. Conclusions: Routine microbiological surveillance and careful in vitro testing of antibiotics prior to prescription and strict adherence to hospital antibiotic policy may help to prevent, treat, and control MDR and pandrug-resistant (PDR) P. aeruginosa strains in burn units. PMID:25147779

  7. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mostarda, Cristiano [Departamento de Educação Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão (UFMA), São Luís, MA (Brazil); Figueroa, Diego Mendrot [Laboratório de Hipertensão Experimental, Instituto do Coração (InCor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Angelis, Kátia De [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Universidade Nove de Julho (Uninove), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia [Laboratório de Hipertensão Experimental, Instituto do Coração (InCor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.rodrigues@incor.usp.br [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats.

  8. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Figueiredo Grans

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. Objective: To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week. At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. Results: The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32% and trained infarcted (+46% in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%, myocardial performance index (-39% and systolic blood pressure (+6% improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%, as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46% in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Conclusion: Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats.

  9. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins; Mostarda, Cristiano; Figueroa, Diego Mendrot; Angelis, Kátia De; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Background Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. Objective To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. Results The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Conclusion Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats. PMID:25014059

  10. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins; Mostarda, Cristiano; Figueroa, Diego Mendrot; Angelis, Kátia De; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats

  11. Resistance training after myocardial infarction in rats: its role on cardiac and autonomic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins; Mostarda, Cristiano; Figueroa, Diego Mendrot; Angelis, Kátia De; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-07-01

    Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats.

  12. Engineered gray mold resistance, antioxidant capacity, and pigmentation in betalain-producing crops and ornamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polturak, Guy; Grossman, Noam; Vela-Corcia, David; Dong, Yonghui; Nudel, Adi; Pliner, Margarita; Levy, Maggie; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph

    2017-08-22

    Betalains are tyrosine-derived red-violet and yellow plant pigments known for their antioxidant activity, health-promoting properties, and wide use as food colorants and dietary supplements. By coexpressing three genes of the recently elucidated betalain biosynthetic pathway, we demonstrate the heterologous production of these pigments in a variety of plants, including three major food crops: tomato, potato, and eggplant, and the economically important ornamental petunia. Combinatorial expression of betalain-related genes also allowed the engineering of tobacco plants and cell cultures to produce a palette of unique colors. Furthermore, betalain-producing tobacco plants exhibited significantly increased resistance toward gray mold ( Botrytis cinerea ), a pathogen responsible for major losses in agricultural produce. Heterologous production of betalains is thus anticipated to enable biofortification of essential foods, development of new ornamental varieties, and innovative sources for commercial betalain production, as well as utilization of these pigments in crop protection.

  13. Effects of fast-velocity eccentric resistance training on early and late rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Corvino, Rogério Bulhões; Caputo, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    assigned to two experimental groups: eccentric resistance training (TG) or control (CG). Participants on the TG trained three days a week for a total of eight weeks. Training consisted of maximal unilateral eccentric knee extensors actions performed at 180°s-1. Maximal isometric knee extensor torque (MVC......, no changes in the late phase of incremental RFD were observed in TG. No changes were found in the CG. In summary, we have demonstrated, in active individuals, that a short period of resistance training performed with eccentric fast-velocity isokinetic muscle contractions is able to enhance RFDINC and RFDREL......This study examined whether short-term maximal resistance training employing fast-velocity eccentric knee extensor actions would induce improvements in maximal isometric torque and rate of force development (RFD) at early (100 ms) of rising torque. Twenty healthy men were...

  14. Fibril morphology and tendon mechanical properties in patellar tendinopathy: effects of heavy slow resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, Mads; Qvortrup, Klaus; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patellar tendinopathy is characterized by pathologic abnormalities. Heavy slow resistance training (HSR) is effective in the management of patellar tendinopathy, but the underlying functional mechanisms remain elusive. PURPOSE: To investigate fibril morphology and mechanical properties...... area. Heavy slow resistance training improved the clinical outcome of patellar tendinopathy, and these improvements were associated with normalization of fibril morphology, most likely due to a production of new fibrils....

  15. Shoulder Muscle Activation of Novice and Resistance Trained Women during Variations of Dumbbell Press Exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Luczak, Joshua; Bosak, Andy; Riemann, Bryan L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG) activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals (n = 12) and novice female resistance traine...

  16. Structural remodeling of coronary resistance arteries: effects of age and exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Mina A; Taylor, Curtis R; Chen, Bei; La, Hae-Sun; Maraj, Joshua J; Kilar, Cody R; Behnke, Bradley J; Delp, Michael D; Muller-Delp, Judy M

    2014-09-15

    Age is known to induce remodeling and stiffening of large-conduit arteries; however, little is known of the effects of age on remodeling and mechanical properties of coronary resistance arteries. We employed a rat model of aging to investigate whether 1) age increases wall thickness and stiffness of coronary resistance arteries, and 2) exercise training reverses putative age-induced increases in wall thickness and stiffness of coronary resistance arteries. Young (4 mo) and old (21 mo) Fischer 344 rats remained sedentary or underwent 10 wk of treadmill exercise training. Coronary resistance arteries were isolated for determination of wall-to-lumen ratio, effective elastic modulus, and active and passive responses to changes in intraluminal pressure. Elastin and collagen content of the vascular wall were assessed histologically. Wall-to-lumen ratio increased with age, but this increase was reversed by exercise training. In contrast, age reduced stiffness, and exercise training increased stiffness in coronary resistance arteries from old rats. Myogenic responsiveness was reduced with age and restored by exercise training. Collagen-to-elastin ratio (C/E) of the wall did not change with age and was reduced with exercise training in arteries from old rats. Thus age induces hypertrophic remodeling of the vessel wall and reduces the stiffness and myogenic function of coronary resistance arteries. Exercise training reduces wall-to-lumen ratio, increases wall stiffness, and restores myogenic function in aged coronary resistance arteries. The restorative effect of exercise training on myogenic function of coronary resistance arteries may be due to both changes in vascular smooth muscle phenotype and expression of extracellular matrix proteins. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  17. The influence of resistance training on the critical power function & time to fatigue at critical power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D; Jenkins, D G

    1996-12-01

    The present study examined whether a six-week resistance training program would influence the critical power (CP) function, time to exhaustion (TE) at CP and/or peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak). The CP function is believed to provide an index of endurance ability (CP given by the slope), and anaerobic work capacity (the y-intercept). Eight healthy, untrained males undertook lower-body resistance training (90 min/day, 3-4 times/wk) for six weeks; eight controls refrained from resistance or endurance training for the same period. Before and immediately following the training period, subjects completed three trials to determine their CP function, a test of VO2 peak, a one-repetition maximum (1-RM) leg press test and TE at their CP. Training significantly increased both 1-RM leg press (28.6%, P 0.05) were found. Changes in the y-intercept following resistance training were negatively correlated with changes in the CP (r = -0.94, p < 0.05, N = 8). The present data show that the y-intercept of the CP function is sensitive to, and modified by, six weeks of resistance training. Given that resistance training had no significant influence on CP, TE at CP or VO2 peak, the present study has also shown that six weeks of resistance training will not alter indices of endurance ability. The negative relationship between changes in the y-intercept and CP exposes a potential limitation of the linear CP function when evaluating changes in endurance ability following an intervention which significantly alters the y-intercept.

  18. Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation Causes Cardiac Dysfunction and the Impairment Is Attenuated by Resistance Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Quaglia de Campos Giampá

    Full Text Available Paradoxical sleep deprivation activates the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, subsequently interfering with the cardiovascular system. The beneficial effects of resistance training are related to hemodynamic, metabolic and hormonal homeostasis. We hypothesized that resistance training can prevent the cardiac remodeling and dysfunction caused by paradoxical sleep deprivation.Male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups: control (C, resistance training (RT, paradoxical sleep deprivation for 96 hours (PSD96 and both resistance training and sleep deprivation (RT/PSD96. Doppler echocardiograms, hemodynamics measurements, cardiac histomorphometry, hormonal profile and molecular analysis were evaluated.Compared to the C group, PSD96 group had a higher left ventricular systolic pressure, heart rate and left atrium index. In contrast, the left ventricle systolic area and the left ventricle cavity diameter were reduced in the PSD96 group. Hypertrophy and fibrosis were also observed. Along with these alterations, reduced levels of serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, as well as increased corticosterone and angiotensin II, were observed in the PSD96 group. Prophylactic resistance training attenuated most of these changes, except angiotensin II, fibrosis, heart rate and concentric remodeling of left ventricle, confirmed by the increased of NFATc3 and GATA-4, proteins involved in the pathologic cardiac hypertrophy pathway.Resistance training effectively attenuates cardiac dysfunction and hormonal imbalance induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation.

  19. Whole-body vibration augments resistance training effects on body composition in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeldstad, Cecilie; Palmer, Ian J; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A

    2009-05-20

    Age-related changes in body composition are well-documented with a decrease in lean body mass and a redistribution of body fat generally observed. Resistance training alone has been shown to have positive effects on body composition, however, these benefits may be enhanced by the addition of a vibration stimulus. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 8 months of resistance training with and without whole-body vibration (WBV) on body composition in sedentary postmenopausal women. Fifty-five women were assigned to resistance only (RG, n=22), vibration plus resistance (VR, n=21) or non-exercising control (CG, n=12) groups. Resistance training (3 sets 10 repetitions 80% strength) was performed using isotonic weight training equipment and whole-body vibration was done with the use of the power plate (Northbrooke, IL) vibration platform for three times per week for 8 months. Total and regional body composition was assessed from the total body DXA scans at baseline (pre) and after 8 months (post) of training. In the VR group, total % body fat decreased from pre- to post-time points (pbody fat (ptraining groups exhibited significant increases in bone free lean tissue mass for the total body, arm and trunk regions from pre to post (ptraining alone and with whole-body vibration resulted in positive body composition changes by increasing lean tissue. However, only the combination of resistance training and whole-body vibration was effective for decreasing percent body fat.

  20. Actinomycetes of Orthosipon stamineus rhizosphere as producer of antibacterial compound against multidrug resistant bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rante, H.; Yulianty, R.; Usmar; Djide, N.; Subehan; Burhamzah, R.; Prasad, M. B.

    2017-11-01

    The increasing case of antibiotic resistence has become an important problem to be faced in treating the infection diseases. The diversities of microbia, especially actinomycetes bacteria which originated from rizosphere soil of medicinal plant, has opened a chance for discovering the metabolites which can be used in solving the antibiotic resistant pathogenic bacteria problems. The aim of this research was to isolate the actinobacteria originated from medicinal plant rizosphere of Orthosipon stamineus as the producer of anti-multidrug resistances bacteria compounds. Three isolates of actinomycetes has been isolated from Orthosipon stamineus rhizosphere named KC3-1, KC3-2 and KC3-3. One isolate (KC3-3) showed big activity in inhibiting the test microbes by antagonistic test of actinomycetes isolates against Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli antibiotic resistant bacteria. Furthermore, the KC3-3 isolate was fermented in Starch Nitrate Broth (SNB) medium for 14 days. The supernatant and the biomass of the fermentation yield were separated. The supernatant were extracted using ethyl acetate as the solvent and the biomass were extracted using methanol. The antibacterial activity test of ethyl acetate and methanol extract revealed that the extracts can inhibit the bacteria test up to 5% concentration. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts can inhibit the bacteria test up to 5% concentration.

  1. Resistance training among young athletes: safety, efficacy and injury prevention effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, A D; Myer, G D

    2012-01-01

    A literature review was employed to evaluate the current epidemiology of injury related to the safety and efficacy of youth resistance training. Several case study reports and retrospective questionnaires regarding resistance exercise and the competitive sports of weightlifting and power-lifting reveal that injuries have occurred in young lifters, although a majority can be classified as accidental. Lack of qualified instruction that underlies poor exercise technique and inappropriate training loads could explain, at least partly, some of the reported injuries. Current research indicates that resistance training can be a safe, effective and worthwhile activity for children and adolescents provided that qualified professionals supervise all training sessions and provide age-appropriate instruction on proper lifting procedures and safe training guidelines. Regular participation in a multifaceted resistance training programme that begins during the preseason and includes instruction on movement biomechanics may reduce the risk of sports-related injuries in young athletes. Strategies for enhancing the safety of youth resistance training are discussed. PMID:19945973

  2. The effects of resistance training on functional outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panton, Lynn B; Golden, Jamie; Broeder, Craig E; Browder, Kathy D; Cestaro-Seifer, Deborah J; Seifer, Frederic D

    2004-04-01

    Aerobic exercise training is used for rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although it has little effect on muscle weakness and atrophy. Resistance training may be a useful addition to aerobic programs for these patients. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of resistance training in addition to aerobic training on functional outcomes in patients with COPD. Seventeen COPD patients enrolled in an aerobic-based program that met twice a week were assigned to a 12-week control/aerobic [CON: n=8; 63 (8) years; mean (SD)] or a resistance/aerobic group [RES: n=9; 61 (7) years]. RES trained an additional twice a week on 12 resistance machines, performing three sets of 8-12 repetitions at 32-64% of their one-repetition maximum (1-RM) lifts. RES (P<0.05) increased upper (36%) and lower (36%) body strength, as well as lean body mass (5%), while CON showed little to no change. The 12-min walk distance increased (P<0.05) in only the RES [676 (219) to 875 (172) m]. Measurements of three of the eight tasks of activities of daily living improved in RES (P<0.05) compared to CON. This study demonstrated that progressive resistance training was well tolerated and improved functional outcomes in COPD patients that were currently involved in an aerobic training program.

  3. Resistance training status and effectiveness of low frequency resistance training on upper-body strength and power in highly trained soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Maxime; Rumpf, Michael Clemens; Hader, Karim

    2017-08-26

    Soccer is classified as a contact/collision sport with many player-to-player duels. Winning these duels, shielding the ball or fending off an opponent requires upper-body strength and power. Therefore this study aimed, a) to examine the time-related effect of an upper-body RT on maximal strength and power changes in highly trained soccer players, b) to investigate if the resistance-training (RT) status influences these changes throughout a competitive season. Twenty-eight soccer players participated in this study and were divided into an untrained (UG) and a trained (TG) group, according to their RT status. Both groups performed the same upper-body RT once a week, over 30 weeks. Maximal strength (1RM) and maximal power (MP) were assessed before, during and after the competitive season. Both groups significantly improved 1RM and MP over the entire competitive season, with a moderate (TG, 13%) to very large (UG, 21%) magnitude in 1RM and with a small (TG, 8%) to moderate (UG, 13%) magnitude in MP. After the initial 10 weeks of RT, UG presented significant and slightly (1RM) to moderately (MP) greater improvements than TG. For all other time intervals, the between-groups changes in 1RM were rated as similar. For the last 20 weeks of the RT, the change in MP was significantly lower for UG compared to TG. One upper-body RT-session per week will provide sufficient stimulus to enable an almost certain improvement in strength and power throughout a competitive season for all players disregarding their initial RT status.

  4. Swiss ball abdominal crunch with added elastic resistance is an effective alternative to training machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2012-01-01

    to induce high level of muscle activation. PURPOSE: To compare muscle activation as measured by electromyography (EMG) of global core and thigh muscles during abdominal crunches performed on Swiss ball with elastic resistance or on an isotonic training machine when normalized for training intensity. METHODS......BACKGROUND: Swiss ball training is recommended as a low intensity modality to improve joint position, posture, balance, and neural feedback. However, proper training intensity is difficult to obtain during Swiss ball exercises whereas strengthening exercises on machines usually are performed......: 42 untrained individuals (18 men and 24 women) aged 28-67 years participated in the study. EMG activity was measured in 13 muscles during 3 repetitions with a 10 RM load during both abdominal crunches on training ball with elastic resistance and in the same movement utilizing a training machine...

  5. A Quantitative Analysis of the Effect of Resistance Training on Strength Test Score Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-02

    strength development and steroid hormone responses to heavy-resistance training. J Appl Physiol, 76, 663-670. *Hoffman, J. R., Klafeld, S., & 1998...Painter, T. L., & Wilmore, J. H. (1992). Alternation in concentric strength consequent to powercise and universal gym circuit training. J Appl Sprts

  6. Exercise in myasthenia gravis: A feasibility study of aerobic and resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Martin Amadeus; Mikkelsen, Erik Elgaard; Overgaard, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: It has not been established whether progressive resistance training (PRT) and aerobic training (AT) are feasible and efficient in myasthenia gravis (MG). Methods: Fifteen subjects with generalized MG (Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) clinical classification II-IV) were...

  7. Developing Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) for Parents of Treatment-Resistant Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Versek, Brian; Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Meyers, Kathleen; Benishek, Lois A.; Bresani, Elena; Washio, Yukiko; Arria, Amelia; Meyers, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a project focused on training parents to facilitate their treatment-resistant adolescent's treatment entry and to manage their child after entry into community-based treatment. Controlled studies show that Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is a unilateral treatment that fosters treatment entry of adults; however,…

  8. Effects of aerobic and/or resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight or obese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, Leslie H.; Slentz, Cris A.; Bateman, Lori A.; Shields, A. Tamlyn; Piner, Lucy W.; Bales, Connie W.; Houmard, Joseph A.; Kraus, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent guidelines on exercise for weight loss and weight maintenance include resistance training as part of the exercise prescription. Yet few studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of aerobic and resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight adults. STRRIDE AT/RT, a randomized trial, compared aerobic training, resistance training, and a combination of the two to determine the optimal mode of exercise for obesity reduction. Participants were 119 sedentary, overweig...

  9. acute and session rPe responses during resistance training: Bouts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resistance exercises protocols on B-endorphin concentrations. J Appl. Physiol 1993;74:450-459. 19. Wade G. Tests and measurments. Meeting the standards of professional football. NSCA J 1982;4(3):23. 20. Singh F, Foster C, David T, McGuigan M. Monitoring different types of resistance training using session rating of ...

  10. Mixed-Methods Resistance Training Increases Power and Strength of Young and Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert U.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Hakkinen, Arja; McCormick, Matt; Volek, Jeff; Kraemer, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week, mixed-methods resistance training program on young and older men. Although results confirmed some age-related reductions in muscle strength and power, the older men demonstrated similar capacity to the younger men for increases in muscle strength and power via an appropriate, periodized resistance training…

  11. Outbreak of Imipenemase-1-Producing Carbapenem-Resistant in an Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Young Lee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE with acquired metallo β-lactamase (MBL resistance have been increasingly reported worldwide and associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Here, an outbreak of genetically related strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing the imipenemase (IMP-1 MBL in a medical intensive care unit (MICU in Korea is reported. Methods Since isolating carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP at the MICU of the hospital on August 10, 2011, surveillance cultures for CRE in 31 hospitalized patients were performed from August to September 2011. Carbapenem resistance was determined based on the disk diffusion method outlined in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed for genes coding for β-lactamase. Associations among isolates were assessed via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. In addition, a surveillance study of environmental cultures and health-care workers (HCWs was conducted in the MICU during the same time frame. Results During the study period, non-duplicated CRKP specimens were discovered in four patients in the MICU, suggestive of an outbreak. On August 10, 2011, CRKP was isolated from the sputum of a 79-year-old male patient who was admitted to the MICU. A surveillance study to detect additional CRE carriers by rectal swab revealed an additional three CRKP isolates. PCR and sequencing of the four isolates identified the presence of the IMP-1 gene. In addition, PFGE showed that the four isolated strains were genetically related. CRE was not identified in specimens taken from the hands of HCWs or other environmental sources during surveillance following the outbreak. Transmission of the carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae strain was controlled by isolation of the patients and strict contact precautions. Conclusions This study shows that rapid and systemic detection of CRE and strict infection controls are important

  12. Reduced susceptibility to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage in resistance-trained men is not linked to resistance training-related neural adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Ye

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of maximal concentric vs. eccentric exercise on the isometric strength of the elbow flexor, as well as the biceps brachii muscle electromyographic (EMG responses in resistance-trained (RT vs. untrained (UT men. Thirteen RT men (age: 24 ± 4 years; height: 180.2 ± 7.7 cm; body weight: 92.2 ± 16.9 kg and twelve UT men (age: 23 ± 4 years; height: 179.2 ± 5.0 cm; body weight: 81.5 ± 8.6 kg performed six sets of ten maximal concentric isokinetic (CON or eccentric isokinetic (ECC elbow flexion exercise in two separate visits. Before and after the exercise interventions, maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs were performed for testing isometric strength. In addition, bipolar surface EMG signals were detected from the biceps brachii muscle during the strength testing. Both CON and ECC caused isometric strength to decrease, regardless of the training status. However, ECC caused greater isometric strength decline than CON did for the UT group (p = 0.006, but not for the RT group. Both EMG amplitude and mean frequency significantly decreased and increased, respectively, regardless of the training status and exercise intervention. Resistance-trained men are less susceptible to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage, but this advantage is not likely linked to the chronic resistance training-induced neural adaptations.

  13. OBESITY-RELATED CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AFTER LONG- TERM RESISTANCE TRAINING AND GINGER SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvan Atashak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its metabolic consequences are major risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, lifestyle interventions, including exercise training and dietary components may decrease cardiovascular risk. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger supplementation and progressive resistance training on some cardiovascular risk factors in obese men. In a randomized double-blind design, 32 obese Iranian men (BMI > 30 were assigned in to one of four groups: Placebo (PL, n = 8; ginger group (GI, n = 8 that consumed 1 gr ginger/d for 10 wk; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL, n = 8; and 1gr ginger plus resistance exercise (RTGI, n = 8. Progressive resistance training was performed three days per week for 10 weeks and included eight exercises. At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition and anthropometric indices were measured. To identify other risk factors, venous blood samples were obtained before and 48-72 hours after the last training session for measurement of blood lipids (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, systemic inflammation (CRP, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. After 10 weeks both RTGI and RTPL groups showed significant decreases in waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, body fat percent, body fat mass, total cholesterol, and insulin resistance (p < 0.05 and a significant increase in fat free mass (FFM (p < 0.05, while it remained unchanged in PL and GI. Further, significant decreases in the mean values of CRP were observed in all groups except PL (p < 0.05. Our results reveal that resistance training is an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk in obese Iranian men. Further, ginger supplementation alone or in combination with resistance training, also reduces chronic inflammation. However more research on the efficacy of this supplement to reduce cardiovascular risk in humans is required.

  14. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolates from Zahedan, Southeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Shahraki-Zahedani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Resistance to various classes of antibiotics is common among extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs-producing bacteria. Objectives To determine the antibiotic resistance pattern of ESBLs-producing K. pneumoniae clinical isolates from Zahedan. Methods In this sectional-descriptive study, susceptibility of 51 ESBLs-producing K. pneumoniae isolates to 18 antimicrobial agents was determined. Results All isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, cefpodoxime and amoxicillin as well as susceptible to colistin sulfate. Also, most isolates were resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and aztreonam. Conclusions Our findings demonstrated that the rate of resistance to beta-lactams, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones in ESBLs-producing K. pneumoniae isolates is high in Zahedan.

  15. Cytokines produced by susceptible and resistant mice in the course of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calich V.L.G.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is the most prevalent deep mycosis in Latin America and presents a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. We established a genetically controlled murine model of PCM, where A/Sn mice develop an infection which mimics the benign disease (immune responses which favor cellular immunity and B10.A animals present the progressive disseminated form of PCM (preferential activation of B cells and impairment of cellular immune responses. To understand the immunoregulatory phenomena associated with resistance and susceptibility in experimental PCM, A/Sn and B10.A mice were studied regarding antigen-elicited secretion of monokines (TNF-a and TGF-ß and type-1 (IL-2 and IFN-g and type-2 (IL-4,5,10 cytokines. Total lymph node cells from resistant mice infected ip with P. brasiliensis produced early and sustained levels of IFN-g and IL-2; type-2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5 started to appear 8 weeks after infection. In contrast, susceptible mice produced low levels of IFN-g concomitant with significant levels of IL-5 and IL-10 early in the infection. In the chronic phase of the disease, susceptible animals presented a transitory secretion of IL-2, and IL-4. In the pulmonary infection IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 were preferentially detected in the lung cells washings of susceptible animals. After in vitro challenge with fungal antigens, normal peritoneal macrophages from B10.A mice secreted high levels of TGF-ß and low levels of TNF-a. In contrast, macrophages from A/Sn animals released high levels of TNF-a associated with a small production of TGF-ß. The in vivo depletion of IFN-g not only abrogated the resistance of A/Sn mice but also diminished the relative resistance of B10.A animals. The in vivo depletion of IL-4 did not alter the disease outcome, whereas administration of rIL-12 significantly enhanced resistance in susceptible animals. Taken together, these results suggest that an early secretion of high levels of TNF-a and IFN

  16. Structure dependent resistivity and dielectric characteristics of tantalum oxynitride thin films produced by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristea, D., E-mail: daniel.cristea@unitbv.ro [Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Crisan, A. [Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Cretu, N. [Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics Department, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Borges, J. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 - 057 Braga (Portugal); Instituto Pedro Nunes, Laboratório de Ensaios, Desgaste e Materiais, Rua Pedro Nunes, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); SEG-CEMUC, Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Lopes, C.; Cunha, L. [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 - 057 Braga (Portugal); Ion, V.; Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, “Photonic Processing of Advanced Materials” Group, PO Box MG-16, RO 77125 Magurele-Bucharest (Romania); Barradas, N.P. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Alves, E. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, E.N. 10 ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Apreutesei, M. [MATEIS Laboratory-INSA de Lyon, 21 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon INL-UMR5270, CNRS, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully F-69134 (France); Munteanu, D. [Department of Materials Science, Transilvania University, 500036 Brasov (Romania)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Tantalum oxynitride thin films have been deposited by magnetron sputtering, in various configurations. • The rising of the reactive gases mixture flow has the consequence of a gradual increase in the non-metallic content in the films, which results in a 10 orders of magnitude resistivity domain. • The higher resistivity films exhibit dielectric constants up to 41 and quality factors up to 70. - Abstract: The main purpose of this work is to present and to interpret the change of electrical properties of Ta{sub x}N{sub y}O{sub z} thin films, produced by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. Some parameters were varied during deposition: the flow of the reactive gases mixture (N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, with a constant concentration ratio of 17:3); the substrate voltage bias (grounded, −50 V or −100 V) and the substrate (glass, (1 0 0) Si or high speed steel). The obtained films exhibit significant differences. The variation of the deposition parameters induces variations of the composition, microstructure and morphology. These differences cause variation of the electrical resistivity essentially correlated with the composition and structural changes. The gradual decrease of the Ta concentration in the films induces amorphization and causes a raise of the resistivity. The dielectric characteristics of some of the high resistance Ta{sub x}N{sub y}O{sub z} films were obtained in the samples with a capacitor-like design (deposited onto high speed steel, with gold pads deposited on the dielectric Ta{sub x}N{sub y}O{sub z} films). Some of these films exhibited dielectric constant values higher than those reported for other tantalum based dielectric films.

  17. Resisted Sled Sprint Training to Improve Sprint Performance: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakos, George; Morin, Jean-Benoit; Egan, Brendan

    2016-03-01

    Based on recent findings regarding the mechanical determinants of sprint performance, resisted sled sprint (RSS) training may provide an effective tool for the improvement of sprint acceleration and maximal velocity. However, the volume and intensity for effective RSS training in different populations is unclear. The primary objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of RSS training compared with unresisted sprint (URS) training, and the differential effects of sled load on RSS training outcomes. STUDY ELIGIBILITY AND APPRAISAL: A systematic review was performed primarily using PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases. Peer-reviewed studies were accepted only if the participants used a sled towing device for a longitudinal intervention of resisted sprint training, and if RSS training was the primary difference in training intervention between groups. Effect size (ES) reported using Cohen's d was presented to compare the magnitude of effect between both dependent and independent groups. A total of 11 studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Sled loads were prescribed either as a percentage of body mass (%BM), a targeted reduction in velocity compared with unresisted sprint velocity (%V(dec)) or as an absolute load (kg). RSS training with 'light' (30%BM or >30%V(dec)) sled loads provide 'trivial' to 'extremely large' improvements in acceleration performance (0.5-9.1%, ES = 0.14-4.00) in strength-trained or team sport individuals. Whether RSS training is more effective than URS training in the improvement of acceleration or maximal sprint velocity remains equivocal. RSS training is a novel training method with potential for the improvement of sprint performance, but its performance benefits over URS training remain to be conclusively demonstrated. Between-study comparisons are limited primarily by discrepancies in the training status and phase of the participants, and sled load prescription. Future work is required to define the optimal load and volume for RSS depending

  18. Early-Phase Satellite Cell and Myonuclear Domain Adaptations to Slow-Speed vs. Traditional Resistance Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Montemayor, Jennifer R; Hikida, Robert S; Staron, Robert S

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify adaptations in satellite cell (SC) content and myonuclear domain (MND) after 6-week slow-speed vs. "normal-speed" resistance training programs. Thirty-four untrained females were divided into slow speed (SS), traditional strength (TS), traditional muscular endurance (TE), and nontraining control (C) groups. Three sets each of leg press, squat, and knee extension were performed 2 days per week for the first week and 3 days per week for the following 5 weeks. The SS group performed 6-10 repetition maximum (6-10RM) for each set with 10-second concentric (con) and 4-second eccentric (ecc) contractions for each repetition. Traditional strength and TE performed 6-10RM and 20-30RM, respectively, at "normal" speed (1-2 seconds per con and ecc contractions). Traditional muscular endurance and SS trained at the same intensity (40-60% 1RM), whereas TS trained at 80-85% 1RM. Pretraining and posttraining muscle biopsies were analyzed for fiber cross-sectional area, fiber type, SC content, myonuclear number, and MND. Satellite cell content of type I, IIA, IIAX, and IIX fibers significantly increased in TS. However, SC content of only type IIAX and IIX fibers increased in SS, and there was no change in TE or C. Myonuclear number did not change in any group. Myonuclear domain of type I, IIA, IIAX, and IIX fibers increased in TS, whereas MND of only type IIA fibers increased in SS, and there was no change in TE or C. In conclusion, slow-speed resistance training increased SC content and MND more than training with a similar resistance at normal speed. However, high-intensity normal-speed training produced the greatest degree of fiber adaptation for each variable.

  19. Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmarck, B.; Andersen, J.L.; Olsen, S.

    2001-01-01

    1. Age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength can partly be counteracted by resistance training, causing a net synthesis of muscular proteins. Protein synthesis is influenced synergistically by postexercise amino acid supplementation, but the importance of the timing of protein intake...... ± S.E.M.)) completed a 12 week resistance training programme (3 times per week) receiving oral protein in liquid form (10 g protein, 7 g carbohydrate, 3 g fat) immediately after (P0) or 2 h after (P2) each training session. Muscle hypertrophy was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and from...

  20. Effects of high-intensity interval cycling performed after resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitkanou, S; Spengos, K; Stasinaki, A-N; Zaras, N; Bogdanis, G; Papadimas, G; Terzis, G

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week). Muscle strength and quadriceps CSA were significantly and similarly increased after both interventions. Fiber CSA increased significantly and similarly after both RE (type I: 13.6 ± 3.7%, type IIA: 17.6 ± 4.4%, type IIX: 23.2 ± 5.7%, P strength/hypertrophy after 2 months of training, while it prompts aerobic capacity and muscle capillarization. The addition of high-intensity cycling after heavy-resistance exercise may decrease RFD partly due to muscle architectural changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effects of single- vs. multiple-set resistance training on maximum strength and body composition in trained postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang K; Lauber, Dirk; Engelke, Klaus; Weineck, Juergen

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a single- vs. a multiple-set resistance training protocol in well-trained early postmenopausal women. Subjects (N = 71) were randomly assigned to begin either with 12 weeks of the single-set or 12 weeks of the multiple-set protocol. After another 5 weeks of regenerational resistance training, the subgroup performing the single-set protocol during the first 12 weeks crossed over to the 12-week multiple-set protocol and vice versa. Neither exercise type nor exercise intensity, degree of fatigue, rest periods, speed of movement, training sessions per week, compliance and attendance, or periodization strategy differed between exercise protocols. Body mass, body composition, and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) values for leg press, bench press, rowing, and leg adduction were measured at baseline and after each period. Multiple-set training resulted in significant increases (3.5-5.5%) for all 4 strength measurements, whereas single-set training resulted in significant decreases (-1.1 to -2.0%). Body mass and body composition did not change during the study. The results show that, in pretrained subjects, multiple-set protocols are superior to single-set protocols in increasing maximum strength.

  2. Influence of resistance exercise training on glucose control in women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenicchia, L M; Kanaley, J A; Azevedo, J L; Miller, C S; Weinstock, R S; Carhart, R L; Ploutz-Snyder, L L

    2004-03-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of acute and chronic resistance training on glucose and insulin responses to a glucose load in women with type 2 diabetes. Subjects consisted of type 2 diabetic women (n = 7) and age-matched controls (n = 8) with normal glucose tolerance. All subjects participated in 3 oral glucose tolerance tests: pretraining, 12 to 24 hours after the first exercise session (acute) and 60 to 72 hours after the final training session (chronic). Exercise training consisted of a whole body resistance exercise program using weight-lifting machines 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Resistance training was effective in increasing strength of all muscle groups in all subjects. Integrated glucose concentration expressed as area under the curve (AUC) was 3,355.0 +/- 324.6 mmol/L. min pretraining, improved significantly (P benefits, individuals must follow a regular schedule that includes daily exercise.

  3. Description of load progression and pain response during progressive resistance training early after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone R; Petersen, Annemette K; Mechlenburg, Inger

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a progressive resistance training intervention implemented shortly after total hip arthroplasty, including a detailed description of load progression, pain response and adverse events to the training. DESIGN: Secondary analyses of data from the intervention group...... in a randomized controlled trial. SUBJECTS: This study reports data from the intervention group ( n = 37). INTERVENTIONS: The protocol described supervised progressive resistance training of the operated leg two days/week in addition to home-based exercise five days/week and for 10 weeks. The relative load...... time ( p response (an increase >20 mm Visual Analog Scale) occurred in 13 patients in 24 training sessions. CONCLUSION: Progressive resistance...

  4. Comparison of creatine supplementation before versus after supervised resistance training in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candow, Darren G; Zello, Gordon A; Ling, Binbing; Farthing, Jonathan P; Chilibeck, Philip D; McLeod, Katherine; Harris, Jonathan; Johnson, Shanthi

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the effects of creatine supplementation (CR) before vs. after supervised resistance training (RT) in healthy older adults. Participants were randomized to one of two groups: CR-Before (0.1g•kg(-1) creatine before + 0.1g•kg(-1) placebo [rice flour] after RT, n = 11) or CR-After (placebo before + creatine after RT, n = 11). Resistance training (RT) was performed 3 days/week, on nonconsecutive days, for 12 weeks. Prior to and following the study, measures were taken for body composition, maximum strength, muscle protein catabolism, and kidney function. Over the 12-week training period, both groups experienced a significant increase in whole-body lean tissue mass, limb muscle thickness, and upper and lower body strength and a decrease in muscle protein catabolism (p creatine is ingested before or after supervised resistance training in older adults.

  5. Effect of Resistance Training on Hematological Blood Markers in Older Men and Women: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Bobeuf

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training on hematological blood markers in older individuals. Twenty-nine men and women participated to this study. Subjects were randomized in 2 groups: (1 control (n=13 and (2 resistance training (n=16. At baseline and after the intervention, subjects were submitted to a blood sample to determine their hematological profile (red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets, leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, red cell distribution width. At baseline, no difference was observed between groups. Moreover, we found no significant difference after the intervention on any of these markers. A 6-month resistance program in healthy older individuals seems to have no beneficial nor deleterious effects on hematological blood parameters. However, resistance training was well tolerated and should be recommended for other health purposes. Further studies are needed to confirm these results in a large population.

  6. Effect of resistance training on headache symptoms in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christoffer H; Jensen, Rigmor H.; Dalager, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Background: While strength training for the neck and shoulder muscles may be effective in reducing headache, the optimal combination of exercise frequency and duration is unknown. This study investigates the effect of different time-wise combinations of one weekly hour of strength training...... for the neck and shoulder muscles on headache frequency, intensity, and use of analgesics. Methods: A total of 573 office workers were randomly allocated at the cluster-level to five groups; 3 20 min a week of minimally supervised (3MS), 1 60 (1WS), 3 20 (3WS) or 9 7 (9WS) min a week of supervised high......-intensity strength training for 20 weeks, or to a reference group without training (REF). Headache frequency, intensity, and use of analgesics in relation to headache were determined by questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Results: The intention-to-treat analysis showed reduced headache frequency and intensity...

  7. A 12-week resistance training program elicits positive changes in hemodynamic responses in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya Campos Salazar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a resistance training program in hemodynamic responses and adaptations in 60 yr. old elderly. Volunteers were 60 healthy-elderly who underwent a training program 3 times/wk. for 12 wk. Participants were randomly assigned to either a control group, an exercise group who trained at 30% intensity of 5 maximal repetitions (5RM (30% of 5RM or an exercise group at an intensity of 70% (70% of 5RM. Hemodynamic variables measured were mean arterial pressure (MAP, calculated before and immediately after the training session, and rate pressure product (RPP, estimated once a month and before and after finishing the program. Results indicated that resistance exercise training at 30% and 70% of 5RM, with a total exercise work of 872.7 and 890.9 kg did not elicited cardiovascular risks for the elderly. A 12-wk resistance exercise training reduced the cardiovascular strain as shown by the RPP (~16% and the MAP (~9%, with no adverse effects throughout the program. Unfortunately, all the hemodynamic benefits were reverted 6 days following completion of the program. In conclusion, a healthy elderly population must perform resistance training exercises to significantly reduce the cardiovascular stress. We suggest to conduct further research that looks into different exercise intensities in longer program duration and to determine the mechanisms responsible for the deleterious effects of the detraining by using physiological, biochemical and biomechanical variables.

  8. A multistate model of cognitive dynamics in relation to resistance training: the contribution of baseline function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Nader; Hsu, Chun L; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Davis, Jennifer; Beattie, B Lynn; Graf, Peter; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2013-08-01

    We investigated: (1) the effect of different targeted exercise training on an individual's overall probability for cognitive improvement, maintenance, or decline; and (2) the simultaneous effect of targeted exercise training and baseline function on the dynamics of executive functions when a multistate transition model is used. Analyses are based on a 12-month randomized clinical trial including 155 community-dwelling women 65-75 years of age who were randomly allocated to once-weekly resistance training (1x RT; n = 54), twice-weekly resistance training (2x RT; n = 52), or twice-weekly balance and tone training (BAT; n = 49). The primary outcome measure was performance on the Stroop test, an executive cognitive test of selective attention and conflict resolution. Secondary outcomes of executive functions were set shifting and working memory. Individuals in the 1x RT or 2x RT group demonstrated a significantly greater probability for improved performance on the Stroop Test (0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.57) compared with those in the BAT group (0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.40). Resistance training had significant effects on transitions in selective attention and conflict resolution. Resistance training is efficacious in improving a measure of selective attention and conflict resolution in older women, probably more so among those with greater baseline cognitive function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Study of Mental and Resistance Training (SMART) study—resistance training and/or cognitive training in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized, double-blind, double-sham controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiatarone Singh, Maria A; Gates, Nicola; Saigal, Nidhi; Wilson, Guy C; Meiklejohn, Jacinda; Brodaty, Henry; Wen, Wei; Singh, Nalin; Baune, Bernhard T; Suo, Chao; Baker, Michael K; Foroughi, Nasim; Wang, Yi; Sachdev, Perminder S; Valenzuela, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) increases dementia risk with no pharmacologic treatment available. The Study of Mental and Resistance Training was a randomized, double-blind, double-sham controlled trial of adults with MCI. Participants were randomized to 2 supervised interventions: active or sham physical training (high intensity progressive resistance training vs seated calisthenics) plus active or sham cognitive training (computerized, multidomain cognitive training vs watching videos/quizzes), 2-3 days/week for 6 months with 18-month follow-up. Primary outcomes were global cognitive function (Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale; ADAS-Cog) and functional independence (Bayer Activities of Daily Living). Secondary outcomes included executive function, memory, and speed/attention tests, and cognitive domain scores. One hundred adults with MCI [70.1 (6.7) years; 68% women] were enrolled and analyzed. Resistance training significantly improved the primary outcome ADAS-Cog; [relative effect size (95% confidence interval) -0.33 (-0.73, 0.06); P benefit was 74% higher (P = .02) for Executive Domain compared with combined training [z-score change = 0.42 (0.22, 0.63) resistance training vs 0.11 (-0.60, 0.28) combined] and 48% higher (P benefits over 18 months. Copyright © 2014 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Corrosion resistance of Cu-Al coatings produced by thermal spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marcela Dimaté Castellanos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many components in the shipbuilding industry are made of copper-based alloys. These pieces tend to break due to corrosion generated by a marine environment; such components can be salvaged through surface engineering, through deposition of suitable coatings. This paper studied the influence of three surface preparation methods involving phosphor bronze substrates concerning the corrosion resistance of commercial coatings having Al-Cu +11% Fe chemical composition. The surface was prepared using three methods: sand blasting, shot blasting and metal polishing with an abrasive disk (with and without a base layer. The deposited coatings were micro-structurally characterised by x-ray diffraction (XRD, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Corrosion resistance was evaluated by electrochemical test electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Surfaces prepared by sandblasting showed the best resistance to corrosion, so these systems could be a viable alternative for salvaging certain parts in the marine industry. The corrosion mechanisms for the coatings produced are discussed in this research.

  11. The Effect of Resistance Training in a Hypoxic Chamber on Physical Performance in Elite Rugby Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Brad; Miles, Cory; Sims, Stacy; Driller, Matthew

    2017-11-21

    Mayo, Brad, Cory Miles, Stacy Sims, and Matthew Driller. The effect of resistance training in a hypoxic chamber on physical performance in elite rugby athletes. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-Limited research suggests that muscle adaptations may be enhanced through resistance training in a hypoxic environment. Seventeen professional rugby union athletes (age [mean ± SD], 24 ± 3 years; body mass, 98.7 ± 12.8 kg; and height, 188.9 ± 7.9 cm), performed 12 resistance training sessions over a 3-week period. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: HYP (n = 8), where resistance training sessions were performed in an environmental chamber with O 2 concentration maintained at ∼14.4% (∼3000 m simulated altitude), or CON (n = 9), where identical resistance training sessions were performed without the simulated altitude (O 2  = 20.9%, at sea level). Before and after the training intervention, tests included measures of strength, power, endurance, speed, and body composition. Two-way interactions between treatment and time for any of the measured variables were not significant (p > 0.05). Small positive effect sizes for HYP were found for bench press (d = 0.24), weighted chin-up (d = 0.23), and bronco endurance tests (d = -0.21). Resistance training in a hypoxic environmental chamber may lead to small improvements in upper body strength and endurance compared to the same training performed at sea level. These findings are somewhat novel, given the short timeframe of the study and the elite population sampled.

  12. IS ENHANCED-ECCENTRIC RESISTANCE TRAINING SUPERIOR TO TRADITIONAL TRAINING FOR INCREASING ELBOW FLEXOR STRENGTH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Kaminski

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Protocols for strengthening muscle are important for fitness, rehabilitation, and the prevention of myotendinous injuries. In trained individuals, the optimal method of increasing strength remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a traditional method of strengthening with a method that allowed for enhanced-eccentric training, on changes in elbow flexor strength in trained subjects. Thirty-nine (8 male, 31 female trained subjects with normal elbow function participated in this study. Subjects were rank-ordered according to isometric force production and randomly assigned to one of three training groups: control (CONT, traditional concentric/eccentric (TRAD, and concentric/enhanced-eccentric (NEG. The training groups completed 24 training sessions. An evaluator blinded to training group performed all testing. Mixed model ANOVA techniques were used to determine if differences existed in concentric one repetition maximum strength, and isometric force production among groups. Changes in peak and average isokinetic force production were also compared. Type 1 error was maintained at 5%. While both groups improved concentric one repetition maximum (NEG = 15.5%, TRAD = 13.8% neither training group statistically differed from changes demonstrated by the CONT group. Nor did either training group show significant improvements in isometric or isokinetic force production over the CONT group. These results do not support the superiority of enhanced-eccentric training for increasing force production in trained subjects.

  13. Comparison of Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles among Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing and Acquired AmpC β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Canadian Intensive Care Units▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, Patricia J.; Nichol, Kim; DeCorby, Melanie; Mataseje, Laura; Mulvey, Michael R.; Hoban, Daryl J.; Zhanel, George G.

    2008-01-01

    Resistance profiles were compared among 18 extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing (ESBL) and 27 acquired AmpC β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolates collected from Canadian intensive care units from 2005 to 2006. ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were more likely to be gentamicin resistant (P < 0.03), fluoroquinolone resistant (P < 0.0001), and multidrug resistant (P < 0.0001) than AmpC-producing E. coli isolates. PMID:18299417

  14. Neuroendocrine Responses and Body Composition Changes Following Resistance Training Under Normobaric Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chycki Jakub

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a 6 week resistance training protocol under hypoxic conditions (FiO2 = 12.9%, 4000 m on muscle hypertrophy. The project included 12 resistance trained male subjects, randomly divided into two experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 6; age 21 ± 2.4 years; body height [BH] 178.8 ± 7.3 cm; body mass [BM] 80.6 ± 12.3 kg and group 2 (n = 6; age 22 ± 1.5 years; BH 177.8 ± 3.7cm; BM 81.1 ± 7.5 kg. Each group performed resistance exercises alternately under normoxic and hypoxic conditions (4000 m for 6 weeks. All subjects followed a training protocol that comprised two training sessions per week at an exercise intensity of 70% of 1RM; each training session consisted of eight sets of 10 repetitions of the bench press and barbell squat, with 3 min rest periods. The results indicated that strength training in normobaric hypoxia caused a significant increase in BM (p < 0.01 and fat free mass (FFM (p < 0.05 in both groups. Additionally, a significant increase (p < 0.05 was observed in IGF-1 concentrations at rest after 6 weeks of hypoxic resistance training in both groups. The results of this study allow to conclude that resistance training (6 weeks under normobaric hypoxic conditions induces greater muscle hypertrophy compared to training in normoxic conditions.

  15. Youth resistance training: updated position statement paper from the national strength and conditioning association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kraemer, William J; Blimkie, Cameron J R; Jeffreys, Ian; Micheli, Lyle J; Nitka, Mike; Rowland, Thomas W

    2009-08-01

    Faigenbaum, AD, Kraemer, WJ, Blimkie, CJR, Jeffreys, I, Micheli, LJ, Nitka, M, and Rowland, TW. Youth resistance training: Updated position statement paper from the National Strength and Conditioning Association. J Strength Cond Res 23(5): S60-S79, 2009-Current recommendations suggest that school-aged youth should participate daily in 60 minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical activity that is developmentally appropriate and enjoyable and involves a variety of activities (). Not only is regular physical activity essential for normal growth and development, but also a physically active lifestyle during the pediatric years may help to reduce the risk of developing some chronic diseases later in life (). In addition to aerobic activities such as swimming and bicycling, research increasingly indicates that resistance training can offer unique benefits for children and adolescents when appropriately prescribed and supervised (). The qualified acceptance of youth resistance training by medical, fitness, and sport organizations is becoming universal ().Nowadays, comprehensive school-based programs are specifically designed to enhance health-related components of physical fitness, which include muscular strength (). In addition, the health club and sport conditioning industry is getting more involved in the youth fitness market. In the U.S.A., the number of health club members between the ages of 6 and 17 years continues to increase () and a growing number of private sport conditioning centers now cater to young athletes. Thus, as more children and adolescents resistance train in schools, health clubs, and sport training centers, it is imperative to determine safe, effective, and enjoyable practices by which resistance training can improve the health, fitness, and sports performance of younger populations.The National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) recognizes and supports the premise that many of the benefits associated with adult resistance training

  16. Muscle adaptations to plyometric vs. resistance training in untrained young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Kristian; Brink, Mads; Lønbro, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in muscle strength, power, and morphology induced by conventional strength training vs. plyometric training of equal time and effort requirements. Young, untrained men performed 12 weeks of progressive conventional resistance training (CRT, n = 8......) or plyometric training (PT, n = 7). Tests before and after training included one-repetition maximum (1 RM) incline leg press, 3 RM knee extension, and 1 RM knee flexion, countermovement jumping (CMJ), and ballistic incline leg press. Also, before and after training, magnetic resonance imaging scanning...... was performed for the thigh, and a muscle biopsy was sampled from the vastus lateralis muscle. Muscle strength increased by approximately 20-30% (1-3 RM tests) (p Plyometric training increased maximum CMJ height (10...

  17. Time-wise change in neck pain in response to rehabilitation with specific resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Andersen, Christoffer H; Sundstrup, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the time-wise effect of specific resistance training on neck pain among industrial technicians with frequent neck pain symptoms. Methods Secondary analysis of a parallel-group cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 weeks performed at two large industrial production units...... in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with neck pain >30 mm VAS (N = 131) were included in the present analysis. The training group (N = 77) performed specific resistance training for the neck/shoulder muscles three times a week, and the control group (N = 54) received advice to stay active. Participants of both groups...... to 20). The time-wise change in pain showed three phases; a rapid decrease in the training group compared with the control group during the initial 7 weeks, a slower decrease in pain during the following weeks (week 8–15), and a plateau during the last weeks (week 16–20). Adherence to training followed...

  18. Effect of combined aerobic and resistance training in body composition of obese postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício E. Rossi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 16-week program of combined aerobic and resistance training on the body composition of postmenopausal women who are obese. The participants were divided into two groups: training group (TG, n = 37 and non-trained control group (CG, n = 18. The trunk fat, fat mass, percentage of fat mass and fat-free mass were estimated using DXA. Three nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were conducted. The training protocol consisted of 50 minutes of resistance training followed by 30 minutes of aerobic training. After the 16-week training program, differences were observed in trunk fat (CG= 0.064 x TG= -0.571 Kg; p-value = .020, fat mass (CG= -0.088 x TG= -1.037 Kg; p-value = .020 and fat-free mass (CG= -0.388 x TG= 1.049 Kg; p = .001. Therefore, a 16-week program of systematic combined aerobic and resistance training in obese postmenopausal women was effective in improving fat-free mass and decreasing both whole and abdominal adiposity.

  19. Health and fitness benefits of a resistance training intervention performed in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavanela, Plinio M; Crewther, Blair T; Lodo, Leandro; Florindo, Alex A; Miyabara, Elen H; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the effects of a workplace-based resistance training intervention on different health-, fitness-, and work-related measures in untrained men (bus drivers). The subjects were recruited from a bus company and divided into a training (n = 48) and control (n = 48) groups after initial prescreening. The training group performed a 24-week resistance training program, whereas the control group maintained their normal daily activities. Each group was assessed for body composition, blood pressure (BP), pain incidence, muscular endurance, and flexibility before and after the 24-week period. Work absenteeism was also recorded during this period and after a 12-week follow-up phase. In general, no body composition changes were identified in either group. In the training group, a significant reduction in BP and pain incidence, along with improvements in muscle endurance and flexibility were seen after 24 weeks (p training (vs. control) group during both the interventional and follow-up periods (p training intervention performed within the workplace improved different aspects of health and fitness in untrained men, thereby potentially providing other work-related benefits. Thus, both employers and employees may benefit from the setup, promotion, and support of a work-based physical activity program involving resistance training.

  20. Emergence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii producing OXA-23 Carbapenemase in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Rolain

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to describe the molecular support of carbapenem resistance from randomly selected clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant (MDR Acinetobacter baumannii as a pilot study from the Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC, Qatar. Results of our report will be used to study carbapenemases using molecular techniques in all isolated MDR A. baumannii. Forty-eight MDR A. baumannii were randomly selected from isolates preserved at HMC. Identification of all isolates was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Antibiotic resistance was tested phenotypically by Phoenix and confirmed by Etest. The molecular support of carbapenemases (blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, blaNDM was investigated by real-time PCR. The epidemiologic relatedness of the isolates was verified by phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequences of CsuE and blaOXA-51 genes. All 48 isolates were identified as A. baumannii and were confirmed to be resistant to most antibiotics, especially meropenem, imipenems, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, amikacin, gentamicin and most of the β-lactams; they were sensitive to colistin. All the isolates were positive for blaOXA-23 and negative for the other tested carbapenemase genes. Clonality analysis demonstrated that different lineages were actually circulating in Qatar; and we suggest that an outbreak occurred in the medical intensive care unit of HMC between 2011 and 2012. Here we report the emergence of MDR A. baumannii producing the carbapenemase OXA-23 in Qatar.

  1. Comparisons between low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction and high-intensity resistance training on quadriceps muscle mass and strength in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vechin, Felipe C; Libardi, Cleiton A; Conceição, Miguel S; Damas, Felipe R; Lixandrão, Manoel E; Berton, Ricardo P B; Tricoli, Valmor A A; Roschel, Hamilton A; Cavaglieri, Claudia R; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patricia T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HRT) has been recommended to offset age-related loss in muscle strength and mass. However, part of the elderly population is often unable to exercise at high intensities. Alternatively, low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction (LRT-BFR) has emerged. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of LRT-BFR and HRT on quadriceps muscle strength and mass in elderly. Twenty-three elderly individuals, 14 men and 9 women (age, 64.04 ± 3.81 years; weight, 72.55 ± 16.52 kg; height, 163 ± 11 cm), undertook 12 weeks of training. Subjects were ranked according to their pretraining quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) values and then randomly allocated into one of the following groups: (a) control group, (b) HRT: 4 × 10 repetitions, 70-80% one repetition maximum (1RM), and (c) LRT-BFR: 4 sets (1 × 30 and 3 × 15 repetitions), 20-30% 1RM. The occlusion pressure was set at 50% of maximum tibial arterial pressure and sustained during the whole training session. Leg press 1RM and quadriceps CSA were evaluated at before and after training. A mixed-model analysis was performed, and the significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. Both training regimes were effective in increasing pre- to post-training leg press 1RM (HRT: ∼54%, p strength gains. In summary, LRT-BFR constitutes an important surrogate approach to HRT as an effective training method to induce gains in muscle strength and mass in elderly.

  2. Resistance training prevents the cardiovascular changes caused by high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speretta, Guilherme F; Silva, André A; Vendramini, Regina C; Zanesco, Angelina; Delbin, Maria A; Menani, José V; Bassi, Mirian; Colombari, Eduardo; Colombari, Débora S A

    2016-02-01

    Aerobic exercise is indicated for prevention and treatment of obesity-induced cardiovascular disorders. Although the resistance training (RT) may also produce effects similar to aerobic exercise, this is not completely clear yet. In the present study, we tested if RT in moderate intensity might prevent alterations in blood pressure (BP), sympathetic modulation of systolic blood pressure (SBP), baroreflex function and the changes in renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and cytokines mRNA expression within the nucleus of the tract solitary (NTS) in rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Male Holtzman rats (300-320 g) were divided into 4 groups: sedentary with standard chow diet (SED-SD); sedentary with high-fat diet (SED-HFD); RT with standard chow diet (RT-SD); and RT with high-fat diet (RT-HFD). The trained groups performed a total of 10 weeks of moderate intensity RT in a vertical ladder. In the first 3 weeks all experimental groups were fed with SD. In the next 7 weeks, the SED-HFD and RT-HFD groups were fed with HFD. In SED-HFD, BP and sympathetic modulation of SBP increased, whereas baroreflex bradycardic responses were attenuated. RT prevented the cardiovascular and inflammatory responses (increases in tumoral necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β) produced by HFD in SED rats. The anti-inflammatory interleukin-10, angiotensin type 2 receptor, Mas receptor and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 mRNA expressions in the NTS increased in the RT-HFD compared to SED-HFD. The data demonstrated that moderate intensity RT prevented obesity-induced cardiovascular disorders simultaneously with reduced inflammatory responses and modifications of RAS in the NTS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Bioactive Compound Rich Indian Spices Suppresses the Growth of β-lactamase Produced Multidrug Resistant Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eadlapalli Siddhartha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidrug Resistance (MDR among bacteria become a global concern due to failure of antibiotics, is drawn attention for best antimicrobials from the spices which have been using ancient days in Indian culinary and traditional medicine. Aim and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the bioactive compounds and their antibacterial activity in routinely used culinary Indian spices against β-lactamase produced MDR bacteria. Material and Methods: Ethanolic extracts prepared from twenty spices and were evaluated for total phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, antioxidant properties, and also assayed their antibacterial activities against β-lactamase producing MDR bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. β-Lactamase and cell viability assays were performed in MDR bacteria. Results: Among twenty spices, cinnamon and clove exhibited highest levels of phenolics and terpenoids with elevated antioxidant potential and also showing greater reducing potential at lower concentrations of extract (2.3 and 4.06 µg GAE/gm, respectively. Further, the spices extracts were assessed for antimicrobial activity against β-lactamase produced tested MDR bacteria and observed higher antimicrobial activity with cinnamon, garlic, tamarind and clove at lowest concentrations of MIC and MBC at 16 - 32 µg GAE/ml, as compared to standard drug, amoxiclav (16/8 µg/ml. Spices significantly inhibited the β-lactamase activity (80–94% and also cell viability in tested MDR bacteria. Conclusion: Indian spices consist of rich bioactive profile and antioxidant activity inhibited the bacterial growth effectively by suppressing β-lactamase production in MDR bacteria. Results indicating the spices as functional foods and could be used in prevention of antibiotic resistance.

  4. A Comprehensive Study of Agricultural Drought Resistance and Background Drought Levels in Five Main Grain-Producing Regions of China

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Kang; Hongqi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Drought control and resistance affect national food security. With this in mind, we studied five main grain-producing regions of China: Sanjiang Plain, Songnen Plain, Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, the middle Yangtze River and Jianghuai region and Sichuan Basin. Using GIS technology, we evaluated the comprehensive agricultural drought situation based on major crops, the basic drought resistance by integrating multiple indicators and the comprehensive drought resistance against background agricultural ...

  5. Temporal Response of Angiogenesis and Hypertrophy to Resistance Training in Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Tanya M; Snijders, Tim; VAN Kranenburg, Janneau; VAN Loon, Luc J C; Verdijk, Lex B

    2018-01-01

    Although endurance exercise training promotes angiogenesis and improves metabolic health, the effect of resistance training on this process is less well defined. We hypothesized that capillarization would increase proportionally, and concurrently, with muscle fiber hypertrophy in response to resistance training in young men. In this double-blind, randomized control trial, 36 men (22 ± 1 yr) were randomized to placebo or protein supplementation, and participated in 12 wk of resistance training. Skeletal muscle biopsies were collected before and after 2, 4, 8, and 12 wk of training. Immunohistochemistry assessed fiber type-specific size and capillarization. Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assessed proteins involved in the molecular regulation of angiogenesis. Resistance training effectively increased Type I (15% ± 4%; P < 0.01) and Type II fiber cross-sectional area (28% ± 5%; P < 0.0001), an effect that tended to be further enhanced with protein supplementation in Type II fibers (P = 0.078). Capillary-to-fiber ratio significantly increased in Type I (P = 0.001) and II (P = 0.015) fibers after 12 wk of resistance exercise training and was evident after only 2 wk. Capillary-to-fiber perimeter exchange index increased in the Type I fibers only (P = 0.054) after 12 wk of training. Training resulted in a reduction in vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA. A (P = 0.008), while vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (P = 0.016), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (P = 0.016), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (P = 0.01) increased in both groups. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α protein content was higher in the protein group (main group effect, P = 0.02), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase content demonstrated a divergent relationship (time-group interaction, P = 0.049). This study presents novel evidence that microvascular adaptations and the molecular pathways involved are elevated after 2 wk of a 12-wk resistance training

  6. Resistance Training with Co-ingestion of Anti-inflammatory Drugs Attenuates Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele A. Cardinale

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study aimed to examine the effects of resistance exercise with concomitant consumption of high vs. low daily doses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. As a secondary aim, we compared the effects of eccentric overload with conventional training.Methods: Twenty participants were randomized to either a group taking high doses (3 × 400 mg/day of ibuprofen (IBU; 27 ± 5 year; n = 11 or a group ingesting a low dose (1 × 75 mg/day of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; 26 ± 4 year; n = 9 during 8 weeks of supervised knee extensor resistance training. Each of the subject's legs were randomized to complete the training program using either a flywheel (FW device emphasizing eccentric overload, or a traditional weight stack machine (WS. Maximal mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (CI+IIP from permeabilized skeletal muscle bundles was assessed using high-resolution respirometry. Citrate synthase (CS activity was assessed using spectrophotometric techniques and mitochondrial protein content using western blotting.Results: After training, CI+IIP decreased (P < 0.05 in both IBU (23% and ASA (29% with no difference across medical treatments. Although CI+IIP decreased in both legs, the decrease was greater (interaction p = 0.015 in WS (33%, p = 0.001 compared with FW (19%, p = 0.078. CS activity increased (p = 0.027 with resistance training, with no interactions with medical treatment or training modality. Protein expression of ULK1 increased with training in both groups (p < 0.001. The increase in quadriceps muscle volume was not correlated with changes in CI+IIP (R = 0.16.Conclusion: These results suggest that 8 weeks of resistance training with co-ingestion of anti-inflammatory drugs reduces mitochondrial function but increases mitochondrial content. The observed changes were not affected by higher doses of NSAIDs consumption, suggesting that the resistance training

  7. Construct validity of the resistance training skills battery in children aged 7-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Lawson, Chelsey; Hurst, Josh; Tallis, Jason; Jones, Victoria; Eyre, Emma L J

    2018-01-19

    The current study sought to examine the construct validity of the Resistance Training Skills Battery for Children (RTSBc), a movement screen purported to assess resistance training skill in children. Children aged 7-10 years (n = 27, 21 males, 6 females) undertook measures of resistance training skill via the RTSBc, motor competence and muscular fitness. Using a median split for RTSBc scores, children were categorised as high or low resistance training competence. Univariate ANCOVAs, controlling for maturation, were used to examine whether measures of muscular fitness and motor competence scores differed as a function of RTSBc competence. Children who were classified as high for resistance training competence had significantly better motor competence (P = .001) and significantly faster 10 m sprint speed (P = .001). However, medicine ball throw and standing long jump scores as well as peak and average isokinetic muscle strength did not differ as a function of RTSBc (P > 0.05). In all cases maturation was significant as a covariate. This study is the first to demonstrate construct validity of the RTSBc as a measure of general motor competence and sprint speed, but not strength, in children aged 7-10 years.

  8. Progressive resistance training in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso de Souza, M; Trajano Jorge, R; Jones, A; Lombardi Júnior, I; Natour, J

    2009-01-01

    Shoulder impingement syndrome and tendonitis of the rotator cuff are the most common intrinsic causes of shoulder pain and disability. The present literature review addresses general concepts on shoulder impingement syndrome as well as progressive resistance training and different physiotherapy interventions for this condition. The aim was to review what exists in the literature regarding progressive resistance training as a therapeutic approach to shoulder impingement syndrome. The review was carried out using the Lilacs, Medline, Pubmed and Web of Knowledge databases searching for studies published between 2000 and 2008. The following keywords were used: resistance exercises, exercises with weight, resistance training, strength training, painful shoulder, shoulder impingement syndrome, exercise and the translations of these terms in Portuguese. Controlled, randomized clinical trials that assessed the use of resistance training for shoulder impingement syndrome were selected. Articles written in English and Portuguese were included. Only one article on the subject was encountered. The authors stress the need for further studies on this topic, as the method has been widely used on a number of other musculoskeletal disorders.

  9. Youth Resistance Training: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly-The Year That Was 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D

    2018-02-01

    The good news is that a growing body of evidence recognizes resistance training as foundational to long-term physical development. Original research and reviews published in 2017 conclude that early exposure to developmentally appropriate resistance training can improve markers of health, increase muscular fitness, enhance physical literacy, and reduce the risk of injury in young athletes. Although the papers discussed in the commentary add to our understanding of the pleiotropic benefits of youth resistance training, they also raise concerns. As measures of muscular strength and power have been found to track from childhood to adulthood, the bad news is that youth with low levels of muscular fitness tend to become weak adults who are at increased risk for functional limitations and adverse health outcomes. Furthermore, global participation in youth resistance training is falling far short of public health recommendations, and these ugly trends will likely impact the health and well-being of future generations. A change in current attitudes and common practices is urgently needed to educate parents, practitioners, and clinicians about the potential benefits of resistance training for all children and adolescents, not only young athletes.

  10. A comparison of assisted, resisted, and common plyometric training modes to enhance sprint and agility performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaei, Kazem; Mohammadi, Abbas; Badri, Neda

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of assisted, resisted and common plyometric training modes to enhance sprint and agility performance. Thirty active young males (age 20.67±1.12, height 174.83±4.69, weight 63.45±7.51) volunteered to participate in this study that 24 completed testing. The participants were randomly assigned into different groups: assisted, resisted and common plyometric exercises groups. Plyometric training involved three sessions per week for 4 weeks. The volume load of plyometric training modes was equated between the groups. The posttest was performed after 48 hours of the last training session. Between-group differences were analyzed with the ANCOVA and LSD post-hoc tests, and within-group differences were analyzed by a paired t-test. The findings of the present study indicated that 0-10-m, 20-30-m sprint time and the Illinois Agility Test time significantly decreased in the assisted and resisted plyometrics modes compared to the common plyometric training mode (P≤0.05). Also, the 0-10-m, 0-30-m sprint time and agility T-test time was significantly reduced with resisted plyometrics modes compared to the assisted and common plyometric modes (P≤0.05). There was no significant difference in the 10-20-m sprint time among the three plyometric training modes. The results of this study demonstrated that assisted and resisted plyometrics modes with elastic bands were effective methods to improve sprint and agility performance than common plyometric training in active males. Also, the resisted plyometrics mode was superior than the assisted plyometrics mode to improving sprint and agility tasks.

  11. Pyridostigmine Improves the Effects of Resistance Exercise Training after Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriani, Daniele J.; Coelho-Júnior, Hélio J.; de Oliveira, Juliana C. M. F.; Delbin, Maria A.; Mostarda, Cristiano T.; Dourado, Paulo M. M.; Caperuto, Érico C.; Irigoyen, Maria C. C.; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exercise training and pharmacological treatments are important strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of MI. However, little is known about the effects of resistance training combined with pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) treatment on cardiac and autonomic function, as well as on the inflammatory profile after MI. Thus, in the present study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into: control (Cont); sedentary infarcted (Inf); PYR – treated sedentary infarcted rats (Inf+P); infarcted rats undergoing resistance exercise training (Inf+RT); and infarcted rats undergoing PYR treatment plus resistance training (Inf+RT+P). After 12 weeks of resistance training (15–20 climbs per session, with a 1-min rest between each climb, at a low to moderate intensity, 5 days a week) and/or PYR treatment (0.14 mg/mL of drink water), hemodynamic function, autonomic modulation, and cytokine expressions were evaluated. We observed that 3 months of PYR treatment, either alone or in combination with exercise, can improve the deleterious effects of MI on left ventricle dimensions and function, baroreflex sensitivity, and autonomic parameters, as well as systemic and tissue inflammatory profile. Furthermore, additional benefits in a maximal load test and anti-inflammatory state of skeletal muscle were found when resistance training was combined with PYR treatment. Thus, our findings suggest that the combination of resistance training and PYR may be a good therapeutic strategy since they promote additional benefits on skeletal muscle anti-inflammatory profile after MI. PMID:29483876

  12. Pyridostigmine Improves the Effects of Resistance Exercise Training after Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele J. Feriani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction (MI remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exercise training and pharmacological treatments are important strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of MI. However, little is known about the effects of resistance training combined with pyridostigmine bromide (PYR treatment on cardiac and autonomic function, as well as on the inflammatory profile after MI. Thus, in the present study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into: control (Cont; sedentary infarcted (Inf; PYR – treated sedentary infarcted rats (Inf+P; infarcted rats undergoing resistance exercise training (Inf+RT; and infarcted rats undergoing PYR treatment plus resistance training (Inf+RT+P. After 12 weeks of resistance training (15–20 climbs per session, with a 1-min rest between each climb, at a low to moderate intensity, 5 days a week and/or PYR treatment (0.14 mg/mL of drink water, hemodynamic function, autonomic modulation, and cytokine expressions were evaluated. We observed that 3 months of PYR treatment, either alone or in combination with exercise, can improve the deleterious effects of MI on left ventricle dimensions and function, baroreflex sensitivity, and autonomic parameters, as well as systemic and tissue inflammatory profile. Furthermore, additional benefits in a maximal load test and anti-inflammatory state of skeletal muscle were found when resistance training was combined with PYR treatment. Thus, our findings suggest that the combination of resistance training and PYR may be a good therapeutic strategy since they promote additional benefits on skeletal muscle anti-inflammatory profile after MI.

  13. Pyridostigmine Improves the Effects of Resistance Exercise Training after Myocardial Infarction in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriani, Daniele J; Coelho-Júnior, Hélio J; de Oliveira, Juliana C M F; Delbin, Maria A; Mostarda, Cristiano T; Dourado, Paulo M M; Caperuto, Érico C; Irigoyen, Maria C C; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exercise training and pharmacological treatments are important strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of MI. However, little is known about the effects of resistance training combined with pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) treatment on cardiac and autonomic function, as well as on the inflammatory profile after MI. Thus, in the present study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into: control (Cont); sedentary infarcted (Inf); PYR - treated sedentary infarcted rats (Inf+P); infarcted rats undergoing resistance exercise training (Inf+RT); and infarcted rats undergoing PYR treatment plus resistance training (Inf+RT+P). After 12 weeks of resistance training (15-20 climbs per session, with a 1-min rest between each climb, at a low to moderate intensity, 5 days a week) and/or PYR treatment (0.14 mg/mL of drink water), hemodynamic function, autonomic modulation, and cytokine expressions were evaluated. We observed that 3 months of PYR treatment, either alone or in combination with exercise, can improve the deleterious effects of MI on left ventricle dimensions and function, baroreflex sensitivity, and autonomic parameters, as well as systemic and tissue inflammatory profile. Furthermore, additional benefits in a maximal load test and anti-inflammatory state of skeletal muscle were found when resistance training was combined with PYR treatment. Thus, our findings suggest that the combination of resistance training and PYR may be a good therapeutic strategy since they promote additional benefits on skeletal muscle anti-inflammatory profile after MI.

  14. Resistance training enhances insulin suppression of endogenous glucose production in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honka, Miikka-Juhani; Bucci, Marco; Andersson, Jonathan; Huovinen, Ville; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Sandboge, Samuel; Savisto, Nina; Salonen, Minna K; Badeau, Robert M; Parkkola, Riitta; Kullberg, Joel; Iozzo, Patricia; Eriksson, Johan G; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2016-03-15

    An altered prenatal environment during maternal obesity predisposes offspring to insulin resistance, obesity, and their consequent comorbidities, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Telomere shortening and frailty are additional risk factors for these conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training on hepatic metabolism and ectopic fat accumulation. Thirty-five frail elderly women, whose mothers' body mass index (BMI) was known, participated in a 4-mo resistance training program. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and hepatic and visceral fat glucose uptake were measured during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography. Ectopic fat was measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. We found that the training intervention reduced EGP during insulin stimulation [from 5.4 (interquartile range 3.0, 7.0) to 3.9 (-0.4, 6.1) μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.042] in the whole study group. Importantly, the reduction was higher among those whose EGP was more insulin resistant at baseline (higher than the median) [-5.6 (7.1) vs. 0.1 (5.4) μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.015]. Furthermore, the decrease in EGP was associated with telomere elongation (r = -0.620, P = 0.001). The resistance training intervention did not change either hepatic or visceral fat glucose uptake or the amounts of ectopic fat. Maternal obesity did not influence the studied measures. In conclusion, resistance training improves suppression of EGP in elderly women. The finding of improved insulin sensitivity of EGP with associated telomere lengthening implies that elderly women can reduce their risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease with resistance training. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Concurrent speed endurance and resistance training improves performance, running economy, and muscle NHE1 in moderately trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christensen, Peter M; Larsen, Sonni; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Thomassen, Martin; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether speed endurance training (SET, repeated 30-s sprints) and heavy resistance training (HRT, 80-90% of 1 repetition maximum) performed in succession are compatible and lead to performance improvements in moderately trained endurance runners. For an 8-wk intervention period (INT) 23 male runners [maximum oxygen uptake (V̇O(2max)) 59 ± 1 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1); values are means ± SE] either maintained their training (CON, n = 11) or performed high-intensity concurrent training (HICT, n = 12) consisting of two weekly sessions of SET followed by HRT and two weekly sessions of aerobic training with an average reduction in running distance of 42%. After 4 wk of HICT, performance was improved (P Performance in a 1,500-m run (5:10 ± 0:05 vs. 5:27 ± 0:08 min:s) and in the Yo-Yo IR2 test (706 ± 97 vs. 491 ± 65 m) improved (P performed in succession, lead to improvements in both short- and long-term running performance together with improved running economy as well as increased dynamic muscle strength and capacity for muscular H(+) transport in moderately trained endurance runners. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. The effect of combined resisted agility and repeated sprint training vs. strength training on female elite soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalfawi, Shaher A I; Haugen, Thomas; Jakobsen, Tore A; Enoksen, Eystein; Tønnessen, Espen

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of in-season combined resisted agility and repeated sprint training with strength training on soccer players' agility, linear single sprint speed, vertical jump, repeated sprint ability (RSA), and aerobic capacity. Twenty well-trained elite female soccer players of age ± SD 19.4 ± 4.4 years volunteered to participate in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to either the agility and repeated sprint training group or to the strength training group. All the participants were tested before and after a 10-week specific conditioning program. The pretest and posttest were conducted on 3 separate days with 1 day of low-intensity training in between. Test day 1 consisted of squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and RSA. Test day 2 consisted of a 40-m maximal linear sprint and an agility test, whereas a Beep test was conducted on test day 3 to assess aerobic capacity. The agility and repeated sprint training implemented in this study did not have a significant effect on agility, although there was a tendency for moderate improvements from 8.23 ± 0.32 to 8.06 ± 0.21 seconds (d = 0.8). There was a significant (p agility performance (d = -0.1). No between-group differences were observed. The outcome of this study indicates the importance of a well-planned program of conditioning that does not result in a decreased performance of the players, the great importance of strength and conditioning specialist in implementing the training program, and the importance of choosing the time of the year to implement such conditioning training programs. However, the fact that the present training program did not cause any decline in performance indicates that it is useful in maintaining the soccer players' physical performance during the competition period.

  17. A Six-Week Resistance Training Program Does Not Change Shear Modulus of the Triceps Brachii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Ryota; Shikiba, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Jun; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effect of a 6-week resistance training program on the shear modulus of the triceps brachii (TB). Twenty-three young men were randomly assigned to either the training (n = 13) or control group (n = 10). Before and after conducting the resistance training program, the shear modulus of the long head of the TB was measured at the point 70% along the length of the upper arm from the acromial process of the scapula to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus using shear wave ultrasound elastography. Muscle thickness of the long head of the TB was also determined at the same site by ultrasonography used during both tests. A resistance exercise was performed 3 days a week for 6 weeks using a dumbbell mass-adjusted to 80% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). The training effect on the muscle thickness and 1RM was significant. Nevertheless, the muscle shear modulus was not significantly changed after the training program. From the perspective of muscle mechanical properties, the present results indicate that significant adaptation must occur to make the TB more resistant to subsequent damaging bouts during the 6-week training program to target the TB.

  18. Effects of functional resistance training on muscle strength and musculoskeletal discomfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Montechieze Cassemiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Functional resistance training (FRT is becoming increasingly popular to improve physical fitness of practitioners, however, yet there are gaps in knowledge about effectiveness of FRT in relation conventional resistance training (CRT in several ambits, as musculoskeletal complaints. Objective: Compare the effect of FRT and CRT in the musculoskeletal discomfort and magnitude of gain in muscle strength in healthy women. Methods: 52 women was divided into three groups, FRT (n = 15; 22 ± 2.35 years: functional resistance training; CRT (n = 14; 22.5 ± 1.78 years: conventional resistance training and CG (n = 13; 20.6 ± 1.10 years: no type of intervention. The training was periodized in 30 sessions over 12 weeks with 3 sessions per week. For the muscle strength variable used the 1RM test and for the musculoskeletal discomfort variable, the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ. Regarding the statistical analysis, all results took into consideration a 5% level of significance. Results: Considerable gain in muscle strength was observed for all exercises in both training groups. In addition, there was a tendency in CRT to relate a more musculoskeletal discomfort; presented 27.3% more complaints compared FRT in the MNQ. Conclusion: The FRT was as effective as the CRT for improving muscle strength, furthermore, there was a tendency for FRT to cause less musculoskeletal discomfort.

  19. The effects of concurrent resistance and endurance training follow a detraining period in elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Albano P; Marinho, Daniel A; Costa, Aldo M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an 8-week training period of resistance training alone (GR), or combined resistance and endurance training (GCOM), followed by 12 weeks of detraining (DT) on body composition, explosive strength, and ·VO₂max adaptations in a large sample of adolescent school boys. Forty-two healthy boys recruited from a Portuguese public high school (age: 13.3 ± 1.04 years) were assigned to 2 experimental groups to train twice a week for 8 weeks: GR (n = 15), GCOM (n = 15), and a control group (GC: n = 12; no training program). Significant training-induced differences were observed in 1- and 3-kg medicine ball throw gains (GR: +10.3 and +9.8%, respectively; GCOM: +14.4 and +7%, respectively), whereas no significant changes were observed after a DT period in both the experimental groups. Significant training-induced gains in the height and length of the countermovement (vertical-and-horizontal) jumps were observed in both the experimental groups. No differences were perceived after a DT period in lower limb power. Time at 20 m decreased significantly for both intervention programs (GR: -11.5% and GCOM: -12.4%, training, the ·VO₂max increased only significantly for GCOM (4.6%, p = 0.01). A significant loss was observed after a DT period in GR but not in GCOM. Performing resistance and endurance training in the same workout does not impair strength development in young school boys. As expected, strength training by itself does not improve aerobic capacity. Our results also suggest that training program effects even persist at the end of the DT period.

  20. Resistance to the Reform of Teacher Training in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Laurie; Epp, Walter

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a project to transform part of the shattered education system of Kosovo. By way of case study, it presents some of the factors that were impediments to the formation of a reformed system for training new teachers. This was part of an attempt by international agencies to assist Kosovo in modernizing its education system.…

  1. Resisting imagination and confabulation: effects of metacognitive training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Paola; Ghetti, Simona

    2014-10-01

    False memory rejection is enhanced when individuals rely on memorability-based inferences (e.g., "I should remember this event well; if I don't, it must not have happened"). The present study investigated whether 8- and 9-year-olds and adults could be trained to engage in memorability-based inferences to reject false, but highly familiar (increased through imagination and confabulation), events. Across two experiments, participants enacted, imagined, or confabulated a series of actions differing in expected memorability. Two weeks later, half of the participants received memorability-based training before being administered an old/new recognition test in which they were asked to endorse only enacted actions. Thus, imagined and confabulated actions were to be rejected in the face of their high familiarity. Results indicated that adults, but not children, exhibited increased rejection of these false events if they were of high memorability following a training procedure that explained the functioning of memorability-based inferences (Experiment 1, N=100). Children's rejection of familiar events improved only when the training procedure closely mimicked the demands of the retrieval test (Experiment 2, N=125). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of resistance training on jumping performance in pre-adolescent rhythmic gymnasts: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Marina; Battaglia, Claudia; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Innocenti, Giovanni; Iuliano, Enzo; Aquino, Giovanna; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Giombini, Arrigo; Di Cagno, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of two different resistance training programs on lower limb explosive and reactive strength in young female athletes. Fifty seven rhythmic gymnasts were randomly assigned to unspecific resistance training with dumbbells (12 repetition maximum squats) (n = 19; age = 12.0 +/- 1.8 years) or to specific resistance training with weighted belts (6% of body mass; n = 18; age = 11.9 +/- 1.0 years). Squat jump test, counter movement jump test, hopping test, flexibility of the hip, and anthropometric measures were assessed before and after six weeks training. The main result was that both unspecific resistance training and specific resistance training protocols positively affected the jumping performance, with an increase of the lower limb explosive strength of 6-7%, with no side effects. Counter movement jump flight time increased significantly (p rhythmic gymnastics training enhance jumping ability in young female athletes.

  3. Single and concurrent effects of endurance and resistance training on pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Maryam; Tayebi, Seyed Morteza; Safari, Hamed

    2013-04-01

    As not only few evidences but also contradictory results exist with regard to the effects of resistance training (RT) and resistance plus endurance training (ERT) on respiratory system, so the purpose of this research was therefore to study single and concurrent effects of endurance and resistance training on pulmonary function. Thirty seven volunteer healthy inactive women were randomly divided into 4 groups: without training as control (C), Endurance Training (ET), RT, and ERT. A spirometry test was taken 24 hrs before and after the training course. The training period (8 weeks, 3 sessions/week) for ET was 20-26 min/session running with 60-80% maximum heart rate (HR max); for RT two circuits/session, 40-60s for each exercise with 60-80% one repetition maximum (1RM), and 1 and 3 minutes active rest between exercises and circuits respectively; and for ERT was in agreement with either ET or RT protocols, but the times of running and circuits were half of ET and RT. ANCOVA showed that ET and ERT increased significantly (P0.05) on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC ratio. In conclusion, ET combined with RT (ERT) has greater effect on VC, FVC, FEF rating at25%-75%, and also on PEF except MVV, rather than RT, and just ET has greater effect rather than ERT.

  4. Comparison of extended spectrum β-lactamases-producing Escherichia coli with non-ESBLs-producing E.coli: drug-resistance and virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Qu, Yan; Hu, Dan; Shi, Yong-xin

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The virulent factors of Escherichia coli (E.coli) play an important role in the process of pathopoiesis. The study aimed to compare drug-resistant genes and virulence genes between extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs)-producing E.coli and non-ESBLs-producing E.coli to provide a reference for physicians in management of hospital infection. METHODS: From October 2010 to August 2011, 96 drug-resistant strains of E.coli isolated were collected from the specimens in Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao, China. These bacteria strains were divided into a ESBLs-producing group and a non-ESBLs-producing group. Drug sensitivity tests were performed using the Kirby-Bauer (K-B) method. Disinfectant gene, qacEΔ1-sull and 8 virulence genes (CNF2, hlyA, eaeA, VT1, est, bfpA, elt, and CNF1) were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: Among the 96 E.coli isolates, the ESBLs-producing E.coli comprised 46 (47.9%) strains and the non-ESBLs-producing E.coli consisted of 50 (52.1%) strains. The detection rates of multiple drug-resistant strain, qacEΔ1-sull, CNF2, hlyA, eaeA,VT1, est, bfpA, elt, and CNF1 in 46 ESBLs-producing E.coli isolates were 89.1%, 76.1%, 6.5%, 69.6%, 69.6%, 89.1%, 10.9%, 26.1%, 8.7%, and 19.6%, respectively. In the non-ESBLs-producing E.coli strains, the positive rates of multiple drug-resistant strain, qacEΔ1-sull, CNF2, hlyA, eaeA, VT1, est, bfpA, elt, and CNF1 were 62.0%, 80.0%, 16.0%, 28.0%, 64.0%, 38.0%, 6.0%, 34.0%, 10.0%, and 24.0%, respectively. The difference in the detection rates of multiple drug-resistant strain, hlyA and VT1 between the ESBLs-producing E.coli strains and the non-ESBLs-producing E.coli strains was statistically significant (Prate of multiple drug-resistant strains is higher in the ESBLs-producing strains than in the non-ESBLs-producing strains. The expression of some virulence genes hlyA and VT1 varies between the ESBLs-producing strains and the non-ESBLs-producing strains. Increased awareness of clinicians

  5. Obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors after long- term resistance training and ginger supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashak, Sirvan; Peeri, Maghsoud; Azarbayjani, Mohammad Ali; Stannard, Stephen Robert; Haghighi, Marjan Mosalman

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and its metabolic consequences are major risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, lifestyle interventions, including exercise training and dietary components may decrease cardiovascular risk. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger supplementation and progressive resistance training on some cardiovascular risk factors in obese men. In a randomized double-blind design, 32 obese Iranian men (BMI ≥ 30) were assigned in to one of four groups: Placebo (PL, n = 8); ginger group (GI, n = 8) that consumed 1 gr ginger/d for 10 wk; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL, n = 8); and 1gr ginger plus resistance exercise (RTGI, n = 8). Progressive resistance training was performed three days per week for 10 weeks and included eight exercises. At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition and anthropometric indices were measured. To identify other risk factors, venous blood samples were obtained before and 48-72 hours after the last training session for measurement of blood lipids (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG), systemic inflammation (CRP), and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). After 10 weeks both RTGI and RTPL groups showed significant decreases in waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body fat percent, body fat mass, total cholesterol, and insulin resistance (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in fat free mass (FFM) (p < 0.05), while it remained unchanged in PL and GI. Further, significant decreases in the mean values of CRP were observed in all groups except PL (p < 0.05). Our results reveal that resistance training is an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk in obese Iranian men. Further, ginger supplementation alone or in combination with resistance training, also reduces chronic inflammation. However more research on the efficacy of this supplement to reduce cardiovascular risk in humans is required. Key points Long- term resistance training reduced cardiovascular risk factors in obese men

  6. Early and late rate of force development: differential adaptive responses to resistance training?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L L; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Zebis, M K

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (200 ms) of rising muscle force. Fifteen healthy young...... males participated in a 14-week resistance training intervention for the lower body and 10 matched subjects participated as controls. Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and RFD were measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained from...... the vastus lateralis. The main findings were that RFD in the late phase of rising muscle force increased in response to resistance training whereas early RFD remained unchanged and early relative RFD (i.e., RFD/MVC) decreased. Quantitatively, muscle fiber cross-sectional area and MVC increased whereas...

  7. Step aerobic combined with resistance training improves cutaneous microvascular reactivity in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksom, D; Phanpheng, Y; Soogarun, S; Sapwarobol, S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on body weight and cutaneous microvascular reactivity in overweight individuals. A total of 41 overweight women aged 30-45 years (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m²) were randomized into sedentary time control (CON; N.=15), traditional aerobic dance (AD; N.=11), and step aerobic dance combined with upper-body resistance training (SAR; N.=15) groups. Exercise programs were 50 minutes/session, 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Maximal oxygen consumption and 1-RM strength of lower body increased (Pocclusive reactive hyperemia was positively and significantly correlated with adiponectin level (r=0.23). The present findings suggest that simultaneously performed step aerobic dance and resistance training exerts more favorable effects on weight loss and improving cutaneous microvascular reactivity in overweight women.

  8. Effect of resistance training on plasma nitric oxide and asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations in type I diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parivash Shekarchizadeh Esfahani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Elevated ADMA level in diabetic animals can normalize during resistance exercise. Reduced ADMA level and increased NO level following resistance training might improve cardiovascular risk in diabetic subjects.

  9. Olympic weightlifting and plyometric training with children provides similar or greater performance improvements than traditional resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Anis; Hammami, Raouf; Kaabi, Sofiene; Chamari, Karim; Drinkwater, Eric J; Behm, David G

    2014-06-01

    A number of organizations recommend that advanced resistance training (RT) techniques can be implemented with children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Olympic-style weightlifting (OWL), plyometrics, and traditional RT programs with children. Sixty-three children (10-12 years) were randomly allocated to a 12-week control OWL, plyometric, or traditional RT program. Pre- and post-training tests included body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds, countermovement jump (CMJ), horizontal jump, balance, 5- and 20-m sprint times, isokinetic force and power at 60 and 300° · s(-1). Magnitude-based inferences were used to analyze the likelihood of an effect having a standardized (Cohen's) effect size exceeding 0.20. All interventions were generally superior to the control group. Olympic weightlifting was >80% likely to provide substantially better improvements than plyometric training for CMJ, horizontal jump, and 5- and 20-m sprint times, whereas >75% likely to substantially exceed traditional RT for balance and isokinetic power at 300° · s(-1). Plyometric training was >78% likely to elicit substantially better training adaptations than traditional RT for balance, isokinetic force at 60 and 300° · s(-1), isokinetic power at 300° · s(-1), and 5- and 20-m sprints. Traditional RT only exceeded plyometric training for BMI and isokinetic power at 60° · s(-1). Hence, OWL and plyometrics can provide similar or greater performance adaptations for children. It is recommended that any of the 3 training modalities can be implemented under professional supervision with proper training progressions to enhance training adaptations in children.

  10. An outbreak of carbapenem-resistant OXA-48 - producing Klebsiella pneumonia associated to duodenoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kola, Axel; Piening, Brar; Pape, Ulrich-Frank; Veltzke-Schlieker, Wilfried; Kaase, Martin; Geffers, Christine; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Gastmeier, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have become a major problem for healthcare systems worldwide. While the first reports from European hospitals described the introduction of CPE from endemic countries, there is now a growing number of reports describing outbreaks of CPE in European hospitals. Here we report an outbreak of Carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae in a German University hospital which was in part associated to duodenoscopy. Between December 6, 2012 and January 10, 2013, carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP) was cultured from 12 patients staying on 4 different wards. The amplification of carbapenemase genes by multiplex PCR showed presence of the bla OXA-48 gene. Molecular typing confirmed the identity of all 12 isolates. Reviewing the medical records of CRKP cases revealed that there was a spatial relationship between 6 of the cases which were located on the same wards. The remaining 6 cases were all related to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) which was performed with the same duodenoscope. The outbreak ended after the endoscope was sent to the manufacturer for maintenance. Though the outbreak strain was also disseminated to patients who did not undergo ERCP and environmental sources or medical personnel also contributed to the outbreak, the gut of colonized patients is the main source for CPE. Therefore, accurate and stringent reprocessing of endoscopic instruments is extremely important, which is especially true for more complex instruments like the duodenoscope (TJF Q180V series) involved in the outbreak described here.

  11. Sensory profiles of chocolates produced from cocoa cultivars resistant to Moniliophtora Perniciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bacelar Leite

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the sensory quality of chocolates obtained from two cocoa cultivars (PH16 and SR162 resistant to Moniliophtora perniciosa mould comparing to a conventional cocoa that is not resistant to the disease. The acceptability of the chocolates was assessed and the promising cultivars with relevant sensory and commercial attributes could be indicated to cocoa producers and chocolate manufacturers. The descriptive terminology and the sensory profile of chocolates were developed by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. Ten panelists, selected on the basis of their discriminatory capacity and reproducibility, defined eleven sensory descriptors, their respective reference materials and the descriptive evaluation ballot. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Tukey's test to compare the means. The results revealed significant differences among the sensory profiles of the chocolates. Chocolates from the PH16 cultivar were characterized by a darker brown color, more intense flavor and odor of chocolate, bitterness and a firmer texture, which are important sensory and commercial attributes. Chocolates from the SR162 cultivar were characterized by a greater sweetness and melting quality and chocolates from the conventional treatment presented intermediate sensory characteristics between those of the other two chocolates. All samples indicated high acceptance, but chocolates from the PH16 and conventional cultivars obtained higher purchase intention scores.

  12. Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Maintains Cardiovascular and Skeletal Muscle Fitness During 14 Days of Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, Brent; Hackney, Kyle; Wickwire, Jason; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Snyder, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background: Known incompatibilities exist between resistance and aerobic training. Of particular importance are findings that concurrent resistance and aerobic training reduces the effectiveness of the resistance training and limits skeletal muscle adaptations (example: Dudley & Djamil, 1985). Numerous unloading studies have documented the effectiveness of resistance training alone for the maintenance of skeletal muscle size and strength. However the practical applications of those studies are limited because long ]duration crew members perform both aerobic and resistance exercise throughout missions/spaceflight. To date, such integrated training on the International Space Station (ISS) has not been fully effective in the maintenance of skeletal muscle function. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high intensity concurrent resistance and aerobic training for the maintenance of cardiovascular fitness and skeletal muscle strength, power and endurance over 14 days of strict bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest with concurrent training. Resistance and aerobic training were integrated as shown in table 1. Days that included 2 exercise sessions had a 4-8 hour rest between exercise bouts. The resistance training consisted of 3 sets of 12 repetitions of squat, heel raise, leg press and hamstring curl exercise. Aerobic exercise consisted of periodized interval training that included 30 sec, 2 min and 4 min intervals alternating by day with continuous aerobic exercise.

  13. Strength Training Improves Fatigue Resistance and Self-Rated Health in Workers with Chronic Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Brandt, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    of a randomized controlled trial investigates the effect of strength training on muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health among workers with chronic pain. Sixty-six slaughterhouse workers with chronic upper limb pain and work disability were randomly allocated to 10 weeks of strength training or usual...... (Spearman's rho = -0.40; P = 0.01). In conclusion, specific strength training improves muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health and reduces pain of the hand/wrist in manual workers with chronic upper limb pain. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01671267.......-rated health and pain. Time to fatigue, muscle strength, hand/wrist pain, and self-rated health improved significantly more following strength training than usual care (all P

  14. The effects of resistance training on explosive strength indicators in adolescent basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eduardo J A M; Janeira, Manuel A A S

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a lower- and upper-body 10-week in-season resistance training program on explosive strength development in young basketball players. Twenty-five adolescent male athletes, aged 14-15 years old, were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; n = 15) and a control group (CG; n = 10). The subjects were assessed at baseline and after training for squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), Abalakov test, drop jump, and seated medicine ball throw (MBT). The EG showed significant increases (p training program with moderate volume and intensity loads increased vertical jump and MBT performance in adolescent male basketball players. Coaches should know that such a short resistance training program specifically designed for young basketball players induce increased explosivity levels, which are essential to a better basketball performance, with no extra overload on adolescents' skeletal muscle development.

  15. Insulin and fiber type in the offspring of T2DM subjects with resistance training and detraining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schofield, Katherine L; Rehrer, Nancy J; Perry, Tracy L

    2012-01-01

    Effects of resistance training and detraining on glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose load, muscle fiber type, and muscular performance in the offspring of those with type 2 diabetes (familial insulin resistant (FIR)) were investigated.......Effects of resistance training and detraining on glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose load, muscle fiber type, and muscular performance in the offspring of those with type 2 diabetes (familial insulin resistant (FIR)) were investigated....

  16. Effectiveness of Hamstring Knee Rehabilitation Exercise Performed in Training Machine vs. Elastic Resistance Electromyography Evaluation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. D.; Sundstrup, E.; Andersen, C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during hamstring rehabilitation exercises performed in training machine compared with elastic resistance. Design Six women and 13 men aged 28-67 yrs participated in a crossover study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded.......001) during hamstring curl performed with elastic resistance (7.58 +/- 0.08) compared with hamstring curl performed in a machine (5.92 +/- 0.03). Conclusions Hamstring rehabilitation exercise performed with elastic resistance induces similar peak hamstring muscle activity but slightly lower EMG values at more...... inclinometers. Results Training machines and elastic resistance showed similar high levels of muscle activity (biceps femoris and semitendinosus peak normalized EMG >80%). EMG during the concentric phase was higher than during the eccentric phase regardless of exercise and muscle. However, compared with machine...

  17. Extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: critical tools for antibiotic resistance pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmini, Nagarajan; Ajilda, Antony Alex Kennedy; Sivakumar, Natesan; Selvakumar, Gopal

    2017-06-01

    Drug resistance is a phenomenon where by an organism becomes fully or partially resistant to drugs or antibiotics being used against it. Antibiotic resistance poses an exacting intimidation for people with underlying medical immune conditions or weakened immune systems. Infections caused by the enzyme extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing multi drug resistance (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae especially Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are resistant to a broad range of beta lactams, including third generation cephalosporins. Among all the pathogens, these two MDR E. coli and K. pneumoniae have emerged as one of the world's greatest health threats in past two decades. The nosocomial infections caused by these ESBL producing MDR E. coli and K. pneumoniae complicated the therapy and limit treatment options. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Acute and chronic cytokine responses to resistance exercise and training in people with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, T; Dalgas, U; Gade, A B

    2016-01-01

    responses to resistance exercise training in medicated PwMS. Thirty-five people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with interferon (IFN)-β, were randomized to a 24-week progressive resistance training (PRT) or control group. Plasma interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17F, IL-23, tumor......Exercise is a well-established part of rehabilitation for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), and it has been hypothesized to stimulate an anti-inflammatory environment that might be disease modifying. Yet, investigations on exercise-induced immune responses are scarce and generally not paying...

  19. Effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density in young male powerlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuku, S; Ikegami, Y; Yabe, K

    1998-10-01

    The effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and its relationship to strength were investigated. Lumbar spine (L2-L4), proximal femur, and whole body BMD were measured in 10 male powerlifters and 11 controls using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). There were significant differences in lumbar spine and whole body BMD between powerlifters and controls, but not in proximal femur BMD. A significant correlation was found between lumbar spine BMD and powerlifting performance. These results suggest that high-intensity resistance training is effective in increasing the lumbar spine and whole body BMD.

  20. Salivary testosterone and immunoglobulin A were increased by resistance training in adults with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fornieles

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the influence of resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA levels and hormone profile in sedentary adults with Down syndrome (DS. A total of 40 male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with intellectual disabilities. All participants had medical approval for participation in physical activity. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to perform resistance training in a circuit with six stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Training intensity was based on functioning in the eight-repetition maximum (8RM test for each exercise. The control group included 16 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched adults with DS. Salivary IgA, testosterone, and cortisol levels were measured by ELISA. Work task performance was assessed using the repetitive weighted-box-stacking test. Resistance training significantly increased salivary IgA concentration (P=0.0120; d=0.94 and testosterone levels (P=0.0088; d=1.57 in the exercising group. Furthermore, it also improved work task performance. No changes were seen in the controls who had not exercised. In conclusion, a short-term resistance training protocol improved mucosal immunity response as well as salivary testosterone levels in sedentary adults with DS.

  1. The Effect of Physical Resistance Training on Baroreflex Sensitivity of Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Felipe Pereira Gomes

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Baroreceptors act as regulators of blood pressure (BP; however, its sensitivity is impaired in hypertensive patients. Among the recommendations for BP reduction, exercise training has become an important adjuvant therapy in this population. However, there are many doubts about the effects of resistance exercise training in this population. Objective: To evaluate the effect of resistance exercise training on BP and baroreceptor sensitivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Method: Rats SHR (n = 16 and Wistar (n = 16 at 8 weeks of age, at the beginning of the experiment, were randomly divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (CS, n = 8; trained control (CT, n = 8; sedentary SHR (HS, n = 8 and trained SHR (HT, n = 8. Resistance exercise training was performed in a stairmaster-type equipment (1.1 × 0.18 m, 2 cm between the steps, 80° incline with weights attached to their tails, (5 days/week, 8 weeks. Baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate (HR was tested by loading/unloading of baroreceptors with phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside. Results: Resistance exercise training increased the soleus muscle mass in SHR when compared to HS (HS 0.027 ± 0.002 g/mm and HT 0.056 ± 0.003 g/mm. Resistance exercise training did not alter BP. On the other hand, in relation to baroreflex sensitivity, bradycardic response was improved in the TH group when compared to HS (HS -1.3 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg and HT -2.6 ± 0.2 bpm/mmHg although tachycardia response was not altered by resistance exercise (CS -3.3 ± 0.2 bpm/mmHg, CT -3.3 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg, HS -1.47 ± 0.06 bpm/mmHg and HT -1.6 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg. Conclusion: Resistance exercise training was able to promote improvements on baroreflex sensitivity of SHR rats, through the improvement of bradycardic response, despite not having reduced BP.

  2. The Effect of Resistance Training on Cardio-Metabolic Factors in Males with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalavand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes is one of the most important metabolic diseases in the world and exercise is a common advice to manage diabetes and reduce its complications. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training on blood glucose, blood pressure and resting heart rate in males with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods In this semi-experimental study, 20 males with type 2 diabetes with mean age of 46 ± 3.4 years old who met the inclusion criteria were selected. The participants were randomly assigned into resistance training (n = 10 and control (n = 10 groups. Resistance exercise training program was performed for eight weeks, three sessions per week. Cardiovascular and biochemical parameters were measured before and after the intervention. To analyze the measured parameters changes t-test was used at P ≤ 0.05 significance level. Results After eight weeks, a significant decrease in fasting blood sugar (P = 0.002, glycosylated hemoglobin (P = 0.025 and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.022 was observed in the resistance group. In addition, there was a significant difference in blood sugar (P = 0.003 and glycosylated hemoglobin (P = 0.031 between the two groups. Conclusions Findings of this study confirmed the positive influence of resistance training to control blood glucose and blood pressure in males with type 2 diabetes.

  3. Hypotensive Responses of Reciprocal Supersets versus Traditional Resistance Training in Apparently Healthy Men

    OpenAIRE

    BENTES, CLAUDIO M.; COSTA, PABLO B.; CORR?A NETO, VICTOR G.; SIM?O, ROBERTO; PAZ, GABRIEL A.; MAIA, MARIANNA F.; FIGUEIREDO, TIAGO; NETO, GABRIEL R.; NOVAES, JEFFERSON S.; MIRANDA, HUMBERTO

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the hypotensive responses of reciprocal supersets (SS) versus traditional training (TRAD) methods. Thirteen men with at least five years of recreational experience in resistance training (RT) volunteered for the study. When completing the TRAD protocol, participants performed the following exercises separately in sequence: chest press (CP), low row (LR), leg extension (LE), leg curl (LC), pull down (PD), and shoulder press (SP). The SS method required ...

  4. The effect of knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training in the ACL-injured knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellona, Massimo G; Morrissey, Matthew C; Milligan, Peter; Clinton, Melissa; Amis, Andrew A

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effect of different loads of knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training on anterior knee laxity and function in the ACL-injured (ACLI) knee. Fifty-eight ACLI subjects were randomised to one of three (12-week duration) training groups. The STAND group trained according to a standardised rehabilitation protocol. Subjects in the LOW and HIGH group trained as did the STAND group but with the addition of seated knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training at loads of 2 sets of 20 repetition maximum (RM) and 20 sets of 2RM, respectively. Anterior knee laxity and measurements of physical and subjective function were performed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Thirty-six subjects were tested at both baseline and 12 weeks (STAND n = 13, LOW n = 11, HIGH n = 12). The LOW group demonstrated a reduction in 133 N anterior knee laxity between baseline and 12 weeks testing when compared to the HIGH and the STAND groups (p = 0.009). Specifically, the trained-untrained knee laxity decreased an average of approximately 5 mm in the LOW group while remaining the same in the other two groups. Twelve weeks of knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training at loads of 2 sets of 20RM led to a reduction in anterior knee laxity in the ACLI knee. This reduction in laxity does not appear to offer any significant short-term functional advantages when compared to a standard rehabilitation protocol. These results indicate that knee laxity can be decreased with resistance training of the thigh muscles. Randomised controlled trial, Level II.

  5. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Low-Load Blood Flow Restricted Resistance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer B. Cook, Brendan R. Scott, Katherine L. Hayes, Bethany G. Murphy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-load blood flow restricted (BFR resistance exercise has been suggested to be as effective as moderate and high-load resistance training for increasing muscle size and strength. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of 6 weeks of HL or low-load BFR resistance training on neuromuscular function, strength, and hypertrophy of the knee extensors. Eighteen participants aged 18-22 years old were randomized to one of three training groups: moderate load (ML: 70% of 1 repetition maximum [1-RM]; BFR (20% 1-RM with a vascular restriction set to ~180 mmHg; and a control group (CON that did not exercise. Participants performed leg extension (LE and leg press exercises 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Measurements of isometric torque, LE 1-RM, central activation, electrically evoked torque, and muscle volume of the knee extensors were obtained before and after training. Isometric peak torque did not change following the training (p = 0.13. LE 1-RM improved in the ML (34 ± 20%; d = 0.78 and BFR (14 ± 5%; d = 0.67 groups compared to the CON group (0.6 ± 8%; d = 0.09; time x group interaction p = 0.02. Muscle volume increased in the ML (5.6%; d = 0.19 and BFR groups (2.5%; d = 0.09 with no change in the CON group (time x group interaction p = 0.001. There were no changes in central activation and evoked torque in any groups following the training (p > 0.05. Strength and hypertrophy were evident following ML and BFR resistance training programs indicating that both modalities are effective, although ML training appears to be a more potent and efficient. Neuromuscular changes were not evident and warrant more research.

  6. Carotid-cardiac baroreflex response and LBNP tolerance following resistance training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatro, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.; Convertino, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of lower body resistance training on cardiovascular control mechanisms and blood pressure maintenance during an orthostatic challenge. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) tolerance, carotid-cardiac baroreflex function (using neck chamber pressure), and calf compliance were measured in eight healthy males before and after 19 wk of knee extension and leg press training. Resistance training sessions consisted of four or five sets of 6-12 repetitions of each exercise, performed two times per week. Training increased strength 25 +/- 3 (SE) percent (P = 0.0003) and 31 +/- 6 percent (P = 0.0004), respectively, for the leg press and knee extension exercises. Average fiber size in biopsy samples of m. vastus lateralis increased 21 +/- 5 percent (P = 0.0014). Resistance training had no significant effect on LBNP tolerance. However, calf compliance decreased in five of the seven subjects measured, with the group average changing from 4.4 +/- 0.6 ml.mm Hg-1 to 3.9 +/- 0.3 ml.mm Hg-1 (P = 0.3826). The stimulus-response relationship of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response shifted to the left on the carotid pressure axis as indicated by a reduction of 6 mm Hg in baseline systolic blood pressure (P = 0.0471). In addition, maximum slope increased from 5.4 +/- 1.3 ms.mm Hg-1 before training to 6.6 +/- 1.6 ms.mm Hg-1 after training (P = 0.0141). Our results suggest the possibility that high resistance, lower extremity exercise training can cause a chronic increase in sensitivity and resetting of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex.

  7. An examination of training on the VertiMax resisted jumping device for improvements in lower body power in highly trained college athletes .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Matthew R; Peterson, Mark D; Oliverson, Jeff R; Ayllón, Fernando Naclerio; Potenziano, Ben J

    2008-05-01

    Training to develop superior muscular power has become a key component to most progressive sport conditioning programs. Conventional resistance training, plyometrics, and speed/agility modalities have all been employed in an effort to realize superlative combinations of training stimuli. New training devices such as the VertiMax resisted jump trainer are marketed as a means of improving lower body reactive power. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the VertiMax, in combination with traditional training modalities, for improvements in lower body power among highly trained athletes. Forty men and women Division I collegiate athletes representing the sports of baseball, basketball, soccer, gymnastics, and track completed a 12-week mixed-methods training program. Two groups were constructed with both groups performing the same conventional resistance training and strength training exercises. The training control group performed traditional plyometric exercises while the experimental group performed similar loaded jump training on the VertiMax. Lower body power was measured before and after the training program by the TENDO FiTROdyne Powerlizer and statistically compared for differences between groups. Data analyses identified a significant (p training alone (effect size = 0.09). These data convincingly demonstrate that the VertiMax represents an effective strategy for developing lower body power among trained college athletes, when combined with traditional strength and conditioning approaches.

  8. Resistance training among young athletes: safety, efficacy and injury prevention effects

    OpenAIRE

    Faigenbaum, A D; Myer, G D

    2009-01-01

    A literature review was employed to evaluate the current epidemiology of injury related to the safety and efficacy of youth resistance training. Several case study reports and retrospective questionnaires regarding resistance exercise and the competitive sports of weightlifting and power-lifting reveal that injuries have occurred in young lifters, although a majority can be classified as accidental. Lack of qualified instruction that underlies poor exercise technique and inappropriate trainin...

  9. The effects of a session of resistance training on sleep patterns in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Valter A Rocha; Esteves, Andrea Maculano; Boscolo, Rita Aurélia; Grassmann, Viviane; Santana, Marcos Gonçalves; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of a session of resistance training on the sleep patterns of elderly people. Forty men aged 65-80 years who were sedentary and clinically healthy were divided into two groups: the control group (n = 18) and the resistance group (n = 22). Both groups underwent two polysomnography tests, one at baseline and another after either a resistance training session (the resistance group) or no physical exercise (the control group). The resistance training session was based on 60% of one repetition maximum (a test that assesses the maximum force). We observed that the frequency with which the control group awoke (arousal index) increased from 16.29 ± 6.06 events/h to 20.09 ± 6.9 events/h, and in the resistance group, it decreased from 22.27 ± 11 events/h to 20.41 ± 8.57 events/h (t = 2.10 and p = 0.04). For stage-1 sleep, there was an increase from 4.96% at baseline to 5.40% in the control group, and there was a decrease in the resistance group from 8.32 to 6.21% after the exercise session (t = 2.12 and p = 0.04). A session of resistance training at 60% of one repetition maximum was able to modify the sleep pattern in men aged 65-80 years, suggesting that physical exercise has a modest influence on sleep consolidation.

  10. Occurrence of Multidrug Resistant Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Bacteria on Iceberg Lettuce Retailed for Human Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Bhutani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a global problem exacerbated by the dissemination of resistant bacteria via uncooked food, such as green leafy vegetables. New strains of bacteria are emerging on a daily basis with novel expanded antibiotic resistance profiles. In this pilot study, we examined the occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria against five classes of antibiotics on iceberg lettuce retailed in local convenience stores in Rochester, Michigan. In this study, 138 morphologically distinct bacterial colonies from 9 iceberg lettuce samples were randomly picked and tested for antibiotic resistance. Among these isolates, the vast majority (86% demonstrated resistance to cefotaxime, and among the resistant bacteria, the majority showed multiple drug resistance, particularly against cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. Three bacterial isolates (2.17% out of 138 were extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producers. Two ESBL producers (T1 and T5 were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae, an opportunistic pathogen with transferable sulfhydryl variable- (SHV- and TEM-type ESBLs, respectively. The DNA sequence analysis of the blaSHV detected in K. pneumoniae isolate T1 revealed 99% relatedness to blaSHV genes found in clinical isolates. This implies that iceberg lettuce is a potential reservoir of newly emerging and evolving antibiotic resistant bacteria and its consumption poses serious threat to human health.

  11. Co-producing public involvement training with members of the public and research organisations in the East Midlands: creating, delivering and evaluating the lay assessor training programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horobin, Adele; Brown, George; Higton, Fred; Vanhegan, Stevie; Wragg, Andrew; Wray, Paula; Walker, Dawn-Marie

    2017-01-01

    -organisational approach to co-producing training with members of the public. Methods Open meetings, led by AH, were held for existing and aspiring lay assessors to define lay assessing, motivations for doing it, skills required, associated learning and development needs, and to gauge interest for training. Those who attended meetings, including members of the public and staff, were invited to form a working group to co-produce the training programme. Training was delivered in modules at two centres in the East Midlands and evaluated through participant feedback at the end of each module and at an evaluation event. Feedback was through a mix of Likert scale scoring, open text and verbal responses. Results Discussions from the open meetings informed the development of the training by the working group. Led by AH, the working group, as a whole, co-produced the structure and format of the training and oversaw training content development by individuals within the group. Training was well-received by participants. Feedback through Likert scoring ( n  = 14) indicated higher feelings of confidence in knowledge of relevant subject matter and in fulfilling the lay assessor role, particularly amongst those who had not done lay assessing before. Opportunities that the training afforded for interaction between participants - sharing of varied experiences and knowledge - and a 'learn by doing' approach was of particular value, as indicated by 10 responses to open-ended questions. Conclusions This project has created a solid foundation for collaboration between research organisations in the East Midlands in devising and delivering training in public involvement together. Our evaluation provides evidence in support of National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) recommendations on principles for learning and development for public involvement in research.

  12. Muscle Volume Increases Following 16 Weeks of Resistive Exercise Training with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and Free Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (pmuscle strength and volume between training devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 5+/-2%), and DP (FW: 2

  13. Lower-extremity resistance training on unstable surfaces improves proxies of muscle strength, power and balance in healthy older adults: a randomised control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Eckardt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that both balance and resistance training have the potential to mitigate intrinsic fall risk factors in older adults. However, knowledge about the effects of simultaneously executed balance and resistance training (i.e., resistance training conducted on unstable surfaces [URT] on lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults is insufficient. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of machine-based stable resistance training (M-SRT and two types of URT, i.e., machine-based (M-URT and free-weight URT (F-URT, on measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults. Methods Seventy-five healthy community-dwelling older adults aged 65–80 years, were assigned to three intervention groups: M-SRT, M-URT and F-URT. Over a period of ten weeks, all participants exercised two times per week with each session lasting ~60 min. Tests included assessment of leg muscle strength (e.g., maximal isometric leg extension strength, power (e.g., chair rise test and balance (e.g., functional reach test, carried out before and after the training period. Furthermore, maximal training load of the squat-movement was assessed during the last training week. Results Maximal training load of the squat-movement was significantly lower in F-URT in comparison to M-SRT and M-URT. However, lower-extremity resistance training conducted on even and uneven surfaces meaningfully improved proxies of strength, power and balance in all groups. M-URT produced the greatest improvements in leg extension strength and F-URT in the chair rise test and functional reach test. Conclusion Aside from two interaction effects, overall improvements in measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance were similar across training groups. Importantly, F-URT produced similar results with considerably lower training load as compared to M-SRT and M-URT. Concluding, F-URT seems an

  14. The effects of isometric resistance training on stretch reflex induced tremor in the knee extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbaba, Rade; Cassidy, Angela; Budini, Francesco; Macaluso, Andrea

    2013-06-15

    This study examines the effect of 4 wk of high-intensity isometric resistance training on induced tremor in knee extensor muscles. Fourteen healthy volunteers were assigned to either the training group (n = 7) or the nontraining control group (n = 7). Induced tremor was assessed by measuring force fluctuations during anisometric contractions against spring loading, whose compliance was varied to allow for preferential activation of the short or long latency stretch reflex components. Effects of high-intensity isometric resistance training on induced tremor was assessed under two contraction conditions: relative force matching, where the relative level of activity was equal for both pre- and post-training sessions, set at 30% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and absolute force matching, where the level of activity was set to 30% pretrained MVC. The training group experienced a 26.5% increase in MVC in contrast to the 0.8% for the control group. For relative force-matching contractions, induced tremor amplitude and frequency did not change in either the training or control group. During absolute force-matching contractions, induced tremor amplitude was decreased by 37.5% and 31.6% for the short and long components, respectively, with no accompanying change in frequency, for the training group. No change in either measure was observed in the control group for absolute force-matching contractions. The results are consistent with high-intensity isometric resistance training induced neural changes leading to increased strength, coupled with realignment of stretch reflex automatic gain compensation to the new maximal force output. Also, previous reported reductions in anisometric tremor following strength training may partly be due to changed stretch reflex behavior.

  15. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. [Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1990-10-15

    The overall objective of this work was to promote nuclear medicine applications in oncology. This is being done by improving the scientific basis of diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up with cyclotron-produced tracers. For diagnostic use, positron-emitting isotopes such as Ga-66 and I-124 are being used. Initial studies on the characterization of He-4 particle energies required for Ga-66 production have been completed. Parameters for I-124 radiolabelling of monoclonal antibodies have been determined; the labelled antibodies have been used in animal studies using positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify antibody concentration within tumors in vivo. Imaging physics studies have demonstrated that I-124 can be quantitatively imaged by PET, even in the presence of 100-told greater concentrations of I-131. Measurement of concentrations of label in vivo has been accomplished in nuclei mice bearing neuroblastoma tumors and nude rats bearing human ovarian cancer cells. These studies have major implications for both the quantification of dosimetry and quantification kinetic assessment of anti-tumor antibody localization in vivo. For treatment of tumors, F-18 has been incorporated in 2-fluoro-2-deoxy glucose and 5-fluoro uridine, and O-15 labelled water has been produced. Reagents incorporating C-11 and N-13 are under development. In a related area, C-14 labelled colchicine is being studied as a means of assaying cells for multiple drug resistance (MDR). Cells expressing MDR are shown to retain significantly less C-14 colchiene. This suggest that colchiene retention may be of useful probe in modelling and studying MDR development in human tumors. The precursor required for producing C-11 colchicine has also been synthesized. 11 refs. (MHB)

  16. Preschool morphological training produces long-term improvements in reading comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Lerv?g, Arne Olav; Hulme, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the effect of morphological awareness training delivered in preschool (8 months before school entry) on reading ability at the end of grade 1 and 5 years later (in Grade 6). In preschool, one group of children received morphological awareness training, while a second group received phonological awareness training. A control group followed the ordinary preschool curriculum. The comparison between each training condition and the control condition is quasi experimental, whe...

  17. Training Grapheme-Colour Associations Produces a Synaesthetic Stroop Effect, but Not a Conditioned Synaesthetic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Rothen, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether behavioural and physiological consequences of synaesthesia can be elicited by training specific letter-colour associations. Towards this goal 20 non-synaesthetic individuals were trained for 10 min on 7 consecutive days to associate four different letters with four specific colours. After training,…

  18. Preschool Morphological Training Produces Long-Term Improvements in Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Lervåg, Arne Olav; Hulme, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of morphological awareness training delivered in preschool (8 months before school entry) on reading ability at the end of grade 1 and 5 years later (in Grade 6). In preschool, one group of children received morphological awareness training, while a second group received phonological awareness training. A control group…

  19. A new class of IMP dehydrogenase with a role in self-resistance of mycophenolic acid producing fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortensen Uffe H

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi have potent biological activities, to which the producer organism must be resistant. An example of pharmaceutical interest is mycophenolic acid (MPA, an immunosuppressant molecule produced by several Penicillium species. The target of MPA is inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH, which catalyses the rate limiting step in the synthesis of guanine nucleotides. The recent discovery of the MPA biosynthetic gene cluster from Penicillium brevicompactum revealed an extra copy of the IMPDH-encoding gene (mpaF embedded within the cluster. This finding suggests that the key component of MPA self resistance is likely based on the IMPDH encoded by mpaF. Results In accordance with our hypothesis, heterologous expression of mpaF dramatically increased MPA resistance in a model fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, which does not produce MPA. The growth of an A. nidulans strain expressing mpaF was only marginally affected by MPA at concentrations as high as 200 μg/ml. To further substantiate the role of mpaF in MPA resistance, we searched for mpaF orthologs in six MPA producer/non-producer strains from Penicillium subgenus Penicillium. All six strains were found to hold two copies of IMPDH. A cladistic analysis based on the corresponding cDNA sequences revealed a novel group constituting mpaF homologs. Interestingly, a conserved tyrosine residue in the original class of IMPDHs is replaced by a phenylalanine residue in the new IMPDH class. Conclusions We identified a novel variant of the IMPDH-encoding gene in six different strains from Penicillium subgenus Penicillium. The novel IMPDH variant from MPA producer P. brevicompactum was shown to confer a high degree of MPA resistance when expressed in a non-producer fungus. Our study provides a basis for understanding the molecular mechanism of MPA resistance and has relevance for biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications.

  20. Effect of endurance versus resistance training on quadriceps muscle dysfunction in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Munch, Gregers Druedal Wibe; Rugbjerg, Mette

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exercise is an important countermeasure to limb muscle dysfunction in COPD. The two major training modalities in COPD rehabilitation, endurance training (ET) and resistance training (RT), may both be efficient in improving muscle strength, exercise capacity, and health-related quality...... of life, but the effects on quadriceps muscle characteristics have not been thoroughly described. METHODS: Thirty COPD patients (forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 56% of predicted, standard deviation [SD] 14) were randomized to 8 weeks of ET or RT. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before...

  1. Heavy Slow Resistance Versus Eccentric Training as Treatment for Achilles Tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Rikke; Kongsgaard, Mads; Hougs Kjær, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that eccentric training has a positive effect on Achilles tendinopathy, but few randomized controlled trials have compared it with other loading-based treatment regimens. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of eccentric training (ECC) and heavy slow...... resistance training (HSR) among patients with midportion Achilles tendinopathy. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: A total of 58 patients with chronic (>3 months) midportion Achilles tendinopathy were randomized to ECC or HSR for 12 weeks. Function and symptoms...... tendinopathy and that the latter tends to be associated with greater patient satisfaction after 12 weeks but not after 52 weeks....

  2. Effects of a Resistance Training Intervention on Strength, Power, and Performance in Adolescent Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowse, Rebecca A; McGuigan, Mike R; Harrison, Craig

    2017-11-01

    Dowse, RA, McGuigan, MR, and Harrison, C. Effects of a resistance training intervention on strength, power, and performance in adolescent dancers. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-The aim of this study was to determine whether a 9-week resistance training program could have a significant effect on maximum lower-body strength and power, dynamic balance, and dance performance in adolescent dancers. Twelve competitive adolescent female dancers trained in jazz, ballet, and contemporary were recruited from local dance schools and assigned to a resistance training group (dance experience 9.2 ± 2.4 years; age 14.2 ± 1.9 years; height 155.6 ± 9.1 cm; and mass 48.9 ± 13.8 kg). Anthropometry (height, seated height, mass, and skinfolds), subjective dancing performance, dynamic balance (eyes open [EO] and eyes closed), maximum lower-body strength (isometric midthigh pull), and power (vertical countermovement jump, squat jump, and single-leg countermovement jump) were assessed before and after the 9-week intervention period. Posttesting identified a significant improvement EO overall stability (p = 0.003; effect size [ES] = 0.88), EO anterior-posterior stability (p = 0.003; ES = 0.92), peak force (p change in mass (p = 0.023; ES = 0.09) that was attributed to growth and no significant change in body fat or the sum of skinfolds. This study demonstrated that resistance training can have a significant effect on dynamic balance, maximum lower-body strength, and power without adversely affecting artistic or esthetic components. The results suggest that incorporating resistance training may enhance strength and power adaptations and manage growth-related changes in adolescent dancers.

  3. Humanin skeletal muscle protein levels increase after resistance training in men with impaired glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlund, Eva-Karin; von Walden, Ferdinand; Venojärvi, Mika; Risérus, Ulf; Heinonen, Olli J; Norrbom, Jessica; Sundberg, Carl Johan

    2016-12-01

    Humanin (HN) is a mitochondrially encoded and secreted peptide linked to glucose metabolism and tissue protecting mechanisms. Whether skeletal muscle HN gene or protein expression is influenced by exercise remains unknown. In this intervention study we show, for the first time, that HN protein levels increase in human skeletal muscle following 12 weeks of resistance training in persons with prediabetes. Male subjects (n = 55) with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) were recruited and randomly assigned to resistance training, Nordic walking or a control group. The exercise interventions were performed three times per week for 12 weeks with progressively increased intensity during the intervention period. Biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle and venous blood samples were taken before and after the intervention. Skeletal muscle and serum protein levels of HN were analyzed as well as skeletal muscle gene expression of the mitochondrially encoded gene MT-RNR2, containing the open reading frame for HN To elucidate mitochondrial training adaptation, mtDNA, and nuclear DNA as well as Citrate synthase were measured. Skeletal muscle HN protein levels increased by 35% after 12 weeks of resistance training. No change in humanin protein levels was seen in serum in any of the intervention groups. There was a significant correlation between humanin levels in serum and the improvements in the 2 h glucose loading test in the resistance training group. The increase in HN protein levels in skeletal muscle after regular resistance training in prediabetic males may suggest a role for HN in the regulation of glucose metabolism. Given the preventative effect of exercise on diabetes type 2, the role of HN as a mitochondrially derived peptide and an exercise-responsive mitokine warrants further investigation. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  4. A profile of the resistance training practices of elite Spanish club teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverter-Masía, Joaquín; Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Barbany, Joan Ramón; Serrano-Ostáriz, Enrique

    2009-08-01

    This study describes the results of a survey of the resistance training practices of the following Spanish sports teams: soccer and basketball professional leagues, and top-division leagues for handball, volleyball, indoor soccer, and field hockey. The response rate was 81.8% (77 of 94). This survey examines (a) strength and conditioning (S&C) coach profiles, (b) resistance training exercises, (c) resistance training load, (d) repetition velocity, and (e) training leading to muscle failure. The results indicate that 80.5% of coaches held a university degree, with 22% holding a master's degrees, 40% held National Federation certification, and none held Strength and Conditioning Specialist certification. Respondents relied on nonscientific sources of information to develop their conditioning programs. Fifty-eight percent of the S&C coaches were hired full time, with 18% performing the duties of a first trainer. Many S&C coaches did not use weightlifting (54%), full squat (51%), load squat jump (35%), or bench press throw (100%) exercises. Thirty-eight percent of respondents did not control the load intensity or did not use a load of 50-90% of 1 repetition maximum. For these load intensities, 70% did not perform the combination of maximum repetition velocity and nonmuscular failure. More significant deficiencies in the fundamental principles of resistance training were observed in indoor soccer, soccer, field hockey, and among lower performing handball and basketball teams. These results indicate that the profile of the S&C coaches in the Spanish teams is insufficient for an optimal application of resistance training. Spanish S&C coaches should therefore take advantage of advances made through scientific research in the area of strength and conditioning by acquiring master's degrees and specific certificates and consulting peer-reviewer journals.

  5. Characterization of ST258 Colistin-Resistant, blaKPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Greek Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidi, Angeliki; Katsiari, Maria; Likousi, Sofia; Palla, Eleftheria; Roussou, Zoi; Nikolaou, Charikleia; Maguina, Asimina; Platsouka, Evangelia D

    2016-07-01

    The emergence of colistin resistance may further contribute to treatment failure of infection caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae. The colistin resistance rates were determined and colistin-resistant carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (COL-R CP-Kp) were characterized over an 18-month period in a Greek hospital. Out of 135 carbapenemase producers, 19 isolates (14%) were categorized as resistant to colistin. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of the COL-R CP-Kp isolates revealed that all were MDR blaKPC producers and, excluding one isolate of MLST ST383, belonged to the international clonal lineage ST258. Furthermore, PCR amplification and sequencing of the mgrB locus revealed nucleotide sequences of different sizes and insertions of IS1- and IS5-like mobile elements. The majority (63%) of the COL-R blaKPC producers was recovered from patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and clinical data indicated that all patients should have acquired these isolates in the ICU. The findings of the present study underscore a concerning evolution of colistin resistance in a setting of high K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-Kp endemicity, such as Greece. Thus, continuous surveillance, molecular characterization, prudent use of antibiotics, and implementation of infection control measures for K. pneumoniae are urgent.

  6. Resistance Training Reduces Force Tremor and Improves Manual Dexterity in Older Individuals With Essential Tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Justin J; Wedderburn-Bisshop, Jacob; Keogh, Justin W L

    2016-01-01

    Although symptoms of Essential Tremor (ET) are typically controlled with medication, it is of interest to explore additional therapies to assist with functionality. The purpose of this study was to determine if a generalized upper limb resistance training (RT) program improves manual dexterity and reduces force tremor in older individuals with ET. Ten Essential Tremor and 9 controls were recruited into a dual group, pretest-posttest intervention study. Participants performed 6 weeks of upper-limb RT, and battery of manual dexterity and isometric force tremor assessments were performed before and after the RT to determine the benefits of the program. The six-week, high-load, RT program produced strength increases in each limb for the ET and healthy older group. These changes in strength aligned with improvements in manual dexterity and tremor-most notably for the ET group. The least affected limb and the most affected limb exhibited similar improvements in functional assessments of manual dexterity, whereas reductions in force tremor amplitude following the RT program were restricted to the most affected limb of the ET group. These findings suggest that generalized upper limb RT program has the potential to improve aspects of manual dexterity and reduce force tremor in older ET patients.

  7. Adaptation of dialectical behavior therapy skills training group for treatment-resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Rebecca; Sprich, Susan; Safren, Steven; Jacobo, Michelle; Fava, Maurizio

    2008-02-01

    Treatment resistant depression is common, persistent, and results in substantial functional and social impairment. This study describes the development and preliminary outcome evaluation of a dialectical behavior therapy-based skills training group to treat depressive symptoms in adult outpatients for whom antidepressant medication had not produced remission. The 16-session, once-weekly group covered the 4 dialectical behavior therapy skill sets: mindfulness, interpersonal effectiveness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance. Twenty-four patients with ongoing depressive symptoms despite stable, adequate medication treatment for major depressive disorder were randomly assigned to either the skills group or a wait-list condition. The depressive symptoms of participants who completed the study (9 wait-list participants, 10 skills group participants) were compared using a clinician-rated Hamilton rating scale for depression and then replicated using a self-report measure Beck depression inventory. Clinician raters were blind to each participant's assigned study condition. Skills group participants showed significantly greater improvements in depressive symptoms compared with the control condition. Effect sizes were large for both measures of depression (Cohen's d = 1.45 for Hamilton rating scale for depression and 1.31 for Beck depression inventory), suggesting that larger scale trials are warranted.

  8. The post-activation potentiation effect on sprint performance after combined resistance/sprint training in junior basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimachidis, Constantinos; Patikas, Dimitrios; Galazoulas, Christos; Bassa, Eleni; Kotzamanidis, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a 10-week combined resistance/sprint training programme in the post-activation potentiation of sprint performance before, between and after resistance training sets. Twenty-six junior basketball players were randomly divided into a control and a combined training group. The combined training group performed a combined training programme consisting of 5 sets at 5-8 RM (Repetition Maximum) half-squats with sprints performed between each set. Post-activation potentiation was considered as the increase in sprint velocity in trials executed between and after the resistance sets compared with the sprint trial performed before the resistance sets of the respective first and last training session. For sprint evaluation the running distances 0-10 and 0-30 m were selected. The intervention increased both strength and sprint performance. No post-activation potentiation effect was observed during the first training session in either group. Post-activation potentiation appeared in the combined training group during the last training session of the intervention in both 0-10 and 0-30 m sprint. This study illustrates that post-activation potentiation effect on sprint performance in junior basketball players, who did not previously follow systematic resistance training, emerges after a 10-week resistance/sprint combined training programme.

  9. Specific balance training included in an endurance-resistance exercise program improves postural balance in elderly patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frih, Bechir; Mkacher, Wajdi; Jaafar, Hamdi; Frih, Ameur; Ben Salah, Zohra; El May, Mezry; Hammami, Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6 months of specific balance training included in endurance-resistance program on postural balance in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Forty-nine male patients undergoing HD were randomly assigned to an intervention group (balance training included in an endurance-resistance training, n = 26) or a control group (resistance-endurance training only, n = 23). Postural control was assessed using six clinical tests; Timed Up and Go test, Tinetti Mobility Test, Berg Balance Scale, Unipodal Stance test, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Activities Balance Confidence scale. All balance measures increased significantly after the period of rehabilitation training in the intervention group. Only the Timed Up and Go, Berg Balance Scale, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Activities Balance Confidence scores were improved in the control group. The ranges of change in these tests were greater in the balance training group. In HD patients, specific balance training included in a usual endurance-resistance training program improves static and dynamic balance better than endurance-resistance training only. Implications for rehabilitation Rehabilitation using exercise in haemodialysis patients improved global mobility and functional abilities. Specific balance training included in usual endurance resistance training program could lead to improved static and dynamic balance.

  10. ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism and Neuromuscular Response to Resistance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Paulo; Pereira, Rinaldo W.; Leite, Tailce K.M.; Bottaro, Martim

    2011-01-01

    The R577X polymorphism at the ACTN3 gene has been associated with muscle strength, hypertrophy and athletic status. The X allele, which is associated with the absence of ACTN3 protein is supposed to impair performance of high force/velocity muscle contractions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association of the R577X polymorphism with the muscle response to resistance training in young men. One hundred forty one men performed two resistance training sessions per week for 11 weeks. Participants were tested for 1RM bench press, knee extensors peak torque, and knee extensors muscle thickness at baseline and after the training period. Genotyping was conducted using de DdeI restriction enzyme. Genotype distribution was 34.4% for RR, 47% for RX and 18.6% for the XX genotype. According to the results, the R577X polymorphism at the ACTN3 gene is not associated with baseline muscle strength or with the muscle strength response to resistance training. However, only carriers of the R allele showed increases in muscle thickness in response to training. Key points ACTN3 Genotype distribution in the present study was similar to others populations (34.4% for RR, 47% for RX, and 18.6% for the XX). The R577X polymorphism at the ACTN3 gene is not associated with baseline muscle strength or with the muscle strength response to resistance training. It appears that the R allele carriers respond better to muscle thickness gains in response to training. PMID:24149888

  11. Effect of endurance versus resistance training on quadriceps muscle dysfunction in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Munch, Gregers Druedal Wibe; Rugbjerg, Mette

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exercise is an important countermeasure to limb muscle dysfunction in COPD. The two major training modalities in COPD rehabilitation, endurance training (ET) and resistance training (RT), may both be efficient in improving muscle strength, exercise capacity, and health-related quality...... and after the training intervention to assess muscle morphology and metabolic and angiogenic factors. Symptom burden, exercise capacity (6-minute walking and cycle ergometer tests), and vascular function were also assessed. RESULTS: Both training modalities improved symptom burden and exercise capacity...... with no difference between the two groups. The mean (SD) proportion of glycolytic type IIa muscle fibers was reduced after ET (from 48% [SD 11] to 42% [SD 10], Ptraining modality on muscle...

  12. Myogenic response of human skeletal muscle to 12 weeks of resistance training at light loading intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Holm, L; Reitelseder, S

    2011-01-01

    There is strong evidence for enhanced numbers of satellite cells with heavy resistance training. The satellite cell response to very light muscle loading is, however, unknown. We, therefore, designed a 12-week training protocol where volunteers trained one leg with a high load (H) and the other leg...... with a light load (L). Twelve young healthy men [mean age 25 ± 3 standard deviation (SD) years] volunteered for the study. Muscle biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis of both legs before and after the training period and satellite cells were visualized by CD56 immunohistochemistry....... A significant main effect of time was observed (P12 ± 0.03 to 0.15 ± 0.05, mean ± SD). The finding that 12 weeks of training skeletal muscle even with very light loads can induce an increase in the number of satellite...

  13. First detection of extended-spectrum cephalosporin- and fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in Australian food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sam; Jordan, David; Wong, Hui S; Johnson, James R; Toleman, Mark A; Wakeham, David L; Gordon, David M; Turnidge, John D; Mollinger, Joanne L; Gibson, Justine S; Trott, Darren J

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to define the frequency of resistance to critically important antimicrobials (CIAs) [i.e. extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs), fluoroquinolones (FQs) and carbapenems] among Escherichia coli isolates causing clinical disease in Australian food-producing animals. Clinical E. coli isolates (n=324) from Australian food-producing animals [cattle (n=169), porcine (n=114), poultry (n=32) and sheep (n=9)] were compiled from all veterinary diagnostic laboratories across Australia over a 1-year period. Isolates underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 18 antimicrobials using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute disc diffusion method. Isolates resistant to CIAs underwent minimum inhibitory concentration determination, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), phylogenetic analysis, plasmid replicon typing, plasmid identification, and virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene typing. The 324 E. coli isolates from different sources exhibited a variable frequency of resistance to tetracycline (29.0-88.6%), ampicillin (9.4-71.1%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (11.1-67.5%) and streptomycin (21.9-69.3%), whereas none were resistant to imipenem or amikacin. Resistance was detected, albeit at low frequency, to ESCs (bovine isolates, 1%; porcine isolates, 3%) and FQs (porcine isolates, 1%). Most ESC- and FQ-resistant isolates represented globally disseminated E. coli lineages (ST117, ST744, ST10 and ST1). Only a single porcine E. coli isolate (ST100) was identified as a classic porcine enterotoxigenic E. coli strain (non-zoonotic animal pathogen) that exhibited ESC resistance via acquisition of bla CMY-2 . This study uniquely establishes the presence of resistance to CIAs among clinical E. coli isolates from Australian food-producing animals, largely attributed to globally disseminated FQ- and ESC-resistant E. coli lineages. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Effects of a group circuit progressive resistance training program compared with a treadmill training program for adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviram, Ronit; Harries, Netta; Namourah, Ibtisam; Amro, Akram; Bar-Haim, Simona

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether goal-directed group circuit progressive resistance exercise training (GT) can improve motor function in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and to compare outcomes with a treadmill training (TT) intervention. In a multi-centered matched pairs study, 95 adolescents with spastic CP (GMFCS II-III) were allocated to GT or TT interventions for 30 bi-weekly one hour training. Outcome measures of GMFM-66, GMFM-D%, GMFM-E%, TUG, 10 meter walk test (10 MWT), and 6 minute walk test (6 MWT) were made at baseline (T1), after interventions (T2) and 6 months post training (T3). Both training programs induced significant improvement in all outcome measures (T2-T1) that were mostly retained at T3. At the end of the intervention, the GT group showed an advantage in all measured changes compared to the TT group and in percentage changes. Differences were significant (p cerebral palsy. The GT program had generally greater benefits based on the functional measures.

  15. Neurorehabilitation with versus without resistance training after botulinum toxin treatment in children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Jensen, Bente Rona; Nielsen, Lone M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of physical rehabilitation with (PRT) and without (CON) progressive resistance training following treatment of spastic plantarflexors with botulinum toxin type A (BoNT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Fourteen children with CP performed supervised...

  16. Resistance training with soy vs whey protein supplements in hyperlipidemic males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leddy John J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most individuals at risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD can reduce risk factors through diet and exercise before resorting to drug treatment. The effect of a combination of resistance training with vegetable-based (soy versus animal-based (whey protein supplementation on CVD risk reduction has received little study. The study's purpose was to examine the effects of 12 weeks of resistance exercise training with soy versus whey protein supplementation on strength gains, body composition and serum lipid changes in overweight, hyperlipidemic men. Methods Twenty-eight overweight, male subjects (BMI 25–30 with serum cholesterol >200 mg/dl were randomly divided into 3 groups (placebo (n = 9, and soy (n = 9 or whey (n = 10 supplementation and participated in supervised resistance training for 12 weeks. Supplements were provided in a double blind fashion. Results All 3 groups had significant gains in strength, averaging 47% in all major muscle groups and significant increases in fat free mass (2.6%, with no difference among groups. Percent body fat and waist-to-hip ratio decreased significantly in all 3 groups an average of 8% and 2%, respectively, with no difference among groups. Total serum cholesterol decreased significantly, again with no difference among groups. Conclusion Participation in a 12 week resistance exercise training program significantly increased strength and improved both body composition and serum cholesterol in overweight, hypercholesterolemic men with no added benefit from protein supplementation.

  17. High responders to resistance exercise training demonstrate differential regulation of skeletal muscle microRNA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Peter K; Gallagher, Iain J; Hartman, Joseph W

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA), small noncoding RNA molecules, may regulate protein synthesis, while resistance exercise training (RT) is an efficient strategy for stimulating muscle protein synthesis in vivo. However, RT increases muscle mass, with a very wide range of effectiveness in humans. We therefore...

  18. The influence of resistance training on the magnitude of change in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obesity is a global health concern affecting all walks of life, with alarming prevalence in South African employees. Various companies have already implemented health promotion programs in order to improve employee health; however research focusing on the effect of a resistance training intervention in order to address ...

  19. Evaluating the Relationship of Computer Literacy Training Competence and Nursing Experience to CPIS Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Dorothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive/correlational project was to examine the relationship between the level of computer literacy, informatics training, nursing experience, and perceived competence in using computerized patient information systems (CPIS) and nursing resistance to using CPIS. The Nurse Computerized Patient Information…

  20. Influence of Resistance Training on Neuromuscular Function and Physical Capacity in ALS Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barner Dalgaard, Line; Djurtoft, J. B.; Bech, R D

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to explore the effect of resistance training in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a disease characterized by progressive motor neuron loss and muscle weakness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following a 12-week "lead-in" control period, a population...

  1. Neural drive increases following resistance training in patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Ulrik; Stenager, Egon; Lund, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that lower body progressive resistance training (PRT) increases the neural drive expressed as surface electromyographical (EMG) activity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The study was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) including a 12-week follow up...

  2. Impact of Polyphenol Supplementation on Acute and Chronic Response to Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kyle S; Stout, Jeffrey R; Fukuda, David H; Jajtner, Adam R; Townsend, Jeremy R; Church, David D; Wang, Ran; Riffe, Joshua J; Muddle, Tyler W D; Herrlinger, Kelli A; Hoffman, Jay R

    2017-11-01

    Beyer, KS, Stout, JR, Fukuda, DH, Jajtner, AR, Townsend, JR, Church, DD, Wang, R, Riffe, JJ, Muddle, TWD, Herrlinger, KA, and Hoffman, JR. Impact of polyphenol supplementation on acute and chronic response to resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 2945-2954, 2017-This study investigated the effect of a proprietary polyphenol blend (PPB) on acute and chronic adaptations to resistance exercise. Forty untrained men were assigned to control, PPB, or placebo. Participants in PPB or placebo groups completed a 4-week supplementation period (phase I), an acute high-volume exercise bout (phase II), and a 6-week resistance training program (phase III); whereas control completed only testing during phase II. Blood draws were completed during phases I and II. Maximal strength in squat, leg press, and leg extension were assessed before and after phase III. The exercise protocol during phase II consisted of squat, leg press, and leg extension exercises using 70% of the participant's strength. The resistance training program consisted of full-body exercises performed 3 d·wk. After phase I, PPB (1.56 ± 0.48 mM) had greater total antioxidant capacity than placebo (1.00 ± 0.90 mM). Changes in strength from phase III were similar between PPB and placebo. Polyphenol blend supplementation may be an effective strategy to increase antioxidant capacity without limiting strength gains from training.

  3. Effects of Resistance versus Endurance Training on Plasma Lipocalin-2 in Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadasi, Mehrzad; Mohammadi Domieh, Amin

    2014-06-01

    Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) has been recognized as an adipocyte-derived acute phase protein that is positively correlated with obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The effects of resistance and endurance training (RT vs. ET) on plasma lipocalin-2 are still unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of RT vs. ET on plasma lipocalin-2 in young men. Twenty nine healthy and sedentary young men (age, 21-29 years) participated in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to RT group (n=9), ET group (n=10) or control group (n=10). The experimental groups performed either RT or ET, 3 days a week for 8 weeks. The endurance training program included continuous running at an intensity corresponding to 65-80% of maximal heart rate, while resistance training consisted of 2-4 sets of circuit weight training for 8 stations and at an intensity corresponding to 65-80% of 1-RM in each station. No significant changes in the body mass, BMI, body fat percentage and WHR were found after the RT and ET. The results showed that Lcn2 decreased after RT and ET compared with the control group (Presistance determined by HOMA-IR, did not change in the RT and ET compared with the control group. Lcn2 decreases after 8 weeks RT and ET, but this improvement was not accompanied by decreased hs-CRP and insulin resistance in healthy and sedentary young men.

  4. Effects of resistance training associated with whey protein supplementation on liver and kidney biomarkers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ramiro; Silva, Priscila; Alves, Jadson; Stefani, Giuseppe; Petry, Marcelo; Rhoden, Cláudia; Dal Lago, Pedro; Schneider, Claudia Dornelles

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of whey protein (WP) supplementation and resistance training (RT) on liver and kidney biomarkers. The sedentary + WP group showed higher levels of plasma liver and kidney dysfunction markers compared with the other groups. In addition, WP supplementation associated with RT resulted in physiologic cardiac hypertrophy. WP supplementation without RT affected liver and kidney function.

  5. Older Adults' Perceived Changes in Physical Self-Worth Associated with Resistance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Rylee A.; Cannon, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Using Sonstroem, Harlow, and Josephs' (1994) expanded version of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM; Sonstroem & Morgan, 1989), we explored how 9 older adults (6 women and 3 men, aged 65-72 years) involved in a resistance training program experienced and perceived changes in physical self-worth (i.e., improved strength, functional…

  6. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Resistance Training on Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SantaBarbara, Nicholas J; Whitworth, James W; Ciccolo, Joseph T

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to identify and appraise the literature that has specifically tested the independent effects of resistance training (i.e., weightlifting) on body image in adults. A comprehensive search of electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, PsycNET, and Web of Science for relevant studies published in peer-reviewed journals through December 2016 was conducted, and PRISMA guidelines were followed. Inclusion criteria were that a study had to be (a) written in English, (b) published in a peer-reviewed journal, (c) conducted an assessment of body image using a validated scale before and after a stand-alone resistance training intervention (i.e., not coupled with another mode of treatment), and (d) excluded participants younger than 18 years. Methodological quality was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. A total of 7,324 studies were identified, and 11 were included in this review. The majority (8 of 11) of studies concluded that resistance training can significantly improve multiple dimensions of body image, including body satisfaction, appearance evaluation, and social physique anxiety; however, only 3 studies were considered high quality based on their PEDro score, and several methodological limitations exist. Overall, resistance training seems to have the potential to improve body image in adults, but future high-quality studies with more rigorous testing methods and study designs are needed.

  7. Effects of Heavy Squat Training on a Vibration Platform on Maximal Strength and Jump Performance in Resistance-Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Roger L; Linton, Joshua T; Hammer, Adam M

    2018-03-06

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine maximal strength and jump performance outcomes of heavy squat training on a low-amplitude (<1.0 mm peak-to-peak) vibration platform (VP). Nineteen recreationally resistance-trained college-aged men (22.3 ± 1.66 years) completed the 6-week study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: SQT (n = 10) performed conventional back squats on the floor; SQTV (n = 9) performed back squats on the VP. Supervised training took place over 12 sessions (2 days/week) which utilized an aggressive strength development protocol (85-95 % 1-RM), which was identically followed by both groups. After the intervention, both groups showed (via t-test) a marked increase (p < 0.001) in 1-RM squat strength (SQT = 34.5 kg vs SQTV = 36.2 kg), but there was no significant difference (via mixed ANOVA) between groups (p = 0.875). Standing broad jump performance increased by an average of 5-6 cm, but was not significantly changed in either group (SQT; p = 0.199, SQTV; p = 0.087). In conclusion, squats performed with whole body vibration (WBV) were not superior to conventional squats with respect to maximal strength and jump performance outcomes. It appears that there was no additive effect of superimposed WBV training in strength beyond that caused by strength training alone. This study can help strength conditioning professionals and athletes make an informed decision on whether to invest in a VP and use WBV as an alternative or a complementary mode of training.

  8. Vascular remodeling in response to 12 wk of upper arm unilateral resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeller, Robert F; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Thompson, Benjamin C; Wenta, Marlene R; Price, Thomas B; Thompson, Paul D; Moyna, Niall M; Seip, Richard L; Clarkson, Priscilla M; Gordon, Paul M; Pescatello, Linda S; Devaney, Joseph M; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Hoffman, Eric P; Visich, Paul S

    2009-11-01

    Participation in regular aerobic exercise has been shown to increase arterial size and that exercise-induced vascular remodeling may be regional rather than systemic. However, these issues have been minimally investigated concerning resistance training. To determine whether 1) resistance training of the nondominant arm elicits an increase in diameter of the brachial artery and 2) unilateral training induces arterial remodeling in the contralateral arm. Twenty-four previously untrained participants, consisting of 18 females (aged 22.3 +/- 5.1 yr) and 6 males (aged 21.7 +/- 1.8 yr), participated in unilateral strength training of the biceps and triceps for 12 wk using their nondominant arm. Isotonic (one-repetition maximum, 1RM) and isometric (ISO) strength of the biceps were assessed before and after training on both arms. Brachial artery diameter and biceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of both arms were also measured before and after training using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brachial artery diameter increased 5.47% (P change observed in the dominant untrained arm. Biceps CSA increased 18.3% (P change (P > 0.05) in the untrained limb. Nondominant 1RM and ISO strength increased by 35.1% and 16.8%, respectively (P changes (P > 0.05) in the contralateral arm. A modest correlation was found between the increases in CSA and in brachial artery diameter (r2 = 0.19, P = 0.039). These results indicate that upper arm vascular remodeling, manifesting as increased brachial artery diameter, can result from resistance training and that these changes are localized to the trained limb and associated with increases in CSA.

  9. Effects of fast-velocity eccentric resistance training on early and late rate of force development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Corvino, Rogério Bulhões; Caputo, Fabrizio; Aagaard, Per; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether short-term maximal resistance training employing fast-velocity eccentric knee extensor actions would induce improvements in maximal isometric torque and rate of force development (RFD) at early (100 ms) of rising torque. Twenty healthy men were assigned to two experimental groups: eccentric resistance training (TG) or control (CG). Participants on the TG trained three days a week for a total of eight weeks. Training consisted of maximal unilateral eccentric knee extensors actions performed at 180 °s-1. Maximal isometric knee extensor torque (MVC) and incremental RFD in successive 50 ms time-windows from the onset contraction were analysed in absolute terms (RFDINC) or when normalised relative to MVC (RFDREL). After eight weeks, TG demonstrated increases in MVC (28%), RFDINC (0-50 ms: 30%; 50-100 ms: 31%) and RFDREL (0-50 ms: 29%; 50-100 ms: 32%). Moreover, no changes in the late phase of incremental RFD were observed in TG. No changes were found in the CG. In summary, we have demonstrated, in active individuals, that a short period of resistance training performed with eccentric fast-velocity isokinetic muscle contractions is able to enhance RFDINC and RFDREL obtained at the early phase of rising joint torque.

  10. Single- and multiple-set resistance training improves skeletal and respiratory muscle strength in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahin, Odilon; Rodrigues, Rejane P; Nascimento, Vanderson C; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo E; Sousa, Evitom C; Marçal, Anderson C

    2014-01-01

    Aging involves a progressive reduction of respiratory muscle strength as well as muscle strength. Compare the effects of resistance training volume on the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), functional performance, and muscle strength in elderly women. Thirty elderly women were randomly assigned to a group performing either single sets (1-SET) or three sets (3-SET) of exercises. The sit-to-stand test, MIP, MEP, and muscle strength were assessed before and after 24 training sessions. Progressive resistance training was performed two times per week for a total of 8-12 repetitions, using the main muscle groups of the upper and lower limbs. The main results showed that the participants significantly increased their MEP (Ptraining sessions, muscle strength also significantly increased (Ptraining programs increased MIP, MEP, muscle strength, and sit-to-stand test performance in elderly women after 24 sessions of training. In conclusion, our results suggested that elderly women who are not in the habit of physical activity may start with single-set resistance training programs as a short-term strategy for the maintenance of health.

  11. Design and preliminary evaluation of an exoskeleton for upper limb resistance training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzong-Ming; Chen, Dar-Zen

    2012-06-01

    Resistance training is a popular form of exercise recommended by national health organizations, such as the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA). This form of training is available for most populations. A compact design of upper limb exoskeleton mechanism for homebased resistance training using a spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton with a three degree-of-freedom shoulder joint and a one degree-of-freedom elbow joint allows a patient or a healthy individual to move the upper limb with multiple joints in different planes. It can continuously increase the resistance by adjusting the spring length to train additional muscle groups and reduce the number of potential injuries to upper limb joints caused by the mass moment of inertia of the training equipment. The aim of this research is to perform a preliminary evaluation of the designed function by adopting an appropriate motion analysis system and experimental design to verify our prototype of the exoskeleton and determine the optimal configuration of the spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton.

  12. A Randomized Trial Comparing Two Tongue-Pressure Resistance Training Protocols for Post-Stroke Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M; Bayley, Mark T; Peladeau-Pigeon, Melanie; Nagy, Ahmed; Namasivayam, Ashwini M; Stokely, Shauna L; Wolkin, Talia

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of two tongue resistance training protocols. One protocol ("tongue-pressure profile training") emphasized the pressure-timing patterns that are typically seen in healthy swallows by focusing on gradual pressure release and saliva swallowing tasks. The second protocol ("tongue-pressure strength and accuracy training") emphasized strength and accuracy in tongue-palate pressure generation and did not include swallowing tasks. A prospective, randomized, parallel allocation trial was conducted. Of 26 participants who were screened for eligibility, 14 received up to 24 sessions of treatment. Outcome measures of posterior tongue strength, oral bolus control, penetration-aspiration and vallecular residue were made based on videofluoroscopy analysis by blinded raters. Complete data were available for 11 participants. Significant improvements were seen in tongue strength and post-swallow vallecular residue with thin liquids, regardless of treatment condition. Stage transition duration (a measure of the duration of the bolus presence in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation, which had been chosen to capture impairments in oral bolus control) showed no significant differences. Similarly, significant improvements were not seen in median scores on the penetration-aspiration scale. This trial suggests that tongue strength can be improved with resistance training for individuals with tongue weakness following stroke. We conclude that improved penetration-aspiration does not necessarily accompany improvements in tongue strength; however, tongue-pressure resistance training does appear to be effective for reducing thin liquid vallecular residue.

  13. ACTN3 R577X POLYMORPHISM AND NEUROMUSCULAR RESPONSE TO RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gentil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The R577X polymorphism at the ACTN3 gene has been associated with muscle strength, hypertrophy and athletic status. The X allele, which is associated with the absence of ACTN3 protein is supposed to impair performance of high force/velocity muscle contractions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association of the R577X polymorphism with the muscle response to resistance training in young men. One hundred forty one men performed two resistance training sessions per week for 11 weeks. Participants were tested for 1RM bench press, knee extensors peak torque, and knee extensors muscle thickness at baseline and after the training period. Genotyping was conducted using de DdeI restriction enzyme. Genotype distribution was 34.4% for RR, 47% for RX and 18.6% for the XX genotype. According to the results, the R577X polymorphism at the ACTN3 gene is not associated with baseline muscle strength or with the muscle strength response to resistance training. However, only carriers of the R allele showed increases in muscle thickness in response to training

  14. Hospital Outbreak of a Colistin-Resistant, NDM-1- and OXA-48-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: High Mortality from Pandrug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guducuoglu, Huseyin; Gursoy, Nafia Canan; Yakupogullari, Yusuf; Parlak, Mehmet; Karasin, Gokhan; Sunnetcioglu, Mahmut; Otlu, Baris

    2017-12-21

    Colistin resistance causes substantial problems in the treatment of serious infections with carbapenem-resistant (CR) gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we report a fatal hospital outbreak from the spread of a pandrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae clone. An outbreak investigation was conducted after consecutive isolation of nine CR-K. pneumoniae (CR-Kp) strains from eight patients in two intensive care units of a university hospital within 2 weeks. Carbapenem and colistin resistance genes were investigated with PCR, clonal relationships of isolates were studied with pulse-field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence types were determined. The outcomes of the affected patients were analyzed. Genotyping showed a predominant CR-Kp clone consisting of seven strains from six patients. These strains were in ST11 type, an international high-risk clone. They were resistant to all antimicrobials, including colistin, and positive for NDM-1 and OXA-48 carbapenemases, but negative for plasmid-borne colistin resistance genes. One patient had colonization and the remaining five died due to the infection within mean 12 days. No environmental or staff links could be established, and the outbreak was stopped by augmenting infection-control measures. Colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae could clonally expand in the hospital setting, and this spread might be associated with high mortality due to the lack of an appropriate treatment option. Immediate implementation of infection-control measures may be the best way to limit fatal consequences of the spread of such incurable pathogens.

  15. Prolonged adaptation to fat-rich diet and training; effects on body fat stores and insulin resistance in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effect of prolonged adaptation to training and fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on body composition and insulin resistance.......To investigate the effect of prolonged adaptation to training and fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on body composition and insulin resistance....

  16. The lung cancer exercise training study: a randomized trial of aerobic training, resistance training, or both in postsurgical lung cancer patients: rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford Jeffrey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lung Cancer Exercise Training Study (LUNGEVITY is a randomized trial to investigate the efficacy of different types of exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak, patient-reported outcomes, and the organ components that govern VO2peak in post-operative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Methods/Design Using a single-center, randomized design, 160 subjects (40 patients/study arm with histologically confirmed stage I-IIIA NSCLC following curative-intent complete surgical resection at Duke University Medical Center (DUMC will be potentially eligible for this trial. Following baseline assessments, eligible participants will be randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (1 aerobic training alone, (2 resistance training alone, (3 the combination of aerobic and resistance training, or (4 attention-control (progressive stretching. The ultimate goal for all exercise training groups will be 3 supervised exercise sessions per week an intensity above 70% of the individually determined VO2peak for aerobic training and an intensity between 60 and 80% of one-repetition maximum for resistance training, for 30-45 minutes/session. Progressive stretching will be matched to the exercise groups in terms of program length (i.e., 16 weeks, social interaction (participants will receive one-on-one instruction, and duration (30-45 mins/session. The primary study endpoint is VO2peak. Secondary endpoints include: patient-reported outcomes (PROs (e.g., quality of life, fatigue, depression, etc. and organ components of the oxygen cascade (i.e., pulmonary function, cardiac function, skeletal muscle function. All endpoints will be assessed at baseline and postintervention (16 weeks. Substudies will include genetic studies regarding individual responses to an exercise stimulus, theoretical determinants of exercise adherence, examination of the psychological mediators of the exercise - PRO relationship, and exercise-induced changes

  17. Effect of brief daily resistance training on rapid force development in painful neck and shoulder muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Schraefel, Mc; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training on rapid force development of painful neck/shoulder muscles. METHODS: 198 generally healthy adults with frequent neck/shoulder muscle pain (mean: age 43.1 years, computer use 93% of work time, 88% women......, duration of pain 186 day during the previous year) were randomly allocated to 2- or 12 min of daily progressive resistance training with elastic tubing or to a control group receiving weekly information on general health. A blinded assessor took measures at baseline and at 10-week follow-up; participants...... relationship existed between changes in rapid force development and pain (r = 0.27, Presistance training in adults with frequent neck/shoulder pain increases rapid force development and...

  18. Resistance (weight lifting) training in an adolescent with McArdle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Benítez, Sergio; Fleck, Steven J; Naclerio, Fernando; Martín, Miguel Angel; Lucia, Alejandro

    2013-06-01

    Owing to the risk of severe rhabdomyolysis, clinicians advise McArdle disease patients to refrain from strenuous exercise, particularly weight lifting. A 15-year-old male McArdle disease patient performed a 6-week, supervised, light- to moderate-intensity (~65-70% of one-repetition-maximum) resistance (weight lifting) training program (2 sessions/week). Training resulted in ~27% and ~6% increase in one-repetition-maximum bench press and multipower squat performance while inducing no myoglobinuria. The patient changed to a lower disease severity class, that is, he became virtually asymptomatic in terms of exercise limitations. The authors' preliminary data suggest that supervised, light to moderate resistance training is feasible in children with McArdle disease and has potential clinical benefits.

  19. Resistance training improves muscle strength and functional capacity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Stenager, E; Jakobsen, J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that lower extremity progressive resistance training (PRT) can improve muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to evaluate whether the improvements are maintained after the trial. METHODS: The present study was a 2-arm...... and was afterward encouraged to continue training. After the trial, the control group completed the PRT intervention. Both groups were tested before and after 12 weeks of the trial and at 24 weeks (follow-up), where isometric muscle strength of the knee extensors (KE MVC) and functional capacity (FS; combined score...... strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis, the effects persisting after 12 weeks of self-guided physical activity. Level of evidence: The present study provides level III evidence supporting the hypothesis that lower extremity progressive resistance training can improve muscle...

  20. Explosive heavy-resistance training in old and very old adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caserotti, Paolo; Aagaard, P; Buttrup Larsen, J

    2008-01-01

    Age-related decline in muscle power predicts falls, motor impairments and disability. Recent guidelines suggested that training programs should be tailored to maximize muscle power. This study investigated the effects of 12 weeks of explosive-type heavy-resistance training (75-80% of 1 repetition......% in TG80 and TG60, respectively, while jump peak power increased in TG60 (5%). Finally, LEP increased 28% in TG80 and 12% in TG60. These findings demonstrate that explosive-type heavy-resistance training seems to be safe and well tolerated in healthy women even in the eighth decade of life and elicits...... adaptive neuromuscular changes in selected physiological variables that are commonly associated with the risk of falls and disability in aged individuals....

  1. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance and quinolone resistance factors in high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates obtained from fresh produce and fecal samples of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Chan; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2017-07-01

    The emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococci is worldwide. Antimicrobial resistance was characterized and the effect of quinolone-resistance factors was analyzed in high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant (HLCR) Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolated from fresh produce and fecal samples of patients. Among the 81 ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterococcus isolates, 46 showed high levels of ciprofloxacin resistance, resistance to other quinolone antibiotics, and multidrug resistance profiles. The virulence factors esp and hyl were identified in 27 (58.7%) and 25 (54.3%) of isolates, respectively. Sequence type analysis showed that 35 strains of HLCR E. faecium were clonal complex 17. Eleven strains of HLCR E. faecalis were confirmed as sequence type (ST) 28, ST 64 and ST 125. Quinolone resistance-determining region mutation was identified in HLCR Enterococcus isolates; with serine being changed in gyrA83, gyrA87 and parC80. This result shows that gyrA and parC mutations could be important factors for high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones. No significant differences were observed in antimicrobial resistance patterns and genetic characteristics among the isolates from fresh produce and fecal samples. Therefore, good agricultural practices in farming and continuous monitoring of patients, food and the environment for Enterococcus spp. should be performed to prevent antimicrobial resistance and enable reduction of resistance rates. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. An economic evaluation of resistance training and aerobic training versus balance and toning exercises in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Davis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI represents a critical window to intervene against dementia. Exercise training is a promising intervention strategy, but the efficiency (i.e., relationship of costs and consequences of such types of training remains unknown. Thus, we estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness of resistance training or aerobic training compared with balance and tone exercises in terms of changes in executive cognitive function among senior women with probable MCI. METHODS: Economic evaluation conducted concurrently with a six-month three arm randomized controlled trial including eighty-six community dwelling women aged 70 to 80 years living in Vancouver, Canada. Participants received twice-weekly resistance training (n = 28, twice weekly aerobic training (n = 30 or twice-weekly balance and tone (control group classes (n = 28 for 6 months. The primary outcome measure of the Exercise for Cognition and Everyday Living (EXCEL study assessed executive cognitive function, a test of selective attention and conflict resolution (i.e., Stroop Test. We collected healthcare resource utilization costs over six months. RESULTS: Based on the bootstrapped estimates from our base case analysis, we found that both the aerobic training and resistance training interventions were less costly than twice weekly balance and tone classes. Compared with the balance and tone group, the resistance-training group had significantly improved performance on the Stroop Test (p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance training and aerobic training result in health care cost saving and are more effective than balance and tone classes after only 6 months of intervention. Resistance training is a promising strategy to alter the trajectory of cognitive decline in seniors with MCI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00958867.

  3. Emergence and nosocomial spread of carbapenem-resistant OXA-232-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Brunei Darussalam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Momin, Muhd Haziq Fikry; Liakopoulos, Apostolos; Phee, Lynette M.; Wareham, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are identified as a major global health concern. The success of CRE is facilitated by the emergence, acquisition and spread of successful clones carrying plasmid-encoded resistance genes. In this study, an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant

  4. Presence of antimicrobial resistance in coliform bacteria from hatching broiler eggs with emphasis on ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezhoud, H; Chantziaras, I; Iguer-Ouada, M; Moula, N; Garmyn, A; Martel, A; Touati, A; Smet, A; Haesebrouck, F; Boyen, F

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is recognized as one of the most important global health challenges. Broilers are an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in general and, more particularly, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Since contamination of 1-day-old chicks is a potential risk factor for the introduction of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the broiler production chain, the presence of antimicrobial resistant coliform bacteria in broiler hatching eggs was explored in the present study. Samples from 186 hatching eggs, collected from 11 broiler breeder farms, were inoculated on MacConkey agar with or without ceftiofur and investigated for the presence of antimicrobial resistant lactose-positive Enterobacteriaceae, particularly, ESBL/AmpC-producers. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae were obtained from the eggshells in 10 out of 11 (10/11) sampled farms. The majority of the isolates were recovered from crushed eggshells after external decontamination suggesting that these bacteria are concealed from the disinfectants in the egg shell pores. Antimicrobial resistance testing revealed that approximately 30% of the isolates showed resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulphonamides, while the majority of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides, florfenicol, neomycin and apramycin. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins was detected in eight Enterobacteriaceae isolates from five different broiler breeder farms. The ESBL phenotype was confirmed by the double disk synergy test and blaSHV-12, blaTEM-52 and blaACT-39 resistance genes were detected by PCR. This report is the first to present broiler hatching eggs as carriers and a potential source of ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae for broiler chicks.

  5. Longer Interset Rest Periods Enhance Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Resistance-Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Pope, Zachary K; Benik, Franklin M; Hester, Garrett M; Sellers, John; Nooner, Josh L; Schnaiter, Jessica A; Bond-Williams, Katherine E; Carter, Adrian S; Ross, Corbin L; Just, Brandon L; Henselmans, Menno; Krieger, James W

    2016-07-01

    Schoenfeld, BJ, Pope, ZK, Benik, FM, Hester, GM, Sellers, J, Nooner, JL, Schnaiter, JA, Bond-Williams, KE, Carter, AS, Ross, CL, Just, BL, Henselmans, M, and Krieger, JW. Longer interset rest periods enhance muscle strength and hypertrophy in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1805-1812, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short rest intervals normally associated with hypertrophy-type training versus long rest intervals traditionally used in strength-type training on muscular adaptations in a cohort of young, experienced lifters. Twenty-one young resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a group that performed a resistance training (RT) program with 1-minute rest intervals (SHORT) or a group that employed 3-minute rest intervals (LONG). All other RT variables were held constant. The study period lasted 8 weeks with subjects performing 3 total body workouts a week comprised 3 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM) of 7 different exercises per session. Testing was performed prestudy and poststudy for muscle strength (1RM bench press and back squat), muscle endurance (50% 1RM bench press to failure), and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, triceps brachii, and quadriceps femoris by ultrasound imaging. Maximal strength was significantly greater for both 1RM squat and bench press for LONG compared to SHORT. Muscle thickness was significantly greater for LONG compared to SHORT in the anterior thigh, and a trend for greater increases was noted in the triceps brachii (p = 0.06) as well. Both groups saw significant increases in local upper body muscle endurance with no significant differences noted between groups. This study provides evidence that longer rest periods promote greater increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy in young resistance-trained men.

  6. Online video-based resistance training improves the physical capacity of junior basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusemann, Markus J; Pyne, David B; Fay, Tristan S; Drinkwater, Eric J

    2012-10-01

    Junior basketball athletes require a well-designed resistance training program to improve their physical development. Lack of expert supervision and resistance training in junior development pathways may be overcome by implementing an online video-based program. The aim of this study was to compare the magnitude of improvement (change) in physical performance and strength and functional movement patterns of junior basketball athletes using either a fully supervised or an online video-based resistance training program. Thirty-eight junior basketball athletes (males, n = 17; age, 14 ± 1 year; height, 1.79 ± 0.10 m; mass, 67 ± 12 kg; females, n = 21; age, 15 ± 1 year; height, 1.70 ± 0.07 m; mass, 62 ± 8 kg) were randomly assigned into a supervised resistance training group (SG, n = 13), video training group (VG, n = 13) or control group (CG, n = 12) and participated in a 6-week controlled experimental trial. Pre- and posttesting included measures of physical performance (20-m sprint, step-in vertical jump, agility, sit and reach, line drill, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1), strength (15 s push-up and pull-up), and functional movement screening (FMS). Both SG and VG achieved 3-5% ± 2-4% (mean ± 90% confidence limits) greater improvements in several physical performance measures (vertical jump height, 20-m sprint time, and Yo-Yo endurance performance) and a 28 ± 21% greater improvement in push-up strength compared with the CG. The SG attained substantially larger gains in FMS scores over both the VG (12 ± 10%) and CG (13 ± 8%). Video-based training appears to be a viable option to improve physical performance and strength in junior basketball athletes. Qualified supervision is recommended to improve functional movement patterns in junior athletes.

  7. The acute satellite cell response and skeletal muscle hypertrophy following resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Leeann M; Joanisse, Sophie; Grubb, Amanda; Mitchell, Cameron J; McKay, Bryon R; Phillips, Stuart M; Baker, Steven; Parise, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The extent of skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance training is highly variable in humans. The main objective of this study was to explain the nature of this variability. More specifically, we focused on the myogenic stem cell population, the satellite cell (SC) as a potential mediator of hypertrophy. Twenty-three males (aged 18-35 yrs) participated in 16 wk of progressive, whole body resistance training, resulting in changes of 7.9±1.6% (range of -1.9-24.7%) and 21.0±4.0% (range of -7.0 to 51.7%) in quadriceps volume and myofibre cross-sectional area (CSA), respectively. The SC response to a single bout of resistance exercise (80% 1RM), analyzed via immunofluorescent staining resulted in an expansion of type II fibre associated SC 72 h following exercise (pre: 11.3±0.9; 72 h: 14.8±1.4 SC/type II fibre; pchange in type I associated SC 24 to 72 hours following an acute bout of resistance exercise and the percentage increase in quadriceps lean tissue mass assessed by MRI (r2 = 0.566, p = 0.012) and the relative change in type II associated SC following 16 weeks of resistance training and the percentage increase in quadriceps lean tissue mass assessed by MRI (r2 = 0.493, p = 0.027). Our results suggest that the SC response to resistance exercise is related to the extent of muscular hypertrophy induced by training.

  8. Resistance to ketolide antibiotics by coordinated expression of rRNA methyltransferases in a bacterial producer of natural ketolides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almutairi, Mashal M; Park, Sung Ryeol; Rose, Simon

    2015-01-01

    activation by ketolide antibiotics. The resistance genes and the induction mechanism remain fully functional when transferred to heterologous bacterial hosts. The anticipated wide use of ketolide antibiotics could promote horizontal transfer of these highly efficient resistance genes to pathogens. Taken...... together, these findings emphasized the need for surveillance of pikR1/pikR2-based bacterial resistance and the preemptive development of drugs that can remain effective against the ketolide-specific resistance mechanism.......Ketolides are promising new antimicrobials effective against a broad range of Gram-positive pathogens, in part because of the low propensity of these drugs to trigger the expression of resistance genes. A natural ketolide pikromycin and a related compound methymycin are produced by Streptomyces...

  9. Swiss ball abdominal crunch with added elastic resistance is an effective alternative to training machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Christoffer H; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Lars L

    2012-08-01

    Swiss ball training is recommended as a low intensity modality to improve joint position, posture, balance, and neural feedback. However, proper training intensity is difficult to obtain during Swiss ball exercises whereas strengthening exercises on machines usually are performed to induce high level of muscle activation. To compare muscle activation as measured by electromyography (EMG) of global core and thigh muscles during abdominal crunches performed on Swiss ball with elastic resistance or on an isotonic training machine when normalized for training intensity. 42 untrained individuals (18 men and 24 women) aged 28-67 years participated in the study. EMG activity was measured in 13 muscles during 3 repetitions with a 10 RM load during both abdominal crunches on training ball with elastic resistance and in the same movement utilizing a training machine (seated crunch, Technogym, Cesena, Italy). The order of performance of the exercises was randomized, and EMG amplitude was normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) EMG. When comparing between muscles, normalized EMG was highest in the rectus abdominis (Pexercises.

  10. Muscular and systemic correlates of resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Bellamy, Leeann; Parise, Gianni; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2013-01-01

    To determine relationships between post-exercise changes in systemic [testosterone, growth hormone (GH), insulin like grow factor 1 (IGF-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)], or intramuscular [skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR) protein content and p70S6K phosphorylation status] factors in a moderately-sized cohort of young men exhibiting divergent resistance training-mediated muscle hypertrophy. Twenty three adult males completed 4 sessions•wk⁻¹ of resistance training for 16 wk. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period and acutely 1 and 5 h after the first training session. Serum hormones and cytokines were measured immediately, 15, 30 and 60 minutes following the first and last training sessions of the study. Mean fiber area increased by 20% (range: -7 to 80%; Pmuscle fiber hypertrophy; however, the magnitude of the post exercise IL-6 response was correlated with muscle hypertrophy (r=0.48, P=0.019). Post-exercise increases in circulating hormones are not related to hypertrophy following training. Exercise-induced changes in IL-6 correlated with hypertrophy, but the mechanism for the role of IL-6 in hypertrophy is not known. Acute increases, in p70S6K phosphorylation and changes in muscle AR protein content correlated with muscle hypertrophy implicating intramuscular rather than systemic processes in mediating hypertrophy.

  11. Progressive resistance, whole body long-axis rotational training improves kicking motion motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, John; Love, Matthew; Burden, Robert; Krupp, Ryan; Caborn, David N M

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate lower extremity muscle activation, peak resultant ground reaction force (GRF) production and quickness during performance of a kicking motion following progressive resistance, whole body long-axis rotational training. Randomized, controlled study. Kinesiological research laboratory. Thirty-six healthy subjects were assigned to a training (Group 1) or to a control (Group 2) group. Time-synchronized EMG (1000 Hz), peak resultant GRF (1000 Hz) and two-dimensional kinematic (60 Hz) data were collected as subjects responded to an audio cue by kicking a cone. Group mean change differences (MCD) were compared using independent sample t-tests. Fisher's exact tests were used to determine group differences in the proportion of subjects that displayed earlier activation responses post-training. Group 1 MCD revealed earlier gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, medial hamstrings, and biceps femoris activation timing than Group 2 (P ≤ 0.006) and more Group 1 subjects displayed earlier activation of these muscles post-training (P ≤ 0.041). Group 1 MCD also revealed earlier peak resultant GRF timing and improved "kick quickness" than Group 2 (P ≤ 0.014) and more Group 1 subjects displayed earlier response timing for these variables post-training (P = 0.035). Progressive resistance, whole body long-axis rotational training may improve performance during sports movements that require quick, integrated trunk-lower extremity function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Myofibrillar disruption following acute concentric and eccentric resistance exercise in strength-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibala, M J; Interisano, S A; Tarnopolsky, M A; Roy, B D; MacDonald, J R; Yarasheski, K E; MacDougall, J D

    2000-08-01

    We have previously quantified the extent of myofibrillar disruption which occurs following an acute bout of resistance exercise in untrained men, however the response of well-trained subjects is not known. We therefore recruited six strength-trained men, who ceased training for 5 days and then performed 8 sets of 8 uni-lateral repetitions, using a load equivalent to 80% of their concentric (Con) 1-repetition maximum. One arm performed only Con actions by lifting the weight and the other arm performed only eccentric actions (Ecc) by lowering it. Needle biopsy samples were obtained from biceps brachii of each arm approximately 21 h following exercise, and at baseline (i.e., after 5 days without training), and subsequently analyzed using electron microscopy to quantify myofibrillar disruption. A greater (P 0.05) from baseline values. The proportion of disrupted fibres and the magnitude of disruption (quantified by sarcomere counting) was considerably less severe than previously observed in untrained subjects after an identical exercise bout. Mixed muscle protein synthesis, assessed from approximately 21-29 h post-exercise, was not different between the Con- and Ecc-exercised arms. We conclude that the Ecc phase of resistance exercise is most disruptive to skeletal muscle and that training attenuates the severity of this effect. Moreover, it appears that fibre disruption induced by habitual weightlifting exercise is essentially repaired after 5 days of inactivity in trained men.

  13. Resistance to ketolide antibiotics by coordinated expression of rRNA methyltransferases in a bacterial producer of natural ketolides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Mashal M; Park, Sung Ryeol; Rose, Simon; Hansen, Douglas A; Vázquez-Laslop, Nora; Douthwaite, Stephen; Sherman, David H; Mankin, Alexander S

    2015-10-20

    Ketolides are promising new antimicrobials effective against a broad range of Gram-positive pathogens, in part because of the low propensity of these drugs to trigger the expression of resistance genes. A natural ketolide pikromycin and a related compound methymycin are produced by Streptomyces venezuelae strain ATCC 15439. The producer avoids the inhibitory effects of its own antibiotics by expressing two paralogous rRNA methylase genes pikR1 and pikR2 with seemingly redundant functions. We show here that the PikR1 and PikR2 enzymes mono- and dimethylate, respectively, the N6 amino group in 23S rRNA nucleotide A2058. PikR1 monomethylase is constitutively expressed; it confers low resistance at low fitness cost and is required for ketolide-induced activation of pikR2 to attain high-level resistance. The regulatory mechanism controlling pikR2 expression has been evolutionary optimized for preferential activation by ketolide antibiotics. The resistance genes and the induction mechanism remain fully functional when transferred to heterologous bacterial hosts. The anticipated wide use of ketolide antibiotics could promote horizontal transfer of these highly efficient resistance genes to pathogens. Taken together, these findings emphasized the need for surveillance of pikR1/pikR2-based bacterial resistance and the preemptive development of drugs that can remain effective against the ketolide-specific resistance mechanism.

  14. Evolved Aztreonam Resistance Is Multifactorial and Can Produce Hypervirulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jorth

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While much attention has been focused on acquired antibiotic resistance genes, chromosomal mutations may be most important in chronic infections where isolated, persistently infecting lineages experience repeated antibiotic exposure. Here, we used experimental evolution and whole-genome sequencing to investigate chromosomally encoded mutations causing aztreonam resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and characterized the secondary consequences of resistance development. We identified 19 recurrently mutated genes associated with aztreonam resistance. The most frequently observed mutations affected negative transcriptional regulators of the mexAB-oprM efflux system and the target of aztreonam, ftsI. While individual mutations conferred modest resistance gains, high-level resistance (1,024 µg/ml was achieved through the accumulation of multiple variants. Despite being largely stable when strains were passaged in the absence of antibiotics, aztreonam resistance was associated with decreased in vitro growth rates, indicating an associated fitness cost. In some instances, evolved aztreonam-resistant strains exhibited increased resistance to structurally unrelated antipseudomonal antibiotics. Surprisingly, strains carrying evolved mutations which affected negative regulators of mexAB-oprM (mexR and nalD demonstrated enhanced virulence in a murine pneumonia infection model. Mutations in these genes, and other genes that we associated with aztreonam resistance, were common in P. aeruginosa isolates from chronically infected patients with cystic fibrosis. These findings illuminate mechanisms of P. aeruginosa aztreonam resistance and raise the possibility that antibiotic treatment could inadvertently select for hypervirulence phenotypes.

  15. CLINICAL ISOLATES OF MECA, METHICILLIN, VANCOMYCIN RESISTANCE S. AUREUS; ESBLs PRODUCING K.PNEUMONIA, E.COLI, P. AUREGENOSA FROM VARIOUS CLINICAL SOURCE AND ITS ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Mahmud Ali, Amirthalingam R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Antimicrobial resistance has turned into a key medical and public health crisis globally since the injudicious use of magic bullets (drugs. Aim of this study is focused on the clinical isolate and their percentages of resistant to antibiotics in gram positive bacteria such as MRSA, VRSA, and MSSA are common causes of nosocomical, skin structure infections, bacteremia and infection of other systems; ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae (E. coli, Klebsiella spp. is common agent of urinary tract, bloodstream, pulmonary and intra-abdominal infections and carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa with its complete antimicrobial patterns which are currently practiced in this population. Methods: There are one hundred and fourteen (114 various clinical isolates, isolated from various clinical samples like throat swab, urine, pus, sputum, and blood culture, identified as specific isolate with resistance patterns were analyzed by BD phoenix-100 the auto analyzer. Results: Off 114 clinical isolate, 6 mecA-mediated resistance (cefoxitin>8mgc/ml, 11 methicillin resistance, 18 β lactam/βlactamase inhibitor, 12 methicillin sensitive and 3 vancomycin (>16µg/ml resistance S. aureus have been isolated from overall 50 isolate of S.aureus. In addition, there are 27 P.aeruginosa, 15 ESBLs from overall of 25 K. pneumoniae and 7 ESBLs out of 12 Escherichia coli species have been isolated. The resistance and susceptibility pattern percentages have been graphically represented for each isolates. Conclusion: Current study revealed that the drug classes of β lactam/βlactamase inhibitor having high resistance rate with S.aureus, P.aureginosa, K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolate. Also, some of other drug classes such as cepham and tetracycline having higher resistance rate with P.aureginosa and K.pneumoniae. In addition, the vancomycin resistances S. aureus have been isolated and reported as first time in this population.

  16. Effects of Resistance Training on Serum Level of Reproductive Hormones and Sperm Parameters in Type 2 Diabetes Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Parastesh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with reductions in fertility indices. Resistance training, on the other hand, through reducing the adverse effects of diabetes, exerts a positive impact on diabetic individuals. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of ten weeks of resistance training on serum levels of reproductive hormones and sperm parameters in Wistar rats with diabetes mellitus type 2. Materials and Methods:In this experimental study, 36 Wistar rats with mean weight of 200±50 were ran-domly assigned to healthy control, diabetic control and diabetic training groups. The diabetic resistance training group received ten weeks of resistance training (climbing up the ladder following the induction of diabetes. Twenty-four hours after the last training session, left epididymis of the rats was examined for studying sperm parameters and blood serum samples were examined for evaluating reproductive hormones. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Turkey’s Post Hoc test at 0.05%. Results: Ten weeks of resistance training induced significant increases in serum testosterone and FSH levels in the resistance training group in comparison to the diabetic group (p<0.007.Resistance training did not have any significant effects on serum LH levels in the resistance training group compared to the diabetic control group. In ad-dition, sperm parameters (sperm count, survival rate and motility presented significant improvements compared to the diabetic group(p<0.05. Conclusion: Resistance training can improve sperm parameters, including sperm count, survival rate and motility, through increasing serum testosterone, LH and FSH levels (reproductive hormones in rats with diabetes mellitus type 2.

  17. Interactions of cortisol, testosterone, and resistance training: influence of circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lawrence D; Bickerstaff, Gordon F; Baker, Julien S

    2010-06-01

    Diurnal variation of sports performance usually peaks in the late afternoon, coinciding with increased body temperature. This circadian pattern of performance may be explained by the effect of increased core temperature on peripheral mechanisms, as neural drive does not appear to exhibit nycthemeral variation. This typical diurnal regularity has been reported in a variety of physical activities spanning the energy systems, from Adenosine triphosphate-phosphocreatine (ATP-PC) to anaerobic and aerobic metabolism, and is evident across all muscle contractions (eccentric, isometric, concentric) in a large number of muscle groups. Increased nerve conduction velocity, joint suppleness, increased muscular blood flow, improvements of glycogenolysis and glycolysis, increased environmental temperature, and preferential meteorological conditions may all contribute to diurnal variation in physical performance. However, the diurnal variation in strength performance can be blunted by a repeated-morning resistance training protocol. Optimal adaptations to resistance training (muscle hypertrophy and strength increases) also seem to occur in the late afternoon, which is interesting, since cortisol and, particularly, testosterone (T) concentrations are higher in the morning. T has repeatedly been linked with resistance training adaptation, and higher concentrations appear preferential. This has been determined by suppression of endogenous production and exogenous supplementation. However, the cortisol (C)/T ratio may indicate the catabolic/anabolic environment of an organism due to their roles in protein degradation and protein synthesis, respectively. The morning elevated T level (seen as beneficial to achieve muscle hypertrophy) may be counteracted by the morning elevated C level and, therefore, protein degradation. Although T levels are higher in the morning, an increased resistance exercise-induced T response has been found in the late afternoon, suggesting greater

  18. Acute L-arginine alpha ketoglutarate supplementation fails to improve muscular performance in resistance trained and untrained men

    OpenAIRE

    Wax Benjamin; Kavazis Andreas N; Webb Heather E; Brown Stanley P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Dietary supplements containing L-arginine are marketed to improve exercise performance, but the efficacy of such supplements is not clear. Therefore, this study examined the efficacy of acute ingestion of L-arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG) muscular strength and endurance in resistance trained and untrained men. Methods Eight resistance trained and eight untrained healthy males ingested either 3000mg of AAKG or a placebo 45 minutes prior to a resistance exercise protocol...

  19. The prevalence of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli and antimicrobial resistance patterns of nonverocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella in Ontario broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, R J; McEwen, S A; Clarke, R C; Meek, A H

    1989-01-01

    The prevalence of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella in Ontario broiler chickens was determined by culturing cloacal samples from 500 individual birds selected from 50 poultry farms. Resistance to antimicrobials was determined for each of the isolates. In addition, abattoir and farm-level management data were obtained to evaluate variables that may be considered risk factors for infection. The variables selected included: Percentage of birds condemned at slaughter, percentage of birds dead-on-arrival, bird weight, truck number, farm size, hatchery source, litter source and type, feed source, mortality levels, type of water drinker, water sanitization, down time, barn clean out and history of antibiotic treatment. None of the cloacal samples revealed the presence of verocytotoxin-producing E. coli, though 19/500 (3.8%) contained Salmonella organisms. Nine different Salmonella serotypes were isolated; the most common being S. hadar, S. heidelberg and S. mbandaka. Resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin was common among Salmonella (63%) and E. coli (25.2%) isolates. Resistance to two or more antimicrobials occurred in 420/500 (84%) of the E. coli isolates. No statistically significant associations between abattoir or farm-level management variables and the Salmonella-status of farms were demonstrated. PMID:2686829

  20. EFFECT OF AEROBIC EXERCISE, RESISTANCE TRAINING OR COMBINED TRAINING ON GLYCAEMIC CONTROL AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mobasseri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has been proven as a useful intervention for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The purpose of this article was to compare the effects of aerobic exercise alone and resistance training alone as well as the combination of aerobic plus resistance training on glycaemic control, cardiovascular risk factors, and body composition in patients with T2DM. Eighty T2DM participants (37 men, 43 women, aged 33-69 years, were randomly divided in equal numbers (n=20 into one of four groups (aerobic, resistance, combined training, and control. Exercise training was performed three times per week for 52 weeks. After one year, 60 subjects (15 subjects in each group were entered into the statistical analysis. Seventeen parameters were evaluated. Mean HbA1c showed statistically significant reductions in the three training groups. All subjects of training groups experienced improvement in postprandial glucose, blood pressure, VO2max, and muscular percentage. Furthermore, the reduced concentration of plasma triglycerides was significant in both aerobic exercise and combined training groups. Also, a significant reduction was observed in body fat percentage in resistance and combined groups. Combination of two forms of exercise training led to an additional improvement in some of the parameters such as A1c and triglycerides compared with aerobic alone or resistance training alone. In general, the reported results in previous studies were not obtained for whole lipid profile and BMI. Both aerobic and resistance training are effective interventions for the management of T2DM complications, but combined training is associated with greater positive changes.

  1. Effect of brief daily resistance training on occupational neck/shoulder muscle activity in office workers with chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Mark; Jensen, Rene B; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study investigates the acute and longitudinal effects of resistance training on occupational muscle activity in office workers with chronic pain. METHODS: 30 female office workers with chronic neck and shoulder pain participated for 10 weeks in high-intensity elastic resistance...... training for 2 minutes per day (n = 15) or in control receiving weekly email-based information on general health (n = 15). Electromyography (EMG) from the splenius and upper trapezius was recorded during a normal workday. RESULTS: Adherence to training and control interventions were 86% and 89......%, respectively. Compared with control, training increased isometric muscle strength 6% (P training. By contrast, at 10-week follow...

  2. Effects and prevalence of nonresponders after 12 weeks of high-intensity interval or resistance training in women with insulin resistance: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Cristian; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effects and prevalence of nonresponders (NR) to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and resistance training (RT) in women with insulin resistance on cardiometabolic health parameters. Sedentary overweight/obese insulin-resistant women (age = 33.5 ± 6.5 yr; body mass index = 29.9 ± 3.7 kg/m 2 ) were randomly assigned to a triweekly HIIT program (HIIT; n = 18) or resistance training (RT; n = 17). Anthropometry (body mass, fat mass, muscle mass, waist circumference, and skinfold thickness), cardiovascular (blood pressure), metabolic [fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], as well as muscle strength, and endurance performance covariables were measured before and after 12 wk in both intervention groups. The interindividual variability to exercise training of the subjects was categorized as responders and NR using as cut points two times the typical error of measurement in mean outcomes. After intervention, significant reduction in waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, fat mass, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR ( P training. A uniqueness of the present study was to examine the NR prevalence in women with insulin resistance after high-intensity interval (HIIT) and resistance training (RT). This study demonstrates that 12 wk of HIIT and RT have similar effects and NR prevalence to improve glucose control variables. However, significantly different NR prevalence were observed in other anthropometric, cardiovascular, strength, and endurance performance measurements. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Evolved Aztreonam Resistance Is Multifactorial and Can Produce Hypervirulence inPseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorth, Peter; McLean, Kathryn; Ratjen, Anina; Secor, Patrick R; Bautista, Gilbert E; Ravishankar, Sumedha; Rezayat, Amir; Garudathri, Jayanthi; Harrison, Joe J; Harwood, Rachel A; Penewit, Kelsi; Waalkes, Adam; Singh, Pradeep K; Salipante, Stephen J

    2017-10-31

    While much attention has been focused on acquired antibiotic resistance genes, chromosomal mutations may be most important in chronic infections where isolated, persistently infecting lineages experience repeated antibiotic exposure. Here, we used experimental evolution and whole-genome sequencing to investigate chromosomally encoded mutations causing aztreonam resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and characterized the secondary consequences of resistance development. We identified 19 recurrently mutated genes associated with aztreonam resistance. The most frequently observed mutations affected negative transcriptional regulators of the mexAB-oprM efflux system and the target of aztreonam, ftsI While individual mutations conferred modest resistance gains, high-level resistance (1,024 µg/ml) was achieved through the accumulation of multiple variants. Despite being largely stable when strains were passaged in the absence of antibiotics, aztreonam resistance was associated with decreased in vitro growth rates, indicating an associated fitness cost. In some instances, evolved aztreonam-resistant strains exhibited increased resistance to structurally unrelated antipseudomonal antibiotics. Surprisingly, strains carrying evolved mutations which affected negative regulators of mexAB-oprM ( mexR and nalD ) demonstrated enhanced virulence in a murine pneumonia infection model. Mutations in these genes, and other genes that we associated with aztreonam resistance, were common in P. aeruginosa isolates from chronically infected patients with cystic fibrosis. These findings illuminate mechanisms of P. aeruginosa aztreonam resistance and raise the possibility that antibiotic treatment could inadvertently select for hypervirulence phenotypes. IMPORTANCE Inhaled aztreonam is a relatively new antibiotic which is being increasingly used to treat cystic fibrosis patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infections. As for all antimicrobial agents, bacteria can evolve resistance

  4. Resistance Training With Ankle Weight Cuffs Is Feasible in Patients With Acute Exacerbation of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Linette Marie; Døssing, Martin; Steentoft, Johnna

    2017-01-01

    -extension strength, the Sit-to-Stand (STS) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) tests. RESULTS: The training load increased progressively by a mean (standard deviation) of 54% ± 41% (when calculated on an individual basis), from a mean of 6.5 ± 3.3 to 9.2 ± 3.5 kg over the course of 5.6 ± 2.3 training days (P ...-extension strength improved by a mean of 12% (P = .02), whereas the TUG and STS test performances improved by 11% (P = .001) and 19% (P = .03), respectively. Ninety-eight percent of the planned training sessions were completed with no side effects. CONCLUSIONS: Progressive resistance training with ankle weight cuffs...

  5. High-intensity resistance and cardiovascular training improve physical capacity in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist, Morten; Rørth, Mikael Rahbek; Zacho, Morten

    2006-01-01

    .62+/-13.42 kg, post: 73.25+/-13.44 kg, P=0.016). There was a significant decrease in skin-fold measurements by 3% (P=0.031). The exercise intervention was well tolerated, provided that daily screening criteria were adhered to. The effects of resistance and cardiovascular training observed in this short......The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of a supervised high- and low-intensity structured training program in cancer patients concurrently undergoing chemotherapy. Seventy patients, in different stages of the disease and with different diagnoses (48 females, 22 males), between 18...... and 65 years of age (mean age 42.8) participated in a 9-h weekly training program over 6 weeks. The intervention involved physical exercise, relaxation, massage, and body-awareness training. Physical capacity (one-repetition maximum tests (1RM), VO2max) and body composition (weight, skin-fold) were...

  6. Delayed Effect of Blood Flow-restricted Resistance Training on Rapid Force Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Lindberg; Frandsen, Ulrik; Prokhorova, Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and time course of high-frequent low-load blood flow-restricted (BFR) resistance training on rapid force capacity (i.e., rate of torque development [RTD]). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten male subjects (22.8 ± 2.3 yr) performed four...... sets of knee extensor exercise (20% one-repetition maximum) to concentric failure during concurrent BFR of the thigh (100 mm Hg), and eight work-matched controls (21.9 ± 3.0 yr) trained without BFR (CON). Twenty-three training sessions were performed within 19 d. Maximal slow and fast knee joint...... in myofiber area and expression of myocellular proteins known to be modified by cellular stress (CaMKII, annexin A6, SNO-CYS). RESULTS: RTD remained unchanged after BFR training at Post5, while increasing 15%-20% Post12 (P

  7. Enhanced satellite cell proliferation with resistance training in elderly men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Esmarck, B; Kadi, F

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the well-documented loss of muscle mass and strength associated with aging, there is evidence for the attenuating effects of aging on the number of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of satellite cells in elderly men...... and women to 12 weeks of resistance training. Biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis of 13 healthy elderly men and 16 healthy elderly women (mean age 76+/-SD 3 years) before and after the training period. Satellite cells were visualized by immunohistochemical staining of muscle cross......-sections with a monoclonal antibody against neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and counterstaining with Mayer's hematoxylin. Compared with the pre-training values, there was a significant increase (Pcells per fiber post-training in males (from 0.11+/-0.03 to 0...

  8. HIGH-VOLUME RESISTANCE TRAINING SESSION ACUTELY DIMINISHES RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Hackett

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of a high-volume compared to a low-volume resistance training session on maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP. Twenty male subjects with resistance training experience (6.2 ± 3.2 y, in a crossover trial, completed two resistance training protocols (high-volume: 5 sets per exercise; low-volume: 2 sets per exercise and a control session (no exercise on 3 separate occasions. MIP and MEP decreased by 13.6% (p < 0.01 and 14.7% (p < 0.01 respectively from pre-session MIP and MEP, following the high-volume session. MIP and MEP were unaffected following the low-volume or the control sessions. MIP returned to pre-session values after 40 minutes, whereas MEP remained significantly reduced after 60 minutes post-session by 9.2% compared to pre-session (p < 0.01. The findings suggest that the high-volume session significantly decreased MIP and MEP post-session, implicating a substantially increased demand on the respiratory muscles and that adequate recovery is mandatory following this mode of training.

  9. Resistance training for rehabilitation after burn injury: A systematic literature review & meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittings, Paul M; Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Edgar, Dale W; Wood, Fiona M; Wand, Benedict M; O'Connell, Neil E

    2017-10-07

    Resistance training is beneficial for rehabilitation in many clinical conditions, though this has not been systematically reviewed in burns. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of resistance training on muscle strength, lean mass, function, quality of life and pain, in children and adults after burn injury. Medline & EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL and CENTRAL were searched from inception to October 2016. Studies were identified that implemented resistance training in rehabilitation. Data were combined and included in meta-analyses for muscle strength and lean mass. Otherwise, narrative analysis was completed. The quality of evidence for each outcome was summarised and rated using the GRADE framework. Eleven studies matched our inclusion criteria. Primary analysis did not demonstrate significant improvements for increasing muscle strength (SMD 0.74, 95% CI -0.02 to 1.50, p=0.06). Sensitivity analysis to correct an apparent anomaly in published data suggested a positive effect (SMD 0.37, 95% CI 0.08-0.65, p=0.01). Psychological quality of life demonstrated benefit from training (MD=25.3, 95% CI 3.94-49.7). All studies were rated as having high risk of bias. The quality of the evidence was rated as low or very low. Further research with robust methodology is recommended to assess the potential benefit suggested in this review. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of hamstring knee rehabilitation exercise performed in training machine vs. elastic resistance: electromyography evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H; Persson, Roger; Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during hamstring rehabilitation exercises performed in training machine compared with elastic resistance. Six women and 13 men aged 28-67 yrs participated in a crossover study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus during the concentric and the eccentric phase of hamstring curls performed with TheraBand elastic tubing and Technogym training machines and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction-EMG (normalized EMG). Knee joint angle was measured using electronic inclinometers. Training machines and elastic resistance showed similar high levels of muscle activity (biceps femoris and semitendinosus peak normalized EMG >80%). EMG during the concentric phase was higher than during the eccentric phase regardless of exercise and muscle. However, compared with machine exercise, slightly lower (P machine (5.92 ± 0.03). Hamstring rehabilitation exercise performed with elastic resistance induces similar peak hamstring muscle activity but slightly lower EMG values at more extended knee angles and with higher perceived loading as hamstring curls using training machines.

  11. Plasma inflammatory biomarkers response to aerobic versus resisted exercise training for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Kader, Shehab M; Al-Jiffri, Osama H; Al-Shreef, Fadwa M

    2016-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a main risk for morbidity, associated with alterations in systemic inflammation. Recent studies proved that morbidity and mortality of COPD is related to systemic inflammation as it contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. However, increase of inflammatory cytokines adversely affects quality of life, alteration in ventilatory and skeletal muscles functions. Moreover, exercise training has many beneficial effects in correction of the adverse effects of COPD. This study aimed to compare the response of inflammatory cytokines of COPD to aerobic versus resisted exercises. One hundred COPD diseased patients participated in this study and were randomly included in two groups; the first group received aerobic exercise, whereas the second group received resisted exercise training for 12 weeks. The mean values of TNF-α, Il-2, IL-4, IL-6 and CRP were significantly decreased in both groups. Also; there was a significant difference between both groups at the end of the study with more reduction in patients who received aerobic exercise training. Aerobic exercise is more appropriate than resisted exercise training in modulating inflammatory cytokines level in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  12. Shoulder Muscle Activation of Novice and Resistance Trained Women during Variations of Dumbbell Press Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Luczak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals ( and novice female resistance trained exercisers ( from which average EMG amplitude for each repetition phase (concentric, eccentric was computed. No significant differences were found between experienced and novice resistance trained individuals. For the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles, shoulder press activation was significantly greater than incline press which in turn was significantly greater than bench press across both phases. The bench and incline presses promoted significantly greater pectoralis major sternal activation compared to the shoulder press (both phases. While pectoralis major clavicular activation during the incline press eccentric phase was significantly greater than both the bench and shoulder presses, activation during the bench press concentric phase promoted significantly greater activation than the incline press which in turn was significantly greater than the shoulder press. These results provide evidence for selecting exercises in resistance and rehabilitation programs.

  13. Shoulder Muscle Activation of Novice and Resistance Trained Women during Variations of Dumbbell Press Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Joshua; Bosak, Andy; Riemann, Bryan L

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG) activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals (n = 12) and novice female resistance trained exercisers (n = 12) from which average EMG amplitude for each repetition phase (concentric, eccentric) was computed. No significant differences were found between experienced and novice resistance trained individuals. For the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles, shoulder press activation was significantly greater than incline press which in turn was significantly greater than bench press across both phases. The bench and incline presses promoted significantly greater pectoralis major sternal activation compared to the shoulder press (both phases). While pectoralis major clavicular activation during the incline press eccentric phase was significantly greater than both the bench and shoulder presses, activation during the bench press concentric phase promoted significantly greater activation than the incline press which in turn was significantly greater than the shoulder press. These results provide evidence for selecting exercises in resistance and rehabilitation programs.

  14. Shoulder Muscle Activation of Novice and Resistance Trained Women during Variations of Dumbbell Press Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Joshua; Bosak, Andy; Riemann, Bryan L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG) activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals (n = 12) and novice female resistance trained exercisers (n = 12) from which average EMG amplitude for each repetition phase (concentric, eccentric) was computed. No significant differences were found between experienced and novice resistance trained individuals. For the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles, shoulder press activation was significantly greater than incline press which in turn was significantly greater than bench press across both phases. The bench and incline presses promoted significantly greater pectoralis major sternal activation compared to the shoulder press (both phases). While pectoralis major clavicular activation during the incline press eccentric phase was significantly greater than both the bench and shoulder presses, activation during the bench press concentric phase promoted significantly greater activation than the incline press which in turn was significantly greater than the shoulder press. These results provide evidence for selecting exercises in resistance and rehabilitation programs. PMID:26464884

  15. Neuromuscular function and fatigue resistance of the plantar flexors following short-term cycling endurance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBehrens

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previously published studies on the effect of short-term endurance training on the neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors have shown that the H-reflex elicited at rest and during weak voluntary contractions was increased following the training regime. However, these studies did not test H-reflex modulation during isometric maximum voluntary contraction (iMVC and did not incorporate a control group in their study design to compare the results of the endurance training group to individuals without the endurance training stimulus. Therefore, this randomized controlled study was directed to investigate the neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors at rest and during iMVC before and after eight weeks of cycling endurance training. Twenty-two young adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group and a control group. During neuromuscular testing, rate of torque development, isometric maximum voluntary torque and muscle activation were measured. Triceps surae muscle activation and tibialis anterior muscle co-activation were assessed by normalized root mean square of the EMG signal during the initial phase of contraction (0-100, 100-200 ms and isometric maximum voluntary contraction of the plantar flexors. Furthermore, evoked spinal reflex responses of the soleus muscle (H-reflex evoked at rest and during iMVC, V-wave, peak twitch torques induced by electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve at rest and fatigue resistance were evaluated. The results indicate that the endurance training did not lead to a significant change in any variable of interest. Data of the present study conflict with the outcome of previously published studies that have found an increase in H-reflex excitability after endurance training. However, these studies had not included a control group in their study design as was the case here. It is concluded that short-term cycling endurance training does not necessarily enhance H-reflex responses and fatigue

  16. Multifocal outbreaks of metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to broad-spectrum beta-lactams, including carbapenems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, K; Arakawa, Y; Nakashima, K; Ito, H; Ichiyama, S; Shimokata, K; Kato, N; Ohta, M

    1996-02-01

    A total of 3,700 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were collected from 17 general hospitals in Japan from 1992 to 1994. Of these isolates, 132 carbapenem-resistant strains were subjected to DNA hybridization analysis with the metallo-beta-lactamase gene (blaIMP)-specific probe. Fifteen strains carrying the metallo-beta-lactamase gene were identified in five hospitals in different geographical areas. Three strains of P. aeruginosa demonstrated high-level imipenem resistance (MIC, > or = 128 micrograms/ml), two strains exhibited low-level imipenem resistance (MIC, carbapenems. In several strains, the metallo-beta-lactamase gene was carried by large plasmids, and carbapenem resistance was transferred from P. aeruginosa to Escherichia coli by electroporation in association with the acquisition of the large plasmid. Southern hybridization analysis and genomic DNA fingerprinting profiles revealed different genetic backgrounds for these 15 isolates, although considerable similarity was observed for the strains isolated from the same hospital. These findings suggest that the metallo-beta-lactamase-producing P. aeruginosa strains are not confined to a unique clonal lineage but proliferated multifocally by plasmid-mediated dissemination of the metallo-beta-lactamase gene in strains of different genetic backgrounds. Thus, further proliferation of metallo-beta-lactamase-producing strains with resistance to various beta-lactams may well be inevitable in the future, which emphasizes the need for early recognition of metallo-beta-lactamase-producing strains, rigorous infection control, and restricted clinical use of broad-spectrum beta-lactams including carbapenems.

  17. Effects of resistance training and protein supplementation on bone turnover in young adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinning Wayne E

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strength of aging bone depends on the balance between the resorption and formation phases of the remodeling process. The purpose of this study was to examine the interaction of two factors with the potential to exert opposing influences on bone turnover, resistance exercise training and high dietary protein intake. It was hypothesized that resistance training by young, healthy, untrained women with protein intakes near recommended levels (0.8 g·kg-1·d-1 would promote bone formation and/or inhibit bone resorption, and that subsequent supplementation to provide 2.4 g protein·kg-1·d-1 would reverse these effects. Methods Bone formation was assessed with serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP and osteocalcin (OC, and bone resorption with urinary calcium and deoxypyridinoline (DPD. Biochemical, strength, anthropometric, dietary, and physical activity data were obtained from 24 healthy, untrained, eumenorrheic women (18–29y at baseline, after eight weeks of resistance training (3 d·wk-1, ~1 hr·d-1; 3 sets, 6–10 repetitions, 13 exercises, 75–85% maximum voluntary contraction, and after 12 weeks of resistance training and 10 days of protein/placebo supplementation. Subjects were randomized (double-blind to either a high protein (HP or training control (TC group and, during the final 10 days, consumed either enough purified whey protein to bring daily protein intake to 2.4 g·kg-1·d-1, or an equivalent dose of isoenergetic, carbohydrate placebo. Results Strength, lean tissue mass, and DPD increased significantly in both groups over time, while percent body fat and BAP decreased (repeated measures ANOVA, p ≤ 0.05, Bonferroni correction. No significant changes were observed for serum OC or urinary calcium, and no significant group (TC, HP × time (baseline, week 8, week 12 interactions emerged for any of the biochemical measures. Conclusion (1 Twelve weeks of high-intensity resistance training did not appear to

  18. Daily inspiratory muscle training lowers blood pressure and vascular resistance in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, Claire M; De Asis, Roxanne M; Bailey, E Fiona

    2018-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? What impact does inspiratory muscle training have on systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output and baroreflex sensitivity in adult men and women? What is the main finding and its importance? Inspiratory muscle training exerts favorable effects on blood pressure, vascular resistance and perception of stress. This exercise format is well-tolerated and equally effective whether implemented in men or women. Previous work has shown that inspiratory muscle training (IMT) lowers blood pressure after a mere 6 weeks, identifying IMT as a potential therapeutic intervention to prevent or treat hypertension. Here, we explore the effects of IMT on respiratory muscle strength and select cardiovascular parameters in recreationally active men and women. Subjects were randomly assigned to IMT (n = 12, 75% maximal inspiratory pressure) or sham training (n = 13, 15% maximal inspiratory pressure) groups and underwent a 6-week intervention comprising 30 breaths day -1 , 5 days week -1 . Pre- and post-training measures included maximal inspiratory pressure and resting measures of blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity and systemic vascular resistance. We evaluated psychological and sleep status via administration of the Cohen-Hoberman inventory of physical symptoms and the Epworth sleepiness scale. Male and female subjects in the IMT group showed declines in systolic/diastolic blood pressures (-4.3/-3.9 mmHg, P training, 12.5 ± 8.5 versus 7.2 ± 9.7, P = 0.025). Based on these results, we suggest that a short course of IMT confers significant respiratory and cardiovascular improvements and parallel (modest) psychological benefits in healthy men and women. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  19. Cross-transfer effects of resistance training with blood flow restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madarame, Haruhiko; Neya, Mitsuo; Ochi, Eisuke; Nakazato, Koichi; Sato, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Naokata

    2008-02-01

    This study investigated whether muscle hypertrophy-promoting effects are cross-transferred in resistance training with blood flow restriction, which has been shown to evoke strong endocrine activation. Fifteen untrained men were randomly assigned into the occlusive training group (OCC, N = 8) and the normal training group (NOR, N = 7). Both groups performed the same unilateral arm exercise (arm curl) at 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) without occlusion (three sets, 10 repetitions). Either the dominant or nondominant arm was randomly chosen to be trained (OCC-T, NOR-T) or to serve as a control (OCC-C, NOR-C). After the arm exercise, OCC performed leg exercise with blood flow restriction (30% of 1RM, three sets, 15-30 repetitions), whereas NOR performed the same leg exercise without occlusion. The training session was performed twice a week for 10 wk. In a separate set of experiments, acute changes in blood hormone concentrations were measured after the same leg exercises with (N = 5) and without (N = 5) occlusion. Cross-sectional area (CSA) and isometric torque of elbow flexor muscles increased significantly in OCC-T, whereas no significant changes were observed in OCC-C, NOR-T, and NOR-C. CSA and isometric torque of thigh muscles increased significantly in OCC, whereas no significant changes were observed in NOR. Noradrenaline concentration showed a significantly larger increase after leg exercise with occlusion than after exercises without occlusion, though growth hormone and testosterone concentrations did not show significant differences between these two types of exercises. The results indicate that low-intensity resistance training increases muscular size and strength when combined with resistance exercise with blood flow restriction for other muscle groups. It was suggested that any circulating factor(s) was involved in this remote effect of exercise on muscular size.

  20. Effect of Training Status on Oxygen Consumption in Women After Resistance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Melissa J; Waggener, Green T; Swan, Pamela D

    2016-03-01

    This study compared acute postexercise oxygen consumption in 11 trained women (age, 46.5 ± 1.6 years; body mass index [BMI], 28.4 ± 1.7 kg·m(-2) and 11 untrained women (age, 46.5 ± 1.5 years; BMI, 27.5 ± 1.5 kg·m(-2)) after resistance exercise (RE). Resistance exercise consisted of 3 sets of 8 exercises (8-12 repetitions at 50-80% 1 repetition maximum). Oxygen consumption (VO2 ml·min(-1)) was measured before and after (0, 20, 40, 60, 90, and 120 minutes) RE. Immediately after cessation of RE (time 0), oxygen consumption increased in both trained and untrained women and remained significantly above baseline through 60 minutes after exercise (p consumption during recovery was 31.3 L in trained women and 27.4 L in untrained women (p = 0.07). In trained women, total oxygen consumption was strongly related to absolute (kg) lean mass (r = 0.88; p consumption (r = 0.67; p ≤ 0.05). In trained women, 86% of the variance in oxygen consumption was explained by lean mass and exercise duration, whereas volume-load explained 45% in untrained women. Our findings suggest that, in women, resistance training increases metabolic activity of lean tissue. Postexercise energy costs of RE are determined by the duration of stimulation provided by RE rather than absolute work (volume-load) performed. This phenomenon may be related to type II muscle fibers and increased protein synthesis.

  1. Resistance training improves cardiac output, exercise capacity and tolerance to positive airway pressure in Fontan physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordina, Rachael L; O'Meagher, Shamus; Karmali, Alia; Rae, Caroline L; Liess, Carsten; Kemp, Graham J; Puranik, Raj; Singh, Nalin; Celermajer, David S

    2013-09-30

    Subjects with Fontan-type circulation have no sub-pulmonary ventricle and thus depend exquisitely on the respiratory bellows and peripheral muscle pump for cardiac filling. We hypothesised that resistance training to augment the peripheral muscle pump might improve cardiac filling, reduce inspiratory-dependence of IVC return to the heart and thus improve exercise capacity and cardiac output on constant positive airway pressure (CPAP). Eleven Fontan subjects (32+/-2 years, mean+/-SEM) had cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and exercise testing (CPET); six underwent 20 weeks of high-intensity resistance training; others were non-exercising controls. After training, CPET was repeated. Four trainers had MRI with real-time flow measurement at rest, exercise and on CPAP in the trained state and following a 12-month detrain. In the trained state, muscle strength increased by 43% (p=0.002), as did total muscle mass (by 1.94 kg, p=0.003) and peak VO2 (by 183 ml/min, p=0.02). After detraining, calf muscle mass and peak workload had fallen significantly (pexercise (by 16 ml, p=0.04); inspiratory-dependent IVC blood return during exercise was 40% higher (p=0.02). On CPAP, cardiac output was lower in the detrained state (101 vs. 77 ml/s, p=0.03). Resistance muscle training improves muscle mass, strength and is associated with improved cardiac filling, stroke volume, exercise capacity and cardiac output on CPAP, in adults with Fontan-type circulation. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of zinc and titanium dioxide nanoparticles against biofilm-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesline, A.; John, Neetu P.; Narayanan, P. M.; Vani, C.; Murugan, Sevanan

    2015-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the major nosocomial pathogens responsible for a wide spectrum of infections and the emergence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has lead to treatment drawbacks towards large number of drugs. Formation of biofilms is the main contributing factor to antibiotic resistance. The development of reliable processes for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles is an important aspect of nanotechnology today. Zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles comprise well-known inhibitory and bactericidal effects. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance by pathogenic bacteria is a major health problem in recent years. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of zinc and titanium dioxide nanoparticles against biofilm producing methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Biofilm production was detected by tissue culture plate method. Out of 30 MRSA isolates, 22 isolates showed strong biofilm production and 2 showed weak and moderate biofilm formation. Two strong and weak biofilm-producing methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates were subjected to antimicrobial activity using commercially available zinc and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Thus, the nanoparticles showed considerably good activity against the isolates, and it can be concluded that they may act as promising, antibacterial agents in the coming years.

  3. High rates of multidrug resistance among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in children and analyses of ESBL producers from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad Parajuli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergence of Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections (UTI among pediatric patients is an increasing problem worldwide. However, very little is known about pediatric urinary tract infections and antimicrobial resistance trend from Nepal. This study was conducted to assess the current antibiotic resistance rate and ESBL production among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in pediatric patients of a tertiary care teaching hospital of Nepal. Methods A total of 5,484 urinary tract specimens from children suspected with UTI attending a teaching hospital of Nepal over a period of one year were processed for the isolation of bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Escherichia coli (n = 739, the predominant isolate in pediatric UTI, was further selected for the detection of ESBL-production by phenotypic combination disk diffusion test. Results Incidence of urinary tract infection among pediatric patients was found to be 19.68% and E coli (68.4% was leading pathogen involved. Out of 739 E coli isolates, 64.9% were multidrug resistant (MDR and 5% were extensively drug resistant (XDR. Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL was detected in 288 (38.9% of the E coli isolates. Conclusion Alarming rate of drug resistance among pediatric uropathogens and high rate of ESBL-producing E. coli was observed. It is extremely necessary to routinely investigate the drug resistance among all isolates and formulate strict antibiotics prescription policy in our country.

  4. Effects of concurrent training on oxidative stress and insulin resistance in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Niara da Silva; de Abreu, Fabiana Guichard; Colato, Alana Schraiber; de Lemos, Leandro Silva; Ramis, Thiago Rozales; Dorneles, Gilson Pires; Funchal, Cláudia; Dani, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and increased oxidative stress. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate anthropometric parameters, IR, and oxidative stress in obese individuals subjected to two types of concurrent training at the same intensity but differing in frequency. Accordingly, 25 individuals were divided into two groups: concurrent training 1 (CT1) (5 d/wk) and concurrent training 2 (CT2) (3 d/wk), both with moderate intensity. Anthropometric parameters, IR, and oxidative stress were analyzed before and after 26 sessions of training. Both groups had reduced body weight and body mass index (P training protocols reduced the GPx activity. It can be concluded that both types of concurrent training could be an alternative for lowering body weight and BMI. Also, it was observed that concurrent training, depending on the frequency, can contribute to reducing body fat, oxidative damage (protein oxidation), and IR but can induce oxidative damage to lipids. More studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  5. Effects of Concurrent Training on Oxidative Stress and Insulin Resistance in Obese Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Niara da Silva; de Abreu, Fabiana Guichard; Colato, Alana Schraiber; de Lemos, Leandro Silva; Ramis, Thiago Rozales; Dorneles, Gilson Pires; Funchal, Cláudia; Dani, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and increased oxidative stress. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate anthropometric parameters, IR, and oxidative stress in obese individuals subjected to two types of concurrent training at the same intensity but differing in frequency. Accordingly, 25 individuals were divided into two groups: concurrent training 1 (CT1) (5 d/wk) and concurrent training 2 (CT2) (3 d/wk), both with moderate intensity. Anthropometric parameters, IR, and oxidative stress were analyzed before and after 26 sessions of training. Both groups had reduced body weight and body mass index (P < 0.05), but only CT1 showed lower body fat percentage and increased basal metabolic rate (P < 0.05). Moreover, CT1 had increased HOMA-IR and decreased protein damage (carbonyl level), and CT2 had decreased HOMA-IR and increased lipid peroxidation (TBARS level) (P < 0.05). On the other hand, both training protocols reduced the GPx activity. It can be concluded that both types of concurrent training could be an alternative for lowering body weight and BMI. Also, it was observed that concurrent training, depending on the frequency, can contribute to reducing body fat, oxidative damage (protein oxidation), and IR but can induce oxidative damage to lipids. More studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved. PMID:25722796

  6. Physiological Adaptations following Resistance Training in Youth Athletes-A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legerlotz, Kirsten; Marzilger, Robert; Bohm, Sebastian; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2016-11-01

    To understand the mechanisms for the effects of resistance training on functional parameters, and to assess the injury risk of the involved tissues, it is necessary to examine the underlying morphological and structural changes of the respective tissues. The presented information on physiological adaptations have been deduced from cross-sectional studies comparing youth athletes with controls and children with adults as well as from longitudinal studies examining the effects of resistance training in untrained children and adolescents and in youth athletes. The evidence indicates, that training induced changes in motor performance rely partly on enhanced neuromuscular control, and partly on morphological adaptation of muscles and tendons, such as changes in muscle, muscle fiber and tendon cross-sectional area, muscle composition, and tendon material properties, with the bone also adapting by increasing bone mineral content and cortical area. Although the training induced adaptations of the investigated tissues follows similar principles in children as in adults, the magnitude of the adaptive response appears to be more subtle. As studies investigating physiological adaptation in youth athletes are sparse, more research in this area is warranted to elucidate the specific physiological stimulus-response relationship necessary for effective training programs and injury prevention.

  7. Effects of intense cycling training on plasma leptin and adiponectin and its relation to insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhdar, Nadia; Ben Saad, Helmi; Denguezli, Myriam; Zaouali, Monia; Zbidi, Abdelkrim; Tabka, Zouhair; Bouassida, Anissa

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, the most abundant protein secreted by white adipose tissue, is known for its involvement in insulin resistance (HOMA-R). The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effect of intense cycling training for six months on plasma concentrations of adiponectin and leptin and HOMA-R. Eight trained males non professional cyclists participated in this study. They completed two times maximal exercises separated by six months heavy cycling training. Blood samples were obtained before exercise, at the end and after 30 and 60 minutes of recovery. Before training, adiponectin concentrations were not significantly altered after maximal exercise, but plasma leptin levels decreased significantly at the end of exercise (-21.42%, p30.68%, p30 min of recovery) (14.10%, pcycling training don't affect adiponectin concentrations, but decreases the synthesis of leptin and HOMA-R and improves aerobic capacity. Furthermore, it appears that after 6 months heavy chronic exercise adiponectin is not associated with aerobic capacity and/or insulin resistance and/or body composition modifications.

  8. Resistance versus Balance Training to Improve Postural Control in Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Rater Blinded Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenstedt, Christian; Paschen, Steffen; Kruse, Annika; Raethjen, Jan; Weisser, Burkhard; Deuschl, Günther

    2015-01-01

    Reduced muscle strength is an independent risk factor for falls and related to postural instability in individuals with Parkinson's disease. The ability of resistance training to improve postural control still remains unclear. To compare resistance training with balance training to improve postural control in people with Parkinson's disease. 40 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (Hoehn&Yahr: 2.5-3.0) were randomly assigned into resistance or balance training (2x/week for 7 weeks). Assessments were performed at baseline, 8- and 12-weeks follow-up: primary outcome: Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) scale; secondary outcomes: center of mass analysis during surface perturbations, Timed-up-and-go-test, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression, gait analysis, maximal isometric leg strength, PDQ-39, Beck Depression Inventory. Clinical tests were videotaped and analysed by a second rater, blind to group allocation and assessment time. 32 participants (resistance training: n = 17, balance training: n = 15; 8 drop-outs) were analyzed at 8-weeks follow-up. No significant difference was found in the FAB scale when comparing the effects of the two training types (p = 0.14; effect size (Cohen's d) = -0.59). Participants from the resistance training group, but not from the balance training group significantly improved on the FAB scale (resistance training: +2.4 points, Cohen's d = -0.46; balance training: +0.3 points, Cohen's d = -0.08). Within the resistance training group, improvements of the FAB scale were significantly correlated with improvements of rate of force development and stride time variability. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcome measures when comparing the training effects of both training types. The difference between resistance and balance training to improve postural control in people with Parkinson's disease was small and not significant with this sample size. There was weak evidence that freely

  9. Resistance versus Balance Training to Improve Postural Control in Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Rater Blinded Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schlenstedt

    Full Text Available Reduced muscle strength is an independent risk factor for falls and related to postural instability in individuals with Parkinson's disease. The ability of resistance training to improve postural control still remains unclear.To compare resistance training with balance training to improve postural control in people with Parkinson's disease.40 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (Hoehn&Yahr: 2.5-3.0 were randomly assigned into resistance or balance training (2x/week for 7 weeks. Assessments were performed at baseline, 8- and 12-weeks follow-up: primary outcome: Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB scale; secondary outcomes: center of mass analysis during surface perturbations, Timed-up-and-go-test, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression, gait analysis, maximal isometric leg strength, PDQ-39, Beck Depression Inventory. Clinical tests were videotaped and analysed by a second rater, blind to group allocation and assessment time.32 participants (resistance training: n = 17, balance training: n = 15; 8 drop-outs were analyzed at 8-weeks follow-up. No significant difference was found in the FAB scale when comparing the effects of the two training types (p = 0.14; effect size (Cohen's d = -0.59. Participants from the resistance training group, but not from the balance training group significantly improved on the FAB scale (resistance training: +2.4 points, Cohen's d = -0.46; balance training: +0.3 points, Cohen's d = -0.08. Within the resistance training group, improvements of the FAB scale were significantly correlated with improvements of rate of force development and stride time variability. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcome measures when comparing the training effects of both training types.The difference between resistance and balance training to improve postural control in people with Parkinson's disease was small and not significant with this sample size. There was weak evidence that

  10. Effect of aerobic training and resistance training on circulating irisin level and their association with change of body composition in overweight/obese adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-J; Lee, H-J; So, B; Son, J S; Yoon, D; Song, W

    2016-06-20

    The novel myokine irisin has been reported as a therapeutic target for metabolic disease. The objective of this study is to reveal the effects of aerobic training (AT) and resistance training (RT) on circulating irisin levels and their associations with change of body composition in overweight/obese adults. Twenty eight overweight/obese adults (BMI>23 kg/m(2)) were included in this study and compared before and after 8 weeks of exercise program (60 min/day, 5 times in a week). The subjects, in both aerobic and resistance training, showed significant improvement in anthropometric parameters and exercise capacities including maximal oxygen uptake and muscle strength. Interestingly, the circulating irisin was significantly increased in resistance training group (p=0.002) but not in aerobic training (p=0.426) compared to control group. In addition, we found the positive correlation between change of the circulating irisin and muscle mass (r=0.432, p=0.022) and the negative correlation between change of the circulating irisin and fat mass (r=-0.407, p=0.031). In the present pilot study, we found that circulating irisin level was increased by 8 weeks of resistance training in overweight/obese adults, suggesting that resistance training could be the efficient exercise type in overweight/obese considering positive change of body composition concomitant with increase of irisin levels.

  11. Isokinetic eccentric resistance training prevents loss in mechanical muscle function after running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Caputo, Fabrizio; Aagaard, Per

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether 8 weeks of resistance training employing maximal isokinetic eccentric (IERT) knee extensor actions would reduce the acute force loss observed after high-intensity treadmill running exercise. It was hypothesized that specific IERT would induce protective...... = 8). The effects of acute running-induced fatigue and training on isokinetic and isometric peak torque, and rate of force development (RFD) were investigated. Before IERT, running-induced eccentric torque loss at 180° s(-1) was -8 %, and RFD loss was -11 %. Longitudinal IERT led to reduced or absent...

  12. Feasibility of Early-Initiated Progressive Resistance Training after Total Hip Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Mechlenburg, Inger; Petersen, Annemette Krintel

    Background: Muscle atrophy, reduced hip muscle strength and function are documented within the first weeks after Total Hip Replacement (THR). Purpose / Aim of Study: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of early-initiated progressive resistance training (PRT) after THR....... Materials and Methods: 10 patients were followed 4 weeks post THR. The PRT was initiated 2-5 days after surgery, and performed twice a week for 4 weeks. Unilateral exercises were performed in 4 training machines applying 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 10 RM (repetition maximum). Absolute loading (kg) and pain...

  13. Effect of early progressive resistance training compared with home-based exercise after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Mechlenburg, Inger; Søballe, Kjeld

    Introduction Muscle strength and physical function deficits persist after total hip replacement (THR). Training effect evidence after THR is lacking. This study investigates the effect of supervised progressive resistance training in early post-THR rehabilitation on muscle strength and functional...... in CG (1.58 [0.8;2.4] sec) (p=0.05). No significant differences were found in stair test; yet, borderline significance (p=0.06-0.09) favoured IG in STS and isometric strength. Conclusion 7 days/week of home-based exercise was just as effective as 5 days/week of home-based exercise plus 2 days...

  14. A Case Study: Effect of Progressive Resistance and Balance Training on Upper Trunk Muscle Strength of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Ismailiyan

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion The results of this study showed that 8 weeks of progressive resistance and balance training (in combination has increased muscle strength in children with cerebral palsy. The present research showed that resistance and balanced trainings have significant effects on muscle strength of children with CP. It seems that these practices have been effective, especially for the wrist flexor and elbow flexor muscles. It can be said that the increase in the muscles of children with CP was due to practice principle along with increase in neuronal compatibility. One of the important points in the effectiveness of resistance training is the intensity of training. The results showed that resistance and balanced trainings increase the muscle strength of children with CP. This power could be partly due to increase in muscle volume and partly due to anabolic hormones.

  15. Tigecycline susceptibility and the role of efflux pumps in tigecycline resistance in KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang He

    Full Text Available KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates have emerged as important pathogens of nosocomial infections, and tigecycline is one of the antibiotics recommended for severe infections caused by KPC-producing K. pneumoniae. To identify the susceptibility profile of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae to tigecycline and investigate the role of efflux pumps in tigecycline resistance, a total of 215 KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates were collected. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of tigecycline was determined by standard broth microdilution tests. Isolates showing resistance to tigecycline underwent susceptibility test with efflux pump inhibitors. Expression levels of efflux pump genes (acrB and oqxB and their regulators (ramA, marA, soxS and rarA were examined by real-time PCR, and the correlation between tigecycline MICs and gene expression levels were analysed. Our results show that the tigecycline resistance rate in these isolates was 11.2%. Exposure of the tigecycline-resistant isolates to the efflux pump inhibitor NMP resulted in an obvious decrease in MICs and restored susceptibility to tigecycline in 91.7% of the isolates. A statistically significant association between acrB expression and tigecycline MICs was observed, and overexpression of ramA was found in three tigecycline-resistant isolates, further analysis confirmed ramR mutations existed in these isolates. Transformation of one mutant with wild-type ramR restored susceptibility to tigecycline and repressed overexpression of ramA and acrB. These data indicate that efflux pump AcrAB, which can be up-regulated by ramR mutations and subsequent ramA activation, contributed to tigecycline resistance in K. pneumoniae clinical isolates.

  16. First environmental sample containing plasmid-mediated colistin-resistant ESBL-producing Escherichia coli detected in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Silje Bakken; Søraas, Arne; Arnesen, Lotte Stenfors; Leegaard, Truls; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Jenum, Pål A

    2017-09-01

    We hereby report the detection of the plasmid borne mcr-1 gene conferring colistin resistance in an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli ST10 strain retrieved from seawater at a public beach in Norway. The sample was collected in September 2010 and was investigated by whole-genome sequencing in 2016. This report illustrates that E. coli strains carrying plasmid-mediated colistin resistance genes have also reached areas where this drug is hardly used at all. Surveillance of colistin resistance in environmental, veterinary, and human strains is warranted also in countries where colistin resistance is rare in clinical settings. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Isolation of NDM-1-producing multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas putida from a paediatric case of acute gastroenteritis, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bhattacharya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas putida is an uncommon opportunistic pathogen, usually susceptible to antimicrobial agents. Data concerning resistance to antimicrobial agents in clinical P. putida isolates are limited. To the best of our knowledge we report for the first time the isolation of NDM-1-producing multidrug-resistant P. putida from a case of acute gastroenteritis. The isolate showed resistance to a wide range of antimicrobials, including fluoroquinolones, third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems. The isolate also exhibited multiple mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region and showed the presence of qepA, blaTEM, blaOXA1 and blaOXA7 genes. The present study highlights the importance of looking for the relatively rare aetiological agents in clinical samples that do not yield common pathogens.

  18. Maize plants produce direct resistance elicited by Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Paulo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants can be attacked by a wide variety of herbivores. Thus, developing protective mechanisms for resistance against these agents is an advantage for survival and reproduction. Over the course of evolution, many resistance mechanisms against herbivory have been developed by the plants. Induced direct and indirect resistance mechanisms can manifest in plants after herbivore attack. The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is not a pest of maize crops (Zea mays, despite being reported infesting plants that may have resistances against this herbivore. We tested the hypothesis that maize plants would be able to induce direct resistance against T. urticae after, evaluating the effect of T. urticae infestation in maize plants on the development and reproduction of conspecifics. We tested induced direct resistance performing infestation and measuring biological parameters upon a second infestation. Maize plants, 40 days after sowing, were divided into two groups: 30 not infested by T. urticae (clean plants clean and, 30 infested by the spider mite. Infestation of maize plants by T. urticae reduced the conspecific female adult survival. However, no change in the survival of immature or reproduction was observed. These results suggest the induction of induced direct resistances in maize by T. urticae. This is first report of direct resistance induction in Z. mays by the two-spotted spider mite T. urticae.

  19. The Effects of 8 Eight Weeks Resistance Versus Endurance Training on Lipocalin-2 level in Non-Athlete Male Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohammadi Domiyeh

    2012-12-01

    Resistance training performed 3 three d/wk at an intensity corresponding to 65–80% of one-repetition maximum, 8-12 repetitions and 2-4 sets for 8 weeks. Endurance training group, underwent an 8-week intervention with a frequency of 3 d/wk at an intensity corresponding to 65, – 80% maximum heart rate for 20- – 38 minutes. Expressing lipocalin-2 plasma levels in samples were measured before and after intervention. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Plasma expressing level of lipocalin 2 in the control group before and after intervention, were respectively 11./1 ± 4./5 & 13./05 ± 2/.04, µg/L, respectively. The plasma level of lipocalin 2 and in the endurance training group, were 22./7 ± 8/.3 & and 17/.7 ± 6/.8 , and while these level werein the resistance training group 22/.2 ± 6/.2 & 19/.9 ± 6/.5 in the resistance training group. micrograms per liter, which was not statistically different.The differences between three groups were not statistically significant (p>0/.05. Conclusion: This study showed that 8 eight weeks of endurance & and resistance exercise training has no effect on lipocalin-2 plasma levels. Key words: Resistance training, Endurance training, Lipocalin-2, Insulin Resistance

  20. Whole-body vibration training compared with resistance training: effect on spasticity, muscle strength and motor performance in adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlborg, Lotta; Andersson, Christina; Julin, Per

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on spasticity, muscle strength and motor performance after 8 weeks of whole-body vibration training compared with resistance training in adults with cerebral palsy. Fourteen persons with spastic diplegia (21-41 years) were randomized to intervention with either whole-body vibration training (n=7) or resistance training (n=7). Pre- and post-training measures of spasticity using the modified Ashworth scale, muscle strength using isokinetic dynamometry, walking ability using Six-Minute Walk Test, balance using Timed Up and Go test and gross motor performance using Gross Motor Function Measure were performed. Spasticity decreased in knee extensors in the whole-body vibration group. Muscle strength increased in the resistance training group at the velocity 30 degrees /s and in both groups at 90 degrees /s. Six-Minute Walk Test and Timed Up and Go test did not change significantly. Gross Motor Function Measure increased in the whole-body vibration group. These data suggest that an 8-week intervention of whole-body vibration training or resistance training can increase muscle strength, without negative effect on spasticity, in adults with cerebral palsy.

  1. Feminist self-defense and resistance training for college students: a critical review and recommendations for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidycz, Christine A; Dardis, Christina M

    2014-10-01

    There remains resistance to feminist self-defense and resistance training programming for women, despite (a) documented effectiveness of rape resistance strategies in avoiding rape, (b) consistently high rates of sexual victimization on college campuses, and (c) limited evidence of lasting change in sexual assault perpetration reduction within existing men's prevention programs. The current article seeks to discuss (1) the rationale for feminist self-defense and resistance training for women, (2) key components of feminist self-defense and resistance training, (3) barriers to its implementation, (4) outcomes of self-defense and resistance training programming, and (5) recommendations for future work. Such suggestions include increasing funding for large-scale self-defense and rape resistance outcome research to examine program effectiveness. Specifically, outcome research that examines the role of contextual factors (e.g., alcohol use) and women's victimization histories is needed. Finally, self-defense training and resistance training should be combined with bystander intervention and men's programs with the goal of providing synergistic effects on rape reduction. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Effects of Instability Versus Traditional Resistance Training on Strength, Power and Velocity in Untrained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Maté-Muñoz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was compare the effects of a traditional and an instability resistance circuit training program on upper and lower limb strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Thirty-six healthy untrained men were assigned to two experimental groups and a control group. Subjects in the experimental groups performed a resistance circuit training program consisting of traditional exercises (TRT, n = 10 or exercises executed in conditions of instability (using BOSU® and TRX® (IRT, n = 12. Both programs involved three days per week of training for a total of seven weeks. The following variables were determined before and after training: maximal strength (1RM, average (AV and peak velocity (PV, average (AP and peak power (PP, all during bench press (BP and back squat (BS exercises, along with squat jump (SJ height and counter movement jump (CMJ height. All variables were found to significantly improve (p <0.05 in response to both training programs. Major improvements were observed in SJ height (IRT = 22.1%, TRT = 20.1%, CMJ height (IRT = 17.7%, TRT = 15.2%, 1RM in BS (IRT = 13.03%, TRT = 12.6%, 1RM in BP (IRT = 4.7%, TRT = 4.4%, AP in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.3%, AP in BP (IRT = 2.4%, TRT = 8.1%, PP in BS (IRT=19.42%, TRT = 22.3%, PP in BP (IRT = 7.6%, TRT = 11.5%, AV in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.4%, and PV in BS (IRT = 8.6%, TRT = 4.5%. Despite such improvements no significant differences were detected in the posttraining variables recorded for the two experimental groups. These data indicate that a circuit training program using two instability training devices is as effective in untrained men as a program executed under stable conditions for improving strength (1RM, power, movement velocity and jumping ability.

  3. Effect of resistance training using bodyweight in the elderly: Comparison of resistance exercise movement between slow and normal speed movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuya; Tanimoto, Michiya; Oba, Naoko; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Miyachi, Motohiko; Ishii, Naokata

    2015-12-01

    The present study investigated whether a slow movement protocol can be applied to resistance training using bodyweight. In addition, the intervention program combined plyometric exercise with resistance exercise to improve physical function overall. A total of 39 active elderly adults participated in a 16-week intervention. The program consisted of five resistance exercises and four plyometric exercises using their own bodyweight with a single set for each exercise. Participants were assigned to one of two experimental groups. One group carried out resistance exercise with slow movement and tonic force generation (3-s concentric, 3-s eccentric and 1-s isometric actions with no rest between each repetition). The other group as a movement comparison followed the same regimen, but at normal speed (1-s eccentric and 1-s concentric actions with 1-s rest between each repetition). Muscle size, strength and physical function were measured before and after the intervention period. After the intervention, strengths of upper and lower limbs, and maximum leg extensor power were significantly improved in both groups. Muscle size did not change in either group. There were no significant differences in any of the parameters between groups. The intervention program using only own bodyweight that comprised resistance exercise with slow movement and plyometric exercise can improve physical function in the elderly, even with single sets for each exercise. However, there was no enhanced muscle hypertrophic effect. Further attempts, such as increasing performing multiple sets, would be required to induce muscle hypertrophy. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2015; 15: 1270-1277. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Effects of Ibuprofen and Resistance Training on Bone and Muscle: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Whitney R D; Chilibeck, Philip D; Candow, Darren G; Gordon, Julianne J; Mason, Riley S; Taylor-Gjevre, Regina; Nair, Bindu; Szafron, Michael; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Zello, Gordon A; Kontulainen, Saija A

    2017-04-01

    Resistance training with ibuprofen supplementation may improve musculoskeletal health in postmenopausal women. The study purpose was to determine the efficacy of resistance training and ibuprofen supplementation on bone and muscle properties in postmenopausal women. Participants (n = 90, 65.3 ± 4.9 yr) were randomly assigned to: supervised resistance training or stretching (placebo-exercise) with postexercise ibuprofen (400 mg) or placebo supplementation for 3 d·wk (9 months). Baseline and postintervention measurements included distal and shaft scans of the forearm and lower leg using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Distal site outcomes included cross-sectional area, content, and density for total and trabecular bone, as well as estimated bone strength in compression. Shaft site outcomes included total bone area; cortical bone area, content, and density; estimated bone strength in torsion; and muscle area and density. Exercise-supplement-time interactions for total bone content at the distal radius (P = 0.009) and cortical density at the radius shaft (P = 0.038) were significant. Resistance training with ibuprofen decreased total bone content (-1.5%) at the distal radius in comparison to the resistance training (0.6%; P = 0.032) and ibuprofen alone (0.5%; P = 0.050). Change in cortical density at the radius shaft differed between the stretching with placebo and ibuprofen supplementation groups (-1.8% vs 1.1%; P = 0.050). Resistance training preserved muscle density in the lower leg more so than stretching (-3.1% vs -5.4%; P = 0.015). Ibuprofen consumed immediately after resistance training had a deleterious effect on bone mineral content at the distal radius, whereas resistance training or ibuprofen supplementation individually prevented bone loss. Resistance training prevented muscle density decline in the lower leg.

  5. Effects of order and sequence of resistance and endurance training on body fat in elementary school-aged girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Ana R; Marta, Carlos C; Neiva, Henrique P; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of order and sequence of concurrent resistance and endurance training on body fat percentage (BFP) in a large sample of elementary school-aged girls. One hundred and twenty-six healthy girls, aged 10-11 years (10.95 ± 0.48 years), were randomly assigned to six groups to perform different training protocols per week for 8 weeks: Resistance-only (R), Endurance-only (E), Concurrent Distinct Endurance-Resistance (CDER), Concurrent Parallel Endurance-Resistance (CPER), Concurrent Parallel Resistance-Endurance (CPRE), and a Control group (C). In R and E, the subjects performed single sessions of resistance or endurance exercises, respectively (two days per week). In CDER, resistance-endurance training was performed on different days each week (four days per week). CPER and CPRE performed single-session combined endurance-resistance training or combined resistance-endurance training, respectively, each week (two days per week). After an 8-week training period, BFP decreased in all experimental groups (CPER: 13.3%, p0.05; R: 5.0%, p>0.05; and CDER: 5.6%, p>0.05). However, a significant difference was found in CPER and CPRE when compared to CDER, E, and R, indicating that training sequence may influence BFP. All programmes were effective, but CPER and CPRE obtained better results for BFP than CDER, E, or R. The effects of concurrent resistance and endurance training on body fat percentage can be mediated by order and sequence of exercise. These results provide insight into optimization of school-based fat loss exercise programmes in childhood.

  6. Effects of order and sequence of resistance and endurance training on body fat in elementary school-aged girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. Alves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of order and sequence of concurrent resistance and endurance training on body fat percentage (BFP in a large sample of elementary school-aged girls. One hundred and twenty-six healthy girls, aged 10-11 years (10.95 ± 0.48 years, were randomly assigned to six groups to perform different training protocols per week for 8 weeks: Resistance-only (R, Endurance-only (E, Concurrent Distinct Endurance-Resistance (CDER, Concurrent Parallel Endurance-Resistance (CPER, Concurrent Parallel Resistance-Endurance (CPRE, and a Control group (C. In R and E, the subjects performed single sessions of resistance or endurance exercises, respectively (two days per week. In CDER, resistance-endurance training was performed on different days each week (four days per week. CPER and CPRE performed single-session combined endurance-resistance training or combined resistance-endurance training, respectively, each week (two days per week. After an 8-week training period, BFP decreased in all experimental groups (CPER: 13.3%, p0.05; and CDER: 5.6%, p>0.05. However, a significant difference was found in CPER and CPRE when compared to CDER, E, and R, indicating that training sequence may influence BFP. All programmes were effective, but CPER and CPRE obtained better results for BFP than CDER, E, or R. The effects of concurrent resistance and endurance training on body fat percentage can be mediated by order and sequence of exercise. These results provide insight into optimization of school-based fat loss exercise programmes in childhood.

  7. The effect of recombinant human growth hormone and resistance training on IGF-I mRNA expression in the muscles of elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hameed, M; Lange, K H W; Andersen, J L

    2004-01-01

    in response to resistance training only. The subjects (age 74 +/- 1 years, mean +/- S.E.M) were assigned to either resistance training with placebo, resistance training combined with GH administration or GH administration alone. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine mRNA levels in biopsies from...

  8. Resistance Training and Co-supplementation with Creatine and Protein in Older Subjects with Frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J; Longhurst, G; Roschel, H; Gualano, B

    2016-01-01

    Studies assessing the effects co-supplementation with creatine and protein, along with resistance training, in older individuals with frailty are lacking. This is an exploratory trial from the Pro-Elderly study ("Protein Intake and Resistance Training in Aging") aimed at gathering knowledge on the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of co-supplementation with creatine and protein supplementation, combined with resistance training, in older individuals with frailty. A 14-week, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo controlled exploratory trial. The subjects were randomly assigned to whey protein and creatine co-supplementation (WHEY+CR) or whey protein supplementation (WHEY) group. All subjects undertook a supervised exercise training program and were assessed at baseline and after 14 weeks. Muscle function, body composition, blood parameters, and self-reported adverse events were assessed. No interaction effects (between-group differences) were observed for any dependent variables (p > 0.05 for all). However, there were main time-effects in handgrip (WHEY+CR = 26.65 ± 31.29; WHEY = 13.84 ± 14.93 Kg; p = 0.0005), timed-up-and-go (WHEY+CR = -11.20 ± 9.37; WHEY = -17.76 ± 21.74 sec; p = 0.006), and timed-stands test (WHEY+CR = 47.50 ± 35.54; WHEY = 46.87 ± 24.23 reps; p = 0.0001), suggesting that WHEY+CR and WHEY were similarly effective in improving muscle function. All of the subjects showed improvements in at least two of the three functional tests, regardless of their treatments. Body composition and blood parameters were not changed (p > 0.05). No severe adverse effects were observed. Co-supplementation with creatine and whey protein was well-tolerable and free of adverse events in older subjects with frailty undertaking resistance training. Creatine supplementation did not augment the adaptive effects of resistance training along with whey protein on body composition or muscle function in this population. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01890382.

  9. The acute satellite cell response and skeletal muscle hypertrophy following resistance training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeann M Bellamy

    Full Text Available The extent of skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance training is highly variable in humans. The main objective of this study was to explain the nature of this variability. More specifically, we focused on the myogenic stem cell population, the satellite cell (SC as a potential mediator of hypertrophy. Twenty-three males (aged 18-35 yrs participated in 16 wk of progressive, whole body resistance training, resulting in changes of 7.9±1.6% (range of -1.9-24.7% and 21.0±4.0% (range of -7.0 to 51.7% in quadriceps volume and myofibre cross-sectional area (CSA, respectively. The SC response to a single bout of resistance exercise (80% 1RM, analyzed via immunofluorescent staining resulted in an expansion of type II fibre associated SC 72 h following exercise (pre: 11.3±0.9; 72 h: 14.8±1.4 SC/type II fibre; p<0.05. Training resulted in an expansion of the SC pool associated with type I (pre: 10.7±1.1; post: 12.1±1.2 SC/type I fibre; p<0.05 and type II fibres (pre: 11.3±0.9; post: 13.0±1.2 SC/type II fibre; p<0.05. Analysis of individual SC responses revealed a correlation between the relative change in type I associated SC 24 to 72 hours following an acute bout of resistance exercise and the percentage increase in quadriceps lean tissue mass assessed by MRI (r2 = 0.566, p = 0.012 and the relative change in type II associated SC following 16 weeks of resistance training and the percentage increase in quadriceps lean tissue mass assessed by MRI (r2 = 0.493, p = 0.027. Our results suggest that the SC response to resistance exercise is related to the extent of muscular hypertrophy induced by training.

  10. [Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistant Esherichia coli by Rectal Swab Method--Annual Change of Prevalence of Quinolone-resistant and ESBL Producing Strains from 2009 to 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, Yoshitsugu; Sako, Shinichi; Yano, Tomofumi; Kosaka, Noriko

    2015-09-01

    Although most of commonly used antimicrobial agents had been susceptible to Esherichia coli, recently there are a lot of reports concerning about community-acquired infection caused by resistant E. coli. The aim of this study is to define the prevalence of resistant E. coli in normal flora colonization by the rectal swab method. From June 2009 to December 2013, 251 male patients (50-85 year-old, median 68) planned to transrectal prostate biopsy participated in this study. Stools stuck on the glove at the digital examination were provided for culture specimen. Identification of E. coli and determination of MIC was performed by MicroScan WalkAway40plus (Siemens). Isolated E. coli were deemed quinolone-resistant strains when their MIC of levofloxacine was 4 μg/mL or above according to the breakpoint MIC by the CLSI criteria. ESBL producing ability was determined by the double disk method used by CVA contained ESBL definition disc (Eikenkagaku). Of the 251 study patients, 224 patients had positive cultures of E. coli. Twenty-four patients had quinolone-resistant strains and 9 patients had ESBL producing strains. The prevalence of quinolone-resistant strains in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 were 5.9% (2 out of 34 strains), 13.5% (5 out of 37 strains), 12.5% (4 out of 32 strains), 9.0% (6 out of 67) and 13.0% (7 out of 54 strains), respectively. The prevalence of ESBL producing strains in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 were 0% (0 out of 34 strains), 5.4% (2 out of 37 strains), 3.1% (1 out of 32 strains), 3.0% (2 out of 67 strains) and 7.4% (4 out of 54 strains), respectively. In 2013, the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant E. coli, both quinolone-resistant and ESBL producing strains, were increasing. We have to pay a close attention to the increase of resistant E. coli.

  11. Sprinting performance and resistance based training interventions: A systematic review with meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bolger, Richard; Kenny, Ian; Lyons, Mark; Harrison, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    peer-reviewed Introduction Much of the research which focuses on improving sprinting performance has been carried out with team sport athletes or endurance athletes (Berryman, Maurel, & Bosquet, 2010; Esteve-Lanao, Rhea, Fleck, & Lucia, 2008; Hanon, Bernard, Rabate, & Claire, 2012; Rhea, Kenn, & Dermody, 2009; Shalfawi, Haugen, Jakobsen, Enoksen, & T??nnessen, 2013; West et al., 2013). There is little consensus with the prescription of resistance based training within this body of resea...

  12. Dietary protein to maximize resistance training: a review and examination of protein spread and change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, John D; Dixon, Brian M

    2012-09-08

    An appreciable volume of human clinical data supports increased dietary protein for greater gains from resistance training, but not all findings are in agreement. We recently proposed "protein spread theory" and "protein change theory" in an effort to explain discrepancies in the response to increased dietary protein in weight management interventions. The present review aimed to extend "protein spread theory" and "protein change theory" to studies examining the effects of protein on resistance training induced muscle and strength gains. Protein spread theory proposed that there must have been a sufficient spread or % difference in g/kg/day protein intake between groups during a protein intervention to see muscle and strength differences. Protein change theory postulated that for the higher protein group, there must be a sufficient change from baseline g/kg/day protein intake to during study g/kg/day protein intake to see muscle and strength benefits. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria. In studies where a higher protein intervention was deemed successful there was, on average, a 66.1% g/kg/day between group intake spread versus a 10.2% g/kg/day spread in studies where a higher protein diet was no more effective than control. The average change in habitual protein intake in studies showing higher protein to be more effective than control was +59.5% compared to +6.5% when additional protein was no more effective than control. The magnitudes of difference between the mean spreads and changes of the present review are similar to our previous review on these theories in a weight management context. Providing sufficient deviation from habitual intake appears to be an important factor in determining the success of additional protein in enhancing muscle and strength gains from resistance training. An increase in dietary protein favorably effects muscle and strength during resistance training.

  13. Effects of Creatine and Resistance Training on Bone Health in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilibeck, Philip D; Candow, Darren G; Landeryou, Tim; Kaviani, Mojtaba; Paus-Jenssen, Lisa

    2015-08-01

    Our primary purpose was to determine the effect of 12 months of creatine (Cr) supplementation during a supervised resistance training program on properties of bone in postmenopausal women. Participants were randomized (double-blind) into two groups: resistance training (3 d·wk) and Cr supplementation (0.1 g·kg·d) or resistance training and placebo (Pl). Our primary outcome measures were lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD). Secondary outcome measures were total hip and whole-body BMD, bone geometric properties at the hip, speed of sound at the distal radius and tibia, whole-body lean tissue mass, muscle thickness, and bench press and hack squat strength. Forty-seven women (57 (SD, 6) yr; Cr, n = 23; Pl, n = 24) were randomized, with 33 analyzed after 12 months (Cr, n = 15; Pl, n = 18). Cr attenuated the rate of femoral neck BMD loss (-1.2%; absolute change (95% confidence interval), -0.01 (-0.025 to 0.005) g·cm) compared with Pl (-3.9%; -0.03 (-0.044 to -0.017) g·cm; P < 0.05) and also increased femoral shaft subperiosteal width, a predictor of bone bending strength (Cr, 0.04 (-0.09 to 0.16) cm); Pl, -0.12 (-0.23 to -0.01) cm; P < 0.05). Cr increased relative bench press strength more than Pl (64% vs 34%; P < 0.05). There were no differences between groups for other outcome measures. There were no differences between groups for reports of serum liver enzyme abnormalities, and creatinine clearance was normal for Cr participants throughout the intervention. Twelve months of Cr supplementation during a resistance training program preserves femoral neck BMD and increases femoral shaft superiosteal width, a predictor of bone bending strength, in postmenopausal women.

  14. Effects of fatigue from resistance training on barbell back squat biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, David R; Szivak, Tunde K; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Apicella, Jenna M; Kelly, Neil A; Creighton, Brent C; Flanagan, Shawn D; Looney, David P; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J

    2014-04-01

    Exhaustive resistance training programs that have been previously referred to as extreme conditioning protocols have increased in popularity in military and civilian populations in recent years. However, because of their highly fatiguing nature, proprioception is likely altered during such programs that would significantly affect the safety and efficacy of such programs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the alterations in movement patterns that result from extreme conditioning protocols and to evaluate if these protocols can be deemed safe and effective. Twelve men (age 24 ± 4.2 years, height 173.1 ± 3.6 cm, weight 76.9 ± 7.8 kg, body fat percentage 9.0 ± 2.2%) and 13 women (age 24.5 ± 3.8 years, height 166.9 ± 8.5 cm, weight 66.1 ± 9.2 kg, body fat percentage 18.6 ± 4.0%) with at least 6 months of resistance training experience involving barbell bench press, barbell deadlift, and barbell back squat performed a highly fatiguing resistance training workout. During the barbell back squat, a 2-dimensional analysis was performed where the knee and hip angles were recorded throughout the 55 repetitions of the workout. At the early stages of the protocol, knee angle was significantly lower in men and in women demonstrating less knee flexion. Also, hip angle was significantly lower early in the program in men and in women, demonstrating a greater forward lean. The technique changes that occur in high repetition sets do not favor optimal strength development and may increase the risk of injury, clearly questioning the safety and efficacy of such resistance training programming. This is likely a display of self-preservation by individuals who are faced with high repetition programs.

  15. Can resistance training impact MRI outcomes in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Tue; Siemonsen, Susanne; Wenzel, Damian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterised by accelerated brain atrophy, which relates to disease progression. Previous research shows that progressive resistance training (PRT) can counteract brain atrophy in other populations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of PRT by magnetic reso......: anterior cingulate gyrus, temporal pole, orbital sulcus and inferior temporal sulcus. CONCLUSION: PRT seem to induce an increase in cortical thickness, indicating that PRT have a neuroprotective or even neuroregenerative effect in relapsing-remitting MS....

  16. Oral L-arginine before resistance exercise blunts growth hormone in strength trained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Scott C; Harber, Vicki; Bell, Gordon J

    2014-04-01

    Acute resistance exercise and L-arginine have both been shown to independently elevate plasma growth hormone (GH) concentrations; however, their combined effect is controversial. The purpose was to investigate the combined effects of resistance exercise and L-arginine supplementation on plasma L-arginine, GH, GH secretagogues, and IGF-1 in strength trained participants. Fourteen strength trained males (age: 25 ± 4 y; body mass: 81.4 ± 9.0 kg; height: 179.4 ± 6.9 cm; and training experience: 6.3 ± 3.4 y) participated in a randomized double-blind crossover design (separated by ~7 days). Subjects reported to the laboratory at 08:00 in a fasted state, consumed L-arginine (ARG; 0.075 g·kg-1 body mass) or a placebo (PLA) before performing an acute bout of resistance exercise (3 sets of 8 exercises, 10 repetitions at ~75% 1RM). Blood samples were collected at rest, before exercise, and at 0, 15, 30, and 60 min of rest-recovery. The ARG condition significantly increased plasma L-arginine concentrations (~120%) while no change was detected in the PLA condition. There were no differences between conditions for GH, GH-releasing hormone, ghrelin, or IGF-1 at any time point. GH-inhibiting hormone was significantly lower in the ARG condition. However, integrated area under the curve for GH was blunted in the ARG condition (L-arginine = 288.4 ± 368.7 vs. placebo = 487.9± 482.0 min·ng·mL1, p L-arginine ingested before resistance exercise significantly elevated plasma L-arginine concentration but attenuated plasma GH in strength trained individuals despite a lower GHIH. Furthermore our data shows that the GH suppression was not due to a GH or IGF-1 induced autonegative feedback loop.

  17. Comparison of Resistance and Chair Yoga Training on Subjective Sleep Quality in MCI Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Karydaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-rated sleep disorders are common in older adults, resulting in various health problems. Two types of exercise are suggested as an affordable and accessible non-pharmacological treatment and are being compared and discussed. Objectives: This randomized, controlled, 12-week trial investigates the effects of different types of exercise (resistance vs chair yoga training on subjective sleep quality, in women with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI. Methods: In order to measure cognitive function, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE was used. Forty nine participants enrolled in the study were randomized to a resistance training program (n=16, or a chair yoga program (n=15, or a control group (n=18. All participants engaged in cognitive activities. Results: At baseline, PSQI scores for CYG, RTG and CG (8.2±5.1, 6.1±4.3, 7.4±4.1, respectively and MMSE (28.3±1.4, 27.8±1.2, 28.0±2.3, respectively did not differ statistically between the three groups (F2,46= 1.993, p= 0.143. After the intervention, a significant improvement in PSQI total score was noted in resistance training group (t=2.335, df15, p=0.03. Conclusions: There were no significant differences between groups before and after test for the PSQI subscale scores (sleep onset latency (h, time spent in bed before sleep (min, morning waking up (h and sleep duration (h. No significant difference was found in PSQI subscales scores within each group. This study proposes that resistance training is an effective treatment approach to improve sleep quality in women with mild cognitive impairment.

  18. Emergence of quinolone resistance among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the Central African Republic: genetic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Thierry

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross-resistance to quinolones and beta-lactams is frequent in Enterobacteriaceae, due to the wide use of these antibiotics clinically and in the food industry. Prescription of one of these categories of antibiotic may consequently select for bacteria resistant to both categories. Genetic mechanisms of resistance may be secondary to a chromosomal mutation located in quinolone resistance determining region of DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV or to a plasmid acquisition. The insertion sequence ISCR1 is often associated with qnr and may favour its dissemination in Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic mechanism of quinolone resistance among extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains in the Central African Republic. Findings Among seventeen ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from urine, pus or stool between January 2003 and October 2005 in the Central African Republic, nine were resistant to ciprofloxacin (seven from community patients and two from hospitalized patients. The ESBL were previously characterized as CTX-M-15 and SHV-12. Susceptibility to nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations of these drugs were determined by disc diffusion and agar dilution methods, respectively. The presence of plasmid-borne ISCR1-qnrA region was determined by PCR and amplicons, if any, were sent for sequencing. Quinolone resistance determining region of DNA gyrase gyrA gene was amplified by PCR and then sequenced for mutation characterization. We found that all CTX-M-producing strains were resistant to the tested quinolones. All the isolates had the same nucleotide mutation at codon 83 of gyrA. Two Escherichia coli strains with the highest MICs were shown to harbour an ISCR1-qnrA1 sequence. This genetic association might favour dissemination of resistance to quinolone and perhaps other antibiotics among Enterobacteriaceae

  19. A biomechanical evaluation of resistance: fundamental concepts for training and sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; Cronin, John; Newton, Robert U

    2010-04-01

    Newton's second law of motion describes the acceleration of an object as being directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force and inversely proportional to its mass (a = F/m). With respect to linear motion, mass is also a numerical representation of an object's inertia, or its resistance to change in its state of motion and directly proportional to the magnitude of an object's momentum at any given velocity. To change an object's momentum, thereby increasing or decreasing its velocity, a proportional impulse must be generated. All motion is governed by these relationships, independent of the exercise being performed or the movement type being used; however, the degree to which this governance affects the associated kinematics, kinetics and muscle activity is dependent on the resistance type. Researchers have suggested that to facilitate the greatest improvements to athletic performance, the resistance-training programme employed by an athlete must be adapted to meet the specific demands of their sport. Therefore, it is conceivable that one mechanical stimulus, or resistance type, may not be appropriate for all applications. Although an excellent means of increasing maximal strength and the rate of force development, free-weight or mass-based training may not be the most conducive means to elicit velocity-specific adaptations. Attempts have been made to combat the inherent flaws of free weights, via accommodating and variable resistance-training devices; however, such approaches are not without problems that are specific to their mechanics. More recently, pneumatic-resistance devices (variable) have been introduced as a mechanical stimulus whereby the body mass of the athlete represents the only inertia that must be overcome to initiate movement, thus potentially affording the opportunity to develop velocity-specific power. However, there is no empirical evidence to support such a contention. Future research should

  20. The effects of whey protein with or without carbohydrates on resistance training adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulmi, Juha J; Laakso, Mia; Mero, Antti A; Häkkinen, Keijo; Ahtiainen, Juha P; Peltonen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition intake in the context of a resistance training (RT) bout may affect body composition and muscle strength. However, the individual and combined effects of whey protein and carbohydrates on long-term resistance training adaptations are poorly understood. A four-week preparatory RT period was conducted in previously untrained males to standardize the training background of the subjects. Thereafter, the subjects were randomized into three groups: 30 g of whey proteins (n = 22), isocaloric carbohydrates (maltodextrin, n = 21), or protein + carbohydrates (n = 25). Within these groups, the subjects were further randomized into two whole-body 12-week RT regimens aiming either for muscle hypertrophy and maximal strength or muscle strength, hypertrophy and power. The post-exercise drink was always ingested immediately after the exercise bout, 2-3 times per week depending on the training period. Body composition (by DXA), quadriceps femoris muscle cross-sectional area (by panoramic ultrasound), maximal strength (by dynamic and isometric leg press) and serum lipids as basic markers of cardiovascular health, were analysed before and after the intervention. Twelve-week RT led to increased fat-free mass, muscle size and strength independent of post-exercise nutrient intake (P whey protein group reduced more total and abdominal area fat when compared to the carbohydrate group independent of the type of RT (P protein vs. carbohydrate group (P whey proteins when compared to carbohydrates or combination of proteins and carbohydrates did not have a major effect on muscle size or strength when ingested two to three times a week. However, whey proteins may increase abdominal fat loss and relative fat-free mass adaptations in response to resistance training when compared to fast-acting carbohydrates.

  1. Comparison of creatine ingestion and resistance training on energy expenditure and limb blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciero, P J; Hannibal, N S; Nindl, B C; Gentile, C L; Hamed, J; Vukovich, M D

    2001-12-01

    This study determined the effects of 28 days of oral creatine ingestion (days 1 to 5 = 20g/d; [5 g 4 times daily]: days 6 to 28 = 10 g/d; [5 g twice daily]) alone and with resistance training (5 hours/week) on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, muscular strength (1RM), and limb blood flow (LBF). Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 30 healthy male volunteers (21 +/- 3 years; 18 to 30 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups; pure creatine monohydrate alone (Cr; n = 10), creatine plus resistance training (Cr-RT; n = 10), or placebo plus resistance training (P-RT; n = 10). Body composition (DEXA, Lunar DPX-IQ), body mass, bench, and leg press 1RM (isotonic), RMR (indirect calorimetry; ventilated hood), and forearm and calf LBF (venous occlusive plethysmography) were obtained on all 30 subjects on 3 occasions beginning at approximately 6:00 AM following an overnight fast and 24 hours removed from the last training session; baseline (day 0), and 7 days and 29 days following the interventions. No differences existed among groups at baseline for any of the variables measured. Following the 28-day interventions, body mass (Cr, 73.9 +/- 11.5 v 75.6 +/- 12.5 kg; Cr-RT, 78.8 +/- 6.7 v 80.8 +/- 6.8 kg; P training significantly increases total and fat-free body mass, muscular strength, peripheral blood flow, and resting energy expenditure and improves blood cholesterol. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  2. Chasing the top quartile of cross-sectional data: Is it possible with resistance training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Samuel L; Dankel, Scott J; Mouser, J Grant; Mattocks, Kevin T; Jessee, Matthew B; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2017-10-01

    Resistance exercise is believed to be important for improving several biomarkers of health and contributing to decreased all-cause mortality. However, a careful examination of the literature reveals a growing body of cross-sectional studies finding stronger associations between strength independent of physical activity on these various outcomes and biomarkers (i.e., C - reactive protein, homocysteine, total cholesterol) of health. Considering that engagement in resistance type exercise is associated with an increase in strength, such cross-sectional data is often used to promote engagement in resistance training. When one examines the cross-sectional studies together with the experimental work, however, this relationship becomes less clear. For example, being in a higher tertile or quartile for grip strength may be associated with more favorable biomarkers or health outcomes, yet, experimental work shows that grip strength does not change with traditional resistance exercise. This seems to suggest that our interpretation and application of this literature may be incorrect. It is our opinion that much of the cross-sectional work may more accurately illustrate inherent differences between individuals who are "weak" and individuals who are "strong". In addition, there is conflicting experimental evidence and a lack of longitudinal support that resistance exercise may have a meaningful effect on long-term health outcomes. Using this evidence, we present our "human baseline hypothesis", which proposes that the baseline value of strength that a person possesses prior to training may be a more appropriate indicator regarding long-term health outcomes than the act of training itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, quality of life, and motivation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, M T; Vorup, J; Nistrup, A; Wikman, J M; Alstrøm, J M; Melcher, P S; Pfister, G U; Bangsbo, J

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, psychological health, quality of life, and motivation in older untrained adults. Twenty-five untrained men and forty-seven untrained women aged 80 (range: 67-93) years were recruited. Fifty-one were assigned to a training group (TRG) of which twenty-five performed team training (TG) and twenty-six resistance training (RG). The remaining twenty-one were allocated to a control group (CG). TRG trained for 1 hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Compared with CG, TRG improved the number of arm curls within 30 seconds (Ptraining led to higher (Pquestionnaires. Both TG and RG were highly motivated for training, but TG expressed a higher degree of enjoyment and intrinsic motivation mainly due to social interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants more by intrinsic factors than resistance training. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Training degree assessment of staff producing parenteral nutrition in Pharmacy Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Mª Romero Jiménez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the level of expertise of Pharmacy personnel in the manufacturing of total parenteral nutrition. Material and methods: An on-line survey including 17 questions concerning key aspects of TPN manufacturing was designed. Survey monkey software was used to create the survey and to analize its results. Results: 135 answers were received. 95% of the participant Pharmacy services had written standard manufacturing procedures. 67% answered that phosphate salts should be the first electrolite to be additioned into the total parenteral nutrition and 34% affirmed that validation of the aseptic manufacturing technique was not performed. As far as personnel training was concerned, 19% of respondents had not received any specific training, although 99% considered it would be necessary to receive it. Conclusions: The polled personell has an acceptable level of expertise but adequate training courses are still necessary and should be promoted from Pharmacy services

  5. Effectiveness of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training for frequent neck/shoulder pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Saervoll, Charlotte A; Mortensen, Ole S

    2011-01-01

    symptoms; 174 women and 24 men working at least 30 h per week and with frequent neck/shoulder pain were randomly assigned to resistance training with elastic tubing for 2 or 12 minutes per day 5 times per week, or weekly information on general health (control group). Primary outcomes were changes......UNLABELLED: Regular physical exercise is a cornerstone in rehabilitation programs, but adherence to comprehensive exercise remains low. This study determined the effectiveness of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training for relieving neck/shoulder pain in healthy adults with frequent......, muscle strength increased 2.0 Nm (95% confidence interval 0.5 to 3.5Nm, p=0.01) in the 2-minute group and 1.7Nm (95% confidence interval 0.2 to 3.3 Nm, p=0.02) in the 12-minute group. In conclusion, as little as 2 minutes of daily progressive resistance training for 10 weeks results in clinically...

  6. Comparison of the effects of endurance, resistance and concurrent training on insulin resistance and adiponectin-leptin ratio in diabetic rat

    OpenAIRE

    A. Saremi

    2017-01-01

    Background: The obesity-related hormones leptin and adiponectin are independently and oppositely associated with insulin resistance. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of endurance, resistance and concurrent training on insulin resistance and adiponectin-leptin ratio in diabetic rats. Methods: Ten out of 50 male Wistar rats were separated as healthy subjects. Then diabetes was induced in the remaining rats by the injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic r...

  7. Comprehensive Genome Analysis of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacter spp.: New Insights into Phylogeny, Population Structure, and Resistance Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavda, Kalyan D; Chen, Liang; Fouts, Derrick E; Sutton, Granger; Brinkac, Lauren; Jenkins, Stephen G; Bonomo, Robert A; Adams, Mark D; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2016-12-13

    Knowledge regarding the genomic structure of Enterobacter spp., the second most prevalent carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, remains limited. Here we sequenced 97 clinical Enterobacter species isolates that were both carbapenem susceptible and resistant from various geographic regions to decipher the molecular origins of carbapenem resistance and to understand the changing phylogeny of these emerging and drug-resistant pathogens. Of the carbapenem-resistant isolates, 30 possessed bla KPC-2 , 40 had bla KPC-3 , 2 had bla KPC-4 , and 2 had bla NDM-1 Twenty-three isolates were carbapenem susceptible. Six genomes were sequenced to completion, and their sizes ranged from 4.6 to 5.1 Mbp. Phylogenomic analysis placed 96 of these genomes, 351 additional Enterobacter genomes downloaded from NCBI GenBank, and six newly sequenced type strains into 19 phylogenomic groups-18 groups (A to R) in the Enter