WorldWideScience

Sample records for resistance training exercise

  1. Hamstring activation during lower body resistance training exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, William P

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in hamstring activation during lower body resistance training exercises. This study also sought to assess differences in hamstring-to-quadriceps muscle activation ratios and gender differences therein. A randomized repeated measures design was used to compare six resistance training exercises that are commonly believed to train the hamstrings, including the squat, seated leg curl, stiff leg dead lift, single leg stiff leg dead lift, good morning, and Russian curl. Subjects included 34 college athletes. Outcome measures included the biceps femoris (H) and rectus femoris (Q) electromyography (EMG) and the H-to-Q EMG ratio, for each exercise. Main effects were found for the H (P ratio when analyzed for all subjects (P ratios of men, for the exercises assessed. In a separate analysis of strength matched women and men, women achieved between 35.9 to 76.0% of the H-to-Q ratios of men, for these exercises. Hamstring resistance training exercises offer differing degrees of H and Q activation and ratios. Women compared with men, are less able to activate the hamstrings and/or more able to activate the quadriceps. Women may require disproportionately greater training for the hamstrings compared with the quadriceps.

  2. Musculoskeletal adaptations to training with the advanced resistive exercise device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, James A; Lee, Stuart M C; English, Kirk L; Sibonga, Jean; Smith, Scott M; Spiering, Barry A; Hagan, R Donald

    2011-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been used as a means to prevent the musculoskeletal losses associated with spaceflight. Therefore, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration designed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to replace the initial device flown on the International Space Station. The ARED uses vacuum cylinders and inertial flywheels to simulate, in the absence of gravity, the constant mass and inertia, respectively, of free weight (FW) exercise. To compare the musculoskeletal effects of resistance exercise training using the ARED with the effects of training with FW. Previously untrained, ambulatory subjects exercised using one of two modalities: FW (6 men and 3 women) or ARED (8 men and 3 women). Subjects performed squat, heel raise, and dead lift exercises 3 d·wk(-1) for 16 wk. Squat, heel raise, and dead lift strength (one-repetition maximum; using FW and ARED), bone mineral density (via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), and vertical jump were assessed before, during, and after training. Muscle mass (via magnetic resonance imaging) and bone morphology (via quantitative computed tomography) were measured before and after training. Bone biomarkers and circulating hormones were measured before training and after 4, 8, and 16 wk. Muscle strength, muscle volume, vertical jump height, and lumbar spine bone mineral density (via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative computed tomography) significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) in both groups. There were no significant differences between groups in any of the dependent variables at any time. After 16 wk of training, ARED exercise resulted in musculoskeletal effects that were not significantly different from the effects of training with FW. Because FW training mitigates bed rest-induced deconditioning, the ARED may be an effective countermeasure for spaceflight-induced deconditioning and should be validated during spaceflight.

  3. Resistance strength training exercise in children with spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewelt, Aga; Krosschell, Kristin J; Stoddard, Gregory J; Weng, Cindy; Xue, Mei; Marcus, Robin L; Gappmaier, Eduard; Viollet, Louis; Johnson, Barbara A; White, Andrea T; Viazzo-Trussell, Donata; Lopes, Philippe; Lane, Robert H; Carey, John C; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2015-10-01

    Preliminary evidence in adults with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and in SMA animal models suggests exercise has potential benefits in improving or stabilizing muscle strength and motor function. We evaluated feasibility, safety, and effects on strength and motor function of a home-based, supervised progressive resistance strength training exercise program in children with SMA types II and III. Up to 14 bilateral proximal muscles were exercised 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. Nine children with SMA, aged 10.4 ± 3.8 years, completed the resistance training exercise program. Ninety percent of visits occurred per protocol. Training sessions were pain-free (99.8%), and no study-related adverse events occurred. Trends in improved strength and motor function were observed. A 12-week supervised, home-based, 3-day/week progressive resistance training exercise program is feasible, safe, and well tolerated in children with SMA. These findings can inform future studies of exercise in SMA. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A Scientific Rationale to Improve Resistance Training Prescription in Exercise Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairman, Ciaran M; Zourdos, Michael C; Helms, Eric R; Focht, Brian C

    2017-08-01

    To date, the prevailing evidence in the field of exercise oncology supports the safety and efficacy of resistance training to attenuate many oncology treatment-related adverse effects, such as risk for cardiovascular disease, increased fatigue, and diminished physical functioning and quality of life. Moreover, findings in the extant literature supporting the benefits of exercise for survivors of and patients with cancer have resulted in the release of exercise guidelines from several international agencies. However, despite research progression and international recognition, current exercise oncology-based exercise prescriptions remain relatively basic and underdeveloped, particularly in regards to resistance training. Recent publications have called for a more precise manipulation of training variables such as volume, intensity, and frequency (i.e., periodization), given the large heterogeneity of a cancer population, to truly optimize clinically relevant patient-reported outcomes. Indeed, increased attention to integrating fundamental principles of exercise physiology into the exercise prescription process could optimize the safety and efficacy of resistance training during cancer care. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the current state of resistance training prescription and discuss novel methods that can contribute to improving approaches to exercise prescription. We hope this article may facilitate further evaluation of best practice regarding resistance training prescription, monitoring, and modification to ultimately optimize the efficacy of integrating resistance training as a supportive care intervention for survivors or and patients with cancer.

  5. Resistance exercise, but not endurance exercise, induces IKKβ phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle of training-accustomed individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Andreas Buch; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Rahbek, Stine Klejs

    2013-01-01

    of repeated biopsy sampling on protein expression and phosphorylation was observed. In conclusion, resistance exercise, but not endurance exercise, increases IKKβ phosphorylation in trained human subjects, which support the idea that IKKβ can influence the activation of mTORC1 in human skeletal muscle....... following exercise. Previously, we demonstrated that mTOR is preferentially activated in response to resistance exercise compared to endurance exercise in trained individuals without concomitant activation of Akt. In the present study, we extended this investigation by examining IκB kinase complex (IKK......), TSC1, MAPK, and upstream Akt activators, along with gene expression of selected cytokines, in skeletal muscles from these subjects. Biopsies were sampled prior to, immediately after, and in the recovery period following resistance exercise, endurance exercise, and control interventions. The major...

  6. Potential benefits of resistance exercise training on nutritional status in renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, C; Grossi, L; Dwyer, J

    1998-01-01

    Resistance or strength exercise training may help reverse the malnutrition common among patients in chronic renal failure and delay the progression of renal disease. Resistance training is characterized by resisting, lifting, and lowering weights. It results in muscle mass accretion, improved physical function, and slowed progression of muscle wasting. Resistance exercise training for a period of 8 to 12 weeks results in significant increases in muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle function in frail "healthy" elderly individuals as well as in specific patient populations. States of malnutrition leading to muscle wasting directly affect lean tissue mass and functional capacity. Even at dietary protein intake below the Recommended Dietary Allowances, resistance training appears to exert an anabolic effect by improving energy intake and protein use allowing nitrogen retention. The potential benefits of resistance exercise extend beyond this direct impact on protein metabolism. They include improvements in functional capacity such as gait, balance, mobility, strength, exercise tolerance, improved glucose uptake, insulin sensitivity, and self-efficacy and self-esteem. Currently, the effects of resistance exercise in renal patients are unknown, although they are well shown in the case of other diseases. The potential benefits that resistance exercise training may have on muscle mass and function, nutritional status, hyperglycemia, disease progression, and the overall mental well-being of renal patients deserve further investigation. As an adjunct to current treatment modalities for chronic renal failure, resistance exercise may serve as a cost-effective, interdisciplinary, noninvasive approach to counteract malnutrition and improve the quality of life.

  7. Maximal power output during incremental exercise by resistance and endurance trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivelavan, D S; Sumathilatha, S

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the maximal power output by resistance trained and endurance trained athletes during incremental exercise. Thirty male athletes who received resistance training (Group I) and thirty male athletes of similar age group who received endurance training (Group II) for a period of more than 1 year were chosen for the study. Physical parameters were measured and exercise stress testing was done on a cycle ergometer with a portable gas analyzing system. The maximal progressive incremental cycle ergometer power output at peak exercise and carbon dioxide production at VO2max were measured. Highly significant (P biofeedback and perk up the athlete's performance.

  8. Muscle Volume Increases Following 16 Weeks of Resistive Exercise Training with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and Free Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (pmuscle strength and volume between training devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 5+/-2%), and DP (FW: 2

  9. Acute Exercise-Associated Skin Surface Temperature Changes after Resistance Training with Different Exercise Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weigert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies showed, that changes in muscular metabolic-associated heat production and blood circulation during and after muscular work affect skin temperature (T but the results are inconsistent and the effect of exercise intensity is unclear. Objective: This study investigated the intensity-dependent reaction of T on resistance training. Methods: Ten male students participated. After acclimatization (15 min, the participants completed 3x10 repetitions of unilateral biceps curl with 30, 50 or 70% of their one-repetition-maximum (1RM in a randomized order. Skin temperature of the loaded and unloaded biceps was measured at rest (Trest, immediately following set 1, 2 and 3 (TS1,TS2,TS3 and 30 minutes post exercise (T1 - T30 with an infrared camera. Results: Two-way ANOVA detected a significant effect of the measuring time point on T (Trest to T30 of the loaded arm for 30% (Eta²=0.85, 50% (Eta²=0.88 and 70% 1RM (Eta²=0.85 and of the unloaded arm only for 30% 1RM (Eta²=0.41 (p0.05. The T values at the different measuring time points (Trest - T30 did not differ between the intensities at any time point. The loaded arm showed a mean maximum T rise to Trest of 1.8°C and on average, maximum T was reached approximately 5 minutes after the third set.  Conclusion: This study indicate a rise of T, which could be independent of the exercise intensity. Infrared thermography seems to be applicable to identify the primary used functional muscles in resistance training but this method seems not suitable to differentiate between exercise intensity from 30 to 70% 1RM.

  10. Order effects of concurrent endurance and resistance training on post-exercise response of non-trained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Blasio, Andrea; Gemello, Eugenio; Di Iorio, Angelo; Di Giacinto, Gabriella; Celso, Tiziana; Di Renzo, Donatella; Sablone, Andrea; Ripari, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    Physical exercise is used for the promotion and maintenance of good health and for the improvement of physical fitness. Both endurance and resistance exercises are needed to carry out a complete training program. Because time may be a barrier to physical exercise practice, the aim of this study was to verify whether the order of execution of endurance and resistance exercises, in concurrent training, has different effects on the metabolic responses during recovery. Thirteen healthy women [24.40 (1.67) years, Mean (SD)] were investigated for energy expenditure (EE), oxygen consumption (VO2), ventilation (Ve), respiratory frequency (RF), proportion of oxygen in expired air (FeO2) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) both before and after three concurrent endurance and resistance trainings, carried out in different orders: endurance-resistance training (ERT), resistance-endurance training (RET) and alternating endurance-resistance training (AERT). AERT elicited a significantly greater increase of EE, VO2, and Ve and a greater decrease of FeO2. ERT elicited a lower increase of RPE. Acute post-exercise physiological responses to concurrent endurance and resistance physical exercise seem to depend on the order of execution of the two parts: among the selected protocols, AERT seems to elicit the best responses. Key pointsThe concurrent execution of both endurance and resistance exercise, in the same training session, could be a practical solution to conform to guidelines for health in the presence of lack of time.The order of concurrent execution of both endurance and resistance exercise, in the same training session, influences the amplitude of some post-exercise physiological responses.

  11. Structural remodeling of coronary resistance arteries: effects of age and exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Mina A; Taylor, Curtis R; Chen, Bei; La, Hae-Sun; Maraj, Joshua J; Kilar, Cody R; Behnke, Bradley J; Delp, Michael D; Muller-Delp, Judy M

    2014-09-15

    Age is known to induce remodeling and stiffening of large-conduit arteries; however, little is known of the effects of age on remodeling and mechanical properties of coronary resistance arteries. We employed a rat model of aging to investigate whether 1) age increases wall thickness and stiffness of coronary resistance arteries, and 2) exercise training reverses putative age-induced increases in wall thickness and stiffness of coronary resistance arteries. Young (4 mo) and old (21 mo) Fischer 344 rats remained sedentary or underwent 10 wk of treadmill exercise training. Coronary resistance arteries were isolated for determination of wall-to-lumen ratio, effective elastic modulus, and active and passive responses to changes in intraluminal pressure. Elastin and collagen content of the vascular wall were assessed histologically. Wall-to-lumen ratio increased with age, but this increase was reversed by exercise training. In contrast, age reduced stiffness, and exercise training increased stiffness in coronary resistance arteries from old rats. Myogenic responsiveness was reduced with age and restored by exercise training. Collagen-to-elastin ratio (C/E) of the wall did not change with age and was reduced with exercise training in arteries from old rats. Thus age induces hypertrophic remodeling of the vessel wall and reduces the stiffness and myogenic function of coronary resistance arteries. Exercise training reduces wall-to-lumen ratio, increases wall stiffness, and restores myogenic function in aged coronary resistance arteries. The restorative effect of exercise training on myogenic function of coronary resistance arteries may be due to both changes in vascular smooth muscle phenotype and expression of extracellular matrix proteins. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Influence of resistance exercise training on glucose control in women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenicchia, L M; Kanaley, J A; Azevedo, J L; Miller, C S; Weinstock, R S; Carhart, R L; Ploutz-Snyder, L L

    2004-03-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of acute and chronic resistance training on glucose and insulin responses to a glucose load in women with type 2 diabetes. Subjects consisted of type 2 diabetic women (n = 7) and age-matched controls (n = 8) with normal glucose tolerance. All subjects participated in 3 oral glucose tolerance tests: pretraining, 12 to 24 hours after the first exercise session (acute) and 60 to 72 hours after the final training session (chronic). Exercise training consisted of a whole body resistance exercise program using weight-lifting machines 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Resistance training was effective in increasing strength of all muscle groups in all subjects. Integrated glucose concentration expressed as area under the curve (AUC) was 3,355.0 +/- 324.6 mmol/L. min pretraining, improved significantly (P benefits, individuals must follow a regular schedule that includes daily exercise.

  13. Interference between concurrent resistance and endurance exercise: molecular bases and the role of individual training variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Bishop, David J; Stepto, Nigel K

    2014-06-01

    Concurrent training is defined as simultaneously incorporating both resistance and endurance exercise within a periodized training regime. Despite the potential additive benefits of combining these divergent exercise modes with regards to disease prevention and athletic performance, current evidence suggests that this approach may attenuate gains in muscle mass, strength, and power compared with undertaking resistance training alone. This has been variously described as the interference effect or concurrent training effect. In recent years, understanding of the molecular mechanisms mediating training adaptation in skeletal muscle has emerged and provided potential mechanistic insight into the concurrent training effect. Although it appears that various molecular signaling responses induced in skeletal muscle by endurance exercise can inhibit pathways regulating protein synthesis and stimulate protein breakdown, human studies to date have not observed such molecular 'interference' following acute concurrent exercise that might explain compromised muscle hypertrophy following concurrent training. However, given the multitude of potential concurrent training variables and the limitations of existing evidence, the potential roles of individual training variables in acute and chronic interference are not fully elucidated. The present review explores current evidence for the molecular basis of the specificity of training adaptation and the concurrent interference phenomenon. Additionally, insights provided by molecular and performance-based concurrent training studies regarding the role of individual training variables (i.e., within-session exercise order, between-mode recovery, endurance training volume, intensity, and modality) in the concurrent interference effect are discussed, along with the limitations of our current understanding of this complex paradigm.

  14. Acute and chronic cytokine responses to resistance exercise and training in people with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, T; Dalgas, U; Gade, A B

    2016-01-01

    responses to resistance exercise training in medicated PwMS. Thirty-five people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with interferon (IFN)-β, were randomized to a 24-week progressive resistance training (PRT) or control group. Plasma interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17F, IL-23, tumor......Exercise is a well-established part of rehabilitation for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), and it has been hypothesized to stimulate an anti-inflammatory environment that might be disease modifying. Yet, investigations on exercise-induced immune responses are scarce and generally not paying...

  15. Myofibrillar disruption following acute concentric and eccentric resistance exercise in strength-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibala, M J; Interisano, S A; Tarnopolsky, M A; Roy, B D; MacDonald, J R; Yarasheski, K E; MacDougall, J D

    2000-08-01

    We have previously quantified the extent of myofibrillar disruption which occurs following an acute bout of resistance exercise in untrained men, however the response of well-trained subjects is not known. We therefore recruited six strength-trained men, who ceased training for 5 days and then performed 8 sets of 8 uni-lateral repetitions, using a load equivalent to 80% of their concentric (Con) 1-repetition maximum. One arm performed only Con actions by lifting the weight and the other arm performed only eccentric actions (Ecc) by lowering it. Needle biopsy samples were obtained from biceps brachii of each arm approximately 21 h following exercise, and at baseline (i.e., after 5 days without training), and subsequently analyzed using electron microscopy to quantify myofibrillar disruption. A greater (P 0.05) from baseline values. The proportion of disrupted fibres and the magnitude of disruption (quantified by sarcomere counting) was considerably less severe than previously observed in untrained subjects after an identical exercise bout. Mixed muscle protein synthesis, assessed from approximately 21-29 h post-exercise, was not different between the Con- and Ecc-exercised arms. We conclude that the Ecc phase of resistance exercise is most disruptive to skeletal muscle and that training attenuates the severity of this effect. Moreover, it appears that fibre disruption induced by habitual weightlifting exercise is essentially repaired after 5 days of inactivity in trained men.

  16. Plasma inflammatory biomarkers response to aerobic versus resisted exercise training for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Kader, Shehab M; Al-Jiffri, Osama H; Al-Shreef, Fadwa M

    2016-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a main risk for morbidity, associated with alterations in systemic inflammation. Recent studies proved that morbidity and mortality of COPD is related to systemic inflammation as it contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. However, increase of inflammatory cytokines adversely affects quality of life, alteration in ventilatory and skeletal muscles functions. Moreover, exercise training has many beneficial effects in correction of the adverse effects of COPD. This study aimed to compare the response of inflammatory cytokines of COPD to aerobic versus resisted exercises. One hundred COPD diseased patients participated in this study and were randomly included in two groups; the first group received aerobic exercise, whereas the second group received resisted exercise training for 12 weeks. The mean values of TNF-α, Il-2, IL-4, IL-6 and CRP were significantly decreased in both groups. Also; there was a significant difference between both groups at the end of the study with more reduction in patients who received aerobic exercise training. Aerobic exercise is more appropriate than resisted exercise training in modulating inflammatory cytokines level in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  17. Effectiveness of Hamstring Knee Rehabilitation Exercise Performed in Training Machine vs. Elastic Resistance Electromyography Evaluation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. D.; Sundstrup, E.; Andersen, C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during hamstring rehabilitation exercises performed in training machine compared with elastic resistance. Design Six women and 13 men aged 28-67 yrs participated in a crossover study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded.......001) during hamstring curl performed with elastic resistance (7.58 +/- 0.08) compared with hamstring curl performed in a machine (5.92 +/- 0.03). Conclusions Hamstring rehabilitation exercise performed with elastic resistance induces similar peak hamstring muscle activity but slightly lower EMG values at more...... inclinometers. Results Training machines and elastic resistance showed similar high levels of muscle activity (biceps femoris and semitendinosus peak normalized EMG >80%). EMG during the concentric phase was higher than during the eccentric phase regardless of exercise and muscle. However, compared with machine...

  18. Effects of aquatic exercise training using water-resistance equipment in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Yoshihiro; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Ueda, Shin-Ya; Usui, Tatsuya; Sotobayashi, Daisuke; Nakao, Hayato; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Okumoto, Tamiko; Fujimoto, Shigeo

    2010-03-01

    To prevent falls in Japan, both gait and resistance training of the lower extremities are recommended. However, resistance training for the elderly induces muscle damage. Recently, aquatic exercise using water buoyancy and resistance have commonly been performed by the elderly. We have now produced new water-resistance equipment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of aquatic exercise training using the new equipment for the elderly. Subjects were divided into two groups: a resistance group of 12 subjects (using water-resistance equipment) and a non-resistance group of eight subjects (without the equipment). The aquatic exercise training was 90 min, three times per week for 8 weeks, and mostly consisted of walking. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, physical performance testing, and profile of mood states (POMS). Significant improvements were observed in muscle strength in plantar flexion, and the timed up and go test (TUG) in both groups. Additionally, 10-m obstacle walking and 5-m maximum walking speed and length with eye-open were significantly improved in the resistance group. Also, a low negative correlation was found between the degree of change in TUG and POMS (tension and anxiety) scores in the resistance group. As it became easier to maintain posture, stand, and move, tension and anxiety in everyday life were alleviated with improvement of strength of the lower extremities and balance function. The present aquatic exercise training using water-resistance equipment may be used by the elderly to improve balance and walking ability, which are associated with the prevention of falls.

  19. High-power resistance exercise induces MAPK phosphorylation in weightlifting trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galpin, Andrew J; Fry, Andrew C; Chiu, Loren Z F; Thomason, Donald B; Schilling, Brian K

    2012-02-01

    Power is critical to muscle performance, specifically in athletic populations. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK 1/2), p38, and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK)) are intracellular signal transduction mechanisms that partially regulate exercise-induced skeletal muscle alterations. These pathways are highly responsive to exercise, but their reaction to high power, multi-joint resistance exercise is yet to be examined. Nine weightlifting-trained men performed 15 sets of three repetitions of a dynamic clean pull exercise at 85% of their one repetition maximum. Vastus lateralis biopsies were obtained prior to (pre) and after the 8th (mid) and 15th set (post) of exercise. Three subjects returned to serve as non-exercising controls for a similar sequence of biopsies (CON). The ratio of phosphorylated MAPK to total MAPK increased significantly for p38 (3.0 fold, p  0.05), and thus the biopsy procedure itself did not account for the entire increase in MAPK phosphorylation during EX. These data indicate MAPK pathways are activated early and remain elevated throughout the duration of high power resistance exercise. These findings help describe the mechanisms partially responsible for chronic adaptations in response to high intensity, high power resistance training in humans.

  20. High responders to resistance exercise training demonstrate differential regulation of skeletal muscle microRNA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Peter K; Gallagher, Iain J; Hartman, Joseph W

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA), small noncoding RNA molecules, may regulate protein synthesis, while resistance exercise training (RT) is an efficient strategy for stimulating muscle protein synthesis in vivo. However, RT increases muscle mass, with a very wide range of effectiveness in humans. We therefore...

  1. Resistance training improves cardiac output, exercise capacity and tolerance to positive airway pressure in Fontan physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordina, Rachael L; O'Meagher, Shamus; Karmali, Alia; Rae, Caroline L; Liess, Carsten; Kemp, Graham J; Puranik, Raj; Singh, Nalin; Celermajer, David S

    2013-09-30

    Subjects with Fontan-type circulation have no sub-pulmonary ventricle and thus depend exquisitely on the respiratory bellows and peripheral muscle pump for cardiac filling. We hypothesised that resistance training to augment the peripheral muscle pump might improve cardiac filling, reduce inspiratory-dependence of IVC return to the heart and thus improve exercise capacity and cardiac output on constant positive airway pressure (CPAP). Eleven Fontan subjects (32+/-2 years, mean+/-SEM) had cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and exercise testing (CPET); six underwent 20 weeks of high-intensity resistance training; others were non-exercising controls. After training, CPET was repeated. Four trainers had MRI with real-time flow measurement at rest, exercise and on CPAP in the trained state and following a 12-month detrain. In the trained state, muscle strength increased by 43% (p=0.002), as did total muscle mass (by 1.94 kg, p=0.003) and peak VO2 (by 183 ml/min, p=0.02). After detraining, calf muscle mass and peak workload had fallen significantly (pexercise (by 16 ml, p=0.04); inspiratory-dependent IVC blood return during exercise was 40% higher (p=0.02). On CPAP, cardiac output was lower in the detrained state (101 vs. 77 ml/s, p=0.03). Resistance muscle training improves muscle mass, strength and is associated with improved cardiac filling, stroke volume, exercise capacity and cardiac output on CPAP, in adults with Fontan-type circulation. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of early progressive resistance training compared with home-based exercise after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Mechlenburg, Inger; Søballe, Kjeld

    Introduction Muscle strength and physical function deficits persist after total hip replacement (THR). Training effect evidence after THR is lacking. This study investigates the effect of supervised progressive resistance training in early post-THR rehabilitation on muscle strength and functional...... in CG (1.58 [0.8;2.4] sec) (p=0.05). No significant differences were found in stair test; yet, borderline significance (p=0.06-0.09) favoured IG in STS and isometric strength. Conclusion 7 days/week of home-based exercise was just as effective as 5 days/week of home-based exercise plus 2 days...

  3. Effectiveness of hamstring knee rehabilitation exercise performed in training machine vs. elastic resistance: electromyography evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H; Persson, Roger; Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during hamstring rehabilitation exercises performed in training machine compared with elastic resistance. Six women and 13 men aged 28-67 yrs participated in a crossover study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus during the concentric and the eccentric phase of hamstring curls performed with TheraBand elastic tubing and Technogym training machines and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction-EMG (normalized EMG). Knee joint angle was measured using electronic inclinometers. Training machines and elastic resistance showed similar high levels of muscle activity (biceps femoris and semitendinosus peak normalized EMG >80%). EMG during the concentric phase was higher than during the eccentric phase regardless of exercise and muscle. However, compared with machine exercise, slightly lower (P machine (5.92 ± 0.03). Hamstring rehabilitation exercise performed with elastic resistance induces similar peak hamstring muscle activity but slightly lower EMG values at more extended knee angles and with higher perceived loading as hamstring curls using training machines.

  4. Pyridostigmine Improves the Effects of Resistance Exercise Training after Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriani, Daniele J.; Coelho-Júnior, Hélio J.; de Oliveira, Juliana C. M. F.; Delbin, Maria A.; Mostarda, Cristiano T.; Dourado, Paulo M. M.; Caperuto, Érico C.; Irigoyen, Maria C. C.; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exercise training and pharmacological treatments are important strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of MI. However, little is known about the effects of resistance training combined with pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) treatment on cardiac and autonomic function, as well as on the inflammatory profile after MI. Thus, in the present study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into: control (Cont); sedentary infarcted (Inf); PYR – treated sedentary infarcted rats (Inf+P); infarcted rats undergoing resistance exercise training (Inf+RT); and infarcted rats undergoing PYR treatment plus resistance training (Inf+RT+P). After 12 weeks of resistance training (15–20 climbs per session, with a 1-min rest between each climb, at a low to moderate intensity, 5 days a week) and/or PYR treatment (0.14 mg/mL of drink water), hemodynamic function, autonomic modulation, and cytokine expressions were evaluated. We observed that 3 months of PYR treatment, either alone or in combination with exercise, can improve the deleterious effects of MI on left ventricle dimensions and function, baroreflex sensitivity, and autonomic parameters, as well as systemic and tissue inflammatory profile. Furthermore, additional benefits in a maximal load test and anti-inflammatory state of skeletal muscle were found when resistance training was combined with PYR treatment. Thus, our findings suggest that the combination of resistance training and PYR may be a good therapeutic strategy since they promote additional benefits on skeletal muscle anti-inflammatory profile after MI. PMID:29483876

  5. Pyridostigmine Improves the Effects of Resistance Exercise Training after Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele J. Feriani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction (MI remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exercise training and pharmacological treatments are important strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of MI. However, little is known about the effects of resistance training combined with pyridostigmine bromide (PYR treatment on cardiac and autonomic function, as well as on the inflammatory profile after MI. Thus, in the present study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into: control (Cont; sedentary infarcted (Inf; PYR – treated sedentary infarcted rats (Inf+P; infarcted rats undergoing resistance exercise training (Inf+RT; and infarcted rats undergoing PYR treatment plus resistance training (Inf+RT+P. After 12 weeks of resistance training (15–20 climbs per session, with a 1-min rest between each climb, at a low to moderate intensity, 5 days a week and/or PYR treatment (0.14 mg/mL of drink water, hemodynamic function, autonomic modulation, and cytokine expressions were evaluated. We observed that 3 months of PYR treatment, either alone or in combination with exercise, can improve the deleterious effects of MI on left ventricle dimensions and function, baroreflex sensitivity, and autonomic parameters, as well as systemic and tissue inflammatory profile. Furthermore, additional benefits in a maximal load test and anti-inflammatory state of skeletal muscle were found when resistance training was combined with PYR treatment. Thus, our findings suggest that the combination of resistance training and PYR may be a good therapeutic strategy since they promote additional benefits on skeletal muscle anti-inflammatory profile after MI.

  6. Pyridostigmine Improves the Effects of Resistance Exercise Training after Myocardial Infarction in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriani, Daniele J; Coelho-Júnior, Hélio J; de Oliveira, Juliana C M F; Delbin, Maria A; Mostarda, Cristiano T; Dourado, Paulo M M; Caperuto, Érico C; Irigoyen, Maria C C; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exercise training and pharmacological treatments are important strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of MI. However, little is known about the effects of resistance training combined with pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) treatment on cardiac and autonomic function, as well as on the inflammatory profile after MI. Thus, in the present study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into: control (Cont); sedentary infarcted (Inf); PYR - treated sedentary infarcted rats (Inf+P); infarcted rats undergoing resistance exercise training (Inf+RT); and infarcted rats undergoing PYR treatment plus resistance training (Inf+RT+P). After 12 weeks of resistance training (15-20 climbs per session, with a 1-min rest between each climb, at a low to moderate intensity, 5 days a week) and/or PYR treatment (0.14 mg/mL of drink water), hemodynamic function, autonomic modulation, and cytokine expressions were evaluated. We observed that 3 months of PYR treatment, either alone or in combination with exercise, can improve the deleterious effects of MI on left ventricle dimensions and function, baroreflex sensitivity, and autonomic parameters, as well as systemic and tissue inflammatory profile. Furthermore, additional benefits in a maximal load test and anti-inflammatory state of skeletal muscle were found when resistance training was combined with PYR treatment. Thus, our findings suggest that the combination of resistance training and PYR may be a good therapeutic strategy since they promote additional benefits on skeletal muscle anti-inflammatory profile after MI.

  7. Oral L-arginine before resistance exercise blunts growth hormone in strength trained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Scott C; Harber, Vicki; Bell, Gordon J

    2014-04-01

    Acute resistance exercise and L-arginine have both been shown to independently elevate plasma growth hormone (GH) concentrations; however, their combined effect is controversial. The purpose was to investigate the combined effects of resistance exercise and L-arginine supplementation on plasma L-arginine, GH, GH secretagogues, and IGF-1 in strength trained participants. Fourteen strength trained males (age: 25 ± 4 y; body mass: 81.4 ± 9.0 kg; height: 179.4 ± 6.9 cm; and training experience: 6.3 ± 3.4 y) participated in a randomized double-blind crossover design (separated by ~7 days). Subjects reported to the laboratory at 08:00 in a fasted state, consumed L-arginine (ARG; 0.075 g·kg-1 body mass) or a placebo (PLA) before performing an acute bout of resistance exercise (3 sets of 8 exercises, 10 repetitions at ~75% 1RM). Blood samples were collected at rest, before exercise, and at 0, 15, 30, and 60 min of rest-recovery. The ARG condition significantly increased plasma L-arginine concentrations (~120%) while no change was detected in the PLA condition. There were no differences between conditions for GH, GH-releasing hormone, ghrelin, or IGF-1 at any time point. GH-inhibiting hormone was significantly lower in the ARG condition. However, integrated area under the curve for GH was blunted in the ARG condition (L-arginine = 288.4 ± 368.7 vs. placebo = 487.9± 482.0 min·ng·mL1, p L-arginine ingested before resistance exercise significantly elevated plasma L-arginine concentration but attenuated plasma GH in strength trained individuals despite a lower GHIH. Furthermore our data shows that the GH suppression was not due to a GH or IGF-1 induced autonegative feedback loop.

  8. The Comparison of Two Methods of Exercise (intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on Fasting Sugar, Insulin and Insulin Resistance in Women with Mellitus Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bazyar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise is an important component of health and an integral approach to the management of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on fasting sugar, insulin and insulin resistance in women with mellitus diabetes.   Methods: Fifty-two overweight female diabetic type 2 patients (aged 45-60 years old with fasting blood glucose≥ 126 mg/dl were selected to participate in the present study. Participants were assigned to intense interval training group (N=17, concurrent resistance- endurance training group (N=17 and control group (N=18. The exercises incorporated 10 weeks of concurrent resistance- endurance training and intense interval training. Fasting blood sugar, serum insulin concentrations levels were measured. Concurrent training group trained eight weeks, three times a week of endurance training at 60% of maximum heart rate (MHR and two resistance training sessions per week with 70% of one repetition maximum (1-RM. Intense interval training group trained for eight weeks, three sessions per week for 4 to 10 repeats Wingate test on the ergometer 30s performed with maximum effort. The control group did no systematic exercise. At the end of experiment 42 subjects were succeed and completed the study period, and 10 subjects were removed due to illness and absence in the exercise sessions. Fasting blood sugar and insulin levels 24 hours before and 48 hours after the last training session was measured.   Results: The findings indicated that in periodic fasting, the blood sugar in intensive training group had a marked decrease (p= 0.000 however, the fasting blood sugar of exercise and power stamina groups reduced significantly (p=0.062. The results showed no significant difference between the groups (171/0 p =0.171. Fasting insulin (p <0.001 and insulin resistance (0001/0 = p=0.001 in periodic intensive training group were

  9. Effects of exercise training on coronary collateralization and control of collateral resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    Coronary collateral vessels serve as a natural protective mechanism to provide coronary flow to ischemic myocardium secondary to critical coronary artery stenosis. The innate collateral circulation of the normal human heart is typically minimal and considerable variability occurs in extent of collateralization in coronary artery disease patients. A well-developed collateral circulation has been documented to exert protective effects upon myocardial perfusion, contractile function, infarct size, and electrocardiographic abnormalities. Thus therapeutic augmentation of collateral vessel development and/or functional adaptations in collateral and collateral-dependent arteries to reduce resistance into the ischemic myocardium represent a desirable goal in the management of coronary artery disease. Tremendous evidence has provided documentation for the therapeutic benefits of exercise training programs in patients with coronary artery disease (and collateralization); mechanisms that underlie these benefits are numerous and multifaceted, and currently under investigation in multiple laboratories worldwide. The role of enhanced collateralization as a major beneficial contributor has not been fully resolved. This topical review highlights literature that examines the effects of exercise training on collateralization in the diseased heart, as well as effects of exercise training on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle control of regional coronary tone in the collateralized heart. Future directions for research in this area involve further delineation of cellular/molecular mechanisms involved in effects of exercise training on collateralized myocardium, as well as development of novel therapies based on emerging concepts regarding exercise training and coronary artery disease. PMID:21565987

  10. Effect of Training Status on Oxygen Consumption in Women After Resistance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Melissa J; Waggener, Green T; Swan, Pamela D

    2016-03-01

    This study compared acute postexercise oxygen consumption in 11 trained women (age, 46.5 ± 1.6 years; body mass index [BMI], 28.4 ± 1.7 kg·m(-2) and 11 untrained women (age, 46.5 ± 1.5 years; BMI, 27.5 ± 1.5 kg·m(-2)) after resistance exercise (RE). Resistance exercise consisted of 3 sets of 8 exercises (8-12 repetitions at 50-80% 1 repetition maximum). Oxygen consumption (VO2 ml·min(-1)) was measured before and after (0, 20, 40, 60, 90, and 120 minutes) RE. Immediately after cessation of RE (time 0), oxygen consumption increased in both trained and untrained women and remained significantly above baseline through 60 minutes after exercise (p consumption during recovery was 31.3 L in trained women and 27.4 L in untrained women (p = 0.07). In trained women, total oxygen consumption was strongly related to absolute (kg) lean mass (r = 0.88; p consumption (r = 0.67; p ≤ 0.05). In trained women, 86% of the variance in oxygen consumption was explained by lean mass and exercise duration, whereas volume-load explained 45% in untrained women. Our findings suggest that, in women, resistance training increases metabolic activity of lean tissue. Postexercise energy costs of RE are determined by the duration of stimulation provided by RE rather than absolute work (volume-load) performed. This phenomenon may be related to type II muscle fibers and increased protein synthesis.

  11. Effect of resistance training using bodyweight in the elderly: Comparison of resistance exercise movement between slow and normal speed movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuya; Tanimoto, Michiya; Oba, Naoko; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Miyachi, Motohiko; Ishii, Naokata

    2015-12-01

    The present study investigated whether a slow movement protocol can be applied to resistance training using bodyweight. In addition, the intervention program combined plyometric exercise with resistance exercise to improve physical function overall. A total of 39 active elderly adults participated in a 16-week intervention. The program consisted of five resistance exercises and four plyometric exercises using their own bodyweight with a single set for each exercise. Participants were assigned to one of two experimental groups. One group carried out resistance exercise with slow movement and tonic force generation (3-s concentric, 3-s eccentric and 1-s isometric actions with no rest between each repetition). The other group as a movement comparison followed the same regimen, but at normal speed (1-s eccentric and 1-s concentric actions with 1-s rest between each repetition). Muscle size, strength and physical function were measured before and after the intervention period. After the intervention, strengths of upper and lower limbs, and maximum leg extensor power were significantly improved in both groups. Muscle size did not change in either group. There were no significant differences in any of the parameters between groups. The intervention program using only own bodyweight that comprised resistance exercise with slow movement and plyometric exercise can improve physical function in the elderly, even with single sets for each exercise. However, there was no enhanced muscle hypertrophic effect. Further attempts, such as increasing performing multiple sets, would be required to induce muscle hypertrophy. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2015; 15: 1270-1277. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on resistance to fatigue of respiratory muscles during exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segizbaeva, M O; Timofeev, N N; Donina, Zh A; Kur'yanovich, E N; Aleksandrova, N P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on resistance to fatigue of the diaphragm (D), parasternal (PS), sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and scalene (SC) muscles in healthy humans during exhaustive exercise. Daily inspiratory muscle strength training was performed for 3 weeks in 10 male subjects (at a pressure threshold load of 60% of maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) for the first week, 70% of MIP for the second week, and 80% of MIP for the third week). Before and after training, subjects performed an incremental cycle test to exhaustion. Maximal inspiratory pressure and EMG-analysis served as indices of inspiratory muscle fatigue assessment. The before-to-after exercise decreases in MIP and centroid frequency (fc) of the EMG (D, PS, SCM, and SC) power spectrum (Pinspiratory muscle fatigue during exhaustive exercise, and a significant improvement in maximal work performance. We conclude that the IMT elicits resistance to the development of inspiratory muscles fatigue during high-intensity exercise.

  13. Low Intensity Resistance Exercise Training with Blood Flow Restriction: Insight into Cardiovascular Function, and Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi Sub; Harveson, Andrew; Weavil, Joshua C; Seo, Kook E.

    2015-01-01

    Attenuated functional exercise capacity in elderly and diseased populations is a common problem, and stems primarily from physical inactivity. Decreased function and exercise capacity can be restored by maintaining muscular strength and mass, which are key factors in an independent and healthy life. Resistance exercise has been used to prevent muscle loss and improve muscular strength and mass. However, the intensities necessary for traditional resistance training to increase muscular strengt...

  14. Reduced susceptibility to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage in resistance-trained men is not linked to resistance training-related neural adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Ye

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of maximal concentric vs. eccentric exercise on the isometric strength of the elbow flexor, as well as the biceps brachii muscle electromyographic (EMG responses in resistance-trained (RT vs. untrained (UT men. Thirteen RT men (age: 24 ± 4 years; height: 180.2 ± 7.7 cm; body weight: 92.2 ± 16.9 kg and twelve UT men (age: 23 ± 4 years; height: 179.2 ± 5.0 cm; body weight: 81.5 ± 8.6 kg performed six sets of ten maximal concentric isokinetic (CON or eccentric isokinetic (ECC elbow flexion exercise in two separate visits. Before and after the exercise interventions, maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs were performed for testing isometric strength. In addition, bipolar surface EMG signals were detected from the biceps brachii muscle during the strength testing. Both CON and ECC caused isometric strength to decrease, regardless of the training status. However, ECC caused greater isometric strength decline than CON did for the UT group (p = 0.006, but not for the RT group. Both EMG amplitude and mean frequency significantly decreased and increased, respectively, regardless of the training status and exercise intervention. Resistance-trained men are less susceptible to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage, but this advantage is not likely linked to the chronic resistance training-induced neural adaptations.

  15. Chronic resistance training does not affect post-exercise blood pressure in normotensive older women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerage, Aline Mendes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; do Nascimento, Matheus Amarante; Pina, Fábio Luiz Cheche; Gonçalves, Cássio Gustavo Santana; Sardinha, Luís B; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni

    2015-06-01

    Resistance training has been recommended for maintenance or improvement of the functional health of older adults, but its effect on acute cardiovascular responses remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of resistance training on post-exercise blood pressure (BP) in normotensive older women. Twenty-eight normotensive and physically inactive women (≥ 60 years) were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). The TG underwent a resistance training program (12 weeks, 8 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions, 3 days/week), while the CG performed stretching exercises (12 weeks, 2 sets, 20 s each, 2 days/week). At baseline and after the intervention, participants were randomly submitted to two experimental sessions: a resistance exercise session (7 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions) and a control session. BP was obtained pre- and post-sessions (90 min), through auscultation. Post-exercise hypotension was observed for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP in the TG (-6.1, -3.4, and -4.3 mmHg, respectively; P After the intervention period, the magnitude and pattern of this phenomenon for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP were similar between groups (TG -8.8, -4.1, and -5.7 mmHg, respectively; P exercise promotes reduction in post-exercise BP and 12 weeks of resistance training program do not change the occurrence or magnitude of this hypotension. (ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02346981).

  16. Shoulder Muscle Activation of Novice and Resistance Trained Women during Variations of Dumbbell Press Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Luczak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals ( and novice female resistance trained exercisers ( from which average EMG amplitude for each repetition phase (concentric, eccentric was computed. No significant differences were found between experienced and novice resistance trained individuals. For the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles, shoulder press activation was significantly greater than incline press which in turn was significantly greater than bench press across both phases. The bench and incline presses promoted significantly greater pectoralis major sternal activation compared to the shoulder press (both phases. While pectoralis major clavicular activation during the incline press eccentric phase was significantly greater than both the bench and shoulder presses, activation during the bench press concentric phase promoted significantly greater activation than the incline press which in turn was significantly greater than the shoulder press. These results provide evidence for selecting exercises in resistance and rehabilitation programs.

  17. Shoulder Muscle Activation of Novice and Resistance Trained Women during Variations of Dumbbell Press Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Joshua; Bosak, Andy; Riemann, Bryan L

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG) activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals (n = 12) and novice female resistance trained exercisers (n = 12) from which average EMG amplitude for each repetition phase (concentric, eccentric) was computed. No significant differences were found between experienced and novice resistance trained individuals. For the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles, shoulder press activation was significantly greater than incline press which in turn was significantly greater than bench press across both phases. The bench and incline presses promoted significantly greater pectoralis major sternal activation compared to the shoulder press (both phases). While pectoralis major clavicular activation during the incline press eccentric phase was significantly greater than both the bench and shoulder presses, activation during the bench press concentric phase promoted significantly greater activation than the incline press which in turn was significantly greater than the shoulder press. These results provide evidence for selecting exercises in resistance and rehabilitation programs.

  18. Shoulder Muscle Activation of Novice and Resistance Trained Women during Variations of Dumbbell Press Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Joshua; Bosak, Andy; Riemann, Bryan L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG) activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals (n = 12) and novice female resistance trained exercisers (n = 12) from which average EMG amplitude for each repetition phase (concentric, eccentric) was computed. No significant differences were found between experienced and novice resistance trained individuals. For the upper trapezius and anterior deltoid muscles, shoulder press activation was significantly greater than incline press which in turn was significantly greater than bench press across both phases. The bench and incline presses promoted significantly greater pectoralis major sternal activation compared to the shoulder press (both phases). While pectoralis major clavicular activation during the incline press eccentric phase was significantly greater than both the bench and shoulder presses, activation during the bench press concentric phase promoted significantly greater activation than the incline press which in turn was significantly greater than the shoulder press. These results provide evidence for selecting exercises in resistance and rehabilitation programs. PMID:26464884

  19. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Çakır-Atabek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative stress. RE trained (N=8 and untrained (N=8 men performed the leg extension RE at progressive intensities standardized for total volume: 1x17 reps at 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; 1x14 reps at 60% of 1RM; 1x12 reps at 70% of 1RM; 2x5 reps at 80% of 1RM; and 3x3 reps at 90% of 1RM. Blood samples were drawn before (PRE and immediately after each intensity, and after 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 24 hours following the RE. Lipid-hydroperoxide (LHP significantly increased during the test and then decreased during the recovery in both groups (p0.05. Standardized volume of RE increased oxidative stress responses. Our study suggests that lower intensity (50% is enough to increase LHP, whereas higher intensity (more than 80% is required to evoke protein oxidation.

  20. The effect of inspiratory muscle training on respiratory and limb locomotor muscle deoxygenation during exercise with resistive inspiratory loading.

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Louise; Tecklenburg-Lund, S.L.; Chapman, R.; Shei, R.J.; Wilhite, D.P.; Mickleborough, T.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how inspiratory muscle training impacted respiratory and locomotor muscle deoxygenation during submaximal exercise with resistive inspiratory loading. 16 male cyclists completed 6 weeks of either true (n=8) or sham (n=8) inspiratory muscle training. Pre- and post-training, subjects completed 3, 6-min experimental trials performed at ~80%  ˙VO2peak with interventions of either moderate inspiratory loading, heavy inspiratory loading, or maximal exercise imposed in the final 3 mi...

  1. The lung cancer exercise training study: a randomized trial of aerobic training, resistance training, or both in postsurgical lung cancer patients: rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford Jeffrey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lung Cancer Exercise Training Study (LUNGEVITY is a randomized trial to investigate the efficacy of different types of exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak, patient-reported outcomes, and the organ components that govern VO2peak in post-operative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Methods/Design Using a single-center, randomized design, 160 subjects (40 patients/study arm with histologically confirmed stage I-IIIA NSCLC following curative-intent complete surgical resection at Duke University Medical Center (DUMC will be potentially eligible for this trial. Following baseline assessments, eligible participants will be randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (1 aerobic training alone, (2 resistance training alone, (3 the combination of aerobic and resistance training, or (4 attention-control (progressive stretching. The ultimate goal for all exercise training groups will be 3 supervised exercise sessions per week an intensity above 70% of the individually determined VO2peak for aerobic training and an intensity between 60 and 80% of one-repetition maximum for resistance training, for 30-45 minutes/session. Progressive stretching will be matched to the exercise groups in terms of program length (i.e., 16 weeks, social interaction (participants will receive one-on-one instruction, and duration (30-45 mins/session. The primary study endpoint is VO2peak. Secondary endpoints include: patient-reported outcomes (PROs (e.g., quality of life, fatigue, depression, etc. and organ components of the oxygen cascade (i.e., pulmonary function, cardiac function, skeletal muscle function. All endpoints will be assessed at baseline and postintervention (16 weeks. Substudies will include genetic studies regarding individual responses to an exercise stimulus, theoretical determinants of exercise adherence, examination of the psychological mediators of the exercise - PRO relationship, and exercise-induced changes

  2. Resistance training versus weight-bearing aquatic exercise: a cross-sectional analysis of bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Sandor; Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da; Santana, Frederico Santos de; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Bezerra, Lídia Mara Aguiar; Balsamo, Denise Osti Coscrato; Borges, João Lindolfo Cunha; Paula, Ana Patrícia de; Bottaro, Martim

    2013-04-01

    Many studies have shown that resistance training has a positive effect on bone mineral density (BMD). However, few studies have compared the BMD of individuals undergoing resistance training and those training aquatic weight-bearing exercises. To compare, in a cross-sectional study, the BMD of postmenopausal women undergoing resistance training and postmenopausal women training aquatic weight-bearing exercises. The sample comprised 63 women divided into the following three groups: resistance training (STRENGTH: n = 15; 51.4 ± 2.7 years); aquatic weight-bearing exercises (WA-TER: n = 22; 54.5 ± 3.3 years); and non-trained controls ( n = 26; 52.0 ± 3.3 years). All volunteers were on hormone replacement therapy for at least one year. The STRENGTH and WATER groups were training for at least one year prior to study beginning (mean years of training - STRENGTH: 4.5 ± 2.0; WATER: 4.2 ± 2.2). The STRENGTH group had higher BMD of total body, femoral neck, lumbar spine L2-L4 as compared with the CONTROL group (all P aquatic weight-bearing exercises might be a non-pharmacological strategy to prevent BMD loss in postmenopausal women. 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Protein supplementation during resistance-type exercise training in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Marika; Verdijk, Lex B; Van der Hoeven, Letty; Van Kranenburg, Janneau; Nilwik, Rachel; Wodzig, Will K W H; Senden, Joan M G; Keizer, Hans A; Van Loon, Luc J C

    2013-03-01

    Resistance training has been well established as an effective treatment strategy to increase skeletal muscle mass and strength in the elderly. We assessed whether dietary protein supplementation can further augment the adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training in healthy elderly men and women. Healthy elderly men (n = 31, 70 ± 1 yr) and women (n = 29, 70 ± 1 yr) were randomly assigned to a progressive, 24-wk resistance-type exercise training program with or without additional protein supplementation (15 g·d-1). Muscle hypertrophy was assessed on a whole-body Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), limb (computed tomography), and muscle fiber (biopsy) level. Strength was assessed regularly by 1-repetition maximum (RM) strength testing. Functional capacity was assessed with a sit-to-stand and handgrip test. One-RM strength increased by 45% ± 6% versus 40% ± 3% (women) and 41% ± 4% versus 44% ± 3% (men) in the placebo versus protein group, respectively (P muscle mass (women, 4% ± 1% vs 3% ± 1%; men, 3% ± 1% vs 3% ± 1%) and quadriceps cross-sectional area (women, 9% ± 1% vs 9% ± 1%; men, 9% ± 1% vs 10% ± 1%) increased similarly in the placebo versus protein groups (P muscle fiber size increased over time in both placebo and protein groups (25% ± 13% vs 30% ± 9% and 23% ± 12% vs 22% ± 10% in the women and men, respectively). Sit-to-stand improved by 18% ± 2% and 19% ± 2% in women and men, respectively (P training increases skeletal muscle mass and strength, augments functional capacity, improves glycemia and lipidemia, and reduces blood pressure in healthy elderly men and women. Additional protein supplementation (15 g·d-1) does not further increase muscle mass, strength, and/or functional capacity.

  4. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice: A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2018-04-15

    Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength training methods, burrowing (digging a substrate out of a tube) and unloaded tower climbing, in male C57Bl6 mice. To compare these two novel methods with existing exercise methods, resistance running and (non-resistance) running were included. Motor coordination, grip strength and muscle fatigue were measured at baseline, halfway through and near the end of a fourteen week exercise intervention. Endurance was measured by an incremental treadmill test after twelve weeks. Both burrowing and resistance running improved forelimb grip strength as compared to controls. Running and resistance running increased endurance in the treadmill test and improved motor skills as measured by the balance beam test. Post-mortem tissue analyses revealed that running and resistance running induced Soleus muscle hypertrophy and reduced epididymal fat mass. Tower climbing elicited no functional or muscular changes. As a voluntary strength exercise method, burrowing avoids the confounding effects of stress and positive reinforcers elicited in forced strength exercise methods. Compared to voluntary resistance running, burrowing likely reduces the contribution of aerobic exercise components. Burrowing qualifies as a suitable voluntary strength training method in mice. Furthermore, resistance running shares features of strength training and endurance (aerobic) exercise and should be considered a multi-modal aerobic-strength exercise method in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of exercise training on cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, G. W.; Convertino, V. A.; Nadel, E. R.

    1993-01-01

    We studied the stimulus-response characteristics of cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance (FVR) in four groups of male volunteer subjects: i) unfit, ii) physically fit, iii) before and after 10 wk of endurance training (chronic blood volume expansion), and iv) before and after acute blood volume expansion. We assessed the relationship between reflex stimulus, i.e., changes in central venous pressure and response, i.e., FVR, during unloading of cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors with lower body negative pressure (LBNP, 0 to -20 mm Hg). The slope of the linear relationship between FVR and CVP, the index of the responsiveness of this baroreflex, was significantly diminished (> 50%) in the fit subjects compared with the unfit. The slope of the FVR-CVP relationship was inversely correlated with the subject's total blood volume, suggesting that blood volume expansion was related to the attenuated CP baroreflex. In the exercise training study, maximal oxygen consumption and blood volume increased following 10 wk of endurance training (N = 14) but were unchanged in the time control group (N = 7). The slope of the FVR-CVP relationship was significantly reduced (32%) following 10 wk of training but was unchanged in the time control group. The reduction in slope of the FVR-CVP relationship was inversely related to the increase in blood volume associated with exercise training. Acute blood volume expansion 8 ml.kg-1 body weight with 5% human serum albumin solution) significantly reduced the slope of the FVR-CVP relationship. These data support the hypothesis that the attenuated forearm vascular reflex in physically fit individuals is related to a training-induced hypervolemia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  6. Protein supplementation before and after exercise does not further augment skeletal muscle hypertrophy after resistance training in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdijk, Lex B; Jonkers, Richard A M; Gleeson, Benjamin G; Beelen, Milou; Meijer, Kenneth; Savelberg, Hans H C M; Wodzig, Will K W H; Dendale, Paul; van Loon, Luc J C

    2009-02-01

    Considerable discrepancy exists in the literature on the proposed benefits of protein supplementation on the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to resistance-type exercise training in the elderly. The objective was to assess the benefits of timed protein supplementation on the increase in muscle mass and strength during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in healthy elderly men who habitually consume adequate amounts of dietary protein. Healthy elderly men (n = 26) aged 72 +/- 2 y were randomly assigned to a progressive, 12-wk resistance-type exercise training program with (protein group) or without (placebo group) protein provided before and immediately after each exercise session (3 sessions/wk, 20 g protein/session). One-repetition maximum (1RM) tests were performed regularly to ensure a progressive workload during the intervention. Muscle hypertrophy was assessed at the whole-body (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), limb (computed tomography), and muscle fiber (biopsy) level. The 1RM strength increased approximately 25-35% in both groups (P hypertrophy was greater in type II (placebo: 28 +/- 6%; protein: 29 +/- 4%) than in type I (placebo: 5 +/- 4%; protein: 13 +/- 6%) fibers, but the difference between groups was not significant. Timed protein supplementation immediately before and after exercise does not further augment the increase in skeletal muscle mass and strength after prolonged resistance-type exercise training in healthy elderly men who habitually consume adequate amounts of dietary protein. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00744094.

  7. Changes in myonuclear domain size do not precede muscle hypertrophy during prolonged resistance-type exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, T; Smeets, J S J; van Kranenburg, J; Kies, A K; van Loon, L J C; Verdijk, L B

    2016-02-01

    Muscle fibre hypertrophy is accompanied by an increase in myonuclear number, an increase in myonuclear domain size or both. It has been suggested that increases in myonuclear domain size precede myonuclear accretion and subsequent muscle fibre hypertrophy during prolonged exercise training. In this study, we assessed the changes in muscle fibre size, myonuclear and satellite cell content throughout 12 weeks of resistance-type exercise training in young men. Twenty-two young men (23 ± 1 year) were assigned to a progressive, 12-weeks resistance-type exercise training programme (3 sessions per week). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken before and after 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of exercise training. Muscle fibre size, myonuclear content, myonuclear domain size and satellite cell content were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Type I and type II muscle fibre size increased gradually throughout the 12 weeks of training (type I: 18 ± 5%, type II: 41 ± 6%, P muscle fibres. No changes in type I and type II myonuclear domain size were observed at any time point throughout the intervention. Satellite cell content increased significantly over time in both type I and type II muscle fibres (P muscle fibre hypertrophy during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in vivo in humans. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The effects of adding single-joint exercises to a multi-joint exercise resistance training program on upper body muscle strength and size in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de França, Henrique Silvestre; Branco, Paulo Alexandre Nordeste; Guedes Junior, Dilmar Pinto; Gentil, Paulo; Steele, James; Teixeira, Cauê Vazquez La Scala

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was compare changes in upper body muscle strength and size in trained men performing resistance training (RT) programs involving multi-joint plus single-joint (MJ+SJ) or only multi-joint (MJ) exercises. Twenty young men with at least 2 years of experience in RT were randomized in 2 groups: MJ+SJ (n = 10; age, 27.7 ± 6.6 years) and MJ (n = 10; age, 29.4 ± 4.6 years). Both groups trained for 8 weeks following a linear periodization model. Measures of elbow flexors and extensors 1-repetition maximum (1RM), flexed arm circumference (FAC), and arm muscle circumference (AMC) were taken pre- and post-training period. Both groups significantly increased 1RM for elbow flexion (4.99% and 6.42% for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), extension (10.60% vs 9.79%, for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), FAC (1.72% vs 1.45%, for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), and AMC (1.33% vs 3.17% for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively). Comparison between groups revealed no significant difference in any variable. In conclusion, 8 weeks of RT involving MJ or MJ+SJ resulted in similar alterations in muscle strength and size in trained participants. Therefore, the addition of SJ exercises to a RT program involving MJ exercises does not seem to promote additional benefits to trained men, suggesting MJ-only RT to be a time-efficient approach.

  9. Normobaric hypoxia increases the growth hormone response to maximal resistance exercise in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filopoulos, Dean; Cormack, Stuart J; Whyte, Douglas G

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the effect of hypoxia on growth hormone (GH) release during an acute bout of high-intensity, low-volume resistance exercise. Using a single-blinded, randomised crossover design, 16 resistance-trained males completed two resistance exercise sessions in normobaric hypoxia (HYP; inspiratory oxygen fraction, (FiO 2 ) 0.12, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) 82 ± 2%) and normoxia (NOR; FiO 2 0.21, SpO 2 98 ± 0%). Each session consisted of five sets of three repetitions of 45° leg press and bench press at 85% of one repetition maximum. Heart rate, SpO 2 , and electromyographic activity (EMG) of the vastus lateralis muscle were measured throughout the protocol. Serum lactate and GH levels were determined pre-exposure, and at 5, 15, 30 and 60 min post-exercise. Differences in mean and integrated EMG between HYP and NOR treatments were unclear. However, there was an important increase in the peak levels and area under the curve of both lactate (HYP 5.8 ± 1.8 v NOR 3.9 ± 1.1 mmol.L -1 and HYP 138.7 ± 33.1 v NOR 105.8 ± 20.8 min.mmol.L -1 ) and GH (HYP 4.4 ± 3.1 v NOR 2.1 ± 2.5 ng.mL -1 and HYP 117.7 ± 86.9 v NOR 72.9 ± 85.3 min.ng.mL -1 ) in response to HYP. These results suggest that performing high-intensity resistance exercise in a hypoxic environment may provide a beneficial endocrine response without compromising the neuromuscular activation required for maximal strength development.

  10. Specific balance training included in an endurance-resistance exercise program improves postural balance in elderly patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frih, Bechir; Mkacher, Wajdi; Jaafar, Hamdi; Frih, Ameur; Ben Salah, Zohra; El May, Mezry; Hammami, Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6 months of specific balance training included in endurance-resistance program on postural balance in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Forty-nine male patients undergoing HD were randomly assigned to an intervention group (balance training included in an endurance-resistance training, n = 26) or a control group (resistance-endurance training only, n = 23). Postural control was assessed using six clinical tests; Timed Up and Go test, Tinetti Mobility Test, Berg Balance Scale, Unipodal Stance test, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Activities Balance Confidence scale. All balance measures increased significantly after the period of rehabilitation training in the intervention group. Only the Timed Up and Go, Berg Balance Scale, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Activities Balance Confidence scores were improved in the control group. The ranges of change in these tests were greater in the balance training group. In HD patients, specific balance training included in a usual endurance-resistance training program improves static and dynamic balance better than endurance-resistance training only. Implications for rehabilitation Rehabilitation using exercise in haemodialysis patients improved global mobility and functional abilities. Specific balance training included in usual endurance resistance training program could lead to improved static and dynamic balance.

  11. Resistance exercise training increases the expression of irisin concomitant with improvement of muscle function in aging mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Jae; So, Byunghun; Choi, Mijung; Kang, Dongheon; Song, Wook

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the effect of resistance training on irisin expression with improvement in muscle strength and function in aged mice and human. In the mice study, 19 months old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into two groups; control group and resistance exercise group. Ladder climbing exercise with tail weight was performed 3 days per week for 12 weeks. In the human study, participants (aged over 65 years) were randomly assigned into exercise group or control group. Elastic band exercise program consisted of 12 weeks of 1-h session 2 days per week. In the mice study, we found an increase of irisin in serum and soleus muscle as well as improvement in muscle strength (p=0.02) and muscle quality (p=0.03) without body composition change in training animals. In the human study, isokinetic leg strength and grip strength were improved in the exercise group compared to the control group without change of body composition. In addition, the level of circulating irisin level was increased. It had a positive correlation with grip strength (R=0.526, p=0.002) and leg strength (R=0.414, p=0.003) in the exercise group. Thus, resistant training might be an efficient intervention method to increase irisin levels and prevent age-related decline in muscle function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bone metabolism and hand grip strength response to aerobic versus resistance exercise training in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shreef, Fadwa M; Al-Jiffri, Osama H; Abd El-Kader, Shehab M

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been shown in many studies to be associated with reduced bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Currently, our understanding of how to use exercise effectively in diabetic patients in prevention of osteoporosis is incomplete and has prompted our interest to identify the type of effective osteogenic exercise. The aim of this study was to compare the changes in handgrip strength and bone metabolism after 6 months between aerobic and resistance exercise training in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients in Jeddah area. One hundred non-insulin dependent diabetic male patients participated in this study and were divided into two equal groups; the first group (A) received aerobic exercise training, where the second group (B) received resistance exercise training. The program consisted of three sessions per week for six months. The mean values of serum calcium and Hand grip strength were significantly increased, while the mean values of parathyroid hormone were significantly decreased in both groups .Also, there were significant differences between mean levels of the investigated parameters in group (A) and group (B) after treatment. Aerobic exercise training on treadmill is appropriate to improve markers of bone metabolism and hand grip strength in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients.

  13. Aerobic versus resistance exercise training in modulation of insulin resistance, adipocytokines and inflammatory cytokine levels in obese type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehab M. Abd El-Kader

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested that adipocytokines secreted by adipose tissue play a role in the development of obesity-related complications and diabetes. Regular aerobic exercise has been shown to reduce the risk of metabolic complications in obese type 2 diabetic subjects. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of aerobic versus resistance training on insulin resistance, adipocytokines and inflammatory cytokine in obese type 2 diabetic patients. Forty obese type 2 diabetic patients of both sexes with body mass index (BMI ranging from 31 to 35 kg/m2, non smokers, and free from respiratory, kidney, liver, metabolic and neurological disorders, were selected for this study. Their ages ranged from 34 to 56 years. The subjects were divided into two equal groups: the first group received aerobic exercise training. The second group (B received resisted exercise training three times a week for three months. The mean values of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA index for insulin sensitivity and glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1c, were significantly decreased in both groups. Also, there was a significant difference between the groups after treatment on all measured variables. It is suggested that in obese type 2 diabetic patients aerobic exercise is more appropriate for modulating insulin resistance, adipocytokines and inflammatory cytokine levels than is resisted exercise training.

  14. [Effects of aerobic exercise combined with resistance training on the cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise capacity of patients with stable coronary artery disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S X; Chen, Y Y; Xie, K L; Zhang, W L

    2017-12-24

    Objective: To observe the effects of aerobic exercise combined with resistance training on the cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise capacity of patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) . Methods: From June 2014 to December 2015, 73 patients with stable CAD in our department were recruited and randomly assigned to two groups: the control group ( n= 38) and the exercise group ( n= 35) . Patients in both groups received conventional medical treatment for CAD and related cardiac health education. While for patients in exercise group, a twelve-week aerobic exercise combined with resistance training program were applied on top of conventional treatment and health education. Cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise capacity were evaluated by cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Results: (1) The exercise capacity was significantly increased in the exercise group after 12 weeks training as compared to baseline level: peak oxygen uptake per kilogram ( (26.25±5.14) ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) vs. (20.88±4.59) ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) , anaerobic threshold ( (15.24±2.75) ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) vs. (13.52±2.92) ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)], peak oxygen pulse ( (11.91±2.89) ml/beat vs. (9.77±2.49) ml/beat) , peak Watts ( (113.2±34.0) W vs. (103.7±27.9) W) , peak metabolic equivalent ( (7.57±1.46) METs vs. (6.00±1.32) METs) (all Pexercise group than in control group (all Pcoronary artery disease. This combined exercise program can significantly improve the cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise capacity of patients with stable coronary artery disease.

  15. EFFECT OF AEROBIC EXERCISE, RESISTANCE TRAINING OR COMBINED TRAINING ON GLYCAEMIC CONTROL AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mobasseri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has been proven as a useful intervention for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The purpose of this article was to compare the effects of aerobic exercise alone and resistance training alone as well as the combination of aerobic plus resistance training on glycaemic control, cardiovascular risk factors, and body composition in patients with T2DM. Eighty T2DM participants (37 men, 43 women, aged 33-69 years, were randomly divided in equal numbers (n=20 into one of four groups (aerobic, resistance, combined training, and control. Exercise training was performed three times per week for 52 weeks. After one year, 60 subjects (15 subjects in each group were entered into the statistical analysis. Seventeen parameters were evaluated. Mean HbA1c showed statistically significant reductions in the three training groups. All subjects of training groups experienced improvement in postprandial glucose, blood pressure, VO2max, and muscular percentage. Furthermore, the reduced concentration of plasma triglycerides was significant in both aerobic exercise and combined training groups. Also, a significant reduction was observed in body fat percentage in resistance and combined groups. Combination of two forms of exercise training led to an additional improvement in some of the parameters such as A1c and triglycerides compared with aerobic alone or resistance training alone. In general, the reported results in previous studies were not obtained for whole lipid profile and BMI. Both aerobic and resistance training are effective interventions for the management of T2DM complications, but combined training is associated with greater positive changes.

  16. Effectiveness of functional progressive resistance exercise training on walking ability in children with cerebral palsy: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtes, V.A.; Becher, J.G.; Janssen-Potten, Y.J.; Dekkers, H.; Smallenbroek, L.; Dallmeijer, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of functional progressive resistance exercise (PRE) training on walking ability in children with cerebral palsy (CP).Fifty-one ambulant children with spastic CP (mean age 10 years 5 months, 29 boys) were randomized to an intervention (n=

  17. Effectiveness of Functional Progressive Resistance Exercise Training on Walking Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtes, Vanessa A.; Becher, Jules G.; Janssen-Potten, Yvonne J.; Dekkers, Hurnet; Smallenbroek, Linda; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of functional progressive resistance exercise (PRE) training on walking ability in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Fifty-one ambulant children with spastic CP (mean age 10 years 5 months, 29 boys) were randomized to an intervention (n=26) or control group (n=25, receiving usual care).…

  18. Effects of weightlifting exercise, traditional resistance and plyometric training on countermovement jump performance: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Ricardo; Lixandrão, Manoel E; Pinto E Silva, Claudio M; Tricoli, Valmor

    2018-02-01

    Jump performance is considered an important factor in many sports. Thus, strategies such as weightlifting (WL) exercises, traditional resistance training (TRT) and plyometric training (PT) are effective at improving jump performance. However, it is not entirely clear which of these strategies can enable greater improvements on jump height. Thus, the purpose of the meta-analysis was to compare the improvements on countermovement jump (CMJ) performance between training methods which focus on WL exercises, TRT, and PT. Seven studies were included, of which one study performed both comparison. Therefore, four studies comparing WL exercises vs. TRT (total n = 78) and four studies comparing WL exercises vs. PT (total n = 76). The results showed greater improvements on CMJ performance for WL exercises compared to TRT (ES diff : 0.72 ± 0.23; 95% CI: 0.26, 1.19; P = 0.002; Δ % = 7.5 and 2.1, respectively). The comparison between WL exercises vs. PT revealed no significant difference between protocols (ES diff : 0.15 ± 0.23; 95% CI: -0.30, 0.60; P = 0.518; Δ % = 8.8 and 8.1, respectively). In conclusion, WL exercises are superior to promote positive changes on CMJ performance compared to TRT; however, WL exercises and PT are equally effective at improving CMJ performance.

  19. Resistance Exercise Training-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy Was Associated with Reduction of Inflammatory Markers in Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishiko Ogawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with low-grade inflammation. The benefits of regular exercise for the elderly are well established, whereas less is known about the impact of low-intensity resistance exercise on low-grade inflammation in the elderly. Twenty-one elderly women (mean age ± SD, 85.0 ± 4.5 years participated in 12 weeks of resistance exercise training. Muscle thickness and circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, serum amyloid A (SAA, heat shock protein (HSP70, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1, IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were measured before and after the exercise training. Training reduced the circulating levels of CRP, SAA (P<.05, HSP70, IGF-I, and insulin (P<.01. The training-induced reductions in CRP and TNF-α were significantly (P<.01, P<.05 associated with increased muscle thickness (r=−0.61, r=−0.54, respectively. None of the results were significant after applying a Bonferroni correction. Resistance training may assist in maintaining or improving muscle volume and reducing low-grade inflammation.

  20. Resistance Versus Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Jane E.; Kenny, Glen P.; Perkins, Bruce A.; Riddell, Michael C.; Balaa, Nadia; Malcolm, Janine; Boulay, Pierre; Khandwala, Farah; Sigal, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In type 1 diabetes, small studies have found that resistance exercise (weight lifting) reduces HbA1c. In the current study, we examined the acute impacts of resistance exercise on glycemia during exercise and in the subsequent 24 h compared with aerobic exercise and no exercise. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twelve physically active individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 7.1 ± 1.0%) performed 45 min of resistance exercise (three sets of seven exercises at eight repetitions maximum), 45 min of aerobic exercise (running at 60% of Vo2max), or no exercise on separate days. Plasma glucose was measured during and for 60 min after exercise. Interstitial glucose was measured by continuous glucose monitoring 24 h before, during, and 24 h after exercise. RESULTS Treatment-by-time interactions (P exercise. Plasma glucose decreased from 8.4 ± 2.7 to 6.8 ± 2.3 mmol/L (P = 0.008) during resistance exercise and from 9.2 ± 3.4 to 5.8 ± 2.0 mmol/L (P = 0.001) during aerobic exercise. No significant changes were seen during the no-exercise control session. During recovery, glucose levels did not change significantly after resistance exercise but increased by 2.2 ± 0.6 mmol/L (P = 0.023) after aerobic exercise. Mean interstitial glucose from 4.5 to 6.0 h postexercise was significantly lower after resistance exercise versus aerobic exercise. CONCLUSIONS Resistance exercise causes less initial decline in blood glucose during the activity but is associated with more prolonged reductions in postexercise glycemia than aerobic exercise. This might account for HbA1c reductions found in studies of resistance exercise but not aerobic exercise in type 1 diabetes. PMID:23172972

  1. Fasting: a major limitation for resistance exercise training effects in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. das Neves

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Protocols that mimic resistance exercise training (RET in rodents present several limitations, one of them being the electrical stimulus, which is beyond the physiological context observed in humans. Recently, our group developed a conditioning system device that does not use electric shock to stimulate rats, but includes fasting periods before each RET session. The current study was designed to test whether cumulative fasting periods have some influence on skeletal muscle mass and function. Three sets of male Wistar rats were used in the current study. The first set of rats was submitted to a RET protocol without food restriction. However, rats were not able to perform exercise properly. The second and third sets were then randomly assigned into three experimental groups: 1 untrained control rats, 2 untrained rats submitted to fasting periods, and 3 rats submitted to RET including fasting periods before each RET session. While the second set of rats performed a short RET protocol (i.e., an adaptation protocol for 3 weeks, the third set of rats performed a longer RET protocol including overload (i.e., 8 weeks. After the short-term protocol, cumulative fasting periods promoted loss of weight (P0.05 for all. Despite no effects on EDL mass, soleus muscle displayed significant atrophy in the fasting experimental groups (P<0.01. Altogether, these data indicate that fasting is a major limitation for RET in rats.

  2. Fasting: a major limitation for resistance exercise training effects in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, W; de Oliveira, L F; da Silva, R P; Alves, C R R; Lancha, A H

    2017-11-17

    Protocols that mimic resistance exercise training (RET) in rodents present several limitations, one of them being the electrical stimulus, which is beyond the physiological context observed in humans. Recently, our group developed a conditioning system device that does not use electric shock to stimulate rats, but includes fasting periods before each RET session. The current study was designed to test whether cumulative fasting periods have some influence on skeletal muscle mass and function. Three sets of male Wistar rats were used in the current study. The first set of rats was submitted to a RET protocol without food restriction. However, rats were not able to perform exercise properly. The second and third sets were then randomly assigned into three experimental groups: 1) untrained control rats, 2) untrained rats submitted to fasting periods, and 3) rats submitted to RET including fasting periods before each RET session. While the second set of rats performed a short RET protocol (i.e., an adaptation protocol for 3 weeks), the third set of rats performed a longer RET protocol including overload (i.e., 8 weeks). After the short-term protocol, cumulative fasting periods promoted loss of weight (P0.05 for all). Despite no effects on EDL mass, soleus muscle displayed significant atrophy in the fasting experimental groups (Pfasting is a major limitation for RET in rats.

  3. Analysis of Wearable and Smartphone-Based Technologies for the Measurement of Barbell Velocity in Different Resistance Training Exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández; Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández; David Marchante; Eneko Baz-Valle; Iván Alonso-Molero; Sergio L. Jiménez; Mario Muñóz-López

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the validity, reliability, and accuracy of new wearable and smartphone-based technology for the measurement of barbell velocity in resistance training exercises. To do this, 10 highly trained powerlifters (age = 26.1 ± 3.9 years) performed 11 repetitions with loads ranging 50–100% of the 1-Repetition maximum in the bench-press, full-squat, and hip-thrust exercises while barbell velocity was simultaneously measured using a linear transducer (LT), two Be...

  4. An economic evaluation of resistance training and aerobic training versus balance and toning exercises in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Davis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI represents a critical window to intervene against dementia. Exercise training is a promising intervention strategy, but the efficiency (i.e., relationship of costs and consequences of such types of training remains unknown. Thus, we estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness of resistance training or aerobic training compared with balance and tone exercises in terms of changes in executive cognitive function among senior women with probable MCI. METHODS: Economic evaluation conducted concurrently with a six-month three arm randomized controlled trial including eighty-six community dwelling women aged 70 to 80 years living in Vancouver, Canada. Participants received twice-weekly resistance training (n = 28, twice weekly aerobic training (n = 30 or twice-weekly balance and tone (control group classes (n = 28 for 6 months. The primary outcome measure of the Exercise for Cognition and Everyday Living (EXCEL study assessed executive cognitive function, a test of selective attention and conflict resolution (i.e., Stroop Test. We collected healthcare resource utilization costs over six months. RESULTS: Based on the bootstrapped estimates from our base case analysis, we found that both the aerobic training and resistance training interventions were less costly than twice weekly balance and tone classes. Compared with the balance and tone group, the resistance-training group had significantly improved performance on the Stroop Test (p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance training and aerobic training result in health care cost saving and are more effective than balance and tone classes after only 6 months of intervention. Resistance training is a promising strategy to alter the trajectory of cognitive decline in seniors with MCI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00958867.

  5. Considerations of the Principles of Resistance Training in Exercise Studies for the Management of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshull, Claire; Gleeson, Nigel

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the methodologic quality of resistance training interventions for the management of knee osteoarthritis. A search of the literature for studies published up to August 10, 2015, was performed on MEDLINE (OVID platform), PubMed, Embase, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database databases. Search terms associated with osteoarthritis, knee, and muscle resistance exercise were used. Studies were included in the review if they were published in the English language and met the following criteria: (1) muscle resistance training was the primary intervention; (2) randomized controlled trial design; (3) treatment arms included at least a muscle conditioning intervention and a nonexercise group; and (4) participants had osteoarthritis of the knee. Studies using preoperative (joint replacement) interventions with only postoperative outcomes were excluded. The search yielded 1574 results. The inclusion criteria were met by 34 studies. Two reviewers independently screened the articles for eligibility. Critical appraisal of the methodology was assessed according to the principles of resistance training and separately for the reporting of adherence using a specially designed scoring system. A rating for each article was assigned. There were 34 studies that described a strength training focus of the intervention; however, the principles of resistance training were inconsistently applied and inadequately reported across all. Methods for adherence monitoring were incorporated into the design of 28 of the studies, but only 13 reported sufficient detail to estimate average dose of exercise. These findings affect the interpretation of the efficacy of muscle resistance exercise in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Clinicians and health care professionals cannot be confident whether nonsignificant findings are because of the lack of efficacy of muscle resistance interventions, or occur through limitations in treatment prescription and patient adherence. Future research that

  6. Review: Multiple sclerosis and physical exercise: recommendations for the application of resistance-, endurance- and combined training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Stenager, Egon; Ingemann-Hansen, T

    2008-01-01

    not to participate in physical exercise. During recent years, it has been increasingly acknowledged that exercise benefits MS patients. The requirement for exercise in MS patients is emphasized by their physiological profile, which probably reflects both the effects of the disease per se and the reversible effects......This review summarizes the existing knowledge regarding the effects of physical exercise in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS). Furthermore, recommendations are given regarding exercise prescription for MS patients and for future study directions. Previously, MS patients were advised...... of an inactive lifestyle. To date the effects of exercise have only been studied in moderately impaired MS patients with an EDSS score of less than 7. Evidence exists for recommending participation in endurance training at low to moderate intensity, as the existing literature demonstrates that MS patients can...

  7. 16 Weeks of Training with the International Space Station Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) Is not Different than Training with Free Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. E.; Leach, M.; Bentley, J.; Nash, R.; Hagan, R. D.

    2008-01-01

    The advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) is a resistive exercise system designed to maintain muscle mass and strength in microgravity by simulating free weight (FW) exercise. aRED utilizes vacuum cylinders and inertial flywheels to replicate the constant mass and inertial components, respectively, of FW exercise in normal gravity. PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of aRED and FW resistive exercise training in ambulatory subjects. METHODS: Untrained subjects were assigned to two groups, FW (6 males, 3 females) and aRED (8 males, 3 females), and performed squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift (DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR and DL strength (1RM) were measured using FW hardware pre-, mid- and post-training. Subjects participated in a periodized training protocol with the exercise prescription based on a percentage of 1RM. Thigh and lower leg muscle volume were assessed using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and leg (LLM) and total body lean mass (BLM) were measured using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) pre- and post-training. RESULTS: SQ 1RM increased in both FW (48.9+/-6.1%) and aRED (31.2+/-3.8%) groups, and there was a greater training response in FW compared with aRED (p=0.01). HR and DL 1RM increased in FW (HR: 12.3+/-2.4%, DL: 23.3+/-4.4%) and aRED (HR: 18.0+/-1.6%, DL: 23.2+'-2.8%), but there were no differences between groups. Thigh muscle volume was greater following training in both groups (FW: 9.8+/-0.9%, aRED: 7.1+/-1.2%) but lower leg muscle volume increased only in the FW group (3.0+/-1.1%). Lean tissue mass increased in both FW (LLM: 3.9+/-1.1%, BLM: 2.5+/-0.7%) and aRED (LLM: 4.8+/-0.7%, BLM: 2.6 0.7%). There were no between group differences in muscle volume or lean mass in response to training. CONCLUSIONS: In general, the increase in muscle strength, muscle volume, and lean tissue mass when training with aRED was not different than when using the same training protocol with FW. The smaller increase in SQ 1RM in the a

  8. Evaluating the Training Effects of Two Swallowing Rehabilitation Therapies Using Surface Electromyography--Chin Tuck Against Resistance (CTAR) Exercise and the Shaker Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Wei Ping; Yoon, Wai Lam; Escoffier, Nicolas; Rickard Liow, Susan J

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the efficacy of two dysphagia interventions, the Chin Tuck against Resistance (CTAR) and Shaker exercises, were evaluated based on two principles in exercise science-muscle-specificity and training intensity. Both exercises were developed to strengthen the suprahyoid muscles, whose contractions facilitate the opening of the upper esophageal sphincter, thereby improving bolus transfer. Thirty-nine healthy adults performed two trials of both exercises in counter-balanced order. Surface electromyography (sEMG) recordings were simultaneously collected from suprahyoid muscle group and sternocleidomastoid muscle during the exercises. Converging results using sEMG amplitude analyses suggested that the CTAR was more specific in targeting the suprahyoid muscles than the Shaker exercise. Fatigue analyses on sEMG signals further indicated that the suprahyoid muscle group were equally or significantly fatigued (depending on metric), when participants carried out CTAR compared to the Shaker exercise. Importantly, unlike during Shaker exercise, the sternocleidomastoid muscles were significantly less activated and fatigued during CTAR. Lowering the chin against resistance is therefore sufficiently specific and intense to fatigue the suprahyoid muscles.

  9. National Strength and Conditioning Association Position Statement: Health Aspects of Resistance Exercise and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Michael S.; Rozenek, Ralph

    2001-01-01

    Resistance training may enhance cardiovascular health, improve body composition, increase bone mineral density, reduce anxiety and depression, reduce the risk of injury during other sports, and increase muscular strength and endurance. The paper describes the effects of resistance training on: the cardiovascular system, energy expenditure and body…

  10. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, A.M.; Bagatini, M.D.; Roth, M.A.; Martins, C.C.; Rezer, J.F.P.; Mello, F.F.; Lopes, L.F.D.; Morsch, V.M.; Schetinger, M.R.C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity

  11. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12, spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12, and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10. In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05. Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group was observed (P < 0.05. A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05. These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  12. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, A.M. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Bagatini, M.D. [Curso de Enfermagem, Campus Chapecó, Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, SC (Brazil); Roth, M.A. [Departamento de Desportos Individuais, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Martins, C.C.; Rezer, J.F.P. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Mello, F.F. [Departamento de Desportos Individuais, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Lopes, L.F.D. [Departamento de Administração, Centro de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Morsch, V.M.; Schetinger, M.R.C. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2012-10-26

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  13. Chest Press Exercises With Different Stability Requirements Result in Similar Muscle Damage Recovery in Resistance-Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Diogo V; Ferreira-Júnior, João B; Soares, Saulo R S; Cadore, Eduardo L; Izquierdo, Mikel; Brown, Lee E; Bottaro, Martim

    2017-01-01

    Ferreira, DV, Ferreira-Júnior, JB, Soares, SRS, Cadore, EL, Izquierdo, M, Brown, LE, and Bottaro, M. Chest press exercises with different stability requirements result in similar muscle damage recovery in resistance trained men. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 71-79, 2017-This study investigated the time course of 96 hours of muscle recovery after 3 different chest press exercises with different stability requirements in resistance-trained men. Twenty-seven men (23.5 ± 3.8 years) were randomly assigned to one of the 3 groups: (a) Smith machine bench press; (b) barbell bench press; or (c) dumbbell bench press. Participants performed 8 sets of 10 repetition maximum with 2 minutes rest between sets. Muscle thickness, peak torque (PT), and soreness were measured pre, post, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after exercise. There were no differences in the time course of PT or muscle thickness values of the pectoralis major (p = 0.98 and p = 0.91, respectively) or elbow extensors (p = 0.07 and p = 0.86, respectively) between groups. Muscle soreness of the pectoralis major was also not different between groups (p > 0.05). However, the Smith machine and barbell groups recovered from triceps brachii muscle soreness by 72 hours after exercise (p > 0.05), whereas the dumbbell group did not present any triceps brachii muscle soreness after exercise (p > 0.05). In conclusion, resistance-trained men experience similar muscle damage recovery after Smith machine, barbell, and dumbbell chest press exercise. However, muscle soreness of the elbow extensors takes a longer time to recover after using a barbell chest press exercise.

  14. Remote Adaptive Motor Resistance Training Exercise Apparatus and Method of Use Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Alton (Inventor); Shaw, James (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The invention comprises a method and/or an apparatus using a computer configured exercise system equipped with an electric motor to provide physical resistance to user motion in conjunction with means for sharing exercise system related data and/or user performance data with a secondary user, such as a medical professional, a physical therapist, a trainer, a computer generated competitor, and/or a human competitor. For example, the exercise system is used with a remote trainer to enhance exercise performance, with a remote medical professional for rehabilitation, and/or with a competitor in a competition, such as in a power/weightlifting competition or in a video game. The exercise system is optionally configured with an intelligent software assistant and knowledge navigator functioning as a personal assistant application.

  15. Concurrent training: a meta-analysis examining interference of aerobic and resistance exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jacob M; Marin, Pedro J; Rhea, Matthew R; Wilson, Stephanie M C; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Anderson, Jody C

    2012-08-01

    The primary objective of this investigation was to identify which components of endurance training (e.g., modality, duration, frequency) are detrimental to resistance training outcomes. A meta-analysis of 21 studies was performed with a total of 422 effect sizes (ESs). Criteria for the study included were (a) compare strength training alone to strength plus endurance training (concurrent) or to compare combinations of concurrent training; (b) the outcome measures include at least one measure of strength, power, or hypertrophy; and (c) the data necessary to calculate ESs must be included or available. The mean ES for hypertrophy for strength training was 1.23; for endurance training, it was 0.27; and for concurrent training, it was 0.85, with strength and concurrent training being significantly greater than endurance training only. The mean ES for strength development for strength training was 1.76; for endurance training, it was 0.78; and for concurrent training, it was 1.44. Strength and concurrent training was significantly greater than endurance training. The mean ES for power development for strength training only was 0.91; for endurance training, it was 0.11; and for concurrent training, it was 0.55. Significant differences were found between all the 3 groups. For moderator variables, resistance training concurrently with running, but not cycling, resulted in significant decrements in both hypertrophy and strength. Correlational analysis identified significant negative relationships between frequency (-0.26 to -0.35) and duration (-0.29 to -0.75) of endurance training for hypertrophy, strength, and power. Significant relationships (p training are a factor of the modality, frequency, and duration of the endurance training selected.

  16. Wnt and β-Catenin Signaling and Skeletal Muscle Myogenesis in Response to Muscle Damage and Resistance Exercise and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Newmire

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The factors that regulate skeletal muscle hypertrophy in human adults in response to resistance training (RT has largely focused on endogenous endocrine responses. However, the endocrine response to RT as having an obligatory role in muscle hypertrophy has come under scrutiny, as other mechanisms and pathways seem to also be involved in up-regulating muscle protein synthesis (MPS. Skeletal muscle myogenesis is a multifactorial process of tissue growth and repair in response to resistance training is regulated by many factors.  As a result, satellite cell-fused myogenesis is a possible factor in skeletal muscle regeneration and hypertrophy in response to RT.  The Wnt family ligands interact with various receptors and activate different downstream signaling pathways and have been classified as either canonical (β-catenin dependent or non-canonical (β-catenin independent.  Wnt is secreted from numerous tissues in a paracrine fashion. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is a highly-regulated and intricate pathway that is essential to skeletal muscle myogenesis.  The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway may influence satellite cells to myogenic commitment, differentiation, and fusion into muscle fibers in response to injury or trauma, self-renewal, and normal basal turnover.  The current literature has shown that, in response mechanical overload from acute resistance exercise and chronic resistance training, that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is stimulated which may actuate the process of muscle repair and hypertrophy in response to exercise-induced muscle damage. The purpose of this review is to elaborate on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling  pathway, the current literature investigating the relationship of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and its effects on myogenesis is response to muscle damage and resistance exercise and training.      Keywords: skeletal muscle, hypertrophy, myogenesis, cell signaling, protein synthesis, resistance

  17. Recent Perspectives Regarding the Role of Dietary Protein for the Promotion of Muscle Hypertrophy with Resistance Exercise Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanner Stokes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle supports locomotion and serves as the largest site of postprandial glucose disposal; thus it is a critical organ for physical and metabolic health. Skeletal muscle mass is regulated by the processes of muscle protein synthesis (MPS and muscle protein breakdown (MPB, both of which are sensitive to external loading and aminoacidemia. Hyperaminoacidemia results in a robust but transient increase in rates of MPS and a mild suppression of MPB. Resistance exercise potentiates the aminoacidemia-induced rise in MPS that, when repeated over time, results in gradual radial growth of skeletal muscle (i.e., hypertrophy. Factors that affect MPS include both quantity and composition of the amino acid source. Specifically, MPS is stimulated in a dose-responsive manner and the primary amino acid agonist of this process is leucine. MPB also appears to be regulated in part by protein intake, which can exert a suppressive effect on MPB. At high protein doses the suppression of MPB may interfere with skeletal muscle adaptation following resistance exercise. In this review, we examine recent advancements in our understanding of how protein ingestion impacts skeletal muscle growth following resistance exercise in young adults during energy balance and energy restriction. We also provide practical recommendations for exercisers who wish to maximize the hypertrophic response of skeletal muscle during resistance exercise training.

  18. Protein Ingestion before Sleep Increases Muscle Mass and Strength Gains during Prolonged Resistance-Type Exercise Training in Healthy Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Tim; Res, Peter T; Smeets, Joey S J; van Vliet, Stephan; van Kranenburg, Janneau; Maase, Kamiel; Kies, Arie K; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that protein ingestion before sleep increases muscle protein synthesis rates during overnight recovery from an exercise bout. However, it remains to be established whether dietary protein ingestion before sleep can effectively augment the muscle adaptive response to resistance-type exercise training. Here we assessed the impact of dietary protein supplementation before sleep on muscle mass and strength gains during resistance-type exercise training. Forty-four young men (22 ± 1 y) were randomly assigned to a progressive, 12-wk resistance exercise training program. One group consumed a protein supplement containing 27.5 g of protein, 15 g of carbohydrate, and 0.1 g of fat every night before sleep. The other group received a noncaloric placebo. Muscle hypertrophy was assessed on a whole-body (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), limb (computed tomography scan), and muscle fiber (muscle biopsy specimen) level before and after exercise training. Strength was assessed regularly by 1-repetition maximum strength testing. Muscle strength increased after resistance exercise training to a significantly greater extent in the protein-supplemented (PRO) group than in the placebo-supplemented (PLA) group (+164 ± 11 kg and +130 ± 9 kg, respectively; P exercise training (P sleep represents an effective dietary strategy to augment muscle mass and strength gains during resistance exercise training in young men. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02222415. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Aerobic and resistance exercise training program intervention for enhancing gait function in elderly and chronically ill Taiwanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M S; Lin, T C; Jiang, B C

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to develop an effective exercise training program for enhancing the postural stability and gait function of chronically ill patients to avoid falls. Pre training-post-training. Analyses were limited to those randomized to the exercise intervention. The participants were chronically ill patients over 45 years old (47-89 years), of whom 25 completed the 12-week training regimen and assessment in the exercise group, whereas 29 completed the assessment in the control group, suffering from cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, or osteoporosis. The average age of the participants was 67.56 ± 10.70 years in the intervention group. All patients in this study signed institutional review board (IRB) agreements before participating (IRB approval no: FEMH-IRB-101029-E, v. 02, date: 20120429). The results revealed the beneficial effects of regular aerobic and resistance training, which improved in elderly, chronically ill patients. According to our data, most of the gait function measurements exhibited significant differences between the exercise group and control group. The duration of the 'timed up-and-go' test decreased from 7.67 s to 6.76 s (P = 0.00013), and the 'the base of support area' increased from 392.0 cm(2) to 433.2 cm(2) (P = 0.0088). Women attained more significant differences than men in the exercise and control groups (P = 0.0008), and the participants aged 45-65 years had a more satisfactory outcome than those aged > 65 years (P = 0.0109). Regular exercise regimens, such as aerobic, resistance or combination exercise training, enhance the gait function and sense of postural stability in elderly, chronically ill patients. Younger patients attained more positive results than older patients, and women attained more positive results than men. Regular exercise is a means of preventing falls; thus, the government and hospitals should increase promotional measures in aging communities to encourage regular exercise among elderly, chronically ill

  20. Oxidative stress responses to a graded maximal exercise test in older adults following explosive-type resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceci, R.; Beltran Valls, M.R.; Duranti, G.

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that low frequency, moderate intensity, explosive-type resistance training (EMRT) is highly beneficial in elderly subjects towards muscle strength and power, with a systemic adaptive response of anti-oxidant and stress-induced markers. In the present study, we aimed...... to evaluate the impact of EMRT on oxidative stress biomarkers induced in old people (70-75 years) by a single bout of acute, intense exercise. Sixteen subjects randomly assigned to either a control, not exercising group ( n=8) or a trained group performing EMRT protocol for 12-weeks ( n=8), were submitted...... to a graded maximal exercise stress test (GXT) at baseline and after the 12-weeks of EMRT protocol, with blood samples collected before, immediately after, 1 and 24. h post-GXT test. Blood glutathione (GSH, GSSG, GSH/GSSG), plasma malonaldehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls and creatine kinase (CK) levels, as well...

  1. Muscle stretching exercises and resistance training in fibromyalgia: which is better? A three-arm randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Ana; Matsutani, Luciana A; Yuan, Susan L; Santo, Adriana S; Sauer, Juliana; Mango, Pamela; Marques, Amelia P

    2017-11-29

    Exercise therapy is an effective component of fibromyalgia (FM) treatment. However, it is important to know the effects and specificities of the different types of exercise: muscle stretching and resistance training. To verify and compare the effectiveness of muscle stretching exercise and resistance training for symptoms and quality of life in FM patients. Randomized controlled trial. Physical therapy service, FM outpatient clinic. Forty-four women with FM (79 screened). Patients were randomly allocated into a stretching group (n=14), resistance group (n=16), and control group (n=14). Pain was assessed using the visual analog scale, pain threshold using a Fischer dolorimeter, FM symptoms using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), and quality of life using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short- Form Health Survey (SF-36). The three intervention groups continued with usual medical treatment. In addition, the stretching and resistance groups performed two different exercise programs twice a week for 12 weeks. After treatment, the stretching group showed the highest SF-36 physical functioning score (p=0.01) and the lowest bodily pain score (p=0.01). The resistance group had the lowest FIQ depression score (p=0.02). The control group had the highest score for FIQ morning tiredness and stiffness, and the lowest score for SF-36 vitality. In clinical analyses, the stretching group had significant improvement in quality of life for all SF-36 domains, and the resistance group had significant improvement in FM symptoms and in quality of life for SF-36 domains of physical functioning, vitality, social function, emotional role, and mental health. Muscle stretching exercise was the most effective modality in improving quality of life, especially with regard to physical functioning and pain, and resistance training was the most effective modality in reducing depression. The trial included a control group and two intervention groups, both of which received exercise

  2. Impact of exercise training without caloric restriction on inflammation, insulin resistance and visceral fat mass in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, M; Michallet, A-S; Monneret, D; Perrin, C; Estève, F; Lombard, P R; Faure, P; Lévy, P; Favre-Juvin, A; Pépin, J-L; Wuyam, B; Flore, P

    2015-08-01

    Exercise training has been shown to improve cardiometabolic health in obese adolescents. Evaluate the impact of a 12-week exercise-training programme (without caloric restriction) on obese adolescents' cardiometabolic and vascular risk profiles. We measured systemic markers of oxidation, inflammation, metabolic variables and endothelial function in 20 obese adolescents (OB) (age: 14.5 ± 1.5 years; body mass index: 34.0 ± 4.7 kg m(-2) ) and 20 age- and gender-matched normal-weight adolescents (NW). Body composition was assessed by magnetic resonance imagery. Peak aerobic capacity and maximal fat oxidation were evaluated during specific incremental exercise tests. OB participated in a 12-week exercise-training programme. OB presented lower peak aerobic capacity (24.2 ± 5.9 vs. 39.8 ± 8.3 mL kg(-1)  min(-1) , P training, despite lack of weight loss, VO2peak (mL.kg(-1) .min(-1) ) and maximal fat oxidation increased (P training on improving the inflammatory profile and insulin resistance of OB in the absence of weight loss. However, those who lost a greater amount of visceral fat mass showed greater benefits in terms of insulin profile, triglycerides and maximal fat oxidation. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  3. Electromyographic Comparison of Elastic Resistance and Machine Exercises for High-Intensity Strength Training in Patients With Chronic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Calatayud, Joaquin; Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Zeeman, Peter; Jørgensen, Jørgen R; Andersen, Lars L

    2016-03-01

    To investigate whether elastic resistance training can induce comparable levels of muscle activity as conventional machine training in patients with chronic stroke. Comparative study. Outpatient rehabilitation facility. Stroke patients (N=18) with hemiparesis (mean age, 57 ± 8y). Patients performed 3 consecutive repetitions at 10 repetition maximum of unilateral knee extension and flexion using elastic resistance and conventional machine training. Surface electromyography was measured in vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus and was normalized to maximal electromyography (% of max) of the nonparetic leg. In the paretic leg, agonist muscle activity ranged from 18% to 24% normalized electromyography (% of max) (nEMG) during knee flexion and from 32% to 40% nEMG during knee extension. For knee extension, vastus lateralis nEMG was higher during machine exercise than during elastic resistance exercise (40% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 33-47] vs 32% [95% CI, 25-39]; P=.003). In the nonparetic leg, agonist muscle activity ranged from 54% to 61% during knee flexion and from 52% to 68% during knee extension. For knee flexion semitendinosus nEMG was higher (61% [95% CI, 50-71] vs 54% [95% CI, 44-64]; P=.016) and for knee extension vastus medialis nEMG was higher (68% [95% CI, 60-76] vs 56% [95% CI, 48-64]; Ptraining appears to induce slightly higher levels of muscle activity in some of the investigated muscles compared to elastic resistance during lower limb strength training in patients with chronic stroke. The higher level of coactivation during knee flexion when performed using elastic resistance suggests that elastic resistance exercises are more difficult to perform. This is likely due to a higher level of movement instability. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Progressive Resistance Exercise Training on Low Back Pain Conditions of Miners in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monday Omoniyi MOSES

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: The low back pain conditions of miners were significantly improved using PRE, especially pain intensity, pain scale and pain frequency. Hence, exercise and physical activity that followed PRE training patterns should be majorly incorporated into the lifestyles of the miners.

  5. C-reactive protein and cardiac vagal activity following resistance exercise training in young African-American and white men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Kevin S; Jae, Sae Young; Vieira, Victoria J; Iwamoto, Gary A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Woods, Jeffrey A; Fernhall, Bo

    2009-04-01

    African Americans have a greater prevalence of hypertension and diabetes compared with white Americans, and both autonomic dysregulation and inflammation have been implicated in the etiology of these disease states. The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiac autonomic and systemic inflammatory response to resistance training in young African-American and white men. Linear (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear (sample entropy) heart rate variability, baroreflex sensitivity, tonic and reflex vagal activity, and postexercise heart rate recovery were used to assess cardiac vagal modulation. C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count were used as inflammatory markers. Twenty two white and 19 African-American men completed 6 wk of resistance training followed by 4 wk of exercise detraining (Post 2). Sample entropy, tonic and reflex vagal activity, and heart rate recovery were increased in white and African-American men following resistance training (P training, with reductions being maintained following detraining (P training improves cardiac autonomic function and reduces inflammation in African-American men, and these adaptations remained after the cessation of training. Resistance training may be an important lifestyle modification for improving cardiac autonomic health and reducing inflammation in young African-American men.

  6. Muscle fibre capillarization is a critical factor in muscle fibre hypertrophy during resistance exercise training in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; Joanisse, Sophie; Leenders, Marika; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni

    2017-04-01

    Adequate muscle fibre perfusion is critical for the maintenance of muscle mass; it is essential in the rapid delivery of oxygen, nutrients and growth factors to the muscle, stimulating muscle fibre growth. Muscle fibre capillarization is known to decrease substantially with advancing age. However, whether (relative) low muscle fibre capillarization negatively impacts the muscle hypertrophic response following resistance exercise training in older adults is unknown. Twenty-two healthy older men (71 ± 1 years) performed 24 weeks of progressive resistance type exercise training. To assess the change in muscle fibre characteristics, percutaneous biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken before and following 12 and 24 weeks of the intervention programme. A comparison was made between participants who had a relatively low type II muscle fibre capillary-to-fibre perimeter exchange index (CFPE; LOW group) and high type II muscle fibre CFPE (HIGH group) at baseline. Type I and type II muscle fibre size, satellite cell, capillary content and distance between satellite cells to the nearest capillary were determined by immunohistochemistry. Overall, type II muscle fibre size (from 5150 ± 234 to 6719 ± 446 µm 2 , P muscle fibre, P muscle fibre capillarization, whereas muscle fibre size (from 5170 ± 390 to 7133 ± 314 µm 2 , P muscle fibre, P muscle fibre capillarization were observed in response to 12 and 24 weeks of resistance exercise training in both the LOW and HIGH group. Type II muscle fibre capillarization at baseline may be a critical factor for allowing muscle fibre hypertrophy to occur during prolonged resistance exercise training in older men. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  7. Shoulder Muscle Activation of Novice and Resistance Trained Women during Variations of Dumbbell Press Exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Luczak, Joshua; Bosak, Andy; Riemann, Bryan L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG) activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals (n = 12) and novice female resistance traine...

  8. Exercise in myasthenia gravis: A feasibility study of aerobic and resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Martin Amadeus; Mikkelsen, Erik Elgaard; Overgaard, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: It has not been established whether progressive resistance training (PRT) and aerobic training (AT) are feasible and efficient in myasthenia gravis (MG). Methods: Fifteen subjects with generalized MG (Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) clinical classification II-IV) were...

  9. Arterial stiffness and blood flow adaptations following eight weeks of resistance exercise training in young and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Lindy M; Fahs, Christopher A; Thiebaud, Robert S; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Kim, Daeyeol; Mouser, James G; Shore, Erin A; Beck, Travis W; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2014-05-01

    Resistance training is recommended for all adults of both sexes. The arterial stiffness and limb blood flow responses to resistance training in young and older women have not been well-studied. The purpose of this study was to examine arterial stiffness and blood flow adaptations to high-intensity resistance exercise training in young and older women. Young (aged 18-25) and older (aged 50-64) women performed full-body high-intensity resistance exercise three times per week for eight weeks. The following measurements were performed twice prior to training and once following training: carotid to femoral and femoral to tibialis posterior pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure, heart rate, resting forearm blood flow and forearm reactive hyperemia. Data was analyzed by ANOVAs with alpha set at 0.05. Correlations were also examined between changes in arterial stiffness and baseline arterial stiffness values. Older subjects had higher carotid-femoral PWV than younger subjects. No significant effects were found for femoral-tibialis posterior PWV or for resting forearm blood flow. Changes in carotid-femoral and femoral-tibialis posterior PWV correlated significantly with their respective baseline values. Older subjects increased peak forearm blood flow while young subjects showed no change. Total hyperemia increased significantly in both groups. In conclusion, in both young and older women, eight weeks of high-intensity resistance training appeared to improve microvascular forearm function while not changing carotid-femoral or femoral-tibialis posterior arterial stiffness. However, a large degree of individual variation was found and arterial stiffness adaptations appeared positively related to the initial stiffness values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Affective Responses to Acute Resistance Exercise Performed at Self-Selected and Imposed Loads in Trained Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focht, Brian C; Garver, Matthew J; Cotter, Joshua A; Devor, Steven T; Lucas, Alexander R; Fairman, Ciaran M

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the affective responses to acute resistance exercise (RE) performed at self-selected (SS) and imposed loads in recreationally trained women. Secondary purposes were to (a) examine differences in correlates of motivation for future participation in RE and (b) determine whether affective responses to RE were related to these select motivational correlates of RE participation. Twenty recreationally trained young women (mean age = 23 years) completed 3 RE sessions involving 3 sets of 10 repetitions using loads of 40% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM), 70% 1RM, and an SS load. Affective responses were assessed before, during, and after each RE session using the Feeling Scale. Self-efficacy and intention for using the imposed and SS loads for their regular RE participation during the next month were also assessed postexercise. Results revealed that although the SS and imposed load RE sessions yielded different trajectories of change in affect during exercise (p participation (p resistance training; and affective responses were unrelated to motivational correlates of resistance training.

  11. The Effect of Inspiratory Muscle Training on Respiratory and Limb Locomotor Muscle Deoxygenation During Exercise with Resistive Inspiratory Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, L A; Tecklenburg-Lund, S L; Chapman, R; Shei, R-J; Wilhite, D P; Mickleborough, T

    2016-07-01

    We investigated how inspiratory muscle training impacted respiratory and locomotor muscle deoxygenation during submaximal exercise with resistive inspiratory loading. 16 male cyclists completed 6 weeks of either true (n=8) or sham (n=8) inspiratory muscle training. Pre- and post-training, subjects completed 3, 6-min experimental trials performed at ~80%  ˙VO2peak with interventions of either moderate inspiratory loading, heavy inspiratory loading, or maximal exercise imposed in the final 3 min. Locomotor and respiratory muscle oxy-, deoxy-, and total-haemoglobin and myoglobin concentration was continuously monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy. Locomotor muscle deoxygenation changes from 80%  ˙VO2peak to heavy inspiratory loading were significantly reduced pre- to post-training from 4.3±5.6 µM to 2.7±4.7 µM. Respiratory muscle deoxygenation was also significantly reduced during the heavy inspiratory loading trial (4.6±3.5 µM to 1.9±1.5 µM) post-training. There was no significant difference in oxy-, deoxy-, or total-haemoglobin and myoglobin during any of the other loading trials, from pre- to post-training, in either group. After inspiratory muscle training, highly-trained cyclists exhibited decreased locomotor and respiratory muscle deoxygenation during exercise with heavy inspiratory loading. These data suggest that inspiratory muscle training reduces oxygen extraction by the active respiratory and limb muscles, which may reflect changes in respiratory and locomotor muscle oxygen delivery. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Use of anabolic androgenic steroids produces greater oxidative stress responses to resistance exercise in strength-trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS use on oxidative stress responses to a single session of resistance exercise in strength-trained men. Twenty-three strength trained men, with 11 self-reporting regular AAS use and 12 self-reporting never taking AAS (NAAS volunteered to participate in this study. Blood draws were obtained pre and post resistance exercise in order to evaluate changes in oxidative stress biomarkers levels (i.e., 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG], malondialdehyde [MDA], and nitric oxide [NO], antioxidant defense systems (i.e., glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and catalase [CAT], and glucose (GLU levels. The AAS users had higher level of 8-OHdG (77.3 ± 17 vs. 57.7 ± 18.2 ng/mg, MDA (85.6 ± 17.8 vs. 52.3 ± 15.1 ng/mL, and GPx (9.1 ± 2.3 vs. 7.1 ± 1.3 mu/mL compared to NAAS at pre exercise (p < 0.05. Both the experimental groups showed increases in 8-OHdG (p = 0.001, MDA (p = 0.001, GPx (p = 0.001, NO (p = 0.04, CAT (p = 0.02 and GLU (p = 0.001 concentrations after resistance exercise, and the AAS group indicated significant differences in 8-OHdG (p = 0.02 and MDA (p = 0.05 concentrations compared with NAAS users at post exercise. In conclusion, use of AAS is associated with alterations in immune function resulting in oxidative stress, and cell damage; however, high-intensity resistance exercise could increase greater oxidative stress biomarkers in strength-trained men. Keywords: ROS, Strength exercise, Anabolic

  13. Exercise order affects the total training volume and the ratings of perceived exertion in response to a super-set resistance training session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balsamo S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sandor Balsamo1–3, Ramires Alsamir Tibana1,2,4, Dahan da Cunha Nascimento1,2, Gleyverton Landim de Farias1,2, Zeno Petruccelli1,2, Frederico dos Santos de Santana1,2, Otávio Vanni Martins1,2, Fernando de Aguiar1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira4, Jéssica Cardoso de Souza4, Jonato Prestes41Department of Physical Education, Centro Universitário UNIEURO, Brasília, 2GEPEEFS (Resistance training and Health Research Group, Brasília/DF, 3Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidade de Brasília (UnB, Brasília, 4Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB, Brasília/DF, BrazilAbstract: The super-set is a widely used resistance training method consisting of exercises for agonist and antagonist muscles with limited or no rest interval between them – for example, bench press followed by bent-over rows. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different super-set exercise sequences on the total training volume. A secondary aim was to evaluate the ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue index in response to different exercise order. On separate testing days, twelve resistance-trained men, aged 23.0 ± 4.3 years, height 174.8 ± 6.75 cm, body mass 77.8 ± 13.27 kg, body fat 12.0% ± 4.7%, were submitted to a super-set method by using two different exercise orders: quadriceps (leg extension + hamstrings (leg curl (QH or hamstrings (leg curl + quadriceps (leg extension (HQ. Sessions consisted of three sets with a ten-repetition maximum load with 90 seconds rest between sets. Results revealed that the total training volume was higher for the HQ exercise order (P = 0.02 with lower perceived exertion than the inverse order (P = 0.04. These results suggest that HQ exercise order involving lower limbs may benefit practitioners interested in reaching a higher total training volume with lower ratings of perceived exertion compared with the leg extension plus leg curl

  14. Analysis of Wearable and Smartphone-Based Technologies for the Measurement of Barbell Velocity in Different Resistance Training Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Marchante, David; Baz-Valle, Eneko; Alonso-Molero, Iván; Jiménez, Sergio L; Muñóz-López, Mario

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the validity, reliability, and accuracy of new wearable and smartphone-based technology for the measurement of barbell velocity in resistance training exercises. To do this, 10 highly trained powerlifters (age = 26.1 ± 3.9 years) performed 11 repetitions with loads ranging 50-100% of the 1-Repetition maximum in the bench-press, full-squat, and hip-thrust exercises while barbell velocity was simultaneously measured using a linear transducer (LT), two Beast wearable devices (one placed on the subjects' wrist -BW-, and the other one directly attached to the barbell -BB-) and the iOS PowerLift app. Results showed a high correlation between the LT and BW ( r = 0.94-0.98, SEE = 0.04-0.07 m•s -1 ), BB ( r = 0.97-0.98, SEE = 0.04-0.05 m•s -1 ), and the PowerLift app ( r = 0.97-0.98, SEE = 0.03-0.05 m•s -1 ) for the measurement of barbell velocity in the three exercises. Paired samples T -test revealed systematic biases between the LT and BW, BB and the app in the hip-thrust, between the LT and BW in the full-squat and between the LT and BB in the bench-press exercise ( p barbell velocity in the bench-press, full-squat, and hip-thrust exercises. These results could have potential practical applications for strength and conditioning coaches who wish to measure barbell velocity during resistance training.

  15. A prospective randomised longitudinal MRI study of left ventricular adaptation to endurance and resistance exercise training in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Angela L; Naylor, Louise H; Carter, Howard H; Buck, Christopher L; Dembo, Lawrence; Murray, Conor P; Watson, Philip; Oxborough, David; George, Keith P; Green, Daniel J

    2011-11-15

    The principle that 'concentric' cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to strength training, whilst 'eccentric' hypertrophy results from endurance exercise has been a fundamental tenet of exercise science. This notion is largely based on cross-sectional comparisons of athletes using echocardiography. In this study, young (27.4 ± 1.1 years) untrained subjects were randomly assigned to supervised, intensive, endurance (END, n = 10) or resistance (RES, n = 13) exercise and cardiac MRI scans and myocardial speckle tracking echocardiography were performed at baseline, after 6 months of training and after a subsequent 6 weeks of detraining. Aerobic fitness increased significantly in END (3.5 to 3.8 l min(-1), P < 0.05) but was unchanged in RES. Muscular strength significantly improved compared to baseline in both RES and END ( = 53.0 ± 1.1 versus 36.4 ± 4.5 kg, both P < 0.001) as did lean body mass (2.3 ± 0.4 kg, P < 0.001 versus 1.4 ± 0.6 kg P < 0.05). MRI derived left ventricular (LV) mass increased significantly following END (112.5 ± 7.3 to 121.8 ± 6.6 g, P < 0.01) but not RES, whilst training increased end-diastolic volume (LVEDV, END: +9.0 ± 5.0 versus RES +3.1 ± 3.6 ml, P = 0.05). Interventricular wall thickness significantly increased with training in END (1.06 ± 0.0 to 1.14 ± 0.06, P < 0.05) but not RES. Longitudinal strain and strain rates did not change following exercise training. Detraining reduced aerobic fitness, LV mass and wall thickness in END (P < 0.05), whereas LVEDV remained elevated. This study is the first to use MRI to compare LV adaptation in response to intensive supervised endurance and resistance training. Our findings provide some support for the 'Morganroth hypothesis', as it pertains to LV remodelling in response to endurance training, but cast some doubt over the proposal that remodelling occurs in response to resistance training.

  16. Use of anabolic androgenic steroids produces greater oxidative stress responses to resistance exercise in strength-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, Hamid; Mohammadjafari, Heidar; Asadi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) use on oxidative stress responses to a single session of resistance exercise in strength-trained men. Twenty-three strength trained men, with 11 self-reporting regular AAS use and 12 self-reporting never taking AAS (NAAS) volunteered to participate in this study. Blood draws were obtained pre and post resistance exercise in order to evaluate changes in oxidative stress biomarkers levels (i.e., 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG], malondialdehyde [MDA], and nitric oxide [NO]), antioxidant defense systems (i.e., glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and catalase [CAT]), and glucose (GLU) levels. The AAS users had higher level of 8-OHdG (77.3 ± 17 vs. 57.7 ± 18.2 ng/mg), MDA (85.6 ± 17.8 vs. 52.3 ± 15.1 ng/mL), and GPx (9.1 ± 2.3 vs. 7.1 ± 1.3 mu/mL) compared to NAAS at pre exercise (p < 0.05). Both the experimental groups showed increases in 8-OHdG (p = 0.001), MDA (p = 0.001), GPx (p = 0.001), NO (p = 0.04), CAT (p = 0.02) and GLU (p = 0.001) concentrations after resistance exercise, and the AAS group indicated significant differences in 8-OHdG (p = 0.02) and MDA (p = 0.05) concentrations compared with NAAS users at post exercise. In conclusion, use of AAS is associated with alterations in immune function resulting in oxidative stress, and cell damage; however, high-intensity resistance exercise could increase greater oxidative stress biomarkers in strength-trained men.

  17. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance: underlying causes and modification by exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christian K; Hevener, Andrea L; Barnard, R James

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a collection of cardiometabolic risk factors that includes obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Although there has been significant debate regarding the criteria and concept of the syndrome, this clustering of risk factors is unequivocally linked to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Regardless of the true definition, based on current population estimates, nearly 100 million have MS. It is often characterized by insulin resistance, which some have suggested is a major underpinning link between physical inactivity and MS. The purpose of this review is to: (i) provide an overview of the history, causes and clinical aspects of MS, (ii) review the molecular mechanisms of insulin action and the causes of insulin resistance, and (iii) discuss the epidemiological and intervention data on the effects of exercise on MS and insulin sensitivity.

  18. Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance: Underlying Causes and Modification by Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christian K.; Hevener, Andrea L.; Barnard, R. James

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a collection of cardiometabolic risk factors that includes obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Although there has been significant debate regarding the criteria and concept of the syndrome, this clustering of risk factors is unequivocally linked to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Regardless of the true definition, based on current population estimates, nearly 100 million have MS. It is often characterized by insulin resistance, which some have suggested is a major underpinning link between physical inactivity and MS. The purpose of this review is to: (i) provide an overview of the history, causes and clinical aspects of MS, (ii) review the molecular mechanisms of insulin action and the causes of insulin resistance, and (iii) discuss the epidemiological and intervention data on the effects of exercise on MS and insulin sensitivity. PMID:23720280

  19. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003975.htm Pelvic floor muscle training exercises To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises ...

  20. The Effect of 8-week Aerobic and Concurrent (aerobic- resistance Exercise Training on Serum IL-6 Levels and Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Yousefipoor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introductoin: Increased level of serum IL-6 is related to development of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. The American Diabetes Association and the American College of Sports Medicine recommend that combination of resistance and aerobic exercise is favorable for patients with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of aerobic exercise and concurrent (aerobic-resistance exercise on serum IL-6 Levels and insulin resistance in Type 2 Diabetic patients. Methods: In this study, from patients referring to Kermanshah Diabetes Association, 24 volunteers participated in the study as subjects and were divided into aerobic (n=8, concurrent (n=8, and control group (n=8 randomly. Training program for the aerobic group included 3 sessions of running per week with 60 to 80% maximal heart rate for 8 weeks but the concurrent group in addition to running, performed resistance training of major muscles groups. Before and after the intervention, body weight, BMI, fasting blood glucose, serum IL-6 and HOMA-IR were measured. Results: HOMA-IR and fasting blood glucose were significantly decreased in both training groups after intervention, but showed no significant changes in the control group. No significant changes were observed for serum IL-6 levels, body weight or BMI. Conclusion: performing 8 weeks of aerobic or concurrent training with improvement of insulin resistance and fasting blood glucose could be helpful for type 2 diabetic patients; however, it cannot significantly affect serum IL-6 levels, body weight, or BMI in these patients.

  1. Ratings of Perceived Exertion During Acute Resistance Exercise Performed at Imposed and Self-Selected Loads in Recreationally Trained Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Joshua A; Garver, Matthew J; Dinyer, Taylor K; Fairman, Ciaran M; Focht, Brian C

    2017-08-01

    Cotter, JA, Garver, MJ, Dinyer, TK, Fairman, CM, and Focht, BC. Ratings of perceived exertion during acute resistance exercise performed at imposed and self-selected loads in recreationally trained women. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2313-2318, 2017-Resistance exercise (RE) is commonly used to elicit skeletal muscle adaptation. Relative intensity of a training load links closely with the outcomes of regular RE. This study examined the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to acute bouts of RE using imposed (40% and 70% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and self-selected (SS) loads in recreationally trained women. Twenty physically active women (23.15 ± 2.92 years), who reported regular RE training of at least 3 weekly sessions for the past year, volunteered to participate. During the initial visit, participants completed 1RM testing on 4 exercises in the following order: leg extension, chest press, leg curl, and lat pull-down. On subsequent visits, the same exercises were completed at the SS or imposed loads. The RPE was assessed after the completion of each set of exercises during the 3 RE conditions using the Borg-15 category scale. Self-selected loads corresponded to an average of approximately 57%1RM (±7.62). Overall, RPE increased with load (40%1RM = 11.26 [±1.95]; SS 57%1RM = 13.94 [±1.58]; and, 70%1RM = 15.52 [±2.05]). Reflecting the linear pattern found between load and perceived effort, the present data provide evidence that RPE levels less than 15 likely equate to loads which are not consistent with contemporary American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines for enhancing musculoskeletal health which includes strength and hypertrophy. Women desiring increases in strength and lean mass likely need to train at an exertion level at or surpassing a rating of 15 on the Borg-15 category. This article examined the modification of training load on perceived exertion, but other variables, such as the number of repetitions completed, may also be

  2. Low-intensity aerobic exercise training attenuates airway inflammation and remodeling in a rat model of steroid-resistant asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qingwu; Chen, Xi; Feng, Juntao; Qin, Ling; Hu, Chengping

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic exercise can improve symptoms, reduce airway inflammation, and even ameliorate airway remodeling in asthmatic animals and patients. However, previous studies have focused mainly on the effect of aerobic exercise on steroid-sensitive asthma (SSA). The goals of this study were to determine the effect of low-intensity aerobic exercise training on airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and remodeling in a rat model of steroid-resistant asthma (SRA) and to identify the potential mechanisms underlying these effects. Endotoxin-free ovalbumin with or without lipopolysaccharide were applied to establish rat models of SRA and SSA, respectively. Airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, remodeling, expression of interleukin (IL)-25, IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), and IL-17 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and the role of dexamethasone (DXM) were compared between these two asthmatic rat models. The effect of low-intensity aerobic exercise training and anti-HMGB1 treatment on airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and remodeling in SRA rats also was evaluated. SRA rats developed neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation ((29.5±4.1)% of the total cell numbers in BALF), whereas SSA rats developed eosinophil-dominated airway inflammation ((24.0±6.1)% of the total cell numbers in BALF). Compared with SSA rats, SRA rats had more severe airway hyperresponsiveness, lower levels of IL-25 ((33.6±10.3) vs. (104.8±24.9) pg/ml), IL-33 ((87.5±25.0) vs. (226.6±40.7) pg/ml), and TSLP ((1 933.2±899.5) vs. (7 224.0±992.1) pg/ml), and higher levels of HMGB1 ((21.2±4.5) vs. (5.4±1.6) ng/ml) and IL-17 ((780.5±261.7) vs. (291.4±76.4) pg/ml) in BALF (all P exercise training decreased the expression of both HMGB1 ((14.1±2.9) vs. (21.2±4.5) ng/ml in control SRA rats) and IL-17 ((545.3±148.6) vs. (780.5±261.7) pg/ml in control SRA rats) in BALF (all P exercise training attenuated airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation

  3. Exercise training for intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Mary M

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to provide an overview of evidence regarding exercise therapies for patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). This manuscript summarizes the content of a lecture delivered as part of the 2016 Crawford Critical Issues Symposium. Multiple randomized clinical trials demonstrate that supervised treadmill exercise significantly improves treadmill walking performance in people with PAD and intermittent claudication symptoms. A meta-analysis of 25 randomized trials demonstrated a 180-meter increase in treadmill walking distance in response to supervised exercise interventions compared with a nonexercising control group. Supervised treadmill exercise has been inaccessible to many patients with PAD because of lack of medical insurance coverage. However, in 2017, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services issued a decision memorandum to support health insurance coverage of 12 weeks of supervised treadmill exercise for patients with walking impairment due to PAD. Recent evidence also supports home-based walking exercise to improve walking performance in people with PAD. Effective home-exercise programs incorporate behavioral change interventions such as a remote coach, goal setting, and self-monitoring. Supervised treadmill exercise programs preferentially improve treadmill walking performance, whereas home-based walking exercise programs preferentially improve corridor walking, such as the 6-minute walk test. Clinical trial evidence also supports arm or leg ergometry exercise to improve walking endurance in people with PAD. Treadmill walking exercise appears superior to resistance training alone for improving walking endurance. Supervised treadmill exercise significantly improves treadmill walking performance in people with PAD by approximately 180 meters compared with no exercise. Recent evidence suggests that home-based exercise is also effective and preferentially improves over-ground walking performance, such as

  4. The impact of resistance exercise training on the mental health of older Puerto Rican adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Alisa K; Shepherd, Amy; Johnson, Peggy L; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2011-09-01

    To determine the impact of a 16 week high-intensity progressive resistance exercise training (PRT) program on the mental health of older Puerto Rican adults with type 2 diabetes. Fifty-eight Puerto Rican adults were randomly assigned to supervised PRT (n = 29) or a control group (n = 29). A secondary analyses were conducted, and 2 mental health outcomes, the Geriatric Depression Scale and the SF-36 mental component summary score, were used to assess the impact of PRT on mental health status. At baseline, no differences were found on measures of self-reported mental health status. PRT participants had significantly improved mental health status at follow-up (16 weeks). The incorporation of exercise into treatment planning for older adults may have important benefits on their mental health status. More work is needed to understand the mechanisms by which this occurred as well as the applicability of these findings to sustainable community programs.

  5. Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron J Mitchell

    Full Text Available Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE in untrained men (n = 23 and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index  = 26.4±0.9 kg•m² underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-¹³C₆] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (P<0.001 above rest 60-180 min post-exercise and 184±28% (P = 0.037 180-360 min post exercise. Quadriceps volume increased 7.9±1.6% (-1.9-24.7% (P<0.001 after training. There was no correlation between changes in quadriceps muscle volume and acute rates of MPS measured over 1-3 h (r = 0.02, 3-6 h (r = 0.16 or the aggregate 1-6 h post-exercise period (r = 0.10. Hypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r = 0.42, P = 0.05 with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1(Thr37/46 at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT.

  6. Effect of Resistance Exercise Training Associated with Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy on Serum Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in STZ-induced Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Molanouri Shamsi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with type 1 diabetes. Effects of resistance exercise training associated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy on serum inflammatory cytokines was exactly not clarified. Protein levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β in serum of healthy and streptozotocin (STZ- induced diabetic rats subjected to resistance exercise training were assessed in this study. Rats were divided into the control, training, control diabetic and diabetic training groups. Training groups performed the resistance training consisted of climbing a 1 m ladder with increasing weight added to the tail. Proteins levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β in serum were measured by the ELIZA method. The results of this study indicated that resistance training induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy in diabetic samples (P<0.05. Also, Resistance training decrease IL-6 protein levels in serum. Inflammatory cytokines could act as stress factors in diabetes. It seems that this kind of exercise training individually could not change cytokines levels in serum.

  7. Comparison the effects of one session aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of the coagulation markers of healthy young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Habibian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical training is a useful method to reduce disease of cardiovascular, but the effect of exercise on the coagulation system is under investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the response of one bout exhaustive aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of coagulation markers in healthy young women.Materials and Method: This quasi-experimental research was performed in 2009. Twenty trained volunteer female students of physical education Sari Azad university were selected objectively and availability. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups of aerobic (n=10 and resistance training (n=10. Aerobic group performed an exhaustive workout program on treadmill intensity 65 to75% Vo2max on treadmill. The resistance group completed three sets of 5-7 repetitions of six exercises at an intensity corresponding to 80% of 1RM. Following 12 to 14 hours of nightly fasting, venous blood samples (5 cc were collected pre, immediately after exercise and after 60 min of recovery and analyzed for PT, aPTT and fibrinogen. Participants were matched according to anthropometric measurements, age and Vo2max. Hypothesizes were tested by using independent t, repeated measures and post-hoc test (p 0.05. Results: Both the aerobic and resistance training groups, PT time (p<0.001 and aPTT time significantly decreased (p=0.006, p<0.001 respectively times between the two groups and the effect of resistant training on fibrinogen level immediately after exercise. Also aPTT time higher increased after recovery in comparison with baseline levels in aerobic (p=0.006 and resistance training groups (p<0.001. There were no significant differences in PT and aPTT was higher than aerobic training (p=0.0035.Conclusion: The results show that both of acute aerobic and or anaerobic exercise lead to small and transit coagulation system and increase in coagulation times

  8. Resistance exercise training improves heart rate variability and muscle performance: a randomized controlled trial in coronary artery disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, F R; Arena, R; Phillips, S A; Bonjorno, J C; Mendes, R G; Arakelian, V M; Bassi, D; Nogi, C; Borghi-Silva, A

    2015-06-01

    Resistance exercise (RE) is an important part of cardiac rehabilitation. However, it is not known about the low intensity of RE training that could modify the heart rate variability (HRV), muscular strength and endurance in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). To investigate the effects of high repetition/low load resistance training (HR/LL-RT) program on HRV and muscular strength and endurance in CAD patients. Randomized and controlled trial. Patients seen at the Cardiopulmonary Physical Therapy Laboratory between May 2011 and November 2013. Twenty male patients with CAD were randomized to a training group (61.3±5.2 years) or control group (61±4.4 years). 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) maneuver, discontinuous exercise test on the leg press (DET-L), and resting HRV were performed before and after 8 weeks of HR/LL-RT on a 45° leg press. RMSSD, SD1, mean HR and ApEn indices were calculated. The HR/LL-RT program consisted of a lower limb exercise using a 45° leg press; 3 sets of 20 repetitions, two times a week. The initial load was set at 30% of the 1-RM load and the duration of the HR/LL-RT program was performed for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks of HR/LL-RT there were significant increases of RMSSD and SD1 indices in the training group only (P<0.05). There was a significant decrease in mean HR after HR/LL-RT in the training group (P<0.05). There was a significantly higher ApEn after in the training group (P<0.05). There were significantly higher values in the training group in contrast to the control group (P<0.05). These results show positive improvements on HRV, as well as muscle strength and endurance in CAD patients. Eight weeks of HR/LL-RT is an effective sufficient to beneficially modify important outcomes as HRV, muscle strength and endurance in CAD patients.

  9. Virtual Exercise Training Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, L.; Kim, H.; Benson, E.; Amonette, W. E.; Barrera, J.; Perera, J.; Rajulu, S.; Hanson, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a virtual exercise training software system (VETSS) capable of providing real-time instruction and exercise feedback during exploration missions. A resistive exercise instructional system was developed using a Microsoft Kinect depth-camera device, which provides markerless 3-D whole-body motion capture at a small form factor and minimal setup effort. It was hypothesized that subjects using the newly developed instructional software tool would perform the deadlift exercise with more optimal kinematics and consistent technique than those without the instructional software. Following a comprehensive evaluation in the laboratory, the system was deployed for testing and refinement in the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) analog.

  10. Analysis of Wearable and Smartphone-Based Technologies for the Measurement of Barbell Velocity in Different Resistance Training Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Balsalobre-Fernández

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the validity, reliability, and accuracy of new wearable and smartphone-based technology for the measurement of barbell velocity in resistance training exercises. To do this, 10 highly trained powerlifters (age = 26.1 ± 3.9 years performed 11 repetitions with loads ranging 50–100% of the 1-Repetition maximum in the bench-press, full-squat, and hip-thrust exercises while barbell velocity was simultaneously measured using a linear transducer (LT, two Beast wearable devices (one placed on the subjects' wrist –BW–, and the other one directly attached to the barbell –BB– and the iOS PowerLift app. Results showed a high correlation between the LT and BW (r = 0.94–0.98, SEE = 0.04–0.07 m•s−1, BB (r = 0.97–0.98, SEE = 0.04–0.05 m•s−1, and the PowerLift app (r = 0.97–0.98, SEE = 0.03–0.05 m•s−1 for the measurement of barbell velocity in the three exercises. Paired samples T-test revealed systematic biases between the LT and BW, BB and the app in the hip-thrust, between the LT and BW in the full-squat and between the LT and BB in the bench-press exercise (p < 0.001. Moreover, the analysis of the linear regression on the Bland-Altman plots showed that the differences between the LT and BW (R2 = 0.004–0.03, BB (R2 = 0.007–0.01, and the app (R2 = 0.001–0.03 were similar across the whole range of velocities analyzed. Finally, the reliability of the BW (ICC = 0.910–0.988, BB (ICC = 0.922–0.990, and the app (ICC = 0.928–0.989 for the measurement of the two repetitions performed with each load were almost the same than that observed with the LT (ICC = 0.937–0.990. Both the Beast wearable device and the PowerLift app were highly valid, reliable, and accurate for the measurement of barbell velocity in the bench-press, full-squat, and hip-thrust exercises. These results could have potential practical applications for strength and conditioning coaches who wish to measure barbell

  11. Effect of Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Training on Liver Enzymes and Hepatic Fat in Iranian Men With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsoddini, Alireza; Sobhani, Vahid; Ghamar Chehreh, Mohammad Ebrahim; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Zaree, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has different prevalence rates in various parts of the world and is a risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease that could progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver failure. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the effect of Aerobic Training (AT) and resistance training (RT) on hepatic fat content and liver enzyme levels in Iranian men. Patients and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial study, 30 men with clinically defined NAFLD were allocated into three groups (aerobic, resistance and control). An aerobic group program consisted of 45 minutes of aerobic exercise at 60% - 75% maximum heart rate intensity, a resistance group performed seven resistance exercises at intensity of 50% - 70% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM ) and the control group had no exercise training program during the study. Before and after training, anthropometry, insulin sensitivity, liver enzymes and hepatic fat were elevated. Results: After training, hepatic fat content was markedly reduced, to a similar extent, in both the aerobic and resistance exercise training groups (P ≤ 0.05). In the two exercise training groups, alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase serum levels were significantly decreased compared to the control group (P = 0.002) and (P = 0.02), respectively. Moreover, body fat (%), fat mass (kg), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMI-IR) were all improved in the AT and RT. These changes in the AT group were independent of weight loss. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that RT and AT are equally effective in reducing hepatic fat content and liver enzyme levels among patients with NAFLD. However, aerobic exercise specifically improves NAFLD independent of any change in body weight. PMID:26587039

  12. [Improving of muscle mass and force in rehabilitation of heart-lung patients. Aerobic interval training, resistance-exercises, excentric exercises, vibration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apor, Péter; Tihanyi, József; Borka, Péter

    2005-09-18

    Improvement of muscle mass and force which got depleted by inactivity or pathological processes is one of the aims and also a prerequisite of a rehabilitative intervention. Metabolically active larger and stronger muscles diminish the cardiovascular risk, permit the aerobic preventive and rehabilitative activities and enables a higher quality of life. Interval forms of aerobic exercise improves also the muscles. The resistance training plays an important part in rehabilitation. Beside the traditional dynamic strength training with weights, gym machines, body weight etc. the excentric type of muscle activity potentiates higher muscle load with lesser energy consumption, therefore it is suitable in the case of smaller performance ability. Vibration of the whole body or parts of it by machines improves the co-activity of the motor units and results in force development with small metabolic involvement.

  13. Physiological and Psychophysical Responses to Listening to Music during Warm-Up and Circuit-Type Resistance Exercise in Strength Trained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up and resistance exercise on physiological (heart rate and blood pressure and psychophysical (rating of perceived exertion responses in trained athletes. Twelve strength trained male participants performed warm-up and resistance exercise without music (WU+RE without M, warm-up and resistance exercise with music (WU+RE with M, WU with M and RE without M, and WU without M and RE with M, with 48 hours space between sessions. After completing each session, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE was measured. Also, heart rate (HR, systolic (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, and rate pressure product (RPP were assessed before, after, and 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after exercise. Results indicated that RPE was higher for WU+RE without M condition in comparison with other conditions. All conditions showed increases in cardiovascular variables after exercise. The responses of HR, SBP, and RPP were higher for WU+RE without M condition. Thus, using music during warm-up and resistance exercise is a legal method for decreasing RPE and cardiovascular responses due to resistance exercise.

  14. Physiological and Psychophysical Responses to Listening to Music during Warm-Up and Circuit-Type Resistance Exercise in Strength Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, Hamid; Asadi, Abbas; Purabed, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up and resistance exercise on physiological (heart rate and blood pressure) and psychophysical (rating of perceived exertion) responses in trained athletes. Twelve strength trained male participants performed warm-up and resistance exercise without music (WU+RE without M), warm-up and resistance exercise with music (WU+RE with M), WU with M and RE without M, and WU without M and RE with M, with 48 hours space between sessions. After completing each session, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured. Also, heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were assessed before, after, and 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after exercise. Results indicated that RPE was higher for WU+RE without M condition in comparison with other conditions. All conditions showed increases in cardiovascular variables after exercise. The responses of HR, SBP, and RPP were higher for WU+RE without M condition. Thus, using music during warm-up and resistance exercise is a legal method for decreasing RPE and cardiovascular responses due to resistance exercise.

  15. Physiological and Psychophysical Responses to Listening to Music during Warm-Up and Circuit-Type Resistance Exercise in Strength Trained Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, Hamid; Asadi, Abbas; Purabed, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up and resistance exercise on physiological (heart rate and blood pressure) and psychophysical (rating of perceived exertion) responses in trained athletes. Twelve strength trained male participants performed warm-up and resistance exercise without music (WU+RE without M), warm-up and resistance exercise with music (WU+RE with M), WU with M and RE without M, and WU without M and RE with M, with 48 hours space between sessions. After completing each session, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured. Also, heart rate (HR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were assessed before, after, and 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after exercise. Results indicated that RPE was higher for WU+RE without M condition in comparison with other conditions. All conditions showed increases in cardiovascular variables after exercise. The responses of HR, SBP, and RPP were higher for WU+RE without M condition. Thus, using music during warm-up and resistance exercise is a legal method for decreasing RPE and cardiovascular responses due to resistance exercise. PMID:26464896

  16. Acute citrulline malate supplementation improves upper- and lower-body submaximal weightlifting exercise performance in resistance-trained females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jordan M; Gray, Michelle; Wethington, Lauren N; Stone, Matthew S; Stewart, Rodger W; Moyen, Nicole E

    2017-03-01

    Citrulline malate (CM) is a nonessential amino acid that increases exercise performance in males. However, based on physiological differences between genders, these results cannot be extrapolated to females. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate effects of acute CM supplementation on upper- and lower-body weightlifting performance in resistance-trained females. Fifteen females (23 ± 3 years) completed two randomized, double-blind trials consuming either CM (8 g dextrose + 8 g CM) or a placebo (8 g dextrose). One hour after supplement consumption, participants performed six sets each of upper- (i.e., bench press) and lower-body (i.e., leg press) exercises to failure at 80 % of previously established one-repetition maximum. Immediately after each set, repetitions completed, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that subjects completed significantly (p = .045) more repetitions throughout upper-body exercise when consuming CM versus placebo (34.1 ± 5.7 vs. 32.9 ± 6.0, respectively). When consuming CM, similar significant (p = .03) improvements in total repetitions completed were observed for lower-body exercise (66.7 ± 30.5 vs. 55.13 ± 20.64, respectively). Overall RPE score was significantly lower (p = .02) in upper-body exercise when subjects consumed CM versus placebo (7.9 ± 0.3 and 8.6 ± 0.2, respectively). The supplement consumed exhibited no significant effects on heart rate at any time point. Acute CM supplementation in females increased upper- and lower-body resistance exercise performance and decreased RPE during upper-body exercise. These data indicate that athletes competing in sports with muscular endurance-based requirements may potentially improve performance by acutely supplementing CM.

  17. The effects of resistance exercise training on macro- and micro-circulatory responses to feeding and skeletal muscle protein anabolism in older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Bethan E; Atherton, Philip J; Varadhan, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    -body resistance exercise training (RET) (72.8 ± 1.4 years; BMI 26.3 ± 1.2 kg m(2) ). We measured LBF by Doppler ultrasound and muscle MBV by contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) was measured using [1, 2-(13) C2 ] leucine with breakdown (MPB) and net protein balance (NPB) by ring-[D5......KEY POINTS: Increases in limb blood flow in response to nutrition are reduced in older age. Muscle microvascular blood flow (MBF) in response to nutrition is also reduced with advancing age and this may contribute to age-related 'anabolic resistance'. Resistance exercise training (RET) can...... depend on adequate skeletal muscle perfusion, which is impaired in older people. This study explores fed state muscle microvascular blood flow, protein metabolism and exercise training status in older men. We measured leg blood flow (LBF), muscle microvascular blood volume (MBV) and muscle protein...

  18. Quick Tips for Weight Training Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Saul

    2004-01-01

    Weight training is one of the single most popular types of fitness activities in the United States. One of the reasons for its popularity is that it dramatically contributes to improved strength, muscle tone, body composition, health and appearance. Weight training is a progressive resistance exercise in which resistance is gradually increased as…

  19. Resting extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 expression following a continuum of chronic resistance exercise training paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galpin, Andrew J; Fry, Andrew C; Nicoll, Justin X; Moore, Christopher A; Schilling, Brian K; Thomason, Donald B

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) moderates skeletal muscle growth; however, chronic responses of this protein to unique resistance exercise (RE) paradigms are yet to be explored. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the long-term response of ERK1/2 following circuit weight training (CWT), recreationally weight training (WT), powerlifting (PL) and weightlifting (WL). Independent t-tests were used to determine differences in trained groups compared to sedentary controls. Total ERK1/2 content was lower in PL and WL compared to their controls (p ≤ 0.05). Specific trained groups displayed large (WL: pERK/total-ERK; d = 1.25) and moderate (CWT: total ERK1/2; d = 0.54) effect sizes for altered kinase expression compared to controls. The results indicate ERK1/2 expression is down-regulated after chronic RE in well-trained weightlifters and powerlifters. Lower expression of this protein may be a method in which anabolism is tightly regulated after many years of high-intensity RE.

  20. Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training decreases peripheral but not central artery wall thickness in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Munckhof, I.C.L. van den; Poelkens, F.; Hopman, M.T.; Thijssen, D.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the impact of exercise training on conduit artery wall thickness in type 2 diabetes. We examined the local and systemic impact of exercise training on superficial femoral (SFA), brachial (BA), and carotid artery (CA) wall thickness in type 2 diabetes patients and

  1. Intramuscular anabolic signaling and endocrine response following high volume and high intensity resistance exercise protocols in trained men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adam M; Hoffman, Jay R; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; Boone, Carleigh H; Beyer, Kyle S; Baker, Kayla M; Wells, Adam J; Mangine, Gerald T; Robinson, Edward H; Church, David D; Oliveira, Leonardo P; Willoughby, Darryn S; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Resistance exercise paradigms are often divided into high volume (HV) or high intensity (HI) protocols, however, it is unknown whether these protocols differentially stimulate mTORC1 signaling. The purpose of this study was to examine mTORC1 signaling in conjunction with circulating hormone concentrations following a typical HV and HI lower-body resistance exercise protocol. Ten resistance-trained men (24.7 ± 3.4 years; 90.1 ± 11.3 kg; 176.0 ± 4.9 cm) performed each resistance exercise protocol in a random, counterbalanced order. Blood samples were obtained at baseline (BL), immediately (IP), 30 min (30P), 1 h (1H), 2 h (2H), and 5 h (5H) postexercise. Fine needle muscle biopsies were completed at BL, 1H, and 5H. Electromyography of the vastus lateralis was also recorded during each protocol. HV and HI produced a similar magnitude of muscle activation across sets. Myoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase concentrations were significantly greater following HI compared to HV (P = 0.01–0.02), whereas the lactate response was significantly higher following HV compared to HI (P = 0.003). The growth hormone, cortisol, and insulin responses were significantly greater following HV compared to HI (P = 0.0001–0.04). No significant differences between protocols were observed for the IGF-1 or testosterone response. Intramuscular anabolic signaling analysis revealed a significantly greater (P = 0.03) phosphorylation of IGF-1 receptor at 1H following HV compared to HI. Phosphorylation status of all other signaling proteins including mTOR, p70S6k, and RPS6 were not significantly different between trials. Despite significant differences in markers of muscle damage and the endocrine response following HV and HI, both protocols appeared to elicit similar mTORC1 activation in resistance-trained men. PMID:26197935

  2. The effect of 12 weeks of aerobic, resistance or combination exercise training on cardiovascular risk factors in the overweight and obese in a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Suleen S; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Hills, Andrew P; Pal, Sebely

    2012-08-28

    Evidence suggests that exercise training improves CVD risk factors. However, it is unclear whether health benefits are limited to aerobic training or if other exercise modalities such as resistance training or a combination are as effective or more effective in the overweight and obese. The aim of this study is to investigate whether 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic, resistance, or combined exercise training would induce and sustain improvements in cardiovascular risk profile, weight and fat loss in overweight and obese adults compared to no exercise. Twelve-week randomized parallel design examining the effects of different exercise regimes on fasting measures of lipids, glucose and insulin and changes in body weight, fat mass and dietary intake. Participants were randomized to either: Group 1 (Control, n = 16); Group 2 (Aerobic, n = 15); Group 3 (Resistance, n = 16); Group 4 (Combination, n = 17). Data was analysed using General Linear Model to assess the effects of the groups after adjusting for baseline values. Within-group data was analyzed with the paired t-test and between-group effects using post hoc comparisons. Significant improvements in body weight (-1.6%, p = 0.044) for the Combination group compared to Control and Resistance groups and total body fat compared to Control (-4.4%, p = 0.003) and Resistance (-3%, p = 0.041). Significant improvements in body fat percentage (-2.6%, p = 0.008), abdominal fat percentage (-2.8%, p = 0.034) and cardio-respiratory fitness (13.3%, p = 0.006) were seen in the Combination group compared to Control. Levels of ApoB48 were 32% lower in the Resistance group compared to Control (p = 0.04). A 12-week training program comprising of resistance or combination exercise, at moderate-intensity for 30 min, five days/week resulted in improvements in the cardiovascular risk profile in overweight and obese participants compared to no exercise. From our observations, combination exercise gave greater benefits for weight loss

  3. The effect of 12 weeks of aerobic, resistance or combination exercise training on cardiovascular risk factors in the overweight and obese in a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Suleen S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that exercise training improves CVD risk factors. However, it is unclear whether health benefits are limited to aerobic training or if other exercise modalities such as resistance training or a combination are as effective or more effective in the overweight and obese. The aim of this study is to investigate whether 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic, resistance, or combined exercise training would induce and sustain improvements in cardiovascular risk profile, weight and fat loss in overweight and obese adults compared to no exercise. Methods Twelve-week randomized parallel design examining the effects of different exercise regimes on fasting measures of lipids, glucose and insulin and changes in body weight, fat mass and dietary intake. Participants were randomized to either: Group 1 (Control, n = 16; Group 2 (Aerobic, n = 15; Group 3 (Resistance, n = 16; Group 4 (Combination, n = 17. Data was analysed using General Linear Model to assess the effects of the groups after adjusting for baseline values. Within-group data was analyzed with the paired t-test and between-group effects using post hoc comparisons. Results Significant improvements in body weight (−1.6%, p = 0.044 for the Combination group compared to Control and Resistance groups and total body fat compared to Control (−4.4%, p = 0.003 and Resistance (−3%, p = 0.041. Significant improvements in body fat percentage (−2.6%, p = 0.008, abdominal fat percentage (−2.8%, p = 0.034 and cardio-respiratory fitness (13.3%, p = 0.006 were seen in the Combination group compared to Control. Levels of ApoB48 were 32% lower in the Resistance group compared to Control (p = 0.04. Conclusion A 12-week training program comprising of resistance or combination exercise, at moderate-intensity for 30 min, five days/week resulted in improvements in the cardiovascular risk profile in overweight and obese

  4. Exercise in myasthenia gravis: A feasibility study of aerobic and resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbek, Martin Amadeus; Mikkelsen, Erik Elgaard; Overgaard, Kristian; Vinge, Lotte; Andersen, Henning; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-10-01

    It has not been established whether progressive resistance training (PRT) and aerobic training (AT) are feasible and efficient in myasthenia gravis (MG). Fifteen subjects with generalized MG (Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) clinical classification II-IV) were randomly assigned to 20 training sessions during 8 weeks of either PRT or AT. Feasibility was evaluated based on adherence, drop-out rate, adverse events, and Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis (QMG) score. Twelve subjects (MGFA II, n = 11; MGFA III, n=1) completed the intervention with a mean adherence of 95 % ± 8. One dropout (PRT) could potentially be related to PRT. Both groups reported adverse events, including bulbar symptoms (n = 2) and increased fatigue (n = 3), but no change in QMG score was observed in either group. The PRT group showed increases in maximal strength and functional capacity. Eight weeks of moderate to high intensity AT and PRT were feasible for most patients with mild MG. Maximal strength and functional capacity increased in the PRT group. Muscle Nerve 56: 700-709, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effectiveness of progressive resistance strength training versus traditional balance exercise in improving balance among the elderly - a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua, Abraham M; D'Souza, Vivian; Unnikrishnan, B; Mithra, Prasanna; Kamath, Asha; Acharya, Vishak; Venugopal, Anand

    2014-03-01

    Falls are important health issues among the elderly people. Most falls in elderly result from abnormal balance control mechanisms. Balance and muscle force generation are directly related, and are associated with age related muscular changes. Studies addressing fall prevention have focused on various group and individualised strength training. However, evidence on strengthening of key muscles necessary for maintaining balance and postural control is lacking. To evaluate the effectiveness of individualised progressive resistance strength training (PRT) programme in improving balance for forward limits of stability in elderly with balance impairment, compared to traditional balance exercise (TBE), and combination of both (COMBI). This randomised controlled trial included three groups; 18 subjects in each aged ≥ 65 years, from the elderly care centres of Mangalore city in Southern India (between June 2008 and December 2012). Block randomisation technique was used and allocation concealment was done using sequentially arranged sealed opaque envelopes. The TBE group received 8 component traditional balance exercise; 4 times a week for 6 months. The PRT group received resistance training for the key muscles of lower extremities, using DeLormes and Watkins protocol. The COMBI group received PRT and TBE alternately (2 days of PRT and 2 days of TBE per week). Functional reach test (FRT) was used for measurement of forward limits of stability. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15. For functional reach, PRT group had steady progression from baseline to 6 months (plower limbs is more effective than TBE in improving forward limits of stability among non-frail elderly aged ≥65 years.

  6. Change in Bone Mineral Density During Weight Loss with Resistance Versus Aerobic Exercise Training in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Kristen M; Beavers, Daniel P; Martin, Sarah B; Marsh, Anthony P; Lyles, Mary F; Lenchik, Leon; Shapses, Sue A; Nicklas, Barbara J

    2017-10-12

    To examine the effect of exercise modality during weight loss on hip and spine bone mineral density (BMD) in overweight and obese, older adults. This analysis compared data from two 5-month, randomized controlled trials of caloric restriction (CR; inducing 5-10% weight loss) with either resistance training (RT) or aerobic training (AT) in overweight and obese, older adults. Participants in the RT + CR study underwent 3 days/week of 8 upper/lower body exercises (3 sets, 10 repetitions at 70% 1 RM) and participants in the AT+CR study underwent 4 days/week of treadmill walking (30 min at 65-70% heart rate reserve). BMD at the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine was assessed via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and 5 months. A total of 123 adults (69.4 ± 3.5 years, 67% female, 81% Caucasian) participated in the RT+CR (n = 60) and AT+CR (n = 63) interventions. Average weight loss was 5.7% (95% CI: 4.6-6.7%) and 8.2% (95% CI: 7.2-9.3%) in RT+CR and AT+CR groups, respectively. After adjustment for age, gender, race, baseline BMI and BMD, and weight change, differential treatment effects were observed for total hip and femoral neck (both p resistance, rather than aerobic, training during CR may attenuate loss of hip and femoral neck BMD in overweight and obese older adults. Findings warrant replication from a long-term, adequately powered, RCT. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Integrated Endurance and Resistance Exercise Countermeasures Using a Gravity Independent Training Device

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study is designed to investigate the effectiveness of a new exercise device, multi-mode exercise device or M-MED, for use during long-duration space flights for...

  8. The effect of combined resistance exercise training and vitamin D3supplementation on musculoskeletal health and function in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniak, Anneka Elizabeth; Greig, Carolyn A

    2017-07-20

    In older adults, there is a blunted responsiveness to resistance training and reduced muscle hypertrophy compared with younger adults. There is evidence that both exercise training and vitamin D supplementation may benefit musculoskeletal health in older adults, and it is plausible that in combination their effects may be additive. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of combined resistance exercise training and vitamin D 3 supplementation on musculoskeletal health in older adults. A comprehensive search of electronic databases, including Science Direct, Medline, PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane CENTRAL accessed by Wiley Science) was conducted. Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials including men and women (aged ≥65 years or mean age ≥65 years); enlisting resistance exercise training and vitamin D 3 supplementation; including outcomes of muscle strength, function, muscle power, body composition, serum vitamin D/calcium status or quality of life comparing results with a control group. The review was informed by a preregistered protocol (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42015020157). Seven studies including a total of 792 participants were identified. Studies were categorised into two groups; group 1 compared vitamin D 3 supplementation and exercise training versus exercise alone (describing the additive effect of vitamin D 3 supplementation when combined with resistance exercise training) and group 2 compared vitamin D 3 supplementation and exercise training versus vitamin D 3 supplementation alone (describing the additive effect of resistance exercise training when combined with vitamin D 3 supplementation).Meta-analyses for group 1 found muscle strength of the lower limb to be significantly improved within the intervention group (0.98, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.24, psupplementation for the improvement of muscle strength in older adults. For other

  9. Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Parise, Gianni; Bellamy, Leeann; Baker, Steven K; Smith, Kenneth; Atherton, Philip J; Phillips, Stuart M

    2014-01-01

    Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT) involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE) in untrained men (n = 23) and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index  = 26.4±0.9 kg•m²) underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-¹³C₆] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (Pmuscle volume and acute rates of MPS measured over 1-3 h (r = 0.02), 3-6 h (r = 0.16) or the aggregate 1-6 h post-exercise period (r = 0.10). Hypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r = 0.42, P = 0.05) with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1(Thr37/46) at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT.

  10. Effects of exercise training on adiposity, insulin sensitivity, and plasma hormone and lipid concentrations in overweight or obese, insulin-resistant horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rebecca A; McCutcheon, L Jill; Valle, Emanuela; Meilahn, Elaine N; Geor, Raymond J

    2010-03-01

    To determine effects of exercise training without dietary restriction on adiposity, basal hormone and lipid concentrations and glucose and insulin dynamics in overweight or obese, insulin-resistant horses. 12 overweight or obese (body condition score > or = 7), insulin-resistant (insulin sensitivity training period, frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance tests with minimal model analysis were performed and baseline plasma insulin, glucose, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, and leptin concentrations were analyzed. Adiposity was assessed by use of morphometrics, ultrasonic subcutaneous fat thickness, and estimation of fat mass from total body water (deuterium dilution method). Body weight and fat mass decreased by 4% (mean +/- SD, 20 +/- 8 kg) and 34% (32 +/- 9 kg), respectively, compared with pre-exercise values, with similar losses during low- and higher-intensity training. There was no effect of exercise training on subcutaneous fat thickness, plasma hormone and lipid concentrations, or minimal model parameters of glucose and insulin dynamics. Results suggested that moderate exercise training without concurrent dietary restriction does not mitigate insulin resistance in overweight or obese horses. A more pronounced reduction in adiposity or higher volume or intensity of exercise may be necessary for improvement in insulin sensitivity in such horses.

  11. Effectiveness of functional progressive resistance exercise training on walking ability in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtes, Vanessa A; Becher, Jules G; Janssen-Potten, Yvonne J; Dekkers, Hurnet; Smallenbroek, Linda; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of functional progressive resistance exercise (PRE) training on walking ability in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Fifty-one ambulant children with spastic CP (mean age 10 years 5 months, 29 boys) were randomized to an intervention (n=26) or control group (n=25, receiving usual care). The intervention consisted of 12 weeks functional PRE circuit training, for 3 times a week. Main outcome measures were walking ability and participation. Secondary outcomes were muscle strength and anaerobic muscle power. Possible adverse outcomes were spasticity and passive range of motion (ROM). Muscle strength increased significantly in the training group compared to the control group, but walking ability, participation and anaerobic muscle power did not change. Spasticity and ROM remained unchanged, except for a significant decrease in rectus femoris length in the intervention group. It is concluded that twelve weeks of functional PRE-training does not improve walking ability, despite improved muscle strength. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A 2-Month Linear Periodized Resistance Exercise Training Improved Musculoskeletal Fitness and Specific Conditioning of Navy Cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantarakis, Antonios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Vezos, Nikolaos; Douroudos, Ioannis I; Draganidis, Dimitrios; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Kambas, Antonis; Kalligeros, Stamatios; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2017-05-01

    Vantarakis, A, Chatzinikolaou, A, Avloniti, A, Vezos, N, Douroudos, II, Draganidis, D, Jamurtas, AΖ, Kambas, A, Kalligeros, S, and Fatouros, IG. A 2-month linear periodized resistance exercise training improved musculoskeletal fitness and specific conditioning of navy cadets. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1362-1370, 2017-Major objectives of army and navy training are the development of readiness, performance, and injury prevention. Numerous studies have examined the effect of specific strength training (ST) programs on performance of Special Forces and military personnel. Although navy personnel have to address on-board conditions that require the development of strength, agility, speed, and task-specific endurance, there is no information regarding the effects of ST on navy-specific performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an 8-week ST on performance of navy cadets. Thirty-one cadets of the Hellenic Naval Academy volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned in 2 groups. Cadets in the Experimental Group participated in a linear periodized ST program in addition to their daily training schedule. Cadets in the control group participated only in pre- and post-measurements. Anthropometrics, maximal oxygen consumption, oxygen consumption during a Navy Obstacle Course (NOC), maximum strength in bench press and squat exercises, hand grip strength, repetitions in push-ups and abdominal test, time to complete a 30-m sprint, and time to complete NOC were measured before and after the intervention. A 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that ST induced favorable changes in bench press and squat 1 repetition maximum, push-ups, abdominal crunches, time to complete 30-m distance, and time to complete the NOC. These results indicate that an additional ST may induce positive alterations on readiness and performance of navy cadets. The study has the approval of university's institutional review board and ethical

  13. Aerobic exercise augments muscle transcriptome profile of resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Tesch, Per A; Rullman, Eric; Gustafsson, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Recent reports suggest that aerobic exercise may boost the hypertrophic response to short-term resistance training. This study explored the effects of an acute aerobic exercise bout on the transcriptional response to subsequent resistance exercise. Ten moderately trained men performed ∼45 min cycling on one leg followed by 4 × 7 maximal knee extensions for each leg, 15 min later. Thus, one limb performed aerobic and resistance exercise (AE + RE) while the opposing leg did resistance exercise only (RE). Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of each leg 3 h after the resistance exercise bout. Using DNA microarray, we analyzed differences [≥1.5-fold, false discovery rate (FDR) ≤10%] in gene expression profiles for the two modes of exercise. There were 176 genes up (127)- or downregulated (49) by AE + RE compared with RE. Among the most significant differentially expressed genes were established markers for muscle growth and oxidative capacity, novel cytokines, transcription factors, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs). The most enriched functional categories were those linked to carbohydrate metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Upstream analysis revealed that vascular endothelial growth factor, cAMP-response element-binding protein, Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase, and mammalian target of rapamycin were regulators highly activated by AE + RE, whereas JnK, NF-κβ, MAPK, and several miRNAs were inhibited. Thus, aerobic exercise alters the skeletal muscle transcriptional signature of resistance exercise to initiate important gene programs promoting both myofiber growth and improved oxidative capacity. These results provide novel insight into human muscle adaptations to diverse exercise modes and offer the very first genomic basis explaining how aerobic exercise may augment, rather than compromise, muscle growth induced by resistance exercise. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Effects of exercise training using resistance bands on glycaemic control and strength in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Samantha K; Armstrong, Marni J; Boulé, Normand G; Sigal, Ronald J

    2015-04-01

    Resistance exercise using free weights or weight machines improves glycaemic control and strength in people with type 2 diabetes. Resistance band training is potentially less expensive and more accessible, but the effects of resistance band training on glycaemic control and strength in this population are not well understood. This paper aims to systematically review and meta-analyse the effect of resistance band training on haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and strength in adults with type 2 diabetes. Database searches were performed in August 2013 (MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, and CINAHL). Reference lists of eligible articles were hand-searched for additional studies. Randomised trials evaluating the effects of resistance band training in adults with type 2 diabetes on HbA1c or objectively measured strength were selected. Baseline and post-intervention HbA1c and strength were extracted for the intervention and control groups. Details of the exercise interventions and methodological quality were collected. Seven trials met inclusion criteria. Post-intervention-weighted mean HbA1c was nonsignificantly lower in exercise groups compared to control groups [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -0.18 percentage points (-1.91 mmol/mol); P = 0.27]. Post-intervention strength was significantly higher in the exercise groups compared to the control groups in the lower extremities (WMD = 21.90 kg; P diabetes.

  15. Protein supplementation increases muscle mass gain during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail elderly people: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieland, C.A.B.; Dirks, M.L.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Verdijk, L.; Rest, van de O.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Loon, van L.C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Protein supplementation has been proposed as an effective dietary strategy to augment the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training in elderly people. Our objective was to assess the impact of protein supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and

  16. Effects of exercise training and diet on lipid kinetics during free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in older obese humans with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Haus, Jacob M; Marchetti, Christine M

    2009-01-01

    the effect of 12 wk of exercise training with and without caloric restriction on FFA turnover and oxidation (FFA(ox)) during acute FFA-induced insulin resistance. Sixteen obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to either a hypocaloric (n = 8; -598 +/- 125 kcal/day, 66 +/- 1 yr, 32...

  17. Protein Supplementation Augments Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy but Does Not Modulate Satellite Cell Content During Prolonged Resistance-Type Exercise Training in Frail Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, Marlou L.; Tieland, Michael; Verdijk, Lex B.; Losen, Mario; Nilwik, Rachel; Mensink, Marco; Groot, de Lisette C.P.G.M.; Loon, van Luc J.C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Protein supplementation increases gains in lean body mass following prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail older adults. We assessed whether the greater increase in lean body mass can be attributed to muscle fiber type specific hypertrophy with concomitant changes in

  18. Oxidative stress responses to a graded maximal exercise test in older adults following explosive-type resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Ceci

    2014-01-01

    In conclusion, the adherence to an EMRT protocol is able to induce a cellular adaptation allowing healthy elderly trained subjects to cope with the oxidative stress induced by an acute exercise more effectively than the aged-matched sedentary subjects.

  19. Antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress adaptation to exercise training: Comparison of endurance, resistance, and concurrent training in untrained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Azizbeigi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of endurance training (ET, resistance training (RT, and concurrent training (CT on circulating antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress. For this purpose, 30 men aged 21.7 ± 2.4 years were assigned to the following three training groups: ET, which included continuous running with incremental intensity that was increased up to 80% of maximal heart rate (n = 10; RT, which included a beginning load of 50% of one repetition maximum (1RM that was increased up to 80% of 1RM (n = 10; and CT, which included ET and RT programs every other day during the week (n = 10. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in erythrocytes and total antioxidant capacity (TAC and malondialdehyde (MDA level in plasma were measured. The results showed that SOD significantly increased by 21.85% (p = 0.020, 9.54% (p = 0.032, and 14.55% (p = 0.038 in the ET, RT, and CT groups, respectively. Furthermore, the activity of erythrocyte GPx significantly increased in the ET (p = 0.018 and CT (p = 0.042 groups. The TAC increased significantly in the ET (p = 0.040 and CT (p = 0.049 groups compared with the pretest values. The MDA level significantly decreased in the ET group by 32.7% (p = 0.028, by 32% in the RT group (p = 0.025, and by 29.1% (p = 0.047 in the CT group. However, there was no significant difference in the interaction of time and group between variables of SOD and GPx enzymes and TAC of plasma and MDA in the ET, RT, and CT groups (p < 0.05. It can be concluded that all three training types induced the same changes in redox state (increased SOD activity and reduction in MDA levels, but at different rates.

  20. Concurrent exercise training: do opposites distract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Vernon G; Hawley, John A

    2017-05-01

    Specificity is a core principle of exercise training to promote the desired adaptations for maximising athletic performance. The principle of specificity of adaptation is underpinned by the volume, intensity, frequency and mode of contractile activity and is most evident when contrasting the divergent phenotypes that result after undertaking either prolonged endurance or resistance training. The molecular profiles that generate the adaptive response to different exercise modes have undergone intense scientific scrutiny. Given divergent exercise induces similar signalling and gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle of untrained or recreationally active individuals, what is currently unclear is how the specificity of the molecular response is modified by prior training history. The time course of adaptation and when 'phenotype specificity' occurs has important implications for exercise prescription. This context is essential when attempting to concomitantly develop resistance to fatigue (through endurance-based exercise) and increased muscle mass (through resistance-based exercise), typically termed 'concurrent training'. Chronic training studies provide robust evidence that endurance exercise can attenuate muscle hypertrophy and strength but the mechanistic underpinning of this 'interference' effect with concurrent training is unknown. Moreover, despite the potential for several key regulators of muscle metabolism to explain an incompatibility in adaptation between endurance and resistance exercise, it now seems likely that multiple integrated, rather than isolated, effectors or processes generate the interference effect. Here we review studies of the molecular responses in skeletal muscle and evidence for the interference effect with concurrent training within the context of the specificity of training adaptation. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  1. Exercise-induced muscle damage is reduced in resistance-trained males by branched chain amino acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howatson Glyn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD decreases muscle function and causes soreness and discomfort. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA supplementation has been shown to increase protein synthesis and decrease muscle protein breakdown, however, the effects of BCAAs on recovery from damaging resistance training are unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a BCAA supplementation on markers of muscle damage elicited via a sport specific bout of damaging exercise in trained volunteers. Methods Twelve males (mean ± SD age, 23 ± 2 y; stature, 178.3 ± 3.6 cm and body mass, 79.6 ± 8.4 kg were randomly assigned to a supplement (n = 6 or placebo (n = 6 group. The damaging exercise consisted of 100 consecutive drop-jumps. Creatine kinase (CK, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, muscle soreness (DOMS, vertical jump (VJ, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC were measured as markers of muscle damage. All variables were measured immediately before the damaging exercise and at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post-exercise. Results A significant time effect was seen for all variables. There were significant group effects showing a reduction in CK efflux and muscle soreness in the BCAA group compared to the placebo (P Conclusion The present study has shown that BCAA administered before and following damaging resistance exercise reduces indices of muscle damage and accelerates recovery in resistance-trained males. It seems likely that BCAA provided greater bioavailablity of substrate to improve protein synthesis and thereby the extent of secondary muscle damage associated with strenuous resistance exercise. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01529281.

  2. Heavy resistance training and lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Karlsmark, Tonny; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2014-01-01

    , and identify associations between progressive resistance training with heavy loads, and the development of BCRL. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a descriptive study. POPULATION: Women treated for breast cancer (n = 149), who had participated in the 'Body and Cancer' exercise intervention between 1 January 2010......BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge regarding progressive resistance training during adjuvant chemotherapy and the risk of developing breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Furthermore, no studies have investigated the safety of resistance training with heavy loads (> 80% 1 repetition maximum......) in this population. 'Body and Cancer' is a six-week, nine-hour weekly, supervised, multimodal exercise intervention utilizing progressive resistance training with heavy loads for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of BCRL in former participants...

  3. Protein supplementation increases muscle mass gain during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail elderly people: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieland, Michael; Dirks, Marlou L; van der Zwaluw, Nikita; Verdijk, Lex B; van de Rest, Ondine; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2012-10-01

    Protein supplementation has been proposed as an effective dietary strategy to augment the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training in elderly people. Our objective was to assess the impact of protein supplementation on muscle mass, strength, and physical performance during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail elderly men and women. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 2 arms in parallel among 62 frail elderly subjects (78 ± 1 year). These elderly subjects participated in a progressive resistance-type exercise training program (2 sessions per week for 24 weeks) during which they were supplemented twice daily with either protein (2 * 15 g) or a placebo. Lean body mass (DXA), strength (1-RM), and physical performance (SPPB) were assessed at baseline, and after 12 and 24 weeks of intervention. Lean body mass increased from 47.2 kg (95% CI, 43.5-50.9) to 48.5 kg (95% CI, 44.8-52.1) in the protein group and did not change in the placebo group (from 45.7 kg, 95% CI, 42.1-49.2 to 45.4 kg, 95% CI, 41.8-48.9) following the intervention (P value for treatment × time interaction = .006). Strength and physical performance improved significantly in both groups (P = .000) with no interaction effect of dietary protein supplementation. Prolonged resistance-type exercise training represents an effective strategy to improve strength and physical performance in frail elderly people. Dietary protein supplementation is required to allow muscle mass gain during exercise training in frail elderly people. clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01110369. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of Resistance Exercise Training to Strengthen Muscles across Multiple Joints of the Lower Limbs on Dynamic Balance Functions of Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sung Min; Park, Myung Kyu; Lee, Na Kyung

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training for strengthening muscles across multiple joints on the dynamic balance function of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects in the training group (n=14) and the control group (n=14) received conservative physical therapy for 30 minutes per day, five days per week, for a period of six weeks. The training group additionally performed three sets (eight to 10 repetitions per set) of resistance exercise at 70% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM) to strengthen muscles across multiple joints. The control group did the same exercises for the same duration but without resistance. To assess dynamic balance function, before and after the intervention, we measured antero-posterior (A-P) and medio-lateral (M-L) sway distances, the Berg balance scale (BBS), and the timed up and go (TUG) times. [Results] Compared to pre-intervention values, the BBS score showed significant increases in both groups, and A-P and M-L sway distances and TUG times showed significant decreases in both groups. Changes in A-P and M-L sway distances, BBS scores, and TUG times were significantly different between the muscle training group and the control group. [Conclusion] Training involving muscle strength across multiple joints is an effective intervention for improvement of dynamic balance function of stroke patients.

  5. Tachycardia During Resistance Exercise: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Andrew C.; Parks, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    This case study examined a weight-trained (WT) male who had an unusually high heart rate response to heavy resistance exercise and self-administered anabolic androgenic steroids as an ergogenic aid to training. The subject was compared to 18 other WT people. His tachycardia response occurred only in the presence of a pressure load and not with a…

  6. Resistance exercise training increases lower limb speed of strength generation during stair ascent and descent in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handsaker, J C; Brown, S J; Bowling, F L; Maganaris, C N; Boulton, A J M; Reeves, N D

    2016-01-01

    To examine the effects of a 16-week resistance exercise training intervention on the speed of ankle and knee strength generation during stair ascent and descent, in people with neuropathy. A total of 43 people: nine with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, 13 with diabetes but no neuropathy and 21 healthy control subjects ascended and descended a custom-built staircase. The speed at which ankle and knee strength were generated, and muscle activation patterns of the ankle and knee extensor muscles were analysed before and after a 16-week intervention period. Ankle and knee strength generation during both stair ascent and descent were significantly higher after the intervention than before the intervention in the people with diabetes who undertook the resistance exercise intervention (P strength generation observed after the intervention would be expected to improve stability during the crucial weight acceptance phase of stair ascent and descent, and ultimately contribute towards reducing the risk of falling. Improvements in muscle strength as a result of the resistance exercise training intervention are likely to be the most influential factor for increasing the speed of strength generation. It is recommended that these exercises could be incorporated into a multi-faceted exercise programme to improve safety in people with diabetes and neuropathy. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  7. Changes in the heart rate recovery to endurance effort after high intensity interval, strength, and concurrent exercise training in patients with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Cristian; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Martínez, Cristian; Castro-Sepúlveda, Mauricio; Cano-Montoya, Johnathan; Mancilla, Rodrigo; Flores-Opazo, Marcelo

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of three exercise training programs in the adaptation of the heart rate recovery of patients with insulin resistance. We studied 43 women with insulin resistance, which were assigned to three training groups: 1) high intensity interval training (HIT, age 39.0±10 years); 2) strength training (ST, age 33.9±9.4 years); 3) HIT+ST (MIXT, age 43.3±8.1 years); and 4) control group (CG, age 40.1±11 years). Heart rate was measured at rest (HRrest), during the 2-km-walking-test (UKKT) for mean (HRDE), and maximum (HRMDE) values, and during the recovery at one, two, and three minutes after the UKKT. Additionally, anthropometric measurements (body mass and body mass index) were assessed. HIT significantly decreased HRrest and HRDE (-4.5% and -2% respectively, Pexercise, and that complementary strength training increases these adaptations.

  8. Resistance training program for fatigue management in the workplace: exercise protocol in a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hélio Gustavo; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Valentim, Daniela Pereira; da Silva, Patricia Rodrigues; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

    2016-12-22

    Fatigue is a multifactorial condition that leads to disease and loss in production, and it affects a large number of workers worldwide. This study aims to demonstrate a resistance exercise protocol that individuals will perform during the work schedule, and to evaluate the effectiveness of this exercises program for fatigue control. This is a cluster randomized controlled trial with two arms and is assessor blinded. A total of 352 workers of both sexes, aged 18-65 years, from a medium-sized dairy plant were enrolled in this study. Participants will be recruited from 13 production sectors according to the eligibility criteria and will be randomized by clusters to either the Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE) intervention group or the Compensatory Workplace Exercise (CWE) comparative group. A resistance exercise program will be implemented for both groups. The groups will receive instructions on self-management, breaks, adjustments to workstations, and the benefits of physical exercise. The PRE group will perform resistance exercises with gradual loads in an exercise room, and the CWE group will perform exercise at their workstations using elastic bands. The exercise sessions will be held 3 times a week for 20 min. The primary outcome measures will be symptoms of physical and mental fatigue, and muscular fatigue based on a one-repetition maximum (1RM). The secondary outcome measures will be level of physical activity, musculoskeletal symptoms, physical condition, perceived exposure, and productivity. The workers will be assessed at baseline and after a 4-month program. A linear mixed model will be applied on an intention-to-treat basis. This intervention is expected to reduce symptoms of fatigue in the workers. The exercise program is indicating in the workplace, although there are few studies describing the effects of exercise on the control of fatigue in the workplace. Emphasis will be placed on adherence to the program, which may result in significant and

  9. Resistance training program for fatigue management in the workplace: exercise protocol in a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Gustavo Santos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue is a multifactorial condition that leads to disease and loss in production, and it affects a large number of workers worldwide. This study aims to demonstrate a resistance exercise protocol that individuals will perform during the work schedule, and to evaluate the effectiveness of this exercises program for fatigue control. Methods/Design This is a cluster randomized controlled trial with two arms and is assessor blinded. A total of 352 workers of both sexes, aged 18–65 years, from a medium-sized dairy plant were enrolled in this study. Participants will be recruited from 13 production sectors according to the eligibility criteria and will be randomized by clusters to either the Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE intervention group or the Compensatory Workplace Exercise (CWE comparative group. A resistance exercise program will be implemented for both groups. The groups will receive instructions on self-management, breaks, adjustments to workstations, and the benefits of physical exercise. The PRE group will perform resistance exercises with gradual loads in an exercise room, and the CWE group will perform exercise at their workstations using elastic bands. The exercise sessions will be held 3 times a week for 20 min. The primary outcome measures will be symptoms of physical and mental fatigue, and muscular fatigue based on a one-repetition maximum (1RM. The secondary outcome measures will be level of physical activity, musculoskeletal symptoms, physical condition, perceived exposure, and productivity. The workers will be assessed at baseline and after a 4-month program. A linear mixed model will be applied on an intention-to-treat basis. Discussion This intervention is expected to reduce symptoms of fatigue in the workers. The exercise program is indicating in the workplace, although there are few studies describing the effects of exercise on the control of fatigue in the workplace. Emphasis will be placed on

  10. Effects of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms on low-resistance training using exercise machines: the 'Power Rehabilitation' program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shin-Ichiro; Otsuki, Takemi; Maeda, Megumi; Miura, Yoshie; Morii, Seiko; Kiyokane, Kenji; Hayakawa, Shin-Ichi; Maeda, Atsushi; Imakawa, Takayo; Harada, Shunpei; Handa, Torataro; Nishimura, Yasumitsu; Murakami, Shuko; Kumagai, Naoko; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Chen, Ying; Suemori, Shin-Ichiro; Fukushima, Yumiko; Nishida, Seikoh; Fukushima, Keisuke

    2009-01-01

    The enhancement and promotion of health is necessary to maintain the quality of life (QOL) of the aged population in developed nations such as Japan where the number of elderly has been increasing rapidly. For this purpose, low-resistance training using exercise machines ('Power Rehabilitation') has been established as a rehabilitation program. To investigate the individual factors which influence the effects of 'Power Rehabilitation', single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) gene were analyzed, and the relationship between SNP patterns and the effects of 'Power Rehabilitation' was evaluated. 'Power Rehabilitation' had an effect on the physiological functions involved in the activities of daily life (ADL) rather than muscle strength and size. In addition, certain SNP patterns showed better improvement of parameters associated with the effects of 'Power Rehabilitation' as analyzed by comparison between SNP patterns and factor analysis. Large scale analyses are required to ensure this tendency and to discover individual factors which may help to promote the health and QOL of the aged population.

  11. Effect of early supervised progressive resistance training compared to unsupervised home-based exercise after fast-track total hip replacement applied to patients with preoperative functional limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, L R; Mechlenburg, I; Søballe, K

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if 2 weekly sessions of supervised progressive resistance training (PRT) in combination with 5 weekly sessions of unsupervised home-based exercise is more effective than 7 weekly sessions of unsupervised home-based exercise in improving leg-extension power of the operated leg...... 10 weeks after total hip replacement (THR) in patients with lower pre-operative function. METHOD: A total of 73 patients scheduled for THR were randomised (1:1) to intervention group (IG, home based exercise 5 days/week and PRT 2 days/week) or control group (CG, home based exercise 7 days...... of the operated leg, at the primary endpoint 10 weeks after surgery in THR patients with lower pre-operative function. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01214954....

  12. The Influence of Resistance Exercise Training on the Levels of Anxiety in Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe José Aidar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was to analyze the effect of a strength training program on indicators of trait and state anxiety in patients with ischemic stroke. The subjects were divided into two groups: experimental group (EG consisting of 11 subjects aged years and a control group (CG with 13 subjects aged years. EG underwent 12 weeks of strength training, with a frequency of three times a week. For data collection, a State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI was used. Significant differences were found between pre- and posttest in EG for trait anxiety ( pretest posttest and state anxiety ( pretest posttest with no differences in CG for trait anxiety ( pretest posttest and state anxiety ( pretest posttest. In the evaluation between the groups, significant differences were found for all indicators of trait anxiety ( EG; CG and state anxiety ( EG; CG. This pilot study indicates that strength training may provide an improvement in trait and state anxiety more than one year after stroke.

  13. Development, feasibility, and efficacy of a customized exercise device to deliver intradialytic resistance training in patients with end stage renal disease: Non-randomized controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Danwin; Green, Simon; Fiatarone Singh, Maria; Barnard, Robert; Cheema, Birinder S

    2016-10-01

    Introduction This study assessed the feasibility and efficacy of a novel resistance training device used within an intradialytic progressive resistance training (PRT) intervention. Methods Non-randomized, within-subjects crossover design with outcomes assessed at baseline (week 0), postcontrol (week 13) and post-PRT intervention (week 26). Twenty-two hemodialysis patients (59% men, 71 ± 11 years) performed PRT three sessions per week for 12 weeks. The resistance training device was developed to enable the performance of 2 upper body and 3 lower body exercises, unilaterally and bilaterally, both before and during dialysis, with loads of 2.5 to 59 kg. Feasibility outcomes included adverse events, adherence and training load progression. Changes in upper and lower body muscular strength, six-minute walk, aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depression were evaluated. Findings The PRT intervention was delivered without serious adverse events, resulted in 71.2% ± 23.3% adherence and significant adaptation of all training loads from pre to mid to post training (83.8%-185.6%, all P Emotional) significantly increased (all P outcomes. Discussion PRT using the novel resistance training device was feasible and improved measures of physical and psychological health. This device can be utilized in most dialysis centers. Future studies are required to evaluate dose-response effects of PRT prescriptions in subpopulations, and the translation of PRT to standard dialysis practice. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  14. Heart Rate Recovery and Variability Following Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Training in Adults with and without Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, Goncalo V.; Pereira, Fernando D.; Fernhall, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Persons with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and there is compelling evidence of autonomic dysfunction in these individuals. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether a combined aerobic and resistance exercise intervention produces similar results in cardiac autonomic function between…

  15. Protein supplementation augments the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to resistance-type exercise training: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cermak, N.M.; Res, P.T.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Saris, W.H.M.; Loon, van L.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Protein ingestion after a single bout of resistance-type exercise stimulates net muscle protein accretion during acute postexercise recovery. Consequently, it is generally accepted that protein supplementation is required to maximize the adaptive response of the skeletal muscle to

  16. The Role of Resistance Exercise in Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeffrey L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the role of weight training in weight loss, noting how weight training contributes to the creation of a negative energy balance and explaining how resistance exercise can cause an increase in fat oxidation, both acutely and chronically. Resistance exercise has an indirect impact on weight and fat loss through increasing resting metabolic…

  17. Protein Supplementation Does Not Significantly Augment the Effects of Resistance Exercise Training in Older Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Danielle K; Quinn, Marcus A; Saunders, David H; Greig, Carolyn A

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity and nutritional supplementation interventions may be used to ameliorate age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. Previous reviews have demonstrated the beneficial effects of resistance exercise training (RET) combined with protein or essential amino acids (EAA) in younger populations. Whether or not older adults also benefit is unclear. The aim of this review was to determine whether regular dietary supplementation with protein/EAA during a RET regimen augments the effects of RET on skeletal muscle in older adults. A literature search was conducted in August 2015 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL Plus to identify all controlled trials using a RET regimen with and without protein/EAA supplementation. Outcome variables included muscle strength, muscle size, functional ability, and body composition. Fifteen studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria, including 917 participants with a mean age of 77.4 years. Studies involving both healthy participants and those described as frail or sarcopenic were included. Overall, results indicated that protein supplementation did not significantly augment the effects of RET on any of the specified outcomes. Exceptions included some measures of muscle strength (3 studies) and body composition (2 studies). Meta-analyses were conducted but were limited because of methodologic differences between studies, and results were inconclusive. Systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials reveal that protein/EAA supplementation does not significantly augment the effects of progressive RET in older adults. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Gentil, Paulo; Moro, Tatiana; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ) or multi-joint exercises (MJ) on VO2max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group (n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years) exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc.) and MJ group (n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years) with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.). The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load) was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO2max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO2max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ), bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ), knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ) and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ). In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition. PMID:29312007

  19. Relationship between resistance training and selfreported habitual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similar to the non-exercising control group, resistance training resulted in no significant (p > 0.05) changes in the habitual intake of daily intake of total ... as a mode of training may not be an effective mode of exercise to promote overall physical activity in an attempt to modify the patterns of macronutrient and energy intake.

  20. IGF-1 response to arm exercise with eccentric and concentric muscle contractions in resistance-trained athletes with left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żebrowska, A; Waśkiewicz, Z; Zając, A; Gąsior, Z; Galbo, H; Langfort, J

    2013-02-01

    The study aimed at evaluating changes in plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), testosterone, growth hormone (GH), cortisol, and insulin in resistance-trained male athletes with (n=9) and without (n=9) left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in response to eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CON) arm exercise. 10 age-matched healthy non-trained subjects served as controls. M-mode and 2D Doppler echocardiography were used to estimate LV mass.Resting IGF-1 concentration was higher in LVH athletes compared to controls (52 ± 5 nM vs. 46 ± 7 nM, pathletes with LVH (70 ± 11 nM, n=9) compared to those without LVH (62 ± 10 nM, n=9), and to untrained controls (54 ± 6 nM). Both CON and ECC exercise resulted in higher serum IGFBP-3 levels in LVH athletes compared to controls (242 ± 57 and 274 ± 58, athletes, vs. 215 ± 63 and 244 ± 67, controls, nM, pathletes (4.7 ± 2.1 vs. 6.1 ± 1.8 ng  mL(-1), peccentric arm exercise. These findings suggest a role of IGF-1, possibly released from contracting muscle, in stimulating LV hypertrophy in resistance training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Effects of 6 months of aerobic and resistance exercise training on carotid artery intima media thickness in overweight and obese older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinkee; Park, Hyuntea

    2017-12-01

    We studied the effects of exercise on carotid intima-media thickness, luminal diameter, and flow velocity in overweight and obese older women, and the associations between carotid parameters changes and other variables. A total of 41 overweight and obese older women (aged 65-77 years, fat mass percent ≥ 32%), who were divided into a control group (n = 20) and a supervised combined exercise group (n = 21). The 24-week combined exercise program (aerobic and resistance exercise) consisted of sessions 40-80 min in length 5 days per week under the supervision of an exercise specialist. Body composition, blood pressure, physical function and carotid variables were assessed. The differences in all variables, and the relative changes between baseline and 24 weeks' follow up were evaluated. Carotid intima-media thickness, systolic carotid luminal diameter, peak systolic flow velocity and end diastolic flow velocity showed a significant group × time interaction. No interaction was observed for diastolic luminal diameter. In the exercise group, the change of carotid intima-media thickness was significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, maximal walking speed, 1-mile walking time and maximal oxygen uptake. Also, the change of peak systolic flow velocity was significantly associated with skeletal muscle mass, diastolic blood pressure and maximum walking speed. Combined exercise can effectively improve carotid intima-media thickness in overweight and obese older women. In addition, exercise training increases the systolic carotid luminal diameter and flow velocity in older women. Therefore, regular combined exercise might help prevent atherosclerotic disease by improving the carotid artery. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2304-2310. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Effect of high- versus low-intensity supervised aerobic and resistance training on modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes; the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study (IDES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Balducci

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While current recommendations on exercise type and volume have strong experimental bases, there is no clear evidence from large-sized studies indicating whether increasing training intensity provides additional benefits to subjects with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of moderate-to-high intensity (HI versus low-to-moderate intensity (LI training of equal energy cost, i.e. exercise volume, on modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN: Pre-specified sub-analysis of the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study (IDES, a randomized multicenter prospective trial comparing a supervised exercise intervention with standard care for 12 months (2005-2006. SETTING: Twenty-two outpatient diabetes clinics across Italy. PATIENTS: Sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes assigned to twice-a-week supervised progressive aerobic and resistance training plus exercise counseling (n = 303. INTERVENTIONS: Subjects were randomized by center to LI (n = 142, 136 completed or HI (n = 161, 152 completed progressive aerobic and resistance training, i.e. at 55% or 70% of predicted maximal oxygen consumption and at 60% or 80% of predicted 1-Repetition Maximum, respectively, of equal volume. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S: Hemoglobin (Hb A(1c and other cardiovascular risk factors; 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD risk scores. RESULTS: Volume of physical activity, both supervised and non-supervised, was similar in LI and HI participants. Compared with LI training, HI training produced only clinically marginal, though statistically significant, improvements in HbA(1c (mean difference -0.17% [95% confidence interval -0.44,0.10], P = 0.03, triglycerides (-0.12 mmol/l [-0.34,0.10], P = 0.02 and total cholesterol (-0.24 mmol/l [-0.46, -0.01], P = 0.04, but not in other risk factors and CHD risk scores. However, intensity was not an independent predictor of reduction of any of these parameters. Adverse event rate was similar in HI and LI subjects

  3. Protein Supplementation Augments Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy but Does Not Modulate Satellite Cell Content During Prolonged Resistance-Type Exercise Training in Frail Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Marlou L; Tieland, Michael; Verdijk, Lex B; Losen, Mario; Nilwik, Rachel; Mensink, Marco; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-07-01

    Protein supplementation increases gains in lean body mass following prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail older adults. We assessed whether the greater increase in lean body mass can be attributed to muscle fiber type specific hypertrophy with concomitant changes in satellite cell (SC) content. A total of 34 frail elderly individuals (77 ± 1 years, n = 12 male adults) participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 2 arms in parallel. Participants performed 24 weeks of progressive resistance-type exercise training (2 sessions per week) during which they were supplemented twice-daily with milk protein (2 × 15 g) or a placebo. Muscle biopsies were taken at baseline, and after 12 and 24 weeks of intervention, to determine type I and type II muscle fiber specific cross-sectional area (CSA), SC content, and myocellular characteristics. In the placebo group, a trend for a 20% ± 11% increase in muscle fiber CSA was observed in type II fibers only (P = .051), with no increase in type I muscle fiber CSA. In the protein group, type I and II muscle fiber CSA increased by 23% ± 7% and 34% ± 10% following 6 months of training, respectively (P  .05). No changes in myonuclear content and SC contents were observed over time in either group (both P > .05). Regression analysis showed that changes in myonuclear content and domain size are predictive of muscle fiber hypertrophy. Protein supplementation augments muscle fiber hypertrophy following prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail older people, without changes in myonuclear and SC content. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Benefits of combined aerobic/resistance/inspiratory training in patients with chronic heart failure. A complete exercise model? A prospective randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laoutaris, Ioannis D; Adamopoulos, Stamatis; Manginas, Athanassios; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Kallistratos, Manolis S; Doulaptsis, Costas; Kouloubinis, Alexandros; Voudris, Vasilis; Pavlides, Gregory; Cokkinos, Dennis V; Dritsas, Athanasios

    2013-09-01

    We hypothesised that combined aerobic training (AT) with resistance training (RT) and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) could result in additional benefits over AT alone in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Twenty-seven patients, age 58 ± 9 years, NYHA II/III and LVEF 29 ± 7% were randomly assigned to a 12-week AT (n=14) or a combined AT/RT/IMT (ARIS) (n=13) exercise program. AT consisted of bike exercise at 70-80% of max heart rate. ARIS training consisted of AT with RT of the quadriceps at 50% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and upper limb exercises using dumbbells of 1-2 kg as well as IMT at 60% of sustained maximal inspiratory pressure (SPI(max)). At baseline and after intervention patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, echocardiography, evaluation of dyspnea, muscle function and quality of life (QoL) scores. The ARIS program as compared to AT alone, resulted in additional improvement in quadriceps muscle strength (1RM, p=0.005) and endurance (50%1 RM × number of max repetitions, p=0.01), SPI(max) (pexercise time (p=0.01), circulatory power (peak oxygen consumption × peak systolic blood pressure, p=0.05), dyspnea (p=0.03) and QoL (p=0.03). ARIS training was safe and resulted in incremental benefits in both peripheral and respiratory muscle weakness, cardiopulmonary function and QoL compared to that of AT. The present findings may add a new prospective to cardiac rehabilitation programs of heart failure patients whilst the clinical significance of these outcomes need to be addressed in larger randomised studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial em indivíduos normotensos submetidos a duas sessões únicas de exercícios: resistido e aeróbio Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in normotensive individuals undergoing two single exercise sessions: resistive exercise training and aerobic exercise training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosina Maria Lignani de Miranda Bermudes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a influência de duas sessões únicas de exercício resistido (circuito com pesos e aeróbio sobre as alterações pressóricas, em indivíduos sedentários e normotensos. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados pela monitorização numa situação controle, sem realização de exercícios (MAPA 1 25 indivíduos, após exercício resistido (MAPA 2 e após exercício aeróbio (MAPA 3. Os exercícios resistidos foram realizados sob forma de circuito com pesos, com intensidade de 40% da força máxima individual e os exercícios aeróbicos em cicloergômetro, com intensidade entre 60% e 70% da freqüência cardíaca (FC máxima alcançada no teste ergométrico. RESULTADOS: A pressão arterial sistólica (PAS de 24h e sub-períodos vigília e sono não apresentaram variações estatisticamente significantes quando comparada à MAPA2 e MAPA3 e MAPA2 e MAPA3 entre si. A pressão arterial diastólica (PAD de 24h e diurna apresentaram reduções significantes (POBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of 2 single exercise sessions on blood pressure in sedentary normotensive individuals: one of resistive exercise training (circuit weight training and the other of aerobic exercise training. METHODS: Using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, this study assessed 25 individuals as follows: in a controlled situation at rest (ABPM 1; after resistive exercise training (ABPM 2; and after aerobic exercise training (ABPM 3. Resistive exercise training was performed as circuit weight training with an intensity of 40% of each individual's maximum strength. The aerobic exercise training was performed on a cycloergometer with intensity between 60% and 70% of the maximum heart rate (HR reached during previous exercise testing. RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure (SBP values during 24 hours and during subperiods of wakefulness and sleep showed no statistically significant variations when the results obtained at rest were compared with those of ABPM2 and ABPM3, and when

  6. Does Resistance Training Stimulate Cardiac Muscle Hypertrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the left ventricular structural adaptations induced by resistance/strength exercise, focusing on human work, particularly well-trained strength athletes engaged in regular, moderate- to high-intensity resistance training (RT). The article discusses both genders and examines the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in…

  7. Protective Effect of Curcumin Supplementation and Light Resistance Exercises on Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme Activity and Malondialdehyde Levels in a Severe Endurance Training Period in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gorzi

    2017-07-01

    Background and aim: Extreme endurance exercises lead to oxidative stress in athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of curcumin supplement supplementation and light resistance training on the activity of SOD and MDA levels of male Wistar rats during a 8-week endurance training. Methods: In the present experimental study, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into one of six control groups, curcumin, endurance training, exercise, after one week of information (age 9 weeks and weight 255.62 ± 19.69 grams. Endurance + resistance, endurance training + curcumin and endurance training + curcumin + resistance. Incremental endurance training (8 weeks, 5 sessions per week was performed on a special treadmill. Speed ​​and running time in the last week reached 35 m / min and 70 minutes. Resistance training (8 weeks, 2 sessions per week was performed on vertical ladder by closing the rat's weight to the tail. Rats received supplemental curcumin by intraperitoneal injection (8 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 30 mg / kg body weight. SOD activity of the muscle was measured using ELISA kits and serum MDA levels using Tobartic acid (TBARS method. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (ANOVA.   Results: The antioxidant enzyme activity of SOD in the endometrial muscle of endurance group (1.08 ± 0.222 μg / ml was significantly lower than control group (22.2 ± 0.481 kg (P = 0.043, and SOD activity in the endurance + resistance group (1.87 ± 0.172, p = 0.44, endurance + curcumin (2.24 ± 0.222; P = 0.039, and endurance + curcumin + resistance (0.202 ± 0.15, p = 0.029 was significantly higher than endurance group. The levels of malondialdehyde in the endurance group (4.27 ± 0.438 nmol / ml protein were significantly higher in comparison with the control group (3.42 ± 0.350 (0.331 and Also, serum MDA levels in endurance + resistance groups (± 3.03 ± 0.342, p = 0.003, endurance + curcumin (p = 0.001, p <0.001, and endurance + curcumin

  8. Time-wise change in neck pain in response to rehabilitation with specific resistance training: implications for exercise prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Christoffer H; Sundstrup, Emil; Pedersen, Mogens T; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-01-01

    To determine the time-wise effect of specific resistance training on neck pain among industrial technicians with frequent neck pain symptoms. Secondary analysis of a parallel-group cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 weeks performed at two large industrial production units in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with neck pain >30 mm VAS (N = 131) were included in the present analysis. The training group (N = 77) performed specific resistance training for the neck/shoulder muscles three times a week, and the control group (N = 54) received advice to stay active. Participants of both groups registered neck pain intensity (0-100 mm VAS) once a week. Neck pain intensity was 55 mm (SD 23) at baseline. There was a significant group by time interaction for neck pain (F-value 2.61, Pchange in pain showed three phases; a rapid decrease in the training group compared with the control group during the initial 7 weeks, a slower decrease in pain during the following weeks (week 8-15), and a plateau during the last weeks (week 16-20). Adherence to training followed a two-phase pattern, i.e. weekly participation rate was between 70-86% during the initial 7 weeks, dropping towards 55-63% during the latter half of the training period. Four weeks of specific resistance training reduced neck pain significantly, but 15 weeks is required to achieve maximal pain reduction. The time-wise change in pain followed a three-phase pattern with a rapid effect during the initial 7 weeks followed by a slower but still positive effect, and finally a plateau from week 15 and onwards. Decreased participation rate may explain the decreased efficacy during the latter phase of the intervention.

  9. Effects of exercise training on the matrix metalloprotease response to acute exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso, Maria L; Pierce, Joseph R; Alemany, Joseph A; Harman, Everett A; Nindl, Bradley C

    2009-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) in the circulation are thought to modulate the activation of growth factors, cytokines, and angiogenesis, facilitating physiological adaptations to exercise training. The purpose of this work was to characterize serum MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9 concentrations pre- and post-eight weeks of exercise training. We tested the hypothesis that exercise training would influence serum MMP concentrations in response to an acute resistance exercise test (ARET). Participants were randomized into an 8-week training program (5 days per week) that emphasized callisthenic (CT, N = 8) or resistance (RT, N = 8) exercise. Serum MMP concentrations (MMP-1, -2, -3, -9) were assessed in men (N = 16) in response to an acute bout of high-intensity resistance exercise (six sets of 10-RM squats with 2-min inter-set rest periods) both before and after 8 weeks of training. Training resulted in a temporal shift in the peak MMP-1 concentration from post-ARET to mid-ARET in both groups. Post-training, MMP-9 concentrations were increased immediately after the ARET in the CT group as compared to pre-training ARET concentrations. RT did not alter MMP-3 and -9 concentrations. These data suggest that the mode of exercise training influences the MMP response to an acute bout of exercise, revealing a possible role of MMPs in initiating training-specific adaptations.

  10. Exercise Training in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby Cheema

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Maori and Pacific Islands peoples of New Zealand suffer a greater burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and associated comorbidities than their European counterparts. Empirical evidence supports the clinical application of aerobic and resistance training for effective diabetes management and potential remission, but few studies have investigated the effectiveness of these interventions in specific ethnic cohorts. We recently conducted the first trial to investigate the effect of prescribed exercise training in Polynesian people with T2DM. This article presents the cultural considerations undertaken to successfully implement the study. The research procedures were accepted and approved by cultural liaisons and potential participants. The approved methodology involved a trial evaluating and comparing the effects of two, 16-week exercise regimens (i.e. aerobic training and resistance training on glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, related diabetes markers (i.e. insulin resistance, blood lipids, relevant cytokines and anthropometric and hemodynamic indices and health-related quality of life. Future exercise-related research or implementation strategies in this cohort should focus on cultural awareness and techniques to enhance participation and compliance. Our approach to cultural consultation could be considered by researchers undertaking trials in this and other ethnic populations suffering an extreme burden of T2DM, including indigenous Australians and Americans.

  11. Cardiovascular adaptations to exercise training after uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohiro, Masayuki; Yuasa, Fumio; Hattori, Toshihiko; Sumimoto, Tsutomu; Takeuchi, Masaharu; Kaida, Mutsuhito; Jikuhara, Toshimitsu; Hikosaka, Makoto; Sugiura, Tetsuro; Iwasaka, Toshiji

    2005-09-01

    This study examined the cardiovascular adaptations of an exercise training program and evaluated the role of peripheral vasodilator capacity in contributing to these adaptations after myocardial infarction. A total of 44 consecutive patients with uncomplicated myocardial infarction underwent 3 wks of exercise training. Controls (n = 12) with comparable myocardial infarction were selected from our database and were restricted to a program with minimal activity. All patients performed cardiopulmonary exercise testing with hemodynamic measurements. Forearm and calf reactive hyperemic flow were measured by venous occlusive plethysmography as indices of peripheral vasodilator capacity. Despite no change in arteriovenous oxygen difference at peak exercise after training, training resulted in significant increases in oxygen consumption, cardiac output, and stroke volume and a significant decrease in systemic vascular resistance at peak exercise (overall, P training (P training had a positive correlation with increases in peak cardiac output, stroke volume, and oxygen consumption after training and an inverse correlation with peak systemic vascular resistance. Exercise training improved exercise tolerance by improving hemodynamic responses to exercise after myocardial infarction. This improved exercise performance was linked to a training-induced increase in calf vasodilator capacity.

  12. Resistance exercise improves hippocampus-dependent memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Cassilhas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that resistance exercise improves cognitive functions in humans. Thus, an animal model that mimics this phenomenon can be an important tool for studying the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Here, we tested if an animal model for resistance exercise was able to improve the performance in a hippocampus-dependent memory task. In addition, we also evaluated the level of insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin growth factor receptor (IGF-1/IGF-1R, which plays pleiotropic roles in the nervous system. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (N = 10 for each group: control, SHAM, and resistance exercise (RES. The RES group was submitted to 8 weeks of progressive resistance exercise in a vertical ladder apparatus, while the SHAM group was left in the same apparatus without exercising. Analysis of a cross-sectional area of the flexor digitorum longus muscle indicated that this training period was sufficient to cause muscle fiber hypertrophy. In a step-through passive avoidance task (PA, the RES group presented a longer latency than the other groups on the test day. We also observed an increase of 43 and 94% for systemic and hippocampal IGF-1 concentration, respectively, in the RES group compared to the others. A positive correlation was established between PA performance and systemic IGF-1 (r = 0.46, P < 0.05. Taken together, our data indicate that resistance exercise improves the hippocampus-dependent memory task with a concomitant increase of IGF-1 level in the rat model. This model can be further explored to better understand the effects of resistance exercise on brain functions.

  13. Effects of 16 weeks of aerobic, resistance and combination exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of 16 weeks of aerobic, resistance and combination exercise programmes on smoking. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Abstract. Previous research on the cessation of smoking and the prevention of smoking recidivism using exercise training has mainly focused on aerobic training (AER).

  14. Effect of resistance and aerobic exercises on bone mineral density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Based on obtained data, it can be concluded that, resistance and aerobic exercise training program is effective in increasing BMD, muscle strength and functional ability in children with hemophilia. Keywords: Hemophilia; Resistance; Aerobic exercise; Bone mineral density; Strength; Functional ability ...

  15. The Magnitude of Peripheral Muscle Fatigue Induced by High and Low Intensity Single-Joint Exercise Does Not Lead to Central Motor Output Reductions in Resistance Trained Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W M Marshall

    Full Text Available To examine quadriceps muscle fatigue and central motor output during fatiguing single joint exercise at 40% and 80% maximal torque output in resistance trained men.Ten resistance trained men performed fatiguing isometric knee extensor exercise at 40% and 80% of maximal torque output. Maximal torque, rate of torque development, and measures of central motor output and peripheral muscle fatigue were recorded at two matched volumes of exercise, and after a final contraction performed to exhaustion. Central motor output was quantified from changes in voluntary activation, normalized surface electromyograms (EMG, and V-waves. Quadriceps muscle fatigue was assessed from changes in the size and shape of the resting potentiated twitch (Q.(pot.tw. Central motor output during the exercise protocols was estimated from EMG and interpolated twitches applied during the task (VA(sub.Greater reductions in maximal torque and rate of torque development were observed during the 40% protocol (p<0.05. Maximal central motor output did not change for either protocol. For the 40% protocol reductions from pre-exercise in rate and amplitude variables calculated from the Q.(pot.tw between 66.2 to 70.8% (p<0.001 exceeded those observed during the 80% protocol (p<0.01. V-waves only declined during the 80% protocol between 56.8 ± 35.8% to 53.6 ± 37.4% (p<0.05. At the end of the final 80% contraction VA(sub had increased from 91.2 ± 6.2% to 94.9 ± 4.7% (p = 0.005, but a greater increase was observed during the 40% contraction where VA(sub had increased from 67.1 ± 6.1% to 88.9 ± 9.6% (p<0.001.Maximal central motor output in resistance trained men is well preserved despite varying levels of peripheral muscle fatigue. Upregulated central motor output during the 40% contraction protocol appeared to elicit greater peripheral fatigue. V-waves declines during the 80% protocol suggest intensity dependent modulation of the Ia afferent pathway.

  16. Compact, Controlled Resistance Exercise Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, David C.; DeWitt, John K.; Reich, Alton J.; Shaw, James E.; Deaconu, Stelu S.

    2011-01-01

    Spaceflight leads to muscle and bone atrophy. Isoinertial (free-weight) exercises provide a sufficient stimulus to elicit increases in both muscle strength and bone mineral density in Earth-based studies. While exercise equipment is in use on the International Space Station for crewmember health maintenance, current devices are too large to place in a transport vehicle or small spacecraft. Therefore, a portable computer controlled resistance exercise device is being developed that is able to simulate the inertial loading experienced when lifting a mass on Earth. This portable device weighs less than 50 lb and can simulate the resistance of lifting and lowering up to 600 lb of free-weights. The objective is to allow crewmembers to perform resistance exercise with loads capable of maintaining muscle and bone health. The device is reconfigurable and allows for the performance of typical Earth-based free-weight exercises. Forces exerted, volume of work, range of motion, time-under-tension, and speed/ acceleration of movement are recorded and can be remotely monitored to track progress and modify individual protocols based on exercise session data. A performance evaluation will be completed and data will be presented that include ground-reaction force comparisons between the device and free-weight dead-lifts over a spectrum of resistance levels. Movement biomechanics will also be presented.

  17. Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on an acute bout of intense lower body strength exercise in resistance trained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levers, Kyle; Dalton, Ryan; Galvan, Elfego; Goodenough, Chelsea; O'Connor, Abigail; Simbo, Sunday; Barringer, Nicholas; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U; Rasmussen, Christopher; Greenwood, Mike; Riechman, Steven; Crouse, Stephen; Kreider, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether short-term ingestion of a powdered tart cherry supplement prior to and following intense resistance-exercise attenuates muscle soreness and recovery strength loss, while reducing markers of muscle damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Twenty-three healthy, resistance-trained men (20.9 ± 2.6 yr, 14.2 ± 5.4% body fat, 63.9 ± 8.6 kg FFM) were matched based on relative maximal back squat strength, age, body weight, and fat free mass. Subjects were randomly assigned to ingest, in a double blind manner, capsules containing a placebo (P, n = 12) or powdered tart cherries [CherryPURE(®)] (TC, n = 11). Participants supplemented one time daily (480 mg/d) for 10-d including day of exercise up to 48-h post-exercise. Subjects performed ten sets of ten repetitions at 70% of a 1-RM back squat exercise. Fasting blood samples, isokinetic MVCs, and quadriceps muscle soreness ratings were taken pre-lift, 60-min, 24-h, and 48-h post-lift and analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures. Muscle soreness perception in the vastus medialis (¼) (p = 0.10) and the vastus lateralis (¼) (p = 0.024) was lower in TC over time compared to P. Compared to pre-lift, TC vastus medialis (¼) soreness was significantly attenuated up to 48-h post-lift with vastus lateralis (¼) soreness significantly lower at 24-h post-lift compared to P. TC changes in serum creatinine (p = 0.03, delta p = 0.024) and total protein (p = 0.018, delta p = 0.006) were lower over time and smaller from pre-lift levels over time compared to P Significant TC group reductions from pre-lift levels were found for AST and creatinine 48-h post-lift, bilirubin and ALT 60-min and 48-h post-lift. No significant supplementation effects were observed for serum inflammatory or anti-inflammatory markers. None of the free radical production, lipid peroxidation, or antioxidant capacity markers (NT, TBARS, TAS, SOD) demonstrated significant changes with supplementation. Changes in TC

  18. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ or multi-joint exercises (MJ on VO2max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group (n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc. and MJ group (n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.. The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO2max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO2max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ, bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ, knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ. In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  19. Time-wise change in neck pain in response to rehabilitation with specific resistance training: implications for exercise prescription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette K Zebis

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the time-wise effect of specific resistance training on neck pain among industrial technicians with frequent neck pain symptoms. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a parallel-group cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 weeks performed at two large industrial production units in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with neck pain >30 mm VAS (N = 131 were included in the present analysis. The training group (N = 77 performed specific resistance training for the neck/shoulder muscles three times a week, and the control group (N = 54 received advice to stay active. Participants of both groups registered neck pain intensity (0-100 mm VAS once a week. RESULTS: Neck pain intensity was 55 mm (SD 23 at baseline. There was a significant group by time interaction for neck pain (F-value 2.61, P<0.001, DF = 19. Between-group differences in neck pain reached significance after 4 weeks (11 mm, 95% CI 2 to 20. The time-wise change in pain showed three phases; a rapid decrease in the training group compared with the control group during the initial 7 weeks, a slower decrease in pain during the following weeks (week 8-15, and a plateau during the last weeks (week 16-20. Adherence to training followed a two-phase pattern, i.e. weekly participation rate was between 70-86% during the initial 7 weeks, dropping towards 55-63% during the latter half of the training period. CONCLUSION: Four weeks of specific resistance training reduced neck pain significantly, but 15 weeks is required to achieve maximal pain reduction. The time-wise change in pain followed a three-phase pattern with a rapid effect during the initial 7 weeks followed by a slower but still positive effect, and finally a plateau from week 15 and onwards. Decreased participation rate may explain the decreased efficacy during the latter phase of the intervention.

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy ... 15 repetitions at a slow and controlled pace... Resistance Training Resistance training is exercise done against something providing ...

  1. Exercise training in metabolic myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, J

    2016-01-01

    , patients with FAODs typically develop symptoms later in exercise than patients with GSDs. Due to the exercise-related symptoms in metabolic myopathies, patients generally have been advised to shun physical training. However, immobility is associated with multiple health issues, and may even cause unwanted......Metabolic myopathies encompass muscle glycogenoses (GSD) and disorders of muscle fat oxidation (FAOD). FAODs and GSDs can be divided into two main clinical phenotypes; those with static symptoms related to fixed muscle weakness and atrophy, and those with dynamic, exercise-related symptoms...... that are brought about by a deficient supply of ATP. Together with mitochondrial myopathies, metabolic myopathies are unique among muscle diseases, as the limitation in exercise performance is not solely caused by structural damage of muscle, but also or exclusively related to energy deficiency. ATP consumption...

  2. Lower limb strength training in children with cerebral palsy – a randomized controlled trial protocol for functional strength training based on progressive resistance exercise principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verschuren Olaf

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until recently, strength training in children with cerebral palsy (CP was considered to be inappropriate, because it could lead to increased spasticity or abnormal movement patterns. However, the results of recent studies suggest that progressive strength training can lead to increased strength and improved function, but low methodological quality and incomplete reporting on the training protocols hampers adequate interpretation of the results. This paper describes the design and training protocol of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of a school-based progressive functional strength training program for children with CP. Methods/Results Fifty-one children with Gross Motor Function Classification Systems levels I to III, aged of 6 to 13 years, were recruited. Using stratified randomization, each child was assigned to an intervention group (strength training or a control group (usual care. The strength training was given in groups of 4–5 children, 3 times a week, for a period of 12 weeks. Each training session focussed on four exercises out of a 5-exercise circuit. The training load was gradually increased based on the child's maximum level of strength, as determined by the 8 Repetition Maximum (8 RM. To evaluate the effectiveness of the training, all children were evaluated before, during, directly after, and 6 weeks after the intervention period. Primary outcomes in this study were gross motor function (measured with the Gross Motor Function Measure and functional muscle strength tests and walking ability (measured with the 10-meter, the 1-minute and the timed stair test. Secondary outcomes were lower limb muscle strength (measured with a 6 RM test, isometric strength tests, and a sprint capacity test, mobility (measured with a mobility questionnaire, and sport activities (measured with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment. Spasticity and range of motion were assessed to evaluate any

  3. The effects of acute branched-chain amino acid supplementation on recovery from a single bout of hypertrophy exercise in resistance-trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mark; Whelan, Kieran; Jeffries, Owen; Burt, Dean; Howe, Louis; Patterson, Stephen David

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage among experienced resistance-trained athletes. In a double-blind matched-pairs design, 16 resistance-trained participants, routinely performing hypertrophy training, were randomly assigned to a BCAA (n = 8) or placebo (n = 8) group. The BCAAs were administered at a dosage of 0.087 g/kg body mass, with a 2:1:1 ratio of leucine, isoleucine, and valine. The participants performed 6 sets of 10 full-squats at 70% 1-repetition maximum to induce muscle damage. All participants were diet-controlled across the study. Creatine kinase, peak isometric knee-extensor force, perceived muscle soreness, and countermovement jump (CMJ) height were measured immediately before (baseline) and at 1 h, 24 h, and 48 h postexercise. There were large to very large time effects for all measurements between baseline and 24-48 h. Between-group comparisons, expressed as a percentage of baseline, revealed differences in isometric strength at 24-h (placebo ∼87% vs. BCAA ∼92%; moderate, likely), CMJ at 24 h (placebo ∼93% vs. BCAA ∼96%; small, likely), and muscle soreness at both 24 h (placebo ∼685% vs. BCAA ∼531%; small, likely) and 48 h (placebo ∼468% vs. BCAA ∼350%; small, likely). Acute supplementation of BCAAs (0.087 g/kg) increased the rate of recovery in isometric strength, CMJ height, and perceived muscle soreness compared with placebo after a hypertrophy-based training session among diet-controlled, resistance-trained athletes. These findings question the need for longer BCAA loading phases and highlight the importance of dietary control in studies of this type.

  4. Hydration during intense exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J; Meyer, N L

    2013-01-01

    Hydration status has profound effects on both physical and mental performance, and sports performance is thus critically affected. Both overhydration and underhydration - if sufficiently severe - will impair performance and pose a risk to health. Athletes may begin exercise in a hypohydrated state as a result of incomplete recovery from water loss induced in order to achieve a specific body mass target or due to incomplete recovery from a previous competition or training session. Dehydration will also develop in endurance exercise where fluid intake does not match water loss. The focus has generally been on training rather than on competition, but sweat loss and fluid replacement in training may have important implications. Hypohydration may impair training quality and may also increase stress levels. It is unclear whether this will have negative effects (reduced training quality, impaired immunity) or whether it will promote a greater adaptive response. Hypohydration and the consequent hyperthermia, however, can enhance the effectiveness of a heat acclimation program, resulting in improved endurance performance in warm and temperate environments. Drinking in training may be important in enhancing tolerance of the gut when athletes plan to drink in competition. The distribution of water between body water compartments may also be important in the initiation and promotion of cellular adaptations to the training stimulus. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Cardiopulmonary stress during exercise training in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, V S; Troosters, T; Pitta, F; Decramer, M; Gosselink, R

    2006-06-01

    Exercise training is an essential component of pulmonary rehabilitation. However, the cardiopulmonary stress imposed during different modalities of exercise training is not yet known. In the present study, the cardiopulmonary stress of a 12-week exercise training programme in 11 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients (forced expiratory volume in one second 42+/-12%pred, age 69+/-6 yrs) was measured. Pulmonary gas exchange and cardiac frequency (f(C)) of three training sessions were measured with a portable metabolic system at the beginning, mid-term and end of the programme. Symptoms were assessed with Borg scores. The exercise intensity was compared with the recommendations for exercise training by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Training effects were significant (maximum change in work: 14+/-11 Watts, 6-min walk test: 44+/-36 m). Whole body exercises (cycling, walking and stair climbing) consistently resulted in higher cardiopulmonary stress (oxygen uptake (V'(O(2))), minute ventilation and f(C)) than arm cranking and resistance training. Dyspnoea was higher during cycling than resistance training. Patients exercised for >70% (>20 min) of the total exercise time at >40% of the V'(O(2)) reserve and f(C) reserve ("moderate" intensity according to the ACSM) throughout the programme. The cardiopulmonary stress resistance training is lower than during whole-body exercise and results in fewer symptoms. In addition, exercise testing based on guidelines using a fixed percentage of baseline peak performance and symptom scores achieves and sustains training intensities recommended according to the American College of Sports Medicine.

  6. Impact of Endurance Exercise Training in the Fasted State on Muscle Biochemistry and Metabolism in Healthy Subjects: Can These Effects be of Particular Clinical Benefit to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Insulin-Resistant Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Dominique; De Strijcker, Dorien; Calders, Patrick

    2017-03-01

    Exercise training intervention is a cornerstone in the care of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and insulin resistance (IR), and it is pursued in order to optimize exercise interventions for these patients. In this regard, the nutritional state of patients during exercise (being in the fed or fasted state) can be of particular interest. The aim of the present review is to describe the impact of endurance exercise (training) in the fasted versus fed state on parameters of muscle biochemistry and metabolism linked to glycemic control or insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects. From these data it can then be deduced whether exercise training in the fasted state may be relevant to patients with T2DM or IR. In healthy subjects, acute endurance exercise in the fasted state is accompanied by lower blood insulin and elevated blood free fatty acid concentrations, stable blood glucose concentrations (in the first 60-90 min), superior intramyocellular triacylglycerol oxidation and whole-body lipolysis, and muscle glycogen preservation. Long-term exercise training in the fasted state in healthy subjects is associated with greater improvements in insulin sensitivity, basal muscle fat uptake capacity, and oxidation. Therefore, promising results of exercise (training) in the fasted state have been found in healthy subjects on parameters of muscle biochemistry and metabolism linked to insulin sensitivity and glycemic control. Whether exercise training intervention in which exercise sessions are organized in the fasted state may be more effective in improving insulin sensitivity or glycemic control in T2DM patients and insulin-resistant individuals warrants investigation.

  7. Satellite cell response to concurrent resistance exercise and high-intensity interval training in sedentary, overweight/obese, middle-aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jamie K; Faulkner, Steve H; Turner, Mark C; Nimmo, Myra A

    2018-02-01

    Sarcopenia can begin from the 4-5th decade of life and is exacerbated by obesity and inactivity. A combination of resistance exercise (RE) and endurance exercise is recommended to combat rising obesity and inactivity levels. However, work continues to elucidate whether interference in adaptive outcomes occur when RE and endurance exercise are performed concurrently. This study examined whether a single bout of concurrent RE and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) alters the satellite cell response following exercise compared to RE alone. Eight sedentary, overweight/obese, middle-aged individuals performed RE only (8 × 8 leg extensions at 70% 1RM), or RE + HIIT (10 × 1 min at 90% HR max on a cycle ergometer). Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis before and 96 h after the RE component to determine muscle fiber type-specific total (Pax7 + cells) and active (MyoD + cells) satellite cell number using immunofluorescence microscopy. Type-I-specific Pax7 + (P = 0.001) cell number increased after both exercise trials. Type-I-specific MyoD + (P = 0.001) cell number increased after RE only. However, an elevated baseline value in RE + HIIT compared to RE (P = 0.046) was observed, with no differences between exercise trials at 96 h (P = 0.21). Type-II-specific Pax7 + and MyoD + cell number remained unchanged after both exercise trials (all P ≥ 0.13). Combining a HIIT session after a single bout of RE does not interfere with the increase in type-I-specific total, and possibly active, satellite cell number, compared to RE only. Concurrent RE + HIIT may offer a time-efficient way to maximise the physiological benefits from a single bout of exercise in sedentary, overweight/obese, middle-aged individuals.

  8. Exercise training in intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibellini, R; Fanello, M; Bardile, A F; Salerno, M; Aloi, T

    2000-03-01

    Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) at II stage results in a moderate to severe impairment in walking ability. Aim of this study, controlled and randomized, was to evaluate the efficacy of an intensive 4 weeks exercise training in PAOD followed by a six-month period and to analyse the risk factors for atherosclerosis and the site of the lesion for possible predictors of result outcome. Patients with PAOD were included in the study (ankle/arm ratio Training group was enrolled in a 4-week supervised training program. In the training group 10% of patients became asymptomatic (>1000 m). At T1 ICD increased 141% (p1000 m in 50%, at T2 ICD was 200% (ptraining. Vascular training produces a significant and lasting improvement in walking distance in PAOD.

  9. Effect of resistance-type exercise training with or without protein supplementation on cognitive functioning in frail and pre-frail elderly: secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Rest, Ondine; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L; Tieland, Michael; Adam, Jos J; Hiddink, Gert Jan; van Loon, Luc J C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity has been proposed as one of the most effective strategies to prevent cognitive decline. Protein supplementation may exert an additive effect. The effect of resistance-type exercise training with or without protein supplementation on cognitive functioning in frail and pre-frail elderly people was assessed in a secondary analysis. Two 24-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention studies were carried out in parallel. Subjects performed a resistance-type exercise program of two sessions per week (n=62) or no exercise program (n=65). In both studies, subjects were randomly allocated to either a protein (2×15 g daily) or a placebo drink. Cognitive functioning was assessed with a neuropsychological test battery focusing on the cognitive domains episodic memory, attention and working memory, information processing speed, and executive functioning. In frail and pre-frail elderly, resistance-type exercise training in combination with protein supplementation improved information processing speed (changes in domain score 0.08±0.51 versus -0.23±0.19 in the non-exercise group, p=0.04). Exercise training without protein supplementation was beneficial for attention and working memory (changes in domain scores 0.35±0.70 versus -0.12±0.69 in the non-exercise group, p=0.02). There were no significant differences among the intervention groups on the other cognitive tests or domain scores. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of resistance training on muscle strength, exercise capacity, and mobility in middle-aged and elderly patients with coronary artery disease: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shuhei; Hotta, Kazuki; Ota, Erika; Mori, Rintaro; Matsunaga, Atsuhiko

    2016-08-01

    Resistance training (RT) is a core component of cardiac rehabilitation. We investigated the effects of RT on exercise capacity, muscle strength, and mobility in middle-aged and elderly patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We searched for randomized controlled trials of RT versus usual care, or combined RT and aerobic training (AT) versus AT alone, and identified 440 trials in total from inception to January 2014. Participants who had myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, angina pectoris or CAD were included in the analysis. Those who had heart failure, heart transplants with either cardiac resynchronization therapy or implantable defibrillators were excluded. Twenty-two trials totaling 1095 participants were analyzed. We performed random-effects meta-analysis. In middle-aged participants, RT increased lower extremity muscle strength [standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35 to 0.95], upper extremity muscle strength (SMD: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.99) and peak oxygen consumption (VO2) [weight mean difference (WMD): 0.92mL/kg/min, 95% CI: 0.12 to 1.72], but did not improve mobility compared with the control. In elderly participants, RT increased lower extremity muscle strength (SMD: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.05 to 1.21), upper extremity muscle strength (SMD: 1.18, 95% CI: 0.56 to 1.80), and peak VO2 (WMD: 0.70mL/kg/min, 95% CI: 0.03 to 1.37), and improved mobility (SMD: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.21 to 1.01) compared with the control. Resistance training could increase exercise capacity and muscle strength in middle-aged and elderly patients, and mobility in elderly patients, with CAD. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise

  12. Exercise Training and Energy Expenditure following Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William H; Carter, Stephen J; Plaisance, Eric P

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of aerobic or resistance training on activity-related energy expenditure (AEE; kcal·d(-1)) and physical activity index (activity-related time equivalent (ARTE)) following weight loss. It was hypothesized that weight loss without exercise training would be accompanied by decreases in AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)) and that exercise training would prevent decreases in free-living energy expenditure. One hundred forty premenopausal women had an average weight loss of 25 lb during a diet (800 kcal·d(-1)) of furnished food. One group aerobically trained 3 times per week (40 min·d(-1)), another group resistance-trained 3 times per week (10 exercises/2 sets × 10 repetitions), and the third group did not exercise. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure body composition, indirect calorimetry was used to measure resting energy expenditure (REE) and walking energy expenditure, and doubly labeled water was used to measure total energy expenditure (TEE). AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (NEAT) were calculated. TEE, REE, and NEAT all decreased following weight loss for the no-exercise group, but not for aerobic and resistance trainers. Only REE decreased in the two exercise groups. Resistance trainers increased ARTE. HR and oxygen uptake while walking on the flat and up a grade were consistently related to TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE. Exercise training prevents a decrease in energy expenditure, including free-living energy expenditure separate from exercise training, following weight loss. Resistance training increases physical activity, whereas economy/ease of walking is associated with increased TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE.

  13. High intensity aerobic exercise training improves chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced insulin resistance without basal autophagy modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Marion; Assense, Allan; Rondon, Aurélie; Thomas, Amandine; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Freyssenet, Damien; Benoit, Henri; Castells, Josiane; Flore, Patrice

    2017-03-03

    Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases (insulin resistance: IR). Autophagy is involved in the pathophysiology of IR and high intensity training (HIT) has recently emerged as a potential therapy. We aimed to confirm IH-induced IR in a tissue-dependent way and to explore the preventive effect of HIT on IR-induced by IH. Thirty Swiss 129 male mice were randomly assigned to Normoxia (N), Intermittent Hypoxia (IH: 21-5% FiO 2 , 30 s cycle, 8 h/day) or IH associated with high intensity training (IH HIT). After 8 days of HIT (2*24 min, 50 to 90% of Maximal Aerobic Speed or MAS on a treadmill) mice underwent 14 days IH or N. We found that IH induced IR, characterized by a greater glycemia, an impaired insulin sensitivity and lower AKT phosphorylation in adipose tissue and liver. Nevertheless, MAS and AKT phosphorylation were greater in muscle after IH. IH associated with HIT induced better systemic insulin sensitivity and AKT phosphorylation in liver. Autophagy markers were not altered in both conditions. These findings suggest that HIT could represent a preventive strategy to limit IH-induced IR without change of basal autophagy.

  14. Protein-enriched, milk-based supplement to counteract sarcopenia in acutely ill geriatric patients offered resistance exercise training during and after hospitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Josephine; Beck, Anne Marie; Bitz, Christian

    2018-01-01

    . Protein supplementation can preserve muscle mass and/or strength and, combining this with resistance exercise training (RT), may have additional benefits. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of protein supplementation as an addition to offering RT among older adults while admitted...... to the geriatric ward and after discharge. This has not previously been investigated. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In a block-randomised, double-blind, multicentre intervention study, 165 older adults above 70 years, fulfilling the eligibility criteria, will be included consecutively from three medical departments...... (blocks of n=20, stratified by recruitment site). After inclusion, participants will be randomly allocated (1:1) to receive either ready-to-drink, protein-enriched, milk-based supplements (a total of 27.5 g whey protein/day) or isoenergetic placebo products (

  15. Aquatic exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Schachter, Candice L; Danyliw, Adrienne; Overend, Tom J; Richards, Rachel S; Rader, Tamara

    2014-10-28

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review examined the effects of supervised group aquatic training programs (led by an instructor). We defined aquatic training as exercising in a pool while standing at waist, chest, or shoulder depth. This review is part of the update of the 'Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome' review first published in 2002, and previously updated in 2007. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the benefits and harms of aquatic exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2 (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Health Technology Assessment Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Dissertation Abstracts, WHO international Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and AMED, as well as other sources (i.e., reference lists from key journals, identified articles, meta-analyses, and reviews of all types of treatment for fibromyalgia) from inception to October 2013. Using Cochrane methods, we screened citations, abstracts, and full-text articles. Subsequently, we identified aquatic exercise training studies. Selection criteria were: a) full-text publication of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in adults diagnosed with fibromyalgia based on published criteria, and b) between-group data for an aquatic intervention and a control or other intervention. We excluded studies if exercise in water was less than 50% of the full intervention. We independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data (24 outcomes), of which we designated seven as major outcomes: multidimensional function, self reported physical function, pain, stiffness, muscle strength, submaximal cardiorespiratory function, withdrawal rates and adverse effects. We resolved discordance through discussion. We evaluated interventions using mean differences

  16. Strengthening the Gluteus Medius Using Various Bodyweight and Resistance Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stastny, Petr; Tufano, James J; Golas, Artur; Petr, Miroslav

    2016-06-01

    THE GLUTEUS MEDIUS (Gmed) IS AN IMPORTANT MUSCLE AND, IF WEAK, CAN CAUSE KNEE, HIP, OR LOWER-BACK PATHOLOGIES. THIS ARTICLE REVIEWS METHODS OF Gmed STRENGTH ASSESSMENT, PROVIDES EXERCISES THAT TARGET THE Gmed BASED ON ELECTROMYOGRAPHY, PRESENTS HOW TO IMPLEMENT Gmed STRENGTHENING IN HEAVY RESISTANCE TRAINING PROGRAMS, AND EXPLAINS THE IMPORTANCE OF INCLUDING THESE EXERCISES IN THESE PROGRAMS.

  17. Effects of resistance training combined with moderate-intensity endurance or low-volume high-intensity interval exercise on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Katharine D; Bailey, Kaitlyn J; Jung, Mary E; McKelvie, Robert S; MacDonald, Maureen J

    2015-11-01

    To determine the effects of resistance training combined with either moderate-intensity endurance or low-volume high-intensity interval training on cardiovascular risk profiles in patients with coronary artery disease. Factorial repeated-measures study design. Nineteen patients were randomized into moderate-intensity endurance (n = 10) or high-intensity interval (n = 9) groups, and attended 2 supervised exercise sessions a week for 6-months. The first 3-months involved exclusive moderate-intensity endurance or high-intensity interval exercise, after which progressive resistance training was added to both groups for the remaining 3-months. Fitness (VO(2)peak), blood pressure and heart rate, lipid profiles and health related quality of life assessments were performed at pretraining, 3 and 6-months training. VO(2)peak increased from pretraining to 3-months in both groups (moderate-intensity endurance: 19.8 ± 7.3 vs. 23.2 ± 7.4 ml kg(-1)min(-1); high-intensity interval: 21.1 ± 3.3 vs. 26.4 ± 5.2 ml kg(-1)min(-1), pexercise, while all remaining indices were unchanged. Low-volume high-intensity interval exercise did not elicit improvements in lipids or health related quality of life. Blood pressures and heart rates were unchanged with training in both groups. Findings from our pilot study suggest improvements in fitness occur within the first few months of training in patients with coronary artery disease, after which the addition of resistance training to moderate-intensity endurance and high-intensity interval exercise elicited no further improvements. Given the importance of resistance training in cardiac rehabilitation, additional research is required to determine its effectiveness when combined with high-intensity interval exercise. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Is glucose/amino acid supplementation after exercise an aid to strength training?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, A. G.; van den Oord, M.; Sharma, A.; Jones, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The precise timing of carbohydrate and amino acid ingestion relative to a bout of resistance exercise may modulate the training effect of the resistance exercise. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether regular glucose/amino acid supplementation immediately after resistance exercise could enhance

  19. [New strategies for exercise training in osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, A; Schilling, S; Neuerburg, C; Mutschler, W; Böcker, W; Felsenberg, D; Stumpf, U

    2015-11-01

    In the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, movement with muscle strengthening and proprioceptive training plays a major role. This was taken into consideration in the guidelines by the governing body on osteoporosis (Dachverband Osteoporose, DVO) from 2014 on prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis and in the DVO guidelines from 2008 on physiotherapy and exercise therapy for osteoporosis. Increases in lumbar bone density of between 0.5 % and 2.5 % can be achieved in women by strengthening exercises with high resistance. With this combination and strengthening of the quadriceps muscle a reduction of falls and hence the fracture risk could also be achieved. In traumatology, training for muscle strengthening is not always possible, especially for elderly patients. Practically relevant alternatives are regular walking and aquatraining, which may also lead to a significant increase in bone mineral density. Furthermore, large effects can be achieved with alternating side whole-body vibration (WBV) training with whole body vibration plates with only 3 days of training per week and with short training periods (15-20 min). Rates of increase in leg strength between 20 % and almost 40 % and in bone density between 0.5 % and 4 % in 6 months have been described. Whether and with what intensity whole body vibration therapy could be used for e.g. more rapid healing of fractures, is currently unclear. Initial positive results have been described in animal models.

  20. Cardiovascular adaptations to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Nyberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training leads to cardiovascular changes that markedly increase aerobic power and lead to improved endurance performance. The functionally most important adaptation is the improvement in maximal cardiac output which is the result of an enlargement in cardiac dimension, improved...... arteries is reduced, a factor contributing to increased arterial compliance. Endurance training may also induce alterations in the vasodilator capacity, although such adaptations are more pronounced in individuals with reduced vascular function. The microvascular net increases in size within the muscle...... allowing for an improved capacity for oxygen extraction by the muscle through a greater area for diffusion, a shorter diffusion distance, and a longer mean transit time for the erythrocyte to pass through the smallest blood vessels. The present article addresses the effect of endurance training on systemic...

  1. A ketogenic diet in rodents elicits improved mitochondrial adaptations in response to resistance exercise training compared to an isocaloric Western diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden W Hyatt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ketogenic diets (KD can facilitate weight loss, but their effects on skeletal muscle remain equivocal. In this experiment we investigated the effects of two diets on skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling, mitochondrial complex activity, markers of oxidative stress, and gene expression in sedentary and resistance exercised rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9-10 weeks of age, 300-325 g were fed isocaloric amounts of either a KD (17 g/day, 5.2 kcal/g, 20.2% protein, 10.3% CHO, 69.5% fat, n=16 or a Western diet (WD (20 g/day, 4.5 kcal/g, 15.2% protein, 42.7% CHO, 42.0% fat, n=16 for 6 weeks. During these six weeks animals were either sedentary (SED, n=8 per diet group or voluntarily exercised using resistance-loaded running wheels (EXE, n=8 per diet group. Gastrocnemius was excised and used for mitochondrial isolation and biochemical analyses. RESULTS: In the presence of a complex II substrate, the respiratory control ratio (RCR of isolated gastrocnemius mitochondria was higher (p<0.05 in animals fed the KD compared to animals fed the WD. Complex I and IV enzyme activity was higher (p<0.05 in EXE animals regardless of diet. SOD2 protein levels and GLUT4 and PGC1α mRNA expression were higher (p<0.05 in EXE animals regardless of diet. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling of complex II substrates is more efficient in chronically resistance trained rodents fed a KD. These findings may provide merit for further investigation, perhaps on humans.

  2. The Effects of Acute Exercise and Exercise Training on Plasma Homocysteine: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminice, Rafael; Ribeiro, Diogo Farias; Frajacomo, Fernando Tadeu Trevisan

    2016-01-01

    Although studies have demonstrated that physical exercise alters homocysteine levels in the blood, meta-analyses of the effects of acute exercise and exercise training on homocysteine blood concentration have not been performed, especially regarding the duration and intensity of exercise, which could affect homocysteine levels differently. The aim of this meta-analysis was to ascertain the effects of acute exercise and exercise training on homocysteine levels in the blood. A review was conducted according to the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses using the online databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and SciELO to identify relevant studies published through June 2015. Review Manager was used to calculate the effect size of acute exercise and exercise training using the change in Hcy plasmaserum concentration from baseline to post-acute exercise and trained vs. sedentary control groups, respectively. Weighted mean differences were calculated using random effect models. Given the abundance of studies, acute exercise trials were divided into two subgroups according to exercise volume and intensity, whereas the effects of exercise training were analyzed together. Overall, 22 studies with a total of 520 participants indicated increased plasma homocysteine concentration after acute exercise (1.18 μmol/L, 95% CI: 0.71 to 1.65, p homocysteine levels in the blood. Increased homocysteine induced by exercise was significantly associated with volume of exercise, but not intensity. By contrast, resistance training reduced plasma homocysteine concentration (-1.53 μmol/L, 95% CI: -2.77 to -0.28, p = .02), though aerobic training did not. The cumulative results of the seven studies with a total of 230 participants in exercise training analysis did not demonstrate a significant impact on homocysteine levels in the blood (-0.56 μmol/L, 95% CI: -1.61 to 0.50, p = .23). Current evidence demonstrates that acute exercise increases

  3. Effect of resistance-type exercise training with or without protein supplementation on cognitive functioning in frail and pre-frail elderly: Secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, van de O.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Tieland, C.A.B.; Adam, J.J.; Hiddink, G.J.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity has been proposed as one of the most effective strategies to prevent cognitive decline. Protein supplementation may exert an additive effect. The effect of resistance-type exercise training with or without protein supplementation on cognitive functioning in frail and pre-frail

  4. In Hispanic, obese adolescents, a controlled aerobic exercise program teduced visceral and hepatic fat and improved insulin sensitivity, while resistance training only increased lean body mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolescent obesity is a serious public health concern. Aerobic and/or resistance exercise are potential strategies to improve metabolism, but data are scarce on the effects of well-controlled exercise programs in adolescents. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a 12-wk controlled aerobic o...

  5. RESISTANCE TRAINING FOR YOUTH: MYTHS AND FACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Radovanović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using resistance training with the aim of developing muscle strength among youth is still a matter of debate and often receives severe criticism. Previous research, which has not noted an increase in muscle strength, led to the conclusion that resistance training is ineffective among youth. However, the results of numerous more recent studies which have closely followed the published statements and recommendations obtained by leading global professional and health organizations, indicate that if carried out properly, resistance training among youth can have very positive results. In addition to its positive influence on muscle strength and endurance, as well as the potential increase in the success rate of motor performance, regular resistance training can result in the improvement of body composition, increased bone mineral density, an improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, as well as its influence on one’s psychological well-being. The most commonly used types of load for resistance training include free weights and weight machines, which can have standard dimensions, but are also specially designed for younger people. It is also often the case that these training programs consist of body weight exercises, exercises with a medicine ball, expanders and elastic bands. Current findings from well-organized and monitored studies involving samples of youth indicated a very small possibility of injury during resistance training, provided that all the training recommendations for the given age group are adhered to.

  6. Strength training and aerobic exercise: comparison and contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuttgen, Howard G

    2007-08-01

    Most exercise programs for conditioning and rehabilitation are oriented to strength development, aerobic (cardiovascular) fitness, or a combination of the 2. Because the 2 types of exercise are located at the opposite extremes of a muscular power continuum, the design of a program must be highly specific with regard to the exercise to be undertaken, as well as the intensity, duration, and frequency, in order to attain optimal results. Strength exercise programs involve weight training or the use of high-resistance machines with exercise that is limited to a few repetitions (generally less than 20) before exhaustion. Aerobic exercise involves exercise performed for extended periods (e.g., 10-40 minutes) with large muscle activity involving hundreds of consecutive repetitions that challenge the delivery of oxygen to the active muscles. The chronic physiological adaptations and the variables in program design are highly specific to the type of exercise performed.

  7. Resistance training and aerobic training improve muscle strength and aerobic capacity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars H; Overgaard, Kristian; Heje, Karen

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We investigated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). METHODS: Eighteen CIDP patients treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin performed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 12 weeks of resistance exercise...... after a run-in period of 12 weeks without exercise. Three times weekly the participants performed aerobic exercise on an ergometer bike or resistance exercise with unilateral training of knee and elbow flexion/extension. Primary outcomes were maximal oxygen consumption velocity (VO2 -max) and maximal...... resulted in an increase of 13.8% ± 16.0% (P = 0.0004) in cIKS. DISCUSSION: Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training improve fitness and strength in CIDP patients. Muscle Nerve, 2017....

  8. Aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Schachter, Candice L; Overend, Tom J; Kim, Soo Y; Góes, Suelen M; Boden, Catherine; Foulds, Heather Ja

    2017-06-21

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review is one of a series of reviews about exercise training for people with fibromyalgia that will replace the "Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome" review first published in 2002. • To evaluate the benefits and harms of aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia• To assess the following specific comparisons ० Aerobic versus control conditions (eg, treatment as usual, wait list control, physical activity as usual) ० Aerobic versus aerobic interventions (eg, running vs brisk walking) ० Aerobic versus non-exercise interventions (eg, medications, education) We did not assess specific comparisons involving aerobic exercise versus other exercise interventions (eg, resistance exercise, aquatic exercise, flexibility exercise, mixed exercise). Other systematic reviews have examined or will examine these comparisons (Bidonde 2014; Busch 2013). We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry up to June 2016, unrestricted by language, and we reviewed the reference lists of retrieved trials to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia that compared aerobic training interventions (dynamic physical activity that increases breathing and heart rate to submaximal levels for a prolonged period) versus no exercise or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted

  9. l-glutamine and l-alanine supplementation increase glutamine-glutathione axis and muscle HSP-27 in rats trained using a progressive high-intensity resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jaqueline Santos Moreira; Raizel, Raquel; Hypólito, Thaís Menezes; Rosa, Thiago Dos Santos; Cruzat, Vinicius Fernandes; Tirapegui, Julio

    2016-08-01

    In this study we investigated the chronic effects of oral l-glutamine and l-alanine supplementation, either in their free or dipeptide form, on glutamine-glutathione (GLN-GSH) axis and cytoprotection mediated by HSP-27 in rats submitted to resistance exercise (RE). Forty Wistar rats were distributed into 5 groups: sedentary; trained (CTRL); and trained supplemented with l-alanyl-l-glutamine, l-glutamine and l-alanine in their free form (GLN+ALA), or free l-alanine (ALA). All trained animals were submitted to a 6-week ladder-climbing protocol. Supplementations were offered in a 4% drinking water solution for 21 days prior to euthanasia. Plasma glutamine, creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (MYO), and erythrocyte concentration of reduced GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) were measured. In tibialis anterior skeletal muscle, GLN-GSH axis, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and the expression of heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1), 27-kDa heat shock protein (HSP-27), and glutamine synthetase were determined. In CRTL animals, high-intensity RE reduced muscle glutamine levels and increased GSSG/GSH rate and TBARS, as well as augmented plasma CK and MYO levels. Conversely, l-glutamine-supplemented animals showed an increase in plasma and muscle levels of glutamine, with a reduction in GSSG/GSH rate, TBARS, and CK. Free l-alanine administration increased plasma glutamine concentration and lowered muscle TBARS. HSF-1 and HSP-27 were high in all supplemented groups when compared with CTRL (p alanine, in both a free or dipeptide form, improve the GLN-GSH axis and promote cytoprotective effects in rats submitted to high-intensity RE training.

  10. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy with Concurrent Exercise Training: Contrary Evidence for an Interference Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murach, Kevin A; Bagley, James R

    2016-08-01

    Over the last 30+ years, it has become axiomatic that performing aerobic exercise within the same training program as resistance exercise (termed concurrent exercise training) interferes with the hypertrophic adaptations associated with resistance exercise training. However, a close examination of the literature reveals that the interference effect of concurrent exercise training on muscle growth in humans is not as compelling as previously thought. Moreover, recent studies show that, under certain conditions, concurrent exercise may augment resistance exercise-induced hypertrophy in healthy human skeletal muscle. The purpose of this article is to outline the contrary evidence for an acute and chronic interference effect of concurrent exercise on skeletal muscle growth in humans and provide practical literature-based recommendations for maximizing hypertrophy when training concurrently.

  11. Resistance training exercise program for intervention to enhance gait function in elderly chronically ill patients: multivariate multiscale entropy for center of pressure signal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Shu; Jiang, Bernard C

    2014-01-01

    Falls are unpredictable accidents, and the resulting injuries can be serious in the elderly, particularly those with chronic diseases. Regular exercise is recommended to prevent and treat hypertension and other chronic diseases by reducing clinical blood pressure. The "complexity index" (CI), based on multiscale entropy (MSE) algorithm, has been applied in recent studies to show a person's adaptability to intrinsic and external perturbations and widely used measure of postural sway or stability. The multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) was advanced algorithm used to calculate the complexity index (CI) values of the center of pressure (COP) data. In this study, we applied the MSE & MMSE to analyze gait function of 24 elderly, chronically ill patients (44% female; 56% male; mean age, 67.56 ± 10.70 years) with either cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, or osteoporosis. After a 12-week training program, postural stability measurements showed significant improvements. Our results showed beneficial effects of resistance training, which can be used to improve postural stability in the elderly and indicated that MMSE algorithms to calculate CI of the COP data were superior to the multiscale entropy (MSE) algorithm to identify the sense of balance in the elderly.

  12. Resistance Training Exercise Program for Intervention to Enhance Gait Function in Elderly Chronically Ill Patients: Multivariate Multiscale Entropy for Center of Pressure Signal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Shu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Falls are unpredictable accidents, and the resulting injuries can be serious in the elderly, particularly those with chronic diseases. Regular exercise is recommended to prevent and treat hypertension and other chronic diseases by reducing clinical blood pressure. The “complexity index” (CI, based on multiscale entropy (MSE algorithm, has been applied in recent studies to show a person’s adaptability to intrinsic and external perturbations and widely used measure of postural sway or stability. The multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE was advanced algorithm used to calculate the complexity index (CI values of the center of pressure (COP data. In this study, we applied the MSE & MMSE to analyze gait function of 24 elderly, chronically ill patients (44% female; 56% male; mean age, 67.56±10.70 years with either cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, or osteoporosis. After a 12-week training program, postural stability measurements showed significant improvements. Our results showed beneficial effects of resistance training, which can be used to improve postural stability in the elderly and indicated that MMSE algorithms to calculate CI of the COP data were superior to the multiscale entropy (MSE algorithm to identify the sense of balance in the elderly.

  13. Benefits of Exercise Training in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W; Sandroff, Brian M

    2015-09-01

    Exercise training represents a behavioral approach for safely managing many of the functional, symptomatic, and quality of life consequences of multiple sclerosis (MS). This topical review paper summarizes evidence from literature reviews and meta-analyses, supplemented by recent individual studies, indicating that exercise training can yield small but important improvements in walking, balance, cognition, fatigue, depression, and quality of life in MS. The paper highlights limitations of research on exercise training and its consequences and future research directions and provides an overview for promotion of exercise training in MS based on recent prescriptive guidelines. Collectively, the evidence for the benefits of exercise training in MS suggests that the time is ripe for the promotion of exercise by healthcare providers, particularly neurologists as a central part of the clinical care and management of MS patients.

  14. The reinforcing value and liking of resistance training and aerobic exercise as predictors of adult’s physical actively behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Reinforcing value is a stronger predictor than hedonic value (liking) for engaging in drug use, gambling, and eating. The associations of reinforcing value and liking with physical activity of adults have not yet been studied and may depend on the mode of exercise available during exerc...

  15. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice : A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. NEW METHOD: The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength

  16. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice : A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. NEW METHOD: The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength

  17. Comparison of deep and superficial abdominal muscle activity between experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors and controls during stabilization exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Sang-Min; Kim, Chang-Won; Shin, Yun-A

    2015-06-01

    Pilates and resistance exercises are used for lumbar stabilization training. However, it is unclear which exercise is more effective for lumbar stabilization. In our study, we aimed to compare surface muscle activity and deep muscle thickness during relaxation and spinal stabilization exercise in experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors. This study is a retrospective case control study set in the Exercise Prescription Laboratory and Sports Medicine Center. The participants included Pilates instructors (mean years of experience, 3.20±1.76; n=10), resistance exercise instructors (mean years of experience, 2.53±0.63; n=10), and controls (n=10). The participants performed 4 different stabilization exercises: abdominal drawing-in maneuver, bridging, roll-up, and one-leg raise. During the stabilization exercises, surface muscle activity was measured with electromyography, whereas deep muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging. During the 4 stabilization exercises, the thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) was significantly greater in the Pilates-trained group than the other 2 other groups. The internal oblique (IO) thickness was significantly greater in the Pilates- and resistance-trained group than the control group, during the 4 exercises. However, the surface muscle activities were similar between the groups. Both Pilates and resistance exercise instructors had greater activation of deep muscles, such as the TrA and IO, than the control subjects. Pilates and resistance exercise are both effective for increasing abdominal deep muscle thickness.

  18. Exercise Training and Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Timothy G.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of exercise on total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women is reviewed. Studies on non-estrogen-replete postmenopausal women show 1-2% changes in regional BMD with 1 year of weight-bearing exercises. Studies of exercise training in the estrogen-replete postmenopausal population suggest large BMD changes.…

  19. Exercises of Lumbar Stabilizer Muscles, Resistance Training, and Soy Food Consumption: A Comparative Study Between Old and Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Rastegar Moghadam Masnouri

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Ten weeks of stabilizer exercise and consuming soy milk led to an increase in the ultrasonic features of back multifidus muscle of aged women and decreased the age-related muscle changes. On the other hand, improvement in multifidus muscles not only resulted in ability and back performance promotion, but also led to independency and social activity development in the aged women. 

  20. Resistance Training in Children and Young Adults: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rami Shenouda; Mark Wilson; Scott Fletcher

    2017-01-01

    Resistance training is a method used by many athletes to increase their levels of performance. The benefits of this method are known to be increased strength, power and endurance. Resistance training in children has been a topic that has been long debated and there are some widely accepted beliefs and principles that guide clinicians involved in the discipline of sport and exercise medicine. While weight training is a form of resistance training that has proven beneficial effects on health an...

  1. Electroconvulsive therapy and aerobic exercise training increased BDNF and ameliorated depressive symptoms in patients suffering from treatment-resistant major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Iraj; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Bajoghli, Hafez; Gerber, Markus; Pühse, Uwe; Kirov, Roumen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2014-10-01

    To treat patients suffering from treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (TR-MDD), research has focused on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and aerobic exercise training (AET). Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to be key in MDD. The aims of the present study were therefore two-fold, to investigate in a three-arm interventional study the differential effects of ECT, ECT plus AET, and AET alone in patients suffering from TR-MDD on 1. depressive symptoms and 2. 60 patients with TR-MDD (mean age: 31 years; 31.6% female patients) were randomly assigned either to the ECT, ECT + AET, or AET condition. The AET condition consisted of treadmill exercise for 30 min, three times a week. Both depression severity and BDNF levels were assessed at baseline and 4 weeks later. All patients were further treated with an SSRI standard medication. BDNF levels increased over time in all three study conditions. After completion of the intervention program, the ECT group showed significantly higher BDNF levels compared to the ECT + AET and the AET conditions. Depressive symptoms decreased in all three conditions over time. The combination of ECT + AET led to a significantly greater decrease than in either the ECT or AET alone conditions. BDNF levels were not associated with symptoms of depression. The pattern of results suggests that ECT, AET and particularly their combination are promising directions for treatment patients suffering from TR-MDD, and that it remains unclear to what extent BDNF is key and a reliable biomarker for TR-MDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Compression garment promotes muscular strength recovery after resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Kazushige; Morishima, Takuma

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of wearing a compression garment (CG) for 24 h on changes in muscular strength and blood parameters over time after resistance exercise. Nine trained men conducted resistance exercises (10 repetitions of 3-5 sets at 70% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) for nine exercises) in two trials, wearing either a CG or a normal garment (CON) for 24 h after exercise. Recovery of muscular strength, blood parameters, muscle soreness, and upper arm and thigh circumference were compared between the trials. Both trials showed decreases in maximal strength after the exercise (P exercise (P strength was also improved in the CG trial 24 h after exercise (P exercise were similar in both trials. Wearing a CG after resistance exercise facilitates the recovery of muscular strength. Recovery for upper body muscles significantly improved within 3-8 h after exercise. However, facilitation of recovery of lower limb muscles by wearing the CG took a longer time.

  3. Short-Term Exercise Training Improves Insulin Sensitivity but Does Not Inhibit Inflammatory Pathways in Immune Cells from Insulin-Resistant Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Reyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Exercise has an anti-inflammatory effect against, and immune cells play critical roles in the development, of insulin resistance and atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether exercise improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects by downregulating proinflammatory signaling in immune cells. Methods. Seventeen lean, 8 obese nondiabetic, and 11 obese type 2 diabetic individuals underwent an aerobic exercise program for 15 days and an insulin clamp before and after exercise. Peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC were obtained for determination of Toll-like receptor (TLR 2 and 4 protein content and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Results. Compared with that in lean individuals, TLR4 protein content was increased by 4.2-fold in diabetic subjects. This increase in TLR4 content was accompanied by a 3.0-fold increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation. Exercise improved insulin sensitivity in the lean, obese, and type 2 diabetes groups. However, exercise did not affect TLR content or ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions. TLR4 content and ERK phosphorylation are increased in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals. While exercise improves insulin sensitivity, this effect is not related to changes in TLR2/TLR4 content or ERK phosphorylation in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals.

  4. Metabolic consequences of resistive-type exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    This brief review concerns acute and chronic metabolic responses to resistive-type exercise (RTE) (i.e., Olympic/power weight lifting and bodybuilding). Performance of RTE presents power output substantially greater (10-15-fold) than that evident with endurance-type exercise. Accordingly, RTE relies heavily on the anaerobic enzyme machinery of skeletal muscle for energy supply, with alterations in the rate of aerobic metabolism being modest. Hydrolysis of high energy phosphate compounds (PC, ATP), glycogenolysis, and glycolysis are evident during an acute bout of RTE as indicated by metabolic markers in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle samples. The type of RTE probably influences the magnitude of these responses since the increase in blood lactate is much greater during a typical "bodybuilding" than "power lifting" session. The influence of RTE training on acute metabolic responses to RTE has received little attention. An individual's inherent metabolic characteristics are apparently sufficient to meet the energy demands of RTE as training of this type does not increase VO2max or substantially alter the content of marker enzymes in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle. Analyses of pools of fast- vs slow-twitch fibers, however, indicate that RTE-induced changes may be fiber type specific. Future studies should better delineate the metabolic responses to RTE and determine whether these are related to the enhanced performance associated with such training.

  5. The effect of exercise training on lower trunk muscle morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahtahmassebi, Behnaz; Hebert, Jeffrey J; Stomski, Norman J; Hecimovich, Mark; Fairchild, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    Skeletal muscle plays an important role in maintaining the stability of the lumbar region. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of exercise on trunk muscle morphology. To systematically review the literature on the effects of exercise training on lower trunk muscle morphology to determine the comparative effectiveness of different exercise interventions. A systematic search strategy was conducted in the following databases: PubMed, SportDiscus, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library and PEDro. We included full, peer-reviewed, prospective longitudinal studies, including randomized controlled trials and single-group designs, such as pre- to post-intervention and crossover studies, reporting on the effect of exercise training on trunk muscle morphology. Study quality was assessed with the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. We classified each exercise intervention into four categories, based on the primary exercise approach: motor control, machine-based resistance, non-machine-based resistance or cardiovascular. Treatment effects were estimated using within-group standardized mean differences (SMDs). The systematic search identified 1,911 studies; of which 29 met our selection criteria: motor control (n = 12), machine-based resistance (n = 10), non-machine-based resistance (n = 5) and cardiovascular (n = 2). Fourteen studies (48 %) reported an increase in trunk muscle size following exercise training. Among positive trials, the largest effects were reported by studies testing combined motor control and non-machine-based resistance exercise (SMD [95 % CI] = 0.66 [0.06 to 1.27] to 3.39 [2.80 to 3.98]) and machine-based resistance exercise programmes (SMD [95 % CI] = 0.52 [0.01 to 1.03] to 1.79 [0.87 to 2.72]). Most studies investigating the effects of non-machine-based resistance exercise reported no change in trunk muscle morphology, with one study reporting a medium effect on trunk muscle size (SMD [95 % CI] = 0.60 [0.03 to 1.16]). Cardiovascular exercise

  6. Protein Supplementation Has Minimal Effects on Muscle Adaptations during Resistance Exercise Training in Young Men: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Paul T; Borack, Michael S; Markofski, Melissa M; Dickinson, Jared M; Deer, Rachel R; Husaini, Syed H; Walker, Dillon K; Igbinigie, Sherry; Robertson, Shay M; Cope, Mark B; Mukherjea, Ratna; Hall-Porter, Janine M; Jennings, Kristofer; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B

    2016-09-01

    To our knowledge the efficacy of soy-dairy protein blend (PB) supplementation with resistance exercise training (RET) has not been evaluated in a longitudinal study. Our aim was to determine the effect of PB supplementation during RET on muscle adaptation. In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, healthy young men [18-30 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 25 ± 0.5] participated in supervised whole-body RET at 60-80% 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) for 3 d/wk for 12 wk with random assignment to daily receive 22 g PB (n = 23), whey protein (WP) isolate (n = 22), or an isocaloric maltodextrin (carbohydrate) placebo [(MDP) n = 23]. Serum testosterone, muscle strength, thigh muscle thickness (MT), myofiber cross-sectional area (mCSA), and lean body mass (LBM) were assessed before and after 6 and 12 wk of RET. All treatments increased LBM (P 0.10) between treatments. Testosterone was not altered. PB supplementation during 3 mo of RET tended to slightly enhance gains in whole-body and arm LBM, but not leg muscle mass, compared with RET without protein supplementation. Although protein supplementation minimally enhanced gains in LBM of healthy young men, there was no enhancement of gains in strength. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01749189. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. A daily adjustable progressive resistance exercise protocol and functional training to increase quadriceps muscle strength and functional performance in an elderly homebound patient following a total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardali, Gunay

    2014-05-01

    There is no routinely prescribed protocol to address quadriceps weakness and functional impairments following a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this case report is to introduce and describe the early use of a daily adjustable progressive resistance exercise (DAPRE) protocol as an adjunct to standard rehabilitation to maximize quadriceps muscle strength and functional performance in an elderly homebound patient following a TKA. A 61-year-old female was referred to home care physical therapy for 6 weeks following left TKA due to functional deficits and inability to activate the weak left quadriceps muscle. In phase I, the patient received three visits with emphasis on edema management, improving left knee range of motion, and reducing pain. Phase II consisted of two main components: (1) a DAPRE protocol aimed at maximizing the quadriceps strength and (2) functional training aimed at improving normal gait patterns, transfers, and dynamic balance. The patient made substantial improvements in both quadriceps muscle strength and functional performance in the first seven weeks following the TKA. The patient had a pain free return to daily living activities. The results suggest that early initiation of a DAPRE protocol was free of adverse events and improved quadriceps strength and functional performance for this patient.

  8. The Effect of Interdialytic Combined Resistance and Aerobic Exercise Training on Health Related Outcomes in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients: The Tunisian Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bechir Frih

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tunisia has the highest prevalence of hemodialysis patients compared to the other countries in North Africa. Dialysis centers rarely offer an exercise program to prevent physiological and psychological dialysis therapy-related alterations in chronic hemodialysis patients.Aim: To examine the effect of combined endurance-resistance training program on physiological and psychological outcomes in patients undergoing hemodialysis.Methods: We designed a single blinded, randomized, controlled study for a period of 4 months. Patients were randomized to intervention group or control group. Intervention group patients received 4 training sessions per week, held on non-hemodialysis days for a period of 4 months, whereas control group patients continued their regular lifestyle practice without direct intervention from the personnel of this investigation. Patients were evaluated at baseline (initial assessment and after the four-month study period (final assessment by the same investigator blinded to treatment group assignment using physical, physiological, and psychological measurements.Results: Compared with control group, intervention group showed significant improvement in physical performance during the sit-to-stand-to-sit tests (STS-10: −16.2%, ES = −1.65; STS-60: +23.43%, ES = 1.18, handgrip force task (+23.54%, ES = 1.16, timed up and go test (−13.86%, ES = −1.13, and 6-min walk test (+15.94%, ES = 2.09. Likewise, mini nutritional assessment long form scores after intervention period were significantly higher in the intervention group compared to the control group (ES = 1.43. Physical and mental component scores of SF-36 questionnaire increased significantly in the intervention group (ES = 1.10 and ES = 2.06, respectively, whereas hospital anxiety and depression scale scores decreased significantly (ES = −1.65 and ES = −2.72, respectively. Regarding biological parameters, intervention group displayed improvement in systolic

  9. Effectiveness of Progressive Resistance Strength Training Versus Traditional Balance Exercise in Improving Balance Among the Elderly - A Randomised Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua, Abraham M.; D’Souza, Vivian; Unnikrishnan, B.; Mithra, Prasanna; Kamath, Asha; Acharya, Vishak; Venugopal, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Falls are important health issues among the elderly people. Most falls in elderly result from abnormal balance control mechanisms. Balance and muscle force generation are directly related, and are associated with age related muscular changes. Studies addressing fall prevention have focused on various group and individualised strength training. However, evidence on strengthening of key muscles necessary for maintaining balance and postural control is lacking.

  10. Comparison of gravity-resisted and gym-based core training on core ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a gravity-resisted core training intervention is likely to produce beneficial gains in core endurance for resistance trained males to a greater extent than a programme of similar exercises conducted conventionally in a gym. Keywords: Gravity-resisted core training; Exercise; Rehabilitation; Core endurance ...

  11. Heavy Resistance Training and Peri-Exercise Ingestion of a Multi-Ingredient Ergogenic Nutritional Supplement in Males: Effects on Body Composition, Muscle Performance and Markers of Muscle Protein Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Spillane, Neil Schwarz, Darryn S. Willoughby

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of heavy resistance training and peri-exercise ergogenic multi-ingredient nutritional supplement ingestion on blood and skeletal markers of muscle protein synthesis (MPS, body composition, and muscle performance. Twenty-four college-age males were randomly assigned to either a multi-ingredient SizeOn Maximum Performance (SIZE or protein/carbohydrate/creatine (PCC comparator supplement group in a double-blind fashion. Body composition and muscle performance were assessed, and venous blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained before and after 6 weeks of resistance training and supplementation. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05. Total body mass, body water, and fat mass were not differentially affected (p > 0.05. However, fat-free mass was significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training (p = 0.037. Lower-body muscle strength (p = 0.029 and endurance (p = 0.027 were significantly increased with resistance training, but not supplementation (p > 0.05. Serum insulin, IGF-1, GH, and cortisol were not differentially affected (p > 0.05. Muscle creatine content was significantly increased in both groups from supplementation (p = 0.044. Total muscle protein (p = 0.038, MHC 1 (p = 0.041, MHC 2A, (p = 0.029, total IRS- (p = 0.041, and total Akt (p = 0.011 were increased from resistance training, but not supplementation. In response to heavy resistance training when compared to PCC, the peri-exercise ingestion of SIZE did not preferentially improve body composition, muscle performance, and markers indicative of MPS.

  12. Aerobic exercise reduces blood pressure in resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeo, Fernando; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H

    2012-09-01

    Regular physical exercise is broadly recommended by current European and American hypertension guidelines. It remains elusive, however, whether exercise leads to a reduction of blood pressure in resistant hypertension as well. The present randomized controlled trial examines the cardiovascular effects of aerobic exercise on resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension was defined as a blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg in spite of 3 antihypertensive agents or a blood pressure controlled by ≥4 antihypertensive agents. Fifty subjects with resistant hypertension were randomly assigned to participate or not to participate in an 8- to 12-week treadmill exercise program (target lactate, 2.0±0.5 mmol/L). Blood pressure was assessed by 24-hour monitoring. Arterial compliance and cardiac index were measured by pulse wave analysis. The training program was well tolerated by all of the patients. Exercise significantly decreased systolic and diastolic daytime ambulatory blood pressure by 6±12 and 3±7 mm Hg, respectively (P=0.03 each). Regular exercise reduced blood pressure on exertion and increased physical performance as assessed by maximal oxygen uptake and lactate curves. Arterial compliance and cardiac index remained unchanged. Physical exercise is able to decrease blood pressure even in subjects with low responsiveness to medical treatment. It should be included in the therapeutic approach to resistant hypertension.

  13. Localised cutaneous microvascular adaptation to exercise training in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Ceri L; Carter, Howard H; Thijssen, Dick H J; Birk, Gurpreet K; Cable, N Timothy; Low, David A; Kerstens, Floortje; Meeuwis, Iris; Dawson, Ellen A; Green, Daniel J

    2018-02-07

    Exercise training induces adaptation in conduit and resistance arteries in humans, partly as a consequence of repeated elevation in blood flow and shear stress. The stimuli associated with intrinsic cutaneous microvascular adaptation to exercise training have been less comprehensively studied. We studied 14 subjects who completed 8-weeks cycle ergometer training, with partial cuff inflation on one forearm to unilaterally attenuate cutaneous blood flow responses during each exercise-training bout. Before and after training, bilateral forearm skin microvascular dilation was determined using cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC: skin flux/blood pressure) responses to gradual localised heater disk stimulation performed at rest (33, 40, 42 and 44 °C). Cycle exercise induced significant increases in forearm cutaneous flux and temperature, which were attenuated in the cuffed arm (2-way ANOVA interaction-effect; P < 0.01). We found that forearm CVC at 42 and 44 °C was significantly lower in the uncuffed arm following 8-weeks of cycle training (P < 0.01), whereas no changes were apparent in the contralateral cuffed arm (P = 0.77, interaction-effect P = 0.01). Lower limb exercise training in healthy young men leads to lower CVC-responses to a local heating stimulus, an adaptation mediated, at least partly, by a mechanism related to episodic increases in skin blood flow and/or skin temperature.

  14. Are resistance and aerobic exercise training equally effective at improving knee muscle strength and balance in older women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Elisa A; Figueiredo, Pedro; Harris, Tamara B; Wanderley, Flávia A; Carvalho, Joana

    This study aimed to compare the magnitude of knee muscle strength and static and dynamic balance change in response to 8 months of progressive RE and AE training in healthy community-dwelling older women. A secondary aim was to assess the relationship between muscle strength and balance changes (up and go test (UGT), one-leg stance test, and center of pressure measures). This study was a secondary analysis of longitudinal data from a randomized controlled trial, a three-arm intervention study in older women (n=71, mean age 69.0y). The results suggest that both interventions elicited likely to almost certain improvements (using magnitude-based inference) in balance performance. Leg strength was improved after RE whereas it was unclear following AE. Improvements in strength were almost certainly moderate after RE and possibly trivial after AE, with very likely greater improvements following RE compared to AE. A large and significant negative correlation (r=-0.5; CI 90%: -0.7 to -0.2) was found between ΔUGT and change in both knee extension and knee flexion strength after 8-month RE. In conclusion, our results showed that both types of training improve balance, but RE was also effective at improving leg strength. In addition, improvements in both knee extension and flexion strength after RE appear to make an important contribution to meaningful improvements in static and dynamic balance. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. The effect of resistance exercise on sleep: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, Ana; Mavros, Yorgi; Heisz, Jennifer J; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2018-06-01

    Impaired sleep quality and quantity are associated with future morbidity and mortality. Exercise may be an effective non-pharmacological intervention to improve sleep, however, little is known on the effect of resistance exercise. Thus, we performed a systematic review of the literature to determine the acute and chronic effects of resistance exercise on sleep quantity and quality. Thirteen studies were included. Chronic resistance exercise improves all aspects of sleep, with the greatest benefit for sleep quality. These benefits of isolated resistance exercise are attenuated when resistance exercise is combined with aerobic exercise and compared to aerobic exercise alone. However, the acute effects of resistance exercise on sleep remain poorly studied and inconsistent. In addition to the sleep benefits, resistance exercise training improves anxiety and depression. These results suggest that resistance exercise may be an effective intervention to improve sleep quality. Further research is needed to better understand the effects of acute resistance exercise on sleep, the physiological mechanisms underlying changes in sleep, the changes in sleep architecture with chronic resistance exercise, as well its efficacy in clinical cohorts who commonly experience sleep disturbance. Future studies should also examine time-of-day and dose-response effects to determine the optimal exercise prescription for sleep benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Heavy resistance training and peri-exercise ingestion of a multi-ingredient ergogenic nutritional supplement in males: effects on body composition, muscle performance and markers of muscle protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, Mike; Schwarz, Neil; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2014-12-01

    This study determined the effects of heavy resistance training and peri-exercise ergogenic multi-ingredient nutritional supplement ingestion on blood and skeletal markers of muscle protein synthesis (MPS), body composition, and muscle performance. Twenty-four college-age males were randomly assigned to either a multi-ingredient SizeOn Maximum Performance (SIZE) or protein/carbohydrate/creatine (PCC) comparator supplement group in a double-blind fashion. Body composition and muscle performance were assessed, and venous blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained before and after 6 weeks of resistance training and supplementation. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05). Total body mass, body water, and fat mass were not differentially affected (p > 0.05). However, fat-free mass was significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training (p = 0.037). Lower-body muscle strength (p = 0.029) and endurance (p = 0.027) were significantly increased with resistance training, but not supplementation (p > 0.05). Serum insulin, IGF-1, GH, and cortisol were not differentially affected (p > 0.05). Muscle creatine content was significantly increased in both groups from supplementation (p = 0.044). Total muscle protein (p = 0.038), MHC 1 (p = 0.041), MHC 2A, (p = 0.029), total IRS- (p = 0.041), and total Akt (p = 0.011) were increased from resistance training, but not supplementation. In response to heavy resistance training when compared to PCC, the peri-exercise ingestion of SIZE did not preferentially improve body composition, muscle performance, and markers indicative of MPS. Key pointsIn response to 42 days of heavy resistance training and either SizeOn Maximum Performance or protein/carbohydrate/creatine supplementation, similar increases in muscle mass and strength in both groups occurred; however, the increases were not different between supplement groups.The supplementation of SizeOn Maximum Performance had no preferential effect on augmenting

  17. Resistance exercise reverses aging in human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Melov

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Human aging is associated with skeletal muscle atrophy and functional impairment (sarcopenia. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is a major contributor to sarcopenia. We evaluated whether healthy aging was associated with a transcriptional profile reflecting mitochondrial impairment and whether resistance exercise could reverse this signature to that approximating a younger physiological age. Skeletal muscle biopsies from healthy older (N = 25 and younger (N = 26 adult men and women were compared using gene expression profiling, and a subset of these were related to measurements of muscle strength. 14 of the older adults had muscle samples taken before and after a six-month resistance exercise-training program. Before exercise training, older adults were 59% weaker than younger, but after six months of training in older adults, strength improved significantly (P<0.001 such that they were only 38% lower than young adults. As a consequence of age, we found 596 genes differentially expressed using a false discovery rate cut-off of 5%. Prior to the exercise training, the transcriptome profile showed a dramatic enrichment of genes associated with mitochondrial function with age. However, following exercise training the transcriptional signature of aging was markedly reversed back to that of younger levels for most genes that were affected by both age and exercise. We conclude that healthy older adults show evidence of mitochondrial impairment and muscle weakness, but that this can be partially reversed at the phenotypic level, and substantially reversed at the transcriptome level, following six months of resistance exercise training.

  18. Shear stress mediates endothelial adaptations to exercise training in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinken, Toni M; Thijssen, Dick H J; Hopkins, Nicola; Dawson, Ellen A; Cable, N Timothy; Green, Daniel J

    2010-02-01

    Although episodic changes in shear stress have been proposed as the mechanism responsible for the effects of exercise training on the vasculature, this hypothesis has not been directly addressed in humans. We examined brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, an index of NO-mediated endothelial function, in healthy men in response to an acute bout of handgrip exercise and across an 8-week period of bilateral handgrip training. Shear stress responses were attenuated in one arm by cuff inflation to 60 mm Hg. Similar increases were observed in grip strength and forearm volume and girth in both limbs. Acute bouts of handgrip exercise increased shear rate (P<0.005) and flow-mediated dilation percentage (P<0.05) in the uncuffed limb, whereas no changes were evident in the cuffed arm. Handgrip training increased flow-mediated dilation percentage in the noncuffed limb at weeks 2, 4, and 6 (P<0.001), whereas no changes were observed in the cuffed arm. Brachial artery peak reactive hyperemia, an index of resistance artery remodeling, progressively increased with training in the noncuffed limb (P<0.001 and 0.004); no changes were evident in the cuffed arm. Neither acute nor chronic shear manipulation during exercise influenced endothelium-independent glyceryl trinitrate responses. These results demonstrate that exercise-induced changes in shear provide the principal physiological stimulus to adaptation in flow-mediated endothelial function and vascular remodeling in response to exercise training in healthy humans.

  19. A Systematic Review of Resistance Training Versus Endurance Training in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Ringbaek, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE:: Endurance training (ET) as part of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been shown to improve exercise capacity and health-related quality of life, but dyspnea limits the exercise intensity. Therefore, resistance training (RT), which...

  20. Post-exercise branched chain amino acid supplementation does not affect recovery markers following three consecutive high intensity resistance training bouts compared to carbohydrate supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kephart, Wesley C; Mumford, Petey W; McCloskey, Anna E; Holland, A Maleah; Shake, Joshua J; Mobley, C Brooks; Jagodinsky, Adam E; Weimar, Wendi H; Oliver, Gretchen D; Young, Kaelin C; Moon, Jordan R; Roberts, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid supplementation has been shown to potentially reduced exercise-induced muscle soreness. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine if branched chain amino acid and carbohydrate (BCAACHO) versus carbohydrate-only sports drink (CHO) supplementation attenuated markers of muscle damage while preserving performance markers following 3 days of intense weight training. Healthy resistance-trained males (n = 30) performed preliminary testing (T1) whereby they: 1) donated a baseline blood draw, 2) performed knee extensor dynamometry to obtain peak quadriceps isometric and isokinetic torque as well as electromyography (EMG) activity at 60°/s and 120°/s, and 3) performed a one repetition maximum (1RM) barbell back squat. The following week participants performed 10 sets x 5 repetitions at 80 % of their 1RM barbell back squat for 3 consecutive days and 48 h following the third lifting bout participants returned for (T2) testing whereby they repeated the T1 battery. Immediately following and 24 h after the three lifting bouts, participants were randomly assigned to consume one of two commercial products in 600 mL of tap water: 1) BCAAs and CHO (3 g/d L-leucine, 1 g/d L-isoleucine and 2 g/d L-valine with 2 g of CHO; n = 15), or 2) 42 g of CHO only (n = 15). Additionally, venous blood was drawn 24 h following the first and second lifting bouts and 48 h following the third bout to assess serum myoglobin concentrations, and a visual analog scale was utilized prior, during, and after the 3-d protocol to measure subjective perceptions of muscular soreness. There were similar decrements in 1RM squat strength and isokinetic peak torque measures in the BCAA-CHO and CHO groups. Serum myoglobin concentrations (p = 0.027) and perceived muscle soreness (p training.

  1. Evaluation of the effect of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT or Kegel exercise) and assisted pelvic floor muscle training (APFMT) by a resistance device (Kegelmaster device) on the urinary incontinence in women: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashanian, Maryam; Ali, Shadab Shah; Nazemi, Mitra; Bahasadri, Shohreh

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) or Kegel exercise with and without assistance by a resistance device (Kegelmaster device) on the urinary incontinence in women. A randomized clinical trial was performed on 91 women with the complaint of urinary incontinence. In the assisted pelvic floor muscle training (APFMT) group (n=41), after complete training, Kegelmaster device were used twice daily for 15 min each session, for a total duration of 12 weeks. In the pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) group (n=50) after complete training, kegel exercises were done (including perineal muscle contractions for 6-8s with 6s rest in between), twice daily for 15 min each session and for a total duration of 12 weeks. These two groups were then compared according to the scores of special questionnaires for quality of life, strength of pelvic floor muscles, capability to participate in social activities, severity of urinary incontinence, and the number of involuntary urine passage, taken before, and after 1 and 3 months after finishing interventions. 85 women out of 91 women finished the study (46 in the PFMT group and 39 in the APFMT group). Strength of pelvic floor muscles, capability to participate in social activities, score of quality of life according to three world questionnaires of IQOL (incontinence Quality Of Life), IIQ (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire), UDI (Urogenital Distress Inventory), showed no difference between the two groups 1 and 3 months after interventions. Pair t test showed a significant improvement in both groups 1 and 3 months after intervention, according to IQOL score (P=0.000), UDI score (P=0.000), IIQ score (P=0.000), strength of pelvic floor muscles, (P=0.000), capability to participate in social activities (P=0.000), severity of urinary incontinence (P=0.000) and the number of involuntary urine passage (P=0.000). Pelvic floor muscle training with or without Kegelmaster show no apparent difference to each other, however

  2. Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrix, M.K.; Layman, D.K.

    1986-03-01

    Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 10/sup 0/ incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 ..mu..Ci 1-/sup 14/C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect.

  3. Lower limb strength training in children with cerebral palsy--a randomized controlled trial protocol for functional strength training based on progressive resistance exercise principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtes, V.A.B.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Rameckers, E.A.; Verschuren, O.; Tempelaars, E.; Hensen, M.; Becher, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Until recently, strength training in children with cerebral palsy (CP) was considered to be inappropriate, because it could lead to increased spasticity or abnormal movement patterns. However, the results of recent studies suggest that progressive strength training can lead to increased

  4. Core Muscle Activation in Suspension Training Exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Cugliari, Giovanni; Boccia, Gennaro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A quantitative observational laboratory study was conducted to characterize and classify core training exercises executed in a suspension modality on the base of muscle activation. In a prospective single-group repeated measures design, seventeen active male participants performed four suspension exercises typically associated with core training (roll-out, bodysaw, pike and knee-tuck). Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from lower and upper parts of rectus abdominis, ext...

  5. Why do seniors leave resistance training programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton E

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Elissa Burton,1 Anne-Marie Hill,1 Simone Pettigrew,2 Gill Lewin,3 Liz Bainbridge,1 Kaela Farrier,1 Phil Airey,4 Keith D Hill1 1School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, 2School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, 3School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, Curtin University, 4Council on the Ageing, Perth, WA, Australia Purpose: The proportion of the population, that is older, is growing at a faster rate than other age groups. Physical activity is important for older people because it assists in living independently. Participating in resistance training on a regular basis (twice weekly is recommended for older people; yet, fewer than 15% of people over 60 years achieve this level. The aim of this article was to investigate the factors contributing to older people’s decisions to stop participation in a resistance training program.Participants and methods: Participants were older people who had chosen to participate in a structured resistance training program specifically designed for seniors and then after a period of time discontinued. This population received a questionnaire in the mail focused on factors contributing to their cessation of resistance training exercise. Qualitative results were analyzed using inductive content analysis.Results: Fifty-six survey responses were received (average age 71.5 years, SD =9.0; 79% females. Injury, illness, and holidaying were the main reasons for ceasing participation. A small but important number of responses (11% reported that they considered they were not provided with sufficient support during the resistance training programs.Conclusions: To attract and retain their senior clients, the results indicate that program organizers need to provide tailored support to return to resistance training after injury and offer flexible and individualized services that accommodate older people’s life choices in retirement. Keywords: older people, strength training, gymnasium, retention, aging

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... repetitions at a slow and controlled pace... Resistance Training Resistance training is exercise done against something providing resistance. It can be done with weights (hand-held or training machines) or using isometric techniques. Common household items ( ...

  7. Manual Resistance versus Conventional Resistance Training: Impact on Strength and Muscular Endurance in Recreationally Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulvi-Medrano, Iván; Rial, Tamara; Cortell-Tormo, Juan M; Alakhdar, Yasser; La Scala Teixeira, Caue V; Masiá-Tortosa, Laura; Dorgo, Sandor

    2017-09-01

    Manual resistance training (MRT) has been widely used in the field of physical therapy. It has also been used as a strength training method due to the accommodating resistance nature of this modality. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of an 8-week MRT program on maximum strength and muscular endurance in comparison to conventional resistance training in recreationally trained men. Twenty healthy recreationally trained male subjects were recruited and divided into a MRT training group and a conventional training (CT) group. CT group performed bench press and lat pull-down exercises, and the MRT group performed similar movements with resistance provided by a personal trainer. Both groups completed similar training protocol and training load: 2 training sessions weekly for 3 sets of 8 repetitions at an intensity of 8 to 10 on the perceived exertion scale of 0-10. Initial maximum strength differences were not significant between the groups. Neither group showed significant changes in muscular strength or endurance. Despite the statistically non-significant pre- to post differences, a trend for improvement was observed and effect size (ES) calculations indicated greater magnitude of effects for strength and endurance changes in the MRT group in lat pulldown (g=0.84) compared to CT group. Effectiveness of MRT is similar to CT for improving muscular strength and endurance. MRT can be used as a supplemental or alternative strength training modality for recreationally trained subjects, or be considered by personal trainers especially in low equipped facility conditions.

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees bent. ... repetitions at a slow and controlled pace... Resistance Training Resistance training is exercise done against something providing ...

  9. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voet, Nicoline B M; van der Kooi, Elly L; Riphagen, Ingrid I; Lindeman, Eline; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Geurts, Alexander C H

    2013-07-09

    Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise training in people with a muscle disease. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (July 2012), CENTRAL (2012 Issue 3 of 4), MEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2012), EMBASE (January 1974 to July 2012), EMBASE Classic (1947 to 1973) and CINAHL (January 1982 to July 2012). Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing strength training or aerobic exercise programmes, or both, to no training, and lasting at least six weeks, in people with a well-described diagnosis of a muscle disease.We did not use the reporting of specific outcomes as a study selection criterion. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted the data obtained from the full text-articles and from the original investigators. We collected adverse event data from included studies. We included five trials (170 participants). The first trial compared the effect of strength training versus no training in 36 people with myotonic dystrophy. The second trial compared aerobic exercise training versus no training in 14 people with polymyositis and dermatomyositis. The third trial compared strength training versus no training in a factorial trial that also compared albuterol with placebo, in 65 people with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). The fourth trial compared combined strength training and aerobic exercise versus no training in 18 people with mitochondrial myopathy. The fifth trial compared combined strength training and aerobic exercise versus no training in 35 people with myotonic dystrophy type 1.In both myotonic dystrophy trials and the dermatomyositis and polymyositis trial there were no significant differences

  10. Concurrent training with different aerobic exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R F; Cadore, E L; Kothe, G; Guedes, M; Alberton, C L; Pinto, S S; Pinto, R S; Trindade, G; Kruel, L F M

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of using different intensities and types of aerobic exercise (i. e., cycle ergometer or running) during concurrent training on neuromuscular adaptations. A total of 44 young women were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: concurrent strength and continuous running training (SCR, n=10), concurrent strength and interval running training (SIR, n=11), concurrent strength and continuous cycle ergometer training (SCE, n=11), or strength training only (STO, n=12). Each group trained twice a week during 11 weeks. The following strength measurements were made on all subjects before and after training period: maximal strength (1RM) in knee extension, bench press and leg press exercises; local muscular endurance (number of repetitions at 70% of 1 RM) in knee extension and bench press exercises; and isometric and isokinetic peak torque of knee extension. There were significant increases in the upper and lower-body 1 RM, isometric and isokinetic peak torque in all training groups (pconcurrent training performed twice a week promotes similar neuromuscular adaptations to strength training alone, regardless of the type and the intensity in which the aerobic training is performed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. A Constant-Force Resistive Exercise Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosky, Paul; Ruttley, Tara

    2010-01-01

    A constant-force resistive exercise unit (CFREU) has been invented for use in both normal gravitational and microgravitational environments. In comparison with a typical conventional exercise machine, this CFREU weighs less and is less bulky: Whereas weight plates and associated bulky supporting structures are used to generate resistive forces in typical conventional exercise machines, they are not used in this CFREU. Instead, resistive forces are generated in this CFREU by relatively compact, lightweight mechanisms based on constant-torque springs wound on drums. Each such mechanism is contained in a module, denoted a resistive pack, that includes a shaft for making a torque connection to a cable drum. During a stroke of resistive exercise, the cable is withdrawn from the cable drum against the torque exerted by the resistance pack. The CFREU includes a housing, within which can be mounted one or more resistive pack(s). The CFREU also includes mechanisms for engaging any combination of (1) one or more resistive pack(s) and (2) one or more spring(s) within each resistive pack to obtain a desired level of resistance.

  12. [Ambulatory vascular exercise training in Dortmund].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepchen, J; Roth, H J

    2002-02-01

    Peripheral arterial occlusive disease is chronic and progressive. One of the reasons is lack of movement. The pain-free walking distance can be increased permanently through walking exercises described in the guidelines of the German Society for Vascular Training. Form and order of the training are described. The pleasure in movement and preservation of the own activity increases the motivation of the participants.

  13. Effects of Hypoxic Training versus Normoxic Training on Exercise Performance in Competitive Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun-Young; Lim, Kiwon

    2017-12-01

    In swimming competition, optimal swimming performance is characterized by a variety of interchangeable components, such as aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power and muscular function. Various hypoxic training methods would potentiate greater performance improvements compared to similar training at sea-level. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of six-weeks of hypoxic training on exercise performance in moderately trained competitive swimmers. Twenty swimmers were equally divided into a normoxic training group (n = 10) for residing and training at sea-level (P I O 2 = 149.7 mmHg), and a hypoxic training group (n = 10) for residing at sea-level but training at 526 mmHg hypobaric hypoxic condition (P I O 2 = 100.6 mmHg). Aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power, muscular function, hormonal response and 50 and 400 m swimming performance were measured before and after training, which was composed of warm-up, continuous training, interval training, elastic resistance training, and cool-down. The training frequency was 120 min, 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Muscular function and hormonal response parameters showed significant interaction effects (all p 0.288) in muscular strength and endurance, growth hormone; GH, insulin like growth factor-1; IGF-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGF. The other variables demonstrated no significant interaction effects. However, a hypoxic training group also showed significantly increased maximal oxygen consumption; VO 2 max (p = 0.001), peak anaerobic power (p = 0.001), and swimming performances for 50 m (p = 0.000) and 400 m (p = 0.000). These results indicated that the hypoxic training method proposed in our study is effective for improvement of muscular strength and endurance in moderately trained competitive swimmers compared to control group. However, our hypoxic training method resulted in unclear changes in aerobic exercise capacity (VO 2 max), anaerobic power, and swimming performance of 50 m and

  14. Effects of Hypoxic Training versus Normoxic Training on Exercise Performance in Competitive Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun-Young Park, Kiwon Lim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In swimming competition, optimal swimming performance is characterized by a variety of interchangeable components, such as aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power and muscular function. Various hypoxic training methods would potentiate greater performance improvements compared to similar training at sea-level. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of six-weeks of hypoxic training on exercise performance in moderately trained competitive swimmers. Twenty swimmers were equally divided into a normoxic training group (n = 10 for residing and training at sea-level (PIO2 = 149.7 mmHg, and a hypoxic training group (n = 10 for residing at sea-level but training at 526 mmHg hypobaric hypoxic condition (PIO2 = 100.6 mmHg. Aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power, muscular function, hormonal response and 50 and 400 m swimming performance were measured before and after training, which was composed of warm-up, continuous training, interval training, elastic resistance training, and cool-down. The training frequency was 120 min, 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Muscular function and hormonal response parameters showed significant interaction effects (all p 0.288 in muscular strength and endurance, growth hormone; GH, insulin like growth factor-1; IGF-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGF. The other variables demonstrated no significant interaction effects. However, a hypoxic training group also showed significantly increased maximal oxygen consumption; VO2max (p = 0.001, peak anaerobic power (p = 0.001, and swimming performances for 50 m (p = 0.000 and 400 m (p = 0.000. These results indicated that the hypoxic training method proposed in our study is effective for improvement of muscular strength and endurance in moderately trained competitive swimmers compared to control group. However, our hypoxic training method resulted in unclear changes in aerobic exercise capacity (VO2max, anaerobic power, and swimming performance of 50 m and

  15. Development of Magnetorheological Resistive Exercise Device for Rowing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Grigas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Training equipment used by professional sportsmen has a great impact on their sport performance. Most universal exercisers may help only to improve the general physical condition due to the specific kinematics and peculiar resistance generated by their loading units. Training of effective techniques and learning of psychomotor skills are possible only when exercisers conform to the movements and resistance typical for particular sports kinematically and dynamically. Methodology of developing a magnetorheological resistive exercise device for generating the desired law of passive resistance force and its application in a lever-type rowing machine are described in the paper. The structural parameters of a controllable hydraulic cylinder type device were found by means of the computational fluid dynamics simulation performed by ANSYS CFX software. Parameters describing the magnetorheological fluid as non-Newtonian were determined by combining numerical and experimental research of the resistance force generated by the original magnetorheological damper. A structural scheme of the device control system was developed and the variation of the strength of magnetic field that affects the magnetorheological fluid circulating in the device was determined, ensuring a variation of the resistance force on the oar handle adequate for the resistance that occurs during a real boat rowing stroke.

  16. Habitual exercise decreases systolic blood pressure during low-intensity resistance exercise in healthy middle-aged and older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Takeshi; Kotato, Takahiro; Zempo-Miyaki, Asako

    2016-10-01

    Since aerobic exercise (e.g., walking) and resistance exercise (e.g., lifting objects and mopping) are both parts of the activities of daily living, an exaggerated elevation in systolic blood pressure (SBP) during aerobic and resistance exercise is an early marker of cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effects of habitual exercise on SBP during low-intensity resistance exercise using both cross-sectional and interventional approaches. First, in 57 normotensive women (61.9 ± 1.0 yr of age), daily physical activity level, as assessed by triaxial accelerometry, was correlated with SBP during resistance exercise at 20 and 40% of the 1 repetition maximum (r = -0.408 and r = -0.348, respectively). Maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with SBP during exercise at 20% (r = -0.385) and 40% (r = -0.457). Physical activity level or maximal oxygen uptake was identified as a predictor of SBP during the exercise in stepwise regression analysis, independent of SBP at rest and other factors (R 2 = 0.729-0.781). Second, 66 men and women (64.6 ± 0.9 yr of age) participated in a 6-wk intervention as a part of the training (walking, 4.3 ± 0.3 days/wk, 55.6 ± 4.1 min/day, 70.7 ± 1.2% of maximal heart rate) or control group. SBP during resistance exercise in the training group decreased after the intervention (before vs. after: 20%, 143 ± 4 vs. 128 ± 4 mmHg; and 40%, 148 ± 5 vs. 134 ± 4 mmHg). In the control group, there were no significant differences in SBP before and after the intervention. SBP during resistance exercise after the intervention was lower in the training group relative to the control group. These results suggest that habitual exercise decreases SBP during low-intensity resistance exercise. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Increase in calf post-occlusive blood flow and strength following short-term resistance exercise training with blood flow restriction in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Stephen D; Ferguson, Richard A

    2010-03-01

    The response of calf muscle strength, resting (R (bf)) and post-occlusive (PO(bf)) blood flow were investigated following 4 weeks resistance training with and without blood flow restriction in a matched leg design. Sixteen untrained females performed unilateral plantar-flexion low-load resistance training (LLRT) at either 25% (n = 8) or 50% (n = 8) one-repetition maximum (1 RM). One limb was trained with unrestricted blood flow whilst in the other limb blood flow was restricted with the use of a pressure applied cuff above the knee (110 mmHg). Regardless of the training load, peak PO(bf), measured using venous occlusion plethysmography increased when LLRT was performed with blood flow restriction compared to no change following LLRT with unrestricted blood flow. A significant increase (P training. Maximal dynamic strength (1 RM), maximal voluntary contraction and isokinetic strength at 0.52 and 1.05 rad s(-1) also increased (P training with blood flow restriction. Moreover, 1 RM increased to a greater extent following training at 50% 1 RM compared to 25% 1 RM. These results suggest that 4 weeks LLRT with blood flow restriction provides a greater stimulus to increase peak PO(bf) as well as strength parameters than LLRT with unrestricted blood flow.

  18. Eccentric exercise training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooyackers, J.M.; Berkeljon, D.A.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    The oxygen cost of eccentric exercise is lower than that of concentric exercise at similar work-loads. In this study, the response to eccentric cycle exercise training (EET) in addition to general exercise training (GET) on exercise performance and quality of life was investigated in 24 patients

  19. Falls Reduction and Exercise Training in an Assisted Living Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Kimberly J.; Kirchner, Shannen; Chu, Serena; Smith, Sarah; Winnick-Baskin, Wendy; Mielenz, Thelma J.

    2015-01-01

    Multicomponent exercise programs are currently an efficacious fall prevention strategy among community dwelling older adults although research documents differential falls susceptibility among frail older adults. This study aimed to examine the association between the Boston FICSIT (Frailty and Injuries: Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques) exercise program (the original exercise program to demonstrate that nursing home residents can increase strength) and falls incidents in an assisted living community. A descriptive cross-sectional study matched exercise charts for frequency and duration of training with number of reported fall incidents. Among 39 participants, 33% (n = 13) reported a fall incident. Adults without a fall history reported more time in aerobic (26.30 versus 20.00, P value = 0.71) and strength (1.50 versus 0.50, P value = 0.01) training sessions compared to those with a fall history. Multivariate models adjusting for covariates illustrated a significant protective association between strength training and fall incidents (OR = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.07, 0.85). In this cross-sectional study, this progressive resistance exercise training program into an assisted living population was associated with a decrease in the number of fall incidents. PMID:26345431

  20. Exercise training improves baroreflex sensitivity in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loimaala, Antti; Huikuri, Heikki V; Kööbi, Tiit; Rinne, Marjo; Nenonen, Arja; Vuori, Ilkka

    2003-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a strong risk factor for coronary heart disease and sudden cardiac death. It is associated with reduced baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and heart rate variability (HRV), which are indicators of increased risk for mortality and morbidity in various patient populations. This study was designed to assess the effects of exercise training on BRS, HRV, and hemodynamics in patients with type 2 diabetes. Subjects (50 men, mean age 53.3 +/- 5.1 years) with type 2 diabetes were randomized into either a control group, in which they received conventional treatment only, or an exercise group, in which they received conventional treatment together with heart rate-controlled endurance training twice a week and supervised muscle strength training twice a week for 12 months. Measurements taken at baseline and follow-up included VO(2max), standard time and frequency domain measures of HRV during 24-h recording, and BRS by the phenylephrine method. Cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance index, stroke index, and pulse wave velocity were measured by whole-body impedance cardiography. Significant improvements in VO(2max) (exercise group: +2.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); P training improves BRS sensitivity in type 2 diabetes subjects in addition to increasing the exercise capacity and muscle strength and improving glucose control. These beneficial effects in reflectory autonomic regulation and glucose control caused by exercise may be associated with improved prognosis of type 2 diabetes patients.

  1. Physical exercise training for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Nevitt, Sarah J; Hebestreit, Helge; Kriemler, Susi

    2017-11-01

    Physical exercise training may form an important part of regular care for people with cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published review. To assess the effects of physical exercise training on exercise capacity by peak oxygen consumption, pulmonary function by forced expiratory volume in one second, health-related quality of life and further important patient-relevant outcomes in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search: 04 May 2017.We searched ongoing trials registers (clinicaltrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP). Date of most recent search: 10 August 2017. All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled clinical trials comparing exercise training of any type and a minimum duration of two weeks with conventional care (no training) in people with cystic fibrosis. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. Of the 83 studies identified, 15 studies which included 487 participants, met the inclusion criteria. The numbers in each study ranged from nine up to 72 participants; two studies were in adults, seven were in children and adolescents and six studies included all age ranges. Four studies of hospitalised participants lasted less than one month and 11 studies were outpatient-based, lasting between two months and three years. The studies included participants with a wide range of disease severity and employed differing levels of supervision with a mixture of types of training. There was also wide variation in the quality of the included studies.This systematic review shows very low- to low-quality evidence from both short- and long-term studies that in people

  2. Nonlinear exercise training in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is superior to traditional exercise training. A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klijn, Peter; van Keimpema, Anton; Legemaat, Monique; Gosselink, Rik; van Stel, Henk

    2013-07-15

    The optimal exercise training intensity and strategy for individualized exercise training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not clear. This study compares the effects of nonlinear periodized exercise (NLPE) training used in athletes to traditional endurance and progressive resistance (EPR) training in patients with severe COPD. A total of 110 patients with severe COPD (FEV1 32% predicted) were randomized to EPR or NLPE. Exercise training was performed three times per week for 10 weeks. The primary outcomes were cycling endurance time and health-related quality of life using the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire. The difference in change between EPR and NLPE was assessed using linear mixed-effects modeling. NLPE resulted in significantly greater improvements in cycling endurance time compared with EPR. The difference in change was +300.6 seconds (95% confidence interval [CI] = 197.2-404.2 s; P Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire compared with EPR, ranging from +0.48 (95% CI = 0.19-0.78) for the domain, emotions, to +0.96 (95% CI = 0.57-1.35) for dyspnea. NLPE results in greater improvements in cycle endurance and health-related quality of life in patients with severe COPD than traditional training methods. Clinical trial registered with www.trialregister.nl (The Netherlands Trial Register; NTR 1045).

  3. Effects of strength and endurance exercise order on endocrine responses to concurrent training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas W; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; French, Duncan N

    2017-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of strength and endurance training order on the endocrine milieu associated with strength development and performance during concurrent training. A randomised, between-groups design was employed with 30 recreationally resistance-trained males completing one of four acute experimental training protocols; strength training (ST), strength followed by endurance training (ST-END), endurance followed by strength training (END-ST) or no training (CON). Blood samples were taken before each respective exercise protocol, immediately upon cessation of exercise, and 1 h post cessation of exercise. Blood samples were subsequently analysed for total testosterone, cortisol and lactate concentrations. Ability to maintain 80% 1RM during strength training was better in ST and ST-END than END-ST (both p exercise protocols all training interventions elicited significant increases in testosterone (p exercise protocols. Blood lactate concentrations post-training were greater following END-ST and ST than ST-END (both p exercise prior to strength training resulted in impaired strength training performance. Blood cortisol and lactate concentrations were greater when endurance training was conducted prior to strength training than vice versa. As such, it may be suggested that conducting endurance prior to strength training may result in acute unfavourable responses to strength training when strength training is conducted with high loads.

  4. Muscle activation and perceived loading during rehabilitation exercises: comparison of dumbbells and elastic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Mortensen, Ole S

    2010-01-01

    High-intensity resistance training plays an essential role in the prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries and disorders. Although resistance exercises with heavy weights yield high levels of muscle activation, the efficacy of more user-friendly forms of exercise needs to be exam...

  5. USING SESSION RPE TO MONITOR DIFFERENT METHODS OF RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison D. Egan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare session rating of perceived exertion for different resistance training techniques in the squat exercise. These techniques included traditional resistance training, super slow, and maximal power training. Fourteen college-age women (Mean ± SD; age = 22 ± 3 years; height = 1.68 ± 0. 07 m completed three experimental trials in a randomized crossover design. The traditional resistance training protocol consisted of 6 sets of 6 repetitions of squats using 80% of 1-RM. The super slow protocol consisted of 6 sets of 6 repetitions using 55% of 1-RM. The maximal power protocol consisted of 6 sets of 6 repetitions using 30% of 1-RM. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE measures were obtained following each set using Borg's CR-10 scale. In addition, a session RPE value was obtained 30 minutes following each exercise session. When comparing average RPE and session RPE, no significant difference was found. However, power training had significantly lower (p < 0.05 average and session RPE (4.50 ± 1.9 and 4.5 ± 2.1 compared to both super slow training (7.81 ± 1.75 and 7.43 ± 1.73 and traditional training (7.33 ± 1.52 and 7.13 ± 1.73. The results indicate that session RPE values are not significantly different from the more traditional methods of measuring RPE during exercise bouts. It does appear that the resistance training mode that is used results in differences in perceived exertion that does not relate directly to the loading that is used. Using session RPE provides practitioners with the same information about perceived exertion as the traditional RPE measures. Taking a single measure following a training session would appear to be much easier than using multiple measures of RPE throughout a resistance training workout. However, practitioners should also be aware that the RPE does not directly relate to the relative intensity used and appears to be dependent on the mode of resistance exercise that is used

  6. The Feasibility of performing resistance exercise with acutely ill hospitalized older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockwood Kenneth

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For older adults, hospitalization frequently results in deterioration of mobility and function. Nevertheless, there are little data about how older adults exercise in the hospital and definitive studies are not yet available to determine what type of physical activity will prevent hospital related decline. Strengthening exercise may prevent deconditioning and Pilates exercise, which focuses on proper body mechanics and posture, may promote safety. Methods A hospital-based resistance exercise program, which incorporates principles of resistance training and Pilates exercise, was developed and administered to intervention subjects to determine whether acutely-ill older patients can perform resistance exercise while in the hospital. Exercises were designed to be reproducible and easily performed in bed. The primary outcome measures were adherence and participation. Results Thirty-nine ill patients, recently admitted to an acute care hospital, who were over age 70 [mean age of 82.0 (SD= 7.3] and ambulatory prior to admission, were randomized to the resistance exercise group (19 or passive range of motion (ROM group (20. For the resistance exercise group, participation was 71% (p = 0.004 and adherence was 63% (p = 0.020. Participation and adherence for ROM exercises was 96% and 95%, respectively. Conclusion Using a standardized and simple exercise regimen, selected, ill, older adults in the hospital are able to comply with resistance exercise. Further studies are needed to determine if resistance exercise can prevent or treat hospital-related deterioration in mobility and function.

  7. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation.

  8. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C.; Irigoyen, M.C.; De Angelis, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation

  9. Muscle metabolism during intense, heavy-resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, P A; Colliander, E B; Kaiser, P

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the muscle metabolic changes occurring during intense and prolonged, heavy-resistance exercise. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of 9 strength trained athletes before and 30 s after an exercise regimen comprising 5 sets each of front squats, back squats, leg presses and knee extensions using barbell or variable resistance machines. Each set was executed until muscle failure, which occurred within 6-12 muscle contractions. The exercise: rest ratio was approximately 1:2 and the total performance time was 30 min. Concentrations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), creatine phosphate (CP), creatine, glycogen, glucose, glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P), alpha-glycerophosphate (alpha-G-P) and lactate were determined on freeze-dried tissue samples using fluorometric assays. Blood samples were analyzed for lactate and glucose. The exercise produced significant reductions in ATP (p less than 0.01) and CP (p less than 0.001), while alpha-G-P more than doubled (p less than 0.05), glucose increased tenfold (p less than 0.001) and G-6-P fourfold (p less than 0.001). Muscle lactate concentration at cessation of exercise averaged 17.3 mmol X kg-1 w. w. Glycogen concentration decreased (p less than 0.001) from 160 to 118 mmol X kg-1 w. w. It is concluded that high intensity, heavy resistance exercise is associated with a high rate of energy utilization through phosphagen breakdown and activation of glycogenolysis.

  10. Resistance exercises in lipemic regulation: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rebolledo Cobos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the review study was to describe the metabolic effects of resistance exercises with a potential association with lipid metabolism and thus, its possible role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. It was based on the literature with greater scientific relevance. The main results argue that, despite having less published studies aerobics, exercises based on the maturity of external resistors for strength training or resistance exercises, they have a positive influence on lipid metabolism, primarily hours after Have been executed. Some of the findings in healthy populations conclude that this type of exercise, in addition to an increase in muscle functional and neurophysiological properties, leads to an increase in plasma concentrations of HDL cholesterol, in addition to promoting the reduction of total cholesterol and LDL, mainly in periods postprandial. The physiological implications of resistance exercises on the activity of enzymes with a role in lipid metabolism are not conclusive. Due to the high variability in prescribing this form of exercise, more studies may elucidate the effect of different volumes, intensities and doses of lipemic variables in healthy populations or special conditions are needed.

  11. Intermittent hypoxic resistance training: is metabolic stress the key moderator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brendan R; Slattery, Katie M; Dascombe, Ben J

    2015-02-01

    Traditionally, researchers and practitioners have manipulated acute resistance exercise variables to elicit the desired responses to training. However, recent research indicates that altering the muscular environment during resistance training, namely by implementing a hypoxic stimulus, can augment muscle hypertrophy and strength. Intermittent hypoxic resistance training (IHRT), whereby participants inspire hypoxic air during resistance training, has been previously demonstrated to increase muscle cross-sectional area and maximum strength by significantly greater amounts than the equivalent training in normoxia. However, some recent evidence has provided conflicting results, reporting that the use of systemic hypoxia during resistance training provided no added benefit. While the definitive mechanisms that may augment muscular responses to IHRT are not yet fully understood, an increased metabolic stress is thought to be important for moderating many downstream processes related to hypertrophy. It is likely that methodological differences between conflicting IHRT studies have resulted in different degrees of metabolic stress during training, particularly when considering the inter-set recovery intervals used. Given that the most fundamental physiological stresses resulting from hypoxia are disturbances to oxidative metabolism, it becomes apparent that resistance training may only benefit from additional hypoxia if the exercise is structured to elicit a strong metabolic response. We hypothesize that for IHRT to be more effective in producing muscular hypertrophy and increasing strength than the equivalent normoxic training, exercise should be performed with relatively brief inter-set recovery periods, with the aim of providing a potent metabolic stimulus to enhance anabolic responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modes of exercise training for intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauret, Gert Jan; Fakhry, Farzin; Fokkenrood, Hugo J P; Hunink, M G Myriam; Teijink, Joep A W; Spronk, Sandra

    2014-07-04

    According to international guidelines and literature, all patients with intermittent claudication should receive an initial treatment of cardiovascular risk modification, lifestyle coaching, and supervised exercise therapy. In most studies, supervised exercise therapy consists of treadmill or track walking. However, alternative modes of exercise therapy have been described and yielded similar results to walking. Therefore, the following question remains: Which exercise mode gives the most beneficial results? To assess the effects of different modes of supervised exercise therapy on the maximum walking distance (MWD) of patients with intermittent claudication. To assess the effects of different modes of supervised exercise therapy on pain-free walking distance (PFWD) and health-related quality of life scores (HR-QoL) of patients with intermittent claudication. The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Specialised Register (July 2013); CENTRAL (2013, Issue 6), in The Cochrane Lib rary; and clinical trials databases. The authors searched the MEDLINE (1946 to July 2013) and Embase (1973 to July 2013) databases and reviewed the reference lists of identified articles to detect other relevant citations. Randomised controlled trials of studies comparing alternative modes of exercise training or combinations of exercise modes with a control group of supervised walking exercise in patients with clinically determined intermittent claudication. The supervised walking programme needed to be supervised at least twice a week for a consecutive six weeks of training. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias for each study. Because of different treadmill test protocols to assess the maximum or pain-free walking distance, we converted all distances or walking times to total metabolic equivalents (METs) using the American College of Sports Medicine

  13. Acute molecular responses to concurrent resistance and high-intensity interval exercise in untrained skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jamie K; Faulkner, Steve H; Jackson, Andrew P; King, James A; Nimmo, Myra A

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent training involving resistance and endurance exercise may augment the benefits of single-mode training for the purpose of improving health. However, muscle adaptations, associated with resistance exercise, may be blunted by a subsequent bout of endurance exercise, via molecular interference. High-intensity interval training (HIIT), generating similar adaptations to endurance exercise, may offer an alternative exercise mode to traditional endurance exercise. This study examined the influence of an acute HIIT session on the molecular responses following resistance exercise in untrained skeletal muscle. Ten male participants performed resistance exercise (4 × 8 leg extensions, 70% 1RM, (RE)) or RE followed by HIIT (10 × 1 min at 90% HRmax, (RE+HIIT)). Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis before, 2 and 6 h post-RE to determine intramuscular protein phosphorylation and mRNA responses. Phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) decreased at 6 h in both trials (P HIIT (P HIIT with PGC-1α and PGC-1α-ex1b remaining elevated at 6 h, whereas RE-induced increases at 2 and 6 h for PGC-1α-ex1b only (P HIIT versus RE at 2 and 6 h (P HIIT may be an alternative to endurance exercise when performed after resistance exercise in the same training session to optimize adaptations. PMID:25902785

  14. Autophagy is induced by resistance exercise in young men but unfolded protein response is induced regardless of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentilä, Jaakko; Ahtiainen, Juha P; Paulsen, Gøran; Raastad, Truls; Häkkinen, Keijo; Mero, Antti A; Hulmi, Juha J

    2018-04-02

    Autophagy and unfolded protein response (UPR) appear to be important for skeletal muscle homeostasis and may be altered by exercise. Our aim was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise and training on indicators of UPR and autophagy in healthy untrained young men (n = 12, 27 ± 4 years) and older men (n = 8, 61 ± 6 years) as well as in resistance-trained individuals (n = 15, 25 ± 5 years). Indicators of autophagy and UPR were investigated from the muscle biopsies after a single resistance exercise bout and after 21 weeks of resistance training. Lipidated LC3II as an indicator of autophagosome content increased at 48 hours post resistance exercise (P resistance-training period (P resistance exercise in untrained young and older men (P resistance-training period regardless of age. UPR was unchanged within the first few hours after the resistance exercise bout regardless of the training status. Changes in autophagy and UPR ER indicators did not correlate with a resistance-training-induced increase in muscle strength and size. Autophagosome content is increased by resistance training in young previously untrained men, but this response may be blunted by aging. However, unfolded protein response is induced by an unaccustomed resistance exercise bout in a delayed manner regardless of age. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chueh-Lung; Yu, Chong-Jen; Shih, Jin-Yuan; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Wu, Ying-Tai

    2012-12-01

    Peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak)) is an important predictive factor for long-term prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether 8 weeks of exercise training improves exercise capacity, as assessed by VO(2peak), and other related factors in patients with NSCLC receiving targeted therapy. A total of 24 participants with adenocarcinoma were randomly assigned to either the control group (n = 11) or the exercise group (n = 13). Subjects in the exercise group participated in individualized, high-intensity aerobic interval training of exercise. The outcome measures assessed at baseline and after 8 weeks were as follows: VO(2peak) and the percentage of predicted VO(2peak) (%predVO(2peak)), muscle strength and endurance of the right quadriceps, muscle oxygenation during exercise, insulin resistance as calculated by the homeostasis model, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and quality of life (QoL) questionnaire inventory. No exercise-related adverse events were reported. After exercise training, VO(2peak) and %predVO(2peak) increased by 1.6 mL kg(-1) min(-1) and 5.3% (p fatigue (p = 0.05) than baseline. Patients with NSCLC receiving targeted therapy have quite a low exercise capacity, even with a relatively high QoL. Exercise training appears to improve exercise capacity and alleviate some cancer-related symptoms.

  16. Resistance Training in Children and Young Adults: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Shenouda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance training is a method used by many athletes to increase their levels of performance. The benefits of this method are known to be increased strength, power and endurance. Resistance training in children has been a topic that has been long debated and there are some widely accepted beliefs and principles that guide clinicians involved in the discipline of sport and exercise medicine. While weight training is a form of resistance training that has proven beneficial effects on health and wellbeing, powerlifting and heavy weight training should be avoided, as lifting maximal weights through various ranges of motion as fast as possible can lead to serious limb injuries. In order to determine the risks and benefits of resistance training in children and adolescents, it is important to review the literature to find a clear consensus. Further prospective research should be completed to determine the long-term sequelae of resistance training in children in comparison to the general population.

  17. Effects of an Intensive Resistant Training Sessions and Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive and acute exercise trainings may induce oxidative stress, but antioxidant supplements may attenuate its degenerative consequences. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of green tea supplementation on the oxidative stress indices after an intensive resistance training session. Materials and Methods: 40 non-athletes (without regular physical activity women were randomly divided into 4 equal (n=10 groups including green tea supplementation, green tea supplementation plus resistance training, resistance training, and control groups. After supplementation period (600 mg/day, 14 days, resistance training and green tea supplementation plus resistance training groups performed an intensive resistance training session at 75-85 % of one repetition maximum. The malondialdehyde and total thiol were measured as oxidative stress indices. Data were analyzed by using of repeated measure ANOVA and LSD tests at p<0.056T. Results: Results showed that after 14 days of green tea consumption, malondialdehyde significantly decreased in green tea supplementation (p=0.03 and green tea supplementation plus resistance training (p=0.01 groups, while total thiol increased significantly (p=0.01 in two green tea supplementation groups. However, an intensive resistance training session increased malondialdehyde (p=0.01 without any significantly changes in total thiol (p=0.426T. Conclusion: It seems that green tea supplementation can inhibit exercise-induced protein and lipid oxidation in non-athletes women via enhancement of antioxidant defense system of the body6T.6T

  18. Endocrine Responses to Resistance Exercise,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-30

    and co-workers observed significant (26) increases in dopamine values following a high intensity, low-rest bodybuilding type exercise protocol. This...and fitness of an elite bodybuilder during I year of self-administration of testosterone and anabolic steroids: a case study. Int. J. Sports Med. 6

  19. Menopause: highlighting the effects of resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, R D; Prestes, J; Pereira, G B; Shiguemoto, G E; Perez, S E A

    2010-11-01

    The increase in lifespan and in the proportion of elderly women has increased the focus on menopause induced physiological alterations. These modifications are associated with the elevated risk of several pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fat liver disease, among others. Because of estrogen levels decline, many tissue and organs (muscular, bone, adipose tissue and liver) are affected. Additionally, body composition suffers important modifications. In this sense, there is a growing body of concern in understanding the physiological mechanisms involved and establishing strategies to prevent and reverse the effects of menopause. The hormone reposition therapy, diet and physical exercise have been recommended. Among the diverse exercise modalities, resistance training is not commonly used as a therapeutic intervention in the treatment of menopause. Thus, the aim of this review was to analyze the physiological alterations on several organs and systems induced by menopause and ovariectomy (experimental model to reproduce menopause), as well as, to study the effects of resistance training in preventing and reverting these modifications. In conclusion, resistance training promotes beneficial effects on several organs and systems, mainly, on muscular, bone and adipose tissue, allowing for a better quality of life in this population.

  20. Resistance Exercises for Health and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Let’s get started… First & Foremost…. “Tie-it-up”! This stabilizes your core and provides a solid foundation for resistance exercises. This is a two step process: 1st – close the pelvic floor. For men… as though you are stopping the flow of urine, it is the same for ladies but more commonly referred to as Kegel exercises. 2nd – While doing the above, tighten the lower abs (like you are preparing to be punched in the stomach). Be sure to “Tie-it-up” before doing all exercises.

  1. Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A 30-day 6 deg. head-down bed rest study was conducted to evaluate high-intensity, short-duration, alternating isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regiments designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (acclimation) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (a) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (b) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40%, but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regiments, and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  2. Endurance Exercise Training and Male Sexual Libido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Anthony C; Lane, Amy R; Register-Mihalik, Johna; Oʼleary, Colin B

    2017-07-01

    This article aimed to study the associations between aspects of endurance exercise training and sexual libido in healthy men using a cross-sectional online survey study design. A developed online survey questionnaire was used. The questionnaire was based on preexisting validated questionnaires and was used to assess elements of physical characteristics, exercise training habits, and libido of participants (n = 1077). Three evidence-based categories were created for the primary outcome of total libido score and low, normal, and high-response category sets. The high and normal categories were combined to form a high/normal score group, and the low category formed a low score group. Odds ratio (OR) values were calculated to examine group categorization. Age, training intensity, and training duration of participants had significant (P libido scores, and were thus included in the multivariate model. In the multivariate model, training intensity (P libido group designation (high/normal vs low). Participants with the lowest (OR = 6.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.6-17.9) and mid-range training intensities (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.4-5.3) had greater odds of high/normal libido state than those with the highest training intensity. Participants with the shorter (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.6-10.0) and mid-range training durations (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.3-4.8) at their current intensity also had greater odds of high/normal libido score than those with a greatest duration. Exposure to higher levels of chronic intense and greater durations of endurance training on a regular basis is significantly associated with a decreased libido scores in men. Clinicians who treat male patients for sexual disorders and/or council couples on infertility issues should consider the degree of endurance exercise training a man is performing as a potential complicating factor.

  3. Endurance exercise training and diferuloyl methane supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Hosseinzadeh, Somayeh; Mahjoub, Soleiman

    2013-01-01

    For many years it has been known that lead is life-threatening, not only as an air pollutant but also because of it has been associated with several conditions including degenerative disease of the nervous system. In the current study we investigated neuroprotection effects of exercise training a...

  4. Intense exercise training and immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Michael; Williams, Clyde

    2013-01-01

    Regular moderate exercise reduces the risk of infection compared with a sedentary lifestyle, but very prolonged bouts of exercise and periods of intensified training are associated with increased infection risk. In athletes, a common observation is that symptoms of respiratory infection cluster around competitions, and even minor illnesses such as colds can impair exercise performance. There are several behavioral, nutritional and training strategies that can be adopted to limit exercise-induced immunodepression and minimize the risk of infection. Athletes and support staff can avoid transmitting infections by avoiding close contact with those showing symptoms of infection, by practicing good hand, oral and food hygiene and by avoiding sharing drinks bottles and cutlery. Medical staff should consider appropriate immunization for their athletes particularly when travelling to international competitions. The impact of intensive training stress on immune function can be minimized by getting adequate sleep, minimizing psychological stress, avoiding periods of dietary energy restriction, consuming a well-balanced diet that meets energy and protein needs, avoiding deficiencies of micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6 and B12), ingesting carbohydrate during prolonged training sessions, and consuming - on a daily basis - plant polyphenol containing supplements or foodstuffs and Lactobacillus probiotics. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Participation of endogenous opioids in the antinociception induced by resistance exercise in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Galdino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is a low-cost intervention that promotes health and contributes to the maintenance of the quality of life. The present study was designed to investigate the influence of different resistance exercise protocols on the nociceptive threshold of rats. Female Wistar rats were used to perform exercises in a weight-lifting exercise model. The following groups were examined (N = 6 per group: untrained rats (control group; an acute protocol group consisting of rats submitted to 15 sets of 15 repetitions of resistance exercise (acute group; rats exercised with 3 sets of 10 repetitions, three times per week for 12 weeks (trained group, and a group consisting of trained rats that were further submitted to the acute protocol (trained-acute group. The nociceptive threshold was measured by the paw-withdrawal test, in which the withdrawal threshold (escape reaction was measured by an apparatus applying force to the plantar surface of the animal paw. The opioid antagonist naloxone (2 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously 10 min before the exercise protocols. The trained group demonstrated antinociception only up to day 45 of the 12-week training period. A significant increase (37%, P < 0.05 in the nociceptive threshold was produced immediately after exercise, decreasing to 15% after 15 min, when the acute exercise protocol was used. Naloxone reversed this effect. These data show that the acute resistance exercise protocol was effective in producing antinociception for 15 min. This antinociceptive effect is mediated by the activation of opioid receptors.

  6. The effects of different exercise training modalities on plasma proenkephalin Peptide F in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, William H; Kraemer, William J; Nindl, Bradley C; Lee, Elaine C; Fragala, Maren S; Hatfield, Disa L; Caldwell, Lydia K; Post, Emily M; Beeler, Matthew K; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M

    2017-05-01

    Due to the important interactions of proenkephalin fragments (e.g., proenkephalin [107-140] Peptide F) to enhance activation of immune cells and potentially combat pain associated with exercise-induced muscle tissue damage, we examined the differential plasma responses of Peptide F to different exercise training programs. Participants were tested pre-training (T1), and after 8 weeks (T2) of training. Fifty-nine healthy women were matched and then randomly assigned to one of four groups: heavy resistance strength training (STR, n=18), high intensity endurance training (END, n=14), combined strength and endurance training (CMB, n=17), or control (CON, n=10). Blood was collected using a cannula inserted into a superficial vein in the antecubital fossa with samples collected at rest and immediately after an acute bout of 6 X 10 RM in a squat resistance exercise before training and after training. Prior to any training, no significant differences were observed for any of the groups before or after acute exercise. With training, significant (P≤0.95) elevations were observed with acute exercise in each of the exercise training groups and this effect was significantly greater in the CMB group. These data indicate that in untrained women exercise training will not change resting of plasma Peptide F concentrations unless both forms of exercise are performed but will result in significant increases in the immediate post-exercise responses. Such findings appear to indicate adrenal medullary adaptations opioid production significantly altered with exercise training. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Creatine loading, resistance exercise performance, and muscle mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, S W; Dudley, G A

    2001-11-01

    We tested the null hypothesis that creatine monohydrate loading (20 g per day for 7 days, n = 18) would not alter resistance exercise performance, isometric strength, or in vivo contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris muscle compared with loading with placebo (n = 13) in resistance-trained subjects. For the entire study group, the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and 5-set performance (the number of repetitions) for unilateral, dynamic knee extension increased slightly (2% and 5%, respectively) after dietary supplementation, and these responses did not differ by condition. Maximal voluntary isometric torque and the rate of torque development did not change. During electromyostimulation, torque development and relaxation time were also unaffected. Our data suggest that creatine loading does not augment unilateral strength or multiset resistance exercise performance for knee extensions compared with placebo loading.

  8. Exercise training reduces sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure patients treated with carvedilol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Raffael; Franco, Fábio G; Roveda, Fabiana; de Matos, Luciana N J; Braga, Ana M F W; Rondon, Maria U P B; Rotta, Daniel R; Brum, Patricia C; Barretto, Antonio C P; Middlekauff, Holly R; Negrão, Carlos E

    2007-01-01

    Evidence suggests that carvedilol decreases muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in patients with heart failure (HF) but carvedilol fails to improve forearm vascular resistance and overall functional capacity. Exercise training in HF reduces MSNA and improves forearm vascular resistance and functional capacity. To investigate whether the beneficial effects exercise training on MSNA are maintained in the presence of carvedilol. Twenty seven HF patients, NYHA Class II-III, EF <35%, peak VO(2) <20 ml/kg/min, treated with carvedilol were randomly divided into two groups: exercise training (n=15) and untrained (n=12). MSNA was recorded by microneurography. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography. The four-month training program consisted of three 60-min exercise/week on a cycloergometer. Baseline parameters were similar between groups. Exercise training reduced MSNA (-14+/-3.3 bursts/100 HB, p=0.001) and increased forearm blood flow (0.6+/-0.1 mL/min/100 g, p<0.001) in HF patients on carvedilol. In addition, exercise training improved peak VO(2) in HF patients (20+/-6%, p=0.002). MSNA, FBF and peak VO(2) were unchanged in untrained HF patients on carvedilol. Exercise training reduces MSNA in heart failure patients treated with carvedilol. In addition, the beneficial effects of exercise training on muscle blood flow and functional capacity are still realized in patients on carvedilol.

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 15 repetitions at a slow and controlled pace... Resistance Training Resistance training is exercise done against something providing resistance. It can be done with weights (hand-held ...

  10. Effects of aerobic and/or resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight or obese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, Leslie H.; Slentz, Cris A.; Bateman, Lori A.; Shields, A. Tamlyn; Piner, Lucy W.; Bales, Connie W.; Houmard, Joseph A.; Kraus, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent guidelines on exercise for weight loss and weight maintenance include resistance training as part of the exercise prescription. Yet few studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of aerobic and resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight adults. STRRIDE AT/RT, a randomized trial, compared aerobic training, resistance training, and a combination of the two to determine the optimal mode of exercise for obesity reduction. Participants were 119 sedentary, overweig...

  11. Comparing the effects of two distinct eccentric modalities to traditional resistance training in resistance trained, higher functioning older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluchowski, Ashley; Dulson, Deborah; Merien, Fabrice; Plank, Lindsay; Harris, Nigel

    2017-11-01

    The effects of eccentric resistance exercise are of interest in the older adult cohort, but to our knowledge, there is no research on the relative effects of different eccentric modalities on a range of outcomes in higher functioning, resistance trained older adults. 33 resistance-trained older adults (aged 67±4.5years) were randomized into one of three supervised training groups: traditional (TRE), eccentric only (ERE) or eccentrically biased resistance exercise (EBRE) on a 45°, plate-loaded leg press machine. Participants trained twice per week with maximal strength, functional capacity, body composition and blood biomarkers measured before and after the eight-week intervention. Both eccentric and concentric strength, and important functional tasks for independent living significantly improved independent of group. Body composition and blood biomarkers were found to significantly improve in the EBRE group only however, no statistical differences were found between groups. Compared to traditional resistance training, the two eccentric modalities investigated here were equally effective for improvements in maximum muscular strength, functional capacity, body composition and metabolic biomarkers. When training the resistance trained older adult, very heavy isoinertial external loads (at least 70% of one repetition maximum) are effective irrespective of contraction mode. With heavy strength training, resistance trained older adults can continue to expect improvements in health and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Coffee and Caffeine Ingestion on Resistance Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Darren L; Clarke, Neil D

    2016-10-01

    Richardson, DL and Clarke, ND. Effect of coffee and caffeine ingestion on resistance exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2892-2900, 2016-The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ingesting caffeine dose-matched anhydrous caffeine, coffee, or decaffeinated coffee plus anhydrous caffeine during resistance exercise on performance. Nine resistance-trained men (mean ± SD: age, 24 ± 2 years; weight, 84 ± 8 kg; height, 180 ± 8 cm) completed a squat and bench press exercise protocol at 60% 1 repetition maximum until failure on 5 occasions consuming 0.15 g·kg caffeinated coffee (COF), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee (DEC), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee plus 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (D + C), 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (CAF), or a placebo (PLA). Felt arousal and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were used to assess perceptual variables and heart rate (HR) to assess physiological responses between trials. There were significant differences in total weight lifted for the squat between conditions (p caffeine have the ability to improve performance during a resistance exercise protocol, although possibly not over multiple bouts.

  13. Intensive Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Intensive exercise training during bed rest attenuates deconditioning. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 207-215, 1997. A 30-d 6 deg head-down bed rest project was conducted to evaluate variable high-intensity, short-duration, isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent resistive isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regimens designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (adaptive) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Major findings are summarized in this paper. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volumes, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (f) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (g) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40% but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (b) induced positive body water balance, (i) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and 0) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regimens and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  14. Comparison of pre-workout nitric oxide stimulating dietary supplements on skeletal muscle oxygen saturation, blood nitrate/nitrite, lipid peroxidation, and upper body exercise performance in resistance trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canale Robert E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared Glycine Propionyl-L-Carnitine (GlycoCarn® and three different pre-workout nutritional supplements on measures of skeletal muscle oxygen saturation (StO2, blood nitrate/nitrite (NOx, lactate (HLa, malondialdehyde (MDA, and exercise performance in men. Methods Using a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, 19 resistance trained men performed tests of muscular power (bench press throws and endurance (10 sets of bench press to muscular failure. A placebo, GlycoCarn®, or one of three dietary supplements (SUPP1, SUPP2, SUPP3 was consumed prior to exercise, with one week separating conditions. Blood was collected before receiving the condition and immediately after exercise. StO2 was measured during the endurance test using Near Infrared Spectroscopy. Heart rate (HR and rating of perceived exertion (RPE were determined at the end of each set. Results A condition effect was noted for StO2 at the start of exercise (p = 0.02, with GlycoCarn® higher than SUPP2. A condition effect was also noted for StO2 at the end of exercise (p = 0.003, with SUPP1 lower than all other conditions. No statistically significant interaction, condition, or time effects were noted for NOx or MDA (p > 0.05; however, MDA decreased 13.7% with GlycoCarn® and increased in all other conditions. Only a time effect was noted for HLa (p 0.05; however, GlycoCarn® resulted in a statistically insignificant greater total volume load compared to the placebo (3.3%, SUPP1 (4.2%, SUPP2 (2.5%, and SUPP3 (4.6%. Conclusion None of the products tested resulted in favorable changes in our chosen outcome measures, with the exception of GlycoCarn® in terms of higher StO2 at the start of exercise. GlycoCarn® resulted in a 13.7% decrease in MDA from pre- to post-exercise and yielded a non-significant but greater total volume load compared to all other conditions. These data indicate that 1 a single ingredient (GlycoCarn® can provide similar practical benefit

  15. Comparative efficacy of progressive resistance exercise and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Progressive Resistance Exercise (PRE) and Biomechanical Ankle Platform System (BAPS) are two of the protocols available in managing children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). The comparative effects of these modalities on selected functional indices of ambulatory type CP were the focus of this study. Methods: ...

  16. Sports drinks, exercise training, and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Duvillard, Serge P; Arciero, Paul J; Tietjen-Smith, Tara; Alford, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A plethora of investigations examining fluid intake before, during, and after training and competition have suggested that a lack of adequate fluid intake will impair or decrease physical performance. Depending upon the type of training or competition, individuals training for prolonged endurance events should drink fluids containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during and after training or competition. Inadequate hydration will cause significant decrements in performance, increase thermal stress, reduce plasma volume, accelerate fatigue, and possibly cause injuries associated with fluid and sweat loss. However, overdrinking may cause Na+ depletion and in some cases lead to hyponatremia. Maintaining proper hydration before, during, and after training and competition will help reduce fluid loss, maintain performance, lower submaximal exercise heart rate, maintain plasma volume, and reduce heat stress, heat exhaustion, and possibly heat stroke.

  17. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and

  18. Airflow-Restricting Mask Reduces Acute Performance in Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri L. Motoyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the number of repetitions to volitional failure, the blood lactate concentration, and the perceived exertion to resistance training with and without an airflow-restricting mask. Methods: Eight participants participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study. Participants were assigned to an airflow-restricting mask group (MASK or a control group (CONT and completed five sets of chest presses and parallel squats until failure at 75% one-repetition-maximum test (1RM with 60 s of rest between sets. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs, blood lactate concentrations (Lac−, and total repetitions were taken after the training session. Results: MASK total repetitions were lower than those of the CONT, and (Lac− and MASK RPEs were higher than those of the CONT in both exercises. Conclusions: We conclude that an airflow-restricting mask in combination with resistance training increase perceptions of exertion and decrease muscular performance and lactate concentrations when compared to resistance training without this accessory. This evidence shows that the airflow-restricting mask may change the central nervous system and stop the exercise beforehand to prevent some biological damage.

  19. Number of repetition after different rest intervals between static stretching and resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dias

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Therefore, 30-minute interval between static stretching and resistance exercises was needed to achieve greater repetition performance. Thus, static stretching for lower limbs may be avoided before a resistance training session.

  20. Effect of Rest Interval Length on the Volume Completed During Upper Body Resistance Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Humberto; Simão, Roberto; Moreira, Leonardo Marmo; de Souza, Renato Aparecido; de Souza, João Antônio Alves; de Salles, Belmiro Freitas; Willardson, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to compare the workout volume (sets x resistance x repetitions per set) completed during two upper body resistance exercise sessions that incorporated 1 minute versus 3 minute rest intervals between sets and exercises. Twelve trained men completed two experimental sessions that consisted of 5 upper body exercises (i.e. barbell bench press, incline barbell bench press, pec deck flye, barbell lying triceps extension, triceps pushdown) performed for three sets with an 8-RM load. The two experimental sessions differed only in the length of the rest interval between sets and exercises; one session with a 1-minute and the other session with a 3-minute rest interval. The results demonstrated that for each exercise, significantly greater workout volume was completed when resting 3 minutes between sets and exercises (p < 0.05). These results indicate that during a resistance exercise session, if sufficient time is available, resting 3 minutes between sets and exercises allows greater workout volume for the upper body exercises examined. Key points The length of the rest interval between sets is an important variable when designing a resistance exercise program and may vary depending on the characteristic being emphasized (i.e. maximal strength, hypertrophy, localized muscular endurance, power). Although acknowledged, this variable is rarely monitored precisely in field settings. Previous studies that examined rest interval lengths from 1 to 5 minutes between sets for single exercises demonstrated significant differences in repetition performance and the exercise volume completed. There is a need for further research to compare the workout volume (sets x resistance x repetitions per set) completed over an entire resistance exercise session with different rest intervals between sets. The results of the current study indicate that during a resistance exercise session, if sufficient time is available, resting 3 minutes between sets and

  1. Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ming; Lin, Che-Li; Wei, Li; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Chen, Kuan-Neng; Huang, Chi-Chang; Kao, Chin-Hsung

    2016-02-20

    Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public's attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET) program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-rich sake protein (SP) to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group) for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP) weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and uric acid (UA) were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training.

  2. Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public’s attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. Purpose: In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA-rich sake protein (SP to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Methods: Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC, and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP. Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. Results: four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatinine, and uric acid (UA were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. Conclusion: The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training.

  3. Cardioprotective Properties of Aerobic and Resistance Training Against Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, C A; Souza, G I H; Oliveira, J C M F; Silva, L M; Mostarda, C T; Dourado, P M M; Oyama, L M; Lira, F S; Irigoyen, M C; Rodrigues, B

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise training on ventricular morphometry and function, physical capacity, autonomic function, as well as on ventricular inflammatory status in trained rats prior to myocardial infarction. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: sedentary+Sham, sedentary+myocardial infarction, aerobic trained+myocardial infarction, and resistance trained+myocardial infarction. Sham and myocardial infarction were performed after training periods. In the days following the surgeries, evaluations were performed. Aerobic training prevents aerobic (to a greater extent) and resistance capacity impairments, ventricular dysfunction, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic disorders (vagal tonus decrease and sympathetic tonus increase) triggered by myocardial infarction. Resistance training was able to prevent negative changes to aerobic and resistance capacity (to a greater extent) but not to ventricular dysfunction, and it prevented cardiovascular sympathetic increments. Additionally, both types of training reduced left ventricle inflammatory cytokine concentration. Our results suggest that aerobic and, for the first time, dynamic resistance training were able to reduce sympathetic tonus to the heart and vessels, as well as preventing the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the left ventricle of trained groups. These data emphasizes the positive effects of aerobic and dynamic resistance training on the prevention of the negative changes triggered by myocardial infarction. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Changes in muscle size and MHC composition in response to resistance exercise with heavy and light loading intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, L.; Reitelseder, S.; Pedersen, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle mass accretion is accomplished by heavy-load resistance training. The effect of light-load resistance exercise has been far more sparsely investigated with regard to potential effect on muscle size and contractile strength. We applied a resistance exercise protocol in which the same indivi...

  5. Animal models of resistance exercise and their application to neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Justin C; Smith, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that participation in regular resistance exercise (e.g., strength training) is associated with improvements in mental health, memory, and cognition. However, less is known about the neurobiological mechanisms mediating these effects. The goal of this mini-review is to describe and evaluate the available animal models of resistance exercise that may prove useful for examining CNS activity. Various models have been developed to examine resistance exercise in laboratory animals. Resistance exercise models vary in how the resistance manipulation is applied, either through direct stimulation of the muscle (e.g., in situ models) or through behavior maintained by operant contingencies (e.g., whole organism models). Each model presents distinct advantages and disadvantages for examining central nervous system (CNS) activity, and consideration of these attributes is essential for the future investigation of underlying neurobiological substrates. Potential neurobiological mechanisms mediating the effects of resistance exercise on pain, anxiety, memory, and drug use have been efficiently and effectively investigated using resistance exercise models that minimize stress and maximize the relative contribution of resistance over aerobic factors. Whole organism resistance exercise models that (1) limit the use of potentially stressful stimuli and (2) minimize the contribution of aerobic factors will be critical for examining resistance exercise and CNS function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Force and power characteristics of a resistive exercise device for use in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Hans E.; Tesch, Per A.

    We have developed a non-gravity dependent mechanical device, which provides resistance during coupled concentric and eccentric muscle actions, through the inertia of a spinning fly-wheel (Fly-Wheel Ergometry; FWE). Our research shows that lower-limb FWE exercise can produce forces and thus muscular stress comparable to what is typical of advanced resistance training using free weights. FWE also offers greater training stimuli during eccentric relative to concentric muscle actions, as evidenced by force and electromyographic (EMG) measurements. Muscle use of specific muscle groups, as assessed by the exercise-induced contrast shift of magnetic resonance images, is similar during lower-limb FWE and the barbell squat. Unlike free-weight exercise, FWE allows for maximal voluntary effort in each repetition of an exercise bout. Likewise, FWE exercise, not unassisted free-weight exercise, produces eccentric "overload". Collectively, the inherent features of this resistive exercise device and the results of the physiological evaluations we have performed, suggest that resistance exercise using FWE could be used as an effective exercise counter-measure in space. The flywheel principle can be employed to any exercise configuration and designed into a compact device allowing for exercises stressing those muscles and bone structures, which are thought to be most affected by long-duration spaceflight.

  7. Interpreting Adaptation to Concurrent Compared with Single-Mode Exercise Training: Some Methodological Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2018-02-01

    Incorporating both endurance and resistance training into an exercise regime is termed concurrent training. While there is evidence that concurrent training can attenuate resistance training-induced improvements in maximal strength and muscle hypertrophy, research findings are often equivocal, with some suggesting short-term concurrent training may instead further enhance muscle hypertrophy versus resistance training alone. These observations have questioned the validity of the purported 'interference effect' on muscle hypertrophy with concurrent versus single-mode resistance training. This article aims to highlight some methodological considerations when interpreting the concurrent training literature, and, in particular, the degree of changes in strength and muscle hypertrophy observed with concurrent versus single-mode resistance training. Individual training status clearly influences the relative magnitude and specificity of both training adaptation and post-exercise molecular responses in skeletal muscle. The training status of participants is therefore likely a key modulator of the degree of adaptation and interference seen with concurrent training interventions. The divergent magnitudes of strength gain versus muscle hypertrophy induced by resistance training also suggests most concurrent training studies are likely to observe more substantial changes in (and in turn, any potential interference to) strength compared with muscle hypertrophy. Both the specificity and sensitivity of measures used to assess training-induced changes in strength and muscle hypertrophy also likely influence the interpretation of concurrent training outcomes. Finally, the relative importance of any modulation of hypertrophic versus strength adaptation with concurrent training should be considered in context with the relevance of training-induced changes in these variables for enhancing athletic performance and/or functional capacity. Taken together, these observations suggest that

  8. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption is unaffected by the resistance and aerobic exercise order in an exercise session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Norton L; Oliveira, Jose

    2011-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare the magnitude and duration of excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after 2 exercise sessions with different exercise mode orders, resistance followed by aerobic exercise (R-A); aerobic by resistance exercise (A-R). Seven young men (19.6 ± 1.4 years) randomly underwent the 2 sessions. Aerobic exercise was performed on a treadmill for 30 minutes (80-85% of reserve heart rate). Resistance exercise consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum on 5 exercises. Previous to the exercise sessions, V(O2), heart rate, V(CO2), and respiratory exchange rate (RER) were measured for 15 minutes and again during recovery from exercise for 60 minutes. The EPOC magnitude was not significantly different between R-A (5.17 ± 2.26 L) and A-R (5.23 ± 2.48 L). Throughout the recovery period (60 minutes), V(O2) and HR values were significantly higher than those observed in the pre-exercise period (p better to start a training session.

  9. Concurrent training and caffeine supplementation on resistance training performance - A short research report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Ugatti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the influence of caffeine supplementation (4.5 mg⋅kg−1 on lower body resistance training (RT performance preceded with and without an acute bout of endurance exercise. In a double-blinded crossover study, 10 moderately active males (20.6±2.1 yo carried out six exercise sessions (2 x 1RM sessions; 2 x resistance sessions; 2 concurrent sessions. Resistance exercise sessions (CAF+RES and PLA+RES were carried out with 4 maximum sets of leg press, leg extension and leg curl to volitional fatigue at 65% of 1RM for each exercise with 1 min inter-set and inter-session rest interval. Sessions consisted on 4 maximum sets to volitional fatigue at 65% of 1RM for each exercise with 1 min of rest interval between sets and exercises. Concurrent training sessions (CAF+CON and PLA+CON were identical but were preceded by 30 min of continuous treadmill running at 75-85% HRmax. Physical performance showed a significant main effect for treatment (p < 0.0001, protocol (p < 0.02, exercises (p < 0.0001 and sets (p < 0.0001. Physical performance during RES was reduced after endurance exercise, indicating a cumulative effect of CON. Caffeine supplementation blunted this cumulative effect. We conclude that caffeine supplementation could be used to improve the RT performance when it is done immediately after an aerobic training.

  10. Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) Method and System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) method of the present invention is a combined application of physiologic and perceptual training techniques. such as autogenic therapy and biofeedback. This combined therapy approach produces a methodology that is appreciably more effective than either of the individual techniques used separately. The AFTE method enables sufficient magnitude of control necessary to significantly reduce the behavioral and physiologic reactions to severe environmental stressors. It produces learned effects that are persistent over time and are resistant to extinction and it can be administered in a short period of time. The AFTE method may be used efficiently in several applications, among which are the following: to improve pilot and crew performance during emergency flying conditions; to train people to prevent the occurrence of nausea and vomiting associated with motion and sea sickness, or morning sickness in early pregnancy; as a training method for preventing or counteracting air-sickness symptoms in high-performance military aircraft; for use as a method for cardiovascular training, as well as for multiple other autonomic responses, which may contribute to the alleviation of Space Motion Sickness (SMS) in astronauts and cosmonauts; training people suffering from migraine or tension headaches to control peripheral blood flow and reduce forehead and/or trapezius muscle tension; training elderly people suffering from fecal incontinence to control their sphincter muscles; training cancer patients to reduce the nauseagenic effects of chemotherapy; and training patients with Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction (CIP).

  11. Effects of exercise training with blood flow restriction on blood pressure in medicated hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Cezar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of non-pharmacological approaches to hypertension (HA is critical for both prevention and treatment. This study examined the hemodynamic and biochemical responses of medicated hypertensive women to resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (vascular occlusion. Twenty-three women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: High intensity strength training (n = 8; low-intensity resistance exercise with occlusion (n = 8; and control (n = 7. The first two groups underwent eight weeks of training performed twice a week, including three series of wrist flexion exercises with or without vascular occlusion. The exercised with occlusion group showed pre- to post-test reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and double product, whereas the other groups showed no significant hemodynamic changes. In conclusion, resistance exercise during 8 weeks was effective in lowering blood pressure in medicated hypertensive subjects.

  12. Perioperative exercise training in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, S; West, M; Grocott, M P W

    2011-09-01

    The association between physical fitness and outcome following major surgery is well described - less fit patients having a higher incidence of perioperative morbidity and mortality. This has led to the idea of physical training (exercise training) as a perioperative intervention with the aim of improving postoperative outcome. Studies have started to explore both preoperative training (prehabilitation) and postoperative training (rehabilitation). We have reviewed the current literature regarding the use of prehabilitation and rehabilitation in relation to major surgery in elderly patients. We have focussed particularly on randomised controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses. There is currently a paucity of high-quality clinical trials in this area, and the evidence base in elderly patients is particularly limited. The review indicated that prehabilitation can improve objectively measured fitness in the short time available prior to major surgery. Furthermore, for several general surgical procedures, prehabilitation using inspiratory muscle training may reduce the risk of some specific complications (e.g., pulmonary complications and predominately atelectasis), but it is unclear whether this translates into an improvement in overall surgical outcome. There is clear evidence that rehabilitation is of benefit to patients following cancer diagnoses, in terms of physical activity, fatigue and health-related quality of life. However, it is uncertain whether this improved physical function translates into increased survival and delayed disease recurrence. Prehabilitation using continuous or interval training has been shown to improve fitness but the impact on surgical outcomes remains ill defined. Taken together, these findings are encouraging and support the notion that pre- and postoperative exercise training may be of benefit to patients. There is an urgent need for adequately powered randomised control studies addressing appropriate clinical outcomes in

  13. Exercise, training and red blood cell turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J A

    1995-01-01

    Endurance training can lead to what has been termed 'sports anaemia'. Although under normal conditions, red blood cells (RBCs) have a lifespan of about 120 days, the rate of aging may increase during intensive training. However, RBC deficiency is rare in athletes, and sports anaemia is probably due to an expanded plasma volume. Cycling, running and swimming have been shown to cause RBC damage. While most investigators measure indices of haemolysis (for example, plasma haemoglobin or haptoglobin), RBC removal is normally an extravascular process that does not involve haemolysis. Attention is now turning to cellular indices (such as antioxidant depletion, or protein or lipid damage) that may be more indicative of exercise-induced damage. RBCs are vulnerable to oxidative damage because of their continuous exposure to oxygen and their high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids and haem iron. As oxidative stress may be proportional to oxygen uptake, it is not surprising that antioxidants in muscle, liver and RBCs can be depleted during exercise. Oxidative damage to RBCs can also perturb ionic homeostasis and facilitate cellular dehydration. These changes impair RBC deformability which can, in turn, impede the passage of RBCs through the microcirculation. This may lead to hypoxia in working muscle during single episodes of exercise and possibly an increased rate of RBC destruction with long term exercise. Providing RBC destruction does not exceed the rate of RBC production, no detrimental effect to athletic performance should occur. An increased rate of RBC turnover may be advantageous because young cells are more efficient in transporting oxygen. Because most techniques examine the RBC population as a whole, more sophisticated methods which analyse cells individually are required to determine the mechanisms involved in exercise-induced damage of RBCs.

  14. Cardiovascular responses of peripheral artery disease patients during resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patrícia Ferreira Gomes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resistance training has been used for the treatment of patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD. However, cardiovascular responses during this type of exercise have not been fully elucidated in these patients. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the cardiovascular responses during resistance exercise and to verify whether there are any correlations between these responses and disease severity or blood pressure levels in patients with PAD. METHODS: Seventeen PAD patients performed one set of 10 repetitions of knee extension exercise with an intensity of 50% of one repetition maximum. The responses of systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and heart rate (HR were continuously monitored using the finger photoplethysmography technique. The rate-pressure product (RPP was obtained by multiplication of SBP and HR. RESULTS: During the resistance exercises there were significant increases in SBP (126 ± 14 vs. 184 ± 20 mmHg, p<0.001, DBP (68 ± 8 vs. 104 ± 14 mmHg, p<0.001, HR (76 ± 18 vs. 104 ± 30 bpm, p<0.001 and RPP (9523 ± 2115 vs. 19103 ± 6098 mmHg x bpm, p<0.001. A negative correlation was observed between relative change (Δ in SBP and SBP at rest (r =-0.549, p=0.022. On the other hand, there was no relationship between Δ SBP and the ankle-brachial index (r=0.076, p=0.771. CONCLUSION: Increases in cardiovascular variables were observed during resistance exercise in PAD patients. The highest increases occurred in patients with lower SBP levels at resting.

  15. Does Regular Exercise without Weight Loss Reduce Insulin Resistance in Children and Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YoonMyung Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable efforts to tackle childhood obesity, it is recognized as one of the biggest health problems globally. Childhood obesity is a leading cause of many comorbid conditions such as metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance as well as type 2 diabetes. A strong body of evidence suggests that regular exercise without calorie restriction or weight loss is associated with reduced insulin resistance as well as improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese adults. However, despite the well-known benefits associated with regular exercise alone, the independent role of exercise training without calorie restriction on insulin resistance is still uncertain in youth. Some studies observed that both the aerobic and resistance type of exercise training without calorie restriction resulted in meaningful changes in insulin sensitivity, suggesting that exercise alone is an effective therapeutic strategy for reducing insulin resistance in overweight and obese youth. However, only few studies are available on the optimal dose of exercise training without calorie restriction or preferred exercise modality for reducing insulin resistance, which warrants further investigations in the pediatric population.

  16. Implications of resistance exercise practice to flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Eri Shiromoto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the degrees of flexibility in resistance exercise practitioners before and after a period of six months and verify the relationship between the data and the individuals’ life style. A descriptive method was used for a sample of 46 individuals from Action Academia de Maringá – Pr. The data were collected in Sptember / 2000 and March / 2001 through their frequency and evaluation files and also a goniometer to check the ischia extention. Through the ‘t’ test a significant increase in both male and female flexibility was observed. The style of life and profession may interfere in a negative way although the regular and simultaneous practice of resistance and stretching exercises seem to be a predominant factor in developing flexibility and in physical aptitude favourable degrees for health and life quality.

  17. Anabolic responses to acute and chronic resistance exercise are enhanced when combined with aquatic treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Brad S; Shimkus, Kevin L; Fluckey, James D; Riechman, Steven E; Greene, Nicholas P; Cardin, Jessica M; Crouse, Stephen F

    2015-02-01

    Aquatic treadmill (ATM) running may simultaneously promote aerobic fitness and enhance muscle growth when combined with resistance training (RT) compared with land-treadmill (LTM) running. Therefore, we examined acute and chronic physiological responses to RT, concurrent RT-LTM, and concurrent RT-ATM. Forty-seven untrained volunteers (men: n = 23, 37 ± 11 yr, 29.6 ± 4.6 kg/m(2); women: n = 24, 38 ± 12 yr, 27.53 ± 6.4 kg/m(2)) from the general population were tested for V̇o2max, body composition, and strength before and after training. All groups performed 12 wk of RT (2 wk, 3 × 8-12 sets at 60 to approximately 80% 1-repetition maximum). The RT-LTM and RT-ATM groups also performed 12 wk of LTM or ATM training (2 wk immediately post-RT and 1 wk in isolation, 60-85% V̇o2max, 250-500 kcal/session). Additionally, 25 subjects volunteered for muscle biopsy prior to and 24 h post-acute exercise before and after training. Stable isotope labeling (70% (2)H2O, 3 ml/kg) was utilized to quantify 24 h post-exercise myofibrillar fractional synthesis rates (myoFSR). Mixed-model ANOVA revealed that RT-ATM but not RT-LTM training produced greater chronic increases in lean mass than RT alone (P exercise elicited higher 24-h myoFSRs compared with RT (+5.68%/day, P exercise and training elicit greater skeletal muscle anabolism than RT alone or RT-LTM. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Exercise training and inspiratory muscle training in patients with bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newall, C; Stockley, R A; Hill, S L

    2005-11-01

    Bronchiectasis is a chronic suppurative lung disease often characterised by airflow obstruction and hyperinflation, and leading to decreased exercise tolerance and reduced health status. The role of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has not been investigated in this group of patients. Thirty two patients with idiopathic bronchiectasis were randomly allocated to one of three groups: PR plus sham IMT (PR-SHAM), PR plus targeted IMT (PR-IMT), or control. All patients (except the control group) underwent an 8 week training programme of either PR or PR plus targeted IMT. Exercise training during PR was performed three times weekly at 80% of the peak heart rate. IMT was performed at home for 15 minutes twice daily over the 8 week period. PR-SHAM and PR-IMT resulted in significant increases in the incremental shuttle walking test of 96.7 metres (95% confidence interval (CI) 59.6 to 133.7) and 124.5 metres (95% CI 63.2 to 185.9), respectively, and in endurance exercise capacity of 174.9% (95% CI 34.7 to 426.1) and 205.7% (95% CI 31.6 to 310.6). There were no statistically significant differences in the improvements in exercise between the two groups. Significant improvements in inspiratory muscle strength were also observed both in the PR-IMT group (21.4 cm H2O increase, 95% CI 9.3 to 33.4; p = 0.008) and the PR-SHAM group (12.0 cm H2O increase, 95% CI 1.1 to 22.9; p = 0.04), the magnitude of which were also similar (p = 0.220). Improvements in exercise capacity were maintained in the PR-IMT group 3 months after training, but not in the PR-SHAM group. PR is effective in improving exercise tolerance in bronchiectasis but there is no additional advantage of simultaneous IMT. IMT may, however, be important in the longevity of the training effects.

  19. Resistive Exercise for Arthritic Cartilage Health (REACH: A randomized double-blind, sham-exercise controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Richard M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article provides the rationale and methodology, of the first randomised controlled trial to our knowledge designed to assess the efficacy of progressive resistance training on cartilage morphology in women with knee osteoarthritis. Development and progression of osteoarthritis is multifactorial, with obesity, quadriceps weakness, joint malalignment, and abnormal mechanical joint forces particularly relevant to this study. Progressive resistance training has been reported to improve pain and disability in osteoarthritic cohorts. However, the disease-modifying potential of progressive resistance training for the articular cartilage degeneration characteristic of osteoarthritis is unknown. Our aim was to investigate the effect of high intensity progressive resistance training on articular cartilage degeneration in women with knee osteoarthritis. Methods Our cohort consisted of women over 40 years of age with primary knee osteoarthritis, according to the American College of Rheumatology clinical criteria. Primary outcome was blinded measurement of cartilage morphology via magnetic resonance imaging scan of the tibiofemoral joint. Secondary outcomes included walking endurance, balance, muscle strength, endurance, power, and velocity, body composition, pain, disability, depressive symptoms, and quality of life. Participants were randomized into a supervised progressive resistance training or sham-exercise group. The progressive resistance training group trained muscles around the hip and knee at 80% of their peak strength and progressed 3% per session, 3 days per week for 6 months. The sham-exercise group completed all exercises except hip adduction, but without added resistance or progression. Outcomes were repeated at 3 and 6 months, except for the magnetic resonance imaging scan, which was only repeated at 6 months. Discussion Our results will provide an evaluation of the disease-modifying potential of progressive

  20. Human Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells in Adaptations to Exercise; Effects of Resistance Exercise Contraction Mode and Protein Supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farup, Jean

    2014-01-01

    . In conclusion, protein supplementation may accelerate SC proliferation as part of regeneration or remodeling processes after maximal eccentric exercise. Paper II. Whey protein hydrolysate augments tendon and muscle hypertrophy independent of exercise contraction mode. The aim of paper II was to investigate...... the effect of contraction mode specific resistance training and protein supplementation on whole muscle and tendon hypertrophy. Quadriceps muscle and patellar tendon cross-sectional area (CSA) was quantified using magnetic resonance imaging pre and post 12 weeks of eccentric (Ecc) or concentric (Conc...... compared to Placebo. Exercise contraction mode did not influence muscle or tendon hypertrophy. In conclusion, hydrolysed whey protein may augment both muscle and tendon hypertrophy independently of exercise contraction mode during training. Paper III. Influence of exercise contraction mode and protein...

  1. GH administration changes myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle but does not augment muscle strength or hypertrophy, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Beyer, Nina

    2002-01-01

    GH administration, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training (RT), has attracted interest as a means of increasing muscle mass and strength in the elderly. In the present study, 31 healthy, elderly men [age, 74 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SEM)] were assigned to either RT [3 sessions/wk, 3......-5 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM)/session] + placebo (n = 8), RT + GH (n = 8), GH (n = 8), or placebo (n = 7) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded (RT + placebo and RT + GH) or single-blinded (GH or placebo) design. Measurements of: 1) isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength; 2......) quadriceps muscle power; 3) quadriceps muscle fiber type, size, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition; 4) quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) [nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI)]; 5) body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning); and 6) GH-related serum markers were performed...

  2. GH administration changes myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle but does not augment muscle strength or hypertrophy, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Beyer, Nina

    2002-01-01

    alone, and this may be regarded as a change into a more youthful MHC composition, possibly induced by the rejuvenating of systemic IGF-I levels. RT + placebo caused substantial increases in quadriceps isokinetic strength, power, and CSA; but these RT induced improvements were not further augmented......GH administration, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training (RT), has attracted interest as a means of increasing muscle mass and strength in the elderly. In the present study, 31 healthy, elderly men [age, 74 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SEM)] were assigned to either RT [3 sessions/wk, 3...... by additional GH administration. In the RT + GH group, there was a significant decrease in MHC 1 and 2X isoforms, whereas MHC 2A increased. RT, therefore, seems to overrule the changes in MHC composition induced by GH administration alone. Changes in body composition confirmed previous reports of decreased fat...

  3. Sleep quality, sleep duration and physical activity in obese adolescents: effects of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, M; Borowik, A; Michallet, A-S; Perrin, C; Monneret, D; Faure, P; Levy, P; Pépin, J-L; Wuyam, B; Flore, P

    2016-02-01

    Decreased sleep duration and altered sleep quality are risk factors for obesity in youth. Structured exercise training has been shown to increase sleep duration and improve sleep quality. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of exercise training for improving sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity in obese adolescents (OB). Twenty OB (age: 14.5 ± 1.5 years; body mass index: 34.0 ± 4.7 kg m(-2) ) and 20 healthy-weight adolescents (HW) completed an overnight polysomnography and wore an accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia) for 7 days. OB participated in a 12-week supervised exercise-training programme consisting of 180 min of exercise weekly. Exercise training was a combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training. Sleep duration was greater in HW compared with OB (P exercise training, obese adolescents increased their sleep duration (+64.4 min; effect size: 0.88; P = 0.025) and sleep efficiency (+7.6%; effect size: 0.76; P = 0.028). Physical activity levels were increased in OB as evidenced by increased steps per day and average daily METs (P sleep duration was associated with improved average daily METs (r = 0.48, P = 0.04). The present study confirms altered sleep duration and quality in OB. Exercise training improves sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity. © 2015 World Obesity.

  4. Resistance exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis: Need for immediate intervention and proper counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Maysaa A; Saab, Basem R

    2016-12-01

    Rhabdomyolysis results from damage to skeletal muscle. Improper resistance training may result in rhabdomyolysis, which can cause acute kidney injury, serious metabolic abnormalities, compartmental syndrome and even death. Proper counselling for athletes may prevent this condition. We present two patients with unilateral swelling after resistance exercise. The workup revealed rhabdomyolysis. We highlight the importance of counselling to prevent rhabdomyolysis secondary to resistance exercise. Trainers and primary care physicians need to be educated about the main features of rhabdomyolysis and urgently refer trainees suspected of having this condition. Treatment consists mainly of hydration and correction of metabolic abnormalities. Primary care physicians need to counsel patients on ways to prevent rhabdomyolysis. Trainers and primary care physicians should instruct novice trainees who are performing resistance exercise to start low and gradually increase the load. Training with loads of 60-70% of one repetition maximum for 8-12 repetitions and use of one to three sets per exercise is recommended.

  5. Strength exercise and training in postprandial lipaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Correa, C; Rebolledo Cobos, R C; Reischak-Oliveira, Á

    2015-09-01

    The development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been associated to alterations on lipid profile as well found during postprandial period, phenomenon known as postprandial lipaemia (PL). Physical exercise is currently the major non-pharmacological intervention used to prevention and reduction of risk factors to developing of CVD. For this reason, there is growing interest under the effects of physical exercise, especially strength training, on regulation and balance of lipid metabolism, particularly of risk groups such as post-menopausal women that have more prone to CVD than men and lose much of the cardioprotective effect of estradiol during and after menopause period. In this review, we seek to compare the results of articles that addressed the beneficial effects of strength training on PL. We used articles selected in databases PubMed, Scopus and EBSCO dating from the year 1975-2012, with many quotes from leading researchers in subject and published in international journals. All studies were obtained to report at least three variables of interest. The authors of this review concluded that strength training proves to be effective in reducing PL concentrations by inducing an improvement of basal energy demand, can be seen as an important strategy to treatment of chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis.

  6. An Experimental Model for Resistance Exercise in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Nicastro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an equipment and system of resistance exercise (RE, based on squat-type exercise for rodents, with control of training variables. We developed an operant conditioning system composed of sound, light and feeding devices that allowed optimized RE performance by the animal. With this system, it is not necessary to impose fasting or electric shock for the animal to perform the task proposed (muscle contraction. Furthermore, it is possible to perform muscle function tests in vivo within the context of the exercise proposed and control variables such as intensity, volume (sets and repetitions, and exercise session length, rest interval between sets and repetitions, and concentric strength. Based on the experiments conducted, we demonstrated that the model proposed is able to perform more specific control of other RE variables, especially rest interval between sets and repetitions, and encourages the animal to exercise through short-term energy restriction and “disturbing” stimulus that do not promote alterations in body weight. Therefore, despite experimental limitations, we believe that this RE apparatus is closer to the physiological context observed in humans.

  7. Inadequate sleep and muscle strength: Implications for resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Olivia E; Drinkwater, Eric J; Urwin, Charles S; Lamon, Séverine; Aisbett, Brad

    2018-02-02

    Inadequate sleep (e.g., an insufficient duration of sleep per night) can reduce physical performance and has been linked to adverse metabolic health outcomes. Resistance exercise is an effective means to maintain and improve physical capacity and metabolic health, however, the outcomes for populations who may perform resistance exercise during periods of inadequate sleep are unknown. The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation (i.e. no sleep) and sleep restriction (i.e. a reduced sleep duration) on resistance exercise performance. A secondary aim was to explore the effects on hormonal indicators or markers of muscle protein metabolism. A systematic search of five electronic databases was conducted with terms related to three combined concepts: inadequate sleep; resistance exercise; performance and physiological outcomes. Study quality and biases were assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project quality assessment tool. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria and were rated as 'moderate' or 'weak' for global quality. Sleep deprivation had little effect on muscle strength during resistance exercise. In contrast, consecutive nights of sleep restriction could reduce the force output of multi-joint, but not single-joint movements. Results were conflicting regarding hormonal responses to resistance training. Inadequate sleep impairs maximal muscle strength in compound movements when performed without specific interventions designed to increase motivation. Strategies to assist groups facing inadequate sleep to effectively perform resistance training may include supplementing their motivation by training in groups or ingesting caffeine; or training prior to prolonged periods of wakefulness. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Acute effect of resistance, aerobic and combined exercise circuits on blood pressure of hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Carpio Rivera

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Carpio-Rivera, E. y Solera-Herrera, A. (2012. Acute effect of resistance, aerobic and combined exercise circuits on blood pressure of hypertensive women. Pensar en Movimiento: Revista de Ciencias del Ejercicio y la Salud, 10 (2, 1-12. The purpose of this study was to observe the acute effect of different exercises executed in circuit on the resting blood pressure of hypertensive women. Nine trained persons (aged 53.22 ± 4.67 years, hypertensive but medicated with enalapril, participated in four training treatments, each carried out on different days under a randomized repeated measures design: (1 A: aerobic training condition (steps training; (2 R: resistance training condition (machine training (3 AR: aerobic and resistance training condition (alternating aerobic and resistance training every 30 seconds (4 C: control condition (30 minutes resting. Exercise conditions were performed during 30 minutes at 70% of maximum heart rate and resting blood pressure was measured 5 minutes before and immediately after each condition. A two-way analysis of variance detected a significant interaction between conditions and measurements (p<0.05 on systolic blood pressure (sBP. Tukey Post-hoc analyses showed a significant increase of sBP following the three exercise conditions (A: +19 mmHg; R: +28 mmHg; AR: +22 mmHg, while the sBP remained unchanged during the control condition. In contrast, there was no significant effect of any type of exercise on diastolic blood pressure (dBP. In conclusion, the acute elevation in sBP following this type of resistance exercise was similar to the increase produced by aerobic exercise.

  9. Effectiveness of resistance training or jumping-exercise to increase bone mineral density in men with low bone mass: a 12-month randomized, clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Pamela S.; Nigh, Peggy; Thyfault, John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effects of 12 mo of resistance training (RT, 2x/wk, N= 19) or jump training (JUMP, 3x/wk, N= 19) on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTM) in physically active (≥4 hr/wk) men (mean age: 44 ± 2 y; median: 44 y) with osteopenia of the hip or spine. Methods Participants rated pain and fatigue following each RT or JUMP session. All participants received supplemental calcium (1200 mg/d) and vitamin D (10 μg/d). BMD was measured at 0, 6, and 12 mo using DXA scans of the whole body (WB), total hip (TH) and lumbar spine (LS). BTM and 25 OHD were measured by ELISA. The effects of RT or JUMP on BMD and BTM were evaluated using 3×2 repeated measures ANOVA (time, group). This study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the University of Missouri IRB. Results At baseline, 36 of 38 participants were vitamin D sufficient (25OHD>50 nmol/L); at 12 mo, all participants were 25OHD sufficient. 25OHD did not differ between groups. WB and LS BMD significantly increased after 6 months of RT or JUMP and this increase was maintained at 12 mo; TH BMD increased only in RT. Osteocalcin increased significantly after 12 mo of RT or JUMP; CTx decreased significantly after 6 mo and returned to baseline concentrations at 12 mo in both RT and JUMP. Pain and fatigue ratings after RT or JUMP sessions were very low at 0, 6, and 12 mo. Conclusion RT or JUMP, which appeared safe and feasible, increased BMD of the whole body and lumbar spine, while RT also increased hip BMD, in moderately active, osteopenic men. PMID:26092649

  10. Effects of hydraulic-resistance exercise on strength and power in untrained healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, SungChul; Islam, Mohammod M; Rogers, Michael E; Kusunoki, Masanobu; Okada, Akiyoshi; Takeshima, Nobuo

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of hydraulic-resistance exercise (HDRE) in improving strength and power in healthy older adults. Thirty-nine older adults (68.6 ± 4.9 years; 15 men, 24 women) were divided into a training group or control group (CON). Hydraulic-resistance exercise consisted of a 12-week supervised program, 50 min · d(-1), 3 d · wk(-1). Hydraulic-resistance exercise was used for 10 exercises: Chest press and pull, shoulder press and pull, low back flexion and extension squat, leg adduction/abduction, leg press, and elbow extension/flexion. The number of the sets and the hydraulic-resistance dial setting (D) were gradually increased in 3 stages during the 12-week program. Strength, rating of perceived exertion, and relative intensity during exercise increased significantly from stage to stage whereas repetition velocity decreased. Total work was higher in the second stage compared with the first but lower in the final stage because of reduced repetitions. Peak torque at D2 and D11 increased (p power at D2 and D11 also increased (p Hydraulic-resistance exercise elicits significant improvements in strength and power in older adults. Therefore, HDRE is an effective form of resistance training that provides benefits using low and moderate intensity of training for older adults.

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from your ribs across your waist and helps ... repetitions at a slow and controlled pace... Resistance Training Resistance training is exercise done against something providing ...

  12. Pre-Sleep Protein Ingestion to Improve the Skeletal Muscle Adaptive Response to Exercise Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommelen, Jorn; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-11-28

    Protein ingestion following resistance-type exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates, and enhances the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training. As the adaptive response to a single bout of resistance exercise extends well beyond the first couple of hours of post-exercise recovery, recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of the timing and distribution of protein ingestion during more prolonged recovery periods. Recent work has shown that overnight muscle protein synthesis rates are restricted by the level of amino acid availability. Protein ingested prior to sleep is effectively digested and absorbed, and thereby stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates during overnight recovery. When applied during a prolonged period of resistance-type exercise training, protein supplementation prior to sleep can further augment gains in muscle mass and strength. Recent studies investigating the impact of pre-sleep protein ingestion suggest that at least 40 g of protein is required to display a robust increase in muscle protein synthesis rates throughout overnight sleep. Furthermore, prior exercise allows more of the pre-sleep protein-derived amino acids to be utilized for de novo muscle protein synthesis during sleep. In short, pre-sleep protein ingestion represents an effective dietary strategy to improve overnight muscle protein synthesis, thereby improving the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training.

  13. Pre-Sleep Protein Ingestion to Improve the Skeletal Muscle Adaptive Response to Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommelen, Jorn; van Loon, Luc J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Protein ingestion following resistance-type exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates, and enhances the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training. As the adaptive response to a single bout of resistance exercise extends well beyond the first couple of hours of post-exercise recovery, recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of the timing and distribution of protein ingestion during more prolonged recovery periods. Recent work has shown that overnight muscle protein synthesis rates are restricted by the level of amino acid availability. Protein ingested prior to sleep is effectively digested and absorbed, and thereby stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates during overnight recovery. When applied during a prolonged period of resistance-type exercise training, protein supplementation prior to sleep can further augment gains in muscle mass and strength. Recent studies investigating the impact of pre-sleep protein ingestion suggest that at least 40 g of protein is required to display a robust increase in muscle protein synthesis rates throughout overnight sleep. Furthermore, prior exercise allows more of the pre-sleep protein-derived amino acids to be utilized for de novo muscle protein synthesis during sleep. In short, pre-sleep protein ingestion represents an effective dietary strategy to improve overnight muscle protein synthesis, thereby improving the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. PMID:27916799

  14. Pre-Sleep Protein Ingestion to Improve the Skeletal Muscle Adaptive Response to Exercise Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorn Trommelen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Protein ingestion following resistance-type exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates, and enhances the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training. As the adaptive response to a single bout of resistance exercise extends well beyond the first couple of hours of post-exercise recovery, recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of the timing and distribution of protein ingestion during more prolonged recovery periods. Recent work has shown that overnight muscle protein synthesis rates are restricted by the level of amino acid availability. Protein ingested prior to sleep is effectively digested and absorbed, and thereby stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates during overnight recovery. When applied during a prolonged period of resistance-type exercise training, protein supplementation prior to sleep can further augment gains in muscle mass and strength. Recent studies investigating the impact of pre-sleep protein ingestion suggest that at least 40 g of protein is required to display a robust increase in muscle protein synthesis rates throughout overnight sleep. Furthermore, prior exercise allows more of the pre-sleep protein-derived amino acids to be utilized for de novo muscle protein synthesis during sleep. In short, pre-sleep protein ingestion represents an effective dietary strategy to improve overnight muscle protein synthesis, thereby improving the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training.

  15. Effects of aquatic backward locomotion exercise and progressive resistance exercise on lumbar extension strength in patients who have undergone lumbar diskectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You-Sin; Park, Jaebum; Shim, Jae Kun

    2010-02-01

    To compare the effects of aquatic backward locomotion exercise and progressive resistance exercise with a machine on lumbar extension strength in patients who have undergone diskectomy for a lumbar disk herniation. Prospective comparative study. Department of Kinesiology at a state university. Male patients (N=30) with disk herniation at spinal levels L3 to S1 completed this study as subjects. After the diskectomy for a lumbar disk herniation, all patients had 6 weeks of rest time. At the end of the rest period, the aquatic backward locomotion exercise and progressive resistance exercise groups, respectively, started first 6 weeks of underwater training and lumbar extension training twice per week. After completion of the first 6-week training, subjects participated in a second 6-week training. After the whole 12-week training, subjects had no training for 6 weeks (detraining) and a follow-up 6-week training (retraining). The control (CON) group did not undergo any training. For each test, maximum voluntary isometric lumbar extension strength was measured in 7 trunk positions (72 degrees , 60 degrees , 48 degrees , 36 degrees , 24 degrees , 12 degrees , and 0 degrees of the trunk angle). The progressive resistance exercise and aquatic backward locomotion exercise groups showed increases in lumbar extension strength after the first 6-week training, although they were not statistically different from the CON group. After a second 6-week training, the progressive resistance exercise and aquatic backward locomotion exercise groups showed statistically significant increases in their strength levels as compared with the CON group. After the detraining period, the strength levels of the progressive resistance exercise and aquatic backward locomotion exercise groups did not statistically differ from the CON group. After the retraining period, the progressive resistance exercise and aquatic backward locomotion exercise groups showed increases in their strength levels, which

  16. The interactions between hemostasis and resistance training: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Neto, Frederico Ribeiro; de Santana, Frederico Santos; da Silva, Renato André Sousa; dos Santos-Neto, Leopoldo; Balsamo, Sandor

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is strongly associated with changes in arterial structure. Regular physical activity and exercise contributes to the prevention of coronary artery disease. Therefore, cardiovascular and resistance training improve hemostatic parameters and promote a less thrombotic blood profile. This review highlights the studies, mechanisms, and outcomes relating to the effectiveness of resistance training on the process of hemostasis. The Pubmed, Scopus, Medline, Scielo, Lilacs, Ibecs, and Cochrane databases were used to locate the original articles. Seventeen studies were found during the research process. Of these, ten articles were excluded. Those protocols using a high volume of training for young adults showed a greater fibrinolytic response, and training protocols with intensities above 80% of 1 maximum repetition showed an increased platelet activity. In subjects with coronary artery disease, just one session of resistance training resulted in improvement in the fibrinolytic system (tissue plasminogen activator) without raising potential thrombotic markers. PMID:22419885

  17. Endurance Exercise Training Reduces Cardiac Sodium/Calcium Exchanger Expression in Animals Susceptible to Ventricular Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eKukielka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Increased sodium/calcium exchanger activity (NCX1, an important regulator of cardiomyocyte cystolic calcium may provoke arrhythmias. Exercise training can decrease NCX1 expression in animals with heart failure improving cytosolic calcium regulation, and could thereby reduce the risk for ventricular fibrillation (VF. Methods: To test this hypothesis, a 2-min coronary occlusion was made during the last min. of exercise in dogs with healed myocardial infarctions; 23 had VF (S, susceptible and 13 did not (R, resistant. The animals were randomly assigned to either 10-wk exercise training (progressively increasing treadmill running (S n = 9; R n = 8 or 10-wk sedentary (S n = 14; R n = 5 groups. At the end of the 10-wk period, the exercise + ischemia test provoked VF in sedentary but not trained susceptible dogs. On a subsequent day, cardiac tissue was harvested and NCX1 protein expression was determined by Western blot. Results: In the sedentary group, NCX1 expression was significantly (ANOVA, P<0.05 higher in susceptible compared to resistant dogs. In contrast, NCX1 levels were similar in the exercise trained resistant and susceptible animals. Conclusion: These data suggest that exercise training can restore a more normal NCX1 level in dogs susceptible to ventricular fibrillation, improving cystolic calcium regulation and could thereby reduce the risk for sudden death following myocardial infarction.

  18. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Vandoni

    Full Text Available Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (p<0.05. Consequently, the affective responses to vigorous session were less pleasant than those during moderate session (p<0.05. These results suggest that the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  19. Time to adapt exercise training regimens in pulmonary rehabilitation – a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee AL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Annemarie L Lee,1–4 Anne E Holland1–3 1Physiotherapy, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Institute for Breathing and Sleep, Austin Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Physiotherapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 4Westpark Healthcare Centre, ON, Canada Abstract: Exercise intolerance, exertional dyspnea, reduced health-related quality of life, and acute exacerbations are features characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD often report comorbidities and other secondary manifestations, which diversifies the clinical presentation. Pulmonary rehabilitation that includes whole body exercise training is a critical part of management, and core programs involve endurance and resistance training for the upper and lower limbs. Improvement in maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, dyspnea, fatigue, health-related quality of life, and psychological symptoms are outcomes associated with exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation, irrespective of the clinical state in which it is commenced. There may be benefits for the health care system as well as the individual patient, with fewer exacerbations and subsequent hospitalization reported with exercise training. The varying clinical profile of COPD may direct the need for modification to traditional training strategies for some patients. Interval training, one-legged cycling (partitioning and non-linear periodized training appear to be equally or more effective than continuous training. Inspiratory muscle training may have a role as an adjunct to whole body training in selected patients. The benefits of balance training are also emerging. Strategies to ensure that health enhancing behaviors are adopted and maintained are essential. These may include training for an extended duration, alternative environments to undertake the initial program, maintenance programs following initial exercise training, program repetition

  20. Implications of Impaired Endurance Performance following Single Bouts of Resistance Training: An Alternate Concurrent Training Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doma, Kenji; Deakin, Glen B; Bentley, David J

    2017-11-01

    A single bout of resistance training induces residual fatigue, which may impair performance during subsequent endurance training if inadequate recovery is allowed. From a concurrent training standpoint, such carry-over effects of fatigue from a resistance training session may impair the quality of a subsequent endurance training session for several hours to days with inadequate recovery. The proposed mechanisms of this phenomenon include: (1) impaired neural recruitment patterns; (2) reduced movement efficiency due to alteration in kinematics during endurance exercise and increased energy expenditure; (3) increased muscle soreness; and (4) reduced muscle glycogen. If endurance training quality is consistently compromised during the course of a specific concurrent training program, optimal endurance development may be limited. Whilst the link between acute responses of training and subsequent training adaptation has not been fully established, there is some evidence suggesting that cumulative effects of fatigue may contribute to limiting optimal endurance development. Thus, the current review will (1) explore cross-sectional studies that have reported impaired endurance performance following a single, or multiple bouts, of resistance training; (2) identify the potential impact of fatigue on chronic endurance development; (3) describe the implications of fatigue on the quality of endurance training sessions during concurrent training, and (4) explain the mechanisms contributing to resistance training-induced attenuation on endurance performance from neurological, biomechanical and metabolic standpoints. Increasing the awareness of resistance training-induced fatigue may encourage coaches to consider modulating concurrent training variables (e.g., order of training mode, between-mode recovery period, training intensity, etc.) to limit the carry-over effects of fatigue from resistance to endurance training sessions.

  1. Exercise training reverses the negative effects of chronic L-arginine supplementation on insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Rafael Barrera; Gerlinger-Romero, Frederico; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; de Castro Barbosa, Thais; Nunes, Maria Tereza

    2017-12-15

    L-Arginine has emerged as an important supplement for athletes and non-athletes in order to improve performance. Arginine has been extensively used as substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, leading to increased vasodilatation and hormonal secretion. However, the chronic consumption of arginine has been shown to impair insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether chronic arginine supplementation associated with exercise training would have a beneficial impact on insulin sensitivity. We, therefore, treated Wistar rats for 4weeks with arginine, associated or not with exercise training (treadmill). We assessed the somatotropic activation, by evaluating growth hormone (GH) gene expression and protein content in the pituitary, as well is GH concentration in the serum. Additionally, we evaluate whole-body insulin sensitivity, by performing an insulin tolerance test. Skeletal muscle morpho-physiological parameters were also assessed. Insulin sensitivity was impaired in the arginine-treated rats. However, exercise training reversed the negative effects of arginine. Arginine and exercise training increased somatotropic axis function, muscle mass and body weight gain. The combination arginine and exercise training further decreased total fat mass. Our results confirm that chronic arginine supplementation leads to insulin resistance, which can be reversed in the association with exercise training. We provide further evidence that exercise training is an important tool to improve whole-body metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. EXERCISE TESTING AND TRAINING WITH THE YOUNG CYSTIC FIBROSIS PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Stevens

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to review the literature related to exercise and Cystic fibrosis (CF, with particular focus on the young CF patient. Exercise intolerance is a characteristic of CF, however, recent studies in adults have advanced our understanding of how exercise can be used effectively as a prognostic marker and for rehabilitation purposes. New analyses from exercise testing have shown to have prognostic value, and different methods of exercise training have been reported to improve the functional capacity and quality of life of the young CF patient. There is a growing awareness and belief among clinicians of the benefits of exercise testing and training, however, recent work suggests that exercise is being underused in the healthcare management of the CF patient. More research is needed to identity which exercise tests and training programmes would be most feasible to incorporate into CF centres routine clinical procedures

  3. Wrist Resistance Training Improves Motor Control and Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Edward; Kim, You-Sin; Hill, Genevieve; Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Kim, Chang Kook; Shim, Jae Kun

    2018-04-01

    Chu, E, Kim, Y-S, Hill, G, Kim, YH, Kim, CK, and Shim, JK. Wrist resistance training improves motor control and strength. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 962-969, 2018-The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 6-week direction-specific resistance training program on isometric torque control and isokinetic torque strength of the wrist joint. Nineteen subjects were randomly assigned to either the wrist training group (n = 9) or the control group (n = 10). The training group performed wrist exercises in 6 directions (flexion, extension, pronation, supination, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation), whereas the control group did not. Data were collected on the isometric torque control, 1-repetition maximum (1RM) strength, and isokinetic maximum torque (angular velocity of 60° per second wrist movements) before and after 6 weeks of resistance training and at 2-week intervals during training. The training group showed significant decreases in isometric torque control error in all 6 directions after 2 weeks of resistance training, whereas the control group did not show significant increase or decrease. After 4 weeks of training, the training group showed significant increases in maximum strength in all 6 directions as assessed by 1RM strength and isokinetic strength tests, whereas the control group did not show any statistically significant changes. This study shows that motor control significantly improves within the first 2 weeks of resistance training, whereas the wrist strength significantly improves within the first 4 weeks of resistance training. Based on the findings of this study, coaches and trainers should consider wrist resistance training to improve athletes' muscular strength and control of the wrist muscles.

  4. Safety and efficacy of exercise training in adults with Pompe disease: evalution of endurance, muscle strength and core stability before and after a 12?week training program

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, Linda E. M.; Favejee, Marein M.; Wens, Stephan C. A.; Kruijshaar, Michelle E.; Praet, Stephan F. E.; Reuser, Arnold J. J.; Bussmann, Johannes B. J.; van Doorn, Pieter A.; van der Ploeg, Ans T.

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Pompe disease is a proximal myopathy. We investigated whether exercise training is a safe and useful adjuvant therapy for adult Pompe patients, receiving enzyme replacement therapy. Methods: Training comprised 36 sessions of standardized aerobic, resistance and core stability exercises over 12 weeks. Before and after, the primary outcome measures safety, endurance (aerobic exercise capacity and distance walked on the 6 min walk test) and muscle strength, and secondary ...

  5. Effects of music during exercise in different training status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldari, C; Macone, D; Bonavolontà, V; Guidetti, L

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the interaction of exercise and music to establish the impact of these factors on state-anxiety and time to exhaustion comparing trained and active participants. Twenty-six university students (13 trained, 13 active) completed the State-anxiety Inventory questionnaire before and after a submaximal treadmill running until volitional exhaustion in both music and no-music condition. ANOVA showed that both trained and active groups significantly reduced their State-Anxiety scores after exercise tasks (Pactive group reported a higher significant reduction of their state anxiety score after exercise in music condition compared to no-music task (Pactive-subjects significantly prolonged their exercise experience in presence of music (Pimprove this effect in active but not in trained participants. Further, listening to music during exercise may prolong the participants' exercise experience but different training status seems to qualify differently this response.

  6. NMSBA - Twist Resist - Rotational Exercise Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Aaron [Twist Resist, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reece, Blake D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Berger, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guido, Steven Frank [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Linker, Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report contains a summary of the work completed to develop a modular, rotational exercise device. In the report are images, diagrams, and explanations of the efforts contributed to the project since its inception. The purpose of this document is to provide a walk-through of the progress on this project, from the initial design concepts to the final design and work done, so that the customer (Twist Resist), or individuals/firms who work on this project in the future will have a springboard of ideas/concepts to work from.

  7. Protein Supplementation Does Not Affect Myogenic Adaptations to Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Paul T; Fry, Christopher S; Igbinigie, Sherry; Deer, Rachel R; Jennings, Kristofer; Cope, Mark B; Mukherjea, Ratna; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B

    2017-06-01

    It has been proposed that protein supplementation during resistance exercise training enhances muscle hypertrophy. The degree of hypertrophy during training is controlled in part through the activation of satellite cells and myonuclear accretion. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of protein supplementation (and the type of protein) during traditional resistance training on myofiber cross-sectional area, satellite cell content, and myonuclear addition. Healthy young men participated in supervised whole-body progressive resistance training 3 d·wk for 12 wk. Participants were randomized to one of three groups ingesting a daily 22-g macronutrient dose of soy-dairy protein blend (PB, n = 22), whey protein isolate (WP, n = 15), or an isocaloric maltodextrin placebo (MDP, n = 17). Lean mass, vastus lateralis myofiber-type-specific cross-sectional area, satellite cell content, and myonuclear addition were assessed before and after resistance training. PB and the pooled protein treatments (PB + WP = PRO) exhibited a greater whole-body lean mass %change compared with MDP (P = 0.057 for PB) and (P = 0.050 for PRO), respectively. All treatments demonstrated similar leg muscle hypertrophy and vastus lateralis myofiber-type-specific cross-sectional area (P supplementation during resistance training has a modest effect on whole-body lean mass as compared with exercise training without protein supplementation, and there was no effect on any outcome between protein supplement types (blend vs whey). However, protein supplementation did not enhance resistance exercise-induced increases in myofiber hypertrophy, satellite cell content, or myonuclear addition in young healthy men. We propose that as long as protein intake is adequate during muscle overload, the adaptations in muscle growth and function will not be influenced by protein supplementation.

  8. The antihypertensive effects of aerobic versus isometric handgrip resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Garrett I; Taylor, Beth A; Thompson, Paul D; MacDonald, Hayley V; Lamberti, Lauren; Chen, Ming-Hui; Farinatti, Paulo; Kraemer, William J; Panza, Gregory A; Zaleski, Amanda L; Deshpande, Ved; Ballard, Kevin D; Mujtaba, Mohammadtokir; White, C Michael; Pescatello, Linda S

    2017-02-01

    Aerobic exercise reduces blood pressure (BP) on average 5-7 mmHg among those with hypertension; limited evidence suggests similar or even greater BP benefits may result from isometric handgrip (IHG) resistance exercise. We conducted a randomized controlled trial investigating the antihypertensive effects of an acute bout of aerobic compared with IHG exercise in the same individuals. Middle-aged adults (n = 27) with prehypertension and obesity randomly completed three experiments: aerobic (60% peak oxygen uptake, 30 min); IHG (30% maximum voluntary contraction, 4 × 2 min bilateral); and nonexercise control. Study participants were assessed for carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity pre and post exercise, and left the laboratory wearing an ambulatory BP monitor. SBP and DBP were lower after aerobic versus IHG (4.8 ± 1.8/3.1 ± 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.01/0.04) and control (5.6 ± 1.8/3.6 ± 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.02/0.04) over the awake hours, with no difference between IHG versus control (P = 0.80/0.83). Pulse wave velocity changes following acute exercise did not differ by modality (aerobic increased 0.01 ± 0.21 ms, IHG decreased 0.06 ± 0.15 ms, control increased 0.25 ± 0.17 ms, P > 0.05). A subset of participants then completed either 8 weeks of aerobic or IHG training. Awake SBP was lower after versus before aerobic training (7.6 ± 3.1 mmHg, P = 0.02), whereas sleep DBP was higher after IHG training (7.7 ± 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.02). Our findings did not support IHG as antihypertensive therapy but that aerobic exercise should continue to be recommended as the primary exercise modality for its immediate and sustained BP benefits.

  9. Endocrine Response to Exercise and Training-Closing the Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Alon

    2016-05-01

    In recent years there has been a remarkable enhancement in the knowledge and understanding of endocrine responses to exercise and exercise training in children and adolescents who participate in sports. This includes, for example, exercise-associated changes in growth factors that regulate muscle adaptations to exercise training, the use of hormonal changes to assess training intensity, as well as deleterious effects of competitive sports, in particularly if associated with inadequate nutrition, on growth and the reproductive system. However, major scientific gaps still exist in our understanding of the application and translation of this knowledge to the everyday use of young athletes and their coaches. These gaps include the translation of laboratory research to "real-life" training setting to optimize training efficiency, mainly due to the lack of "real-life" exercise studies; and the use of genetic endocrinology for sports selection, the prediction of excellence in sports and to improve training.

  10. Muscle strength and stiffness in resistance exercise: Force transmission in tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Hans; Bukiet, Bruce; Anderson, Ellen Z; Burch, Jared; Findley, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Physical therapists and osteopaths want to know the quantitative force transmitted in the tissues during resistance exercise and also the relationship between tissue strength and the specific type of resistance exercise of the skeletal muscles. This paper uses the strain energy function for large deformations associated with the active and passive response of transversely isotropic skeletal muscle tissue to evaluate muscle strength and force transmitted in tissues during resistance exercises for the quadriceps muscle at the knee during isometric training exercise at different knee angles in vivo. It is found that after an exercise program, the muscle stiffness is halved when the bending angle of the knee increases from 50° to 100°. The muscle strength generated is marginally greater at 100° than at 50°. The stress transmitted in the lateral direction for 100° bending is double that for 50°. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of glutamine on the effect of resistance exercise on cardiac ANP in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu Rodrigues de Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Various nutritional supplements (herbs, vitamins, and micronutrients improve responses and adaptations to resistance exercise. ANP is a heart hormone that contributes to fluid, electrolyte and blood pressure homeostasis through its natriuretic and vasodilative actions. In the present study, the adaptation of ANP in response to resistance exercise was investigated in rats supplemented with glutamine for five weeks. The results showed that supplementation with glutamine did not influence the number of ANP granules per atrial cardiocyte in sedentary animals. In exercised-trained rats, the number and diameter of the granules was significantly higher in comparison with the control group and in exercised animals supplemented with glutamine there was significant increase in the number and diameter of ANP granules compared with controls. Altogether, these data indicated that in resistance exercise rats, glutamine significantly enhances cardiac ANP thus implicating the beneficial effects of glutamine supplementation to the ANP system.

  12. Hemodynamic responses to single sessions of aerobic exercise and resistance exercise in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov Fieril, Karolina; Glantz, Anna; Fagevik Olsen, Monika

    2016-09-01

    Previous research on maternal hemodynamic responses to a single exercise session during pregnancy is sparse, especially considering immediate responses to resistance exercise. The aim of the study was to examine blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, and Rating of Perceived Exertion in healthy pregnant women during single sessions of continuous submaximal exercise in pregnancy week 21. A cross-over design was used. Twenty healthy pregnant women from four prenatal clinics in Gothenburg, Sweden, were included. On day 1, the women did 30 min of aerobic exercise and on day 3 they did 30 min of resistance exercise. Blood pressure, heart rate, and Rating of Perceived Exertion were measured after 15 and 30 min of exercise. After 15 and 30 min of exercise, there was a significant increase in systolic blood pressure and heart rate (p aerobic exercise (p = 0.01) than resistance exercise (p = 0.03). Resistance exercise was perceived as more intense than aerobic exercise after 15 min (p = 0.02) and 30 min (p = 0.001) of exercise. Five minutes after completing the exercise, blood pressure quickly reverted to normal although heart rate was still increased (p = 0.001). There was no correlation between heart rate and Rating of Perceived Exertion (rs  = 0.05-0.43). Maternal hemodynamic responses were essentially the same, regardless of whether the exercise was submaximal aerobic or resistance exercise, although resistance exercise was perceived as more intense. Aerobic and resistance exercise corresponding to "somewhat hard" seems to have no adverse effect with regard to maternal hemodynamic responses in healthy pregnancy. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Exercise training improves selected aspects of daytime functioning in adults with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Christopher E; Ewing, Gary B; Burch, James B; Blair, Steven N; Durstine, J Larry; Davis, J Mark; Youngstedt, Shawn D

    2012-08-15

    To explore the utility of exercise training for improving daytime functioning in adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Forty-three sedentary and overweight/obese adults aged 18-55 years with at least moderate-severity untreated OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15) were randomized to 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise training (n = 27) or low-intensity stretching control treatment (n = 16). As part of a trial investigating the efficacy of exercise training on OSA severity, daytime functioning was assessed before and following the intervention. Sleepiness, functional impairment due to sleepiness, depressive symptoms, mood, and quality of life (QOL) were evaluated with validated questionnaires, and cognitive function was assessed with a neurobehavioral performance battery. OSA severity was measured with one night of laboratory polysomnography before and following the intervention. Compared with stretching control, exercise training resulted in significant improvements in depressive symptoms, fatigue and vigor, and aspects of QOL (p improved following exercise versus control to a similar degree in terms of effect sizes (d > 0.5), though these changes were not statistically significant. No neurobehavioral performance improvements were found. Reduced fatigue following exercise training was mediated by a reduction in OSA severity, but changes in OSA severity did not significantly mediate improvement in any other measure of daytime functioning. These data provide preliminary evidence that exercise training may be helpful for improving aspects of daytime functioning of adults with OSA. Larger trials are needed to further verify the observed improvements.

  14. Monitoring Training Progress During Exercise Training in Cancer Survivors : A Submaximal Exercise Test as an Alternative for a Maximal Exercise Test?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, Anne M.; van Weert, Ellen; Korstjens, Irene; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E.; van der Schans, Cees P.; Zonderland, Maria L.; Mesters, Ilse; van den Borne, Bart; Ros, Wynand J.

    May AM, van Weert E, Korstjens 1, Hoekstra-Weebers JE, van der Schans CP, Zonderland ML, Mesters 1, van den Borne B, Ros WJ. Monitoring training progress during exercise training in cancer survivors: a submaximal exercise test as an alternative for a maximal exercise test? Arch Phys Med Rehabil

  15. Comparative Effectiveness of Low-Volume Time-Efficient Resistance Training Versus Endurance Training in Patients With Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Gregers Winding; Birgitte Rosenmeier, Jaya; Petersen, Morten

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiorespiratory fitness is positively related to heart failure (HF) prognosis, but lack of time and low energy are barriers for adherence to exercise. We, therefore, compared the effect of low-volume time-based resistance exercise training (TRE) with aerobic moderate-intensity cycling...... (AMC) on maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, health-related quality of life, and vascular function. METHODS: Twenty-eight HF patients (New York Heart Association class I-II) performed AMC (n = 14) or TRE (n = 14). Maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, health-related quality of life......, and vascular function were evaluated before and after a 6-wk training intervention with 3 training sessions per week. The AMC group and the TRE group trained for 45 and 25 min per training session, respectively. During the training sessions, the TRE and AMC groups trained at 60 ± 4% and 59 ± 2% (mean...

  16. Running economy is impaired following a single bout of resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, C D; Sleivert, G G

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a low-volume high-intensity resistance training session influenced running economy during a subsequent aerobic treadmill run. Nine well trained distance runners (mean +/- SD; VO2max, 66.6 +/- 10.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); weight, 65.8 +/- 10.2 kg; height, 173.4 +/- 7.8 cm; age 20 +/- 1.1 years) with resistance training experience performed treadmill running at two different speeds (0.56 m x sec(-1) and 0.20 m x sec(-1) below speed corresponding to lactate equilibrium) either rested or 1, 8 or 24 hours after a 50-minute whole body resistance training session. Running economy was assessed using open circuit spirometry while heart rate was recorded telemetrically. The contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris were also determined following each resistance training session and prior to each treadmill run using percutaneous electrical stimulation. Submaximal oxygen consumption was significantly increased one hour (2.6 +/- 2.3%, p= 0.007), and eight hours (1.6 +/- 2.5%, p= 0.032), but not 24 hours after resistance training. No significant differences were found in exercising heart rate, ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, ratings of perceived exertion, or running mechanics. Peak twitch torque, time to peak torque, and half relaxation time of the quadriceps femoris were significantly reduced immediately following resistance training while peak twitch torque was also lower one hour following resistance training. Running economy following a resistance training session is impaired for up to 8 hours. This change was not paralleled by a concomitant change in exercising heart rate. The mechanism responsible for increased oxygen consumption following resistance training may be related to impairment of the force generating capacity of skeletal muscle, as there was a significant decrement in the contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris following resistance training.

  17. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals. PMID:25389897

  18. Exercise training in older patients with systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Hjardem-Hansen, Rasmus; Dela, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Training improves exercise capacity in patients with heart failure (CHF) but most evidence is on selected younger patients with systolic CHF.......Training improves exercise capacity in patients with heart failure (CHF) but most evidence is on selected younger patients with systolic CHF....

  19. The effects of exercise training in patients with peripheral vascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cardiovascular adaptations contributed to the increased walking tolerance in both groups because the heart rate response to submaximal work loads during the upper and lower-limb assessments was reduced after training. The authors pointed out that exercise training using lower-limb weight-bearing exercise can be most ...

  20. The effects of exercise training in patients with peripheral vascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) suffer from the symptom of intermittent claudication and are therefore intolerant to walking. Exercise training has been shown to be a beneficial treatment for patients with PVD. Therefore studies have aimed to assess the efficacy of exercise training programmes. This review ...

  1. Youth resistance training: past practices, new perspectives, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; Lloyd, Rhodri S; Myer, Gregory D

    2013-11-01

    Since the publication of the seminal review on youth resistance training by Kraemer and colleagues in 1989, a compelling body of evidence has found that resistance training can be a safe, effective, and worthwhile method of conditioning for children and adolescents. New perspectives for promoting resistance exercise as part of a long-term approach to youth physical development highlight the importance of integrating resistance training into youth fitness programs. Youth who do not enhance their muscular strength and motor skill proficiency early in life may not develop the prerequisite skills and abilities that would allow them to participate in a variety of activities and sports with confidence and vigor later in life. The identification of asymptomatic children with muscular weaknesses or imbalances may facilitate the development of a management plan which should rectify movement limitations and educate children and their families about the importance of daily physical activity.

  2. Effect of exercise training on skeletal muscle cytokine expression in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Gatta, Paul A; Garnham, Andrew P; Peake, Jonathan M; Cameron-Smith, David

    2014-07-01

    Aging is associated with increased circulating pro-inflammatory and lower anti-inflammatory cytokines. Exercise training, in addition to improving muscle function, reduces these circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Yet, few studies have evaluated changes in the expression of cytokines within skeletal muscle after exercise training. The aim of the current study was to examine the expression of cytokines both at rest and following a bout of isokinetic exercise performed before and after 12weeks of resistance exercise training in young (n=8, 20.3±0.8yr) and elderly men (n=8, 66.9±1.6yr). Protein expression of various cytokines was determined in muscle homogenates. The expression of MCP-1, IL-8 and IL-6 (which are traditionally classified as 'pro-inflammatory') increased substantially after acute exercise. By contrast, the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 increased only slightly (or not at all) after acute exercise. These responses were not significantly different between young and elderly men, either before or after 12weeks of exercise training. However, compared with the young men, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines 2h post exercise tended to be greater in the elderly men prior to training. Training attenuated this difference. These data suggest that the inflammatory response to unaccustomed exercise increases with age. Furthermore, regular exercise training may help to normalize this inflammatory response, which could have important implications for muscle regeneration and adaptation in the elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison study of resistance exercise nomenclature adopted among professionals and undergraduate physical education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Mendes de Souza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p233   In the past few years, increased popularity of resistance training (RT and a significant increase in the number of professionals and undergraduate in Physical Education students have been observed. A variety of names has been usually adopted for the same resistance exercise in fields. The aim of the study was to compare the resistance exercise nomenclature adopted by physical education professionals and students, and also to identify the frequencies of names adopted for these resistance exercises. The study included 191 graduate students and active physical education professionals of RT centers and gyms in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ten exercises traditionally performed on RT programs were selected. The results indicated that there was no association between the nomenclature of exercises and academic degree for all exercises included in the survey. However, there was significant difference (p <0.001 among response frequencies for each exercise, for the whole sample. In this sense, this study enabled identifying significant differences in the nomenclature of resistance exercises. Therefore, nomenclature standardization is essential to establish a direction and clearness in communication among professionals.

  4. Whole body vibration exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; van der Spuy, Ina; Tupper, Susan; Kim, Soo Y; Boden, Catherine

    2017-09-26

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for adults with fibromyalgia. We defined whole body vibration (WBV) exercise as use of a vertical or rotary oscillating platform as an exercise stimulus while the individual engages in sustained static positioning or dynamic movements. The individual stands on the platform, and oscillations result in vibrations transmitted to the subject through the legs. This review is one of a series of reviews that replaces the first review published in 2002. To evaluate benefits and harms of WBV exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PEDro, Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, AMED, WHO ICTRP, and ClinicalTrials.gov up to December 2016, unrestricted by language, to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with the diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria including a WBV intervention versus control or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data, performed risk of bias assessments, and assessed the quality of evidence for major outcomes using the GRADE approach. We used a 15% threshold for calculation of clinically relevant differences. We included four studies involving 150 middle-aged female participants from one country. Two studies had two treatment arms (71 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise plus relaxation versus mixed exercise plus relaxation and placebo WBV versus control, and WBV plus mixed exercise versus mixed exercise and control; two studies had three treatment arms (79 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise versus control and mixed relaxation placebo WBV. We judged the overall risk of bias as low for selection (random sequence generation), detection (objectively

  5. Mitochondrial plasticity with exercise training and extreme environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushel, Robert; Lundby, Carsten; Qvortrup, Klaus; Sahlin, Kent

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondria form a reticulum in skeletal muscle. Exercise training stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis, yet an emerging hypothesis is that training also induces qualitative regulatory changes. Substrate oxidation, oxygen affinity, and biochemical coupling efficiency may be regulated differentially with training and exposure to extreme environments. Threshold training doses inducing mitochondrial upregulation remain to be elucidated considering fitness level.

  6. Resistance training among young athletes: safety, efficacy and injury prevention effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, A D; Myer, G D

    2010-01-01

    A literature review was employed to evaluate the current epidemiology of injury related to the safety and efficacy of youth resistance training. Several case study reports and retrospective questionnaires regarding resistance exercise and the competitive sports of weightlifting and powerlifting reveal that injuries have occurred in young lifters, although a majority can be classified as accidental. Lack of qualified instruction that underlies poor exercise technique and inappropriate training loads could explain, at least partly, some of the reported injuries. Current research indicates that resistance training can be a safe, effective and worthwhile activity for children and adolescents provided that qualified professionals supervise all training sessions and provide age-appropriate instruction on proper lifting procedures and safe training guidelines. Regular participation in a multifaceted resistance training programme that begins during the preseason and includes instruction on movement biomechanics may reduce the risk of sports-related injuries in young athletes. Strategies for enhancing the safety of youth resistance training are discussed.

  7. Astragalus membranaceus Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Exercise-Induced Fatigue in Trained Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Shao Yeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus membranaceus (AM is a popular “Qi-tonifying” herb with a long history of use as a Traditional Chinese Medicine with multiple biological functions. However, evidence for the effects of AM on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of AM on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group for treatment: (1 sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control; (2 exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control; and (3 exercise training with AM treatment at 0.615 g/kg/day (Ex-AM1 or (4 3.075 g/kg/day (Ex-AM5. Both the vehicle and AM were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after 15-min swimming exercise. Exercise training combined with AM supplementation increased endurance exercise capacity and increased hepatic and muscle glycogen content. AM reduced exercise-induced accumulation of the byproducts blood lactate and ammonia with acute exercise challenge. Moreover, we found no deleterious effects from AM treatment. Therefore, AM supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue effects in mice. It may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training.

  8. Exposing College Students to Exercise: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailors, Mary H.; Jackson, Andrew S.; McFarlin, Brian K.; Turpin, Ian; Ellis, Kenneth J.; Foreyt, John P.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Bray, Molly S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. Participants: A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age 18 to 35 years,…

  9. Time to adapt exercise training regimens in pulmonary rehabilitation--a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annemarie L; Holland, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Exercise intolerance, exertional dyspnea, reduced health-related quality of life, and acute exacerbations are features characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD often report comorbidities and other secondary manifestations, which diversifies the clinical presentation. Pulmonary rehabilitation that includes whole body exercise training is a critical part of management, and core programs involve endurance and resistance training for the upper and lower limbs. Improvement in maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, dyspnea, fatigue, health-related quality of life, and psychological symptoms are outcomes associated with exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation, irrespective of the clinical state in which it is commenced. There may be benefits for the health care system as well as the individual patient, with fewer exacerbations and subsequent hospitalization reported with exercise training. The varying clinical profile of COPD may direct the need for modification to traditional training strategies for some patients. Interval training, one-legged cycling (partitioning) and non-linear periodized training appear to be equally or more effective than continuous training. Inspiratory muscle training may have a role as an adjunct to whole body training in selected patients. The benefits of balance training are also emerging. Strategies to ensure that health enhancing behaviors are adopted and maintained are essential. These may include training for an extended duration, alternative environments to undertake the initial program, maintenance programs following initial exercise training, program repetition, and incorporation of approaches to address behavioral change. This may be complemented by methods designed to maximize uptake and completion of a pulmonary rehabilitation program.

  10. Time to adapt exercise training regimens in pulmonary rehabilitation – a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annemarie L; Holland, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Exercise intolerance, exertional dyspnea, reduced health-related quality of life, and acute exacerbations are features characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD often report comorbidities and other secondary manifestations, which diversifies the clinical presentation. Pulmonary rehabilitation that includes whole body exercise training is a critical part of management, and core programs involve endurance and resistance training for the upper and lower limbs. Improvement in maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, dyspnea, fatigue, health-related quality of life, and psychological symptoms are outcomes associated with exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation, irrespective of the clinical state in which it is commenced. There may be benefits for the health care system as well as the individual patient, with fewer exacerbations and subsequent hospitalization reported with exercise training. The varying clinical profile of COPD may direct the need for modification to traditional training strategies for some patients. Interval training, one-legged cycling (partitioning) and non-linear periodized training appear to be equally or more effective than continuous training. Inspiratory muscle training may have a role as an adjunct to whole body training in selected patients. The benefits of balance training are also emerging. Strategies to ensure that health enhancing behaviors are adopted and maintained are essential. These may include training for an extended duration, alternative environments to undertake the initial program, maintenance programs following initial exercise training, program repetition, and incorporation of approaches to address behavioral change. This may be complemented by methods designed to maximize uptake and completion of a pulmonary rehabilitation program. PMID:25419125

  11. Low-Load Resistance Training with Blood Flow Occlusion as a Countermeasure to Disuse Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Cook, S. B.

    2009-01-01

    Decreases in strength and neuromuscular function are observed following prolonged disuse. Exercise countermeasures to prevent muscle dysfunction during disuse typically involve high intensity resistance training. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of low-load resistance training with a blood flow occlusion to mitigate muscle loss and dysfunction during 30 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS).

  12. Effect of resistance exercise contraction mode and protein supplementation on members of the STARS signalling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissing, Kristian; Rahbek, Stine K; Lamon, Severine; Farup, Jean; Stefanetti, Renae J; Wallace, Marita A; Vendelbo, Mikkel H; Russell, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The striated muscle activator of Rho signalling (STARS) pathway is suggested to provide a link between external stress responses and transcriptional regulation in muscle. However, the sensitivity of STARS signalling to different mechanical stresses has not been investigated. In a comparative study, we examined the regulation of the STARS signalling pathway in response to unilateral resistance exercise performed as either eccentric (ECC) or concentric (CONC) contractions as well as prolonged training; with and without whey protein supplementation. Skeletal muscle STARS, myocardian-related transcription factor-A (MRTF-A) and serum response factor (SRF) mRNA and protein, as well as muscle cross-sectional area and maximal voluntary contraction, were measured. A single-bout of exercise produced increases in STARS and SRF mRNA and decreases in MRTF-A mRNA with both ECC and CONC exercise, but with an enhanced response occurring following ECC exercise. A 31% increase in STARS protein was observed exclusively after CONC exercise (P protein levels increased similarly by 48% with both CONC and ECC exercise (P hypertrophy and produced increases in MRTF-A protein of 125% and 99%, respectively (P protein. There was no effect of whey protein supplementation. These results show that resistance exercise provides an acute stimulation of the STARS pathway that is contraction mode dependent. The responses to acute exercise were more pronounced than responses to accumulated training, suggesting that STARS signalling is primarily involved in the initial phase of exercise-induced muscle adaptations. PMID:23753523

  13. Effect of resistance training on plasma nitric oxide and asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations in type I diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parivash Shekarchizadeh Esfahani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Elevated ADMA level in diabetic animals can normalize during resistance exercise. Reduced ADMA level and increased NO level following resistance training might improve cardiovascular risk in diabetic subjects.

  14. Oxygen-assisted exercise training in adult cystic fibrosis patients with pulmonary limitation to exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijerman, H. G.; Bakker, W.; Sterk, P. J.; Dijkman, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    Exercise training has been considered suitable only in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with mild to moderate pulmonary dysfunction without progressive hypoxaemia during exercise. We trained 16 CF patients, all with advanced lung disease (mean standardized forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), 30%

  15. A 12-week resistance training program elicits positive changes in hemodynamic responses in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya Campos Salazar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a resistance training program in hemodynamic responses and adaptations in 60 yr. old elderly. Volunteers were 60 healthy-elderly who underwent a training program 3 times/wk. for 12 wk. Participants were randomly assigned to either a control group, an exercise group who trained at 30% intensity of 5 maximal repetitions (5RM (30% of 5RM or an exercise group at an intensity of 70% (70% of 5RM. Hemodynamic variables measured were mean arterial pressure (MAP, calculated before and immediately after the training session, and rate pressure product (RPP, estimated once a month and before and after finishing the program. Results indicated that resistance exercise training at 30% and 70% of 5RM, with a total exercise work of 872.7 and 890.9 kg did not elicited cardiovascular risks for the elderly. A 12-wk resistance exercise training reduced the cardiovascular strain as shown by the RPP (~16% and the MAP (~9%, with no adverse effects throughout the program. Unfortunately, all the hemodynamic benefits were reverted 6 days following completion of the program. In conclusion, a healthy elderly population must perform resistance training exercises to significantly reduce the cardiovascular stress. We suggest to conduct further research that looks into different exercise intensities in longer program duration and to determine the mechanisms responsible for the deleterious effects of the detraining by using physiological, biochemical and biomechanical variables.

  16. Carbohydrate Supplementation and Immune Responses After Acute Exhaustive Resistance Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    European Journal of Applied Physiology, 73, 93–97. Mackinnon, L.T. (2000). Chronic exercise training effects on immune function. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise , 32... Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise , 39(5), S172. Vu Tran, Z. (1997). Estimating sample size in repeated-measures analysis of variance. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 1, 89–102. PR OO F

  17. Exercise training changes autonomic cardiovascular balance in mice

    OpenAIRE

    De Angelis, K.; Wichi, R. B. [UNIFESP; Jesus, WRA; Moreira, E. D.; Morris, M.; Krieger, E. M.; Irigoyen, M. C.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the influence of exercise training on cardiovascular function in mice. Heart rate, arterial pressure, baroreflex sensitivity, and autonomic control of heart rate were measured in conscious, unrestrained male C57/6J sedentary (n = 8) and trained mice (n = 8). the exercise training protocol used a treadmill (1 h/day; 5 days/wk for 4 wk). Baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated by the tachycardic and bradycardic responses induced by sodium nitroprusside and...

  18. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves hypertrophy-type resistance exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Benjamin M; Webster, Michael J; Boyd, Joseph C; Hudson, Geoffrey M; Scheett, Timothy P

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) administration on lower-body, hypertrophy-type resistance exercise (HRE). Using a double-blind randomized counterbalanced design, 12 resistance-trained male participants (mean ± SD; age = 20.3 ± 2 years, mass = 88.3 ± 13.2 kg, height = 1.80 ± 0.07 m) ingested 0.3 g kg(-1) of NaHCO(3) or placebo 60 min before initiation of an HRE regimen. The protocol employed multiple exercises: squat, leg press, and knee extension, utilizing four sets each, with 10-12 repetition-maximum loads and short rest periods between sets. Exercise performance was determined by total repetitions generated during each exercise, total accumulated repetitions, and a performance test involving a fifth set of knee extensions to failure. Arterialized capillary blood was collected via fingertip puncture at four time points and analyzed for pH, [HCO(3)(-)], base excess (BE), and lactate [Lac(-)]. NaHCO(3) supplementation induced a significant alkaline state (pH: NaHCO(3): 7.49 ± 0.02, placebo: 7.42 ± 0.02, P < 0.05; [HCO(3)(-)]: NaHCO(3): 31.50 ± 2.59, placebo: 25.38 ± 1.78 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05; BE: NaHCO(3): 7.92 ± 2.57, placebo: 1.08 ± 2.11 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05). NaHCO(3) administration resulted in significantly more total repetitions than placebo (NaHCO(3): 139.8 ± 13.2, placebo: 134.4 ± 13.5), as well as significantly greater blood [Lac(-)] after the exercise protocol (NaHCO(3): 17.92 ± 2.08, placebo: 15.55 ± 2.50 mM, P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate ergogenic efficacy for NaHCO(3) during HRE and warrant further investigation into chronic training applications.

  19. Systolic and Diastolic Left Ventricular Mechanics during and after Resistance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöhr, Eric J; Stembridge, Mike; Shave, Rob; Samuel, T Jake; Stone, Keeron; Esformes, Joseph I

    2017-10-01

    To improve the current understanding of the impact of resistance exercise on the heart, by examining the acute responses of left ventricular (LV) strain, twist, and untwisting rate ("LV mechanics"). LV echocardiographic images were recorded in systole and diastole before, during and immediately after (7-12 s) double-leg press exercise at two intensities (30% and 60% of maximum strength, one-repetition maximum). Speckle tracking analysis generated LV strain, twist, and untwisting rate data. Additionally, beat-by-beat blood pressure was recorded and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and LV wall stress were calculated. Responses in both exercise trials were statistically similar (P > 0.05). During effort, stroke volume decreased, whereas SVR and LV wall stress increased (P mechanics (P 0.05). Immediately after exercise, systolic LV mechanics returned to baseline levels (P mechanics, but increases diastolic mechanics after exercise, suggesting that resistance exercise has a differential impact on systolic and diastolic heart muscle function. The findings may explain why acute resistance exercise has been associated with reduced stroke volume but chronic exercise training may result in increased LV volumes.

  20. EFFECT OF REST INTERVAL LENGTH ON THE VOLUME COMPLETED DURING UPPER BODY RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Miranda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to compare the workout volume (sets x resistance x repetitions per set completed during two upper body resistance exercise sessions that incorporated 1 minute versus 3 minute rest intervals between sets and exercises. Twelve trained men completed two experimental sessions that consisted of 5 upper body exercises (i.e. barbell bench press, incline barbell bench press, pec deck flye, barbell lying triceps extension, triceps pushdown performed for three sets with an 8-RM load. The two experimental sessions differed only in the length of the rest interval between sets and exercises; one session with a 1-minute and the other session with a 3-minute rest interval. The results demonstrated that for each exercise, significantly greater workout volume was completed when resting 3 minutes between sets and exercises (p < 0.05. These results indicate that during a resistance exercise session, if sufficient time is available, resting 3 minutes between sets and exercises allows greater workout volume for the upper body exercises examined

  1. Muscle activity during knee-extension strengthening exercise performed with elastic tubing and isotonic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2012-01-01

    contraction phase of a knee extension exercise performed with elastic tubing and in training machine and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) EMG (nEMG). Knee joint angle was measured during the exercises using electronic inclinometers (range of motion 0-90°). RESULTS: When comparing...... tubing induces similar high (>70% nEMG) quadriceps muscle activity during the concentric contraction phase, but slightly lower during the eccentric contraction phase, as knee extensions performed using an isotonic training machine. During the concentric contraction phase the two different conditions......BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: While elastic resistance training, targeting the upper body is effective for strength training, the effect of elastic resistance training on lower body muscle activity remains questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EMG-angle relationship of the quadriceps...

  2. Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Maintains Cardiovascular and Skeletal Muscle Fitness During 14 Days of Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, Brent; Hackney, Kyle; Wickwire, Jason; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Snyder, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background: Known incompatibilities exist between resistance and aerobic training. Of particular importance are findings that concurrent resistance and aerobic training reduces the effectiveness of the resistance training and limits skeletal muscle adaptations (example: Dudley & Djamil, 1985). Numerous unloading studies have documented the effectiveness of resistance training alone for the maintenance of skeletal muscle size and strength. However the practical applications of those studies are limited because long ]duration crew members perform both aerobic and resistance exercise throughout missions/spaceflight. To date, such integrated training on the International Space Station (ISS) has not been fully effective in the maintenance of skeletal muscle function. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high intensity concurrent resistance and aerobic training for the maintenance of cardiovascular fitness and skeletal muscle strength, power and endurance over 14 days of strict bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest with concurrent training. Resistance and aerobic training were integrated as shown in table 1. Days that included 2 exercise sessions had a 4-8 hour rest between exercise bouts. The resistance training consisted of 3 sets of 12 repetitions of squat, heel raise, leg press and hamstring curl exercise. Aerobic exercise consisted of periodized interval training that included 30 sec, 2 min and 4 min intervals alternating by day with continuous aerobic exercise.

  3. Changes in circulating angiogenic factors after an acute training bout before and after resistance training with or without whole-body-vibration training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijer, Åsa; Degens, Hans; May, Francisca; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Joern; Rosenberger, Andre

    2012-07-01

    Both Resistance Exercise and Whole-Body-Vibration training are currently considered as countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Here we investigated the effects of whole-body vibration superimposed upon resistance exercise. Within this context, the present study focuses on changes in circulating angiogenic factors as indicators of skeletal muscle adaption. Methods: Twenty-six healthy male subjects (25.2 ± 4.2 yr) were included in this two-group parallel-designed study and randomly assigned to one of the training interventions: either resistance exercise (RE) or resistance vibration exercise (RVE). Participants trained 2-3 times per week for 6 weeks (completing 16 training sessions), where one session took 9 ± 1 min. Participants trained with weights on a guided barbell. The individual training load was set at 80% of their 1-Repetition-Maximum. Each training session consisted of three sets with 8 squats and 12 heel raises, following an incremental training design with regards to weight (RE and RVE) and vibration frequency (RVE only). The vibration frequency was increased from 20 Hz in the first week till 40 Hz during the last two weeks with 5-Hz weekly increments. At the first and 16 ^{th} training session, six blood samples (pre training and 2 min, 5 min, 15 min, 35 min and 75 min post training) were taken. Circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Endostatin and Matrix Metalloproteinases -2 and -9 (MMPs) were determined in serum using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays. Results: MMP-2 levels increased by 7.0% (SE = 2.7%, P resistance exercise, both with and without superimposed vibration, leads to a transient rise in circulating angiogenic factors, 2) which is not altered after a period of resistance exercise with or without vibration.

  4. The Effect of 8 Weeks Aerobic Exercise on Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Motahari-Tabari, Narges; Shirvani, Marjan Ahmad; Shirzad-e-Ahoodashty, Mahbobeh; Yousefi-Abdolmaleki, Elham; Teimourzadeh, Mojgan

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes complications are the main reasons behind morbidity and mortality preventable by healthy diet and physical activity. There are few studies about the effect of aerobic exercises on insulin resistance in human. Also various training protocols are associated with different results. Since approaches to decrease insulin resistance may be followed by more effectiveness treatment, this study assessed the effect of aerobic exercise on insulin resistance in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. In this r...

  5. Validity of Wearable Activity Monitors during Cycling and Resistance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Benjamin D; Hebert, Edward P; Hollander, Daniel B; Williams, Brian M; Cormier, Corinne L; Naquin, Mildred R; Gillan, Wynn W; Gusew, Emily E; Kraemer, Robert R

    2018-03-01

    The use of wearable activity monitors has seen rapid growth; however, the mode and intensity of exercise could affect the validity of heart rate (HR) and caloric (energy) expenditure (EE) readings. There is a lack of data regarding the validity of wearable activity monitors during graded cycling regimen and a standard resistance exercise. The present study determined the validity of eight monitors for HR compared with an ECG and seven monitors for EE compared with a metabolic analyzer during graded cycling and resistance exercise. Fifty subjects (28 women, 22 men) completed separate trials of graded cycling and three sets of four resistance exercises at a 10-repetition-maximum load. Monitors included the following: Apple Watch Series 2, Fitbit Blaze, Fitbit Charge 2, Polar H7, Polar A360, Garmin Vivosmart HR, TomTom Touch, and Bose SoundSport Pulse (BSP) headphones. HR was recorded after each cycling intensity and after each resistance exercise set. EE was recorded after both protocols. Validity was established as having a mean absolute percent error (MAPE) value of ≤10%. The Polar H7 and BSP were valid during both exercise modes (cycling: MAPE = 6.87%, R = 0.79; resistance exercise: MAPE = 6.31%, R = 0.83). During cycling, the Apple Watch Series 2 revealed the greatest HR validity (MAPE = 4.14%, R = 0.80). The BSP revealed the greatest HR accuracy during resistance exercise (MAPE = 6.24%, R = 0.86). Across all devices, as exercise intensity increased, there was greater underestimation of HR. No device was valid for EE during cycling or resistance exercise. HR from wearable devices differed at different exercise intensities; EE estimates from wearable devices were inaccurate. Wearable devices are not medical devices, and users should be cautious when using these devices for monitoring physiological responses to exercise.

  6. GH administration changes myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle but does not augment muscle strength or hypertrophy, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training in healthy elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Beyer, Nina

    2002-01-01

    GH administration, either alone or combined with resistance exercise training (RT), has attracted interest as a means of increasing muscle mass and strength in the elderly. In the present study, 31 healthy, elderly men [age, 74 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SEM)] were assigned to either RT [3 sessions/wk, 3......-5 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM)/session] + placebo (n = 8), RT + GH (n = 8), GH (n = 8), or placebo (n = 7) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded (RT + placebo and RT + GH) or single-blinded (GH or placebo) design. Measurements of: 1) isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength; 2...... at baseline and after 12 wk. The final GH dose was 1.77 +/- 0.18 IU x d(-1) (approximately 7.2 +/- 0.8 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). GH alone had no effect on isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength, power, CSA, or fiber size. However, a substantial increase in MHC 2X isoform was observed with GH administration...

  7. Foot-Ground Reaction Force During Resistance Exercise in Parabolic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Cobb, Kendall; Loehr, James A.; Nguyen, Daniel; Schneider, Suzanne M.

    2003-01-01

    An interim Resistance Exercise Device (iRED) was designed to provide resistive exercise as a countermeasure to space flight-induced loss of muscle strength and endurance as well as decreased bone mineral density. The purpose of this project was to compare foot-ground reaction force during iRED exercise in normal gravity (l-g) versus micro gravity (O-g) achieved during parabolic flight. METHODS: Four subjects performed three exercises using the iRED (squat, heel raise, and deadlift) during I-g and O-g at a moderate intensity (60% of maximum strength during deadlift exercise). Foot-ground reaction force was measured in three axes (x,y,z) using a force plate, and the magnitude of the resultant force vector was calculated (r = X 2 + y2 + Z2 ). Range of motion (ROM) was measured using a linear encoder. Peak force (PkF) and total work (TW) were calculated using a customized computer program. Paired t-tests were used to test if significant differences (p.::::0.05) were observed between I-g and O-g exercise. RESULTS: PkF and TW measured in the resultant axis were significantly less in O-g for each of the exercises tested. During O-g, PkF was 42-46% and TW was 33- 37% of that measured during I-g. ROM and average time to complete each repetition were not different from I-g to O-g. CONCLUSIONS: When performing exercises in which body mass is a portion of the resistance during I-g, PkF and TW measured during resistive exercise were reduced approximately 60-70% during O-g. Thus, a resistive exercise device during O-g will be required to provided higher resistances to induce a similar training stimulus to that on Earth.

  8. Lactate Kinetics After Intermittent and Continuous Exercise Training

    OpenAIRE

    Gharbi, Adnene; Chamari, Karim; Kallel, Amjad; Ahmaidi, Saîd; Tabka, Zouhair; Abdelkarim, Zbidi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, the effects of continuous and intermittent exercise training on lactate kinetic parameters and maximal aerobic speed (MAS) using field tests. Twenty-four male sport students were equally divided into continuous (CT) and intermittent (IT) physically trained groups. Another six participants acted as non-trained controls (CG). The trained participants practiced 6-days per week for 6 weeks. Before and after training, all participants completed an increment...

  9. Influence of Very High Breathing Resistance on Exercise Tolerance, Part 1 - Dry Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    endurance times. 15. SUBJECT TERMS control of breathing , ventilation, CO2, carbon dioxide , hypercapnia, CO2 retention, dyspnea, exercise, performance...and D. Winters, "Effects of Carbon Dioxide and UBA-like Breathing Resistance on Exercise Endurance," Navy Experimental Diving Unit, Panama City, FL...Warkander and B. Shykoff, "Exercise carbon dioxide (CO2) retention with inhaled CO2 and breathing resistance," Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine

  10. Human Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells in Adaptations to Exercise; Effects of Resistance Exercise Contraction Mode and Protein Supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farup, Jean

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Human skeletal muscle has a remarkable capability of adapting to a change in demands. The preservation of this adaptability relies partly on a pool of resident myogenic stem cells (satellite cells, SCs). Extrinsic factors such as mechanical load (e.g. resistance exercise) and dietary...... recovery from eccentric exercise In paper I, we evaluated the effect of a single bout of unaccustomed eccentric exercise on fiber type specific SC content by immunohistochemistry. Subjects received either hydrolysed whey protein (Whey) or iso-caloric carbohydrate (Placebo) in the days post eccentric...... the effect of contraction mode specific resistance training and protein supplementation on whole muscle and tendon hypertrophy. Quadriceps muscle and patellar tendon cross-sectional area (CSA) was quantified using magnetic resonance imaging pre and post 12 weeks of eccentric (Ecc) or concentric (Conc...

  11. Acute EPOC response in women to circuit training and treadmill exercise of matched oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, W A; Hawthorne, W E; Markofski, M M

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of circuit training (CT) and treadmill exercise performed at matched rates of oxygen consumption and exercise duration on elevated post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in untrained women, while controlling for the menstrual cycle. Eight, untrained females (31.3 +/- 9.1 years; 2.04 +/- 0.26 l min(-1) estimated VO2max; BMI=24.6+/-3.9 kg/m2) volunteered to participate in the study. Testing was performed during the early follicular phase for each subject to minimize hormonal variability between tests. Subjects performed two exercise sessions approximately 28 days apart. Resting, supine energy expenditure was measured for 30 min preceding exercise and for 1 h after completion of exercise. Respiratory gas exchange data were collected continuously during rest and exercise periods via indirect calorimetry. CT consisted of three sets of eight common resistance exercises. Pre-exercise and exercise oxygen consumption was not different between testing days (P>0.05). Thus, exercise conditions were appropriately matched. Analysis of EPOC data revealed that CT resulted in a significantly higher (pEPOC period (pEPOC.

  12. Exercise training and the progression of chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eidemak, I; Haaber, A B; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1997-01-01

    The possible beneficial effect of regular exercise training on the progression of chronic renal failure was studied in a prospective randomized controlled study. Thirty patients with a median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 25 ml/(min.1.73 m2) (range 10-43) were randomized to physical training...... the rate of progression judged by the slope of GFR versus time plot was equal in the two groups. Hence, the beneficial effect of exercise training, earlier observed in rat studies, could not be reproduced in our patients. Physical exercise had no untoward effect on progression of renal disease....

  13. Changes of plasma angiogenic factors during chronic resistance exercise in type 1 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esfahani, S.P.; Gharakhanlou, R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Exercise has several beneficial effects on cardiovascular system. However, the exact mechanism is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic resistance exercise on some plasma angiogenic factors in type 1 diabetic rats. Methodology: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of control, diabetic and diabetic trained (n = 10 each). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The rats in the trained group undertook one training session per day, 3 days/week, for 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken and the concentrations of plasma glucose, lipid profile, nitric oxide (NO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and soluble form of VEGF receptor-1 (sFlt-1) were determined. Results: We found a significant reduction in plasma NO concentrations in diabetic rats compared to the controls (p 0.05). There were no significant differences in plasma VEGF and sFlt-1 concentrations between diabetic sedentary and trained groups (p > 0.05). Moreover, VEGF/sFlt-1 ratios in diabetic animals were lower than the control group and resistance exercise could not increase this ratio in diabetic animals (p > 0.05) Conclusion: Resistance exercise could not change plasma VEGF, sFlt-1 and VEGF/sFlt-1 ratio. However, it increased plasma NO concentrations in diabetic animals. More studies are needed to determine the effects of this type of exercise on the angiogenesis process. (author)

  14. Determination of optimal whole body vibration amplitude and frequency parameters with plyometric exercise and its influence on closed-chain lower extremity acute power output and EMG activity in resistance trained males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Nikki J.

    The optimal combination of Whole body vibration (WBV) amplitude and frequency has not been established. Purpose. To determine optimal combination of WBV amplitude and frequency that will enhance acute mean and peak power (MP and PP) output EMG activity in the lower extremity muscles. Methods. Resistance trained males (n = 13) completed the following testing sessions: On day 1, power spectrum testing of bilateral leg press (BLP) movement was performed on the OMNI. Days 2 and 3 consisted of WBV testing with either average (5.8 mm) or high (9.8 mm) amplitude combined with either 0 (sham control), 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Hz frequency. Bipolar surface electrodes were placed on the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), bicep femoris (BF) and gastrocnemius (GA) muscles for EMG analysis. MP and PP output and EMG activity of the lower extremity were assessed pre-, post-WBV treatments and after sham-controls on the OMNI while participants performed one set of five repetitions of BLP at the optimal resistance determined on Day 1. Results. No significant differences were found between pre- and sham-control on MP and PP output and on EMG activity in RF, VL, BF and GA. Completely randomized one-way ANOVA with repeated measures demonstrated no significant interaction of WBV amplitude and frequency on MP and PP output and peak and mean EMGrms amplitude and EMG rms area under the curve. RF and VL EMGrms area under the curve significantly decreased (p plyometric exercise does not induce alterations in subsequent MP and PP output and EMGrms activity of the lower extremity. Future studies need to address the time of WBV exposure and magnitude of external loads that will maximize strength and/or power output.

  15. Effects of pomegranate seed oil followed by resistance exercise on insulin resistance and lipid profile in non-athletic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Shahidi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although some studies have reported the health-related benefits for the pomegranate seed oil (PSO, there is not enough information on its combined effect with exercise. Therefore, in this study the effect of supplementation with pomegranate seed oil followed by resistance exercise on insulin resistance and lipid profile was considered in non-athletes men. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental double-blind randomized study non-athletic male (n=14 were divided into two groups: Exercise+Supplementation (n=7 and Exercise +Placebo (n=7. Both groups performed resistance training for 4 weeks (3 sessions per week. The experimental group consumed 2 capsules of pomegranate seed oil (400 mg and the control group received 2 placebo capsules daily. Glucose, fasting insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Insulin resistance was estimated using homeostasis formula (HOMA-IR. Results: While the average concentration of HDL-C in Supplement+Exercise group was significantly increased compared to pre-test, no significant increase was seen compared to Placebo + Exercise group (P<0.05. Between and within group comparison for the changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, glucose, fasting insulin and insulin resistance was not significant. Conclusion: According to the results, it can be concluded that 4 weeks of resistance training followed by PSO supplementation, except for HDL-C, has no significant effect on the other lipid profiles and insulin resistance in healthy non-athlete men.

  16. The interactions between hemostasis and resistance training: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento DC

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dahan da Cunha Nascimento1–3, Frederico Ribeiro Neto2, Frederico Santos de Santana1,2, Renato André Sousa da Silva1,4,5, Leopoldo dos Santos-Neto6,7, Sandor Balsamo1,2,61Physical Education Department, UNIEURO University Center, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 2GEPEEFS (Resistance training and Health Research Group, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 3Faculty of Physical Education, University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 4Center of Excellence in Medicine of Exercise (CEMEx Brasília, DF, Brazil; 5Postgraduate Program on Physical Activity and Health, Catholic University of Brasília-UCB, Taguatinga DF, Brazil; 6Graduation Program – Medical Sciences Faculty, University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 7General Internal Medical Center – University Hospital Brasília, University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, BrazilAbstract: Physical inactivity is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is strongly associated with changes in arterial structure. Regular physical activity and exercise contributes to the prevention of coronary artery disease. Therefore, cardiovascular and resistance training improve hemostatic parameters and promote a less thrombotic blood profile. This review highlights the studies, mechanisms, and outcomes relating to the effectiveness of resistance training on the process of hemostasis. The Pubmed, Scopus, Medline, Scielo, Lilacs, Ibecs, and Cochrane databases were used to locate the original articles. Seventeen studies were found during the research process. Of these, ten articles were excluded. Those protocols using a high volume of training for young adults showed a greater fibrinolytic response, and training protocols with intensities above 80% of 1 maximum repetition showed an increased platelet activity. In subjects with coronary artery disease, just one session of resistance training resulted in improvement in the fibrinolytic system (tissue plasminogen activator without raising potential thrombotic markers

  17. Exercise training decreases body mass index in subjects aged 50 years and over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatio Rika Haryono

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training can improve blood pressure in normotensive, prehypertensive, and hypertensive subjects. One of the mechanisms of blood pressure reduction in hypertensive patients with obesity is through weight loss. This study aimed to examine the effect of exercise training on bodyweight and the relationship between weight loss and reduction of blood pressure. An experimental pre-post test design without controls was used to evaluate the effect of exercise training on weight loss. The study involved 89 elderly aged 50 years or more, consisting of 40 men and 49 women, who were members of Senayan Sport Fitness Club and had been exercising for at least three months. Exercise training was programmed and performed three times a week, consisting of aerobic (walking, jogging, static cycling, and resistance exercise. All exercise was performed for one to two hours with mild to moderate intensity. Blood pressure and body weight were obtained from medical records. Paired t-test showed that systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, pulse pressure (PP, and body mass index (BMI were significantly lower after training [(systolic, 126.3 ± 2.9 vs 122.3 ± 2.7, p=0.02, (diastolic, 80.2 ± 3.1 vs 77.2 ± 2.4, p=0.00, (MAP, 95.6 ± 4.6 vs 92.2 ± 3.4, p=0.00, (PP, 46.1 ± 4.2 vs 45.1 ± 3.6, p=0.04, (BMI, 24.5 ± 2.9 vs 23.6 ± 2.9, p=0.04]. Duration of training was the most influential factor affecting rBMI, (Beta = 0.38; p=0.00. Exercise training could lower BMI and the reduction in diastolic blood pressure was higher for the subjects aged 70 years and over.

  18. Chronic Exercise Training and Circulating Irisin in Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shanhu; Cai, Xue; Sun, Zilin; Schumann, Uwe; Zügel, Martina; Steinacker, Jürgen Michael

    2015-11-01

    Irisin is a newly discovered hormone that is proposed to be a promising therapeutic target in obesity and type 2 diabetes. It has received remarkable attention recently, while inconsistent results have been shown regarding its association with chronic exercise training in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic exercise training on circulating (plasma/serum) irisin in adults by meta-analyzing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized studies (NRSs) separately. We conducted a search of the PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases from January 2012 to September 2014 for studies published in English. Studies were included if they had an assessment of chronic (≥8 weeks) exercise training effects on circulating irisin in the general or clinical population (mean age ≥18 years) with reported outcomes of circulating irisin, and involved more than five participants. Pooled effect sizes (Cohen's d) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for changes in circulating irisin were calculated by a random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed to evaluate the association between exercise modes and changes in circulating irisin. Of the 181 articles screened, 12 studies in eight articles were included, of which three were RCTs and nine were NRSs. In the three RCTs (a total of 173 healthy, untrained participants), chronic exercise training was associated with a moderate and significant overall effect in decreasing circulating irisin compared with the control (d = -0.46; 95 % CI -0.76 to -0.15). Chronic resistance exercise training showed a moderate and significant effect in decreasing circulating irisin compared with the control (d = -0.41; 95 % CI -0.75 to -0.06), while endurance exercise training only had a trend (d = -0.64; 95 % CI -1.32 to 0.04). In the nine NRSs (a total of 113 intervention participants), chronic exercise training was associated with a trivial and non-significant overall effect in decreasing

  19. Highly demanding resistive vibration exercise program is tolerated during 56 days of strict bed-rest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rittweger, J.; Belavy, D.; Hunek, P.; Gast, U.; Boerst, H.; Feilcke, B.; Armbrecht, G.; Mulder, E.; Schubert, H.; Richardson, C.; Haan, A. de; Stegeman, D.F.; Schiessl, H.; Felsenberg, D.

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have tried to find countermeasures against musculoskeletal de-conditioning during bed-rest, but none of them yielded decisive results. We hypothesised that resistive vibration exercise (RVE) might be a suitable training modality. We have therefore carried out a bed-rest study to

  20. Highly demanding resistive vibration exercise program is tolerated during 56 days of strict bed-rest.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rittweger, J.; Belavy, D.; Hunek, P.; Gast, U.; Boerst, H.; Feilcke, B.; Armbrecht, G.; Mulder, E.R.; Schubert, H.; Richardson, C.; de Haan, A.; Stegeman, D.F.; Schiessl, H.; Felsenberg, D.

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have tried to find countermeasures against musculoskeletal de-conditioning during bed rest, but none of them yielded decisive results. We hypothesised that resistive vibration exercise (RVE) might be a suitable training modality. We have therefore carried out a bed-rest study to

  1. Spreadsheet Decision Support Model for Training Exercise Material Requirements Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tringali, Arthur

    1997-01-01

    ... associated with military training exercises. The model combines the business practice of Material Requirements Planning and the commercial spreadsheet software capabilities of Lotus 1-2-3 to calculate the requirements for food, consumable...

  2. Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and CD4 cell count of people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: A randomized controlled trial.

  3. Exercise training in mitochondrial myopathy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo, Pilar; Bautista, Juan; Montemayor, Teodoro; Villagómez, Rafael; Jiménez, Luis; Ortega, Francisco; Campos, Yolanda; Sánchez, Hildegard; Arenas, Joaquín

    2005-09-01

    Patients with mitochondrial myopathies (MM) usually suffer from exercise intolerance due to their impaired oxidative capacity and physical deconditioning. We evaluated the effects of a 12-week supervised randomized rehabilitation program involving endurance training in patients with MM. Twenty MM patients were assigned to a training or control group. For three nonconsecutive days each week, patients combined cycle exercise at 70% of their peak work rate with three upper-body weight-lifting exercises performed at 50% of maximum capacity. Training increased maximal oxygen uptake (28.5%), work output (15.5%), and minute ventilation (40%), endurance performance (62%), walking distance in shuttle walking test (+95 m), and peripheral muscle strength (32%-62%), and improved Nottingham Health Profile scores (21.47%) and clinical symptoms. Control MM patients did not change from baseline. Results show that our exercise program is an adequate training strategy for patients with mitochondrial myopathy.

  4. Training Studies with Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus – Methodology, Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buks Roberts

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current article describes topics ranging from the respiratory physiology and the structure of compressed air breathing apparatus to the performance of practical training exercises in an unbreathable environment (hereinafter referred to as UE.

  5. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance

    OpenAIRE

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, J?ssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12?weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60?75?years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n?=?15) or power training group (PT; n?=?15). Participants trained twice a week for 12?weeks using six exercises...

  6. Aerobic training prevents dexamethasone-induced peripheral insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionísio, T J; Louzada, J C A; Viscelli, B A; Dionísio, E J; Martuscelli, A M; Barel, M; Perez, O A B; Bosqueiro, J R; Brozoski, D T; Santos, C F; Amaral, S L

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated how proteins of the insulin signaling cascade could modulate insulin resistance after dexamethasone (Dexa) treatment and aerobic training. Rats were distributed into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary+Dexa (SD), trained control (TC), and trained+Dexa (TD), and underwent aerobic training for 70 days or remained sedentary. Dexa was administered during the last 10 days (1 mg · kg(-1) per day i. p.). After 70 days, an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (ipGTT) was performed. Protein levels of IRS-1, AKT, and PKC-α in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle were identified using Western blots. Dexa treatment increased blood glucose and the area under the curve (AUC) of ipGTT. Training attenuated the hyperglycemia and the AUC induced by Dexa. Dexa reduced IRS-1 (- 16%) and AKT (- 43%) protein level with no changes in PKC-α levels. Moreover, these effects on IRS-1 and AKT protein level were prevented in trained animals. These results show for the first time that aerobic exercise prevented reductions of IRS-1 and AKT level induced by Dexa in the TA muscle, suggesting that aerobic exercise is a good strategy to prevent Dexa-induced peripheral insulin resistance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Exercise Training and Parkinson's Disease: Placebo or Essential Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Iris; Engelhardt, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Exercise training is often recommended for people with Parkinson's disease, though there is debate about the pathophysiologic cause of impaired movement in Parkinsonism which makes it difficult to develop a specific exercise treatment for symptoms that include hypokinesia, tremor, and muscular rigidity. Most published studies show a benefit of…

  8. Resistance training and cardiac hypertrophy: unravelling the training effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haykowsky, Mark J; Dressendorfer, Rudolph; Taylor, Dylan; Mandic, Sandra; Humen, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Resistance training (RT) is a popular method of conditioning to enhance sport performance as well as an effective form of exercise to attenuate the age-mediated decline in muscle strength and mass. Although the benefits of RT on skeletal muscle morphology and function are well established, its effect on left ventricular (LV) morphology remains equivocal. Some investigations have found that RT is associated with an obligatory increase in LV wall thickness and mass with minimal alteration in LV internal cavity dimension, an effect called concentric hypertrophy. However, others report that short- (18 years) RT does not alter LV morphology, arguing that concentric hypertrophy is not an obligatory adaptation secondary to this form of exertion. This disparity between studies on whether RT consistently results in cardiac hypertrophy could be caused by: (i) acute cardiopulmonary mechanisms that minimise the increase in transmural pressure (i.e. ventricular pressure minus intrathoracic pressure) and LV wall stress during exercise; (ii) the underlying use of anabolic steroids by the athletes; or (iii) the specific type of RT performed. We propose that when LV geometry is altered after RT, the pattern is usually concentric hypertrophy in Olympic weightlifters. However, the pattern of eccentric hypertrophy (increased LV mass secondary to an increase in diastolic internal cavity dimension and wall thickness) is not uncommon in bodybuilders. Of particular interest, nearly 40% of all RT athletes have normal LV geometry, and these athletes are typically powerlifters. RT athletes who use anabolic steroids have been shown to have significantly higher LV mass compared with drug-free sport-matched athletes. This brief review will sort out some of the factors that may affect the acute and chronic outcome of RT on LV morphology. In addition, a conceptual framework is offered to help explain why cardiac hypertrophy is not always found in RT athletes.

  9. Recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: resistance and cardiovascular training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, E R; Fitschen, P J; Aragon, A A; Cronin, J; Schoenfeld, B J

    2015-03-01

    The anabolic effect of resistance training can mitigate muscle loss during contest preparation. In reviewing relevant literature, we recommend a periodized approach be utilized. Block and undulating models show promise. Muscle groups should be trained 2 times weekly or more, although high volume training may benefit from higher frequencies to keep volume at any one session from becoming excessive. Low to high (~3-15) repetitions can be utilized but most repetitions should occur in the 6-12 range using 70-80% of 1 repetition maximum. Roughly 40-70 reps per muscle group per session should be performed, however higher volume may be appropriate for advanced bodybuilders. Traditional rest intervals of 1-3 minutes are adequate, but longer intervals can be used. Tempo should allow muscular control of the load; 1-2 s concentric and 2-3 s eccentric tempos. Training to failure should be limited when performing heavy loads on taxing exercises, and primarily relegated to single-joint exercises and higher repetitions. A core of multi-joint exercises with some single-joint exercises to address specific muscle groups as needed should be used, emphasizing full range of motion and proper form. Cardiovascular training can be used to enhance fat loss. Interference with strength training adaptations increases concomitantly with frequency and duration of cardiovascular training. Thus, the lowest frequency and duration possible while achieving sufficient fat loss should be used. Full-body modalities or cycling may reduce interference. High intensities may as well; however, require more recovery. Fasted cardiovascular training may not have benefits over fed-state and could be detrimental.

  10. Exercise-induced reversal of insulin resistance in obese elderly is associated with reduced visceral fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Valerie B; Marchetti, Christine M; Krishnan, Raj K; Stetzer, Bradley P; Gonzalez, Frank; Kirwan, John P

    2006-05-01

    Exercise improves glucose metabolism and delays the onset and/or reverses insulin resistance in the elderly by an unknown mechanism. In the present study, we examined the effects of exercise training on glucose metabolism, abdominal adiposity, and adipocytokines in obese elderly. Sixteen obese men and women (age = 63 +/- 1 yr, body mass index = 33.2 +/- 1.4 kg/m2) participated in a 12-wk supervised exercise program (5 days/wk, 60 min/day, treadmill/cycle ergometry at 85% of heart rate maximum). Visceral fat (VF), subcutaneous fat, and total abdominal fat were measured by computed tomography. Fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by hydrostatic weighing. An oral glucose tolerance test was used to determine changes in insulin resistance. Exercise training increased maximal oxygen consumption (21.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 24.3 +/- 1.0 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), P 0.05). VF (176 +/- 20 vs. 136 +/- 17 cm2, P < 0.0001), subcutaneous fat (351 +/- 34 vs. 305 +/- 28 cm2, P < 0.03), and total abdominal fat (525 +/- 40 vs. 443 +/- 34 cm2, P < 0.003) were reduced through training. Circulating leptin was lower (P < 0.003) after training, but total adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha remained unchanged. Insulin resistance was reversed by exercise (40.1 +/- 7.7 vs. 27.6 +/- 5.6 units, P < 0.01) and correlated with changes in VF (r = 0.66, P < 0.01) and maximal oxygen consumption (r = -0.48, P < 0.05) but not adipocytokines. VF loss after aerobic exercise training improves glucose metabolism and is associated with the reversal of insulin resistance in older obese men and women.

  11. Muscle activation and perceived loading during rehabilitation exercises: comparison of dumbbells and elastic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Mortensen, Ole S; Poulsen, Otto M; Bjørnlund, Inger Birthe T; Zebis, Mette K

    2010-04-01

    High-intensity resistance training plays an essential role in the prevention and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries and disorders. Although resistance exercises with heavy weights yield high levels of muscle activation, the efficacy of more user-friendly forms of exercise needs to be examined. The aim of this study was to investigate muscle activation and perceived loading during upper-extremity resistance exercises with dumbbells compared with elastic tubing. A single-group, repeated-measures study design was used. Exercise evaluation was conducted in a laboratory setting. Sixteen female workers (aged 26-55 years) without serious musculoskeletal diseases and with a mean neck and shoulder pain intensity of 7.8 on a 100-mm visual analog scale participated in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was measured in 5 selected muscles during the exercises of lateral raise, wrist extension, and shoulder external rotation during graded loadings with dumbbells (2-7.5 kg) and elastic tubing (Thera-Band, red to silver resistance). The order of exercises and loadings was randomized for each individual. Electromyographic amplitude was normalized to the absolute maximum EMG amplitude obtained during maximal voluntary isometric contraction and exercise testing. Immediately after each set of exercise, the Borg CR10 scale was used to rate perceived loading during the exercise. Resistance exercise with dumbbells as well as elastic tubing showed increasing EMG amplitude and perceived loading with increasing resistance. At the individually maximal level of resistance for each exercise-defined as the 3 repetitions maximum-normalized EMG activity of the prime muscles was not significantly different between dumbbells (59%-87%) and elastic tubing (64%-86%). Perceived loading was moderately to very strongly related to normalized EMG activity (r=.59-.92). Limitations The results of this study apply only for exercises performed in a controlled manner (ie, without sudden jerks

  12. The effect of exercise training on obstructive sleep apnea and sleep quality: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Christopher E; Crowley, E Patrick; Ewing, Gary B; Burch, James B; Blair, Steven N; Durstine, J Larry; Davis, J Mark; Youngstedt, Shawn D

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a 12-week exercise training program for reducing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity and improving sleep quality, and to explore possible mechanisms by which exercise may reduce OSA severity. Randomized controlled trial. Clinical exercise physiology center, sleep laboratory. Forty-three sedentary and overweight/obese adults aged 18-55 years with at least moderate-severity untreated OSA (screening apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15). Participants randomized to exercise training (n = 27) met 4 times/week for 12 weeks and performed 150 min/week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, followed by resistance training twice/week. Participants randomized to a stretching control (n = 16) met twice weekly for 12 weeks to perform low-intensity exercises designed to increase whole-body flexibility. OSA severity was assessed with one night of laboratory polysomnography (PSG) before and following the 12-week intervention. Measures of sleep quality included PSG, actigraphy (7-10 days), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Compared with stretching, exercise resulted in a significant AHI reduction (exercise: 32.2 ± 5.6 to 24.6 ± 4.4, stretching: 24.4 ± 5.6 to 28.9 ± 6.4; P sleep (P = 0.03). Reductions in AHI and ODI were achieved without a significant decrease in body weight. Improvements in actigraphic sleep and subjective sleep quality were also noted following exercise compared with stretching. Exercise training had moderate treatment efficacy for the reduction of AHI in sedentary overweight/obese adults, which suggests that exercise may be beneficial for the management of OSA beyond simply facilitating weight loss. Clinicaltrials.gov identification number NCT00956423.

  13. Strength Gains as a Result of Brief, Infrequent Resistance Exercise in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Fisher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronological aging is associated with a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and bone mineral density, an increase in fat mass, frequency of falls and fractures, and the likelihood of obesity, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Resistance exercise has been shown to counter all of these effects of aging and, in turn, reduce the risk of all-cause mortality. However, variables such as volume and frequency have become contentious issues, with recent publications suggesting that similar physiological adaptations are possible with both high- and low-volume approaches. The aim of this research was to consider strength increases as a result of brief, infrequent resistance exercise. The present study offers data from 33 (14 male and 19 female older adults (M=55 years who underwent brief (<15 minutes per exercise session, infrequent (2×/week, resistance exercise to a high intensity of effort (6-repetition maximum at a controlled repetition duration (10 seconds concentric : 10 seconds eccentric on 5 resistance machines (chest press, leg press, pull-down, seated row, and overhead press. Data is presented for training interventions of 12 weeks (male and 19 weeks (female. Significant strength increases were identified for all exercises. With the detailed health benefits obtainable, the present study suggests that resistance exercise can be efficacious in much smaller volumes than previously considered.

  14. Lessons learned from the quench-11 training exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohorst, J.K.; Allison, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    16 organizations in 12 countries are participating in a RELAP/SCDAPSIM training exercise based on the Quench 11 experiment performed at Karlsruhe (Germany) in 2005. This exercise is being conducted in parallel to an International Standard Problem (ISP). Both the ISP and the RELAP/SCDAPSIM training exercise included a 'semi-blind' portion that was completed in the fall of 2006 and an 'open' portion that is to be completed in the summer of 2007. The RELAP/SCDAPSIM training exercise is coordinated by Innovative Systems Software with support by the International SCDAP Development and Training Program (SDTP). The Quench-11 experiment is based on an electrically heated fuel rod bundle representative of a PWR design. The bundle was subjected to a boil down transient, heat-up, and quenching with peak temperatures exceeding the melting point of the Zircaloy cladding. This experiment was chosen by the European Union as an International Benchmark exercise to compare the effectiveness of quenching models in the severe accident computer codes used today for accident analysis. This paper briefly describes (a) RELAP/SCDAPSIM/MOD3.4, (b) the Quench facility and experiments used in the training exercise, and (c) the training guidelines provided to the participants followed by a more detailed description of the lessons learned from the initial 'semi-blind' portion. The representative results demonstrate that good analysts can still have a difficult time predicting the thermal hydraulic response of a relative simple transient in a complex system

  15. Low intensity exercise training improves skeletal muscle regeneration potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana ePietrangelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether 12 days of low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude (598 m a.s.l. improves skeletal muscle regeneration in sedentary adult women.Methods: Satellite cells were obtained from the vastus lateralis skeletal muscle of seven women before and after this exercise training at low altitude. They were investigated for differentiation aspects, superoxide anion production, antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial potential variation after a depolarizing insult, intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, and micro (miRNA expression (miR-1, miR-133, miR-206.Results: In these myogenic populations of adult stem cells, those obtained after exercise training, showed increased Fusion Index and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. This exercise training also generally reduced superoxide anion production in cells (by 12% to 67%, although not in two women, where there was an increase of ~15% along with a reduced superoxide dismutase activity. miRNA expression showed an exercise-induced epigenetic transcription profile that was specific according to the reduced or increased superoxide anion production of the cells. Conclusions: The present study shows that low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude improves the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult women. The differentiation of cells was favored by increased intracellular calcium concentration and increased the fusion index. This low-to-moderate training at low altitude also depicted the epigenetic signature of cells.

  16. Principles of exercise physiology: responses to acute exercise and long-term adaptations to training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Brown, Anita M; Frontera, Walter R

    2012-11-01

    Physical activity and fitness are associated with a lower prevalence of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, high blood pressure, and diabetes. This review discusses the body's response to an acute bout of exercise and long-term physiological adaptations to exercise training with an emphasis on endurance exercise. An overview is provided of skeletal muscle actions, muscle fiber types, and the major metabolic pathways involved in energy production. The importance of adequate fluid intake during exercise sessions to prevent impairments induced by dehydration on endurance exercise, muscular power, and strength is discussed. Physiological adaptations that result from regular exercise training such as increases in cardiorespiratory capacity and strength are mentioned. The review emphasizes the cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations that lead to improvements in maximal oxygen capacity. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. PGC-1alpha in exercise- and exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm

    (PGC)-1α is required for exercise-, exercise training- and fasting-induced mRNA and protein responses, respectively, of metabolic, angiogenic and gluconeogenic proteins in liver and adipose tissue in mice, 3) PGC-1α is required for both exercise training and resveratrol mediated prevention of age....... Furthermore the physical inactivity abolished the exercise-induced mRNA response of PGC-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in skeletal muscle that was present before bed rest. This indicates that just 7 days of physical inactivity reduces the metabolic capacity of human skeletal muscle...... that citrate synthase (CS) activity and mtDNA/nDNA content decreased with age in skeletal muscle of WT mice. CS activity, mtDNA/nDNA content, pyruvate dehydrogenase-E1α and VEGF protein content increased with lifelong exercise training in WT mice but not in PGC-1α KO mice. In contrast, lifelong resveratrol...

  18. Effects of propranolol and exercise training in children with severe burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, Laura J; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M; Williams, Felicia; Herndon, David N; Mlcak, Ronald P; Suman, Oscar E

    2013-04-01

    To investigate whether propranolol administration blocks the benefits induced by exercise training in severely burned children. Children aged 7-18 years (n = 58) with burns covering ≥30% of the total body surface area were enrolled in this randomized trial during their acute hospital admission. Twenty-seven patients were randomized to receive propranolol, whereas 31 served as untreated controls. Both groups participated in 12 weeks of in-hospital resistance and aerobic exercise training. Muscle strength, lean body mass, and peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) were measured before and after exercise training. Paired and unpaired Student t tests were used for within and between group comparisons, and χ(2) tests for nominal data. Age, length of hospitalization, and total body surface area burned were similar between groups. In both groups, muscle strength, lean body mass, and VO2 peak were significantly greater after exercise training than at baseline. The percent change in VO2 peak was significantly greater in the propranolol group than in the control group (P < .05). Exercise-induced enhancements in muscle mass, strength, and VO2 peak are not impaired by propranolol. Moreover, propranolol improves the aerobic response to exercise in massively burned children. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Resistance Exercise Reduces Skeletal Muscle Cachexia and Improves Muscle Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaheddin Sharif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune, inflammatory disease associated with cachexia (reduced muscle and increased fat. Although strength-training exercise has been used in persons with RA, it is not clear if it is effective for reducing cachexia. A 46-year-old woman was studied to determine: (i if resistance exercise could reverse cachexia by improving muscle mass, fiber cross-sectional area, and muscle function; and (2 if elevated apoptotic signaling was involved in cachexia with RA and could be reduced by resistance training. A needle biopsy was obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of the RA subject before and after 16 weeks of resistance training. Knee extensor strength increased by 13.6% and fatigue decreased by 2.8% Muscle mass increased by 2.1%. Average muscle fiber cross-sectional area increased by 49.7%, and muscle nuclei increased slightly after strength training from 0.08 to 0.12 nuclei/μm2. In addition, there was a slight decrease (1.6% in the number of apoptotic muscle nuclei after resistance training. This case study suggests that resistance training may be a good tool for increasing the number of nuclei per fiber area, decreasing apoptotic nuclei, and inducing fiber hypertrophy in persons with RA, thereby slowing or reversing rheumatoid cachexia.

  20. Number of repetition after different rest intervals between static stretching and resistance training

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, H.; Paz, G.A.; Maia, M. de F.; Leite, T.; Miranda, H.; Simão, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different intervals between static stretching for hip adductor, quadriceps and hamstring muscles and resistance training in repetition performance. Method: Twenty-two trained men were submitted to the 10 repetition maximum test and retest for leg extension, leg curl and hip adduction exercises. Three protocols were conducted in a randomized design – PWI: resistance training immediately after static stretching; P15: fift...

  1. Development of Functional Recovery Training Device for Hemiplegic Fingers with Finger-expansion Facilitation Exercise by Stretch Reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong; Iwashita, Hisashi; Kawahira, Kazumi; Hayashi, Ryota

    This paper develops a functional recovery training device to perform repetition facilitating exercise for hemiplegic finger rehabilitation. On the facilitation exercise, automatic finger expansion can be realized and facilitated by stretch reflex, where a stimulation forces is applied instantaneously on flexion finger for making strech reflex and resistance forces are applied for maintaining the strech reflex. In this paper, novel parallel mechanisms, force sensing system with high sensitivity and resistance accompanying cooperation control method are proposed for sensing, controlling and realizing the stimulation force, resistance forces, strech reflex and repetition facilitating exercise. The effectivities and performances of the device are shown by some experiments.

  2. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Ponce-Bravo, Christian Ponce, Belén Feriche, Paulino Padial

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG, or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG. Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT, choice reaction time (C-RT and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p < 0.05. Reaction times were better only in EG (S-RT = 10.70%, C-RT = 14.34%; p < 0.05 after the corresponding physical training intervention. The training period showed no effect on the moderate relationship between both RT and gross motor abilities in the CG, whereas the EG displayed an enhanced relationship between S-RT and grip-strength as well as the C-RT with arm strength and aerobic capacity (r ~ 0.457; p < 0.05. Our findings indicate that a functional exercise program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults.

  3. Eccentric exercise training as a countermeasure to non-weight-bearing soleus muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Christopher R.; Ryan, Mirelle J.; Booth, Frank W.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation tested whether eccentric resistance training could prevent soleus muscle atrophy during non-weight bearing. Adult female rats were randomly assigned to either weight bearing +/- intramuscular electrodes or non-weight bearing +/- intramuscular electrodes groups. Electrically stimulated maximal eccentric contractions were performed on anesthetized animals at 48-h intervals during the 10-day experiment. Non-weight bearing significantly reduced soleus muscle wet weight (28-31 percent) and noncollagenous protein content (30-31 percent) compared with controls. Eccentric exercise training during non-weight bearing attenuated but did not prevent the loss of soleus muscle wet weight and noncollagenous protein by 77 and 44 percent, respectively. The potential of eccentric exercise training as an effective and highly efficient counter-measure to non-weight-bearing atrophy is demonstrated in the 44 percent attenuation of soleus muscle noncollagenous protein loss by eccentric exercise during only 0.035 percent of the total non-weight-bearing time period.

  4. Effects of exercise intensity and creatine loading on post-resistance exercise hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Rodrigues Moreno

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Postexercise hypotension plays an important role in the non-pharmacological treat-ment of hypertension and is characterized by a decrease in blood pressure after a single exercise bout in relation to pre-exercise levels. This study investigated the effects of exercise intensity and creatine monohydrate supplementation on postexercise hypotension, as well as the possible role of blood lactate in this response. Ten normotensive subjects underwent resistance exercise sessions before (BC and after (AC creatine supplementation: 1 muscle endurance (ME consisting of 30 repetitions at 30% of one-repetition maximum; 2 hypertrophy (HP consisting of 8 repetitions at 75% of one-repetition maximum. Blood pressure was measured before and after the exercise bout. Blood lactate was measured after the exercise bout. The HP and ME sessions promoted a decrease in systolic blood pressure (∆ -19 ± 1.0 mmHg; ∆ -15 ± 0.9 mmHg, respectively, P 0.05. In conclusion, resistance exercise intensity did not influence postexercise hypotension. Creatine supplementation attenuated the decrease in blood pressure after resistance exercise. The results suggest the involvement of blood lactate in post-resistance exercise hypotension.

  5. Effects of exercise intensity and creatine loading on post-resistance exercise hypotension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Rodrigues Moreno

    2009-01-01

    Postexercise hypotension plays an important role in the non-pharmacological treat-ment of hypertension and is characterized by a decrease in blood pressure after a single exercise bout in relation to pre-exercise levels. This study investigated the effects of exercise intensity and creatine monohydrate supplementation on postexercise hypotension, as well as the possible role of blood lactate in this response. Ten normotensive subjects underwent resistance exercise sessions before (BC and after (AC creatine supplementation: 1 muscle endurance (ME consisting of 30 repetitions at 30% of one-repetition maximum; 2 hypertrophy (HP consisting of 8 repetitions at 75% of one-repetition maximum. Blood pressure was measured before and after the exercise bout. Blood lactate was measured after the exercise bout. The HP and ME sessions promoted a decrease in systolic blood pressure (∆ -19 ± 1.0 mmHg; ∆ -15 ± 0.9 mmHg, respectively, P 0.05. In conclusion, resistance exercise intensity did not influence postexercise hypotension. Creatine supplementation attenuated the decrease in blood pressure after resistance exercise. The results suggest the involvement of blood lactate in post-resistance exercise hypotension.

  6. Impact of Aerobic and Resistance Exercise on the Health of HIV-Infected Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Gregory A.; Lyerly, G. William; Jaggers, Jason R.; Dudgeon, Wesley D.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals infected with HIV experience numerous comorbidities caused by the disease progression and medications, lack of (or inability to perform) physical activity, malnutrition, or a combination of these causes. Common symptoms include loss of muscle mass, fatigue, lypodystrophy, lypoatrophy, and decreases in strength, functional capacity, and overall quality of life. Studies have shown that exercise is a potential treatment of many of these symptoms. Research suggests that exercise may produce beneficial physiological changes in the HIV-infected population such as improved body composition and increases in both strength and endurance. In addition, psychological conditions such as depression and anxiety have been shown to be positively affected by exercise. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature regarding effects of aerobic, resistance, and combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on HIV-infected individuals. PMID:20508736

  7. Acute responses to exercise training and relationship with exercise adherence in moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Amanda K; Wardini, Rima; Chan-Thim, Emilie; Bacon, Simon L; Lavoie, Kim L; Pepin, Véronique

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of our study were to (i) compare, in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, acute responses to continuous training at high intensity (CTHI), continuous training at ventilatory threshold (CTVT) and interval training (IT); (ii) examine associations between acute responses and 12-week adherence; and (iii) investigate whether the relationship between acute responses and adherence is mediated/moderated by affect/vigour. Thirty-five COPD patients (forced expiratory volume in 1 second = 60.2 ± 15.8% predicted), underwent baseline assessments, were randomly assigned to CTHI, CTVT or IT, were monitored throughout about before training, and underwent 12 weeks of exercise training during which adherence was tracked. Compared with CTHI, CTVT was associated with lower respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate and respiratory rate (RR), while IT induced higher [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]maximal voluntary ventilation, RR and lower pulse oxygen saturation. From pre- to post-exercise, positive affect increased (F = 9.74, p exercise vigour compared to CTHI (p = 0.01) and IT (p = 0.02). IT exhibited lowest post-exercise vigour (p = 0.04 versus CTHI, p = 0.02 versus CTVT) and adherence rate (F = 6.69, p = 0.004). Mean [Formula: see text] (r = -0.466, p = 0.007) and end-exercise vigour (r = 0.420, p = 0.017) were most strongly correlated with adherence. End-exercise vigour moderated the relationship between [Formula: see text] and adherence (β = 2.74, t(32) = 2.32, p = 0.03). In summary, CTHI, CTVT and IT improved affective valence from rest to post-exercise and induced a significant 12-week exercise training effect. However, they elicited different acute physiological responses, which in turn were associated with differences in 12-week adherence to the target training intensity. This association was moderated by acute end-exercise vigour. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Exercise training in children with asthma: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanrooij, Vera H M; Willeboordse, Maartje; Dompeling, Edward; van de Kant, Kim D G

    2014-07-01

    Exercise can provoke asthma symptoms, such as dyspnoea, in children with asthma. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is prevalent in 40-90% of children with asthma. Conversely, exercise can improve physical fitness. The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the literature regarding the effects of exercise training in children with asthma, particularly in relation to: EIB, asthma control, pulmonary function, cardiorespiratory parameters and parameters of underlying pathophysiology. A systematic search in several databases was performed. Controlled trials that undertook a physical training programme in children with asthma (aged 6-18 years) were selected. Twenty-nine studies were included. Training had positive effects on several cardiorespiratory fitness parameters. A few studies demonstrated that training could improve EIB, especially in cases where there was sufficient room for improvement. Peak expiratory flow was the only lung function parameter that could be improved substantially by training. The effects of training on asthma control, airway inflammation and bronchial hyper-responsiveness were barely studied. Owing to the overall beneficial effects of training and the lack of negative effects, it can be concluded that physical exercise is safe and can be recommended in children with asthma. A training programme should have a minimum duration of 3 months, with at least two 60 min training sessions per week, and a training intensity set at the (personalised) ventilatory threshold. Further research is recommended regarding the effects of exercise on underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and asthma control in children with asthma. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Changes in muscle size and MHC composition in response to resistance exercise with heavy and light loading intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Reitelseder, Søren; Pedersen, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle mass accretion is accomplished by heavy-load resistance training. The effect of light-load resistance exercise has been far more sparsely investigated with regard to potential effect on muscle size and contractile strength. We applied a resistance exercise protocol in which the same indivi...... in healthy young men. However, LL resistance training was inferior to HL training in evoking adaptive changes in muscle size and contractile strength and was insufficient to induce changes in MHC composition.......Muscle mass accretion is accomplished by heavy-load resistance training. The effect of light-load resistance exercise has been far more sparsely investigated with regard to potential effect on muscle size and contractile strength. We applied a resistance exercise protocol in which the same.......05) in HL but remained unchanged in LL (4 +/- 5%, not significant). Finally, MHC IIX protein expression was decreased with HL but not LL, despite identical total workload in HL and LL. Our main finding was that LL resistance training was sufficient to induce a small but significant muscle hypertrophy...

  10. Effects of exercise training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease--a narrative review for FYSS (Swedish Physical Activity Exercise Prescription Book).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emtner, M; Wadell, K

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this review were to determine the level of evidence for exercise training in the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and provide evidence-based recommendations on exercise training. This review was performed in PubMed and Cochrane Library. Included studies investigated patients with COPD who had been randomised to exercise training or no training. Six systematic reviews were included. The methodological quality was scored using a grading system (GRADE). The analysis showed that aerobic and resistance training in patients in a stable state of COPD results in improved health-related quality of life and decreased dyspnoea, anxiety and depression (moderately strong scientific evidence, grade +++), and increased physical capacity and decreased dyspnoea in daily activities (limited scientific evidence, grade ++). In patients with an acute exacerbation, aerobic and resistance training, performed directly after the exacerbation, results in improved health-related quality of life (moderately strong scientific evidence, grade +++), improved exercise capacity and decreased mortality and hospitalisation (limited scientific evidence, grade ++). Thus, patients with COPD should be recommended to take part in exercise training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Safety and efficacy of exercise training in adults with Pompe disease: Evalution of endurance, muscle strength and core stability before and after a 12 week training program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E.M. van den Berg (Linda); M.M. Favejee (Marein); S.C.A. Wens (Stephan); M.E. Kruijshaar (Michelle); S.F.E. Praet (Stephan); A.J.J. Reuser (Arnold); J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); A.T. van der Ploeg (Ans)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Pompe disease is a proximal myopathy. We investigated whether exercise training is a safe and useful adjuvant therapy for adult Pompe patients, receiving enzyme replacement therapy. Methods: Training comprised 36 sessions of standardized aerobic, resistance and core stability

  12. Acute L-arginine alpha ketoglutarate supplementation fails to improve muscular performance in resistance trained and untrained men

    OpenAIRE

    Wax Benjamin; Kavazis Andreas N; Webb Heather E; Brown Stanley P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Dietary supplements containing L-arginine are marketed to improve exercise performance, but the efficacy of such supplements is not clear. Therefore, this study examined the efficacy of acute ingestion of L-arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG) muscular strength and endurance in resistance trained and untrained men. Methods Eight resistance trained and eight untrained healthy males ingested either 3000mg of AAKG or a placebo 45 minutes prior to a resistance exercise protocol...