WorldWideScience

Sample records for resistance training device

  1. Musculoskeletal adaptations to training with the advanced resistive exercise device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, James A; Lee, Stuart M C; English, Kirk L; Sibonga, Jean; Smith, Scott M; Spiering, Barry A; Hagan, R Donald

    2011-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been used as a means to prevent the musculoskeletal losses associated with spaceflight. Therefore, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration designed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to replace the initial device flown on the International Space Station. The ARED uses vacuum cylinders and inertial flywheels to simulate, in the absence of gravity, the constant mass and inertia, respectively, of free weight (FW) exercise. To compare the musculoskeletal effects of resistance exercise training using the ARED with the effects of training with FW. Previously untrained, ambulatory subjects exercised using one of two modalities: FW (6 men and 3 women) or ARED (8 men and 3 women). Subjects performed squat, heel raise, and dead lift exercises 3 d·wk(-1) for 16 wk. Squat, heel raise, and dead lift strength (one-repetition maximum; using FW and ARED), bone mineral density (via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), and vertical jump were assessed before, during, and after training. Muscle mass (via magnetic resonance imaging) and bone morphology (via quantitative computed tomography) were measured before and after training. Bone biomarkers and circulating hormones were measured before training and after 4, 8, and 16 wk. Muscle strength, muscle volume, vertical jump height, and lumbar spine bone mineral density (via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative computed tomography) significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) in both groups. There were no significant differences between groups in any of the dependent variables at any time. After 16 wk of training, ARED exercise resulted in musculoskeletal effects that were not significantly different from the effects of training with FW. Because FW training mitigates bed rest-induced deconditioning, the ARED may be an effective countermeasure for spaceflight-induced deconditioning and should be validated during spaceflight.

  2. Not all instability training devices enhance muscle activation in highly resistance-trained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Michael J; Behm, David G

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the soleus, bicep femoris, rectus femoris, lower abdominal, and lumbosacral erector spinae (LSES) muscles with a variety of (a) instability devices, (b) stable and unstable (Dyna Disc) exercises, and (c) a fatiguing exercise in 16 highly conditioned individuals. The device protocol had participants assume standing and squatting postures while balancing on a variety of unstable platforms (Dyna Disc, BOSU ball, wobble board, and a Swiss ball) and a stable floor. The exercise protocol had subjects performing, static front lunges, static side lunges, 1-leg hip extensions, 1-leg reaches, and calf raises on a floor or an unstable Dyna Disc. For the fatigue experiment, a wall sit position was undertaken under stable and unstable (BOSU ball) conditions. Results for the device experiment demonstrated increased activity for all muscles when standing on a Swiss ball and all muscles other than the rectus femoris when standing on a wobble board. Only lower abdominals and soleus EMG activity increased while squatting on a Swiss ball and wobble board. Devices such as the Dyna Disc and BOSU ball did not exhibit significant differences in muscle activation under any conditions, except the LSES in the standing Dyna Disc conditions. During the exercise protocol, there were no significant changes in muscle activity between stable and unstable (Dyna Disc) conditions. With the fatigue protocol, soleus EMG activity was 51% greater with a stable base. These results indicate that the use of moderately unstable training devices (i.e., Dyna Disc, BOSU ball) did not provide sufficient challenges to the neuromuscular system in highly resistance-trained individuals. Since highly trained individuals may already possess enhanced stability from the use of dynamic free weights, a greater degree of instability may be necessary.

  3. Acceleration of Deep Neural Network Training with Resistive Cross-Point Devices: Design Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun Gokmen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, deep neural networks (DNN have demonstrated significant business impact in large scale analysis and classification tasks such as speech recognition, visual object detection, pattern extraction, etc. Training of large DNNs, however, is universally considered as time consuming and computationally intensive task that demands datacenter-scale computational resources recruited for many days. Here we propose a concept of resistive processing unit (RPU devices that can potentially accelerate DNN training by orders of magnitude while using much less power. The proposed RPU device can store and update the weight values locally thus minimizing data movement during training and allowing to fully exploit the locality and the parallelism of the training algorithm. We evaluate the effect of various RPU device features/non-idealities and system parameters on performance in order to derive the device and system level specifications for implementation of an accelerator chip for DNN training in a realistic CMOS-compatible technology. For large DNNs with about 1 billion weights this massively parallel RPU architecture can achieve acceleration factors of 30,000X compared to state-of-the-art microprocessors while providing power efficiency of 84,000 GigaOps/s/W. Problems that currently require days of training on a datacenter-size cluster with thousands of machines can be addressed within hours on a single RPU accelerator. A system consisting of a cluster of RPU accelerators will be able to tackle Big Data problems with trillions of parameters that is impossible to address today like, for example, natural speech recognition and translation between all world languages, real-time analytics on large streams of business and scientific data, integration and analysis of multimodal sensory data flows from a massive number of IoT (Internet of Things sensors.

  4. Acceleration of Deep Neural Network Training with Resistive Cross-Point Devices: Design Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokmen, Tayfun; Vlasov, Yurii

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, deep neural networks (DNN) have demonstrated significant business impact in large scale analysis and classification tasks such as speech recognition, visual object detection, pattern extraction, etc. Training of large DNNs, however, is universally considered as time consuming and computationally intensive task that demands datacenter-scale computational resources recruited for many days. Here we propose a concept of resistive processing unit (RPU) devices that can potentially accelerate DNN training by orders of magnitude while using much less power. The proposed RPU device can store and update the weight values locally thus minimizing data movement during training and allowing to fully exploit the locality and the parallelism of the training algorithm. We evaluate the effect of various RPU device features/non-idealities and system parameters on performance in order to derive the device and system level specifications for implementation of an accelerator chip for DNN training in a realistic CMOS-compatible technology. For large DNNs with about 1 billion weights this massively parallel RPU architecture can achieve acceleration factors of 30, 000 × compared to state-of-the-art microprocessors while providing power efficiency of 84, 000 GigaOps∕s∕W. Problems that currently require days of training on a datacenter-size cluster with thousands of machines can be addressed within hours on a single RPU accelerator. A system consisting of a cluster of RPU accelerators will be able to tackle Big Data problems with trillions of parameters that is impossible to address today like, for example, natural speech recognition and translation between all world languages, real-time analytics on large streams of business and scientific data, integration, and analysis of multimodal sensory data flows from a massive number of IoT (Internet of Things) sensors.

  5. Training Deep Convolutional Neural Networks with Resistive Cross-Point Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokmen, Tayfun; Onen, Murat; Haensch, Wilfried

    2017-01-01

    In a previous work we have detailed the requirements for obtaining maximal deep learning performance benefit by implementing fully connected deep neural networks (DNN) in the form of arrays of resistive devices. Here we extend the concept of Resistive Processing Unit (RPU) devices to convolutional neural networks (CNNs). We show how to map the convolutional layers to fully connected RPU arrays such that the parallelism of the hardware can be fully utilized in all three cycles of the backpropagation algorithm. We find that the noise and bound limitations imposed by the analog nature of the computations performed on the arrays significantly affect the training accuracy of the CNNs. Noise and bound management techniques are presented that mitigate these problems without introducing any additional complexity in the analog circuits and that can be addressed by the digital circuits. In addition, we discuss digitally programmable update management and device variability reduction techniques that can be used selectively for some of the layers in a CNN. We show that a combination of all those techniques enables a successful application of the RPU concept for training CNNs. The techniques discussed here are more general and can be applied beyond CNN architectures and therefore enables applicability of the RPU approach to a large class of neural network architectures.

  6. Muscle Volume Increases Following 16 Weeks of Resistive Exercise Training with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and Free Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (pmuscle strength and volume between training devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 5+/-2%), and DP (FW: 2

  7. An examination of training on the VertiMax resisted jumping device for improvements in lower body power in highly trained college athletes .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Matthew R; Peterson, Mark D; Oliverson, Jeff R; Ayllón, Fernando Naclerio; Potenziano, Ben J

    2008-05-01

    Training to develop superior muscular power has become a key component to most progressive sport conditioning programs. Conventional resistance training, plyometrics, and speed/agility modalities have all been employed in an effort to realize superlative combinations of training stimuli. New training devices such as the VertiMax resisted jump trainer are marketed as a means of improving lower body reactive power. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the VertiMax, in combination with traditional training modalities, for improvements in lower body power among highly trained athletes. Forty men and women Division I collegiate athletes representing the sports of baseball, basketball, soccer, gymnastics, and track completed a 12-week mixed-methods training program. Two groups were constructed with both groups performing the same conventional resistance training and strength training exercises. The training control group performed traditional plyometric exercises while the experimental group performed similar loaded jump training on the VertiMax. Lower body power was measured before and after the training program by the TENDO FiTROdyne Powerlizer and statistically compared for differences between groups. Data analyses identified a significant (p training alone (effect size = 0.09). These data convincingly demonstrate that the VertiMax represents an effective strategy for developing lower body power among trained college athletes, when combined with traditional strength and conditioning approaches.

  8. Virtual Training Devices Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Training Devices (VTD) Laboratory at the Life Cycle Software Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, provides a software testing and support environment...

  9. Development, feasibility, and efficacy of a customized exercise device to deliver intradialytic resistance training in patients with end stage renal disease: Non-randomized controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Danwin; Green, Simon; Fiatarone Singh, Maria; Barnard, Robert; Cheema, Birinder S

    2016-10-01

    Introduction This study assessed the feasibility and efficacy of a novel resistance training device used within an intradialytic progressive resistance training (PRT) intervention. Methods Non-randomized, within-subjects crossover design with outcomes assessed at baseline (week 0), postcontrol (week 13) and post-PRT intervention (week 26). Twenty-two hemodialysis patients (59% men, 71 ± 11 years) performed PRT three sessions per week for 12 weeks. The resistance training device was developed to enable the performance of 2 upper body and 3 lower body exercises, unilaterally and bilaterally, both before and during dialysis, with loads of 2.5 to 59 kg. Feasibility outcomes included adverse events, adherence and training load progression. Changes in upper and lower body muscular strength, six-minute walk, aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depression were evaluated. Findings The PRT intervention was delivered without serious adverse events, resulted in 71.2% ± 23.3% adherence and significant adaptation of all training loads from pre to mid to post training (83.8%-185.6%, all P Emotional) significantly increased (all P outcomes. Discussion PRT using the novel resistance training device was feasible and improved measures of physical and psychological health. This device can be utilized in most dialysis centers. Future studies are required to evaluate dose-response effects of PRT prescriptions in subpopulations, and the translation of PRT to standard dialysis practice. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  10. Integrated Endurance and Resistance Exercise Countermeasures Using a Gravity Independent Training Device

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study is designed to investigate the effectiveness of a new exercise device, multi-mode exercise device or M-MED, for use during long-duration space flights for...

  11. 16 Weeks of Training with the International Space Station Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) Is not Different than Training with Free Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. E.; Leach, M.; Bentley, J.; Nash, R.; Hagan, R. D.

    2008-01-01

    The advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) is a resistive exercise system designed to maintain muscle mass and strength in microgravity by simulating free weight (FW) exercise. aRED utilizes vacuum cylinders and inertial flywheels to replicate the constant mass and inertial components, respectively, of FW exercise in normal gravity. PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of aRED and FW resistive exercise training in ambulatory subjects. METHODS: Untrained subjects were assigned to two groups, FW (6 males, 3 females) and aRED (8 males, 3 females), and performed squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift (DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR and DL strength (1RM) were measured using FW hardware pre-, mid- and post-training. Subjects participated in a periodized training protocol with the exercise prescription based on a percentage of 1RM. Thigh and lower leg muscle volume were assessed using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and leg (LLM) and total body lean mass (BLM) were measured using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) pre- and post-training. RESULTS: SQ 1RM increased in both FW (48.9+/-6.1%) and aRED (31.2+/-3.8%) groups, and there was a greater training response in FW compared with aRED (p=0.01). HR and DL 1RM increased in FW (HR: 12.3+/-2.4%, DL: 23.3+/-4.4%) and aRED (HR: 18.0+/-1.6%, DL: 23.2+'-2.8%), but there were no differences between groups. Thigh muscle volume was greater following training in both groups (FW: 9.8+/-0.9%, aRED: 7.1+/-1.2%) but lower leg muscle volume increased only in the FW group (3.0+/-1.1%). Lean tissue mass increased in both FW (LLM: 3.9+/-1.1%, BLM: 2.5+/-0.7%) and aRED (LLM: 4.8+/-0.7%, BLM: 2.6 0.7%). There were no between group differences in muscle volume or lean mass in response to training. CONCLUSIONS: In general, the increase in muscle strength, muscle volume, and lean tissue mass when training with aRED was not different than when using the same training protocol with FW. The smaller increase in SQ 1RM in the a

  12. Cascade orificial resistive device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsakis, Nicholas; Cassidy, James

    1994-07-01

    A cascade orificial resistive device for throttling fluid flow which minimizes acoustic noise and internal vibrations is described herein. The device has a hollow body defining a fluid passageway, a plurality of perforated plates mounted within the passageway, a fixed end ring adjacent one end of the perforated plates, and a threadable end ring adjacent an opposite end of the perforated plates to place the plates in compression. Each of the perforated plates is a single piece molded plate having an integral outer ring and an integrally formed center keying mechanism as well as a plurality of orifices. The keying mechanism formed on each plate is designed so that adjacent ones of the plates have their orifices misaligned. In this manner, a pressure drop across each plate is created and the fluid flow through the device is throttled. The device of the present invention has utility in a number of onboard marine vessel systems wherein reduced acoustic noise and internal vibrations are particularly desirable.

  13. Dynamic training devices in CRM training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawver, J.

    1984-01-01

    Pilot training effectiveness and flying safety of a seasonal tour flight company are described. The change from single pilot to two pilot operated twin otters is examined. The use of the ATC 810 training device, its possibilities and training capacity is outlined. Problem areas which may arise, emergency system and pilot/passenger interaction are analyzed.

  14. Evaluation of the effect of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT or Kegel exercise) and assisted pelvic floor muscle training (APFMT) by a resistance device (Kegelmaster device) on the urinary incontinence in women: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashanian, Maryam; Ali, Shadab Shah; Nazemi, Mitra; Bahasadri, Shohreh

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) or Kegel exercise with and without assistance by a resistance device (Kegelmaster device) on the urinary incontinence in women. A randomized clinical trial was performed on 91 women with the complaint of urinary incontinence. In the assisted pelvic floor muscle training (APFMT) group (n=41), after complete training, Kegelmaster device were used twice daily for 15 min each session, for a total duration of 12 weeks. In the pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) group (n=50) after complete training, kegel exercises were done (including perineal muscle contractions for 6-8s with 6s rest in between), twice daily for 15 min each session and for a total duration of 12 weeks. These two groups were then compared according to the scores of special questionnaires for quality of life, strength of pelvic floor muscles, capability to participate in social activities, severity of urinary incontinence, and the number of involuntary urine passage, taken before, and after 1 and 3 months after finishing interventions. 85 women out of 91 women finished the study (46 in the PFMT group and 39 in the APFMT group). Strength of pelvic floor muscles, capability to participate in social activities, score of quality of life according to three world questionnaires of IQOL (incontinence Quality Of Life), IIQ (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire), UDI (Urogenital Distress Inventory), showed no difference between the two groups 1 and 3 months after interventions. Pair t test showed a significant improvement in both groups 1 and 3 months after intervention, according to IQOL score (P=0.000), UDI score (P=0.000), IIQ score (P=0.000), strength of pelvic floor muscles, (P=0.000), capability to participate in social activities (P=0.000), severity of urinary incontinence (P=0.000) and the number of involuntary urine passage (P=0.000). Pelvic floor muscle training with or without Kegelmaster show no apparent difference to each other, however

  15. Giant magneto-resistance devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hirota, Eiichi; Inomata, Koichiro

    2002-01-01

    This book deals with the application of giant magneto-resistance (GMR) effects to electronic devices. It will appeal to engineers and graduate students in the fields of electronic devices and materials. The main subjects are magnetic sensors with high resolution and magnetic read heads with high sensitivity, required for hard-disk drives with recording densities of several gigabytes. Another important subject is novel magnetic random-access memories (MRAM) with non-volatile non-destructive and radiation-resistant characteristics. Other topics include future GMR devices based on bipolar spin transistors, spin field-effect transistors (FETs) and double-tunnel junctions.

  16. Compact, Controlled Resistance Exercise Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, David C.; DeWitt, John K.; Reich, Alton J.; Shaw, James E.; Deaconu, Stelu S.

    2011-01-01

    Spaceflight leads to muscle and bone atrophy. Isoinertial (free-weight) exercises provide a sufficient stimulus to elicit increases in both muscle strength and bone mineral density in Earth-based studies. While exercise equipment is in use on the International Space Station for crewmember health maintenance, current devices are too large to place in a transport vehicle or small spacecraft. Therefore, a portable computer controlled resistance exercise device is being developed that is able to simulate the inertial loading experienced when lifting a mass on Earth. This portable device weighs less than 50 lb and can simulate the resistance of lifting and lowering up to 600 lb of free-weights. The objective is to allow crewmembers to perform resistance exercise with loads capable of maintaining muscle and bone health. The device is reconfigurable and allows for the performance of typical Earth-based free-weight exercises. Forces exerted, volume of work, range of motion, time-under-tension, and speed/ acceleration of movement are recorded and can be remotely monitored to track progress and modify individual protocols based on exercise session data. A performance evaluation will be completed and data will be presented that include ground-reaction force comparisons between the device and free-weight dead-lifts over a spectrum of resistance levels. Movement biomechanics will also be presented.

  17. Heavy resistance training and lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomquist, Kira; Karlsmark, Tonny; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2014-01-01

    , and identify associations between progressive resistance training with heavy loads, and the development of BCRL. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a descriptive study. POPULATION: Women treated for breast cancer (n = 149), who had participated in the 'Body and Cancer' exercise intervention between 1 January 2010......BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge regarding progressive resistance training during adjuvant chemotherapy and the risk of developing breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Furthermore, no studies have investigated the safety of resistance training with heavy loads (> 80% 1 repetition maximum......) in this population. 'Body and Cancer' is a six-week, nine-hour weekly, supervised, multimodal exercise intervention utilizing progressive resistance training with heavy loads for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of BCRL in former participants...

  18. Development of Magnetorheological Resistive Exercise Device for Rowing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Grigas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Training equipment used by professional sportsmen has a great impact on their sport performance. Most universal exercisers may help only to improve the general physical condition due to the specific kinematics and peculiar resistance generated by their loading units. Training of effective techniques and learning of psychomotor skills are possible only when exercisers conform to the movements and resistance typical for particular sports kinematically and dynamically. Methodology of developing a magnetorheological resistive exercise device for generating the desired law of passive resistance force and its application in a lever-type rowing machine are described in the paper. The structural parameters of a controllable hydraulic cylinder type device were found by means of the computational fluid dynamics simulation performed by ANSYS CFX software. Parameters describing the magnetorheological fluid as non-Newtonian were determined by combining numerical and experimental research of the resistance force generated by the original magnetorheological damper. A structural scheme of the device control system was developed and the variation of the strength of magnetic field that affects the magnetorheological fluid circulating in the device was determined, ensuring a variation of the resistance force on the oar handle adequate for the resistance that occurs during a real boat rowing stroke.

  19. Mechatronic Device for Locomotor Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Sławomir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mechatronic device to support a gait reeducation process. The conceptual works were done by the interdisciplinary design team. This collaboration allowed to perform a device that would connect the current findings in the fields of biomechanics and mechatronics. In the first part of the article shown a construction of the device which is based on the structure of an overhead travelling crane. The rest of the article contains the issues related to machine control system. In the prototype, the control of drive system is conducted by means of two RT-DAC4/PCI real time cards connected with a signal conditioning interface. Authors present the developed control algorithms and optimization process of the controller settings values. The summary contains a comparison of some numerical simulation results and experimental data from the sensors mounted on the device. The measurement data were obtained during the gait of a healthy person.

  20. Lightweight and Compace Multifunction Computer-Controlled Strength and Aerobic Training Device, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TDA Research proposes to develop a computer-controlled lightweight and compact device for aerobic and resistive training (DART) to counteract muscular atrophy and...

  1. Does Resistance Training Stimulate Cardiac Muscle Hypertrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the left ventricular structural adaptations induced by resistance/strength exercise, focusing on human work, particularly well-trained strength athletes engaged in regular, moderate- to high-intensity resistance training (RT). The article discusses both genders and examines the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in…

  2. Tamper Indicating Device: Initial Training, Course 50112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, Stephen Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sandoval, Dana M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-29

    Tamper Indicating Device (TID): Initial Training, course #50112, covers Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Material Control & Accountability (MC&A) TID Program procedures for the application and removal of TIDs. LANL’s policy is to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for the use of TIDs consistent with the graded safeguards described in DOE Manual DOE O 474.2, Nuclear Material Control and Accountability. When you have completed this course, you will: recognize standard practices and procedures of the LANL TID Program; have hands-on experience in the application and removal of LANL TIDs, and; verify the application and removal of LANL TIDs.

  3. Resistance training during preadolescence. Issues and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blimkie, C J

    1993-06-01

    High intensity resistance training appears to be effective in increasing strength in preadolescents. Children make similar relative (percentage improvement), but smaller absolute, strength gains compared with adolescents and young adults in response to similar resistance training programmes. Resistance training appears to have little if any effect on muscle size, and strength gains during training have been associated with increases in levels of neuromuscular activation and changes in intrinsic contractile characteristics of muscle. Although unsubstantiated, improved motor coordination probably also contributes to the increase in strength, especially for more complex strength manoeuvres. On the basis of limited information, training-induced strength gains are lost during detraining, and the decay in strength has been associated with a reduction in neuromuscular activation. Short term resistance training appears to have no effect on somatic growth (height or weight) and body composition, and no proven positive influence on sports performance, injury rate or recovery from injury during preadolescence. Weightlifting has proved injurious to some children, especially when unsupervised and without instruction in proper weightlifting technique and load selection. In contrast, the risk of injury from prudently prescribed and closely supervised resistance training appears to be low during preadolescence. Lastly, short term resistance training appears to have no detrimental effect during preadolescence on either cardiorespiratory fitness or resting blood pressure.

  4. RESISTANCE TRAINING FOR YOUTH: MYTHS AND FACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Radovanović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using resistance training with the aim of developing muscle strength among youth is still a matter of debate and often receives severe criticism. Previous research, which has not noted an increase in muscle strength, led to the conclusion that resistance training is ineffective among youth. However, the results of numerous more recent studies which have closely followed the published statements and recommendations obtained by leading global professional and health organizations, indicate that if carried out properly, resistance training among youth can have very positive results. In addition to its positive influence on muscle strength and endurance, as well as the potential increase in the success rate of motor performance, regular resistance training can result in the improvement of body composition, increased bone mineral density, an improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, as well as its influence on one’s psychological well-being. The most commonly used types of load for resistance training include free weights and weight machines, which can have standard dimensions, but are also specially designed for younger people. It is also often the case that these training programs consist of body weight exercises, exercises with a medicine ball, expanders and elastic bands. Current findings from well-organized and monitored studies involving samples of youth indicated a very small possibility of injury during resistance training, provided that all the training recommendations for the given age group are adhered to.

  5. Resistance Training for Pediatric Female Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Hanson, Emily; Kiefer, Adam W; Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D

    2016-01-01

    Resistance training often is not an inherent component of current dance training for pediatric female dancers. Reasons for this include concerns surrounding injury to the immature skeleton and diminishing dancer aesthetic appearance, as well as questions related to the effectiveness of such training for increasing dancer strength and muscle endurance. Many forms of dance demand sufficient muscle strength and endurance for prolonged periods of high intensity dance, power generation during leaps and jumps, as well as stabilization of the lower extremity to prevent injury. The benefits of resistance training for the pediatric female dancer are multiple, including improved muscle strength and bone health and decreased risk for stress related injuries to the actively growing skeleton. Understanding the biomechanical changes that occur during growth that may predispose the female dancer to injury is important, as well as initiating individualized resistance training protocols early in training that may serve to improve performance and prevent future injury.

  6. Training device for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoessow, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    A simulated nuclear energy power plant system with visible internal working components comprising a reactor adapted to contain a liquid with heating elements submerged in the liquid and capable of heating the liquid to an elevated temperature, a steam generator containing water and a heat exchanger means to receive the liquid at an elevated temperature, transform the water to steam, and return the spent liquid to the reactor; a steam turbine receiving high energy steam to drive the turbine and discharging low energy steam to a condenser where the low energy steam is condensed to water which is returned to the steam generator; an electric generator driven by the turbine; indicating means to identify the physical status of the reactor and its contents; and manual and automatic controls to selectively establish normal or abnormal operating conditions in the reactor, steam generator, pressurizer, turbine, electric generator, condenser, and pumps; and to be selectively adjusted to bring the reactor to acceptable operating condition after being placed in an abnormal operation. This device is particularly useful as an education device in demonstrating nuclear reactor operations and in training operating personnel for nuclear reactor systems and also as a device for conducting research on various safety systems to improve the safety of nuclear power plants

  7. Resistance training is medicine: effects of strength training on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westcott, Wayne L

    2012-01-01

    Inactive adults experience a 3% to 8% loss of muscle mass per decade, accompanied by resting metabolic rate reduction and fat accumulation. Ten weeks of resistance training may increase lean weight by 1.4 kg, increase resting metabolic rate by 7%, and reduce fat weight by 1.8 kg. Benefits of resistance training include improved physical performance, movement control, walking speed, functional independence, cognitive abilities, and self-esteem. Resistance training may assist prevention and management of type 2 diabetes by decreasing visceral fat, reducing HbA1c, increasing the density of glucose transporter type 4, and improving insulin sensitivity. Resistance training may enhance cardiovascular health, by reducing resting blood pressure, decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Resistance training may promote bone development, with studies showing 1% to 3% increase in bone mineral density. Resistance training may be effective for reducing low back pain and easing discomfort associated with arthritis and fibromyalgia and has been shown to reverse specific aging factors in skeletal muscle.

  8. Investigation of the synaptic device based on the resistive switching behavior in hafnium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Gao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Metal-oxide based electronics synapse is promising for future neuromorphic computation application due to its simple structure and fab-friendly materials. HfOx resistive switching memory has been demonstrated superior performance such as high speed, low voltage, robust reliability, excellent repeatability, and so on. In this work, the HfOx synaptic device was investigated based on its resistive switching phenomenon. HfOx resistive switching device with different electrodes and dopants were fabricated. TiN/Gd:HfOx/Pt stack exhibited the best synaptic performance, including controllable multilevel ability and low training energy consumption. The training schemes for memory and forgetting were developed.

  9. Relationship between resistance training and selfreported habitual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similar to the non-exercising control group, resistance training resulted in no significant (p > 0.05) changes in the habitual intake of daily intake of total ... as a mode of training may not be an effective mode of exercise to promote overall physical activity in an attempt to modify the patterns of macronutrient and energy intake.

  10. Measuring Learning Resistance to Workplace Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan E.; Lounsbury, John

    2016-01-01

    Training Transfer has been a topic bearing considerable mention over the past several decades. This article focuses on the connection between training transfer and learning resistance and presents research findings describing the design, creation, and testing of the Learning Efficiency Inventory (LEI). The LEI was designed to measure learning…

  11. Research of training device on goniometry detector of nuclear burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shuijun; Wu Jiangfeng; Qin Jin

    2012-01-01

    The problem is that a Goniometry Detector is unable to be used to train, which lacks of simulation training environment and real training conditions. Its basic working principle is analyzed, and the overall program which is suitable to the training simulator is raised. We also describe the design of light source. We developed a set of experimental device and did some experiments on the basis of it. The experimental results show that technical approach of the program is feasible and the basic performance can meet training needs. The set of experimental device can solve practical training problems and play an important military benefit by improvements. (authors)

  12. Why do seniors leave resistance training programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton E

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Elissa Burton,1 Anne-Marie Hill,1 Simone Pettigrew,2 Gill Lewin,3 Liz Bainbridge,1 Kaela Farrier,1 Phil Airey,4 Keith D Hill1 1School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, 2School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, 3School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, Curtin University, 4Council on the Ageing, Perth, WA, Australia Purpose: The proportion of the population, that is older, is growing at a faster rate than other age groups. Physical activity is important for older people because it assists in living independently. Participating in resistance training on a regular basis (twice weekly is recommended for older people; yet, fewer than 15% of people over 60 years achieve this level. The aim of this article was to investigate the factors contributing to older people’s decisions to stop participation in a resistance training program.Participants and methods: Participants were older people who had chosen to participate in a structured resistance training program specifically designed for seniors and then after a period of time discontinued. This population received a questionnaire in the mail focused on factors contributing to their cessation of resistance training exercise. Qualitative results were analyzed using inductive content analysis.Results: Fifty-six survey responses were received (average age 71.5 years, SD =9.0; 79% females. Injury, illness, and holidaying were the main reasons for ceasing participation. A small but important number of responses (11% reported that they considered they were not provided with sufficient support during the resistance training programs.Conclusions: To attract and retain their senior clients, the results indicate that program organizers need to provide tailored support to return to resistance training after injury and offer flexible and individualized services that accommodate older people’s life choices in retirement. Keywords: older people, strength training, gymnasium, retention, aging

  13. Is inertial flywheel resistance training superior to gravity-dependent resistance training in improving muscle strength?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicens-Bordas, J; Esteve, E; Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, A

    2018-01-01

    -dependent resistance training in improving other muscular adaptations. DESIGN: A systematic review with meta-analyses of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials with no publication date......OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this systematic review was to determine if inertial flywheel resistance training is superior to gravity-dependent resistance training in improving muscle strength. The secondary aim was to determine whether inertial flywheel resistance training is superior to gravity...... restrictions until November 2016. We performed meta-analyses on randomised and non-randomised controlled trials to determine the standardized mean difference between the effects of inertial flywheel and gravity-dependent resistance training on muscle strength. A total of 76 and 71 participants were included...

  14. Manual Resistance versus Conventional Resistance Training: Impact on Strength and Muscular Endurance in Recreationally Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulvi-Medrano, Iván; Rial, Tamara; Cortell-Tormo, Juan M; Alakhdar, Yasser; La Scala Teixeira, Caue V; Masiá-Tortosa, Laura; Dorgo, Sandor

    2017-09-01

    Manual resistance training (MRT) has been widely used in the field of physical therapy. It has also been used as a strength training method due to the accommodating resistance nature of this modality. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of an 8-week MRT program on maximum strength and muscular endurance in comparison to conventional resistance training in recreationally trained men. Twenty healthy recreationally trained male subjects were recruited and divided into a MRT training group and a conventional training (CT) group. CT group performed bench press and lat pull-down exercises, and the MRT group performed similar movements with resistance provided by a personal trainer. Both groups completed similar training protocol and training load: 2 training sessions weekly for 3 sets of 8 repetitions at an intensity of 8 to 10 on the perceived exertion scale of 0-10. Initial maximum strength differences were not significant between the groups. Neither group showed significant changes in muscular strength or endurance. Despite the statistically non-significant pre- to post differences, a trend for improvement was observed and effect size (ES) calculations indicated greater magnitude of effects for strength and endurance changes in the MRT group in lat pulldown (g=0.84) compared to CT group. Effectiveness of MRT is similar to CT for improving muscular strength and endurance. MRT can be used as a supplemental or alternative strength training modality for recreationally trained subjects, or be considered by personal trainers especially in low equipped facility conditions.

  15. Army Training: Efforts to Adjust Training Requirements Should Consider the Use of Virtual Training Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    accompanying bills for the Fiscal Year 2016 National Defense Authorization Act included provisions for GAO to review the Army’s training plans and its use...implemented it. Both the Senate and House reports accompanying bills for the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 included provisions...system training devices are the Engagement Skills Trainer, the Call for Fire Trainer II, the Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Tactical Proficiency

  16. [Study on an Exoskeleton Hand Function Training Device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Zhang, Ying; Li, Jicai; Yi, Jinhua; Yu, Hongliu; He, Rongrong

    2016-02-01

    Based on the structure and motion bionic principle of the normal adult fingers, biological characteristics of human hands were analyzed, and a wearable exoskeleton hand function training device for the rehabilitation of stroke patients or patients with hand trauma was designed. This device includes the exoskeleton mechanical structure and the electromyography (EMG) control system. With adjustable mechanism, the device was capable to fit different finger lengths, and by capturing the EMG of the users' contralateral limb, the motion state of the exoskeleton hand was controlled. Then driven by the device, the user's fingers conducting adduction/abduction rehabilitation training was carried out. Finally, the mechanical properties and training effect of the exoskeleton hand were verified through mechanism simulation and the experiments on the experimental prototype of the wearable exoskeleton hand function training device.

  17. Resistive field structures for semiconductor devices and uses therof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinella, Matthew; DasGupta, Sandeepan; Kaplar, Robert; Baca, Albert G.

    2017-09-12

    The present disclosure relates to resistive field structures that provide improved electric field profiles when used with a semiconductor device. In particular, the resistive field structures provide a uniform electric field profile, thereby enhancing breakdown voltage and improving reliability. In example, the structure is a field cage that is configured to be resistive, in which the potential changes significantly over the distance of the cage. In another example, the structure is a resistive field plate. Using these resistive field structures, the characteristics of the electric field profile can be independently modulated from the physical parameters of the semiconductor device. Additional methods and architectures are described herein.

  18. Neuro-inspired computing using resistive synaptic devices

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the recent breakthroughs in hardware implementation of neuro-inspired computing using resistive synaptic devices. The authors describe how two-terminal solid-state resistive memories can emulate synaptic weights in a neural network. Readers will benefit from state-of-the-art summaries of resistive synaptic devices, from the individual cell characteristics to the large-scale array integration. This book also discusses peripheral neuron circuits design challenges and design strategies. Finally, the authors describe the impact of device non-ideal properties (e.g. noise, variation, yield) and their impact on the learning performance at the system-level, using a device-algorithm co-design methodology. • Provides single-source reference to recent breakthroughs in resistive synaptic devices, not only at individual cell-level, but also at integrated array-level; • Includes detailed discussion of the peripheral circuits and array architecture design of the neuro-crossbar system; • Focuses on...

  19. Menopause: highlighting the effects of resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, R D; Prestes, J; Pereira, G B; Shiguemoto, G E; Perez, S E A

    2010-11-01

    The increase in lifespan and in the proportion of elderly women has increased the focus on menopause induced physiological alterations. These modifications are associated with the elevated risk of several pathologies such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fat liver disease, among others. Because of estrogen levels decline, many tissue and organs (muscular, bone, adipose tissue and liver) are affected. Additionally, body composition suffers important modifications. In this sense, there is a growing body of concern in understanding the physiological mechanisms involved and establishing strategies to prevent and reverse the effects of menopause. The hormone reposition therapy, diet and physical exercise have been recommended. Among the diverse exercise modalities, resistance training is not commonly used as a therapeutic intervention in the treatment of menopause. Thus, the aim of this review was to analyze the physiological alterations on several organs and systems induced by menopause and ovariectomy (experimental model to reproduce menopause), as well as, to study the effects of resistance training in preventing and reverting these modifications. In conclusion, resistance training promotes beneficial effects on several organs and systems, mainly, on muscular, bone and adipose tissue, allowing for a better quality of life in this population.

  20. Resistive Memory Devices for Radiation Resistant Non-Volatile Memory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ionizing radiation in space can damage electronic equipment, corrupting data and even disabling computers. Radiation resistant (rad hard) strategies must be employed...

  1. Low contact resistance in epitaxial graphene devices for quantum metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yager, Tom, E-mail: yager@chalmers.se, E-mail: ywpark@snu.ac.kr; Lartsev, Arseniy; Lara-Avila, Samuel; Kubatkin, Sergey [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology Göteborg, S-412 96 (Sweden); Cedergren, Karin [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW-2052 (Australia); Yakimova, Rositsa [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University Linköping, S-581 83 (Sweden); Panchal, Vishal; Kazakova, Olga [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Tzalenchuk, Alexander [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Kim, Kyung Ho; Park, Yung Woo, E-mail: yager@chalmers.se, E-mail: ywpark@snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    We investigate Ti/Au contacts to monolayer epitaxial graphene on SiC (0001) for applications in quantum resistance metrology. Using three-terminal measurements in the quantum Hall regime we observed variations in contact resistances ranging from a minimal value of 0.6 Ω up to 11 kΩ. We identify a major source of high-resistance contacts to be due bilayer graphene interruptions to the quantum Hall current, whilst discarding the effects of interface cleanliness and contact geometry for our fabricated devices. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrate methods to improve the reproducibility of low resistance contacts (<10 Ω) suitable for high precision quantum resistance metrology.

  2. Low contact resistance in epitaxial graphene devices for quantum metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Yager

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate Ti/Au contacts to monolayer epitaxial graphene on SiC (0001 for applications in quantum resistance metrology. Using three-terminal measurements in the quantum Hall regime we observed variations in contact resistances ranging from a minimal value of 0.6 Ω up to 11 kΩ. We identify a major source of high-resistance contacts to be due bilayer graphene interruptions to the quantum Hall current, whilst discarding the effects of interface cleanliness and contact geometry for our fabricated devices. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrate methods to improve the reproducibility of low resistance contacts (<10 Ω suitable for high precision quantum resistance metrology.

  3. 14 CFR 141.41 - Flight simulators, flight training devices, and training aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and training aids. 141.41 Section 141.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... aids. An applicant for a pilot school certificate or a provisional pilot school certificate must show that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the following...

  4. 14 CFR 121.407 - Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the pilot flight training requirements prescribed in the certificate holder's approved low-altitude... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices. 121.407 Section 121.407 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...

  5. Physiological Effects of Strength Training and Various Strength Training Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmore, Jack H.

    Current knowledge in the area of muscle physiology is a basis for a discussion on strength training programs. It is now recognized that the expression of strength is related to, but not dependent upon, the size of the muscle and is probably more related to the ability to recruit more muscle fibers in the contraction, or to better synchronize their…

  6. Resistance Training in Children and Young Adults: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rami Shenouda; Mark Wilson; Scott Fletcher

    2017-01-01

    Resistance training is a method used by many athletes to increase their levels of performance. The benefits of this method are known to be increased strength, power and endurance. Resistance training in children has been a topic that has been long debated and there are some widely accepted beliefs and principles that guide clinicians involved in the discipline of sport and exercise medicine. While weight training is a form of resistance training that has proven beneficial effects on health an...

  7. resistance training and changes to plasma lipoproteins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to resistance training, HDL-cholesterol was reduced in women aged 54 - 71 years over 12 weeks. 12 ... the effect of a 24-week progressive resistance training programme on the blood lipid profiles of a sample ..... cise training on cardiovascular risk factors of sedentary, overweight, pre- menopausal and postmenopausal ...

  8. Effect of resistance training on total, central and abdominal adiposity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resistance training had no impact on the measures of centrally located and abdominal adiposity. Body mass and BMI should be used with caution in risk calculations and measures of total adiposity in individuals engaging in resistance training due to this mode of training increasing lean mass (and thus body mass and BMI) ...

  9. Three-terminal graphene negative differential resistance devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanqing; Farmer, Damon B; Zhu, Wenjuan; Han, Shu-Jen; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos D; Bol, Ageeth A; Avouris, Phaedon; Lin, Yu-Ming

    2012-03-27

    A new mechanism for negative differential resistance (NDR) is discovered in three-terminal graphene devices based on a field-effect transistor configuration. This NDR effect is a universal phenomenon for graphene and is demonstrated in devices fabricated with different types of graphene materials and gate dielectrics. Operation of conventional NDR devices is usually based on quantum tunneling or intervalley carrier transfer, whereas the NDR behavior observed here is unique to the ambipolar behavior of zero-bandgap graphene and is associated with the competition between electron and hole conduction as the drain bias increases. These three terminal graphene NDR devices offer more operation flexibility than conventional two-terminal devices based on tunnel diodes, Gunn diodes, or molecular devices, and open up new opportunities for graphene in microwave to terahertz applications. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  10. 30 CFR 250.1631 - Safety device training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operations to be performed; possible hazards to be encountered; and general safety considerations to be taken... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety device training. 250.1631 Section 250.1631 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND...

  11. Web-Based Spatial Training Using Handheld Touch Screen Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Dorta, Norena; Saorin, Jose Luis; Contero, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to harness the opportunities for mobility and the new user interfaces that handheld touch screen devices offer, in a non-formal learning context, with a view to developing spatial ability. This research has addressed two objectives: first, analyzing the effects that training can have on spatial visualisation using the…

  12. Resistance Training in Children and Young Adults: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Shenouda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance training is a method used by many athletes to increase their levels of performance. The benefits of this method are known to be increased strength, power and endurance. Resistance training in children has been a topic that has been long debated and there are some widely accepted beliefs and principles that guide clinicians involved in the discipline of sport and exercise medicine. While weight training is a form of resistance training that has proven beneficial effects on health and wellbeing, powerlifting and heavy weight training should be avoided, as lifting maximal weights through various ranges of motion as fast as possible can lead to serious limb injuries. In order to determine the risks and benefits of resistance training in children and adolescents, it is important to review the literature to find a clear consensus. Further prospective research should be completed to determine the long-term sequelae of resistance training in children in comparison to the general population.

  13. Cardioprotective Properties of Aerobic and Resistance Training Against Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, C A; Souza, G I H; Oliveira, J C M F; Silva, L M; Mostarda, C T; Dourado, P M M; Oyama, L M; Lira, F S; Irigoyen, M C; Rodrigues, B

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise training on ventricular morphometry and function, physical capacity, autonomic function, as well as on ventricular inflammatory status in trained rats prior to myocardial infarction. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: sedentary+Sham, sedentary+myocardial infarction, aerobic trained+myocardial infarction, and resistance trained+myocardial infarction. Sham and myocardial infarction were performed after training periods. In the days following the surgeries, evaluations were performed. Aerobic training prevents aerobic (to a greater extent) and resistance capacity impairments, ventricular dysfunction, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic disorders (vagal tonus decrease and sympathetic tonus increase) triggered by myocardial infarction. Resistance training was able to prevent negative changes to aerobic and resistance capacity (to a greater extent) but not to ventricular dysfunction, and it prevented cardiovascular sympathetic increments. Additionally, both types of training reduced left ventricle inflammatory cytokine concentration. Our results suggest that aerobic and, for the first time, dynamic resistance training were able to reduce sympathetic tonus to the heart and vessels, as well as preventing the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the left ventricle of trained groups. These data emphasizes the positive effects of aerobic and dynamic resistance training on the prevention of the negative changes triggered by myocardial infarction. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Heat resistant/radiation resistant cable and incore structure test device for FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Hajime; Shiono, Takeo; Sato, Yoshimi; Ito, Kazumi; Sudo, Shigeaki; Saito, Shin-ichi; Mitsui, Hisayasu.

    1995-01-01

    A heat resistant/radiation resistant coaxial cable of the present invention comprises an insulation layer, an outer conductor and a protection cover in this order on an inner conductor, in which the insulation layer comprises thermoplastic polyimide. In the same manner, a heat resistant/radiation resistant power cable has an insulation layer comprising thermoplastic polyimide on a conductor, and is provided with a protection cover comprising braid of alamide fibers at the outer circumference of the insulation layer. An incore structure test device for an FBR type reactor comprises the heat resistant/radiation resistant coaxial cable and/or the power cable. The thermoplastic polyimide can be extrusion molded, and has excellent radiation resistant by the extrusion, as well as has high dielectric withstand voltage, good flexibility and electric characteristics at high temperature. The incore structure test device for the FBR type reactor of the present invention comprising such a cable has excellent reliability and durability. (T.M.)

  15. Force and power characteristics of a resistive exercise device for use in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Hans E.; Tesch, Per A.

    We have developed a non-gravity dependent mechanical device, which provides resistance during coupled concentric and eccentric muscle actions, through the inertia of a spinning fly-wheel (Fly-Wheel Ergometry; FWE). Our research shows that lower-limb FWE exercise can produce forces and thus muscular stress comparable to what is typical of advanced resistance training using free weights. FWE also offers greater training stimuli during eccentric relative to concentric muscle actions, as evidenced by force and electromyographic (EMG) measurements. Muscle use of specific muscle groups, as assessed by the exercise-induced contrast shift of magnetic resonance images, is similar during lower-limb FWE and the barbell squat. Unlike free-weight exercise, FWE allows for maximal voluntary effort in each repetition of an exercise bout. Likewise, FWE exercise, not unassisted free-weight exercise, produces eccentric "overload". Collectively, the inherent features of this resistive exercise device and the results of the physiological evaluations we have performed, suggest that resistance exercise using FWE could be used as an effective exercise counter-measure in space. The flywheel principle can be employed to any exercise configuration and designed into a compact device allowing for exercises stressing those muscles and bone structures, which are thought to be most affected by long-duration spaceflight.

  16. Teach and Playback Training Device for Minimally Invasive Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Garudeswaran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological progress offers the opportunity to significantly transform conventional open surgical procedures in ways that allow minimally invasive surgery (MIS to be accomplished by specific operative instruments’ entry into the body through key-sized holes rather than large incisions. Although MIS offers an opportunity for less trauma and quicker recovery, thereby reducing length of hospital stay and attendant costs, the complex nature of this procedure makes it difficult to master, not least because of the limited work area and constricted degree of freedom. Accordingly, this research seeks to design a Teach and Playback device that can aid surgical training by key-framing and then reproducing surgical motions. The result is an inexpensive and portable Teach and Playback laparoscopic training device that can record a trainer’s surgical motions and then play them back for trainees. Indeed, such a device could provide a training platform for surgical residents generally and would also be susceptible of many other applications for other robot-assisted tasks that might require complex motion training and control.

  17. Effects of an Intensive Resistant Training Sessions and Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive and acute exercise trainings may induce oxidative stress, but antioxidant supplements may attenuate its degenerative consequences. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of green tea supplementation on the oxidative stress indices after an intensive resistance training session. Materials and Methods: 40 non-athletes (without regular physical activity women were randomly divided into 4 equal (n=10 groups including green tea supplementation, green tea supplementation plus resistance training, resistance training, and control groups. After supplementation period (600 mg/day, 14 days, resistance training and green tea supplementation plus resistance training groups performed an intensive resistance training session at 75-85 % of one repetition maximum. The malondialdehyde and total thiol were measured as oxidative stress indices. Data were analyzed by using of repeated measure ANOVA and LSD tests at p<0.056T. Results: Results showed that after 14 days of green tea consumption, malondialdehyde significantly decreased in green tea supplementation (p=0.03 and green tea supplementation plus resistance training (p=0.01 groups, while total thiol increased significantly (p=0.01 in two green tea supplementation groups. However, an intensive resistance training session increased malondialdehyde (p=0.01 without any significantly changes in total thiol (p=0.426T. Conclusion: It seems that green tea supplementation can inhibit exercise-induced protein and lipid oxidation in non-athletes women via enhancement of antioxidant defense system of the body6T.6T

  18. Development of Functional Recovery Training Device for Hemiplegic Fingers with Finger-expansion Facilitation Exercise by Stretch Reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong; Iwashita, Hisashi; Kawahira, Kazumi; Hayashi, Ryota

    This paper develops a functional recovery training device to perform repetition facilitating exercise for hemiplegic finger rehabilitation. On the facilitation exercise, automatic finger expansion can be realized and facilitated by stretch reflex, where a stimulation forces is applied instantaneously on flexion finger for making strech reflex and resistance forces are applied for maintaining the strech reflex. In this paper, novel parallel mechanisms, force sensing system with high sensitivity and resistance accompanying cooperation control method are proposed for sensing, controlling and realizing the stimulation force, resistance forces, strech reflex and repetition facilitating exercise. The effectivities and performances of the device are shown by some experiments.

  19. Comparing pulmonary resistance measured with an esophageal balloon to resistance measurements with an airflow perturbation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursey, D C; Johnson, A T; Scharf, S M

    2010-01-01

    The airflow perturbation device (APD) perturbs flow and mouth pressure during regular breathing. Ratios of mouth pressure perturbation magnitudes to flow perturbation magnitudes were used to calculate inspiratory, expiratory and average respiratory resistances. Resistance measurements with the APD were compared to pulmonary resistances directly measured with an esophageal balloon. Six healthy subjects were tested during tidal breathing when known external resistances were added during inspiration, during expiration and during both inspiration and expiration. When the baseline averaged balloon measured pulmonary resistance was subtracted from the baseline averaged APD measured resistance, the difference between them was 0.92 ± 1.25 (mean ± SD) cmH 2 O L –1 s –1 . Compared to the magnitude of the known increase in the added resistance, the APD measured resistance increased by 79%, whereas directly measured pulmonary resistance increased only by 56%. During addition of external resistances to both inspiration and expiration, the changes in inspiratory and expiratory pulmonary resistance were only 36% and 62% of the added resistance, respectively. On the other hand, the APD inhalation and exhalation resistance measured between 82% and 76% of the added resistance. We conclude that the APD detects changes in external resistance at least as well as, and probably better than, classical measurements of pulmonary resistance

  20. Numerical analysis of a polysilicon-based resistive memory device

    KAUST Repository

    Berco, Dan

    2018-03-08

    This study investigates a conductive bridge resistive memory device based on a Cu top electrode, 10-nm polysilicon resistive switching layer and a TiN bottom electrode, by numerical analysis for $$10^{3}$$103 programming and erase simulation cycles. The low and high resistive state values in each cycle are calculated, and the analysis shows that the structure has excellent retention reliability properties. The presented Cu species density plot indicates that Cu insertion occurs almost exclusively along grain boundaries resulting in a confined isomorphic conductive filament that maintains its overall shape and electric properties during cycling. The superior reliability of this structure may thus be attributed to the relatively low amount of Cu migrating into the RSL during initial formation. In addition, the results show a good match and help to confirm experimental measurements done over a previously demonstrated device.

  1. THE EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF THE GROUNDING DEVICE RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Nizhevskyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper considers experimental research of three-electrode units for measuring the resistance of grounding devices for different purposes. Methodology. The experimental study of the method of resistance measurement of grounding devices for any design in any soil structure using the method of physical modeling is presented. Results. By results of model operation the set of equations of the sixth order is solved. It allowed to determine the own and mutual impedance in the three-electrode unit with high accuracy without searching the point of zero potential. Features of measuring and defining the own and relative resistances of various combinations of electrodes for three-electrode measuring unit are considered. Originality. The necessity of finding a zero potential point is excluded. Practical value. The proposed method provides the smallest possible spacing of potential electrodes outside the grounding devices. This reduces the wiring length measurement circuit in several times, increases the ratio «signal – noise», removes the restrictions on building of the territory outside the test grounding device.

  2. Corporations and pedagogical devices: the training strategy of de capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Figari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the study of the processes of labor discipline in Argentine subsidiaries of large corporations. We argue that these processes are related to corporate pedagogical devices that extend inside the factory and beyond its borders. Specifically we delve into the complex linkages between the consolidation of corporate hegemony and corporate pedagogical devices. Thus, we study these various complex and linked devices that enable the corporate doctrine’s transpositions to everyday work. The paper provides conceptual and empirical advances and presents findings from research conducted in a steel and automotive company, according to a qualitative perspective and multiple case study methodology. We analyze the consolidated corporate systems and we highlight the central role of corporate training and the formation of collaborative and competes / competitive employees in its implementation. Similarly, we emphasize the extension of corporate systems in the extra-productive scenarios through Corporate Social Responsibility practices.

  3. Comparing the effects of two distinct eccentric modalities to traditional resistance training in resistance trained, higher functioning older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluchowski, Ashley; Dulson, Deborah; Merien, Fabrice; Plank, Lindsay; Harris, Nigel

    2017-11-01

    The effects of eccentric resistance exercise are of interest in the older adult cohort, but to our knowledge, there is no research on the relative effects of different eccentric modalities on a range of outcomes in higher functioning, resistance trained older adults. 33 resistance-trained older adults (aged 67±4.5years) were randomized into one of three supervised training groups: traditional (TRE), eccentric only (ERE) or eccentrically biased resistance exercise (EBRE) on a 45°, plate-loaded leg press machine. Participants trained twice per week with maximal strength, functional capacity, body composition and blood biomarkers measured before and after the eight-week intervention. Both eccentric and concentric strength, and important functional tasks for independent living significantly improved independent of group. Body composition and blood biomarkers were found to significantly improve in the EBRE group only however, no statistical differences were found between groups. Compared to traditional resistance training, the two eccentric modalities investigated here were equally effective for improvements in maximum muscular strength, functional capacity, body composition and metabolic biomarkers. When training the resistance trained older adult, very heavy isoinertial external loads (at least 70% of one repetition maximum) are effective irrespective of contraction mode. With heavy strength training, resistance trained older adults can continue to expect improvements in health and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Wrist Resistance Training Improves Motor Control and Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Edward; Kim, You-Sin; Hill, Genevieve; Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Kim, Chang Kook; Shim, Jae Kun

    2018-04-01

    Chu, E, Kim, Y-S, Hill, G, Kim, YH, Kim, CK, and Shim, JK. Wrist resistance training improves motor control and strength. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 962-969, 2018-The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 6-week direction-specific resistance training program on isometric torque control and isokinetic torque strength of the wrist joint. Nineteen subjects were randomly assigned to either the wrist training group (n = 9) or the control group (n = 10). The training group performed wrist exercises in 6 directions (flexion, extension, pronation, supination, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation), whereas the control group did not. Data were collected on the isometric torque control, 1-repetition maximum (1RM) strength, and isokinetic maximum torque (angular velocity of 60° per second wrist movements) before and after 6 weeks of resistance training and at 2-week intervals during training. The training group showed significant decreases in isometric torque control error in all 6 directions after 2 weeks of resistance training, whereas the control group did not show significant increase or decrease. After 4 weeks of training, the training group showed significant increases in maximum strength in all 6 directions as assessed by 1RM strength and isokinetic strength tests, whereas the control group did not show any statistically significant changes. This study shows that motor control significantly improves within the first 2 weeks of resistance training, whereas the wrist strength significantly improves within the first 4 weeks of resistance training. Based on the findings of this study, coaches and trainers should consider wrist resistance training to improve athletes' muscular strength and control of the wrist muscles.

  5. Dealing with Learner Resistance to Technology-Delivered Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of student resistance to technology-delivered training focuses on strategies at the IRS (Internal Revenue Service) that overcame learner resistance by maintaining a personal relationship with each student and flexibly addressing each student's personal style and concerns. Considers reasons for student resistance and the continued need…

  6. Intermittent hypoxic resistance training: is metabolic stress the key moderator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brendan R; Slattery, Katie M; Dascombe, Ben J

    2015-02-01

    Traditionally, researchers and practitioners have manipulated acute resistance exercise variables to elicit the desired responses to training. However, recent research indicates that altering the muscular environment during resistance training, namely by implementing a hypoxic stimulus, can augment muscle hypertrophy and strength. Intermittent hypoxic resistance training (IHRT), whereby participants inspire hypoxic air during resistance training, has been previously demonstrated to increase muscle cross-sectional area and maximum strength by significantly greater amounts than the equivalent training in normoxia. However, some recent evidence has provided conflicting results, reporting that the use of systemic hypoxia during resistance training provided no added benefit. While the definitive mechanisms that may augment muscular responses to IHRT are not yet fully understood, an increased metabolic stress is thought to be important for moderating many downstream processes related to hypertrophy. It is likely that methodological differences between conflicting IHRT studies have resulted in different degrees of metabolic stress during training, particularly when considering the inter-set recovery intervals used. Given that the most fundamental physiological stresses resulting from hypoxia are disturbances to oxidative metabolism, it becomes apparent that resistance training may only benefit from additional hypoxia if the exercise is structured to elicit a strong metabolic response. We hypothesize that for IHRT to be more effective in producing muscular hypertrophy and increasing strength than the equivalent normoxic training, exercise should be performed with relatively brief inter-set recovery periods, with the aim of providing a potent metabolic stimulus to enhance anabolic responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A training paradigm to enhance performance and safe use of an innovative neuroendovascular device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricci, D.R.; Marotta, T.R.; Riina, H.A.; Wan, M.; Vries, J. de

    2016-01-01

    Training has been important to facilitate the safe use of new devices designed to repair vascular structures. This paper outlines the generic elements of a training program for vascular devices and uses as an example the actual training requirements for a novel device developed for the treatment of

  8. Resistance training and cardiac hypertrophy: unravelling the training effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haykowsky, Mark J; Dressendorfer, Rudolph; Taylor, Dylan; Mandic, Sandra; Humen, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Resistance training (RT) is a popular method of conditioning to enhance sport performance as well as an effective form of exercise to attenuate the age-mediated decline in muscle strength and mass. Although the benefits of RT on skeletal muscle morphology and function are well established, its effect on left ventricular (LV) morphology remains equivocal. Some investigations have found that RT is associated with an obligatory increase in LV wall thickness and mass with minimal alteration in LV internal cavity dimension, an effect called concentric hypertrophy. However, others report that short- (18 years) RT does not alter LV morphology, arguing that concentric hypertrophy is not an obligatory adaptation secondary to this form of exertion. This disparity between studies on whether RT consistently results in cardiac hypertrophy could be caused by: (i) acute cardiopulmonary mechanisms that minimise the increase in transmural pressure (i.e. ventricular pressure minus intrathoracic pressure) and LV wall stress during exercise; (ii) the underlying use of anabolic steroids by the athletes; or (iii) the specific type of RT performed. We propose that when LV geometry is altered after RT, the pattern is usually concentric hypertrophy in Olympic weightlifters. However, the pattern of eccentric hypertrophy (increased LV mass secondary to an increase in diastolic internal cavity dimension and wall thickness) is not uncommon in bodybuilders. Of particular interest, nearly 40% of all RT athletes have normal LV geometry, and these athletes are typically powerlifters. RT athletes who use anabolic steroids have been shown to have significantly higher LV mass compared with drug-free sport-matched athletes. This brief review will sort out some of the factors that may affect the acute and chronic outcome of RT on LV morphology. In addition, a conceptual framework is offered to help explain why cardiac hypertrophy is not always found in RT athletes.

  9. Implications of Impaired Endurance Performance following Single Bouts of Resistance Training: An Alternate Concurrent Training Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doma, Kenji; Deakin, Glen B; Bentley, David J

    2017-11-01

    A single bout of resistance training induces residual fatigue, which may impair performance during subsequent endurance training if inadequate recovery is allowed. From a concurrent training standpoint, such carry-over effects of fatigue from a resistance training session may impair the quality of a subsequent endurance training session for several hours to days with inadequate recovery. The proposed mechanisms of this phenomenon include: (1) impaired neural recruitment patterns; (2) reduced movement efficiency due to alteration in kinematics during endurance exercise and increased energy expenditure; (3) increased muscle soreness; and (4) reduced muscle glycogen. If endurance training quality is consistently compromised during the course of a specific concurrent training program, optimal endurance development may be limited. Whilst the link between acute responses of training and subsequent training adaptation has not been fully established, there is some evidence suggesting that cumulative effects of fatigue may contribute to limiting optimal endurance development. Thus, the current review will (1) explore cross-sectional studies that have reported impaired endurance performance following a single, or multiple bouts, of resistance training; (2) identify the potential impact of fatigue on chronic endurance development; (3) describe the implications of fatigue on the quality of endurance training sessions during concurrent training, and (4) explain the mechanisms contributing to resistance training-induced attenuation on endurance performance from neurological, biomechanical and metabolic standpoints. Increasing the awareness of resistance training-induced fatigue may encourage coaches to consider modulating concurrent training variables (e.g., order of training mode, between-mode recovery period, training intensity, etc.) to limit the carry-over effects of fatigue from resistance to endurance training sessions.

  10. Region specific patella tendon hypertrophy in humans following resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, M.; Reitelseder, S; Pedersen, T.G.

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine if cross-sectional area (CSA) differs along the length of the human patellar tendon (PT), and if there is PT hypertrophy in response to resistance training. METHODS: Twelve healthy young men underwent baseline and post-training assessments. Maximal isometric knee extension strength......, subjects performed 12 weeks of heavy resistance knee extension training with one leg (Heavy-leg), and light resistance knee extension training with the other leg (Light-leg). RESULTS: The MVC increased for heavy-leg (15 +/- 4%, P .... CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this study is the first to report tendon hypertrophy following resistance training. Further, the data show that the human PT CSA varies along the length of the tendon....

  11. Filament growth and resistive switching in hafnium oxide memristive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkmann, Sven; Kaiser, Jan; Wenger, Christian; Mussenbrock, Thomas

    2018-03-30

    We report on the resistive switching in TiN/Ti/HfO 2 /TiN memristive devices. A resistive switching model for the device is proposed, taking into account important experimental and theoretical findings. The proposed switching model is validated using 2D and 3D kinetic Monte Carlo simulation models. The models are consistently coupled to the electric field and different current transport mechanisms as direct tunneling, trap assisted tunneling (TAT), ohmic transport, and transport through a quantum point contact (QPC) have been considered. We find that the numerical results are in excellent agreement with experimentally obtained data. Important device parameters, which are difficult or impossible to measure in experiments, are calculated. This includes the shape of the conductive filament, width of filament constriction, current density, and temperature distribution. To obtain insights in the operation of the device, consecutive cycles have been simulated. Furthermore, the switching kinetic for the forming and set process for different applied voltages is investigated. Finally, the influence of an annealing process on the filament growth, especially on the filament growth direction, is discussed.

  12. Development of resistance type moisture measuring device for grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq Sius LAWAL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study aimed at developing an indigenous moisture measuring device from locally available materials for grains based on the principle of resistance change of the material with corresponding change in moisture during drying. The developed device has four copper electrode cups positions in which both gauging and dummy copper electrode cups were placed to form Wheatstone bridge circuits of full, half and quarter for four, two and one gauging copper electrode cups respectively, while the remaining positions were used as dummies. These circuits were used to measure the resistances and hence obtaining the moisture content of the grains used. Grains of paddy rice, guinea corn and millet were used to test the device and it was observed that for full bridge circuits of each of the grains, paddy rice have a negative coefficient of correlation of -0.95, -0.99 for guinea corn and -0.99 for millet. The results obtained from predictive empirical equations when compared with the direct oven method, showed that the device can be used to predict or measure moisture content once calibrated.

  13. Bipolar resistive switching characteristics in tantalum nitride-based resistive random access memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Ju; Jeon, Dong Su; Park, Ju Hyun; Kim, Tae Geun

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the bipolar resistive switching characteristics of TaN x -based resistive random access memory (ReRAM). The conduction mechanism is explained by formation and rupture of conductive filaments caused by migration of nitrogen ions and vacancies; this mechanism is in good agreement with either Ohmic conduction or the Poole-Frenkel emission model. The devices exhibit that the reset voltage varies from −0.82 V to −0.62 V, whereas the set voltage ranges from 1.01 V to 1.30 V for 120 DC sweep cycles. In terms of reliability, the devices exhibit good retention (>10 5  s) and pulse-switching endurance (>10 6 cycles) properties. These results indicate that TaN x -based ReRAM devices have a potential for future nonvolatile memory devices

  14. Metal oxide resistive random access memory based synaptic devices for brain-inspired computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bin; Kang, Jinfeng; Zhou, Zheng; Chen, Zhe; Huang, Peng; Liu, Lifeng; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2016-04-01

    The traditional Boolean computing paradigm based on the von Neumann architecture is facing great challenges for future information technology applications such as big data, the Internet of Things (IoT), and wearable devices, due to the limited processing capability issues such as binary data storage and computing, non-parallel data processing, and the buses requirement between memory units and logic units. The brain-inspired neuromorphic computing paradigm is believed to be one of the promising solutions for realizing more complex functions with a lower cost. To perform such brain-inspired computing with a low cost and low power consumption, novel devices for use as electronic synapses are needed. Metal oxide resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices have emerged as the leading candidate for electronic synapses. This paper comprehensively addresses the recent work on the design and optimization of metal oxide ReRAM-based synaptic devices. A performance enhancement methodology and optimized operation scheme to achieve analog resistive switching and low-energy training behavior are provided. A three-dimensional vertical synapse network architecture is proposed for high-density integration and low-cost fabrication. The impacts of the ReRAM synaptic device features on the performances of neuromorphic systems are also discussed on the basis of a constructed neuromorphic visual system with a pattern recognition function. Possible solutions to achieve the high recognition accuracy and efficiency of neuromorphic systems are presented.

  15. Training first responders on Radiological Dispersal Devices (RDDs) and Improvised Nuclear Devices (INDs) events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves, Ken L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper will present an overview of the current training the author is presenting to First Responders (fire-fighters, emergency medical technicians, law enforcement and others) who may encounter either a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD or Dirty Bomb) or an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) as a part of their Emergency Response activities. The emphasis of the training is putting the radiological/nuclear material in perspective as compared with other Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) materials such as chemical and/or biological weapon agents. A goal of the training is to help this First Responder Community understand that under almost all conditions, they can perform their primary mission of 'putting out fires', rescuing and treating injured persons, and chasing 'bad guys' even in the presence of relatively large amount of radiological/nuclear contamination. The rare cases of high activity unshielded sources will be reviewed and explained. Current International guidance on dose 'limits' will be discussed. A discussion of the use of Time, Distance and Shielding as well as appropriate Personal Protective Clothing and how it will provide the needed protection while immediate actions take place early in an RDD/IND event, will take place. The use of appropriate radiation detection instrumentation, documented Standard Operating Procedures along with realistic training, drills and exercises are the key to a successful response to an RDD/IND event for this community of critical emergency responders. (author)

  16. Resisted Sled Sprint Training to Improve Sprint Performance: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakos, George; Morin, Jean-Benoit; Egan, Brendan

    2016-03-01

    Based on recent findings regarding the mechanical determinants of sprint performance, resisted sled sprint (RSS) training may provide an effective tool for the improvement of sprint acceleration and maximal velocity. However, the volume and intensity for effective RSS training in different populations is unclear. The primary objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of RSS training compared with unresisted sprint (URS) training, and the differential effects of sled load on RSS training outcomes. STUDY ELIGIBILITY AND APPRAISAL: A systematic review was performed primarily using PubMed and SPORTDiscus databases. Peer-reviewed studies were accepted only if the participants used a sled towing device for a longitudinal intervention of resisted sprint training, and if RSS training was the primary difference in training intervention between groups. Effect size (ES) reported using Cohen's d was presented to compare the magnitude of effect between both dependent and independent groups. A total of 11 studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Sled loads were prescribed either as a percentage of body mass (%BM), a targeted reduction in velocity compared with unresisted sprint velocity (%V(dec)) or as an absolute load (kg). RSS training with 'light' (30%BM or >30%V(dec)) sled loads provide 'trivial' to 'extremely large' improvements in acceleration performance (0.5-9.1%, ES = 0.14-4.00) in strength-trained or team sport individuals. Whether RSS training is more effective than URS training in the improvement of acceleration or maximal sprint velocity remains equivocal. RSS training is a novel training method with potential for the improvement of sprint performance, but its performance benefits over URS training remain to be conclusively demonstrated. Between-study comparisons are limited primarily by discrepancies in the training status and phase of the participants, and sled load prescription. Future work is required to define the optimal load and volume for RSS depending

  17. A Multiposture Locomotor Training Device with Force-Field Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Sui

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a multiposture locomotor training device (MPLTD with a closed-loop control scheme based on joint angle feedback, which is able to overcome various difficulties resulting from mechanical vibration and the weight of trainer to achieve higher accuracy trajectory. By introducing the force-field control scheme used in the closed-loop control, the device can obtain the active-constrained mode including the passive one. The MPLTD is mainly composed of three systems: posture adjusting and weight support system, lower limb exoskeleton system, and control system, of which the lower limb exoskeleton system mainly includes the indifferent equilibrium mechanism with two degrees of freedom (DOF and the driving torque is calculated by the Lagrangian function. In addition, a series of experiments, the weight support and the trajectory accuracy experiment, demonstrate a good performance of mechanical structure and the closed-loop control.

  18. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation.

  19. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C.; Irigoyen, M.C.; De Angelis, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation

  20. Physiological changes with periodized resistance training in women tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Hakkinen, Keijo; Triplett-Mcbride, N Travis; Fry, Andrew C; Koziris, L Perry; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Bauer, Jeffrey E; Volek, Jeff S; McConnell, Tim; Newton, Robert U; Gordon, Scott E; Cummings, Don; Hauth, John; Pullo, Frank; Lynch, J Michael; Fleck, Steven J; Mazzetti, Scott A; Knuttgen, Howard G

    2003-01-01

    To compare the physiological and performance adaptations between periodized and nonperiodized resistance training in women collegiate tennis athletes. Thirty women (19 +/- 1 yr) were assigned to either a periodized resistance training group (P), nonperiodized training group (NV), or a control group (C). Assessments for body composition, anaerobic power, VO2(max), speed, agility, maximal strength, jump height, tennis-service velocity, and resting serum hormonal concentrations were performed before and after 4, 6, and 9 months of resistance training performed 2-3 d.wk (-1). Nine months of resistance training resulted in significant increases in fat-free mass; anaerobic power; grip strength; jump height; one-repetition maximum (1-RM) leg press, bench press, and shoulder press; serve, forehand, and backhand ball velocities; and resting serum insulin-like growth factor-1, testosterone, and cortisol concentrations. Percent body fat and VO2(max) decreased significantly in the P and NV groups after training. During the first 6 months, periodized resistance training elicited significantly greater increases in 1-RM leg press (9 +/- 2 vs 4.5 +/- 2%), bench press (22 +/- 5 vs 11 +/- 8%), and shoulder press (24 +/- 7 vs 18 +/- 6%) than the NV group. The absolute 1-RM leg press and shoulder press values in the P group were greater than the NV group after 9 months. Periodized resistance training also resulted in significantly greater improvements in jump height (50 +/- 9 vs 37 +/- 7%) and serve (29 +/- 5 vs 16 +/- 4%), forehand (22 +/- 3 vs 17 +/- 3%), and backhand ball velocities (36 +/- 4 vs 14 +/- 4%) as compared with nonperiodized training after 9 months. These data demonstrated that periodization of resistance training over 9 months was superior for enhancing strength and motor performance in collegiate women tennis players.

  1. Effects of arachidonic acid supplementation on training adaptations in resistance-trained males

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood Mike; Rasmussen Chris; Cooke Matthew; Harvey Travis; Wilborn Colin D; Campbell Bill; Taylor Lem W; Kerksick Chad M; Iosia Mike; Roberts Michael D; Wilson Ronald; Jitomir Jean; Willoughby Darryn; Kreider Richard B

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background To determine the impact of AA supplementation during resistance training on body composition, training adaptations, and markers of muscle hypertrophy in resistance-trained males. Methods In a randomized and double blind manner, 31 resistance-trained male subjects (22.1 ± 5.0 years, 180 ± 0.1 cm, 86.1 ± 13.0 kg, 18.1 ± 6.4% body fat) ingested either a placebo (PLA: 1 g·day-1 corn oil, n = 16) or AA (AA: 1 g·day-1 AA, n = 15) while participating in a standardized 4 day·week-...

  2. The interactions between hemostasis and resistance training: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Neto, Frederico Ribeiro; de Santana, Frederico Santos; da Silva, Renato André Sousa; dos Santos-Neto, Leopoldo; Balsamo, Sandor

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is strongly associated with changes in arterial structure. Regular physical activity and exercise contributes to the prevention of coronary artery disease. Therefore, cardiovascular and resistance training improve hemostatic parameters and promote a less thrombotic blood profile. This review highlights the studies, mechanisms, and outcomes relating to the effectiveness of resistance training on the process of hemostasis. The Pubmed, Scopus, Medline, Scielo, Lilacs, Ibecs, and Cochrane databases were used to locate the original articles. Seventeen studies were found during the research process. Of these, ten articles were excluded. Those protocols using a high volume of training for young adults showed a greater fibrinolytic response, and training protocols with intensities above 80% of 1 maximum repetition showed an increased platelet activity. In subjects with coronary artery disease, just one session of resistance training resulted in improvement in the fibrinolytic system (tissue plasminogen activator) without raising potential thrombotic markers. PMID:22419885

  3. Muscle fiber size increases following resistance training in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Stenager, Egon; Jakobsen, J

    2010-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that lower body progressive resistance training (PRT) leads to an increase of the muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and a shift in the proportion of fiber types in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).......To test the hypothesis that lower body progressive resistance training (PRT) leads to an increase of the muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and a shift in the proportion of fiber types in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS)....

  4. Reading log: pedagogical device accompanying training university paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Fernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of the research on teacher training in Physical Education, developed in Bariloche Regional University Center of the National University of Comahue (CRUB-UNCo. Due to the steady increase in the number of students who drop out of course of study on the first two years, projects thatfollow this line of investigation are seeking to question university teaching practices in this field, unravel their particular ways of production and to analyse their impact on the constitution of the formative stages of the students. In the research we have found evidence of a systematic teaching work to improve the learning and teaching conditions and have identified pedagogical devices, both at institutional and classroom levels, as resources for scaffolding student paths and different modes of reception of the students doing the introductory course. Here, we describe and analyse one of these devices, called "reading log" generated in Subject Pedagogy for the 1st year of the School of Physical Education of abovementioned University. This instrument is part of a series of pedagogical practices deliberately planned in connection with the entrance, continuity and graduation stages of undergraduate students; it aims to promote better contexts for the development of the educational processes. This device, created as a way of scaffolding the reading practices of the students, is thought to contribute to the promotion of democratic formative paths and attempts to provide new explanations, which would anchor the transformation and construction of new knowledge and would achieve better pedagogical interventions.

  5. Development of bacterially resistant polyurethane for coating medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roohpour, Nima; Moshaverinia, Alireza; Wasikiewicz, Jaroslaw M; Paul, Deepen; Vadgama, Pankaj; Wilks, Mark; Millar, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Polyurethanes have been widely used in medicine for coating and packaging implantable and other medical devices. Polyether-urethanes, in particular, have superior mechanical properties and are biocompatible, but in common with other medical materials they are susceptible to microbial film formation. In this study, polyether-urethane was end-capped with silver lactate and silver sulfadiazine functional groups to produce a bacterially resistant polymer without sacrificing the useful mechanical properties of the polyether-polyurethane. The silver ions were covalently incorporated into the polymer during chain extension of the prepolymer. The functionalized polymers were structurally characterized by light scattering, electron microscopy, NMR, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Mechanical properties, hydrophilicity, in vitro stability and antibacterial action of polymers were also investigated. Results indicate that both silver salts were successfully incorporated into the polymer structure without significant effect on mechanical properties, whilst conferring acceptable bacterial resistance.

  6. Reaching Resisters in a Teaching Assistant Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carolyn I.

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been limited longitudinal qualitative research examining the effects of training programs on graduate students' teaching performance. One gap in this research is a discussion of Teaching Assistants (TAs) who resist such programs and an examination of strategies for overcoming this resistance. This action research…

  7. Serious Gaming for Improvised Explosive Device Neutralization Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Christopher C.K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An improvised explosive device (IED is a “homemade” bomb intended to cause great harm when it explodes. The public safety task of identifying and neutralizing IEDs falls to military and police services often called explosive disposal units (EDU who act to neutralize the threat associated with the IED either rendering it inoperable or destroying it safely. EDUs train in various aspects of explosive handling and investigation but are limited in the tools available for safely analyzing real world bombs. This paper describes a game based approach to IED training that employs an interactive 3D simulation to spatially identify key IED components of interest. We give an example of how this approach might be used and provide a preliminary evaluation of its potential effectiveness. We employ images formed from a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM system captured using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI technology to a virtual IED in a game. Empirical evaluation and EDU testimony suggest accurate representation of the IED and the potential efficacy of the proposed approach for successfully identifying components in the bomb for the purposes of EDU training.

  8. Elastic Bands as a Component of Periodized Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Jordan M; Lowery, Ryan P; Oliveira de Souza, Eduardo; Wilson, Jacob M

    2016-08-01

    Joy, JM, Lowery, RP, Oliveira de Souza, E, and Wilson, JM. Elastic bands as a component of periodized resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2100-2106, 2016-Variable resistance training (VRT) has recently become a component of strength and conditioning programs. Prior research has demonstrated increases in power and/or strength using low loads of variable resistance. However, no study has examined using high loads of variable resistance as a part of a periodized training protocol to examine VRT within the context of a periodized training program and to examine a greater load of variable resistance than has been examined in prior research. Fourteen National Collegiate Athletic Association division II male basketball players were recruited for this study. Athletes were divided equally into either a variable resistance or control group. The variable resistance group added 30% of their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) as band tension to their prescribed weight 1 session per week. Rate of power development (RPD), peak power, strength, body composition, and vertical jump height were measured pretreatment and posttreatment. No baseline differences were observed between groups for any measurement of strength, power, or body composition. A significant group by time interaction was observed for RPD, in which RPD was greater in VRT posttraining than in the control group. Significant time effects were observed for all other variables including squat 1RM, bench press 1RM, deadlift 1RM, clean 3RM, vertical jump, and lean mass. Although there were no significant group ×-time interactions, the VRT group's percent changes and effect sizes indicate a larger treatment effect in the squat and bench press 1RM values and the vertical jump performed on the force plate and vertec. These results suggest that when using variable resistance as a component of a periodized training program, power and strength can be enhanced. Therefore, athletes who add variable resistance to 1 training

  9. Effects of resistance training on performance in previously trained endurance runners: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Ibañez, Manuel; Rodríguez-Pérez, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work was to identify, synthesize and evaluate the results of randomized controlled trials examining the effects of resistance training on performance indicators in previously trained endurance runners. A database search was carried out in PubMed, Science Direct, OvidSPMedLine, Wiley, Web of Science, ProQuest and Google Scholar. In accordance with the PRISMA checklist, 18 published articles dated prior to May 2016 involving 321 endurance runners were reviewed using the PEDro scale. Resistance training led to general improvements in muscular strength, running economy, muscle power factors, and direct performance in distances between 1,500 and 10,000 m. Such improvements were not accompanied by a significant increase in body mass or signs of overtraining. However, improvements did not occur in all cases, suggesting that they might depend on the specific characteristics of the resistance training applied. Although current evidence supports the effectiveness of resistance training to improve performance in already trained endurance runners, the methodological inconsistencies identified suggest that the results should be interpreted with caution. Future studies ought to investigate the benefits of resistance training in endurance runners while considering the existence of possible differentiated effects based on the specific characteristics of the resistance training carried out.

  10. Research and Application of Device for Simulation Sports Training based on Cycle Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The slope simulation method of the spiral mechanism, the rubbing transmission, the resistance simulation method of magnetic particle brake loading on the rear wheel is proposed by anglicizing the road sports conditions and resistance of the actual cycling. the structure design, loading design and control design of the road sports condition simulator is designed. the structure of putting the motor forward and forcing the big sprocket rotation through the chain transmission, and the method of the frequency converter regulates the rotational speed of the motor within the range of certain frequency, PLC programming the rotation rules is adopted. The complete device is applied to athletes sports training of the national bicycle team at ordinary times after debugging successfully.

  11. Youth resistance training: past practices, new perspectives, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; Lloyd, Rhodri S; Myer, Gregory D

    2013-11-01

    Since the publication of the seminal review on youth resistance training by Kraemer and colleagues in 1989, a compelling body of evidence has found that resistance training can be a safe, effective, and worthwhile method of conditioning for children and adolescents. New perspectives for promoting resistance exercise as part of a long-term approach to youth physical development highlight the importance of integrating resistance training into youth fitness programs. Youth who do not enhance their muscular strength and motor skill proficiency early in life may not develop the prerequisite skills and abilities that would allow them to participate in a variety of activities and sports with confidence and vigor later in life. The identification of asymptomatic children with muscular weaknesses or imbalances may facilitate the development of a management plan which should rectify movement limitations and educate children and their families about the importance of daily physical activity.

  12. Resistance Training with Co-ingestion of Anti-inflammatory Drugs Attenuates Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele A. Cardinale

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study aimed to examine the effects of resistance exercise with concomitant consumption of high vs. low daily doses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. As a secondary aim, we compared the effects of eccentric overload with conventional training.Methods: Twenty participants were randomized to either a group taking high doses (3 × 400 mg/day of ibuprofen (IBU; 27 ± 5 year; n = 11 or a group ingesting a low dose (1 × 75 mg/day of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; 26 ± 4 year; n = 9 during 8 weeks of supervised knee extensor resistance training. Each of the subject's legs were randomized to complete the training program using either a flywheel (FW device emphasizing eccentric overload, or a traditional weight stack machine (WS. Maximal mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (CI+IIP from permeabilized skeletal muscle bundles was assessed using high-resolution respirometry. Citrate synthase (CS activity was assessed using spectrophotometric techniques and mitochondrial protein content using western blotting.Results: After training, CI+IIP decreased (P < 0.05 in both IBU (23% and ASA (29% with no difference across medical treatments. Although CI+IIP decreased in both legs, the decrease was greater (interaction p = 0.015 in WS (33%, p = 0.001 compared with FW (19%, p = 0.078. CS activity increased (p = 0.027 with resistance training, with no interactions with medical treatment or training modality. Protein expression of ULK1 increased with training in both groups (p < 0.001. The increase in quadriceps muscle volume was not correlated with changes in CI+IIP (R = 0.16.Conclusion: These results suggest that 8 weeks of resistance training with co-ingestion of anti-inflammatory drugs reduces mitochondrial function but increases mitochondrial content. The observed changes were not affected by higher doses of NSAIDs consumption, suggesting that the resistance training

  13. Protein Supplementation Does Not Affect Myogenic Adaptations to Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Paul T; Fry, Christopher S; Igbinigie, Sherry; Deer, Rachel R; Jennings, Kristofer; Cope, Mark B; Mukherjea, Ratna; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B

    2017-06-01

    It has been proposed that protein supplementation during resistance exercise training enhances muscle hypertrophy. The degree of hypertrophy during training is controlled in part through the activation of satellite cells and myonuclear accretion. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of protein supplementation (and the type of protein) during traditional resistance training on myofiber cross-sectional area, satellite cell content, and myonuclear addition. Healthy young men participated in supervised whole-body progressive resistance training 3 d·wk for 12 wk. Participants were randomized to one of three groups ingesting a daily 22-g macronutrient dose of soy-dairy protein blend (PB, n = 22), whey protein isolate (WP, n = 15), or an isocaloric maltodextrin placebo (MDP, n = 17). Lean mass, vastus lateralis myofiber-type-specific cross-sectional area, satellite cell content, and myonuclear addition were assessed before and after resistance training. PB and the pooled protein treatments (PB + WP = PRO) exhibited a greater whole-body lean mass %change compared with MDP (P = 0.057 for PB) and (P = 0.050 for PRO), respectively. All treatments demonstrated similar leg muscle hypertrophy and vastus lateralis myofiber-type-specific cross-sectional area (P supplementation during resistance training has a modest effect on whole-body lean mass as compared with exercise training without protein supplementation, and there was no effect on any outcome between protein supplement types (blend vs whey). However, protein supplementation did not enhance resistance exercise-induced increases in myofiber hypertrophy, satellite cell content, or myonuclear addition in young healthy men. We propose that as long as protein intake is adequate during muscle overload, the adaptations in muscle growth and function will not be influenced by protein supplementation.

  14. Awareness training and hearing protection devices: Current practices in the South African mining industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This presentation outlines the importance of awareness training of managers at all levels and miners regarding the importance of hearing protection devices and adequate knowledge, motivation and training to prevent hearing loss....

  15. Ground reaction force comparison of bilateral symmetry with pneumatic resistance squat device and free weights - biomed 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, David C; Schilling, Brian K

    2009-01-01

    The unloading of spaceflight leads to bone and muscle atrophy, and a pneumatic resistance squat exercise countermeasure has the potential to provide optimized controllable resistance in a lightweight and compact configuration. However each end of the barbell in the proposed device is connected to a separate resistance cylinder which could lead to bilaterally asymmetric loading. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to compare the unilateral ground reaction forces (GRF) of the new squat device compared to free weights. Four previously trained men (mean +/- SD; age = 20+/-2 years, body mass = 99+/-18 kg) performed three sets of three repetitions of maximal exertion squat exercises with pneumatically controlled constant resistance and free weights each with a resistance level set to half of the body weight of each subject. Unilateral GRF data for each lifting modality at the negative to positive transition of the squat exercise was measured with a force plate under each foot. The pneumatic resistance GRF (N; mean +/- SD) was 749+/-114 on the left leg and 786+/-123 on the right leg and the free weight GRF was 786+/-114 left and 861+/-111 right resulting in a 5% difference between left and right GRF with pneumatics and 9% difference with free weights. The correlation coefficient between left and right GRF was 0.92 with pneumatics and 0.80 with free weights. Because the pneumatic device elicited more bilaterally symmetric GRF than traditional free weights, the separate resistance cylinders are an acceptable design configuration.

  16. A Systematic Review of Resistance Training Versus Endurance Training in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Ringbaek, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE:: Endurance training (ET) as part of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been shown to improve exercise capacity and health-related quality of life, but dyspnea limits the exercise intensity. Therefore, resistance training (RT), which...

  17. Corticosteroid injections, eccentric decline squat training and heavy slow resistance training in patellar tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, M.; Kovanen, V.; Aagaard, P.

    2009-01-01

    A randomized-controlled single-blind trial was conducted to investigate the clinical, structural and functional effects of peritendinous corticosteroid injections (CORT), eccentric decline squat training (ECC) and heavy slow resistance training (HSR) in patellar tendinopathy. Thirty-nine male...

  18. A genetic-based algorithm for personalized resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Jones

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Association studies have identified dozens of genetic variants linked to training responses and sport-related traits. However, no intervention studies utilizing the idea of personalised training based on athlete’s genetic profile have been conducted. Here we propose an algorithm that allows achieving greater results in response to high- or low-intensity resistance training programs by predicting athlete’s potential for the development of power and endurance qualities with the panel of 15 performance-associated gene polymorphisms. To develop and validate such an algorithm we performed two studies in independent cohorts of male athletes (study 1: athletes from different sports (n=28; study 2: soccer players (n=39. In both studies athletes completed an eight-week high- or low-intensity resistance training program, which either matched or mismatched their individual genotype. Two variables of explosive power and aerobic fitness, as measured by the countermovement jump (CMJ and aerobic 3-min cycle test (Aero3 were assessed pre and post 8 weeks of resistance training. In study 1, the athletes from the matched groups (i.e. high-intensity trained with power genotype or low-intensity trained with endurance genotype significantly increased results in CMJ (P=0.0005 and Aero3 (P=0.0004. Whereas, athletes from the mismatched group (i.e. high-intensity trained with endurance genotype or low-intensity trained with power genotype demonstrated non-significant improvements in CMJ (P=0.175 and less prominent results in Aero3 (P=0.0134. In study 2, soccer players from the matched group also demonstrated significantly greater (P<0.0001 performance changes in both tests compared to the mismatched group. Among non- or low responders of both studies, 82% of athletes (both for CMJ and Aero3 were from the mismatched group (P<0.0001. Our results indicate that matching the individual’s genotype with the appropriate training modality leads to more effective resistance

  19. The interactions between hemostasis and resistance training: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento DC

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dahan da Cunha Nascimento1–3, Frederico Ribeiro Neto2, Frederico Santos de Santana1,2, Renato André Sousa da Silva1,4,5, Leopoldo dos Santos-Neto6,7, Sandor Balsamo1,2,61Physical Education Department, UNIEURO University Center, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 2GEPEEFS (Resistance training and Health Research Group, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 3Faculty of Physical Education, University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 4Center of Excellence in Medicine of Exercise (CEMEx Brasília, DF, Brazil; 5Postgraduate Program on Physical Activity and Health, Catholic University of Brasília-UCB, Taguatinga DF, Brazil; 6Graduation Program – Medical Sciences Faculty, University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 7General Internal Medical Center – University Hospital Brasília, University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, BrazilAbstract: Physical inactivity is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is strongly associated with changes in arterial structure. Regular physical activity and exercise contributes to the prevention of coronary artery disease. Therefore, cardiovascular and resistance training improve hemostatic parameters and promote a less thrombotic blood profile. This review highlights the studies, mechanisms, and outcomes relating to the effectiveness of resistance training on the process of hemostasis. The Pubmed, Scopus, Medline, Scielo, Lilacs, Ibecs, and Cochrane databases were used to locate the original articles. Seventeen studies were found during the research process. Of these, ten articles were excluded. Those protocols using a high volume of training for young adults showed a greater fibrinolytic response, and training protocols with intensities above 80% of 1 maximum repetition showed an increased platelet activity. In subjects with coronary artery disease, just one session of resistance training resulted in improvement in the fibrinolytic system (tissue plasminogen activator without raising potential thrombotic markers

  20. Construction of a dog training device with high frequency and high power pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viaud Trejos, Rafael Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    An electronic device is built to produce high frequency and high power sound. The device is used in training and control of dogs. Commercial ultrasonic devices used for dog training are analyzed. The best strategies and components of the design are determined from an electronic device to produce sounds in frequency from 15kHz to 50Khz. Effectiveness tests are performed to establish the adequate design of the ultrasonic electronic device. The test results are analyzed to find opportunities of improvement in the design or construction of the device [es

  1. Whey protein supplementation during resistance training augments lean body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volek, Jeff S; Volk, Brittanie M; Gómez, Ana L; Kunces, Laura J; Kupchak, Brian R; Freidenreich, Daniel J; Aristizabal, Juan C; Saenz, Catherine; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Ballard, Kevin D; Quann, Erin E; Kawiecki, Diana L; Flanagan, Shawn D; Comstock, Brett A; Fragala, Maren S; Earp, Jacob E; Fernandez, Maria L; Bruno, Richard S; Ptolemy, Adam S; Kellogg, Mark D; Maresh, Carl M; Kraemer, William J

    2013-01-01

    Compared to soy, whey protein is higher in leucine, absorbed quicker and results in a more pronounced increase in muscle protein synthesis. To determine whether supplementation with whey promotes greater increases in muscle mass compared to soy or carbohydrate, we randomized non-resistance-trained men and women into groups who consumed daily isocaloric supplements containing carbohydrate (carb; n = 22), whey protein (whey; n = 19), or soy protein (soy; n = 22). All subjects completed a supervised, whole-body periodized resistance training program consisting of 96 workouts (~9 months). Body composition was determined at baseline and after 3, 6, and 9 months. Plasma amino acid responses to resistance exercise followed by supplement ingestion were determined at baseline and 9 months. Daily protein intake (including the supplement) for carb, whey, and soy was 1.1, 1.4, and 1.4 g·kg body mass⁻¹, respectively. Lean body mass gains were significantly (p mass decreased slightly but there were no differences between groups. Fasting concentrations of leucine were significantly elevated (20%) and postexercise plasma leucine increased more than 2-fold in whey. Fasting leucine concentrations were positively correlated with lean body mass responses. Despite consuming similar calories and protein during resistance training, daily supplementation with whey was more effective than soy protein or isocaloric carbohydrate control treatment conditions in promoting gains in lean body mass. These results highlight the importance of protein quality as an important determinant of lean body mass responses to resistance training.

  2. SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS WITH BLOOD FLOW RESTRICTED RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Kacin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood flow restricted resistance (BFRR training with pneumatic tourniquet has been suggested as an alternative for conventional weight training due to the proven benefits for muscle strength and hypertrophy using relatively low resistance, hence reducing the mechanical stress across a joint. As such, it has become an important part of rehabilitation programs used in either injured or operated athletes. Despite a general consensus on effectiveness of BFRR training for muscle conditioning, there are several uncertainties regarding the interplay of various extrinsic and intrinsic factors on its safety and efficiency, which are being reviewed from a clinical perspective. Among extrinsic factors tourniquet cuff pressure, size and shape have been identified as key for safety and efficiency. Among intrinsic factors, limb anthropometrics, patient history and presence of cardiac, vascular, metabolic or peripheral neurologic conditions have been recognized as most important. Though there are a few potential safety concerns connected to BFRR training, the following have been identified as the most probable and health-hazardous: (a mechanical injury to the skin, muscle, and peripheral nerves, (b venous thrombosis due to vascular damage and disturbed hemodynamics and (c augmented arterial blood pressure responses due to combined high body exertion and increased peripheral vascular resistance. Based on reviewed literature and authors’ personal experience with the use of BFRR training in injured athletes, some guidelines for its safe application are outlined. Also, a comprehensive risk assessment tool for screening of subjects prior to their inclusion in a BFRR training program is being introduced.

  3. Resistance training and aerobic training improve muscle strength and aerobic capacity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars H; Overgaard, Kristian; Heje, Karen

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We investigated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). METHODS: Eighteen CIDP patients treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin performed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 12 weeks of resistance exercise...... after a run-in period of 12 weeks without exercise. Three times weekly the participants performed aerobic exercise on an ergometer bike or resistance exercise with unilateral training of knee and elbow flexion/extension. Primary outcomes were maximal oxygen consumption velocity (VO2 -max) and maximal...... resulted in an increase of 13.8% ± 16.0% (P = 0.0004) in cIKS. DISCUSSION: Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training improve fitness and strength in CIDP patients. Muscle Nerve, 2017....

  4. Creatine supplementation alters homocysteine level in resistance trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereket-Yücel, S

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of creatine loading and resistance training on the homocysteine and lipid profiles of young males. Sixty male University students (22.34 ± 2.19 years, 1.79 ± 0.08 m, 77.18 ± 12.57 kg, 15.48 ± 4.57% body fat) were randomly divided in to three groups; control (CG=20), creatine supplement (CEG=20) and placebo (PEG=20). Both CEG and PEG participated in a same resistance-training regimen and either taking a creatine supplement (25 g/d for the first 5 days followed 5 g/d thereafter) or the same amount of placebo for 8 weeks. Participants in CG did not take any creatine supplementation and not engage any exercise program. After the body composition were assessed, the homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations, blood lipids, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels of all the participants were measured at the beginning and end of the eight weeks of resistance training. The analysis of the data indicated that the Hcy levels of the CEG after resistance training and receiving the creatine supplement (9.33 ± 4.60) was significantly lower than that of baseline (12.66 ± 5.89) measurements, F(1,18)=12.28, P=0.00. No significant differences were seen in the Hcy levels of the PEG (15.01 ± 10.87) after 8 weeks of training and receiving a placebo (12.46 ± 12.50), F(1,16)=4.65, P=0.05. Furthermore, there were no significant differences among groups in terms of Hcy levels, F(2,52)=1.72, P=0.19. The present study suggests that as well as strength gain; creatine supplementation with resistance training may afford some protection against emerging cardiovascular risk factors.

  5. 75 FR 33317 - Antibacterial Resistance and Diagnostic Device and Drug Development Research for Bacterial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... scientific and potential research issues in antibacterial drug resistance, rapid diagnostic device... antibacterial drug resistance, mechanisms of resistance, epidemiology of resistance, and issues in the..., 2010, from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Location: The public workshop will be held at the Crowne Plaza Hotel, 8777...

  6. Inadequate sleep and muscle strength: Implications for resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Olivia E; Drinkwater, Eric J; Urwin, Charles S; Lamon, Séverine; Aisbett, Brad

    2018-02-02

    Inadequate sleep (e.g., an insufficient duration of sleep per night) can reduce physical performance and has been linked to adverse metabolic health outcomes. Resistance exercise is an effective means to maintain and improve physical capacity and metabolic health, however, the outcomes for populations who may perform resistance exercise during periods of inadequate sleep are unknown. The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation (i.e. no sleep) and sleep restriction (i.e. a reduced sleep duration) on resistance exercise performance. A secondary aim was to explore the effects on hormonal indicators or markers of muscle protein metabolism. A systematic search of five electronic databases was conducted with terms related to three combined concepts: inadequate sleep; resistance exercise; performance and physiological outcomes. Study quality and biases were assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project quality assessment tool. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria and were rated as 'moderate' or 'weak' for global quality. Sleep deprivation had little effect on muscle strength during resistance exercise. In contrast, consecutive nights of sleep restriction could reduce the force output of multi-joint, but not single-joint movements. Results were conflicting regarding hormonal responses to resistance training. Inadequate sleep impairs maximal muscle strength in compound movements when performed without specific interventions designed to increase motivation. Strategies to assist groups facing inadequate sleep to effectively perform resistance training may include supplementing their motivation by training in groups or ingesting caffeine; or training prior to prolonged periods of wakefulness. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Study - Sprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Moore, Alan; Ryder, Jeffrey; Everett, Meg; Bloomberg, Jacob; Sibonga, Jean; Shackelford, Linda; Platts, Steven; Martin, David; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; hide

    2010-01-01

    Space flight causes reductions in fitness/health: (1) Cardiovascular -- reduced VO2max, cardiac output (2) Bone -- reduced bone mineral density (3) Muscle -- reduced mass, strength and endurance. Exercise is the primary countermeasure to protect against these changes and was made operational before completely mature. Research continues to identify most effective/efficient exercise programs. Crew medical tests (cardio, muscle, bone) do not yield sufficient information to fine tune the effectiveness of exercise programs, thus there is a need for more detailed testing aimed at identifying the most effective training program. The objective of this program was to obtain detailed information about crew physical fitness pre-and post-flight and evaluate new evidence based exercise prescription with higher intensity, lower duration and frequency.

  8. Comparison of home- and gymnasium-based resistance training on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aging results in a natural loss of flexibility, which is especially essential in the maintenance of functional abilities of the aged to perform activities of daily living. Resistance training may provide a stimulus for flexibility, in addition to its extensive health benefits, since its action is through a full range of motion. The purpose of ...

  9. Resistance training and predicted risk of coronary heart disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of resistance training, designed to prevent the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) based on the Framingham Risk Assessment (FRA) score. Twenty-five healthy sedentary men with low CHD risk were assigned to participate in a 16-week (three days per week) ...

  10. Hamstring activation during lower body resistance training exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, William P

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in hamstring activation during lower body resistance training exercises. This study also sought to assess differences in hamstring-to-quadriceps muscle activation ratios and gender differences therein. A randomized repeated measures design was used to compare six resistance training exercises that are commonly believed to train the hamstrings, including the squat, seated leg curl, stiff leg dead lift, single leg stiff leg dead lift, good morning, and Russian curl. Subjects included 34 college athletes. Outcome measures included the biceps femoris (H) and rectus femoris (Q) electromyography (EMG) and the H-to-Q EMG ratio, for each exercise. Main effects were found for the H (P ratio when analyzed for all subjects (P ratios of men, for the exercises assessed. In a separate analysis of strength matched women and men, women achieved between 35.9 to 76.0% of the H-to-Q ratios of men, for these exercises. Hamstring resistance training exercises offer differing degrees of H and Q activation and ratios. Women compared with men, are less able to activate the hamstrings and/or more able to activate the quadriceps. Women may require disproportionately greater training for the hamstrings compared with the quadriceps.

  11. Concurrent Training Followed by Detraining: Does the Resistance Training Intensity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, António C; Marinho, Daniel A; Gil, Maria H; Izquierdo, Mikel; Rodríguez-Rosell, David; Neiva, Henrique P; Marques, Mário C

    2018-03-01

    Sousa, AC, Marinho, DA, Gil, MH, Izquierdo, M, Rodríguez-Rosell, D, Neiva, HP, and Marques, MC. Concurrent training followed by detraining: does the resistance training intensity matter? J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 632-642, 2018-The aim of this study was to analyze the training and detraining (DT) effects of concurrent aerobic training and resistance training against 3 different external loads on strength and aerobic variables. Thirty-two men were randomly assigned to 4 groups: low-load (LLG, n = 9), moderate-load (MLG, n = 9), high-load (HLG, n = 8), and control group (CG, n = 6). Resistance training consisted of full squat (FS) with a low load (40-55% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), a moderate load (55-70% 1RM), or a high load (70-85% 1RM) combined with jump and sprint exercises. Aerobic training was performed at 75% of the maximal aerobic speed for 15-20 minutes. The training period lasted for 8-week, followed by 4-week DT. Pretraining, post-training, and post-DT evaluations included 20-m running sprints (0-10 m: T10; 0-20 m: T20), shuttle run test, countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) test, and loading test (1RM) in FS. All the experimental groups showed improvements (p ≤ 0.05) in all the parameters assessed, except the LLG for T10 and the HLG for T20. The LLG, MLG, and HLG showed great changes in 1RM and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max compared with the CG (p ≤ 0.05), whereas the HLG and MLG showed a greater percentage change than the CG in T10 (p training programs with low, moderate, or high external loads combined with low-intensity aerobic training could be effective for producing significant gains in strength and aerobic capacities. Moreover, the higher loads used increased gains in explosive efforts.

  12. Effects of resistance training in individuals with knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Cordeiro Aguiar

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA, the most common form of arthritis, is considered the main cause of pain and disability in the elderly. Objective: To evaluate the effect of systematic muscle strength training on functional performance and quality of life in individuals with knee OA. Methods: Subjects with knee OA (n = 27, 46 - 76 years completed the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC, Medical Outcomes Short-Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36, and visual analog scale (VAS questionnaires, musculoskeletal assessments, and 10-repetition maximum and timed 10-meter walk tests both before and after training. The training consisted of an exercise resistance program and stretches for 12 weeks (three sessions of 80 each per week. Results: Twenty-two subjects completed the training. Reduced overall scores and WOMAC physical function indicated improved functional performance (p < 0.001 as well as increased gait speed (p < 0.001. The perception of pain decreased after training, as evidenced by the VAS, WOMAC pain domain, and SF-36 scores (p < 0.001. Quality of life improvements occurred primarily in the areas of pain, functional capacity, and SF-36 physical aspects. No change in body mass index was noted (p = 0.93. Conclusion: Our results indicate that the combination of resistance training for the quadriceps, gluteus, and abdominal muscles could be a viable alternative to improving functionality and quality of life in patients with knee OA. However, more studies are necessary to confirm our findings.

  13. Aerobic training prevents dexamethasone-induced peripheral insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionísio, T J; Louzada, J C A; Viscelli, B A; Dionísio, E J; Martuscelli, A M; Barel, M; Perez, O A B; Bosqueiro, J R; Brozoski, D T; Santos, C F; Amaral, S L

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated how proteins of the insulin signaling cascade could modulate insulin resistance after dexamethasone (Dexa) treatment and aerobic training. Rats were distributed into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary+Dexa (SD), trained control (TC), and trained+Dexa (TD), and underwent aerobic training for 70 days or remained sedentary. Dexa was administered during the last 10 days (1 mg · kg(-1) per day i. p.). After 70 days, an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (ipGTT) was performed. Protein levels of IRS-1, AKT, and PKC-α in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle were identified using Western blots. Dexa treatment increased blood glucose and the area under the curve (AUC) of ipGTT. Training attenuated the hyperglycemia and the AUC induced by Dexa. Dexa reduced IRS-1 (- 16%) and AKT (- 43%) protein level with no changes in PKC-α levels. Moreover, these effects on IRS-1 and AKT protein level were prevented in trained animals. These results show for the first time that aerobic exercise prevented reductions of IRS-1 and AKT level induced by Dexa in the TA muscle, suggesting that aerobic exercise is a good strategy to prevent Dexa-induced peripheral insulin resistance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Assessment of Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (JIEDDO) Training Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Device Defeat Organization (JIEDDO) Training Activity Brad Martin, Thomas Manacapilli, James C. Crowley, Joseph Adams, Michael G. Shanley, Paul...Developmental Effort TBD TBD TBD Whistler Training Support to Developmental Effort TBD TBD TBD White Oak Training Support to Developmental Effort TBD TBD

  15. Resistance training intensity and volume affect changes in rate of force development in resistance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Wang, Ran; Gonzalez, Adam M; Townsend, Jeremy R; Wells, Adam J; Jajtner, Adam R; Beyer, Kyle S; Boone, Carleigh H; Miramonti, Amelia A; LaMonica, Michael B; Fukuda, David H; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2016-12-01

    To compare the effects of two different resistance training programs, high intensity (INT) and high volume (VOL), on changes in isometric force (FRC), rate of force development (RFD), and barbell velocity during dynamic strength testing. Twenty-nine resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either the INT (n = 15, 3-5 RM, 3-min rest interval) or VOL (n = 14, 10-12 RM, 1-min rest interval) training group for 8 weeks. All participants completed a 2-week preparatory phase prior to randomization. Measures of barbell velocity, FRC, and RFD were performed before (PRE) and following (POST) the 8-week training program. Barbell velocity was determined during one-repetition maximum (1RM) testing of the squat (SQ) and bench press (BP) exercises. The isometric mid-thigh pull was used to assess FRC and RFD at specific time bands ranging from 0 to 30, 50, 90, 100, 150, 200, and 250 ms. Analysis of covariance revealed significant (p resistance-trained men.

  16. Resistance strength training exercise in children with spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewelt, Aga; Krosschell, Kristin J; Stoddard, Gregory J; Weng, Cindy; Xue, Mei; Marcus, Robin L; Gappmaier, Eduard; Viollet, Louis; Johnson, Barbara A; White, Andrea T; Viazzo-Trussell, Donata; Lopes, Philippe; Lane, Robert H; Carey, John C; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2015-10-01

    Preliminary evidence in adults with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and in SMA animal models suggests exercise has potential benefits in improving or stabilizing muscle strength and motor function. We evaluated feasibility, safety, and effects on strength and motor function of a home-based, supervised progressive resistance strength training exercise program in children with SMA types II and III. Up to 14 bilateral proximal muscles were exercised 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. Nine children with SMA, aged 10.4 ± 3.8 years, completed the resistance training exercise program. Ninety percent of visits occurred per protocol. Training sessions were pain-free (99.8%), and no study-related adverse events occurred. Trends in improved strength and motor function were observed. A 12-week supervised, home-based, 3-day/week progressive resistance training exercise program is feasible, safe, and well tolerated in children with SMA. These findings can inform future studies of exercise in SMA. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Synergistic effects of resistance training and protein intake: practical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Cholewa, Jason Michael; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Zhi, X I A; Magagnin, Daiane; de Sá, Rafaele Bis Dal Ponte; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Teixeira, Tamiris da Silva; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2014-10-01

    Resistance training is a potent stimulus to increase skeletal muscle mass. The muscle protein accretion process depends on a robust synergistic action between protein intake and overload. The intake of protein after resistance training increases plasma amino acids, which results in the activation of signaling molecules leading to increased muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle hypertrophy. Although both essential and non-essential amino acids are necessary for hypertrophy, the intake of free L-leucine or high-leucine whole proteins has been specifically shown to increase the initiation of translation that is essential for elevated MPS. The literature supports the use of protein intake following resistance-training sessions to enhance MPS; however, less understood are the effects of different protein sources and timing protocols on MPS. The sum of the adaptions from each individual training session is essential to muscle hypertrophy, and thus highlights the importance of an optimal supplementation protocol. The aim of this review is to present recent findings reported in the literature and to discuss the practical application of these results. In that light, new speculations and questions will arise that may direct future investigations. The information and recommendations generated in this review should be of benefit to clinical dietitians as well as those engaged in sports. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of arachidonic acid supplementation on training adaptations in resistance-trained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenwood Mike

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the impact of AA supplementation during resistance training on body composition, training adaptations, and markers of muscle hypertrophy in resistance-trained males. Methods In a randomized and double blind manner, 31 resistance-trained male subjects (22.1 ± 5.0 years, 180 ± 0.1 cm, 86.1 ± 13.0 kg, 18.1 ± 6.4% body fat ingested either a placebo (PLA: 1 g·day-1 corn oil, n = 16 or AA (AA: 1 g·day-1 AA, n = 15 while participating in a standardized 4 day·week-1 resistance training regimen. Fasting blood samples, body composition, bench press one-repetition maximum (1RM, leg press 1RM and Wingate anaerobic capacity sprint tests were completed after 0, 25, and 50 days of supplementation. Percutaneous muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis on days 0 and 50. Results Wingate relative peak power was significantly greater after 50 days of supplementation while the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was significantly lower after 25 days of supplementation in the AA group. PGE2 levels tended to be greater in the AA group. However, no statistically significant differences were observed between groups in body composition, strength, anabolic and catabolic hormones, or markers of muscle hypertrophy (i.e. total protein content or MHC type I, IIa, and IIx protein content and other intramuscular markers (i.e. FP and EP3 receptor density or MHC type I, IIa, and IIx mRNA expression. Conclusion AA supplementation during resistance-training may enhance anaerobic capacity and lessen the inflammatory response to training. However, AA supplementation did not promote statistically greater gains in strength, muscle mass, or influence markers of muscle hypertrophy.

  19. Effects of arachidonic acid supplementation on training adaptations in resistance-trained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael D; Iosia, Mike; Kerksick, Chad M; Taylor, Lem W; Campbell, Bill; Wilborn, Colin D; Harvey, Travis; Cooke, Matthew; Rasmussen, Chris; Greenwood, Mike; Wilson, Ronald; Jitomir, Jean; Willoughby, Darryn; Kreider, Richard B

    2007-11-28

    To determine the impact of AA supplementation during resistance training on body composition, training adaptations, and markers of muscle hypertrophy in resistance-trained males. In a randomized and double blind manner, 31 resistance-trained male subjects (22.1 +/- 5.0 years, 180 +/- 0.1 cm, 86.1 +/- 13.0 kg, 18.1 +/- 6.4% body fat) ingested either a placebo (PLA: 1 g.day-1 corn oil, n = 16) or AA (AA: 1 g.day-1 AA, n = 15) while participating in a standardized 4 day.week-1 resistance training regimen. Fasting blood samples, body composition, bench press one-repetition maximum (1RM), leg press 1RM and Wingate anaerobic capacity sprint tests were completed after 0, 25, and 50 days of supplementation. Percutaneous muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis on days 0 and 50. Wingate relative peak power was significantly greater after 50 days of supplementation while the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was significantly lower after 25 days of supplementation in the AA group. PGE2 levels tended to be greater in the AA group. However, no statistically significant differences were observed between groups in body composition, strength, anabolic and catabolic hormones, or markers of muscle hypertrophy (i.e. total protein content or MHC type I, IIa, and IIx protein content) and other intramuscular markers (i.e. FP and EP3 receptor density or MHC type I, IIa, and IIx mRNA expression). AA supplementation during resistance-training may enhance anaerobic capacity and lessen the inflammatory response to training. However, AA supplementation did not promote statistically greater gains in strength, muscle mass, or influence markers of muscle hypertrophy.

  20. Effect of specific resistance training on musculoskeletal pain symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Andersen, Lars Louis; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Pedersen, MT, Andersen, LL, Jørgensen, MB, Søgaard, K, and Sjøgaard, G. Effect of specific resistance training on musculoskeletal pain symptoms: Dose-response relationship. J Strength Cond Res 27(1): 229-235, 2013-The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-response of strength...... training for relieving musculoskeletal pain in female office workers. The relation between the dose of training in terms of total training volume (sets × repetitions × load reported in training diaries) during a 16-week strength training program and changes in pain (calculated as pain index, 0-100%, from...... index in SRT and APE decreased significantly from baseline to follow-up (-25%/-22%) compared with changes in REF (-15%). In the dose-response analysis within the SRT group (n = 125), the total volume of training (mean 18.056 kg, SD = 13.798) was negatively correlated with changes in pain index (ß = -0...

  1. Fun During Knee Rehabilitation: Feasibility and Acceptability Testing of a New Android-Based Training Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Spickschen, Thomas Sanjay; Colcuc, Christian; Hanke, Alexander; Clausen, Jan-Dierk; James, Paul Abraham; Horstmann, Hauke

    2017-01-01

    The initial goals of rehabilitation after knee injuries and operations are to achieve full knee extension and to activate quadriceps muscle. In addition to regular physiotherapy, an android-based knee training device is designed to help patients achieve these goals and improve compliance in the early rehabilitation period. This knee training device combines fun in a computer game with muscular training or rehabilitation. Our aim was to test the feasibility and acceptability of this new device. 50 volunteered subjects enrolled to test out the computer game aided device. The first game was the high-striker game, which recorded maximum knee extension power. The second game involved controlling quadriceps muscular power to simulate flying an aeroplane in order to record accuracy of muscle activation. The subjects evaluated this game by completing a simple questionnaire. No technical problem was encountered during the usage of this device. No subjects complained of any discomfort after using this device. Measurements including maximum knee extension power, knee muscle activation and control were recorded successfully. Subjects rated their experience with the device as either excellent or very good and agreed that the device can motivate and monitor the progress of knee rehabilitation training. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first android-based tool available to fast track knee rehabilitation training. All subjects gave very positive feedback to this computer game aided knee device.

  2. Effect of Lower-Body Resistance Training on Upper-Body Strength Adaptation in Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, Sandro; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Merni, Franco

    2018-01-01

    Bartolomei, S, Hoffman, JR, Stout, JR, and Merni, F. Effect of lower-body resistance training on upper-body strength adaptation in trained men. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 13-18, 2018-The aim of this study was to examine the effect of 2 different lower-body strength training schemes on upper-body adaptations to resistance training. Twenty resistance-trained men (4.25 ± 1.6 years of experience) were randomly assigned to either a high intensity (HI; n = 9; age = 24.9 ± 2.9 years; body mass = 88.7 ± 17.2 kg; height = 177.0 ± 5.6 cm) or a mixed high volume and HI resistance training program (MP; n = 11; age = 26.0 ± 4.7 years; body mass = 82.8 ± 9.1 kg; height = 177.54 ± 5.9 cm). High-intensity group followed a HI training for both upper and lower body (4-5 reps at 88%-90% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM)), whereas the MP group performed high-volume training sessions focused on muscle hypertrophy for lower body (10-12 reps at 65%-70% of 1-RM) and a HI protocol for the upper body. Maximal strength and power testing occurred before and after the 6-week training program. Analysis of covariance was used to compare performance measures between the groups. Greater increases in MP groups compared with HI groups were observed for bench press 1RM (p = 0.007), bench press power at 50% of 1RM (p = 0.011), and for arm muscle area (p = 0.046). Significant difference between the 2 groups at posttest were also observed for fat mass (p = 0.009). Results indicated that training programs focused on lower-body muscle hypertrophy and maximal strength for upper body can stimulate greater strength and power gains in the upper body compared with HI resistance training programs for both the upper and lower body.

  3. Resistance training, insulin sensitivity and muscle function in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Kjaer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Ageing is associated with a loss in both muscle mass and in the metabolic quality of skeletal muscle. This leads to sarcopenia and reduced daily function, as well as to an increased risk for development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. A major part, but not all, of these changes...... are associated with an age-related decrease in the physical activity level and can be counteracted by increased physical activity of a resistive nature. Strength training has been shown to improve insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in both healthy elderly individuals and patients with manifest diabetes...

  4. Inertial flywheel resistance training and muscle oxygen saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timón, Rafael; Ponce-González, Jesús G; González-Montesinos, José L; Olcina, Guillermo; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro; Castro-Piñero, José

    2017-07-24

    The inertial flywheel device causes an increase in eccentric overload during training. The aim was to study muscle oxygen saturation produced during an inertial flywheel squat training, comparing it with a barbell squat training. Twelve male adults performed a barbell squat training (3 x 8 reps, 75-80% 1RM) and a flywheel squat training (3 x 8 reps, all-out). Muscle oxygen saturation (%SmO2), total hemoglobin (tHb), reoxygenation, heart rate (HR), lactate, vertical jumps, maximal voluntary isometric contraction and rated perceived exertion (RPE) were studied. Both protocols produced a significant decrease in %SmO2 and tHB during the sets of squats, and a significant increase in HR, lactate sdand RPE after training. The flywheel squat protocol caused a greater decrease in %SmO2 than the barbell squat protocol in each of the sets of exercises (1st set:- 67.5 ± 7.2vs -53.7 ± 16.2 %; 2nd set: - 67.2 ± 13.5vs -53.6 ± 15.4 %; 3rdset: -68.1 ± 13.0vs -55.0 ± 17.0 %), as well as a longer reoxygenation after finishing the training (61.7 ± 12.6 vs 55.7 ± 13.7 s.). Although no differences were found on a muscle fatigue level, the flywheel training brought on greater physiological stress than the barbell squat training, observing a greater decrease in muscle oxygen saturation and a longer reoxygenation.

  5. Fleet Project Team Participation in Major Aviation Training Device Development, Acquisition and Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    this point that the lack of initial requirements ansay ’RA and the failure to develop training requirements, test plans and a meaninful syllabus all...prior to training in the device. B. Training Objectives NOTE: Training objectives are the objectives to be achieved by the trainee by learning and...of learning . Every effort was made to make IOS operation easy, and the actions needed to attain given objectives obvious and hence easy to learn

  6. Effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training on maximal strength and power in trained athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ataee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accommodation resistance is a training technique that may improve strength and power gains beyond those achieved by traditional free weights. In this method, chains are either added on a free-weight bar and combined with traditional plates or added to the bar as the entire load.Purpose. The aim of the current study was to compare the effectiveness of accommodation and constant resistance training methods during a four-week period on maximal strength and power in trained athletes.Methods. This study was comprised of 24 trained athletes, including 16 trained males [8 Wushu athletes (Kung-Fu and 8 wrestlers, age: 20.5 ± 2.00 yrs. old]. Participants were initially tested on weight, body circumference, fat percent, upper and lower body maximal strength, determined by the 1-repetition maximum (1RM test, which determines the greatest amount of weight a person can successfully lift, and upper and lower body power. Participants were equally randomized to either accommodation or constant resistance training groups. Both groups underwent resistance training for a four-week period that consisted of three sessions per week. Multivariate repeated-measures analyses of variance of the data were used to verify significant differences in strength and power between groups. The modified Bonferroni post hoc test was used to compare the obtained results in pre-, mid-, and post test.Results. In the accommodation resistance group, there was a significant difference in lower body maximal strength compared to the constant group (163.12 ± 18.82 kg in the accommodation group vs. 142.25 ± 20.04 kg in the constant group, P = 0.04. No significant differences were found in upper body power, lower body power, and upper body maximal strength between the two groups (P > 0.05.Conclusion. Although there was only a significant difference in lower body maximal strength between groups, accommodation resistance training may induce a physiological training response by improving the

  7. Determination of internal series resistance of PV devices: repeatability and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trentadue, Germana; Pavanello, Diego; Salis, Elena; Field, Mike; Müllejans, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The calibration of photovoltaic devices requires the measurement of their current–voltage characteristics at standard test conditions (STC). As the latter can only be reached approximately, a curve translation is necessary, requiring among others the internal series resistance of the photovoltaic device as an input parameter. Therefore accurate and reliable determination of the series resistance is important in measurement and test laboratories. This work follows standard IEC 60891 ed 2 (2009) for the determination of the internal series resistance and investigates repeatability and uncertainty of the result in three aspects for a number of typical photovoltaic technologies. Firstly the effect of varying device temperature on the determined series resistance is determined experimentally and compared to a theoretical derivation showing agreement. It is found that the series resistance can be determined with an uncertainty of better than 5% if the device temperature is stable within  ±0.1 °C, whereas the temperature range of  ±2 °C allowed by the standard leads to much larger variations. Secondly the repeatability of the series resistance determination with respect to noise in current–voltage measurement is examined yielding typical values of  ±5%. Thirdly the determination of the series resistance using three different experimental set-ups (solar simulators) shows agreement on the level of  ±5% for crystalline Silicon photovoltaic devices and deviations up to 15% for thin-film devices. It is concluded that the internal series resistance of photovoltaic devices could be determined with an uncertainty of better than 10%. The influence of this uncertainty in series resistance on the electrical performance parameters of photovoltaic devices was estimated and showed a contribution of 0.05% for open-circuit voltage and 0.1% for maximum power. Furthermore it is concluded that the range of device temperatures allowed during determination of series

  8. Comparison of gravity-resisted and gym-based core training on core ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a gravity-resisted core training intervention is likely to produce beneficial gains in core endurance for resistance trained males to a greater extent than a programme of similar exercises conducted conventionally in a gym. Keywords: Gravity-resisted core training; Exercise; Rehabilitation; Core endurance ...

  9. Effect of whole body resistance training on arterial compliance in young men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakobowchuk, M.; McGowan, C.L.; Groot, P.C.E. de; Bruinsma, D.; Hartman, J.W.; Phillips, S.M.; MacDonald, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of resistance training on arterial stiffening is controversial. We tested the hypothesis that resistance training would not alter central arterial compliance. Young healthy men (age, 23 +/- 3.9 (mean +/- s.e.m.) years; n = 28,) were whole-body resistance trained five times a week for 12

  10. A biomechanical evaluation of resistance: fundamental concepts for training and sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; Cronin, John; Newton, Robert U

    2010-04-01

    Newton's second law of motion describes the acceleration of an object as being directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force and inversely proportional to its mass (a = F/m). With respect to linear motion, mass is also a numerical representation of an object's inertia, or its resistance to change in its state of motion and directly proportional to the magnitude of an object's momentum at any given velocity. To change an object's momentum, thereby increasing or decreasing its velocity, a proportional impulse must be generated. All motion is governed by these relationships, independent of the exercise being performed or the movement type being used; however, the degree to which this governance affects the associated kinematics, kinetics and muscle activity is dependent on the resistance type. Researchers have suggested that to facilitate the greatest improvements to athletic performance, the resistance-training programme employed by an athlete must be adapted to meet the specific demands of their sport. Therefore, it is conceivable that one mechanical stimulus, or resistance type, may not be appropriate for all applications. Although an excellent means of increasing maximal strength and the rate of force development, free-weight or mass-based training may not be the most conducive means to elicit velocity-specific adaptations. Attempts have been made to combat the inherent flaws of free weights, via accommodating and variable resistance-training devices; however, such approaches are not without problems that are specific to their mechanics. More recently, pneumatic-resistance devices (variable) have been introduced as a mechanical stimulus whereby the body mass of the athlete represents the only inertia that must be overcome to initiate movement, thus potentially affording the opportunity to develop velocity-specific power. However, there is no empirical evidence to support such a contention. Future research should

  11. Micro-Devices Using Resistance Change Materials (MODERN Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-07

    Materials 8 UNTVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Material Choice for RF Switching: GeTe • ON resistivity as low as 2 x lO-4 10 Qcm • OFF/ON Resistance ratio...GeTe • ON resistivity as low as 2 x lO4 Qcm • OFF/ON Resistance ratio > 106 • Switching speed: sub-fas range 10 10 200 ^ 150 £ ID oj 100

  12. Effects of Training Attendance on Muscle Strength of Young Men after 11 Weeks of Resistance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Paulo; Bottaro, Martim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Training attendance is an important variable for attaining optimal results after a resistance training (RT) program, however, the association of attendance with the gains of muscle strength is not well defined. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to verify if attendance would affect muscle strength gains in healthy young males. Methods Ninety two young males with no previous RT experience volunteered to participate in the study. RT was performed 2 days a week for 11 weeks. One repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press and knee extensors peak torque (PT) were measured before and after the training period. After the training period, a two step cluster analysis was used to classify the participants in accordance to training attendance, resulting in three groups, defined as high (92 to 100%), intermediate (80 to 91%) and low (60 to 79%) training attendance. Results According to the results, there were no significant correlations between strength gains and training attendance, however, when attendance groups were compared, the low training attendance group showed lower increases in 1RM bench press (8.8%) than the other two groups (17.6% and 18.0% for high and intermediate attendance, respectively). Conclusions Although there is not a direct correlation between training attendance and muscle strength gains, it is suggested that a minimum attendance of 80% is necessary to ensure optimal gains in upper body strength. PMID:23802051

  13. Evaluation of Performance Improvements After Either Resistance Training or Sprint Interval-Based Concurrent Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Richard H; Elmer, David J; Barberio, Matthew D; Salom, Lorena P; Lee, Khalil A; Pascoe, David D

    2016-11-01

    Laird IV, RH, Elmer, DJ, Barberio, MD, Salom, LP, Lee, KA, and Pascoe, DD. Evaluation of performance improvements after either resistance training or sprint interval-based concurrent training. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3057-3065, 2016-The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of concurrent sprint interval and resistance training (CST) vs. resistance training (RT) on measures of strength, power, and aerobic fitness in recreationally active women. Twenty-eight women (20.3 ± 1.7 years; 63.0 ± 9.1; 51.1 ± 7.1 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) back squat (kg); V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 35.4 ± 4.1 ml·kg·min) were recruited to complete an 11-week training program. Participants were matched-pair assigned to CST or RT cohorts after preliminary testing, which consisted of 1-RM back squats, maximal isometric squats, anaerobic power evaluations, and maximal oxygen consumption. All subjects trained 3 days per week with sprint-interval training occurring at least 4 hours after RT in the CST cohort. Both CST and RT resulted in significant improvements (p ≤ 0.05) in the 1-RM back squat (37.5 ± 7.8; 40.0 ± 9.6 kg), maximal isometric force (55.7 ± 51.3; 53.7 ± 36.7 kg), average peak anaerobic power testing (7.4 ± 6.2; 7.6 ± 6.4%), and zero-incline treadmill velocity, resulting in maximal oxygen consumption (1.8 ± 0.6; 0.8 ± 0.6 km·h). Only zero-incline treadmill velocity demonstrated a group-by-time interaction with a greater improvement after CST (p training might supplement programs already in place.

  14. Strategies for Optimizing Strength, Power, and Muscle Hypertrophy in Women: Contribution of Upper Body Resistance Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraemer, William

    1999-01-01

    To determine the performance and physiological effects of various physical conditioning programs in women, total body, upper-body resistance training groups, field training and aerobic training groups (n = 11 to 21...

  15. Recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: resistance and cardiovascular training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, E R; Fitschen, P J; Aragon, A A; Cronin, J; Schoenfeld, B J

    2015-03-01

    The anabolic effect of resistance training can mitigate muscle loss during contest preparation. In reviewing relevant literature, we recommend a periodized approach be utilized. Block and undulating models show promise. Muscle groups should be trained 2 times weekly or more, although high volume training may benefit from higher frequencies to keep volume at any one session from becoming excessive. Low to high (~3-15) repetitions can be utilized but most repetitions should occur in the 6-12 range using 70-80% of 1 repetition maximum. Roughly 40-70 reps per muscle group per session should be performed, however higher volume may be appropriate for advanced bodybuilders. Traditional rest intervals of 1-3 minutes are adequate, but longer intervals can be used. Tempo should allow muscular control of the load; 1-2 s concentric and 2-3 s eccentric tempos. Training to failure should be limited when performing heavy loads on taxing exercises, and primarily relegated to single-joint exercises and higher repetitions. A core of multi-joint exercises with some single-joint exercises to address specific muscle groups as needed should be used, emphasizing full range of motion and proper form. Cardiovascular training can be used to enhance fat loss. Interference with strength training adaptations increases concomitantly with frequency and duration of cardiovascular training. Thus, the lowest frequency and duration possible while achieving sufficient fat loss should be used. Full-body modalities or cycling may reduce interference. High intensities may as well; however, require more recovery. Fasted cardiovascular training may not have benefits over fed-state and could be detrimental.

  16. Effects of Instability Versus Traditional Resistance Training on Strength, Power and Velocity in Untrained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Maté-Muñoz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was compare the effects of a traditional and an instability resistance circuit training program on upper and lower limb strength, power, movement velocity and jumping ability. Thirty-six healthy untrained men were assigned to two experimental groups and a control group. Subjects in the experimental groups performed a resistance circuit training program consisting of traditional exercises (TRT, n = 10 or exercises executed in conditions of instability (using BOSU® and TRX® (IRT, n = 12. Both programs involved three days per week of training for a total of seven weeks. The following variables were determined before and after training: maximal strength (1RM, average (AV and peak velocity (PV, average (AP and peak power (PP, all during bench press (BP and back squat (BS exercises, along with squat jump (SJ height and counter movement jump (CMJ height. All variables were found to significantly improve (p <0.05 in response to both training programs. Major improvements were observed in SJ height (IRT = 22.1%, TRT = 20.1%, CMJ height (IRT = 17.7%, TRT = 15.2%, 1RM in BS (IRT = 13.03%, TRT = 12.6%, 1RM in BP (IRT = 4.7%, TRT = 4.4%, AP in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.3%, AP in BP (IRT = 2.4%, TRT = 8.1%, PP in BS (IRT=19.42%, TRT = 22.3%, PP in BP (IRT = 7.6%, TRT = 11.5%, AV in BS (IRT = 10.5%, TRT = 9.4%, and PV in BS (IRT = 8.6%, TRT = 4.5%. Despite such improvements no significant differences were detected in the posttraining variables recorded for the two experimental groups. These data indicate that a circuit training program using two instability training devices is as effective in untrained men as a program executed under stable conditions for improving strength (1RM, power, movement velocity and jumping ability.

  17. Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on psychological health in adolescents with obesity: The HEARTY randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S; Kenny, Glen P; Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Phillips, Penny; Tulloch, Heather; Malcolm, Janine; Doucette, Steve; Wells, George A; Ma, Jinhui; Cameron, Jameason D; Sigal, Ronald J

    2015-12-01

    To determine the effects of aerobic training, resistance training, and combined training on mood, body image, and self-esteem in adolescents with obesity. After a 4-week prerandomization treatment, 304 postpubertal adolescents (91 males, 213 females) with obesity ages 14-18 years were randomized to 1 of 4 groups for 22 weeks: aerobic training (n = 75), resistance training (n = 78), combined aerobic and resistance training (n = 75), or nonexercising control (n = 76). All participants received dietary counseling, with a daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. Mood was measured using the Brunel Mood Scale. Body image was assessed using the Multiple Body Self-Relations Questionnaire, and physical self-perceptions and global self-esteem were measured using the Harter Physical Self-Perceptions Questionnaire. Median adherence was 62%, 56%, and 64% in aerobic, resistance, and combined training, respectively. Resistance and combined training produced greater improvements than control on vigor, and resistance training reduced depressive symptoms. All groups improved on body image and physical self-perceptions, but combined showed greater increases than control on perceived physical conditioning, while only resistance training showed greater increases than controls on global self-esteem. Both combined and resistance training demonstrated greater increases in perceived strength than control. Psychological benefits were more related to better adherence and reductions in body fat than changes in strength or fitness. Resistance training, alone or in combination with aerobic training, may provide psychological benefits in adolescents with overweight or obesity, and therefore could be an alternative to aerobic training for some individuals in the biological and psychological management of adolescent obesity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Effects of resistance training and aerobic training on ambulation in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severinsen, Kaare; Jakobsen, Johannes K; Pedersen, Asger R; Overgaard, Kristian; Andersen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of aerobic training (AT) with progressive resistance training (RT) after stroke to determine whether AT-induced fitness gains or RT-induced strength gains translate into improved ambulation across a 12-wk intervention and whether gains are retained 1 yr after cessation of formal training. This study is a randomized controlled 12-wk intervention trial with a 1-yr follow-up. Forty-three community-dwelling independent walkers with a chronic ischemic hemiparetic stroke were allocated to AT using a cycle ergometer (n = 13), RT using training machines (n = 14), or low-intensity sham training of the arms (n = 16). The main outcome measures were 6-min walk distance and fast 10-m walking speed. Comparisons between AT, RT, and sham training revealed no clinically relevant effects on walking velocity or walking distance. Muscle strength improved after RT (P muscle strength or aerobic capacity using non-task-specific training methods does not result in improved ambulation in patients with chronic stroke. Muscle strength gains were maintained at follow-up, whereas all improvements of aerobic capacity were lost, indicating a long-lasting effect of intensive RT even without maintenance training.

  19. A Systematic Review of Bilateral Upper Limb Training Devices for Poststroke Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. (Lex E. Q. van Delden

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In stroke rehabilitation, bilateral upper limb training is gaining ground. As a result, a growing number of mechanical and robotic bilateral upper limb training devices have been proposed. Objective. To provide an overview and qualitative evaluation of the clinical applicability of bilateral upper limb training devices. Methods. Potentially relevant literature was searched in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases from 1990 onwards. Devices were categorized as mechanical or robotic (according to the PubMed MeSH term of robotics. Results. In total, 6 mechanical and 14 robotic bilateral upper limb training devices were evaluated in terms of mechanical and electromechanical characteristics, supported movement patterns, targeted part and active involvement of the upper limb, training protocols, outcomes of clinical trials, and commercial availability. Conclusion. Initial clinical results are not yet of such caliber that the devices in question and the concepts on which they are based are firmly established. However, the clinical outcomes do not rule out the possibility that the concept of bilateral training and the accompanied devices may provide a useful extension of currently available forms of therapy. To actually demonstrate their (surplus value, more research with adequate experimental, dose-matched designs, and sufficient statistical power are required.

  20. Training approaches for the deployment of a mechanical chest compression device: a randomised controlled manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper, Keith; Velho, Rochelle M; Quinn, Tom; Devrell, Anne; Lall, Ranjit; Orriss, Barry; Yeung, Joyce; Perkins, Gavin D

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of training strategy on team deployment of a mechanical chest compression device. Randomised controlled manikin trial. Large teaching hospital in the UK. Twenty teams, each comprising three clinicians. Participating individuals were health professionals with intermediate or advanced resuscitation training. Teams were randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive either standard mechanical chest compression device training or pit-crew device training. Training interventions lasted up to 1 h. Performance was measured immediately after training in a standardised simulated cardiac arrest scenario in which teams were required to deploy a mechanical chest compression device. Primary outcome was chest compression flow fraction in the minute preceding the first mechanical chest compression. Secondary outcomes included cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality and mechanical device deployment metrics, and non-technical skill performance. Outcomes were assessed using video recordings of the test scenario. In relation to the primary outcome of chest compression flow fraction in the minute preceding the first mechanical chest compression, we found that pit-crew training was not superior to standard training (0.76 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.79) vs 0.77 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.82), mean difference -0.01 (95% CI -0.06 to 0.03), P=0.572). There was also no difference between groups in performance in relation to any secondary outcome. Pit-crew training, compared with standard training, did not improve team deployment of a mechanical chest device in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario. ISRCTN43049287; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Three-terminal resistive switching memory in a transparent vertical-configuration device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungureanu, Mariana; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E.

    2014-01-01

    The resistive switching phenomenon has attracted much attention recently for memory applications. It describes the reversible change in the resistance of a dielectric between two non-volatile states by the application of electrical pulses. Typical resistive switching memories are two-terminal devices formed by an oxide layer placed between two metal electrodes. Here, we report on the fabrication and operation of a three-terminal resistive switching memory that works as a reconfigurable logic component and offers an increased logic density on chip. The three-terminal memory device we present is transparent and could be further incorporated in transparent computing electronic technologies

  2. Unmanned Aerial System Four-Dimensional Gunnery Training Device Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Operator program of instruction. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Gray Eagle Unmanned Aerial System Training; 4D Visualization Training; Airspace...for operators of the Shadow and Gray Eagle1 (referred to as GE from this point forward) systems occurs at Fort Huachuca, Arizona in the 2-13th...space and seeing it through their cockpit windows . On the other hand, UAS operators are limited to the stovepipe view from the aircraft payload and

  3. BioInnovate Ireland--fostering entrepreneurial activity through medical device innovation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzi, M S; Linehan, J H

    2013-09-01

    In the midst of a rich environment for medical device development and manufacturing, universities can play a critical role by developing relevant training programs to produce entrepreneurs who can be efficient and successful in creating early stage companies by understanding deeply the issues involved in creating a useful device, how to raise money, designing early clinical studies and locating manufacturing partners.

  4. Resistance training vs. static stretching: effects on flexibility and strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Sam K; Whitehead, James R; Brinkert, Ronald H; Caine, Dennis J

    2011-12-01

    Morton, SK, Whitehead, JR, Brinkert, RH, and Caine, DJ. Resistance training vs. static stretching: Effects on flexibility and strength. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3391-3398, 2011-The purpose of this study was to determine how full-range resistance training (RT) affected flexibility and strength compared to static stretching (SS) of the same muscle-joint complexes in untrained adults. Volunteers (n = 25) were randomized to an RT or SS training group. A group of inactive volunteers (n = 12) served as a convenience control group (CON). After pretesting hamstring extension, hip flexion and extension, shoulder extension flexibility, and peak torque of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, subjects completed 5-week SS or RT treatments in which the aim was to stretch or to strength train the same muscle-joint complexes over similar movements and ranges. Posttests of flexibility and strength were then conducted. There was no difference in hamstring flexibility, hip flexion, and hip extension improvement between RT and SS, but both were superior to CON values. There were no differences between groups on shoulder extension flexibility. The RT group was superior to the CON in knee extension peak torque, but there were no differences between groups on knee flexion peak torque. The results of this preliminary study suggest that carefully constructed full-range RT regimens can improve flexibility as well as the typical SS regimens employed in conditioning programs. Because of the potential practical significance of these results to strength and conditioning programs, further studies using true experimental designs, larger sample sizes, and longer training durations should be conducted with the aim of confirming or disproving these results.

  5. 14 CFR 142.59 - Flight simulators and flight training devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., set of aircraft, or aircraft type simulated, as applicable; and (2) Each curriculum or training course in which the flight simulator or flight training device is used, if that curriculum or course is used... section must include— (1) The set of aircraft, or type aircraft; (2) If applicable, the particular...

  6. A Systematic Review of Bilateral Upper Limb Training Devices for Poststroke Rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delden, A.E.Q.; Peper, C.E.; Kwakkel, G.; Beek, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In stroke rehabilitation, bilateral upper limb training is gaining ground. As a result, a growing number of mechanical and robotic bilateral upper limb training devices have been proposed. Objective. To provide an overview and qualitative evaluation of the clinical applicability of

  7. Virtual reality for mobility devices: training applications and clinical research: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erren-Wolters, Cathelijne V.; van Dijk, Henk; de Kort, Alexander C.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Jannink, M.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Virtual reality technology is an emerging technology that possibly can address the problems encountered in training (elderly) people to handle a mobility device. The objective of this review was to study different virtual reality training applications as well as their clinical implication for

  8. Shoulder injuries attributed to resistance training: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolber, Morey J; Beekhuizen, Kristina S; Cheng, Ming-Shun S; Hellman, Madeleine A

    2010-06-01

    The popularity of resistance training (RT) is evident by the more than 45 million Americans who engage in strength training regularly. Although the health and fitness benefits ascribed to RT are generally agreed upon, participation is not without risk. Acute and chronic injuries attributed to RT have been cited in the epidemiological literature among both competitive and recreational participants. The shoulder complex in particular has been alluded to as one of the most prevalent regions of injury. The purpose of this manuscript is to present an overview of documented shoulder injuries among the RT population and where possible discern mechanisms of injury and risk factors. A literature search was conducted in the PUBMED, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and OVID databases to identify relevant articles for inclusion using combinations of key words: resistance training, shoulder, bodybuilding, weightlifting, shoulder injury, and shoulder disorder. The results of the review indicated that up to 36% of documented RT-related injuries and disorders occur at the shoulder complex. Trends that increased the likelihood of injury were identified and inclusive of intrinsic risk factors such as joint and muscle imbalances and extrinsic risk factors, namely, that of improper attention to exercise technique. A majority of the available research was retrospective in nature, consisting of surveys and descriptive epidemiological reports. A paucity of research was available to identify predictive variables leading to injury, suggesting the need for future prospective-based investigations.

  9. Parent training in nonviolent resistance for adult entitled dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Eli; Dolberger, Dan; Nortov, Efi; Omer, Haim

    2012-03-01

    "Adult entitled dependence" is a condition characterized by the extreme dependence of grown children on their family and by levels of dysfunction, seemingly excessive in light of their apparent capacity to function. The family and the dependent adult become involved in an interaction in which the very attempts to alleviate the problem may aggravate it. Parent-training in nonviolent resistance (NVR) is an intervention that has been shown to be helpful to parents of behaviorally disturbed youth. Parent training in NVR offers parents means to shift away from a stance of helplessness toward realistic goals that are accomplishable without the collaboration of their offspring. We report on the parents of 27 entitled dependent grown children who participated in parent training in NVR. Additionally, we present 2 detailed case studies that exemplify the problem and the therapeutic process. Before treatment, the dependent adults were not working or studying, drew heavily on parental services (financial or otherwise), and were resistant to parental attempts to change the situation. Most parents succeeded in overcoming their helplessness and reducing the provision of parental services. In a considerable proportion of cases, the grown children started working or studying or moved to independent lodgings. © FPI, Inc.

  10. Effects of Resistance Training on Ventricular Function and Hypertrophy in a Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barauna, Valério Garrone; Rosa, Kaleizu Teodoro; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to follow the ventricular function and cardiac hypertrophy in rats undergoing a resistance-training program for a period of 3 months. Design: Forty animals were divided into two major groups: control (n=16) and resistance trained (n=24). From the resistance-trained group, 12 animals were resistance trained for 1 month and another 12 for 3 months. The resistance-training protocol was performed with 4 sets of 12 repetitions using 65% to 75% of one repetition maximum (maximum lifted weight with the exercise apparatus). Methods: Echocardiographic analysis was performed at the beginning of the resistance-training period and at the end of each month. The repetition maximum was measured every 2 weeks. Cardiac hypertrophy was determined by echocardiography, by the absolute weight of the cardiac chambers and by histology of the left ventricle. Results: Before resistance training, both groups had similar repetition maximums, ranging from 1.8-fold to 2-fold the body weight; however, at the end of the resistance-training period, the repetition maximum of the resistance-trained group was 6-fold greater than the body weight. The left ventricular mass as assessed by echocardiography was 8%, 12% and 16% larger in the resistance-trained group than in the control group in the first, second and third months, respectively. This hypertrophy showed a similar increase in the interventricular septum and in the free posterior wall mass. There was no reduction in the end-diastolic left ventricular internal diameter during the 3-month resistance-training period. Systolic function did not differ between the groups throughout the resistance-training period. Conclusion: Resistance training induces the development of concentric cardiac hypertrophy without ventricular dysfunction or cavity reduction. Although diastolic function was not completely investigated, we cannot exclude the possibility that resistance training results in diastolic dysfunction. PMID

  11. Studies on the radiation resistances of bioburden for medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Tabei, Masae

    1997-01-01

    Radiation resistances of reference bacteria strains and the bioburden obtained from hypodermic needles were estimated with gamma- and electron- irradiators calibrated with NPL (National Physics Laboratory) alanine dosimeter. Radiation resistances of the TSB-bacteria suspension samples dried on glass test tubes showed about two times higher than those of the water-bacteria suspension dried on glass fiber paper or paper filter. Radiation resistances of the dried TSB-bacteria suspension samples irradiated by both gamma rays and electron beams were fluctuated. The overall increase ratio of radiation resistance was estimated by dividing D-values of TSB-bacteria suspension samples by that of water-bacteria suspension samples for individual bacteria. Then, the survival curve of hypodermic needle bioburden revised by the increase ratio was obtained, and which compared with that of standard distribution of radiation resistances of ISO(SDR). (author)

  12. Evaluation of muscle activity during a standardized shoulder resistance training bout in novice individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus D; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2012-01-01

    Momentary fatigue is an important variable in resistance training periodization programs. Although several studies have examined neuromuscular activity during single repetitions of resistance training, information is lacking in regard to neuromuscular fatigue indices throughout a full resistance......, infraspinatus, and serratus anterior increased, and MPF decreased within each set-indicating momentary neuromuscular fatigue. By contrast, no such change was observed between the 3 sets. This indicates that momentary neuromuscular fatigue in shoulder resistance training is induced more efficiently within a set...

  13. Training Volume, Not Frequency, Indicative of Maximal Strength Adaptations to Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquhoun, Ryan J; Gai, Christopher M; Aguilar, Danielle; Bove, Daniel; Dolan, Jeffrey; Vargas, Andres; Couvillion, Kaylee; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Campbell, Bill I

    2018-01-05

    To compare the effects of a high- versus a moderate-training frequency on maximal strength and body composition. 28 young, healthy resistance-trained males were randomly assigned to either: 3x/week (3x; n=16) or 6x/week (6x; n=12). Dependent variables (DVs) assessed at baseline and after the 6-week training intervention included: squat 1RM (SQ1RM), bench press 1RM (BP1RM), deadlift 1RM (DL1RM), powerlifting total (PLT), Wilk's coefficient (WC), fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM). Data for each DV was analyzed via a 2x2 between-within factorial repeated measures ANOVA. There was a main effect for time (p < 0.001) for SQ1RM (3x: + 16.8 kg; 6x: + 16.7 kg), BP1RM (3x: + 7.8 kg; 6x: + 8.8 kg), DL1RM (3x: + 19 kg; 6x: + 21 kg), PLT (3x: + 43.6 kg; 6x: + 46.5 kg), WC (3x: + 27; 6x: + 27.1), and FFM (3x: + 1.7 kg; 6x: + 2.6 kg). There were no group x time interactions or main effects for group. The primary finding was that 6-weeks of resistance training lead to significant increases in maximal strength and fat-free mass. Additionally, it appears that increased training frequency does not lead to additional strength improvements when volume and intensity are equated. Practical Application: High frequency (6x/wk) resistance training does not appear to offer additional strength and hypertrophy benefits over lower frequency (3x/wk), when volume and intensity are equated. Coaches and practitioners can therefore expect similar increases in strength and lean body mass with both 3- and 6-weekly sessions.

  14. The effects of low-volume resistance training with and without advanced techniques in trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieβsing, Jùrgen; Fisher, James; Steele, James; Rothe, Frank; Raubold, Kristin; Eichmann, Björn

    2016-03-01

    This study examined low-volume resistance training (RT) in trained participants with and without advanced training methods. Trained participants (RT experience 4±3 years) were randomised to groups performing single-set RT: ssRM (N.=21) performing repetitions to self-determined repetition maximum (RM), ssMMF (N.=30) performing repetitions to momentary muscular failure (MMF), and ssRP (N.=28) performing repetitions to self-determined RM using a rest pause (RP) method. Each performed supervised RT twice/week for 10 weeks. Outcomes included maximal isometric strength and body composition using bioelectrical impedance analysis. The ssRM group did not significantly improve in any outcome. The ssMMF and ssRP groups both significantly improved strength (p groups. Strength ES's were considered large for ssMMF (0.91 to 1.57) and ranging small to large for ssRP (0.42 to 1.06). Body composition data revealed significant improvements (PTraining to self-determined RM is not efficacious for trained participants. Training to MMF produces greatest improvements in strength and body composition, however, RP style training does offer some benefit.

  15. Corticosteroid injections, eccentric decline squat training and heavy slow resistance training in patellar tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, M; Kovanen, V; Aagaard, P

    2009-01-01

    A randomized-controlled single-blind trial was conducted to investigate the clinical, structural and functional effects of peritendinous corticosteroid injections (CORT), eccentric decline squat training (ECC) and heavy slow resistance training (HSR) in patellar tendinopathy. Thirty-nine male...... patients were randomized to CORT, ECC or HSR for 12 weeks. We assessed function and symptoms (VISA-p questionnaire), tendon pain during activity (VAS), treatment satisfaction, tendon swelling, tendon vascularization, tendon mechanical properties and collagen crosslink properties. Assessments were made at 0...

  16. The Effect of Eight Weeks Resistance Training on Leptin and Insulin Resistance in Obese Female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khalili

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Leptin , the main peptide secreted by adipose tissue, is considered an alarming factor in the regulation of body fat content . With regard to the physiological effect of exercise as one of the potential regulators of leptin secretion from adipose tissue , this study was performed to examine the effects of resistance exercise on leptin. Materials & Methods: Twenty inactive and obese female students (10 controls and 10 experi-mentals participated in this study. The subjects in the experimental group performed an 8 week resistance training program (chest press, leg press, lat pull down, leg curl, bicep curl, leg extension with 60 - 70 percent of 1RM. ELISA was used to measure leptin. Results: The results of this study showed that 8 weeks of resistance training significantly decreased BMI (31.32 kg/m2 versus 29.73 kg/m2 , P=0.0001, weight body (80.5kg versus 76.25kg, P=0.0001, WHR (0.93 ver-sus0.89, P=0.0001 and body fat percent (27.48 versus 24.85, P=0.0001 in EG. Statistically significant differ-ences were not seen in leptin (P=0.939, insulin (P=0.336, glucose (P=0.264 and insulin resistance (P=0.306 between CG and EG. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that , there was no significant difference in leptin levels and insulin resistance between the control and experimental groups, after 8 weeks of resistance training. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (1:59-65

  17. Metabolic Response to Four Weeks of Muscular Endurance Resistance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Farrell III

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous investigations have shown that muscular endurance resistance training (MERT is conducive in improving the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA. However, the metabolic response and time course for adaption is still unclear. Objective: The aims of the current study were to evaluate and track the metabolic response to an individual session of MERT as well as to assess performance adaptations of supplementing an aerobic exercise training program with four weeks of MERT. Methods: Seventeen aerobically active men were randomly assigned to either the experimental (EX or control group (CON, 9 EX and 8 CON. Baseline measures included a graded exercise test (GXT and 1-repetition maximum (1RM testing for leg press (LP, leg curl (LC, and leg extension (LE. CON continued their regular aerobic activity while the EX supplemented their regular aerobic exercise with 4 weeks of MERT. Results: No significant group differences were observed for all pre-training variables. Following four weeks of training no significant differences in cardiorespiratory or metabolic variables were observed for either group. However, significant improvements in LC and LE 1-RM were observed in EX compared to CON. Substantial accumulations in blood lactate were observed following each MERT session. Conclusion: Four weeks of MERT did not improve cardiorespiratory or metabolic variables, but did significantly improve LC and LE. MERT was also observed to induce a blood lactate response similar to that of HIIT. These findings suggest greater than four weeks is need to see metabolic adaptations conducive for improved aerobic performance using MERT.

  18. Digital to analog resistive switching transition induced by graphene buffer layer in strontium titanate based devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Tao; Qu, Bo; Du, Haiwei; Lin, Xi; Lin, Qianru; Wang, Da-Wei; Cazorla, Claudio; Li, Sean; Liu, Sidong; Chu, Dewei

    2018-02-15

    Resistive switching behaviour can be classified into digital and analog switching based on its abrupt and gradual resistance change characteristics. Realizing the transition from digital to analog switching in the same device is essential for understanding and controlling the performance of the devices with various switching mechanisms. Here, we investigate the resistive switching in a device made with strontium titanate (SrTiO 3 ) nanoparticles using X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and direct electrical measurements. It is found that the well-known rupture/formation of Ag filaments is responsible for the digital switching in the device with Ag as the top electrode. To modulate the switching performance, we insert a reduced graphene oxide layer between SrTiO 3 and the bottom FTO electrode owing to its good barrier property for the diffusion of Ag ions and high out-of-plane resistance. In this case, resistive switching is changed from digital to analog as determined by the modulation of interfacial resistance under applied voltage. Based on that controllable resistance, potentiation and depression behaviours are implemented as well. This study opens up new ways for the design of multifunctional devices which are promising for memory and neuromorphic computing applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of oxygen doping on resistive-switching characteristic of a-Si/c-Si device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiahua; Chen, Da; Huang, Shihua

    2017-12-01

    The influence of oxygen doping on resistive-switching characteristics of Ag/a-Si/p+-c-Si device was investigated. By oxygen doping in the growth process of amorphous silicon, the device resistive-switching performances, such as the ON/OFF resistance ratios, yield and stability were improved, which may be ascribed to the significant reduction of defect density because of oxygen incorporation. The device I–V characteristics are strongly dependent on the oxygen doping concentration. As the oxygen doping concentration increases, the Si-rich device gradually transforms to an oxygen-rich device, and the device yield, switching characteristics, and stability may be improved for silver/oxygen-doped a-Si/p+-c-Si device. Finally, the device resistive-switching mechanism was analyzed. Project supported by the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. LY17F040001), the Open Project Program of Surface Physics Laboratory (National Key Laboratory) of Fudan University (No. KF2015_02), the Open Project Program of National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. M201503), the Zhejiang Provincial Science and Technology Key Innovation Team (No. 2011R50012), and the Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory (No. 2013E10022).

  20. Concurrent training and caffeine supplementation on resistance training performance - A short research report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Ugatti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the influence of caffeine supplementation (4.5 mg⋅kg−1 on lower body resistance training (RT performance preceded with and without an acute bout of endurance exercise. In a double-blinded crossover study, 10 moderately active males (20.6±2.1 yo carried out six exercise sessions (2 x 1RM sessions; 2 x resistance sessions; 2 concurrent sessions. Resistance exercise sessions (CAF+RES and PLA+RES were carried out with 4 maximum sets of leg press, leg extension and leg curl to volitional fatigue at 65% of 1RM for each exercise with 1 min inter-set and inter-session rest interval. Sessions consisted on 4 maximum sets to volitional fatigue at 65% of 1RM for each exercise with 1 min of rest interval between sets and exercises. Concurrent training sessions (CAF+CON and PLA+CON were identical but were preceded by 30 min of continuous treadmill running at 75-85% HRmax. Physical performance showed a significant main effect for treatment (p < 0.0001, protocol (p < 0.02, exercises (p < 0.0001 and sets (p < 0.0001. Physical performance during RES was reduced after endurance exercise, indicating a cumulative effect of CON. Caffeine supplementation blunted this cumulative effect. We conclude that caffeine supplementation could be used to improve the RT performance when it is done immediately after an aerobic training.

  1. Study on film resistivity of Energy Conversion Components for MEMS Initiating Explosive Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Yulong; Chu, Enyi; Yin, Ming; Li, Hui; Wang, Kexuan

    2018-03-01

    Resistivity of Plane-film Energy Conversion Components is a key parameter to influence its resistance and explosive performance, and also it has important relations with the preparation of thin film technology, scale, structure and etc. In order to improve the design of Energy Conversion Components for MEMS Initiating Explosive Device, and reduce the design deviation of Energy Conversion Components in microscale, guarantee the design resistance and ignition performance of MEMS Initiating Explosive Device, this paper theoretically analyzed the influence factors of film resistivity in microscale, through the preparation of Al film and Ni-Cr film at different thickness with micro/nano, then obtain the film resistivity parameter of the typical metal under different thickness, and reveals the effect rule of the scale to the resistivity in microscale, at the same time we obtain the corresponding inflection point data.

  2. The effects of high resistance-few repetitions and low resistance-high repetitions resistance training on climbing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Espen; Andersen, Vidar; Saeterbakken, Atle Hole

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of different strength training intensities on climbing performance, climbing-specific tests and a general strength test. Thirty lower grade and intermediate-level climbers participated in a 10-week training programme. The participants were randomized into three groups: high resistance-few repetitions training groups (HR-FR), low resistance-high repetitions training groups (LR-HR) and a control group (CON) which continued climbing/training as usual. Post-testing results demonstrated statistical tendencies for climbing performance improvements in the HR-FR and LR-HR (p = 0.088-0.090, effect size = 0.55-0.73), but no differences were observed between the groups (p = 0.950). For the climbing-specific tests, no differences were observed between the groups (p = 0.507-1.000), but the HR-FR and LR-HR improved their time in both Dead-hang (p = 0.004-0.026) and Bent-arm hang (p training groups reduced their climbing sessions during the intervention compared to the CON group (p = 0.057-0.074). In conclusion, HR-FR and LR-HR training programmes demonstrated an 11% and 12% non-significant improvement in climbing performance despite a 50% reduction in climbing sessions, but improved the results in strength and climbing-specific tests. None of the training intensities was superior compared to the others.

  3. Resistance Training with Instability in Multiple System Atrophy: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Batista, Carla; Kanegusuku, Hélcio; Roschel, Hamilton; Souza, Eduardo O.; Cunha, Telma F.; Laurentino, Gilberto C.; Manoel, N.; De Mello, Marco T.; Piemonte, Maria E.P.; Brum, Patrícia C.; Forjaz, Claudia L.; Tricoli, Valmor; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This case report assessed quality of life, activities of daily living, motor symptoms, functional ability, neuromuscular parameters and mRNA expression of selected genes related to muscle protein synthesis and degradation in a patient with Multiple System Atrophy (MSA). The patient underwent resistance training with instability devices (i.e., bosu, dyna disk, balance disk, Swiss ball) for six months twice a week. After the six months training, the patient’s left and right quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area and leg press one-repetition maximum increased 6.4%, 6.8%, and 40%, respectively; the patient’s timed up and go, sit to stand, dynamic balance, and activities of daily living improved 33.3%, 28.6%, 42.3%, and 40.1%, respectively; the patient’s severity of motor symptoms and risk of falls decreased 32% and 128.1%, respectively. Most of the subscales of quality of life demonstrated improvements as well, varying from 13.0% to 100.0%. mRNA expression of mechanogrowth factor and mammalian target of rapamycin increased 12.7-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively. This case report describes likely the first nonpharmacological therapeutic tool that might be able to decrease the severity of motor symptoms and risk of falls, and to improve functional ability, neuromuscular parameters, and quality of the life in a patient with MSA. Key points Six months of resistance training with instability alleviate the MSA-related effects and improve the quality of life in a patient with MSA. High complexity exercise intervention (i.e., resistance training with instability) may be very beneficial to individuals with impaired motor control and function as MSA patients. Caution should be exercised when interpreting our findings as they cannot be generalized to the entire MSA population and they do not allow establishing causal conclusions on the effects of this mode of exercise on MSA. PMID:25177187

  4. Low-energy Resistive Random Access Memory Devices with No Need for a Compliance Current

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zedong; Yu, Lina; Wu, Yong; Dong, Chang; Deng, Ning; Xu, Xiaoguang; Miao, J.; Jiang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A novel resistive random access memory device is designed with SrTiO3/ La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO)/MgAl2O4 (MAO)/Cu structure, in which metallic epitaxial LSMO is employed as the bottom electrode rather than traditional metal materials. In this device, the critical external compliance current is no longer necessary due to the high self-resistance of LSMO. The LMSO bottom electrode can act as a series resistor to offer a compliance current during the set process. Besides, the device also has excelle...

  5. Status and Prospects of ZnO-Based Resistive Switching Memory Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanjuntak, Firman Mangasa; Panda, Debashis; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2016-08-01

    In the advancement of the semiconductor device technology, ZnO could be a prospective alternative than the other metal oxides for its versatility and huge applications in different aspects. In this review, a thorough overview on ZnO for the application of resistive switching memory (RRAM) devices has been conducted. Various efforts that have been made to investigate and modulate the switching characteristics of ZnO-based switching memory devices are discussed. The use of ZnO layer in different structure, the different types of filament formation, and the different types of switching including complementary switching are reported. By considering the huge interest of transparent devices, this review gives the concrete overview of the present status and prospects of transparent RRAM devices based on ZnO. ZnO-based RRAM can be used for flexible memory devices, which is also covered here. Another challenge in ZnO-based RRAM is that the realization of ultra-thin and low power devices. Nevertheless, ZnO not only offers decent memory properties but also has a unique potential to be used as multifunctional nonvolatile memory devices. The impact of electrode materials, metal doping, stack structures, transparency, and flexibility on resistive switching properties and switching parameters of ZnO-based resistive switching memory devices are briefly compared. This review also covers the different nanostructured-based emerging resistive switching memory devices for low power scalable devices. It may give a valuable insight on developing ZnO-based RRAM and also should encourage researchers to overcome the challenges.

  6. Phosphorene/rhenium disulfide heterojunction-based negative differential resistance device for multi-valued logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jaewoo; Oh, Seyong; Kang, Dong-Ho; Jo, Seo-Hyeon; Ali, Muhammad Hasnain; Choi, Woo-Young; Heo, Keun; Jeon, Jaeho; Lee, Sungjoo; Kim, Minwoo; Song, Young Jae; Park, Jin-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, negative differential resistance devices have attracted considerable attention due to their folded current–voltage characteristic, which presents multiple threshold voltage values. Because of this remarkable property, studies associated with the negative differential resistance devices have been explored for realizing multi-valued logic applications. Here we demonstrate a negative differential resistance device based on a phosphorene/rhenium disulfide (BP/ReS2) heterojunction that is formed by type-III broken-gap band alignment, showing high peak-to-valley current ratio values of 4.2 and 6.9 at room temperature and 180 K, respectively. Also, the carrier transport mechanism of the BP/ReS2 negative differential resistance device is investigated in detail by analysing the tunnelling and diffusion currents at various temperatures with the proposed analytic negative differential resistance device model. Finally, we demonstrate a ternary inverter as a multi-valued logic application. This study of a two-dimensional material heterojunction is a step forward toward future multi-valued logic device research. PMID:27819264

  7. Phosphorene/rhenium disulfide heterojunction-based negative differential resistance device for multi-valued logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jaewoo; Oh, Seyong; Kang, Dong-Ho; Jo, Seo-Hyeon; Ali, Muhammad Hasnain; Choi, Woo-Young; Heo, Keun; Jeon, Jaeho; Lee, Sungjoo; Kim, Minwoo; Song, Young Jae; Park, Jin-Hong

    2016-11-01

    Recently, negative differential resistance devices have attracted considerable attention due to their folded current-voltage characteristic, which presents multiple threshold voltage values. Because of this remarkable property, studies associated with the negative differential resistance devices have been explored for realizing multi-valued logic applications. Here we demonstrate a negative differential resistance device based on a phosphorene/rhenium disulfide (BP/ReS2) heterojunction that is formed by type-III broken-gap band alignment, showing high peak-to-valley current ratio values of 4.2 and 6.9 at room temperature and 180 K, respectively. Also, the carrier transport mechanism of the BP/ReS2 negative differential resistance device is investigated in detail by analysing the tunnelling and diffusion currents at various temperatures with the proposed analytic negative differential resistance device model. Finally, we demonstrate a ternary inverter as a multi-valued logic application. This study of a two-dimensional material heterojunction is a step forward toward future multi-valued logic device research.

  8. Light-activated resistance switching in SiOx RRAM devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehonic, A.; Gerard, T.; Kenyon, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    We report a study of light-activated resistance switching in silicon oxide (SiOx) resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices. Our devices had an indium tin oxide/SiOx/p-Si Metal/Oxide/Semiconductor structure, with resistance switching taking place in a 35 nm thick SiOx layer. The optical activity of the devices was investigated by characterising them in a range of voltage and light conditions. Devices respond to illumination at wavelengths in the range of 410-650 nm but are unresponsive at 1152 nm, suggesting that photons are absorbed by the bottom p-type silicon electrode and that generation of free carriers underpins optical activity. Applied light causes charging of devices in the high resistance state (HRS), photocurrent in the low resistance state (LRS), and lowering of the set voltage (required to go from the HRS to LRS) and can be used in conjunction with a voltage bias to trigger switching from the HRS to the LRS. We demonstrate negative correlation between set voltage and applied laser power using a 632.8 nm laser source. We propose that, under illumination, increased electron injection and hence a higher rate of creation of Frenkel pairs in the oxide—precursors for the formation of conductive oxygen vacancy filaments—reduce switching voltages. Our results open up the possibility of light-triggered RRAM devices.

  9. Low-energy Resistive Random Access Memory Devices with No Need for a Compliance Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zedong; Yu, Lina; Wu, Yong; Dong, Chang; Deng, Ning; Xu, Xiaoguang; Miao, J.; Jiang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A novel resistive random access memory device is designed with SrTiO3/ La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO)/MgAl2O4 (MAO)/Cu structure, in which metallic epitaxial LSMO is employed as the bottom electrode rather than traditional metal materials. In this device, the critical external compliance current is no longer necessary due to the high self-resistance of LSMO. The LMSO bottom electrode can act as a series resistor to offer a compliance current during the set process. Besides, the device also has excellent switching features which are originated in the formation of Cu filaments under external voltage. Therefore it provides the possibility of reducing power consumption and accelerating the commercialization of resistive switching devices. PMID:25982101

  10. Novel DC Bias Suppression Device Based on Adjustable Parallel Resistances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhixun; Xie, Zhicheng; Liu, Chang

    2018-01-01

    resistances is designed. The mathematical model for global optimal switching of CBDs is established by field-circuit coupling method with the equivalent resistance network of ac system along with the location of substations and ground electrodes. The optimal switching scheme to minimize the global maximum dc...... current is obtained by gravitational search algorithm. Based on the aforementioned work, we propose a suppression strategy considering electro-corrosion of metal pipelines. The effectiveness and superiority of suppression methods are verified by comparative case studies of the Yichang power grid....

  11. 14 CFR 121.409 - Training courses using airplane simulators and other training devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... maneuvers set forth in the certificate holder's approved low-altitude windshear flight training program. The approved low-altitude windshear flight training, if applicable, must be included in each of the pilot... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training courses using airplane simulators...

  12. The Comparison of Two Methods of Exercise (intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on Fasting Sugar, Insulin and Insulin Resistance in Women with Mellitus Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bazyar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise is an important component of health and an integral approach to the management of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on fasting sugar, insulin and insulin resistance in women with mellitus diabetes.   Methods: Fifty-two overweight female diabetic type 2 patients (aged 45-60 years old with fasting blood glucose≥ 126 mg/dl were selected to participate in the present study. Participants were assigned to intense interval training group (N=17, concurrent resistance- endurance training group (N=17 and control group (N=18. The exercises incorporated 10 weeks of concurrent resistance- endurance training and intense interval training. Fasting blood sugar, serum insulin concentrations levels were measured. Concurrent training group trained eight weeks, three times a week of endurance training at 60% of maximum heart rate (MHR and two resistance training sessions per week with 70% of one repetition maximum (1-RM. Intense interval training group trained for eight weeks, three sessions per week for 4 to 10 repeats Wingate test on the ergometer 30s performed with maximum effort. The control group did no systematic exercise. At the end of experiment 42 subjects were succeed and completed the study period, and 10 subjects were removed due to illness and absence in the exercise sessions. Fasting blood sugar and insulin levels 24 hours before and 48 hours after the last training session was measured.   Results: The findings indicated that in periodic fasting, the blood sugar in intensive training group had a marked decrease (p= 0.000 however, the fasting blood sugar of exercise and power stamina groups reduced significantly (p=0.062. The results showed no significant difference between the groups (171/0 p =0.171. Fasting insulin (p <0.001 and insulin resistance (0001/0 = p=0.001 in periodic intensive training group were

  13. Caffeine enhances upper body strength in resistance-trained women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penhollow Tina

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has indicated that low-to-moderate dosages of caffeine supplementation are ergogenic for sustained endurance efforts as well as high-intensity exercise. The effects of caffeine supplementation on strength-power performance are equivocal, with some studies indicating a benefit and others demonstrating no change in performance. The majority of research that has examined the effects of caffeine supplementation on strength-power performance has been carried out in both trained and untrained men. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the acute effects of caffeine supplementation on strength and muscular endurance in resistance-trained women. Methods In a randomized manner, 15 women consumed caffeine (6 mg/kg or placebo (PL seven days apart. Sixty min following supplementation, participants performed a one-repetition maximum (1RM barbell bench press test and repetitions to failure at 60% of 1RM. Heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were assessed at rest, 60 minutes post-consumption, and immediately following completion of repetitions to failure. Results Repeated measures ANOVA indicated a significantly greater bench press maximum with caffeine (p ≤ 0.05 (52.9 ± 11.1 kg vs. 52.1 ± 11.7 kg with no significant differences between conditions in 60% 1RM repetitions (p = 0.81. Systolic blood pressure was significantly greater post-exercise, with caffeine (p Conclusions These findings indicate a moderate dose of caffeine may be sufficient for enhancing strength performance in resistance-trained women.

  14. Diminished Baroreflex Control of Forearm Vascular Resistance Following Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, G. W.; Thompson, C. A.; Doerr, D. F.; Nadel, E. R.; Convertino, V. A.

    1991-01-01

    The stimulus-response characteristics of cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance (FVR units in mm Hg x min x I00 ml/ml) were studied in 14 volunteers before and after 10 wk of endurance training. We assessed the relationship betaleen reflex stimulus (changes in central venous pressure, CVP) and response (FVR) during unloading of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors with lower body negative pressure (LBNP, 0 to - 2O mm Hg). Changes in CVP during LBNP were estimated from pressure changes in a large peripheral vein in the dependent arm of the subject in the right lateral decubitus position. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(sub 2max)) and total blood volume increased with endurance training from 37.8 +/- 1.4 ml/min x kg and 63.6 +/- 2.1 ml/kg to 45.3 +/- 1.4 ml/ min x kg and 69.3 +/- 2.8 ml/kg respectively (P less than 0.05). Reflex forearm vasoconstriction occurred in response to a reduction in estimated CVP, and the absolute change in FVR per unit of CVP was reduced from -5.96 +/- 0.79 to -4.06 +/- 0.52 units x mm/ Hg (P less than 0.05) following exercise training but was unchanged from -6.10 to 0.57 to -6.22 +/- 0.94 units x mm/ Hg for the time control group (N = 7). Resting values for FVR were similar before and after exercise training; however, resting estimated CVP was elevated from 9.5 +/- 0.5 mm x Hg before training to 11.3 +/- 0.6 mm x Hg after training. The reduction in sensitivity of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of FVR was linearly related to the increase in blood volume (r = 0.65, P less than 0.05). suggesting that diminished cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of FVR in physically fit individuals is related, in part, to a training-induced blood volume expansion.

  15. The function of buffer layer in resistive switching device.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, B.; Prokop, V.; Střižík, L.; Zima, Vítězslav; Kutálek, P.; Vlček, Milan; Wágner, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 8 (2017), s. 291-295 ISSN 1584-8663 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : resistive switching * chalcogenide glasses * buffer layer Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.732, year: 2016 http://www.chalcogen.ro/291_ZhangB.pdf

  16. Resistance training among young athletes: safety, efficacy and injury prevention effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, A D; Myer, G D

    2010-01-01

    A literature review was employed to evaluate the current epidemiology of injury related to the safety and efficacy of youth resistance training. Several case study reports and retrospective questionnaires regarding resistance exercise and the competitive sports of weightlifting and powerlifting reveal that injuries have occurred in young lifters, although a majority can be classified as accidental. Lack of qualified instruction that underlies poor exercise technique and inappropriate training loads could explain, at least partly, some of the reported injuries. Current research indicates that resistance training can be a safe, effective and worthwhile activity for children and adolescents provided that qualified professionals supervise all training sessions and provide age-appropriate instruction on proper lifting procedures and safe training guidelines. Regular participation in a multifaceted resistance training programme that begins during the preseason and includes instruction on movement biomechanics may reduce the risk of sports-related injuries in young athletes. Strategies for enhancing the safety of youth resistance training are discussed.

  17. Effects of Classic Progressive Resistance Training Versus Eccentric-Enhanced Resistance Training in People With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrocinio de Oliveira, Claudia Eliza; Moreira, Osvaldo Costa; Carrión-Yagual, Zoila Marilú; Medina-Pérez, Carlos; de Paz, José Antonio

    2017-11-27

    To compare the effects of classic progressive resistance training (PRT) versus eccentric strength-enhanced training (EST) on the performance of functional tests and different strength manifestations in the lower limb of people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Experimental trial. Strength training program. PwMS (N=52; 19 men, 33 women) belonging to MS associations from the Castilla y León, Spain. Participants were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: a control group that performed PRT or an experimental group that performed EST. In both groups, the knee extensor muscles were trained for 12 weeks. Before and after 12 weeks of training, maximal voluntary isometric contraction and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) of the knee extensors were evaluated, as were the Chair Stand Test (CST) and Timed 8-Foot Up and Go (TUG) functional tests. No differences were found between the groups in the initial values for different tests. Intragroup comparisons found significant differences in CST (F=69.4; P<.001), TUG (F=40.0; P<.001), and 1RM (F=57.8; P<.001). For intergroup comparisons, EST presented better results than PRT in the CST (EST, 4.7%±2.8%; PRT, 1.9%±2.8%; F=13.1; P=.001) and TUG (EST, -2.9±4.7; PRT, -.41±5.6; F=5.6; P=.022). In PwMS, EST leads to improvements in 1RM, TUG, and CST that are similar to those of PRT. However, for patients who participated in this study, the EST seems to promote a better transfer of strength adaptations to the functional tests, which are closer to daily-living activities. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An Immunomodulatory Device Improves Insulin Resistance in Obese Porcine Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela J. Westover

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with tissue inflammation which is a crucial etiology of insulin resistance. This inflammation centers around circulating monocytes which form proinflammatory adipose tissue macrophages (ATM. Specific approaches targeting monocytes/ATM may improve insulin resistance without the adverse side effects of generalized immunosuppression. In this regard, a biomimetic membrane leukocyte processing device, called the selective cytopheretic device (SCD, was evaluated in an Ossabaw miniature swine model of insulin resistance with metabolic syndrome. Treatment with the SCD in this porcine model demonstrated a decline in circulating neutrophil activation parameters and monocyte counts. These changes were associated with improvements in insulin resistance as determined with intravenous glucose tolerance testing. These improvements were also reflected in lowering of homeostatic model assessment- (HOMA- insulin resistant (IR scores for up to 2 weeks after SCD therapy. These results allow for the planning of first-in-man studies in obese type 2 diabetic patients.

  19. Resistance Training in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats with Severe Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vanerson Passos Neves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Resistance training (RT has been recommended as a non-pharmacological treatment for moderate hypertension. In spite of the important role of exercise intensity on training prescription, there is still no data regarding the effects of RT intensity on severe hypertension (SH. Objective: This study examined the effects of two RT protocols (vertical ladder climbing, performed at different overloads of maximal weight carried (MWC, on blood pressure (BP and muscle strength of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR with SH. Methods: Fifteen male SHR ENT#091;206 ± 10 mmHg of systolic BP (SBPENT#093; and five Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY; 119 ± 10 mmHg of SBP were divided into 4 groups: sedentary (SED-WKY and SHR (SED-SHR; RT1-SHR training relative to body weight (~40% of MWC; and RT2-SHR training relative to MWC test (~70% of MWC. Systolic BP and heart rate (HR were measured weekly using the tail-cuff method. The progression of muscle strength was determined once every fifteen days. The RT consisted of 3 weekly sessions on non-consecutive days for 12-weeks. Results: Both RT protocols prevented the increase in SBP (delta - 5 and -7 mmHg, respectively; p > 0.05, whereas SBP of the SED-SHR group increased by 19 mmHg (p 0.05. Conclusions: Our data indicated that both RT protocols were effective in preventing chronic elevation of SBP in SH. Additionally, a higher RT overload induced a greater increase in muscle strength.

  20. Noninvasive optical imaging of resistance training adaptations in human muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Robert V.; Cotter, Joshua; Ganesan, Goutham; Le, Lisa; Agustin, Janelle P.; Duarte, Bridgette; Cutler, Kyle; O'Sullivan, Thomas; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2017-12-01

    A quantitative and dynamic analysis of skeletal muscle structure and function can guide training protocols and optimize interventions for rehabilitation and disease. While technologies exist to measure body composition, techniques are still needed for quantitative, long-term functional imaging of muscle at the bedside. We evaluate whether diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI) can be used for long-term assessment of resistance training (RT). DOSI measures of tissue composition were obtained from 12 adults before and after 5 weeks of training and compared to lean mass fraction (LMF) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Significant correlations were detected between DXA LMF and DOSI-measured oxy-hemo/myoglobin, deoxy-hemo/myoglobin, total-hemo/myoglobin, water, and lipid. RT-induced increases of ˜6% in oxy-hemo/myoglobin (3.4±1.0 μM, p=0.00314) and total-hemo/myoglobin (4.9±1.1 μM, p=0.00024) from the medial gastrocnemius were detected with DOSI and accompanied by ˜2% increases in lean soft tissue mass (36.4±12.4 g, p=0.01641) and ˜60% increases in 1 rep-max strength (41.5±6.2 kg, p = 1.9E-05). DOSI measures of vascular and/or muscle changes combined with correlations between DOSI and DXA suggest that quantitative diffuse optical methods can be used to evaluate body composition, provide feedback on long-term interventions, and generate new insight into training-induced muscle adaptations.

  1. Number of repetition after different rest intervals between static stretching and resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dias

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Therefore, 30-minute interval between static stretching and resistance exercises was needed to achieve greater repetition performance. Thus, static stretching for lower limbs may be avoided before a resistance training session.

  2. Metal-free, single-polymer device exhibits resistive memory effect

    KAUST Repository

    Bhansali, Unnat Sampatraj

    2013-12-23

    All-polymer, write-once-read-many times resistive memory devices have been fabricated on flexible substrates using a single polymer, poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). Spin-cast or inkjet-printed films of solvent-modified PEDOT:PSS are used as electrodes, while the unmodified or as-is PEDOT:PSS is used as the semiconducting active layer. The all-polymer devices exhibit an irreversible but stable transition from a low resistance state (ON) to a high resistance state (OFF) at low voltages caused by an electric-field-induced morphological rearrangement of PEDOT and PSS at the electrode interface. However, in the metal-PEDOT:PSS-metal devices, we have shown a metal filament formation switching the device from an initial high resistance state (OFF) to the low resistance state (ON). The all-PEDOT:PSS memory device has low write voltages (<3 V), high ON/OFF ratio (>10 3), good retention characteristics (>10 000 s), and stability in ambient storage (>3 months). © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. Remote calibration of Resistance Temperature Devices (RTDs): Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blalock, T.V.; Roberts, M.J.

    1988-02-01

    Johnson noise power measuring techniques have been used to calibrate platinum resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) installed in an operating nuclear plant - Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company's Haddam Neck Nuclear Plant - achieving agreement with the dc calibration from better than 0.1% to as much as 1% (0.54 to 9.7 0 F) at the normal operating temperature of 585 0 F. Tests were also conducted at plant shutdown conditions. In this application, RTDs with an ice point resistance of 200 Ω were connected with four-wire extension cables approximately 100-ft long to a test station in containment. Methods were developed for in situ characterization of the extension cables and for quantitative measurement of and correction for nonthermal induced noise. Analysis of dc calibration methods showed that resistance-temperature tables used with industrial PRTs may be in error by 0.2 0 F or 0.02% A (expressed as a percentage of absolute temperature in either Kelvin or degrees Rankine) at 540 0 F. Recalibration of the RTDs measured in the plant tests showed differences of about 2.5 0 F or 0.2% A at 540 0 F from calibration tables used in the plant

  4. Different Levels of Eccentric Resistance during Eight Weeks of Training Affect Muscle Strength and Lean Tissue Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, K. L.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laughlin, M. S.; Hagan, R. D.

    2008-01-01

    Coupling concentric and eccentric muscle contractions appears to be important in the development of muscle strength and hypertrophy. The interim Resistive Exercise Device (iRED) currently used aboard the International Space Station does not seem to be as effective as free weight training in ambulatory subjects and has not completely protected against muscular deconditioning due to space flight. The lack of protection during space flight could be caused by iRED's proportionally lower eccentric resistance (60-70%) compared to concentric resistance. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of 8 wks of lower body resistive exercise training using five levels of eccentric resistance on muscle strength and lean tissue mass. METHODS: Forty untrained males (34.9 +/- 7 yrs, 80.9 +/- 9.8 kg, 178.2 +/- 7.1 cm; mean +/- SD) completed three 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) strength tests for both the supine leg press (LP) and supine heel raise (HR) prior to training; subjects were matched for LP strength and randomly assigned to one of five training groups. Concentric load (% 1-RM) was constant across groups during training, but each group trained with different levels of eccentric load (0%, 33%, 66%, 100%, or 138% of concentric). Subjects trained 3 d / wk for 8 wks using a periodized program for LP and HR based on percentages of the highest pre-training 1-RM. LP and HR 1-RM and leg lean mass (LLM; assessed by DEXA) were measured pre- and post-training. A two-way ANOVA was used to analyze all dependent measures. Tukey's post hoc tests were used to test significant main effects. Within group pre- to post-training changes were compared using paired t-tests with a Bonferroni adjustment. Statistical significance was set a priori at p 0.05. All data are expressed as mean +/- SE. RESULTS: LP 1-RM strength increased significantly in all groups pre- to post-training. The 138% group increase (20.1 +/- 3.7%) was significantly greater than the 0% (7.9 +/- 2.8%), 33% (7.7 +/- 4.6%), and 66% (7.5 +/- 4

  5. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground...

  6. Effects of load-volume on EPOC after acute bouts of resistance training in resistance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, George J; Greer, Beau K; Campbell, Sara C; Panton, Lynn B

    2013-07-01

    Recent investigations have shown excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) to be elevated for up to 48 hours in both untrained and trained subjects after resistance training (RT). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of load-volume on EPOC. Eight trained men (aged 22 ± 3 years) participated in 2 randomized RT bouts separated by at least 1 week with total load-volumes of 10,000 and 20,000 kg, respectively. Intensity of RT (85% 1 repetition maximum) did not differ between trials. Exercise energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured by indirect calorimetry at 8.5 hours before, 1.5 hours before, and during RT bouts and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after exercise. Creatine kinase (CK) was measured before and after RT, and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours postexercise; ratings of perceived muscle soreness were measured on a similar time course save the immediate postexercise time point. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to analyze dependent variables. During the 20,000 kg trial, subjects expended significantly (p EPOC above baseline RMR.

  7. T-4G Simulator and T-4 Ground Training Devices in USAF Undergraduate Pilot Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Robert R.; Smith, James F.

    The objective of the project was to investigate the utility of using an A/F37A-T4G T-37 flight simulator within the context of Air Force undergraduate pilot training. Twenty-one subjects, selected from three undergraduate pilot training classes, were given contact flight training in a TP4G/EPT simulator before going to T-37 aircraft for further…

  8. FED-R: a fusion engineering device utilizing resistive magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jassby, D.L.; Kalsi, S.S. (eds.)

    1983-04-01

    The principal purpose of the FED-R tokamak facility is to provide a substantial quasi-steady flux of fusion neutrons irradiating a large test area in order to carry out thermal, neutronic, and radiation effects testing of experimental blanket assemblies having a variety of configurations, compositions, and purposes. The design of the FED-R device also suggests potential for an upgrade that could be employed as a full-scale demonstration reactor for some specific fusion-neutron application when required.

  9. Non-volatile resistive memory devices based on solution-processed ultrathin two-dimensional nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoliang; Liu, Zhengdong; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Hua

    2015-05-07

    Ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, such as graphene and MoS2, hold great promise for electronics and optoelectronics due to their distinctive physical and electronic properties. Recent progress in high-yield, massive production of ultrathin 2D nanomaterials via various solution-based methods allows them to be easily integrated into electronic devices via solution processing techniques. Non-volatile resistive memory devices based on ultrathin 2D nanomaterials have been emerging as promising alternatives for the next-generation data storage devices due to their high flexibility, three-dimensional-stacking capability, simple structure, transparency, easy fabrication and low cost. In this tutorial review, we will summarize the recent progress in the utilization of solution-processed ultrathin 2D nanomaterials for fabrication of non-volatile resistive memory devices. Moreover, we demonstrate how to achieve excellent device performance by engineering the active layers, electrodes and/or device structure of resistive memory devices. On the basis of current status, the discussion is concluded with some personal insights into the challenges and opportunities in future research directions.

  10. Evidence for Resistance Training as a Treatment Therapy in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Strasser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, investigators have paid increasing attention to the effects of resistance training (RT on several metabolic syndrome variables. Evidence suggests that skeletal muscle is responsible for up to 40% of individuals' total body weight and may be influential in modifying metabolic risk factors via muscle mass development. Due to the metabolic consequences of reduced muscle mass, it is understood that normal aging and/or decreased physical activity may lead to a higher prevalence of metabolic disorders. The purpose of this review is to (1 evaluate the potential clinical effectiveness and biological mechanisms of RT in the treatment of obesity and (2 provide up-to-date evidence relating to the impact of RT in reducing major cardiovascular disease risk factors (including dyslipidaemia and type 2 diabetes. A further aim of this paper is to provide clinicians with recommendations for facilitating the use of RT as therapy in obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders.

  11. Importance of mind-muscle connection during progressive resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Vinstrup, Jonas; Jakobsen, Markus Due

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluates whether focusing on using specific muscles during bench press can selectively activate these muscles. METHODS: Altogether 18 resistance-trained men participated. Subjects were familiarized with the procedure and performed one-maximum repetition (1RM) test during...... electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded for the triceps brachii and pectoralis major muscles. Subsequently, peak EMG of the filtered signals were normalized to maximum maximorum EMG of each muscle. RESULTS: In both muscles, focusing on using the respective muscles increased muscle activity at relative loads...... between 20 and 60 %, but not at 80 % of 1RM. Overall, a threshold between 60 and 80 % rather than a linear decrease in selective activation with increasing intensity appeared to exist. The increased activity did not occur at the expense of decreased activity of the other muscle, e.g. when focusing...

  12. Virtual reality for mobility devices: training applications and clinical results: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erren-Wolters, Catelijne Victorien; van Dijk, Henk; de Kort, Alexander C; Ijzerman, Maarten J; Jannink, Michiel J

    2007-06-01

    Virtual reality technology is an emerging technology that possibly can address the problems encountered in training (elderly) people to handle a mobility device. The objective of this review was to study different virtual reality training applications as well as their clinical implication for patients with mobility problems. Computerized literature searches were performed using the MEDLINE, Cochrane, CIRRIE and REHABDATA databases. This resulted in eight peer reviewed journal articles. The included studies could be divided into three categories, on the basis of their study objective. Five studies were related to training driving skills, two to physical exercise training and one to leisure activity. This review suggests that virtual reality is a potentially useful means to improve the use of a mobility device, in training one's driving skills, for keeping up the physical condition and also in a way of leisure time activity. Although this field of research appears to be in its early stages, the included studies pointed out a promising transfer of training in a virtual environment to the real-life use of mobility devices.

  13. Order effects of concurrent endurance and resistance training on post-exercise response of non-trained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Blasio, Andrea; Gemello, Eugenio; Di Iorio, Angelo; Di Giacinto, Gabriella; Celso, Tiziana; Di Renzo, Donatella; Sablone, Andrea; Ripari, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    Physical exercise is used for the promotion and maintenance of good health and for the improvement of physical fitness. Both endurance and resistance exercises are needed to carry out a complete training program. Because time may be a barrier to physical exercise practice, the aim of this study was to verify whether the order of execution of endurance and resistance exercises, in concurrent training, has different effects on the metabolic responses during recovery. Thirteen healthy women [24.40 (1.67) years, Mean (SD)] were investigated for energy expenditure (EE), oxygen consumption (VO2), ventilation (Ve), respiratory frequency (RF), proportion of oxygen in expired air (FeO2) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) both before and after three concurrent endurance and resistance trainings, carried out in different orders: endurance-resistance training (ERT), resistance-endurance training (RET) and alternating endurance-resistance training (AERT). AERT elicited a significantly greater increase of EE, VO2, and Ve and a greater decrease of FeO2. ERT elicited a lower increase of RPE. Acute post-exercise physiological responses to concurrent endurance and resistance physical exercise seem to depend on the order of execution of the two parts: among the selected protocols, AERT seems to elicit the best responses. Key pointsThe concurrent execution of both endurance and resistance exercise, in the same training session, could be a practical solution to conform to guidelines for health in the presence of lack of time.The order of concurrent execution of both endurance and resistance exercise, in the same training session, influences the amplitude of some post-exercise physiological responses.

  14. Efficacy of Low-Cost PC-Based Aviation Training Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savern l Reweti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore whether a full cost flight training device (FTD was significantly better for simulator training than a low cost PC-Based Aviation Training Device (PCATD. Background: A quasi-transfer study was undertaken to ascertain whether a Civil Aviation Authority certified Flight Training Device (FTD was more effective at improving pilot proficiency in the performance of a standard VFR traffic pattern (Overhead Rejoin Procedure than a customised low cost PCATD. Methodology: In this quasi-transfer study, a high fidelity FTD rather than an aircraft was used to test both training and transfer tasks. Ninety-three pilots were recruited to participate in the study. Contribution: The use of PCATDs is now well established for pilot training, especially for Instrument Flight Rules (IFR skills training. However, little substantive research has been undertaken to examine their efficacy for VFR training. Findings: There was no evidence of a pre-test/post-test difference in VFR task perfor-mance between participants trained on the PCATD and the FTD, when post tested on the FTD. The use of both PCATD and FTD demonstrated signifi-cant improvements in VFR task performance compared to a control group that received no PCATD or FTD training. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: We discuss the possibility that low cost PCATDs may be a viable alternative for flight schools wishing to use a flight simulator but not able to afford a FTD. Recommendation for Researchers: We discuss the introduction of improved low cost technologies that allow PCATDs to be used more effectively for training in VFR procedures. The development and testing of new technologies requires more research. Impact on Society: Flight training schools operate in a difficult economic environment with continued increases in the cost of aircraft maintenance, compliance costs, and aviation fuel. The increased utilisation of low cost PCATD’s especially for VFR

  15. Elevation of cardiac troponins measured after recreational resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savukoski, Tanja; Mehtälä, Laura; Lindahl, Bertil; Venge, Per; Pettersson, Kim

    2015-08-01

    Whereas elevated cardiac troponin (cTn) concentrations i.e. above the 99th percentile of healthy reference population (recommended cutoff for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction) are well-documented in healthy individuals after prolonged and/or intensive exercises such as marathons, data on less-strenuous sports are scarce. Therefore, our aim was to investigate cTnI and cTnT release in response to recreational resistance training, here a single-bout of 1-h kettlebell workout. Serum samples were collected from 11 apparently healthy volunteers the previous day (pre-exercise), three hours after the kettlebell class (post-exercise), the next day and three days later. The aliquoted samples were analyzed with Abbott Laboratories' Architect high-sensitivity (hs)-cTnI assay (limit of detection, LoD = 2 ng/L), our 3+1-type cTnI assay free from cTn-specific autoantibody interference (LoD = 3 ng/L) and Roche Diagnostics' hs-cTnT assay (LoD = 5 ng/L). The post-exercise cTn concentrations were significantly higher than the pre-exercise values (median 5.5-9.6 ng/L vs. 26 ng/L, n = 2) and/or hs-cTnT (>14 ng/L, n = 4). The cTn concentrations returned to baseline during the three days of follow-up. Our study demonstrates abnormally elevated cTns with well-validated sensitive cTn assays after resistance training. This confirms that different kinds of recreational physical activity are yet another confounder that may affect the determination and use of 99th percentile reference values. Therefore, exercise-associated changes should be carefully addressed as part of the evaluation what is "normal cTn". Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Opportunity of spinel ferrite materials in nonvolatile memory device applications based on their resistive switching performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Qin, Ni; Wu, Guangheng; Lin, Yanting; Li, Shuwei; Bao, Dinghua

    2012-09-12

    The opportunity of spinel ferrites in nonvolatile memory device applications has been demonstrated by the resistive switching performance characteristics of a Pt/NiFe(2)O(4)/Pt structure, such as low operating voltage, high device yield, long retention time (up to 10(5) s), and good endurance (up to 2.2 × 10(4) cycles). The dominant conduction mechanisms are Ohmic conduction in the low-resistance state and in the lower-voltage region of the high-resistance state and Schottky emission in the higher-voltage region of the high-resistance state. On the basis of measurements of the temperature dependence of the resistances and magnetic properties in different resistance states, we explain the physical mechanism of resistive switching of Pt/NiFe(2)O(4)/Pt devices using the model of formation and rupture of conducting filaments by considering the thermal effect of oxygen vacancies and changes in the valences of cations due to the redox effect.

  17. Electronic bipolar resistive switching behavior in Ni/VOx/Al device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Mengseng [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Electronic Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300130 (China); School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic & Communication Devices, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Zhang, Kailiang, E-mail: kailiang_zhang@163.com [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic & Communication Devices, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Yang, Ruixia, E-mail: yangrx@hebut.edu.cn [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Electronic Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300130 (China); Wang, Fang; Zhang, Zhichao; Wu, Shijian [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic & Communication Devices, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • The resistive random access memory of Ni/VOx/Al was fabricated. • The device has the electronic bipolar resistive switching characteristic. • The activity energy (Ea) of HRS has been calculated. • The reasons of the degradation of the resistance ratio of HRS/LRS were analyzed. - Abstract: In this paper, the Ni/VOx/Al resistive random access memory (RRAM) device is constructed and it shows bipolar resistive switching behavior, low resistive state (LRS) nonlinearity, and good retention. The set and reset processes are likely induced by the electron trapping and detrapping of trapping centers in the VOx films, respectively. The conduction mechanism in negative/positive region are controlled by space charge limited current mechanism (SCLC)/Schottky emission. The temperature dependence of I–V curves for HRS is measured to confirm the defects trapping and detrapping electrons model. activation energy was calculated to analyze the endurance performance of the device. The detailed analysis of the switching behavior with SCLC mechanism and Schottky emission mechanism could provide useful information for electronic bipolar resistive switching (eBRS) characteristics.

  18. Electronic bipolar resistive switching behavior in Ni/VOx/Al device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Mengseng; Zhang, Kailiang; Yang, Ruixia; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Zhichao; Wu, Shijian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The resistive random access memory of Ni/VOx/Al was fabricated. • The device has the electronic bipolar resistive switching characteristic. • The activity energy (Ea) of HRS has been calculated. • The reasons of the degradation of the resistance ratio of HRS/LRS were analyzed. - Abstract: In this paper, the Ni/VOx/Al resistive random access memory (RRAM) device is constructed and it shows bipolar resistive switching behavior, low resistive state (LRS) nonlinearity, and good retention. The set and reset processes are likely induced by the electron trapping and detrapping of trapping centers in the VOx films, respectively. The conduction mechanism in negative/positive region are controlled by space charge limited current mechanism (SCLC)/Schottky emission. The temperature dependence of I–V curves for HRS is measured to confirm the defects trapping and detrapping electrons model. activation energy was calculated to analyze the endurance performance of the device. The detailed analysis of the switching behavior with SCLC mechanism and Schottky emission mechanism could provide useful information for electronic bipolar resistive switching (eBRS) characteristics.

  19. Safety and efficacy of resistance training in germ cell cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Frank; Jones, L W; Tolver, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Bleomycin–etoposid–cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy is curative in most patients with disseminated germ cell cancer (GCC) but also associated with toxic actions and dysfunction in non-targeted tissues. We investigated changes in muscle function during BEP and the safety and effic...... blunted several positive adaptations observed in healthy controls. Thus, our study does not support the general application of resistance training in this setting but larger-scaled trials are required to confirm this finding....... and efficacy of resistance training to modulate these changes. Methods: Thirty GCC patients were randomly assigned to resistance training (resistance training group (INT), n=15) or usual care (CON, n=15) during 9 weeks of BEP therapy. Resistance training consisted of thrice weekly sessions of four exercises, 3...... changes compared with the INT-group (PResistance training was safe and attenuated dysfunction in selected endpoints, but BEP...

  20. Chronic Resistance Training Does Not Ameliorate Unloading-Induced Decrements in Neuromuscular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschenes, Michael R; McCoy, Raymond W; Mangis, Katherine A

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of long-term resistance training in preventing the detrimental effects of muscle unloading on neuromuscular function. Eleven untrained men and 11 men with extensive backgrounds in resistance training were tested for several parameters of neuromuscular function at various isokinetic contractile velocities before and after 7 days of muscle unloading. Measurements included muscle mass, strength, power, total work, electromyography, and neuromuscular transmission efficiency using superimposed electrical stimulation of maximally contracting muscles. Muscle performance was superior in resistance-trained subjects before and after unloading. In both groups of participants, unloading resulted in significantly (P neuromuscular transmission efficiency was significantly altered by unloading in trained or untrained participants. Chronic resistance training was found to be ineffective in neutralizing the deleterious effects of unloading on neuromuscular function. It appears that positive adaptations associated with long-term resistance training provide no prophylactic effect when neuromuscular systems are subjected to unloading.

  1. Asymmetric bipolar resistive switching in solution-processed Pt/TiO{sub 2}/W devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biju, Kuyyadi P; Bourim, El Mostafa; Hwang, Hyunsang [Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro (Oryong-dong), Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Liu, XinJun; Kim, Insung; Jung, Seungjae; Siddik, Manzar; Lee, Joonmyoung, E-mail: biju@gist.ac.k, E-mail: hwanghs@gist.ac.k [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro (Oryong-dong), Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The resistive switching characteristics of Pt/TiO{sub 2}/W devices in a submicrometre via-hole structure are investigated. TiO{sub 2} film is grown by the sol-gel spin coating technique. The device exhibits reversible and reproducible bistable resistive switching with a rectifying effect. The Schottky contact at the Pt/TiO{sub 2} interface limits electron injection under reverse bias resulting in a rectification ratio of >60 at 2 V in the low-resistance state. The switching mechanism in our device can be interpreted as an anion migration-induced redox reaction at the tungsten bottom electrode (W). The rectifying effect can significantly reduce the sneak path current in a crossbar array and provide a feasible way to achieve high memory density.

  2. Application of nanomaterials in two-terminal resistive-switching memory devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Ouyang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanometer materials have been attracting strong attention due to their interesting structure and properties. Many important practical applications have been demonstrated for nanometer materials based on their unique properties. This article provides a review on the fabrication, electrical characterization, and memory application of two-terminal resistive-switching devices using nanomaterials as the active components, including metal and semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs, nanotubes, nanowires, and graphenes. There are mainly two types of device architectures for the two-terminal devices with NPs. One has a triple-layer structure with a metal film sandwiched between two organic semiconductor layers, and the other has a single polymer film blended with NPs. These devices can be electrically switched between two states with significant different resistances, i.e. the ‘ON’ and ‘OFF’ states. These render the devices important application as two-terminal non-volatile memory devices. The electrical behavior of these devices can be affected by the materials in the active layer and the electrodes. Though the mechanism for the electrical switches has been in argument, it is generally believed that the resistive switches are related to charge storage on the NPs. Resistive switches were also observed on crossbars formed by nanotubes, nanowires, and graphene ribbons. The resistive switches are due to nanoelectromechanical behavior of the materials. The Coulombic interaction of transient charges on the nanomaterials affects the configurable gap of the crossbars, which results into significant change in current through the crossbars. These nanoelectromechanical devices can be used as fast-response and high-density memory devices as well. Dr. Jianyong Ouyang received his bachelor degree from the Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, and MSc from the Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science. He received his PhD from the Institute for Molecular

  3. Effect of Resistance Training on Serum Meteorin-like Hormone Level and Insulin Resistance Index in Overweight Adolescent Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Alizadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Adipose tissue's phenotypic alteration due to exercise training is a new theory. However, the cellular–molecular mechanisms for these phenotypic alterations are not yet clearly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of six weeks resistance training on Meteorin-like hormone level and insulin resistance index in overweight adolescent boys. Materials and Methods: Twenty overweight adolescent boys (average age 18.5±1 years old, average weight 81.1±4.5 kg, and BMI 27.7±0.7 kg/m2 participated in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: control (N=10 and resistance training (N=10. Subjects in training group performed six-week resistance training program 3 days/week. Anthropometrics parameters and fasting serum of Meteorin-like hormone levels, insulin and glucose were measured at the baseline and at the end of study. Results: The level of Meteorin-like hormone was significantly decreased in control group (p=0.008, but that of Meteorin-like hormone in resistance training was increased insignificantly (p=0.311. The variations of Meteorin-like hormone levels between two groups were significant (p=0.004. The changes of insulin resistance were increased in both groups which were statistically significant (p=0.032 and insignificant (p=0.632 for control and training groups respectively. We found a negative and insignificant correlation between changes in Meteorin-like hormone levels and changes in insulin resistance index (p=0.273. Conclusion: The results showed that six weeks’ resistance training has no effect on increasing Meteorin-like hormone serum level and improving insulin resistance index and body composition in overweight adolescent boys.

  4. An EMG-driven exoskeleton hand robotic training device on chronic stroke subjects: task training system for stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, N S K; Tong, K Y; Hu, X L; Fung, K L; Wei, X J; Rong, W; Susanto, E A

    2011-01-01

    An exoskeleton hand robotic training device is specially designed for persons after stroke to provide training on their impaired hand by using an exoskeleton robotic hand which is actively driven by their own muscle signals. It detects the stroke person's intention using his/her surface electromyography (EMG) signals from the hemiplegic side and assists in hand opening or hand closing functional tasks. The robotic system is made up of an embedded controller and a robotic hand module which can be adjusted to fit for different finger length. Eight chronic stroke subjects had been recruited to evaluate the effects of this device. The preliminary results showed significant improvement in hand functions (ARAT) and upper limb functions (FMA) after 20 sessions of robot-assisted hand functions task training. With the use of this light and portable robotic device, stroke patients can now practice more easily for the opening and closing of their hands at their own will, and handle functional daily living tasks at ease. A video is included together with this paper to give a demonstration of the hand robotic system on chronic stroke subjects and it will be presented in the conference. © 2011 IEEE

  5. Resist diabetes: A randomized clinical trial for resistance training maintenance in adults with prediabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda M Davy

    Full Text Available To determine whether a social cognitive theory (SCT-based intervention improves resistance training (RT maintenance and strength, and reduces prediabetes prevalence.Sedentary, overweight/obese (BMI: 25-39.9 kg/m2 adults aged 50-69 (N = 170 with prediabetes participated in the 15-month trial. Participants completed a supervised 3-month RT (2×/wk phase and were randomly assigned (N = 159 to one of two 6-month maintenance conditions: SCT or standard care. Participants continued RT at a self-selected facility. The final 6-month period involved no contact. Assessments occurred at baseline and months 3, 9, and 15. The SCT faded-contact intervention consisted of nine tailored transition (i.e., supervised training to training alone and nine follow-up sessions. Standard care involved six generic follow-up sessions. Primary outcomes were prevalence of normoglycemia and muscular strength.The retention rate was 76%. Four serious adverse events were reported. After 3 months of RT, 34% of participants were no longer prediabetic. This prevalence of normoglycemia was maintained through month 15 (30%, with no group difference. There was an 18% increase in the odds of being normoglycemic for each % increase in fat-free mass. Increases in muscular strength were evident at month 3 and maintained through month 15 (P<0.001, which represented improvements of 21% and 14% for chest and leg press, respectively. Results did not demonstrate a greater reduction in prediabetes prevalence in the SCT condition.Resistance training is an effective, maintainable strategy for reducing prediabetes prevalence and increasing muscular strength. Future research which promotes RT initiation and maintenance in clinical and community settings is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01112709.

  6. Verification, Validation and Credibility Assessment of a Computational Model of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C. R.; Humphreys, B. T.; Mulugeta, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) is the resistive exercise device used by astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) to mitigate bone loss and muscle atrophy due to extended exposure to microgravity (micro g). The Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has developed a multi-body dynamics model of biomechanics models for use in spaceflight exercise physiology research and operations. In an effort to advance model maturity and credibility of the ARED model, the DAP performed verification, validation and credibility (VV and C) assessment of the analyses of the model in accordance to NASA-STD-7009 'Standards for Models and Simulations'.

  7. Effects of concurrent respiratory resistance training on health-related quality of life in wheelchair rugby athletes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchke, Lyn G; Lloyd, Lisa K; Schmidt, Eric A; Russian, Christopher J; Reardon, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    To compare the effects of 9 weeks of training with a concurrent flow resistance (CFR) device versus a concurrent pressure threshold resistance (CPTR) device on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in wheelchair rugby (WR) athletes. Twenty-four male WR athletes (22 with tetraplegia, 1 with a spastic cerebral palsy, and 1 with congenital upper and lower limb deformities) were matched by lesion level, completeness of injury, and rugby classification prior to being randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1) CPTR (n=8), (2) CFR (n=8), or (3) controls (CON, n=8). Pre/post testing included assessment of HRQoL as measured by the Short-Form Health Survey Version 2.0 (SF-36v2). Manufacturer protocol guidelines for the CFR and CPTR groups were followed for breathing exercises. Sixteen participants completed the study (CPTR=4, CFR=5, CON=7). The Mann-Whitney U rank order revealed significantly greater reductions in bodily pain (P = .038) and improvements in vitality (P = .028) for CFR versus CON. Results from this study suggest that training with a CFR device improves some aspects of HRQoL (eg, vitality and bodily pain) in WR athletes. Further research with a larger sample size is needed to examine the impact of these devices on improving HRQoL for wheelchair athletes.

  8. Printing an ITO-free flexible poly (4-vinylphenol) resistive switching device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Junaid; Rehman, Muhammad Muqeet; Siddiqui, Ghayas Uddin; Aziz, Shahid; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    2018-02-01

    Resistive switching in a sandwich structure of silver (Ag)/Polyvinyl phenol (PVP)/carbon nanotube (CNTs)-silver nanowires (AgNWs) coated on a flexible PET substrate is reported in this work. Densely populated networks of one dimensional nano materials (1DNM), CNTs-AgNWs have been used as the conductive bottom electrode with the prominent features of high flexibility and low sheet resistance of 90 Ω/sq. Thin, yet uniform active layer of PVP was deposited on top of the spin coated 1DNM thin film through state of the art printing technique of electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) with an average thickness of 170 ± 28 nm. Ag dots with an active area of ∼0.1 mm2 were deposited through roll to plate printing system as the top electrodes to complete the device fabrication of flexible memory device. Our memory device exhibited suitable electrical characteristics with OFF/ON ratio of 100:1, retention time of 60 min and electrical endurance for 100 voltage sweeps without any noticeable decay in performance. The resistive switching characteristics at a low current compliance of 3 nA were also evaluated for the application of low power consumption. This memory device is flexible and can sustain more than 100 bending cycles at a bending diameter of 2 cm with stable HRS and LRS values. Our proposed device shows promise to be used as a future potential nonvolatile memory device in flexible electronics.

  9. Changes of explosive strength in professional basketball players after a six week training cycle with plyometric training and resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Explosive strength of the lower extremities and agility are important parts of game performance in basketball. Although numerous studies have focused on the assessment of the training effect of plyometric training, studies focusing on elite players are missing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find out what changes in explosive strength of the lower extremities take place after a 6 week strength training with plyometric exercises and resistance exercises in elite basketball players. METHODS: Elite basketball players (n = 12; age 24.71 ± 1.5 years; height 197.0 ± 7.6 cm; weight 95.8 ± 8.1 kg performed during pre-season a 6 week training program with plyometric exercises and resistance exercises which were conducted biweekly during the pre-season. The changes in explosive strength were measured by the squat jump without arms, the counter movement jump without arms, the counter movement jump free arms and the 2 step run up jump. The players participated in two measurements. The 1st (pretesting was performed on the first day of pre-season and the 2nd (posttesting was completed two days after terminating the PT programme. The differences between the average values of the monitored parameters were determined by the Wilcoxon paired test. To calculate the effect size formula according to Fritz, Morris, and Richler (2012: R = Z/√N was used. RESULTS: Analysis of intra-group changes confirmed significant differences between the two measurements in tests of vertical jump squat (Z = 2.58, p = .01, r = .75, vertical jump from the point of the swing arm (Z = 2.49, p = .01, r = .72 and vertical jump from place without the swing arm (Z = 2.75, p = .01, r = .79. In case of the two step run up jump significant differences were not found (Z = 1.60, p = .11, r = .56. Analysis of intra-individual changes showed the significant interindividual differences in the changes of the explosive power of the lower limbs after a 6 week training. The

  10. Mirror training to augment cross-education during resistance training: a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howatson, Glyn; Zult, Tjerk; Farthing, Jonathan P; Zijdewind, Inge; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2013-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been shown to be a potent stimulus for neuromuscular adaptations. These adaptations are not confined to the exercising muscle and have been consistently shown to produce increases in strength and neural activity in the contralateral, homologous resting muscle; a phenomenon known as cross-education. This observation has important clinical applications for those with unilateral dysfunction given that cross-education increases strength and attenuates atrophy in immobilized limbs. Previous evidence has shown that these improvements in the transfer of strength are likely to reside in areas of the brain, some of which are common to the mirror neuron system (MNS). Here we examine the evidence for the, as yet, untested hypothesis that cross-education might benefit from observing our own motor action in a mirror during unimanual resistance training, thereby activating the MNS. The hypothesis is based on neuroanatomical evidence suggesting brain areas relating to the MNS are activated when a unilateral motor task is performed with a mirror. This theory is timely because of the growing body of evidence relating to the efficacy of cross-education. Hence, we consider the clinical applications of mirror training as an adjuvant intervention to cross-education in order to engage the MNS, which could further improve strength and reduce atrophy in dysfunctional limbs during rehabilitation.

  11. Low-Load Resistance Training with Blood Flow Occlusion as a Countermeasure to Disuse Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Cook, S. B.

    2009-01-01

    Decreases in strength and neuromuscular function are observed following prolonged disuse. Exercise countermeasures to prevent muscle dysfunction during disuse typically involve high intensity resistance training. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of low-load resistance training with a blood flow occlusion to mitigate muscle loss and dysfunction during 30 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS).

  12. Format of Basic Instruction Program Resistance Training Classes: Effect on Fitness Change in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, J. P.; Channell, Brian; Pugh, Chip; Tuck, Matt; Pendel, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    New resistance training programs such as CrossFit are gaining favor among college-aged students. CrossFit and related commercial resistance training programs may provide a valuable elective option within basic instruction program (BIP) curricula, but the fitness benefits of this course have not been compared with those of existing BIP resistance…

  13. Resistance training and testosterone levels in male patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Andersen, Jesper L.; Eidemak, Inge

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels' associations with muscle fibre size and resistance training in male dialysis patients. METHODS: Male patients were included in a 16-week control period followed by 16 weeks of resistance training thric...

  14. National Strength and Conditioning Association Position Statement: Health Aspects of Resistance Exercise and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Michael S.; Rozenek, Ralph

    2001-01-01

    Resistance training may enhance cardiovascular health, improve body composition, increase bone mineral density, reduce anxiety and depression, reduce the risk of injury during other sports, and increase muscular strength and endurance. The paper describes the effects of resistance training on: the cardiovascular system, energy expenditure and body…

  15. The Impact of Resistance Training on Swimming Performance: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Emmet; Harrison, Andrew J; Lyons, Mark

    2017-11-01

    The majority of propulsive forces in swimming are produced from the upper body, with strong correlations between upper body strength and sprint performance. There are significant gaps in the literature relating to the impact of resistance training on swimming performance, specifically the transfer to swimming performance. The aims of this systematic literature review are to (1) explore the transfer of resistance-training modalities to swimming performance, and (2) examine the effects of resistance training on technical aspects of swimming. Four online databases were searched with the following inclusion criteria: (1) journal articles with outcome measures related to swimming performance, and (2) competitive swimmers participating in a structured resistance-training programme. Exclusion criteria were (1) participants with a mean age force resistance-training programmes are optimal. Stroke length is best achieved through resistance training with low repetitions at a high velocity/force. Resisted swims are the most appropriate training modality for improving stroke rate. Future research is needed with respect to the effects of long-term resistance-training interventions on both technical parameters of swimming and overall swimming performance. The results of such work will be highly informative for the scientific community, coaches and athletes.

  16. Comparison of the effects of aerobic and resistance training on cardiac autonomic adaptations in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Larissa C R; Tezini, Geisa C S V; Schujmann, Débora S; Porto, Jaqueline M; Rossi, Bruno R O; Souza, Hugo C D

    2011-07-05

    We have compared the effects of two types of physical training on the cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized and sham-operated rats according to different approaches: double autonomic blockade (DAB) with methylatropine and propranolol; baroreflex sensibility (BRS) and spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Wistar female rats (±250g) were divided into two groups: sham-operated and ovariectomized. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups: sedentary rats, rats submitted to aerobic trained and rats submitted to resistance training. Ovariectomy did not change arterial pressure, basal heart rate (HR), DAB and BRS responses, but interfered with HRV by reducing the low-frequency oscillations (LF=0.20-0.75Hz) in relation to sedentary sham-operated rats. The DAB showed that both types of training promoted an increase in the predominance of vagal tonus in sham-operated rats, but HR variations due to methylatropine were decreased in the resistance trained rats compared to sedentary rats. Evaluation of BRS showed that resistance training for sham-operated and ovariectomized rats reduced the tachycardic responses in relation to aerobic training. Evaluation of HRV in trained rats showed that aerobic training reduced LF oscillations in sham-operated rats, whereas resistance training had a contrary effect. In the ovariectomized rats, aerobic training increased high frequency oscillations (HF=0.75-2.5Hz), whereas resistance training produced no effect. In sham-operated rats, both types of training increased the vagal autonomic tonus, but resistance training reduced HF oscillations and BRS as well. In turn, both types of training had similar results in ovariectomized rats, except for HRV, as aerobic training promoted an increase in HF oscillations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Feedback control of resistive wall modes in toroidal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.Q.

    2002-01-01

    Active feedback of resistive wall modes is investigated using cylindrical theory and toroidal calculations. For tokamaks, good performance is obtained by using active coils with one set of coils in the poloidal direction and sensors detecting the poloidal field inside the first wall, located at the outboard mid-plane. With suitable width of the feedback coil such a system can give robust control with respect to variations in plasma current, pressure and rotation. Calculations are shown for ITER-like geometry with a double wall. The voltages and currents in the active coils are well within the design limits for ITER. Calculations for RFP's are presented for a finite number of coils both in the poloidal and toroidal directions. With 4 coils in the poloidal and 24 coils in the toroidal direction, all non-resonant modes can be stabilized both at high and low theta. Several types of sensors, including radial and internal poloidal or toroidal sensors, can stabilize the RWM, but poloidal sensors give the most robust performance. (author)

  18. Effects of different volume-equated resistance training loading strategies on muscular adaptations in well-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Peterson, Mark D; Contreras, Bret; Sonmez, G T; Alvar, Brent A

    2014-10-01

    Regimented resistance training has been shown to promote marked increases in skeletal muscle mass. Although muscle hypertrophy can be attained through a wide range of resistance training programs, the principle of specificity, which states that adaptations are specific to the nature of the applied stimulus, dictates that some programs will promote greater hypertrophy than others. Research is lacking, however, as to the best combination of variables required to maximize hypertophic gains. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscular adaptations to a volume-equated bodybuilding-type training program vs. a powerlifting-type routine in well-trained subjects. Seventeen young men were randomly assigned to either a hypertrophy-type resistance training group that performed 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum (RM) with 90 seconds rest or a strength-type resistance training (ST) group that performed 7 sets of 3RM with a 3-minute rest interval. After 8 weeks, no significant differences were noted in muscle thickness of the biceps brachii. Significant strength differences were found in favor of ST for the 1RM bench press, and a trend was found for greater increases in the 1RM squat. In conclusion, this study showed that both bodybuilding- and powerlifting-type training promote similar increases in muscular size, but powerlifting-type training is superior for enhancing maximal strength.

  19. Speech perception enhancement in elderly hearing aid users using an auditory training program for mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jyaehyoung; Jeon, Hanjae; Song, Changgeun; Han, Woojae

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to develop an auditory training program using a mobile device and to test its efficacy by applying it to older adults suffering from moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss. Among the 20 elderly hearing-impaired listeners who participated, 10 were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) and 10 were assigned to a non-training group (NTG) as a control. As a baseline, all participants were measured by vowel, consonant and sentence tests. In the experiment, the TG had been trained for 4 weeks using a mobile program, which had four levels and consisted of 10 Korean nonsense syllables, with each level completed in 1 week. In contrast, traditional auditory training had been provided for the NTG during the same period. To evaluate whether a training effect was achieved, the two groups also carried out the same tests as the baseline after completing the experiment. The results showed that performance on the consonant and sentence tests in the TG was significantly increased compared with that of the NTG. Also, improved scores of speech perception were retained at 2 weeks after the training was completed. However, vowel scores were not changed after the 4-week training in both the TG and the NTG. This result pattern suggests that a moderate amount of auditory training using the mobile device with cost-effective and minimal supervision is useful when it is used to improve the speech understanding of older adults with hearing loss. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 61-68. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and weightlifting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Eric S; Volek, Jeff S

    2003-11-01

    Creatine monohydrate has become the supplement of choice for many athletes striving to improve sports performance. Recent data indicate that athletes may not be using creatine as a sports performance booster per se but instead use creatine chronically as a training aid to augment intense resistance training workouts. Although several studies have evaluated the combined effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training on muscle strength and weightlifting performance, these data have not been analyzed collectively. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effects of creatine supplementation on muscle strength and weightlifting performance when ingested concomitant with resistance training. The effects of gender, interindividual variability, training status, and possible mechanisms of action are discussed. Of the 22 studies reviewed, the average increase in muscle strength (1, 3, or 10 repetition maximum [RM]) following creatine supplementation plus resistance training was 8% greater than the average increase in muscle strength following placebo ingestion during resistance training (20 vs. 12%). Similarly, the average increase in weightlifting performance (maximal repetitions at a given percent of maximal strength) following creatine supplementation plus resistance training was 14% greater than the average increase in weightlifting performance following placebo ingestion during resistance training (26 vs. 12%). The increase in bench press 1RM ranged from 3 to 45%, and the improvement in weightlifting performance in the bench press ranged from 16 to 43%. Thus there is substantial evidence to indicate that creatine supplementation during resistance training is more effective at increasing muscle strength and weightlifting performance than resistance training alone, although the response is highly variable.

  1. Nanofluidic Devices with Two Pores in Series for Resistive-Pulse Sensing of Single Virus Capsids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Zachary D.; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Rodrigues de Sousa Nunes, Pedro André

    2011-01-01

    We report fabrication and characterization of nanochannel devices with two nanopores in series for resistive-pulse sensing of hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsids. The nanochannel and two pores are patterned by electron beam lithography between two microchannels and etched by reactive ion etching...

  2. Test-Retest Reliability of Respiratory Resistance Measured with the Airflow Perturbation Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallena, Sally K.; Solomon, Nancy Pearl; Johnson, Arthur T.; Vossoughi, Jafar; Tian, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine reliability of the airflow perturbation device (APD) to measure respiratory resistance within and across sessions during resting tidal (RTB) and postexercise breathing in healthy athletes, and during RTB across trials within a session in athletes with paradoxical vocal fold motion (PVFM)…

  3. Number of repetition after different rest intervals between static stretching and resistance training

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, H.; Paz, G.A.; Maia, M. de F.; Leite, T.; Miranda, H.; Simão, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different intervals between static stretching for hip adductor, quadriceps and hamstring muscles and resistance training in repetition performance. Method: Twenty-two trained men were submitted to the 10 repetition maximum test and retest for leg extension, leg curl and hip adduction exercises. Three protocols were conducted in a randomized design – PWI: resistance training immediately after static stretching; P15: fift...

  4. Effects of nonlinear resistance and aerobic interval training on cytokines and insulin resistance in sedentary men who are obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikseresht, Mahmoud; Agha-Alinejad, Hamid; Azarbayjani, Mohammad A; Ebrahim, Khosrow

    2014-09-01

    Regular exercise training has been shown to reduce systemic inflammation, but there is limited research directly comparing different types of training. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of nonlinear resistance training (NRT) and aerobic interval training (AIT) on serum interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-20, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, insulin resistance index (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), and aerobic capacity in middle-aged men who are obese. Sedentary volunteers were assigned to NRT (n = 12), AIT (n = 12), and (CON, n = 10) control groups. The experimental groups performed 3 weekly sessions for 12 weeks, whereas the CON grouped maintained a sedentary lifestyle. Nonlinear resistance training consisted of 40-65 minutes of weight training at different intensities with flexible periodization. Aerobic interval training consisted of running on a treadmill (4 sets of 4 minutes at 80-90% of maximal heart rate, with 3-minute recovery intervals). Serum IL-10, IL-20, and TNF-α levels did not change significantly in response to training (all p > 0.05), but IL-10:TNF-α ratio increased significantly with AIT compared with CON (2.95 ± 0.84 vs. 2.52 ± 0.65; p = 0.02). After the training period, maximal oxygen uptake increased significantly in AIT and NRT compared with CON (both p resistance (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance) (both p ≤ 0.05; AIT: 0.84 ± 0.34, NRT: 0.84 ± 0.27, and CON: 1.62 ± 0.56) and fasting insulin levels (both p ≤ 0.05; AIT: 3.61 ± 1.48, NRT: 3.66 ± 0.92, and CON: 6.20 ± 2.64 μU·ml), but the AIT seems to have better anti-inflammatory effects (as indicated by the IL-10:TNF-α ratio) compared with NRT.

  5. Improved resistive switching characteristics in Ni/SiNx/p++-Si devices by tuning x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungjun; Chang, Yao-Feng; Kim, Min-Hwi; Park, Byung-Gook

    2017-07-01

    This letter studies the effect of the negative-set on the resistive switching performances of CMOS-compatible Ni/SiNx/p++-Si resistive memory devices by simply tuning x. A Ni/SiN1.07/p++-Si device showed lower power switching (20 μW) and better endurance cycles (103) compared to a Ni/SiN0.82/p++-Si device because of the improved negative set behavior and initially lower set and reset currents. In addition, we achieved fast switching speed for set (200 ns) and reset (100 ns) processes in the Ni/SiN1.07/p++-Si device. For the Ni/SiN1.07/p++-Si device, fine adjustment of resistance values is attainable by varying the pulse amplitude and width due to the gradual reset switching characteristics. The barrier-height-dependent conduction model is proposed to explain the change in the current level with the x value.

  6. Effects of Resistance Training on the Sit-and-Reach Test in Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; Santarem Jose Maria; Filho, Wilson Jacob; Marucci, Maria de Fatima Nunes

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week resistance training program on older women's flexibility (evaluated through the sit- and-reach test performed before and after the training program). Participants were compared to inactive older women. The training program resulted in significant increases in participants' flexibility, suggesting that weight…

  7. A device for training and computer-assisted application of panretinal photocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Eduardo S.; Russell, Stephen; Abramoff, Michael; Brittain, Robert; Nguyen, Phong; Soliz, Peter

    2007-02-01

    To become highly proficient at a given surgical procedure and to reduce risk to patients, physicians must gain experience through a number means. Today optical training devices based on the actual surgical device coupled with computer models can provide the required realism to provide highly effective training. This paper presents a optical system that will be used for training residents to perform panretinal photocoagulation (PRP), a laser surgical procedure for treating the retina. The system will naturally evolve into a computer-assisted device for performing PRP. With the system described herein, simulations are created in the Umbra modeling and simulation framework. The simulation is composed of four building blocks: Pre-operation planning, multi-modality image registration, tracking the patient's eye movement, and positioning the laser according to the pre-planned aim points. A prototype simulation was developed to demonstrate a realistic depiction of the PRP the procedure. The ultimate goal of this project is to integrate the software into an existing ophthalmic device to increase the accuracy of the laser application procedure by providing computer-assisted surgery.

  8. Is inertial flywheel resistance training superior to gravity-dependent resistance training in improving muscle strength? A systematic review with meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicens-Bordas, J; Esteve, E; Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, A; Bandholm, T; Thorborg, K

    2018-01-01

    The primary aim of this systematic review was to determine if inertial flywheel resistance training is superior to gravity-dependent resistance training in improving muscle strength. The secondary aim was to determine whether inertial flywheel resistance training is superior to gravity-dependent resistance training in improving other muscular adaptations. A systematic review with meta-analyses of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials. We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials with no publication date restrictions until November 2016. We performed meta-analyses on randomised and non-randomised controlled trials to determine the standardized mean difference between the effects of inertial flywheel and gravity-dependent resistance training on muscle strength. A total of 76 and 71 participants were included in the primary and secondary analyses, respectively. After systematic review, we included three randomised and four non-randomised controlled trials. In the primary analysis for the primary outcome muscle strength, the pooled results from randomised controlled trials showed no difference (SMD=-0.05; 95%CI -0.51 to 0.40; p=0.82; I 2 =0%). In the secondary analyses of the primary outcome, the pooled results from non-randomised controlled trials showed no difference (SMD=0.02; 95%CI -0.45 to 0.49; p=0.93; I 2 =0%; and SMD=0.03; 95%CI -0.43 to 0.50; p=0.88; I 2 =0%). Meta-analysis on secondary outcomes could not be performed. Based on the available data, inertial flywheel resistance training was not superior to gravity-dependent resistance training in enhancing muscle strength. Data for other strength variables and other muscular adaptations was insufficient to draw firm conclusions from. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of resistance training on cardiovascular health in non-obese active adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Clare Chung-Wah; McManus, Alison Mary; So, Hung-Kwan; Chook, Ping; Au, Chun-Ting; Li, Albert Martin; Kam, Jack Tat-Chi; So, Raymond Chi-Hung; Lam, Christopher Wai-Kei; Chan, Iris Hiu-Shuen; Sung, Rita Yn-Tz

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the benefits of a 10-wk resistance training programme on cardiovascular health in non-obese and active adolescents. METHODS This is a pragmatic randomised controlled intervention. The study was carried out in a Hong Kong Government secondary school. Thirty-eight lean and active boys and girls were randomised to either the resistance training group or the control group. Students in the resistance training group received in-school 10-wk supervised resistance training twice per week, with each session lasting 70 min. Main outcome measures taken before and after training included brachial endothelial dependent flow-mediated dilation, body composition, fasting serum lipids, fasting glucose and insulin, high sensitive C-reactive protein, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure and aerobic fitness. RESULTS The only training related change was in endothelial dependent flow-mediated dilation which increased from 8.5% to 9.8%. A main effect of time and an interaction (P < 0.005) indicated that this improvement was a result of the 10-wk resistance training. Main effects for time (P < 0.05) in a number of anthropometric, metabolic and vascular variables were noted; however, there were no significant interactions indicating the change was more likely an outcome of normal growth and development as opposed to a training effect. CONCLUSION Ten weeks of resistance training in school appears to have some vascular benefit in active, lean children PMID:27610345

  10. Changes in circulating angiogenic factors after an acute training bout before and after resistance training with or without whole-body-vibration training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijer, Åsa; Degens, Hans; May, Francisca; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Joern; Rosenberger, Andre

    2012-07-01

    Both Resistance Exercise and Whole-Body-Vibration training are currently considered as countermeasures against microgravity-induced physiological deconditioning. Here we investigated the effects of whole-body vibration superimposed upon resistance exercise. Within this context, the present study focuses on changes in circulating angiogenic factors as indicators of skeletal muscle adaption. Methods: Twenty-six healthy male subjects (25.2 ± 4.2 yr) were included in this two-group parallel-designed study and randomly assigned to one of the training interventions: either resistance exercise (RE) or resistance vibration exercise (RVE). Participants trained 2-3 times per week for 6 weeks (completing 16 training sessions), where one session took 9 ± 1 min. Participants trained with weights on a guided barbell. The individual training load was set at 80% of their 1-Repetition-Maximum. Each training session consisted of three sets with 8 squats and 12 heel raises, following an incremental training design with regards to weight (RE and RVE) and vibration frequency (RVE only). The vibration frequency was increased from 20 Hz in the first week till 40 Hz during the last two weeks with 5-Hz weekly increments. At the first and 16 ^{th} training session, six blood samples (pre training and 2 min, 5 min, 15 min, 35 min and 75 min post training) were taken. Circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Endostatin and Matrix Metalloproteinases -2 and -9 (MMPs) were determined in serum using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays. Results: MMP-2 levels increased by 7.0% (SE = 2.7%, P resistance exercise, both with and without superimposed vibration, leads to a transient rise in circulating angiogenic factors, 2) which is not altered after a period of resistance exercise with or without vibration.

  11. SIMULATION STUDY OF LONGITUDINAL FORCES IN THE COUPLING DEVICE OF HEAVY FREIGHT TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Stokłosa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available On the LHS line (Broad-gauge Metallurgical Line, far out West of the railway line with a gauge of 1520 mm, heavy goods trains for a gross weight 5500 tons and a length of 850 m are operated. The article presents the results of a simulation study of the forces that occur in the automatic coupling device of SA-3 type of Russian production train consisting of 60 coal wagons of Russian construction of gross mass 91 tons each. The train moves on the 1520 mm gauge tracks curve S type (the radius of curvature of curves 300 m. Simulation studies were conducted using the Train Module of program to dynamic study multi-elements systems of Universal Mechanism UM 6.0.

  12. Improvement of SET variability in TaO x based resistive RAM devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhals, Alexander; Waser, Rainer; Wouters, Dirk J.

    2017-11-01

    Improvement or at least control of variability is one of the key challenges for Redox based resistive switching memory technology. In this paper, we investigate the impact of a serial resistor as a voltage divider on the SET variability in Pt/Ta2O5/Ta/Pt nano crossbar devices. A partial RESET in a competing complementary switching (CS) mode is identified as a possible failure mechanism of bipolar switching SET in our devices. Due to a voltage divider effect, serial resistance value shows unequal impact on switching voltages of both modes which allows for a selective suppression of the CS mode. The impact of voltage divider on SET variability is demonstrated. A combination of appropriate write voltage and serial resistance allows for a significant improvement of the SET variability.

  13. A resistance ratio change phenomenon observed in Al doped ZnO (AZO)/Cu(In1-xGax)Se2/Mo resistive switching memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tao; Sun, Bai; Mao, Shuangsuo; Zhu, Shouhui; Xia, Yudong; Wang, Hongyan; Zhao, Yong; Yu, Zhou

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 (CIGS), Al doped ZnO (AZO) and Mo has been used for constructing a resistive switching device with AZO/CIGS/Mo sandwich structure grown on a transparent glass substrate. The device represents a high-performance memory characteristics under ambient temperature. In particularly, a resistance ratio change phenomenon have been observed in our device for the first time.

  14. A novel multiple super junction power device structure with low specific on-resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hui; Li Haiou; Li Qi; Huang Yuanhao; Xu Xiaoning; Zhao Hailiang

    2014-01-01

    A novel multiple super junction (MSJ) LDMOS power device is proposed to decrease R on due to lateral and vertical interactions between the N-pillar and P-pillar. In the studied device: multiple layers of SJ are introduced oppositely under surface SJ; when compared with 2D-depleting of the conventional super junction (CSJ), a 3D-depleted effect is formed in the MSJ thanks to vertical electric field modulation; and, current distribution is improved by deep drain, which increases the drift doping concentration and results in a lower on-resistance. The high electric field around the drain region by substrate-assisted depleted effect is reduced due to the charge balance result from the electric field shielding effect of the bottom SJ, which causes the uniform electric field in the drift region and the high breakdown voltage. The numerical simulation results indicate that the specific on-resistance of the MSJ device is reduced by 42% compared with that of CSJ device, while maintaining a high breakdown voltage; the cell pitch of the device is 12 μm. (semiconductor devices)

  15. Configurable Resistive Switching between Memory and Threshold Characteristics for Protein-Based Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hong

    2015-05-01

    The employ of natural biomaterials as the basic building blocks of electronic devices is of growing interest for biocompatible and green electronics. Here, resistive switching (RS) devices based on naturally silk protein with configurable functionality are demonstrated. The RS type of the devices can be effectively and exactly controlled by controlling the compliance current in the set process. Memory RS can be triggered by a higher compliance current, while threshold RS can be triggered by a lower compliance current. Furthermore, two types of memory devices, working in random access and WORM modes, can be achieved with the RS effect. The results suggest that silk protein possesses the potential for sustainable electronics and data storage. In addition, this finding would provide important guidelines for the performance optimization of biomaterials based memory devices and the study of the underlying mechanism behind the RS effect arising from biomaterials. Resistive switching (RS) devices with configurable functionality based on protein are successfully achieved. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Investigation on nickel ferrite nanowire device exhibiting negative differential resistance — a first-principles investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nagarajan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The electronic property of NiFe_2O_4 nanowire device is investigated through nonequilibrium Green’s functions (NEGF in combination with density functional theory (DFT. The electronic transport properties of NiFe_2O_4 nanowire are studied in terms of density of states, transmission spectrum and I–V characteristics. The density of states gets modified with the applied bias voltage across NiFe_2O_4 nanowire device, the density of charge is observed both in the valence band and in the conduction band on increasing the bias voltage. The transmission spectrum of NiFe_2O_4 nanowire device gives the insights on the transition of electrons at different energy intervals. The findings of the present work suggest that NiFe_2O_4 nanowire device can be used as negative differential resistance (NDR device and its NDR property can be tuned with the bias voltage, which may be used in microwave device, memory devices and in fast switching devices.

  17. Vastus lateralis exhibits non-homogenous adaptation to resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Adam J; Fukuda, David H; Hoffman, Jay R; Gonzalez, Adam M; Jajtner, Adam R; Townsend, Jeremy R; Mangine, Gerald T; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2014-11-01

    Variations in transverse point of measure on the vastus lateralis (VL) may significantly affect the relationship between structure and function. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in muscle architecture at 2 commonly used points of measure (VL0 and VL5). Maximal strength (1-repetition maximum [1RM] barbell squat) and muscle architecture were assessed PRE and POST 15 weeks of periodized resistance training. VL0 was 50% of the straight line distance between the greater trochanter and lateral epicondyle of the femur. VL5 was 5cm medial to VL0. Increases in 1RM strength (3.7 ± 2.4 kg; P = 0.004) were observed. Changes in muscle thickness (MT) at VL5 were significantly greater than at VL0 (P = 0.006). Changes in strength correlated with changes in muscle architecture at VL0 only (MT: r = 0.561; fascicle length: r = 0.503). Changes in muscle architecture appear to occur in a non-homogeneous manner. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Factors associated with participation in resistance training: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Lubans, David R; Karunamuni, Nandini; Kennedy, Sarah; Plotnikoff, Ronald

    2017-10-01

    Regular participation in resistance training (RT) is critical to health and recommended in most international physical activity guidelines. Few people, however, participate in RT. The purpose of this review was to assess the demographic, behavioural, intrapersonal, interpersonal and environmental factors associated with participating in RT. Eligible studies were from English peer-reviewed published articles that examined correlates or determinants of RT in adult samples. Searches were performed from August 2015 to April 2016 in six databases. We identified 51 independent data sets, from nine countries, primarily of moderate to high quality, and 23 factors related to participating in RT. Education, perceived health status, quality of life, affective judgements, self-efficacy, intention, self-regulation behaviours, subjective norm and programme leadership were associated with RT. Low education levels and poor health status were associated with low participation rates in RT. Intrapersonal factors including affective judgements, self-efficacy, and self-regulation behaviours, and interpersonal factors including subjective norms and programme leadership may be important for promoting RT behaviours. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Effects of Weight Resistance Training on Swimmers with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Víquez Ulate y Andrea Mora Campos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of weight resistance training on strength in swimmers with Down Syndrome (DS. Seven swimmers with DS participated in the study: 6 men and 1 woman, 23.14 years of age ± 4.59 and with 6.14 years ± 2.34 years of swimming. Instruments: One repetition maximum (RM test to determine the individual’s maximum muscular strength. Procedure: the study was conducted for 10 weeks (2 weeks at baseline, 6 weeks of treatment and 2 weeks to see the effects of retention. Results: significantly positive changes were detected in the maximum strength of pectoral muscles (F=5.768; p=0.006, dorsal muscles (F = 26.770; p=7.45e-007, femoral biceps (F = 32.530; p=1.76e-007, quadriceps (F = 8.391; p=0.001, triceps (F = 11.217; p=0.0002 and these adjustments were maintained with no significant changes for two weeks, while the biceps muscle (F=4.145; p=0.021 behaved differently since it suffered no significant adjustments during the program.

  20. Effects of interset whole-body vibration on bench press resistance training in trained and untrained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timon, Rafael; Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Olcina, Guillermo; Gusi, Narcis

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated positive effects of acute vibration exercise on concentric strength and power, but few have observed the effects of vibration exposure on resistance training. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of whole body vibration applied to the chest via hands on bench press resistance training in trained and untrained individuals. Nineteen participants (10 recreationally trained bodybuilders and 9 untrained students) performed two randomized sessions of resistance training on separate days. Each strength session consisted of 3 bench press sets with a load of 75% 1RM to failure in each set, with 2 minutes' rest between sets. All subjects performed the same strength training with either, vibration exposure (12 Hz, 4 mm) of 30 seconds immediately before each bench press set or without vibration. Number of total repetitions, kinematic parameters, blood lactate and perceived exertion were analyzed. In the untrained group, vibration exposure caused a significant increase in the mean velocity (from 0.36±0.02 to 0.39±0.03 m/s) and acceleration (from 0.75±0.10 to 0.86±0.09 m/s2), as well as a decrease in perceived effort (from 8±0.57 to 7.35±0.47) in the first bench press set, but no change was observed in the third bench press set. In the recreationally trained bodybuilders, vibration exposure did not cause any improvement on the performance of bench press resistance training. These results suggest that vibration exposure applied just before the bench press exercise could be a good practice to be implemented by untrained individuals in resistance training.

  1. Comparative Effectiveness of Low-Volume Time-Efficient Resistance Training Versus Endurance Training in Patients With Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Gregers Winding; Birgitte Rosenmeier, Jaya; Petersen, Morten

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiorespiratory fitness is positively related to heart failure (HF) prognosis, but lack of time and low energy are barriers for adherence to exercise. We, therefore, compared the effect of low-volume time-based resistance exercise training (TRE) with aerobic moderate-intensity cycling...... (AMC) on maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, health-related quality of life, and vascular function. METHODS: Twenty-eight HF patients (New York Heart Association class I-II) performed AMC (n = 14) or TRE (n = 14). Maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, health-related quality of life......, and vascular function were evaluated before and after a 6-wk training intervention with 3 training sessions per week. The AMC group and the TRE group trained for 45 and 25 min per training session, respectively. During the training sessions, the TRE and AMC groups trained at 60 ± 4% and 59 ± 2% (mean...

  2. Effect of specific resistance training on forearm pain and work disability in industrial technicians: cluster randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Louis; Jakobsen, Markus D; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of specific resistance training on forearm pain and work disability in industrial technicians.......To determine the effect of specific resistance training on forearm pain and work disability in industrial technicians....

  3. Effect of 8-Week Resistance Training on Hypertrophy, Strength, and Myostatin Concentration in Old and Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoof Negaresh

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion Resistance training was associated with a decline in myostatin level and increase in the muscle mass and cross-sectional area. Hence, the beneficial effect of resistance training may decrease age-related muscle atrophy and affect elderly health.

  4. Concurrent training: a meta-analysis examining interference of aerobic and resistance exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jacob M; Marin, Pedro J; Rhea, Matthew R; Wilson, Stephanie M C; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Anderson, Jody C

    2012-08-01

    The primary objective of this investigation was to identify which components of endurance training (e.g., modality, duration, frequency) are detrimental to resistance training outcomes. A meta-analysis of 21 studies was performed with a total of 422 effect sizes (ESs). Criteria for the study included were (a) compare strength training alone to strength plus endurance training (concurrent) or to compare combinations of concurrent training; (b) the outcome measures include at least one measure of strength, power, or hypertrophy; and (c) the data necessary to calculate ESs must be included or available. The mean ES for hypertrophy for strength training was 1.23; for endurance training, it was 0.27; and for concurrent training, it was 0.85, with strength and concurrent training being significantly greater than endurance training only. The mean ES for strength development for strength training was 1.76; for endurance training, it was 0.78; and for concurrent training, it was 1.44. Strength and concurrent training was significantly greater than endurance training. The mean ES for power development for strength training only was 0.91; for endurance training, it was 0.11; and for concurrent training, it was 0.55. Significant differences were found between all the 3 groups. For moderator variables, resistance training concurrently with running, but not cycling, resulted in significant decrements in both hypertrophy and strength. Correlational analysis identified significant negative relationships between frequency (-0.26 to -0.35) and duration (-0.29 to -0.75) of endurance training for hypertrophy, strength, and power. Significant relationships (p training are a factor of the modality, frequency, and duration of the endurance training selected.

  5. Resistance training for explosive and maximal strength: effects on early and late rate of force development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Felipe B D; Oliveira, Anderson S C; Rizatto, Guilherme F; Denadai, Benedito S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify whether strength training designed to improve explosive and maximal strength would influence rate of force development (RFD). Nine men participated in a 6-week knee extensors resistance training program and 9 matched subjects participated as controls. Throughout the training sessions, subjects were instructed to perform isometric knee extension as fast and forcefully as possible, achieving at least 90% maximal voluntary contraction as quickly as possible, hold it for 5 s, and relax. Fifteen seconds separated each repetition (6-10), and 2 min separated each set (3). Pre- and post-training measurements were maximal isometric knee extensor (MVC), RFD, and RFD relative to MVC (i.e., %MVC·s(-1)) in different time-epochs varying from 10 to 250 ms from the contraction onset. The MVC (Nm) increased by 19% (275.8 ± 64.9 vs. 329.8 ± 60.4, p resistance training for explosive and maximal strength. This time-specific RFD adaptation highlight that resistance training programs should consider the specific neuromuscular demands of each sport. Key PointsThe time-specific RFD adaptation evoked by resistance training highlight that the method of analyzing RFD is essential for the interpretation of results.Confirming previous data, maximal contractile RFD and maximal force can be differently influenced by resistance training. Thus, the resistance training programs should consider the specific neuromuscular demands of each sport.In active non-strength trained individuals, a short-term resistance training program designed to increase both explosive and maximal strength seems to reduce the adaptive response (i.e. increased RFDMAX) evoked by training with an intended ballistic effort (i.e. high-RFD contraction).

  6. Visual-Motor Learning Using Haptic Devices: How Best to Train Surgeons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Giles

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic surgery has revolutionised medicine but requires surgeons to learn new visual-motor mappings. The optimal method for training surgeons is unknown. For instance, it may be easier to learn planar movements when training is constrained to a plane, since this forces the surgeon to develop an appropriate perceptual-motor map. In contrast, allowing the surgeon to move without constraints could improve performance because this provides greater experience of the control dynamics of the device. In order to test between these alternatives, we created an experimental tool that connected a commercially available robotic arm with specialised software that presents visual stimuli and objectively records kinematics. Participants were given the task of generating a series of aiming movements to move a visual cursor to a series of targets. The actions required movement along a horizontal plane, whereas the visual display was a screen positioned perpendicular to this plane (ie, vertically. One group (n=8 received training where the force field constrained their movement to the correct plane of action, whilst a second group (n=8 trained without constraints. On test trials (after training the unconstrained group showed better performance, as indexed by reduced movement duration and reduced path length. These results show that participants who explored the entire action space had an advantage, which highlights the importance of experiencing the full dynamics of a control device and the action space when learning a new visual-motor mapping.

  7. Comparison of the effects of endurance, resistance and concurrent training on insulin resistance and adiponectin-leptin ratio in diabetic rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Saremi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The obesity-related hormones leptin and adiponectin are independently and oppositely associated with insulin resistance. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of endurance, resistance and concurrent training on insulin resistance and adiponectin-leptin ratio in diabetic rats. Methods: Ten out of 50 male Wistar rats were separated as healthy subjects. Then diabetes was induced in the remaining rats by the injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats divided into 4 groups: Control, resistance training (5 sessions/week, 4 reps/3 sets, endurance training (5 sets per week of treadmill running and concurrent training. The resistance training protocol consisted of ten weeks climbing up the ladder, while endurance training performed on treadmill for ten weeks. Concurrent training group completed a combination of both resistances and endurance treadmill training. Blood samples were taken to assess leptin, adiponectin and insulin resistance. Findings: Endurance, resistance and concurrent training significantly decreased insulin resistance and glucose (P0.05. On the one hand, adiponctin level and adiponctin-leptin ratio significantly increased in all of training groups (P<0.05. Conclusion: Exercise training, as defined in this study, leads to improvements in adiponectin-leptin ratio and concurrent training has more impact on insulin resistance index in diabetic rats.

  8. One bipolar transistor selector - One resistive random access memory device for cross bar memory array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aluguri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A bipolar transistor selector was connected in series with a resistive switching memory device to study its memory characteristics for its application in cross bar array memory. The metal oxide based p-n-p bipolar transistor selector indicated good selectivity of about 104 with high retention and long endurance showing its usefulness in cross bar RRAM devices. Zener tunneling is found to be the main conduction phenomena for obtaining high selectivity. 1BT-1R device demonstrated good memory characteristics with non-linearity of 2 orders, selectivity of about 2 orders and long retention characteristics of more than 105 sec. One bit-line pull-up scheme shows that a 650 kb cross bar array made with this 1BT1R devices works well with more than 10 % read margin proving its ability in future memory technology application.

  9. One bipolar transistor selector - One resistive random access memory device for cross bar memory array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluguri, R.; Kumar, D.; Simanjuntak, F. M.; Tseng, T.-Y.

    2017-09-01

    A bipolar transistor selector was connected in series with a resistive switching memory device to study its memory characteristics for its application in cross bar array memory. The metal oxide based p-n-p bipolar transistor selector indicated good selectivity of about 104 with high retention and long endurance showing its usefulness in cross bar RRAM devices. Zener tunneling is found to be the main conduction phenomena for obtaining high selectivity. 1BT-1R device demonstrated good memory characteristics with non-linearity of 2 orders, selectivity of about 2 orders and long retention characteristics of more than 105 sec. One bit-line pull-up scheme shows that a 650 kb cross bar array made with this 1BT1R devices works well with more than 10 % read margin proving its ability in future memory technology application.

  10. Wounds, Functional Disability, and Indwelling Devices Are Associated With Cocolonization by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Southeast Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Flannery, Erika L.; Wang, Linda; Zöllner, Sebastian; Foxman, Betsy; Mobley, Harry L. T.; Mody, Lona

    2011-01-01

    Cocolonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is a precursor to vancomycin-resistant S. aureus emergence. MRSA/VRE cocolonization incidence is higher among skilled nursing facility residents with functional disability and indwelling devices and occurs more frequently in wounds than other anatomical sites.

  11. Inflammation relates to resistance training-induced hypertrophy in elderly patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norheim, Kristoffer L.; Cullum, Christopher K.; Andersen, Jesper L.

    2017-01-01

    on the relationship between systemic inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and changes in muscle mass, as well as the influence of resistance training upon muscle mass. Method: Unilateral leg press resistance exercise was conducted daily during the hospital period. Outcomes included changes in whole body...... although our findings are potentially affected by changes in hydration status. Resistance training during hospitalization increases skeletal muscle mass, and patients with high levels of systemic inflammation demonstrate less ability to increase or preserve muscle mass in response to resistance training...... = 84.8 T 1.9 yr, mean T SE). Lean mass at the midthigh region of the trained leg increased by 2.4% T 1.1% (P G 0.05) after the intervention period. There was a negative association between changes in midthigh lean mass of the trained leg and CRP (rs = j0.53, P G 0.05). Leg extension power increased...

  12. Robust resistive memory devices using solution-processable metal-coordinated azo aromatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sreetosh; Matula, Adam J.; Rath, Santi P.; Hedström, Svante; Saha, Surajit; Annamalai, Meenakshi; Sengupta, Debabrata; Patra, Abhijeet; Ghosh, Siddhartha; Jani, Hariom; Sarkar, Soumya; Motapothula, Mallikarjuna Rao; Nijhuis, Christian A.; Martin, Jens; Goswami, Sreebrata; Batista, Victor S.; Venkatesan, T.

    2017-12-01

    Non-volatile memories will play a decisive role in the next generation of digital technology. Flash memories are currently the key player in the field, yet they fail to meet the commercial demands of scalability and endurance. Resistive memory devices, and in particular memories based on low-cost, solution-processable and chemically tunable organic materials, are promising alternatives explored by the industry. However, to date, they have been lacking the performance and mechanistic understanding required for commercial translation. Here we report a resistive memory device based on a spin-coated active layer of a transition-metal complex, which shows high reproducibility (~350 devices), fast switching (106 s) and scalability (down to ~60 nm2). In situ Raman and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy alongside spectroelectrochemistry and quantum chemical calculations demonstrate that the redox state of the ligands determines the switching states of the device whereas the counterions control the hysteresis. This insight may accelerate the technological deployment of organic resistive memories.

  13. Potential benefits of resistance exercise training on nutritional status in renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, C; Grossi, L; Dwyer, J

    1998-01-01

    Resistance or strength exercise training may help reverse the malnutrition common among patients in chronic renal failure and delay the progression of renal disease. Resistance training is characterized by resisting, lifting, and lowering weights. It results in muscle mass accretion, improved physical function, and slowed progression of muscle wasting. Resistance exercise training for a period of 8 to 12 weeks results in significant increases in muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle function in frail "healthy" elderly individuals as well as in specific patient populations. States of malnutrition leading to muscle wasting directly affect lean tissue mass and functional capacity. Even at dietary protein intake below the Recommended Dietary Allowances, resistance training appears to exert an anabolic effect by improving energy intake and protein use allowing nitrogen retention. The potential benefits of resistance exercise extend beyond this direct impact on protein metabolism. They include improvements in functional capacity such as gait, balance, mobility, strength, exercise tolerance, improved glucose uptake, insulin sensitivity, and self-efficacy and self-esteem. Currently, the effects of resistance exercise in renal patients are unknown, although they are well shown in the case of other diseases. The potential benefits that resistance exercise training may have on muscle mass and function, nutritional status, hyperglycemia, disease progression, and the overall mental well-being of renal patients deserve further investigation. As an adjunct to current treatment modalities for chronic renal failure, resistance exercise may serve as a cost-effective, interdisciplinary, noninvasive approach to counteract malnutrition and improve the quality of life.

  14. Let the Pleasure Guide Your Resistance Training Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsangedy, Hassan Mohamed; da Silva Machado, Daniel Gomes; Krinski, Kleverton; Duarte do Nascimento, Paulo Henrique; de Amorim Oliveira, Gledson Tavares; Santos, Tony Meireles; Hargreaves, Elaine A; Parfitt, Gaynor

    2018-02-09

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of the Feeling Scale (FS) to self-regulate resistance training (RT) intensity. Sixteen sedentary men (39.7±7.5 years) performed 3 familiarization sessions, 2 one repetition maximum testing (1RM), and 16 RT sessions (4 sessions for each FS descriptor; randomized). The FS descriptors were "very good" (FS+5), "good" (FS+3), "fairly good" (FS+1), and "fairly bad" (FS-1). Resistance exercises were leg press, chest press, knee extension, and seated biceps curl. Participants were instructed to select a load associated with the verbal/numerical descriptor of the FS to perform 3 sets of 10 repetitions. Participants lifted a significantly greater %1RM as the FS level decreased from FS+5 to FS-1 (P<0.001). Mean %1RM for the FS descriptors of +5, +3, +1, and -1, respectively, were: leg press 42.5%±9.5; 58.2%±7.4; 69.9%±7.0; 80.7%±5.4; knee extensor 37.4%±9.6; 54.5%±9.3; 65.3±8.7; 78.2%±5.9; chest press 42.4%±11.3; 54.9%±11.4; 66.4%±12.6; 78.2%±13.5; and biceps curl 39.0%±8.1; 54.0%±9.7; 68.4%±5.9; 83.2%±3.0. The interclass correlation coefficient over the 4 experimental sessions ranged from 0.73 and 0.99 for %1RM, and 0.77 and 0.99 for weight lifted, with a coefficient of variation of approximately 7%, 4%, 2%, and 2% for FS descriptors of +5, +3, +1, and -1, respectively. This study is the first to demonstrate that the FS can be used to self-regulate exercise intensity in RT. The lower the FS descriptor the higher the weight lifted. In addition, the load self-selected for each FS descriptor was reliable across the four sessions.

  15. Modeling the Responses to Resistance Training in an Animal Experiment Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony G. Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to test whether systems models of training effects on performance in athletes can be used to explore the responses to resistance training in rats. 11 Wistar Han rats (277 ± 15 g underwent 4 weeks of resistance training consisting in climbing a ladder with progressive loads. Training amount and performance were computed from total work and mean power during each training session. Three systems models relating performance to cumulated training bouts have been tested: (i with a single component for adaptation to training, (ii with two components to distinguish the adaptation and fatigue produced by exercise bouts, and (iii with an additional component to account for training-related changes in exercise-induced fatigue. Model parameters were fitted using a mixed-effects modeling approach. The model with two components was found to be the most suitable to analyze the training responses (R2=0.53; P<0.001. In conclusion, the accuracy in quantifying training loads and performance in a rodent experiment makes it possible to model the responses to resistance training. This modeling in rodents could be used in future studies in combination with biological tools for enhancing our understanding of the adaptive processes that occur during physical training.

  16. Reliability of Strength Testing using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and Free Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Kirk L.; Loehr, James A.; Laughlin, Mitzi A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Hagan, R. Donald

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) was developed for use on the International Space Station as a countermeasure against muscle atrophy and decreased strength. This investigation examined the reliability of one-repetition maximum (1RM) strength testing using ARED and traditional free weight (FW) exercise. Methods: Six males (180.8 +/- 4.3 cm, 83.6 +/- 6.4 kg, 36 +/- 8 y, mean +/- SD) who had not engaged in resistive exercise for at least six months volunteered to participate in this project. Subjects completed four 1RM testing sessions each for FW and ARED (eight total sessions) using a balanced, randomized, crossover design. All testing using one device was completed before progressing to the other. During each session, 1RM was measured for the squat, heel raise, and deadlift exercises. Generalizability (G) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for each exercise on each device and were used to predict the number of sessions needed to obtain a reliable 1RM measurement (G . 0.90). Interclass reliability coefficients and Pearson's correlation coefficients (R) also were calculated for the highest 1RM value (1RM9sub peak)) obtained for each exercise on each device to quantify 1RM relationships between devices.

  17. Effects of Methoxyisoflavone, Ecdysterone, and Sulfo-Polysaccharide Supplementation on Training Adaptations in Resistance-Trained Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenwood Michael

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Methoxyisoflavone (M, 20-hydroxyecdysone (E, and sulfo-polysaccharide (CSP3 have been marketed to athletes as dietary supplements that can increase strength and muscle mass during resistance-training. However, little is known about their potential ergogenic value. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these supplements affect training adaptations and/or markers of muscle anabolism/catabolism in resistance-trained athletes. Methods Forty-five resistance-trained males (20.5 ± 3 yrs; 179 ± 7 cm, 84 ± 16 kg, 17.3 ± 9% body fat were matched according to FFM and randomly assigned to ingest in a double blind manner supplements containing either a placebo (P; 800 mg/day of M; 200 mg of E; or, 1,000 mg/day of CSP3 for 8-weeks during training. At 0, 4, and 8-weeks, subjects donated fasting blood samples and completed comprehensive muscular strength, muscular endurance, anaerobic capacity, and body composition analysis. Data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. Results No significant differences (p > 0.05 were observed in training adaptations among groups in the variables FFM, percent body fat, bench press 1 RM, leg press 1 RM or sprint peak power. Anabolic/catabolic analysis revealed no significant differences among groups in active testosterone (AT, free testosterone (FT, cortisol, the AT to cortisol ratio, urea nitrogen, creatinine, the blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio. In addition, no significant differences were seen from pre to post supplementation and/or training in AT, FT, or cortisol. Conclusion Results indicate that M, E, and CSP3 supplementation do not affect body composition or training adaptations nor do they influence the anabolic/catabolic hormone status or general markers of catabolism in resistance-trained males.

  18. Outcomes of exertional rhabdomyolysis following high-intensity resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, A; Leong, K; Jones, N; Crump, N; Russell, D; Anderson, M; Steinfort, D; Johnson, D F

    2016-05-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HIRT) programmes are increasingly popular amongst personal trainers and those attending gymnasiums. We report the experience of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) at two tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. To compare the clinical outcomes of ER with other causes of rhabdomyolysis. Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients presenting with a serum creatine kinase (CK) of greater than 25 000 units/L from 1 September 2013 to 31 August 2014 at two tertiary referral hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Records were examined to identify care measures implemented during hospital stay, clinical outcomes during admission and on subsequent follow up. Thirty four cases of rhabdomyolysis with a CK of greater than 25 000 units/L (normal range: 20-180 units/L) were identified during the 12-month study period. Twelve of the 34 cases (35%) had ER with 10 of 12 related to HIRT. No acute kidney injury, intensive care admission or death were seen among those with ER. All cases were managed conservatively, with 11 admitted and 9 receiving intravenous fluids only. In contrast, patients with rhabdomyolysis from other causes experienced significantly higher rates of intensive care admission (64%, P = 0.0002), acute kidney injury (82%, P = 0.0001) and death (27%, P = 0.069). ER resulting from HIRT appears to have a benign course compared with rhabdomyolysis of other aetiologies in patients with a serum CK greater than 25 000 units/L. Conservative management of ER appears to be adequate, although this requires confirmation in future prospective studies. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  19. Comparison of Periodized and Non-Periodized Resistance Training on Maximal Strength: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tyler D; Tolusso, Danilo V; Fedewa, Michael V; Esco, Michael R

    2017-10-01

    Periodization is a logical method of organizing training into sequential phases and cyclical time periods in order to increase the potential for achieving specific performance goals while minimizing the potential for overtraining. Periodized resistance training plans are proposed to be superior to non-periodized training plans for enhancing maximal strength. The primary aim of this study was to examine the previous literature comparing periodized resistance training plans to non-periodized resistance training plans and determine a quantitative estimate of effect on maximal strength. All studies included in the meta-analysis met the following inclusion criteria: (1) peer-reviewed publication; (2) published in English; (3) comparison of a periodized resistance training group to a non-periodized resistance training group; (4) maximal strength measured by 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat, bench press, or leg press. Data were extracted and independently coded by two authors. Random-effects models were used to aggregate a mean effect size (ES), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and potential moderators. The cumulative results of 81 effects gathered from 18 studies published between 1988 and 2015 indicated that the magnitude of improvement in 1RM following periodized resistance training was greater than non-periodized resistance training (ES = 0.43, 95% CI 0.27-0.58; P training status (β = -0.59; P = 0.0305), study length (β = 0.03; P = 0.0067), and training frequency (β = 0.46; P = 0.0123) were associated with a change in 1RM. These results indicate that undulating programs were more favorable for strength gains. Improvements in 1RM were greater among untrained participants. Additionally, higher training frequency and longer study length were associated with larger improvements in 1RM. These results suggest that periodized resistance training plans have a moderate effect on 1RM compared to non-periodized training plans. Variation in training stimuli

  20. Maximal power output during incremental exercise by resistance and endurance trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivelavan, D S; Sumathilatha, S

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the maximal power output by resistance trained and endurance trained athletes during incremental exercise. Thirty male athletes who received resistance training (Group I) and thirty male athletes of similar age group who received endurance training (Group II) for a period of more than 1 year were chosen for the study. Physical parameters were measured and exercise stress testing was done on a cycle ergometer with a portable gas analyzing system. The maximal progressive incremental cycle ergometer power output at peak exercise and carbon dioxide production at VO2max were measured. Highly significant (P biofeedback and perk up the athlete's performance.

  1. Concurrent speed endurance and resistance training improves performance, running economy and muscle NHE1 in moderately trained runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christensen, Peter Møller; Larsen, Sonni

    2014-01-01

    -week intervention period (INT) 21 male runners (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2-max): 59±1 mL/min/kg; mean ± SE) either maintained their training (CON, n=11) or performed high intensity concurrent training (HICT, n=12) consisting of two weekly sessions of SET followed by HRT and two weekly sessions......The purpose of this study was to examine whether speed endurance training (SET, repeated 30-s sprints) and heavy resistance training (HRT, 80-90% of 1 repetition maximum) performed in succession are compatible and leads to performance improvements in moderately trained endurance runners. For an 8...... of aerobic training with an average reduction in running distance of 42%. After 4-weeks of HICT, performance was improved (P

  2. Effects of arm training with the robotic device ARMin I in chronic stroke: three single cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nef, Tobias; Quinter, Gabriela; Müller, Roland; Riener, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Several clinical studies on chronic stroke conducted with end-effector-based robots showed improvement of the motor function in the affected arm. Compared to end-effector-based robots, exoskeleton robots provide improved guidance of the human limb and are better suited to train task-oriented movements with a large range of motions. To test whether intensive arm training with the arm exoskeleton ARMin I is feasible with chronic-stroke patients and whether it improves motor function in the paretic arm. Three single cases with chronic hemiparesis resulting from unilateral stroke (at least 14 months after stroke). A-B design with 2 weeks of multiple baseline measurements (A), 8 weeks of training (B) with repetitive measurements and a follow-up measurement 8 weeks after training. The training included shoulder and elbow movements with the robotic rehabilitation device ARMin I. Two subjects had three 1-hour sessions per week and 1 subject received five 1-hour sessions per week. The main outcome measurement was the upper-limb part of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA). The ARMin training was well tolerated by the patients, and the FMA showed moderate, but significant improvements for all 3 subjects (p arm exoskeleton is feasible with chronic-stroke patients. Moderate improvements were found in all 3 subjects, thus further clinical investigations are justified. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Gait Training in Chronic Stroke Using Walk-Even Feedback Device: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetrical gait and a reduction in weight bearing on the affected side are a common finding in chronic stroke survivors. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effectiveness of a shoe insole device that we developed, called Walk-Even, in correcting asymmetric gait in chronic stroke survivors. Six individuals with chronic (>6 months stroke underwent 8 weeks of intervention with 2 sessions/week, each consisting of 20 minutes of gait training and 20 minutes of lower-extremity strength training. The 2 control participants underwent conventional gait training, while 4 participants underwent gait training using the Walk-Even. Following intervention, all the participants improved on most of the gait measures: peak pressure of the foot, time of transfer of weight from heel-to-forefoot, center of pressure (COP trajectory, COP velocity, asymmetry ratio of stance, mean-force-heel, mean-force-metatarsals, Timed “Up and Go,” and Activities-specific Balance Scale. The improvement was more pronounced in the 4 participants that underwent training with Walk-Even compared to the control participants. This pilot study suggests that a combination of strength and gait training with real-time feedback may reduce temporal asymmetry and enhance weight-bearing on the affected side in chronic stroke survivors. A large randomized controlled study is needed to confirm its efficacy.

  4. Training contraceptive providers to offer intrauterine devices and implants in contraceptive care: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kirsten M J; Rocca, Corinne H; Stern, Lisa; Morfesis, Johanna; Goodman, Suzan; Steinauer, Jody; Harper, Cynthia C

    2018-03-23

    US unintended pregnancy rates remain high, and contraceptive providers are not universally trained to offer intrauterine devices and implants to women who wish to use these methods. We sought to measure the impact of a provider training intervention on integration of intrauterine devices and implants into contraceptive care. We measured the impact of a continuing medical education-accredited provider training intervention on provider attitudes, knowledge, and practices in a cluster randomized trial in 40 US health centers from 2011 through 2013. Twenty clinics were randomly assigned to the intervention arm; 20 offered routine care. Clinic staff participated in baseline and 1-year surveys assessing intrauterine device and implant knowledge, attitudes, and practices. We used a difference-in-differences approach to compare changes that occurred in the intervention sites to changes in the control sites 1 year later. Prespecified outcome measures included: knowledge of patient eligibility for intrauterine devices and implants; attitudes about method safety; and counseling practices. We used multivariable regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering by clinic to examine intervention effects on provider outcomes 1 year later. Overall, we surveyed 576 clinic staff (314 intervention, 262 control) at baseline and/or 1-year follow-up. The change in proportion of providers who believed that the intrauterine device was safe was greater in intervention (60% at baseline to 76% at follow-up) than control sites (66% at both times) (adjusted odds ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-5.4). Likewise, for the implant, the proportion increased from 57-77% in intervention, compared to 61-65% in control sites (adjusted odds ratio, 2.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-4.59). The proportion of providers who believed they were experienced to counsel on intrauterine devices also increased in intervention (53-67%) and remained the same in control sites (60

  5. Fully-depleted, back-illuminated charge-coupled devices fabricated on high-resistivity silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Stephen E.; Groom, Donald E.; Palaio, Nick P.; Stover, Richard J.; Wei, Mingzhi

    2002-03-28

    Charge-coupled devices (CCD's) have been fabricated on high-resistivity silicon. The resistivity, on the order of 10,000 {Omega}-cm, allows for depletion depths of several hundred microns. Fully-depleted, back-illuminated operation is achieved by the application of a bias voltage to a ohmic contact on the wafer back side consisting of a thin in-situ doped polycrystalline silicon layer capped by indium tin oxide and silicon dioxide. This thin contact allows for good short wavelength response, while the relatively large depleted thickness results in good near-infrared response.

  6. Resistance training for activity limitations in older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papa EV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evan V Papa,1 Xiaoyang Dong,2 Mahdi Hassan1 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Physical Therapy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA Abstract: Human aging results in a variety of changes to skeletal muscle. Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of muscle mass and is one of the main contributors to musculoskeletal impairments in the elderly. Previous research has demonstrated that resistance training can attenuate skeletal muscle function deficits in older adults, however few articles have focused on the effects of resistance training on functional mobility. The purpose of this systematic review was to 1 present the current state of literature regarding the effects of resistance training on functional mobility outcomes for older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits and 2 provide clinicians with practical guidelines that can be used with seniors during resistance training, or to encourage exercise. We set forth evidence that resistance training can attenuate age-related changes in functional mobility, including improvements in gait speed, static and dynamic balance, and fall risk reduction. Older adults should be encouraged to participate in progressive resistance training activities, and should be admonished to move along a continuum of exercise from immobility, toward the recommended daily amounts of activity. Keywords: aging, strength training, sarcopenia, mobility, balance

  7. A Scientific Rationale to Improve Resistance Training Prescription in Exercise Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairman, Ciaran M; Zourdos, Michael C; Helms, Eric R; Focht, Brian C

    2017-08-01

    To date, the prevailing evidence in the field of exercise oncology supports the safety and efficacy of resistance training to attenuate many oncology treatment-related adverse effects, such as risk for cardiovascular disease, increased fatigue, and diminished physical functioning and quality of life. Moreover, findings in the extant literature supporting the benefits of exercise for survivors of and patients with cancer have resulted in the release of exercise guidelines from several international agencies. However, despite research progression and international recognition, current exercise oncology-based exercise prescriptions remain relatively basic and underdeveloped, particularly in regards to resistance training. Recent publications have called for a more precise manipulation of training variables such as volume, intensity, and frequency (i.e., periodization), given the large heterogeneity of a cancer population, to truly optimize clinically relevant patient-reported outcomes. Indeed, increased attention to integrating fundamental principles of exercise physiology into the exercise prescription process could optimize the safety and efficacy of resistance training during cancer care. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the current state of resistance training prescription and discuss novel methods that can contribute to improving approaches to exercise prescription. We hope this article may facilitate further evaluation of best practice regarding resistance training prescription, monitoring, and modification to ultimately optimize the efficacy of integrating resistance training as a supportive care intervention for survivors or and patients with cancer.

  8. Resistance Training in Youth: Laying the Foundation for Injury Prevention and Physical Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolski, Christin; Quatman-Yates, Catherine; Paterno, Mark V

    The rising incidence of physical activity- and sports-related injuries has prompted the present-day investigation of resistance training as a potential means of injury prevention and physical literacy development among youth. Relevant studies on the topics of athlete development, physical literacy, resistance training, and injury prevention in children and adolescents were reviewed (PubMed and Sports Discus, 1982-2016). Recommendations from consensus guidelines and position statements applicable to resistance training and injury prevention in youth, in addition to young athlete development, were reviewed. Additionally, hand searches, expert requests, article reference lists, and gray literature were utilized and reviewed for pertinent content. Clinical review. Level 4. Youth throughout the physical activity spectrum are at risk for physical activity- and sports-related injury. Of highest priority are early specializers, physically inactive youth, and young girls, owing to increased injury rates. Resistance training among these at-risk populations has been shown to reduce injury risk by up to 68% and improve sports performance and health measures, in addition to accelerating the development of physical literacy. Recent recommendations, position statements, and national initiatives advocate for the incorporation of resistance training with qualified instruction among these groups. Resistance training in addition to free play and other structured physical activity training can serve as a protective means against injury and a positive catalyst for the development of physical literacy to offset the impact of diminishing physical activity and early sport specialization in today's youth.

  9. Effects of creatine supplementation along with resistance training on urinary formaldehyde and serum enzymes in wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Azadeh; Jafari, Afshar

    2016-04-01

    Formaldehyde is a cytotoxic agent produced from creatine through a metabolic pathway, and in this regard, it has been claimed that creatine supplementation could be cytotoxic. Even though the cytotoxic effects of creatine supplementation have been widely studied, yet little is known about how resistance training can alter these toxic effects. This study aimed to determine the effects of short-term creatine supplementation plus resistance training on the level of urinary formaldehyde and concentrations of serum enzymes in young male wrestlers. In a double-blind design twenty-one subjects were randomized into creatine supplementation (Cr), creatine supplementation plus resistance training (Cr + T) and placebo plus resistance training (Pl + T) groups. Participants ingested creatine (0.3 g/kg/day) or placebo for 7 days. The training protocol consisted of 3 sessions in one week, each session including three sets of 6-9 repetitions at 80-85% of one-repetition maximum for whole-body exercise. Urine and blood samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the supplementation. Creatine supplementation significantly increased the excretion rate of urinary formaldehyde in the Cr and Cr + T groups by 63.4% and 30.4%, respectively (P0.05). These findings indicate that resistance training may lower the increase of urinary formaldehyde excretion induced by creatine supplementation, suggesting that creatine consumption could be relatively less toxic when combined with resistance training.

  10. Does progressive resistance strength training as additional training have any measured effect on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Andersen, Christina W.; Pedersen, Sigrid F

    2014-01-01

    . PARTICIPANTS: A sample of 71 patients were successively included and randomized either to the treatment group (TG) (n = 36) or the control group (CG) (n = 35). Fifteen participants dropped out (TG n = 7; CG n = 8), leaving 56 participants with a mean age of 79 (SD 7). INTERVENTION: Participants...... = 0.05). Analysis by the mixed-effects model showed that the treatment group improved more than the control group in all outcome variables. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that for older hospitalized patients progressive resistance strength training as additional training may have an effect compared......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of progressive resistance strength training as additional training measured on functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients. DESIGN: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Department of Geriatric Rehabilitation in university hospital...

  11. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance

    OpenAIRE

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, J?ssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12?weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60?75?years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n?=?15) or power training group (PT; n?=?15). Participants trained twice a week for 12?weeks using six exercises...

  12. Differences in Muscle Activity During Cable Resistance Training Are Influenced by Variations in Handle Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendos, Nicole K; Heredia Vargas, Héctor M; Alipio, Taislaine C; Regis, Rebeca C; Romero, Matthew A; Signorile, Joseph F

    2016-07-01

    Rendos, NK, Heredia Vargas, HM, Alipio, TC, Regis, RC, Romero, MA, and Signorile, JF. Differences in muscle activity during cable resistance training are influenced by variations in handle types. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 2001-2009, 2016-There has been a recent resurgence in the use of cable machines for resistance training allowing movements that more effectively simulate daily activities and sports-specific movements. By necessity, these devices require a machine/human interface through some type of handle. Considerable data from material handling, industrial engineering, and exercise training studies indicate that handle qualities, especially size and shape, can significantly influence force production and muscular activity, particularly of the forearm muscles, which affect the critical link in activities that require object manipulation. The purpose for this study was to examine the influence of three different handle conditions: standard handle (StandH), ball handle with the cable between the index and middle fingers (BallIM), and ball handle with the cable between the middle and ring fingers (BallMR), on activity levels (rmsEMG) of the triceps brachii lateral and long heads (TriHLat, TriHLong), brachioradialis (BR), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), extensor carpi ulnaris, and extensor digitorum (ED) during eight repetitions of standing triceps pushdown performed from 90° to 0° elbow flexion at 1.5 s per contractile stage. Handle order was randomized. No significant differences were seen for triceps or BR rmsEMG across handle conditions; however, relative patterns of activation did vary for the forearm muscles by handle condition, with more coordinated activation levels for the FCR and ED during the ball handle conditions. In addition, the rmsEMG for the ED was significantly higher during the BallIM than any other condition and during the BallMR than the StandH. These results indicate that the use of ball handles with the cable passing between different fingers

  13. Medical devices; immunology and microbiology devices; classification of nucleic acid-based devices for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and the genetic mutations associated with antibiotic resistance. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-22

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying nucleic acid-based in vitro diagnostic devices for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB-complex) and the genetic mutations associated with MTB-complex antibiotic resistance in respiratory specimens devices into class II (special controls). The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) because special controls, in addition to general controls, will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  14. Computer model of copper resistivity will improve the efficiency of field-compression devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    By detonating a ring of high explosive around an existing magnetic field, we can, under certain conditions, compress the field and multiply its strength tremendously. In this way, we can duplicate for a fraction of a second the extreme pressures that normally exist only in the interior of stars and planets. Under such pressures, materials may exhibit behavior that will confirm or alter current notions about the fundamental structure of matter and the ongoing processes in planetary interiors. However, we cannot design an efficient field-compression device unless we can calculate the electrical resistivity of certain basic metal components, which interact with the field. To aid in the design effort, we have developed a computer code that calculates the resistivity of copper and other metals over the wide range of temperatures and pressures found in a field-compression device

  15. Interference between concurrent resistance and endurance exercise: molecular bases and the role of individual training variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Bishop, David J; Stepto, Nigel K

    2014-06-01

    Concurrent training is defined as simultaneously incorporating both resistance and endurance exercise within a periodized training regime. Despite the potential additive benefits of combining these divergent exercise modes with regards to disease prevention and athletic performance, current evidence suggests that this approach may attenuate gains in muscle mass, strength, and power compared with undertaking resistance training alone. This has been variously described as the interference effect or concurrent training effect. In recent years, understanding of the molecular mechanisms mediating training adaptation in skeletal muscle has emerged and provided potential mechanistic insight into the concurrent training effect. Although it appears that various molecular signaling responses induced in skeletal muscle by endurance exercise can inhibit pathways regulating protein synthesis and stimulate protein breakdown, human studies to date have not observed such molecular 'interference' following acute concurrent exercise that might explain compromised muscle hypertrophy following concurrent training. However, given the multitude of potential concurrent training variables and the limitations of existing evidence, the potential roles of individual training variables in acute and chronic interference are not fully elucidated. The present review explores current evidence for the molecular basis of the specificity of training adaptation and the concurrent interference phenomenon. Additionally, insights provided by molecular and performance-based concurrent training studies regarding the role of individual training variables (i.e., within-session exercise order, between-mode recovery, endurance training volume, intensity, and modality) in the concurrent interference effect are discussed, along with the limitations of our current understanding of this complex paradigm.

  16. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mostarda, Cristiano [Departamento de Educação Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão (UFMA), São Luís, MA (Brazil); Figueroa, Diego Mendrot [Laboratório de Hipertensão Experimental, Instituto do Coração (InCor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Angelis, Kátia De [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Universidade Nove de Julho (Uninove), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia [Laboratório de Hipertensão Experimental, Instituto do Coração (InCor), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rodrigues, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.rodrigues@incor.usp.br [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats.

  17. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Figueiredo Grans

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. Objective: To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week. At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. Results: The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32% and trained infarcted (+46% in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%, myocardial performance index (-39% and systolic blood pressure (+6% improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%, as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46% in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Conclusion: Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats.

  18. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins; Mostarda, Cristiano; Figueroa, Diego Mendrot; Angelis, Kátia De; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Background Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. Objective To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. Results The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Conclusion Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats. PMID:25014059

  19. Resistance Training After Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Its Role on Cardiac and Autonomic Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins; Mostarda, Cristiano; Figueroa, Diego Mendrot; Angelis, Kátia De; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats

  20. Resistance training after myocardial infarction in rats: its role on cardiac and autonomic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins; Mostarda, Cristiano; Figueroa, Diego Mendrot; Angelis, Kátia De; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-07-01

    Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats.

  1. Exploratory Application of Augmented Reality/Mixed Reality Devices for Acute Care Procedure Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Leo; Zhang, Xiao Chi; Collins, Scott A.; Karim, Naz; Merck, Derek L.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Augmented reality (AR), mixed reality (MR), and virtual reality devices are enabling technologies that may facilitate effective communication in healthcare between those with information and knowledge (clinician/specialist; expert; educator) and those seeking understanding and insight (patient/family; non-expert; learner). Investigators initiated an exploratory program to enable the study of AR/MR use-cases in acute care clinical and instructional settings. Methods Academic clinician educators, computer scientists, and diagnostic imaging specialists conducted a proof-of-concept project to 1) implement a core holoimaging pipeline infrastructure and open-access repository at the study institution, and 2) use novel AR/MR techniques on off-the-shelf devices with holoimages generated by the infrastructure to demonstrate their potential role in the instructive communication of complex medical information. Results The study team successfully developed a medical holoimaging infrastructure methodology to identify, retrieve, and manipulate real patients’ de-identified computed tomography and magnetic resonance imagesets for rendering, packaging, transfer, and display of modular holoimages onto AR/MR headset devices and connected displays. Holoimages containing key segmentations of cervical and thoracic anatomic structures and pathology were overlaid and registered onto physical task trainers for simulation-based “blind insertion” invasive procedural training. During the session, learners experienced and used task-relevant anatomic holoimages for central venous catheter and tube thoracostomy insertion training with enhanced visual cues and haptic feedback. Direct instructor access into the learner’s AR/MR headset view of the task trainer was achieved for visual-axis interactive instructional guidance. Conclusion Investigators implemented a core holoimaging pipeline infrastructure and modular open-access repository to generate and enable access to modular

  2. Exploratory Application of Augmented Reality/Mixed Reality Devices for Acute Care Procedure Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Kobayashi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Augmented reality (AR, mixed reality (MR, and virtual reality devices are enabling technologies that may facilitate effective communication in healthcare between those with information and knowledge (clinician/specialist; expert; educator and those seeking understanding and insight (patient/family; non-expert; learner. Investigators initiated an exploratory program to enable the study of AR/MR use-cases in acute care clinical and instructional settings. Methods Academic clinician educators, computer scientists, and diagnostic imaging specialists conducted a proof-of-concept project to 1 implement a core holoimaging pipeline infrastructure and open-access repository at the study institution, and 2 use novel AR/MR techniques on off-the-shelf devices with holoimages generated by the infrastructure to demonstrate their potential role in the instructive communication of complex medical information. Results The study team successfully developed a medical holoimaging infrastructure methodology to identify, retrieve, and manipulate real patients’ de-identified computed tomography and magnetic resonance imagesets for rendering, packaging, transfer, and display of modular holoimages onto AR/MR headset devices and connected displays. Holoimages containing key segmentations of cervical and thoracic anatomic structures and pathology were overlaid and registered onto physical task trainers for simulation-based “blind insertion” invasive procedural training. During the session, learners experienced and used task-relevant anatomic holoimages for central venous catheter and tube thoracostomy insertion training with enhanced visual cues and haptic feedback. Direct instructor access into the learner’s AR/MR headset view of the task trainer was achieved for visual-axis interactive instructional guidance. Conclusion Investigators implemented a core holoimaging pipeline infrastructure and modular open-access repository to generate and enable

  3. Exploratory Application of Augmented Reality/Mixed Reality Devices for Acute Care Procedure Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Leo; Zhang, Xiao Chi; Collins, Scott A; Karim, Naz; Merck, Derek L

    2018-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR), mixed reality (MR), and virtual reality devices are enabling technologies that may facilitate effective communication in healthcare between those with information and knowledge (clinician/specialist; expert; educator) and those seeking understanding and insight (patient/family; non-expert; learner). Investigators initiated an exploratory program to enable the study of AR/MR use-cases in acute care clinical and instructional settings. Academic clinician educators, computer scientists, and diagnostic imaging specialists conducted a proof-of-concept project to 1) implement a core holoimaging pipeline infrastructure and open-access repository at the study institution, and 2) use novel AR/MR techniques on off-the-shelf devices with holoimages generated by the infrastructure to demonstrate their potential role in the instructive communication of complex medical information. The study team successfully developed a medical holoimaging infrastructure methodology to identify, retrieve, and manipulate real patients' de-identified computed tomography and magnetic resonance imagesets for rendering, packaging, transfer, and display of modular holoimages onto AR/MR headset devices and connected displays. Holoimages containing key segmentations of cervical and thoracic anatomic structures and pathology were overlaid and registered onto physical task trainers for simulation-based "blind insertion" invasive procedural training. During the session, learners experienced and used task-relevant anatomic holoimages for central venous catheter and tube thoracostomy insertion training with enhanced visual cues and haptic feedback. Direct instructor access into the learner's AR/MR headset view of the task trainer was achieved for visual-axis interactive instructional guidance. Investigators implemented a core holoimaging pipeline infrastructure and modular open-access repository to generate and enable access to modular holoimages during exploratory pilot stage

  4. Effects of fast-velocity eccentric resistance training on early and late rate of force development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Corvino, Rogério Bulhões; Caputo, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    assigned to two experimental groups: eccentric resistance training (TG) or control (CG). Participants on the TG trained three days a week for a total of eight weeks. Training consisted of maximal unilateral eccentric knee extensors actions performed at 180°s-1. Maximal isometric knee extensor torque (MVC......, no changes in the late phase of incremental RFD were observed in TG. No changes were found in the CG. In summary, we have demonstrated, in active individuals, that a short period of resistance training performed with eccentric fast-velocity isokinetic muscle contractions is able to enhance RFDINC and RFDREL......This study examined whether short-term maximal resistance training employing fast-velocity eccentric knee extensor actions would induce improvements in maximal isometric torque and rate of force development (RFD) at early (100 ms) of rising torque. Twenty healthy men were...

  5. Fibril morphology and tendon mechanical properties in patellar tendinopathy: effects of heavy slow resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsgaard, Mads; Qvortrup, Klaus; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patellar tendinopathy is characterized by pathologic abnormalities. Heavy slow resistance training (HSR) is effective in the management of patellar tendinopathy, but the underlying functional mechanisms remain elusive. PURPOSE: To investigate fibril morphology and mechanical properties...... area. Heavy slow resistance training improved the clinical outcome of patellar tendinopathy, and these improvements were associated with normalization of fibril morphology, most likely due to a production of new fibrils....

  6. Shoulder Muscle Activation of Novice and Resistance Trained Women during Variations of Dumbbell Press Exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Luczak, Joshua; Bosak, Andy; Riemann, Bryan L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has compared the effects of trunk inclination angle on muscle activation using barbells and Smith machines in men. Whether similar effects occur with the use of dumbbells or in women remains unknown. The purpose was to compare upper extremity surface electromyographical (EMG) activity between dumbbell bench, incline, and shoulder presses. Dominate arm EMG data were recorded for collegiate-aged female resistance trained individuals (n = 12) and novice female resistance traine...

  7. Structural remodeling of coronary resistance arteries: effects of age and exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Mina A; Taylor, Curtis R; Chen, Bei; La, Hae-Sun; Maraj, Joshua J; Kilar, Cody R; Behnke, Bradley J; Delp, Michael D; Muller-Delp, Judy M

    2014-09-15

    Age is known to induce remodeling and stiffening of large-conduit arteries; however, little is known of the effects of age on remodeling and mechanical properties of coronary resistance arteries. We employed a rat model of aging to investigate whether 1) age increases wall thickness and stiffness of coronary resistance arteries, and 2) exercise training reverses putative age-induced increases in wall thickness and stiffness of coronary resistance arteries. Young (4 mo) and old (21 mo) Fischer 344 rats remained sedentary or underwent 10 wk of treadmill exercise training. Coronary resistance arteries were isolated for determination of wall-to-lumen ratio, effective elastic modulus, and active and passive responses to changes in intraluminal pressure. Elastin and collagen content of the vascular wall were assessed histologically. Wall-to-lumen ratio increased with age, but this increase was reversed by exercise training. In contrast, age reduced stiffness, and exercise training increased stiffness in coronary resistance arteries from old rats. Myogenic responsiveness was reduced with age and restored by exercise training. Collagen-to-elastin ratio (C/E) of the wall did not change with age and was reduced with exercise training in arteries from old rats. Thus age induces hypertrophic remodeling of the vessel wall and reduces the stiffness and myogenic function of coronary resistance arteries. Exercise training reduces wall-to-lumen ratio, increases wall stiffness, and restores myogenic function in aged coronary resistance arteries. The restorative effect of exercise training on myogenic function of coronary resistance arteries may be due to both changes in vascular smooth muscle phenotype and expression of extracellular matrix proteins. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Coupling Resistive Switching Devices with Neurons: State of the Art and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiolerio, Alessandro; Chiappalone, Michela; Ariano, Paolo; Bocchini, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Here we provide the state-of-the-art of bioelectronic interfacing between biological neuronal systems and artificial components, focusing the attention on the potentiality offered by intrinsically neuromorphic synthetic devices based on Resistive Switching (RS). Neuromorphic engineering is outside the scopes of this Perspective. Instead, our focus is on those materials and devices featuring genuine physical effects that could be sought as non-linearity, plasticity, excitation, and extinction which could be directly and more naturally coupled with living biological systems. In view of important applications, such as prosthetics and future life augmentation, a cybernetic parallelism is traced, between biological and artificial systems. We will discuss how such intrinsic features could reduce the complexity of conditioning networks for a more natural direct connection between biological and synthetic worlds. Putting together living systems with RS devices could represent a feasible though innovative perspective for the future of bionics.

  9. The influence of resistance training on the critical power function & time to fatigue at critical power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D; Jenkins, D G

    1996-12-01

    The present study examined whether a six-week resistance training program would influence the critical power (CP) function, time to exhaustion (TE) at CP and/or peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak). The CP function is believed to provide an index of endurance ability (CP given by the slope), and anaerobic work capacity (the y-intercept). Eight healthy, untrained males undertook lower-body resistance training (90 min/day, 3-4 times/wk) for six weeks; eight controls refrained from resistance or endurance training for the same period. Before and immediately following the training period, subjects completed three trials to determine their CP function, a test of VO2 peak, a one-repetition maximum (1-RM) leg press test and TE at their CP. Training significantly increased both 1-RM leg press (28.6%, P 0.05) were found. Changes in the y-intercept following resistance training were negatively correlated with changes in the CP (r = -0.94, p < 0.05, N = 8). The present data show that the y-intercept of the CP function is sensitive to, and modified by, six weeks of resistance training. Given that resistance training had no significant influence on CP, TE at CP or VO2 peak, the present study has also shown that six weeks of resistance training will not alter indices of endurance ability. The negative relationship between changes in the y-intercept and CP exposes a potential limitation of the linear CP function when evaluating changes in endurance ability following an intervention which significantly alters the y-intercept.

  10. Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation Causes Cardiac Dysfunction and the Impairment Is Attenuated by Resistance Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Quaglia de Campos Giampá

    Full Text Available Paradoxical sleep deprivation activates the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, subsequently interfering with the cardiovascular system. The beneficial effects of resistance training are related to hemodynamic, metabolic and hormonal homeostasis. We hypothesized that resistance training can prevent the cardiac remodeling and dysfunction caused by paradoxical sleep deprivation.Male Wistar rats were distributed into four groups: control (C, resistance training (RT, paradoxical sleep deprivation for 96 hours (PSD96 and both resistance training and sleep deprivation (RT/PSD96. Doppler echocardiograms, hemodynamics measurements, cardiac histomorphometry, hormonal profile and molecular analysis were evaluated.Compared to the C group, PSD96 group had a higher left ventricular systolic pressure, heart rate and left atrium index. In contrast, the left ventricle systolic area and the left ventricle cavity diameter were reduced in the PSD96 group. Hypertrophy and fibrosis were also observed. Along with these alterations, reduced levels of serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, as well as increased corticosterone and angiotensin II, were observed in the PSD96 group. Prophylactic resistance training attenuated most of these changes, except angiotensin II, fibrosis, heart rate and concentric remodeling of left ventricle, confirmed by the increased of NFATc3 and GATA-4, proteins involved in the pathologic cardiac hypertrophy pathway.Resistance training effectively attenuates cardiac dysfunction and hormonal imbalance induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation.

  11. Whole-body vibration augments resistance training effects on body composition in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeldstad, Cecilie; Palmer, Ian J; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A

    2009-05-20

    Age-related changes in body composition are well-documented with a decrease in lean body mass and a redistribution of body fat generally observed. Resistance training alone has been shown to have positive effects on body composition, however, these benefits may be enhanced by the addition of a vibration stimulus. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 8 months of resistance training with and without whole-body vibration (WBV) on body composition in sedentary postmenopausal women. Fifty-five women were assigned to resistance only (RG, n=22), vibration plus resistance (VR, n=21) or non-exercising control (CG, n=12) groups. Resistance training (3 sets 10 repetitions 80% strength) was performed using isotonic weight training equipment and whole-body vibration was done with the use of the power plate (Northbrooke, IL) vibration platform for three times per week for 8 months. Total and regional body composition was assessed from the total body DXA scans at baseline (pre) and after 8 months (post) of training. In the VR group, total % body fat decreased from pre- to post-time points (pbody fat (ptraining groups exhibited significant increases in bone free lean tissue mass for the total body, arm and trunk regions from pre to post (ptraining alone and with whole-body vibration resulted in positive body composition changes by increasing lean tissue. However, only the combination of resistance training and whole-body vibration was effective for decreasing percent body fat.

  12. Combining the Converse Humidity/Resistance Response Behaviors of RGO Films for Flexible Logic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2017-03-23

    Carbon nanomaterials have excellent humidity sensing performance. Here, we demonstrate that reduced-graphene-oxide- (rGO) based conductive films with different thermal reduction times have gradient and invertible humidity/electrical resistance responses: rGO films (< 11 h, negative response, regarded as a signal of “0”), rGO films (around 11-13 h, balance point) and rGO films (> 13 h, negative response, regarded as a signal of “1”). We propose a new mechanism that describes a “scale”-like model for rGO films to explain these behaviors based on contributions from Ohm-contact resistance and capacitive reactance at interplate junctions, and intrinsic resistances of the nanoplates, respectively. This mechanism is accordingly validated via a series of experiments and electrical impedance spectroscopies, which complement more classical models based on proton conductivity. To explore the practical applications of the converse humidity/resistance responses, three simple flexible logic devices were developed, i) a rGO pattern for humidity-insensitive conductive film, which has the potential to greatly improve the stability of carbon-based electrical device to humidity; ii) a Janus pattern of rGO films for gesture recognition, which is very useful to human/machine interactions; iii) a sandwich pattern of rGO films for 3-dimensional (3D) noncontact sensing, which will be complementary to existing 3D touch technique.

  13. Resistance training among young athletes: safety, efficacy and injury prevention effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, A D; Myer, G D

    2012-01-01

    A literature review was employed to evaluate the current epidemiology of injury related to the safety and efficacy of youth resistance training. Several case study reports and retrospective questionnaires regarding resistance exercise and the competitive sports of weightlifting and power-lifting reveal that injuries have occurred in young lifters, although a majority can be classified as accidental. Lack of qualified instruction that underlies poor exercise technique and inappropriate training loads could explain, at least partly, some of the reported injuries. Current research indicates that resistance training can be a safe, effective and worthwhile activity for children and adolescents provided that qualified professionals supervise all training sessions and provide age-appropriate instruction on proper lifting procedures and safe training guidelines. Regular participation in a multifaceted resistance training programme that begins during the preseason and includes instruction on movement biomechanics may reduce the risk of sports-related injuries in young athletes. Strategies for enhancing the safety of youth resistance training are discussed. PMID:19945973

  14. The effects of resistance training on functional outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panton, Lynn B; Golden, Jamie; Broeder, Craig E; Browder, Kathy D; Cestaro-Seifer, Deborah J; Seifer, Frederic D

    2004-04-01

    Aerobic exercise training is used for rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although it has little effect on muscle weakness and atrophy. Resistance training may be a useful addition to aerobic programs for these patients. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of resistance training in addition to aerobic training on functional outcomes in patients with COPD. Seventeen COPD patients enrolled in an aerobic-based program that met twice a week were assigned to a 12-week control/aerobic [CON: n=8; 63 (8) years; mean (SD)] or a resistance/aerobic group [RES: n=9; 61 (7) years]. RES trained an additional twice a week on 12 resistance machines, performing three sets of 8-12 repetitions at 32-64% of their one-repetition maximum (1-RM) lifts. RES (P<0.05) increased upper (36%) and lower (36%) body strength, as well as lean body mass (5%), while CON showed little to no change. The 12-min walk distance increased (P<0.05) in only the RES [676 (219) to 875 (172) m]. Measurements of three of the eight tasks of activities of daily living improved in RES (P<0.05) compared to CON. This study demonstrated that progressive resistance training was well tolerated and improved functional outcomes in COPD patients that were currently involved in an aerobic training program.

  15. Freestanding, heat resistant microporous film for use in energy storage devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekala, Richard W.; Cherukupalli, Srinivas; Waterhouse, Robert R.

    2018-02-20

    Preferred embodiments of a freestanding, heat resistant microporous polymer film (10) constructed for use in an energy storage device (70, 100) implements one or more of the following approaches to exhibit excellent high temperature mechanical and dimensional stability: incorporation into a porous polyolefin film of sufficiently high loading levels of inorganic or ceramic filler material (16) to maintain porosity (18) and achieve low thermal shrinkage; use of crosslinkable polyethylene to contribute to crosslinking the polymer matrix (14) in a highly inorganic material-filled polyolefin film; and heat treating or annealing of biaxially oriented, highly inorganic material-filled polyolefin film above the melting point temperature of the polymer matrix to reduce residual stress while maintaining high porosity. The freestanding, heat resistant microporous polymer film embodiments exhibit extremely low resistance, as evidenced by MacMullin numbers of less than 4.5.

  16. Conducting mechanism of Ag-diffused Bi-Te based resistive switching devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, N.; Yan, P.; Li, Y.; Lu, K.; Sun, H. J.; Ji, H. K.; Xue, K. H.; Miao, X. S.

    2018-02-01

    The forming-free resistive switching (RS) and conducting mechanism of Ag-diffused BiTe chalcogenide thin film has been investigated. The mutual diffusion of Ag, Bi and Te elements at the interface is proved to suppress the crystallization of the as-deposited BiTe film. The amorphization of BiTe and the Schottky barrier between Ag and BiTe contribute to high resistance state (HRS) of the switching devices. When switched to low resistance state (LRS), the coexistence of metallic conduction and variable-range hopping is found to be the dominant conduction mechanism. The temperature dependence of LRS exhibits an interesting transport behavior, so that a positive temperature coefficient becomes a negative one at 24 K. Our results help to further understand the conduction mechanism and promote the design for future nonvolatile memory applications.

  17. Resistance training status and effectiveness of low frequency resistance training on upper-body strength and power in highly trained soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Maxime; Rumpf, Michael Clemens; Hader, Karim

    2017-08-26

    Soccer is classified as a contact/collision sport with many player-to-player duels. Winning these duels, shielding the ball or fending off an opponent requires upper-body strength and power. Therefore this study aimed, a) to examine the time-related effect of an upper-body RT on maximal strength and power changes in highly trained soccer players, b) to investigate if the resistance-training (RT) status influences these changes throughout a competitive season. Twenty-eight soccer players participated in this study and were divided into an untrained (UG) and a trained (TG) group, according to their RT status. Both groups performed the same upper-body RT once a week, over 30 weeks. Maximal strength (1RM) and maximal power (MP) were assessed before, during and after the competitive season. Both groups significantly improved 1RM and MP over the entire competitive season, with a moderate (TG, 13%) to very large (UG, 21%) magnitude in 1RM and with a small (TG, 8%) to moderate (UG, 13%) magnitude in MP. After the initial 10 weeks of RT, UG presented significant and slightly (1RM) to moderately (MP) greater improvements than TG. For all other time intervals, the between-groups changes in 1RM were rated as similar. For the last 20 weeks of the RT, the change in MP was significantly lower for UG compared to TG. One upper-body RT-session per week will provide sufficient stimulus to enable an almost certain improvement in strength and power throughout a competitive season for all players disregarding their initial RT status.

  18. Swiss ball abdominal crunch with added elastic resistance is an effective alternative to training machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2012-01-01

    to induce high level of muscle activation. PURPOSE: To compare muscle activation as measured by electromyography (EMG) of global core and thigh muscles during abdominal crunches performed on Swiss ball with elastic resistance or on an isotonic training machine when normalized for training intensity. METHODS......BACKGROUND: Swiss ball training is recommended as a low intensity modality to improve joint position, posture, balance, and neural feedback. However, proper training intensity is difficult to obtain during Swiss ball exercises whereas strengthening exercises on machines usually are performed......: 42 untrained individuals (18 men and 24 women) aged 28-67 years participated in the study. EMG activity was measured in 13 muscles during 3 repetitions with a 10 RM load during both abdominal crunches on training ball with elastic resistance and in the same movement utilizing a training machine...

  19. A Quantitative Analysis of the Effect of Resistance Training on Strength Test Score Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-02

    strength development and steroid hormone responses to heavy-resistance training. J Appl Physiol, 76, 663-670. *Hoffman, J. R., Klafeld, S., & 1998...Painter, T. L., & Wilmore, J. H. (1992). Alternation in concentric strength consequent to powercise and universal gym circuit training. J Appl Sprts

  20. Exercise in myasthenia gravis: A feasibility study of aerobic and resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Martin Amadeus; Mikkelsen, Erik Elgaard; Overgaard, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: It has not been established whether progressive resistance training (PRT) and aerobic training (AT) are feasible and efficient in myasthenia gravis (MG). Methods: Fifteen subjects with generalized MG (Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) clinical classification II-IV) were...

  1. Developing Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) for Parents of Treatment-Resistant Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Versek, Brian; Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Meyers, Kathleen; Benishek, Lois A.; Bresani, Elena; Washio, Yukiko; Arria, Amelia; Meyers, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a project focused on training parents to facilitate their treatment-resistant adolescent's treatment entry and to manage their child after entry into community-based treatment. Controlled studies show that Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) is a unilateral treatment that fosters treatment entry of adults; however,…

  2. Effects of aerobic and/or resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight or obese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, Leslie H.; Slentz, Cris A.; Bateman, Lori A.; Shields, A. Tamlyn; Piner, Lucy W.; Bales, Connie W.; Houmard, Joseph A.; Kraus, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent guidelines on exercise for weight loss and weight maintenance include resistance training as part of the exercise prescription. Yet few studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of aerobic and resistance training on body mass and fat mass in overweight adults. STRRIDE AT/RT, a randomized trial, compared aerobic training, resistance training, and a combination of the two to determine the optimal mode of exercise for obesity reduction. Participants were 119 sedentary, overweig...

  3. acute and session rPe responses during resistance training: Bouts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resistance exercises protocols on B-endorphin concentrations. J Appl. Physiol 1993;74:450-459. 19. Wade G. Tests and measurments. Meeting the standards of professional football. NSCA J 1982;4(3):23. 20. Singh F, Foster C, David T, McGuigan M. Monitoring different types of resistance training using session rating of ...

  4. Mixed-Methods Resistance Training Increases Power and Strength of Young and Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert U.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Hakkinen, Arja; McCormick, Matt; Volek, Jeff; Kraemer, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week, mixed-methods resistance training program on young and older men. Although results confirmed some age-related reductions in muscle strength and power, the older men demonstrated similar capacity to the younger men for increases in muscle strength and power via an appropriate, periodized resistance training…

  5. Resistive switching characteristics of polymer non-volatile memory devices in a scalable via-hole structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Choi, Hyejung; Oh, Seung-Hwan; Jo, Minseok; Wang, Gunuk; Cho, Byungjin; Kim, Dong-Yu; Hwang, Hyunsang; Lee, Takhee

    2009-01-14

    The resistive switching characteristics of polyfluorene-derivative polymer material in a sub-micron scale via-hole device structure were investigated. The scalable via-hole sub-microstructure was fabricated using an e-beam lithographic technique. The polymer non-volatile memory devices varied in size from 40 x 40 microm(2) to 200 x 200 nm(2). From the scaling of junction size, the memory mechanism can be attributed to the space-charge-limited current with filamentary conduction. Sub-micron scale polymer memory devices showed excellent resistive switching behaviours such as a large ON/OFF ratio (I(ON)/I(OFF) approximately 10(4)), excellent device-to-device switching uniformity, good sweep endurance, and good retention times (more than 10,000 s). The successful operation of sub-micron scale memory devices of our polyfluorene-derivative polymer shows promise to fabricate high-density polymer memory devices.

  6. Resistive switching characteristics of polymer non-volatile memory devices in a scalable via-hole structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Choi, Hyejung; Oh, Seung-Hwan; Jo, Minseok; Wang, Gunuk; Cho, Byungjin; Kim, Dong-Yu; Hwang, Hyunsang; Lee, Takhee

    2009-01-01

    The resistive switching characteristics of polyfluorene-derivative polymer material in a sub-micron scale via-hole device structure were investigated. The scalable via-hole sub-microstructure was fabricated using an e-beam lithographic technique. The polymer non-volatile memory devices varied in size from 40 x 40 μm 2 to 200 x 200 nm 2 . From the scaling of junction size, the memory mechanism can be attributed to the space-charge-limited current with filamentary conduction. Sub-micron scale polymer memory devices showed excellent resistive switching behaviours such as a large ON/OFF ratio (I ON /I OFF ∼10 4 ), excellent device-to-device switching uniformity, good sweep endurance, and good retention times (more than 10 000 s). The successful operation of sub-micron scale memory devices of our polyfluorene-derivative polymer shows promise to fabricate high-density polymer memory devices.

  7. Reduced susceptibility to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage in resistance-trained men is not linked to resistance training-related neural adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Ye

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of maximal concentric vs. eccentric exercise on the isometric strength of the elbow flexor, as well as the biceps brachii muscle electromyographic (EMG responses in resistance-trained (RT vs. untrained (UT men. Thirteen RT men (age: 24 ± 4 years; height: 180.2 ± 7.7 cm; body weight: 92.2 ± 16.9 kg and twelve UT men (age: 23 ± 4 years; height: 179.2 ± 5.0 cm; body weight: 81.5 ± 8.6 kg performed six sets of ten maximal concentric isokinetic (CON or eccentric isokinetic (ECC elbow flexion exercise in two separate visits. Before and after the exercise interventions, maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs were performed for testing isometric strength. In addition, bipolar surface EMG signals were detected from the biceps brachii muscle during the strength testing. Both CON and ECC caused isometric strength to decrease, regardless of the training status. However, ECC caused greater isometric strength decline than CON did for the UT group (p = 0.006, but not for the RT group. Both EMG amplitude and mean frequency significantly decreased and increased, respectively, regardless of the training status and exercise intervention. Resistance-trained men are less susceptible to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage, but this advantage is not likely linked to the chronic resistance training-induced neural adaptations.

  8. OBESITY-RELATED CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS AFTER LONG- TERM RESISTANCE TRAINING AND GINGER SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvan Atashak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and its metabolic consequences are major risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, lifestyle interventions, including exercise training and dietary components may decrease cardiovascular risk. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger supplementation and progressive resistance training on some cardiovascular risk factors in obese men. In a randomized double-blind design, 32 obese Iranian men (BMI > 30 were assigned in to one of four groups: Placebo (PL, n = 8; ginger group (GI, n = 8 that consumed 1 gr ginger/d for 10 wk; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL, n = 8; and 1gr ginger plus resistance exercise (RTGI, n = 8. Progressive resistance training was performed three days per week for 10 weeks and included eight exercises. At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition and anthropometric indices were measured. To identify other risk factors, venous blood samples were obtained before and 48-72 hours after the last training session for measurement of blood lipids (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, systemic inflammation (CRP, and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. After 10 weeks both RTGI and RTPL groups showed significant decreases in waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, body fat percent, body fat mass, total cholesterol, and insulin resistance (p < 0.05 and a significant increase in fat free mass (FFM (p < 0.05, while it remained unchanged in PL and GI. Further, significant decreases in the mean values of CRP were observed in all groups except PL (p < 0.05. Our results reveal that resistance training is an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk in obese Iranian men. Further, ginger supplementation alone or in combination with resistance training, also reduces chronic inflammation. However more research on the efficacy of this supplement to reduce cardiovascular risk in humans is required.

  9. Resistive switching effect of N-doped MoS2-PVP nanocomposites films for nonvolatile memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zijin; Wang, Tongtong; Sun, Changqi; Liu, Peitao; Xia, Baorui; Zhang, Jingyan; Liu, Yonggang; Gao, Daqiang

    2017-12-01

    Resistive memory technology is very promising in the field of semiconductor memory devices. According to Liu et al, MoS2-PVP nanocomposite can be used as an active layer material for resistive memory devices due to its bipolar resistive switching behavior. Recent studies have also indicated that the doping of N element can reduce the band gap of MoS2 nanosheets, which is conducive to improving the conductivity of the material. Therefore, in this paper, we prepared N-doped MoS2 nanosheets and then fabricated N-doped MoS2-PVP nanocomposite films by spin coating. Finally, the resistive memory [C. Tan et al., Chem. Soc. Rev. 44, 2615 (2015)], device with ITO/N-doped MoS2-PVP/Pt structure was fabricated. Study on the I-V characteristics shows that the device has excellent resistance switching effect. It is worth mentioning that our device possesses a threshold voltage of 0.75 V, which is much better than 3.5 V reported previously for the undoped counterparts. The above research shows that N-doped MoS2-PVP nanocomposite films can be used as the active layer of resistive switching memory devices, and will make the devices have better performance.

  10. Interfacial behavior of resistive switching in ITO–PVK–Al WORM memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitcher, T J; Woon, K L; Wong, W S; Chanlek, N; Nakajima, H; Saisopa, T; Songsiriritthigul, P

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of resistive switching in a memory device is fundamental in order to improve device performance. The mechanism of current switching in a basic organic write-once read-many (WORM) memory device is investigated by determining the energy level alignments of indium tin oxide (ITO), poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and aluminum (Al) using x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, current–voltage characterization and Auger depth profiling. The current switching mechanism was determined to be controlled by the interface between the ITO and the PVK. The electric field applied across the device causes the ITO from the uneven surface of the anode to form metallic filaments through the PVK, causing a shorting effect within the device leading to increased conduction. This was found to be independent of the PVK thickness, although the switch-on voltage was non-linearly dependent on the thickness. The formation of these filaments also caused the destruction of the interfacial dipole at the PVK–Al interface. (paper)

  11. Interfacial behavior of resistive switching in ITO-PVK-Al WORM memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcher, T. J.; Woon, K. L.; Wong, W. S.; Chanlek, N.; Nakajima, H.; Saisopa, T.; Songsiriritthigul, P.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the mechanism of resistive switching in a memory device is fundamental in order to improve device performance. The mechanism of current switching in a basic organic write-once read-many (WORM) memory device is investigated by determining the energy level alignments of indium tin oxide (ITO), poly(9-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and aluminum (Al) using x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, current-voltage characterization and Auger depth profiling. The current switching mechanism was determined to be controlled by the interface between the ITO and the PVK. The electric field applied across the device causes the ITO from the uneven surface of the anode to form metallic filaments through the PVK, causing a shorting effect within the device leading to increased conduction. This was found to be independent of the PVK thickness, although the switch-on voltage was non-linearly dependent on the thickness. The formation of these filaments also caused the destruction of the interfacial dipole at the PVK-Al interface.

  12. A New Vibration Absorber Design for Under-Chassis Device of a High-Speed Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize the separation of vertical and lateral stiffness of the under-chassis device, a new type of vibration absorber is designed by using the negative stiffness of the disc spring in parallel with the rubber component. To solve its transmission characteristics, harmonic transfer method was used. A rigid-flexible coupling multibody dynamic model of a high-speed train with an elastic car body is established, and the vertical and lateral optimal stiffness of the under-chassis device are calculated. The Sperling index and acceleration PSD of the vehicle with the new vibration absorber and the vehicle with traditional rubber absorber are compared and analyzed. The results show that, with the new vibration absorber, vehicle’s running stability and vibration of the car body are more effective than the vehicle with the traditional rubber absorber.

  13. Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmarck, B.; Andersen, J.L.; Olsen, S.

    2001-01-01

    1. Age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength can partly be counteracted by resistance training, causing a net synthesis of muscular proteins. Protein synthesis is influenced synergistically by postexercise amino acid supplementation, but the importance of the timing of protein intake...... ± S.E.M.)) completed a 12 week resistance training programme (3 times per week) receiving oral protein in liquid form (10 g protein, 7 g carbohydrate, 3 g fat) immediately after (P0) or 2 h after (P2) each training session. Muscle hypertrophy was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and from...

  14. The generic methodology for verification and validation applied to medium range anti-tank simulation training devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, J.M.; Roza, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Defense (NL-MoD) has recently acquired an update of its medium range anti tank (MRAT) missile system, called the GILL. The update to the SPIKE Long Range (LR) weapon system is accompanied with the acquisition of new simulation training devices (STDs). These devices are bought

  15. Effects of aquatic exercise training using water-resistance equipment in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Yoshihiro; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Ueda, Shin-Ya; Usui, Tatsuya; Sotobayashi, Daisuke; Nakao, Hayato; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Okumoto, Tamiko; Fujimoto, Shigeo

    2010-03-01

    To prevent falls in Japan, both gait and resistance training of the lower extremities are recommended. However, resistance training for the elderly induces muscle damage. Recently, aquatic exercise using water buoyancy and resistance have commonly been performed by the elderly. We have now produced new water-resistance equipment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of aquatic exercise training using the new equipment for the elderly. Subjects were divided into two groups: a resistance group of 12 subjects (using water-resistance equipment) and a non-resistance group of eight subjects (without the equipment). The aquatic exercise training was 90 min, three times per week for 8 weeks, and mostly consisted of walking. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, physical performance testing, and profile of mood states (POMS). Significant improvements were observed in muscle strength in plantar flexion, and the timed up and go test (TUG) in both groups. Additionally, 10-m obstacle walking and 5-m maximum walking speed and length with eye-open were significantly improved in the resistance group. Also, a low negative correlation was found between the degree of change in TUG and POMS (tension and anxiety) scores in the resistance group. As it became easier to maintain posture, stand, and move, tension and anxiety in everyday life were alleviated with improvement of strength of the lower extremities and balance function. The present aquatic exercise training using water-resistance equipment may be used by the elderly to improve balance and walking ability, which are associated with the prevention of falls.

  16. Exercise physiology, testing, and training in patients supported by a left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyaga-Rendon, Renzo Y; Plaisance, Eric P; Arena, Ross; Shah, Keyur

    2015-08-01

    The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is an accepted treatment alternative for the management of end-stage heart failure. As we move toward implantation of LVADs in less severe cases of HF, scrutiny of functional capacity and quality of life becomes more important. Patients demonstrate improvements in exercise capacity after LVAD implantation, but the effect is less than predicted. Exercise training produces multiple beneficial effects in heart failure patients, which would be expected to improve quality of life. In this review, we describe factors that are thought to participate in the persistent exercise impairment in LVAD-supported patients, summarize current knowledge about the effect of exercise training in LVAD-supported patients, and suggest areas for future research. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. FLOW RESTRICTED RESISTANCE TRAINING ATTENUATES MYOSTATIN GENE EXPRESSION IN A PATIENT WITH INCLUSION BODY MYOSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion body myositis is a rare idiopathic inflammatory myopathy that produces extreme muscle weakness. Blood flow restricted resistance training has been shown to improve muscle strength and muscle hypertrophy in inclusion body myositis. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a resistance training programme on the expression of genes related to myostatin (MSTN signalling in one inclusion body myositis patient. Methods: A 65-year-old man with inclusion body myositis underwent blood flow restricted resistance training for 12 weeks. The gene expression of MSTN, follistatin, follistatin-like 3, activin II B receptor, SMAD-7, MyoD, FOXO-3, and MURF-2 was quantified. Results: After 12 weeks of training, a decrease (25% in MSTN mRNA level was observed, whereas follistatin and follistatin-like 3 gene expression increased by 40% and 70%, respectively. SMAD-7 mRNA level was augmented (20%. FOXO-3 and MURF-2 gene expression increased by 40% and 20%, respectively. No change was observed in activin II B receptor or MyoD gene expression. Conclusions: Blood flow restricted resistance training attenuated MSTN gene expression and also increased expression of myostatin endogenous inhibitors. Blood flow restricted resistance training evoked changes in the expression of genes related to MSTN signalling pathway that could in part explain the muscle hypertrophy previously observed in a patient with inclusion body myositis.

  18. Effects of high-intensity interval cycling performed after resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitkanou, S; Spengos, K; Stasinaki, A-N; Zaras, N; Bogdanis, G; Papadimas, G; Terzis, G

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week). Muscle strength and quadriceps CSA were significantly and similarly increased after both interventions. Fiber CSA increased significantly and similarly after both RE (type I: 13.6 ± 3.7%, type IIA: 17.6 ± 4.4%, type IIX: 23.2 ± 5.7%, P strength/hypertrophy after 2 months of training, while it prompts aerobic capacity and muscle capillarization. The addition of high-intensity cycling after heavy-resistance exercise may decrease RFD partly due to muscle architectural changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. An Impaled Potential Unexploded Device in the Civilian Training Trauma Setting: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Unexploded Device in the Civilian Training Trauma Setting: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Unexploded Device in the Civilian Trauma Setting: A Case Report and Review of the literature Article Type: Case Report Corresponding Author: Jamie L...Trauma Setting: A Case Report 32 and Review of the literature 33 34 Abstract: 35 Background: The management of patients with impaled unexploded devices

  20. Effects of single- vs. multiple-set resistance training on maximum strength and body composition in trained postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang K; Lauber, Dirk; Engelke, Klaus; Weineck, Juergen

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a single- vs. a multiple-set resistance training protocol in well-trained early postmenopausal women. Subjects (N = 71) were randomly assigned to begin either with 12 weeks of the single-set or 12 weeks of the multiple-set protocol. After another 5 weeks of regenerational resistance training, the subgroup performing the single-set protocol during the first 12 weeks crossed over to the 12-week multiple-set protocol and vice versa. Neither exercise type nor exercise intensity, degree of fatigue, rest periods, speed of movement, training sessions per week, compliance and attendance, or periodization strategy differed between exercise protocols. Body mass, body composition, and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) values for leg press, bench press, rowing, and leg adduction were measured at baseline and after each period. Multiple-set training resulted in significant increases (3.5-5.5%) for all 4 strength measurements, whereas single-set training resulted in significant decreases (-1.1 to -2.0%). Body mass and body composition did not change during the study. The results show that, in pretrained subjects, multiple-set protocols are superior to single-set protocols in increasing maximum strength.

  1. Influence of resistance exercise training on glucose control in women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenicchia, L M; Kanaley, J A; Azevedo, J L; Miller, C S; Weinstock, R S; Carhart, R L; Ploutz-Snyder, L L

    2004-03-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of acute and chronic resistance training on glucose and insulin responses to a glucose load in women with type 2 diabetes. Subjects consisted of type 2 diabetic women (n = 7) and age-matched controls (n = 8) with normal glucose tolerance. All subjects participated in 3 oral glucose tolerance tests: pretraining, 12 to 24 hours after the first exercise session (acute) and 60 to 72 hours after the final training session (chronic). Exercise training consisted of a whole body resistance exercise program using weight-lifting machines 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Resistance training was effective in increasing strength of all muscle groups in all subjects. Integrated glucose concentration expressed as area under the curve (AUC) was 3,355.0 +/- 324.6 mmol/L. min pretraining, improved significantly (P benefits, individuals must follow a regular schedule that includes daily exercise.

  2. Description of load progression and pain response during progressive resistance training early after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone R; Petersen, Annemette K; Mechlenburg, Inger

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a progressive resistance training intervention implemented shortly after total hip arthroplasty, including a detailed description of load progression, pain response and adverse events to the training. DESIGN: Secondary analyses of data from the intervention group...... in a randomized controlled trial. SUBJECTS: This study reports data from the intervention group ( n = 37). INTERVENTIONS: The protocol described supervised progressive resistance training of the operated leg two days/week in addition to home-based exercise five days/week and for 10 weeks. The relative load...... time ( p response (an increase >20 mm Visual Analog Scale) occurred in 13 patients in 24 training sessions. CONCLUSION: Progressive resistance...

  3. Comparison of creatine supplementation before versus after supervised resistance training in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candow, Darren G; Zello, Gordon A; Ling, Binbing; Farthing, Jonathan P; Chilibeck, Philip D; McLeod, Katherine; Harris, Jonathan; Johnson, Shanthi

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the effects of creatine supplementation (CR) before vs. after supervised resistance training (RT) in healthy older adults. Participants were randomized to one of two groups: CR-Before (0.1g•kg(-1) creatine before + 0.1g•kg(-1) placebo [rice flour] after RT, n = 11) or CR-After (placebo before + creatine after RT, n = 11). Resistance training (RT) was performed 3 days/week, on nonconsecutive days, for 12 weeks. Prior to and following the study, measures were taken for body composition, maximum strength, muscle protein catabolism, and kidney function. Over the 12-week training period, both groups experienced a significant increase in whole-body lean tissue mass, limb muscle thickness, and upper and lower body strength and a decrease in muscle protein catabolism (p creatine is ingested before or after supervised resistance training in older adults.

  4. Training Program for Cardiology Residents to Perform Focused Cardiac Ultrasound Examination with Portable Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Vicente N; Mancuso, Frederico J N; Campos, Orlando; De Paola, Angelo A; Carvalho, Antonio C; Moises, Valdir A

    2015-10-01

    Training requirements for general cardiologists without echocardiographic expertise to perform focused cardiac ultrasound (FCU) with portable devices have not yet been defined. The objective of this study was to evaluate a training program to instruct cardiology residents to perform FCU with a hand-carried device (HCD) in different clinical settings. Twelve cardiology residents were subjected to a 50-question test, 4 lectures on basic echocardiography and imaging interpretation, the supervised interpretation of 50 echocardiograms and performance of 30 exams using HCD. After this period, they repeated the written test and were administered a practical test comprising 30 exams each (360 patients) in different clinical settings. They reported on 15 parameters and a final diagnosis; their findings were compared to the HCD exam of a specialist in echocardiography. The proportion of correct answers on the theoretical test was higher after training (86%) than before (51%; P = 0.001). The agreement was substantial among the 15 parameters analyzed (kappa ranging from 0.615 to 0.891; P < 0.001). The percentage of correct interpretation was lower for abnormal (75%) than normal (95%) items, for valve abnormalities (85%) compared to other items (92%) and for graded scale (87%) than for dichotomous (95%) items (P < 0.0001, for all). For the final diagnoses, the kappa value was higher than 0.941 (P < 0.001; 95% CI [0.914, 0.955]). The training proposed enabled residents to perform FCU with HCD, and their findings were in good agreement with those of a cardiologist specialized in echocardiography. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of Resistance Training on Hematological Blood Markers in Older Men and Women: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Bobeuf

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training on hematological blood markers in older individuals. Twenty-nine men and women participated to this study. Subjects were randomized in 2 groups: (1 control (n=13 and (2 resistance training (n=16. At baseline and after the intervention, subjects were submitted to a blood sample to determine their hematological profile (red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets, leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, red cell distribution width. At baseline, no difference was observed between groups. Moreover, we found no significant difference after the intervention on any of these markers. A 6-month resistance program in healthy older individuals seems to have no beneficial nor deleterious effects on hematological blood parameters. However, resistance training was well tolerated and should be recommended for other health purposes. Further studies are needed to confirm these results in a large population.

  6. Effect of resistance training on headache symptoms in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christoffer H; Jensen, Rigmor H.; Dalager, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Background: While strength training for the neck and shoulder muscles may be effective in reducing headache, the optimal combination of exercise frequency and duration is unknown. This study investigates the effect of different time-wise combinations of one weekly hour of strength training...... for the neck and shoulder muscles on headache frequency, intensity, and use of analgesics. Methods: A total of 573 office workers were randomly allocated at the cluster-level to five groups; 3 20 min a week of minimally supervised (3MS), 1 60 (1WS), 3 20 (3WS) or 9 7 (9WS) min a week of supervised high......-intensity strength training for 20 weeks, or to a reference group without training (REF). Headache frequency, intensity, and use of analgesics in relation to headache were determined by questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Results: The intention-to-treat analysis showed reduced headache frequency and intensity...

  7. Analog memory and spike-timing-dependent plasticity characteristics of a nanoscale titanium oxide bilayer resistive switching device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Kyungah; Park, Sangsu; Lee, Kwanghee; Lee, Byounghun; Hwang, Hyunsang [Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Insung; Jung, Seungjae; Jo, Minseok; Park, Jubong; Shin, Jungho; Biju, Kuyyadi P; Kong, Jaemin, E-mail: kyseo@gist.ac.kr, E-mail: hwanghs@gist.ac.kr [School of Material Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-24

    We demonstrated analog memory, synaptic plasticity, and a spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) function with a nanoscale titanium oxide bilayer resistive switching device with a simple fabrication process and good yield uniformity. We confirmed the multilevel conductance and analog memory characteristics as well as the uniformity and separated states for the accuracy of conductance change. Finally, STDP and a biological triple model were analyzed to demonstrate the potential of titanium oxide bilayer resistive switching device as synapses in neuromorphic devices. By developing a simple resistive switching device that can emulate a synaptic function, the unique characteristics of synapses in the brain, e.g. combined memory and computing in one synapse and adaptation to the outside environment, were successfully demonstrated in a solid state device.

  8. A 12-week resistance training program elicits positive changes in hemodynamic responses in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya Campos Salazar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a resistance training program in hemodynamic responses and adaptations in 60 yr. old elderly. Volunteers were 60 healthy-elderly who underwent a training program 3 times/wk. for 12 wk. Participants were randomly assigned to either a control group, an exercise group who trained at 30% intensity of 5 maximal repetitions (5RM (30% of 5RM or an exercise group at an intensity of 70% (70% of 5RM. Hemodynamic variables measured were mean arterial pressure (MAP, calculated before and immediately after the training session, and rate pressure product (RPP, estimated once a month and before and after finishing the program. Results indicated that resistance exercise training at 30% and 70% of 5RM, with a total exercise work of 872.7 and 890.9 kg did not elicited cardiovascular risks for the elderly. A 12-wk resistance exercise training reduced the cardiovascular strain as shown by the RPP (~16% and the MAP (~9%, with no adverse effects throughout the program. Unfortunately, all the hemodynamic benefits were reverted 6 days following completion of the program. In conclusion, a healthy elderly population must perform resistance training exercises to significantly reduce the cardiovascular stress. We suggest to conduct further research that looks into different exercise intensities in longer program duration and to determine the mechanisms responsible for the deleterious effects of the detraining by using physiological, biochemical and biomechanical variables.

  9. A multistate model of cognitive dynamics in relation to resistance training: the contribution of baseline function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Nader; Hsu, Chun L; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Davis, Jennifer; Beattie, B Lynn; Graf, Peter; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2013-08-01

    We investigated: (1) the effect of different targeted exercise training on an individual's overall probability for cognitive improvement, maintenance, or decline; and (2) the simultaneous effect of targeted exercise training and baseline function on the dynamics of executive functions when a multistate transition model is used. Analyses are based on a 12-month randomized clinical trial including 155 community-dwelling women 65-75 years of age who were randomly allocated to once-weekly resistance training (1x RT; n = 54), twice-weekly resistance training (2x RT; n = 52), or twice-weekly balance and tone training (BAT; n = 49). The primary outcome measure was performance on the Stroop test, an executive cognitive test of selective attention and conflict resolution. Secondary outcomes of executive functions were set shifting and working memory. Individuals in the 1x RT or 2x RT group demonstrated a significantly greater probability for improved performance on the Stroop Test (0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.57) compared with those in the BAT group (0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.40). Resistance training had significant effects on transitions in selective attention and conflict resolution. Resistance training is efficacious in improving a measure of selective attention and conflict resolution in older women, probably more so among those with greater baseline cognitive function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Study of Mental and Resistance Training (SMART) study—resistance training and/or cognitive training in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized, double-blind, double-sham controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiatarone Singh, Maria A; Gates, Nicola; Saigal, Nidhi; Wilson, Guy C; Meiklejohn, Jacinda; Brodaty, Henry; Wen, Wei; Singh, Nalin; Baune, Bernhard T; Suo, Chao; Baker, Michael K; Foroughi, Nasim; Wang, Yi; Sachdev, Perminder S; Valenzuela, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) increases dementia risk with no pharmacologic treatment available. The Study of Mental and Resistance Training was a randomized, double-blind, double-sham controlled trial of adults with MCI. Participants were randomized to 2 supervised interventions: active or sham physical training (high intensity progressive resistance training vs seated calisthenics) plus active or sham cognitive training (computerized, multidomain cognitive training vs watching videos/quizzes), 2-3 days/week for 6 months with 18-month follow-up. Primary outcomes were global cognitive function (Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale; ADAS-Cog) and functional independence (Bayer Activities of Daily Living). Secondary outcomes included executive function, memory, and speed/attention tests, and cognitive domain scores. One hundred adults with MCI [70.1 (6.7) years; 68% women] were enrolled and analyzed. Resistance training significantly improved the primary outcome ADAS-Cog; [relative effect size (95% confidence interval) -0.33 (-0.73, 0.06); P benefit was 74% higher (P = .02) for Executive Domain compared with combined training [z-score change = 0.42 (0.22, 0.63) resistance training vs 0.11 (-0.60, 0.28) combined] and 48% higher (P benefits over 18 months. Copyright © 2014 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Stress-Induced Resistive Switching in Pt/HfO2/Ti Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeevi, Gilad; Katsman, Alexander; Yaish, Yuval E.

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, we study the initial SET mechanism of resistive switching (RS) in Pt/HfO2/Ti devices under a static electrical stress and the RS mechanism under a bias sweeping mode with rates of 100 mV/s-300 mV/s. We characterize the thin HfO2 dielectric layer by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. These findings show that the layer structure is stoichiometric and nanocrystalline with a crystal diameter of ˜ 14 Å. We measure the temporal dependence of the conductive filament growth at different temperatures and for various biases. Furthermore, these devices present stable bipolar resistive switching with a high-to-low resistive state (HRS/LRS) ratio of more than three orders of magnitude. Activation energy E RS ≈ 0.56 eV and drift current parameter V 0 ≈ 0.07 V were determined from the temporal dependence of the initial `SET' process, first HRS to LRS transition [for static electrical stress of V DS = (4.7-5.0 V)]. We analyze the results according to our model suggesting generation of double-charge oxygen vacancies at the anode and their diffusion across the dielectric layer. The double-charge vacancies transform to a single charge and then to neutral vacancies by capturing hot electrons, and form a conductive filament as soon as a critical neutral-vacancy cluster is formed across the dielectric layer.

  12. The Effect of Resistance Training in a Hypoxic Chamber on Physical Performance in Elite Rugby Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Brad; Miles, Cory; Sims, Stacy; Driller, Matthew

    2017-11-21

    Mayo, Brad, Cory Miles, Stacy Sims, and Matthew Driller. The effect of resistance training in a hypoxic chamber on physical performance in elite rugby athletes. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-Limited research suggests that muscle adaptations may be enhanced through resistance training in a hypoxic environment. Seventeen professional rugby union athletes (age [mean ± SD], 24 ± 3 years; body mass, 98.7 ± 12.8 kg; and height, 188.9 ± 7.9 cm), performed 12 resistance training sessions over a 3-week period. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: HYP (n = 8), where resistance training sessions were performed in an environmental chamber with O 2 concentration maintained at ∼14.4% (∼3000 m simulated altitude), or CON (n = 9), where identical resistance training sessions were performed without the simulated altitude (O 2  = 20.9%, at sea level). Before and after the training intervention, tests included measures of strength, power, endurance, speed, and body composition. Two-way interactions between treatment and time for any of the measured variables were not significant (p > 0.05). Small positive effect sizes for HYP were found for bench press (d = 0.24), weighted chin-up (d = 0.23), and bronco endurance tests (d = -0.21). Resistance training in a hypoxic environmental chamber may lead to small improvements in upper body strength and endurance compared to the same training performed at sea level. These findings are somewhat novel, given the short timeframe of the study and the elite population sampled.

  13. Fasting: a major limitation for resistance exercise training effects in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. das Neves

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Protocols that mimic resistance exercise training (RET in rodents present several limitations, one of them being the electrical stimulus, which is beyond the physiological context observed in humans. Recently, our group developed a conditioning system device that does not use electric shock to stimulate rats, but includes fasting periods before each RET session. The current study was designed to test whether cumulative fasting periods have some influence on skeletal muscle mass and function. Three sets of male Wistar rats were used in the current study. The first set of rats was submitted to a RET protocol without food restriction. However, rats were not able to perform exercise properly. The second and third sets were then randomly assigned into three experimental groups: 1 untrained control rats, 2 untrained rats submitted to fasting periods, and 3 rats submitted to RET including fasting periods before each RET session. While the second set of rats performed a short RET protocol (i.e., an adaptation protocol for 3 weeks, the third set of rats performed a longer RET protocol including overload (i.e., 8 weeks. After the short-term protocol, cumulative fasting periods promoted loss of weight (P0.05 for all. Despite no effects on EDL mass, soleus muscle displayed significant atrophy in the fasting experimental groups (P<0.01. Altogether, these data indicate that fasting is a major limitation for RET in rats.

  14. Fasting: a major limitation for resistance exercise training effects in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, W; de Oliveira, L F; da Silva, R P; Alves, C R R; Lancha, A H

    2017-11-17

    Protocols that mimic resistance exercise training (RET) in rodents present several limitations, one of them being the electrical stimulus, which is beyond the physiological context observed in humans. Recently, our group developed a conditioning system device that does not use electric shock to stimulate rats, but includes fasting periods before each RET session. The current study was designed to test whether cumulative fasting periods have some influence on skeletal muscle mass and function. Three sets of male Wistar rats were used in the current study. The first set of rats was submitted to a RET protocol without food restriction. However, rats were not able to perform exercise properly. The second and third sets were then randomly assigned into three experimental groups: 1) untrained control rats, 2) untrained rats submitted to fasting periods, and 3) rats submitted to RET including fasting periods before each RET session. While the second set of rats performed a short RET protocol (i.e., an adaptation protocol for 3 weeks), the third set of rats performed a longer RET protocol including overload (i.e., 8 weeks). After the short-term protocol, cumulative fasting periods promoted loss of weight (P0.05 for all). Despite no effects on EDL mass, soleus muscle displayed significant atrophy in the fasting experimental groups (Pfasting is a major limitation for RET in rats.

  15. IS ENHANCED-ECCENTRIC RESISTANCE TRAINING SUPERIOR TO TRADITIONAL TRAINING FOR INCREASING ELBOW FLEXOR STRENGTH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Kaminski

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Protocols for strengthening muscle are important for fitness, rehabilitation, and the prevention of myotendinous injuries. In trained individuals, the optimal method of increasing strength remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a traditional method of strengthening with a method that allowed for enhanced-eccentric training, on changes in elbow flexor strength in trained subjects. Thirty-nine (8 male, 31 female trained subjects with normal elbow function participated in this study. Subjects were rank-ordered according to isometric force production and randomly assigned to one of three training groups: control (CONT, traditional concentric/eccentric (TRAD, and concentric/enhanced-eccentric (NEG. The training groups completed 24 training sessions. An evaluator blinded to training group performed all testing. Mixed model ANOVA techniques were used to determine if differences existed in concentric one repetition maximum strength, and isometric force production among groups. Changes in peak and average isokinetic force production were also compared. Type 1 error was maintained at 5%. While both groups improved concentric one repetition maximum (NEG = 15.5%, TRAD = 13.8% neither training group statistically differed from changes demonstrated by the CONT group. Nor did either training group show significant improvements in isometric or isokinetic force production over the CONT group. These results do not support the superiority of enhanced-eccentric training for increasing force production in trained subjects.

  16. Neuroendocrine Responses and Body Composition Changes Following Resistance Training Under Normobaric Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chycki Jakub

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a 6 week resistance training protocol under hypoxic conditions (FiO2 = 12.9%, 4000 m on muscle hypertrophy. The project included 12 resistance trained male subjects, randomly divided into two experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 6; age 21 ± 2.4 years; body height [BH] 178.8 ± 7.3 cm; body mass [BM] 80.6 ± 12.3 kg and group 2 (n = 6; age 22 ± 1.5 years; BH 177.8 ± 3.7cm; BM 81.1 ± 7.5 kg. Each group performed resistance exercises alternately under normoxic and hypoxic conditions (4000 m for 6 weeks. All subjects followed a training protocol that comprised two training sessions per week at an exercise intensity of 70% of 1RM; each training session consisted of eight sets of 10 repetitions of the bench press and barbell squat, with 3 min rest periods. The results indicated that strength training in normobaric hypoxia caused a significant increase in BM (p < 0.01 and fat free mass (FFM (p < 0.05 in both groups. Additionally, a significant increase (p < 0.05 was observed in IGF-1 concentrations at rest after 6 weeks of hypoxic resistance training in both groups. The results of this study allow to conclude that resistance training (6 weeks under normobaric hypoxic conditions induces greater muscle hypertrophy compared to training in normoxic conditions.

  17. Youth resistance training: updated position statement paper from the national strength and conditioning association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kraemer, William J; Blimkie, Cameron J R; Jeffreys, Ian; Micheli, Lyle J; Nitka, Mike; Rowland, Thomas W

    2009-08-01

    Faigenbaum, AD, Kraemer, WJ, Blimkie, CJR, Jeffreys, I, Micheli, LJ, Nitka, M, and Rowland, TW. Youth resistance training: Updated position statement paper from the National Strength and Conditioning Association. J Strength Cond Res 23(5): S60-S79, 2009-Current recommendations suggest that school-aged youth should participate daily in 60 minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical activity that is developmentally appropriate and enjoyable and involves a variety of activities (). Not only is regular physical activity essential for normal growth and development, but also a physically active lifestyle during the pediatric years may help to reduce the risk of developing some chronic diseases later in life (). In addition to aerobic activities such as swimming and bicycling, research increasingly indicates that resistance training can offer unique benefits for children and adolescents when appropriately prescribed and supervised (). The qualified acceptance of youth resistance training by medical, fitness, and sport organizations is becoming universal ().Nowadays, comprehensive school-based programs are specifically designed to enhance health-related components of physical fitness, which include muscular strength (). In addition, the health club and sport conditioning industry is getting more involved in the youth fitness market. In the U.S.A., the number of health club members between the ages of 6 and 17 years continues to increase () and a growing number of private sport conditioning centers now cater to young athletes. Thus, as more children and adolescents resistance train in schools, health clubs, and sport training centers, it is imperative to determine safe, effective, and enjoyable practices by which resistance training can improve the health, fitness, and sports performance of younger populations.The National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) recognizes and supports the premise that many of the benefits associated with adult resistance training

  18. Muscle adaptations to plyometric vs. resistance training in untrained young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Kristian; Brink, Mads; Lønbro, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in muscle strength, power, and morphology induced by conventional strength training vs. plyometric training of equal time and effort requirements. Young, untrained men performed 12 weeks of progressive conventional resistance training (CRT, n = 8......) or plyometric training (PT, n = 7). Tests before and after training included one-repetition maximum (1 RM) incline leg press, 3 RM knee extension, and 1 RM knee flexion, countermovement jumping (CMJ), and ballistic incline leg press. Also, before and after training, magnetic resonance imaging scanning...... was performed for the thigh, and a muscle biopsy was sampled from the vastus lateralis muscle. Muscle strength increased by approximately 20-30% (1-3 RM tests) (p Plyometric training increased maximum CMJ height (10...

  19. Time-wise change in neck pain in response to rehabilitation with specific resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Andersen, Christoffer H; Sundstrup, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the time-wise effect of specific resistance training on neck pain among industrial technicians with frequent neck pain symptoms. Methods Secondary analysis of a parallel-group cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 weeks performed at two large industrial production units...... in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with neck pain >30 mm VAS (N = 131) were included in the present analysis. The training group (N = 77) performed specific resistance training for the neck/shoulder muscles three times a week, and the control group (N = 54) received advice to stay active. Participants of both groups...... to 20). The time-wise change in pain showed three phases; a rapid decrease in the training group compared with the control group during the initial 7 weeks, a slower decrease in pain during the following weeks (week 8–15), and a plateau during the last weeks (week 16–20). Adherence to training followed...

  20. Effect of combined aerobic and resistance training in body composition of obese postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício E. Rossi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 16-week program of combined aerobic and resistance training on the body composition of postmenopausal women who are obese. The participants were divided into two groups: training group (TG, n = 37 and non-trained control group (CG, n = 18. The trunk fat, fat mass, percentage of fat mass and fat-free mass were estimated using DXA. Three nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were conducted. The training protocol consisted of 50 minutes of resistance training followed by 30 minutes of aerobic training. After the 16-week training program, differences were observed in trunk fat (CG= 0.064 x TG= -0.571 Kg; p-value = .020, fat mass (CG= -0.088 x TG= -1.037 Kg; p-value = .020 and fat-free mass (CG= -0.388 x TG= 1.049 Kg; p = .001. Therefore, a 16-week program of systematic combined aerobic and resistance training in obese postmenopausal women was effective in improving fat-free mass and decreasing both whole and abdominal adiposity.

  1. Health and fitness benefits of a resistance training intervention performed in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavanela, Plinio M; Crewther, Blair T; Lodo, Leandro; Florindo, Alex A; Miyabara, Elen H; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the effects of a workplace-based resistance training intervention on different health-, fitness-, and work-related measures in untrained men (bus drivers). The subjects were recruited from a bus company and divided into a training (n = 48) and control (n = 48) groups after initial prescreening. The training group performed a 24-week resistance training program, whereas the control group maintained their normal daily activities. Each group was assessed for body composition, blood pressure (BP), pain incidence, muscular endurance, and flexibility before and after the 24-week period. Work absenteeism was also recorded during this period and after a 12-week follow-up phase. In general, no body composition changes were identified in either group. In the training group, a significant reduction in BP and pain incidence, along with improvements in muscle endurance and flexibility were seen after 24 weeks (p training (vs. control) group during both the interventional and follow-up periods (p training intervention performed within the workplace improved different aspects of health and fitness in untrained men, thereby potentially providing other work-related benefits. Thus, both employers and employees may benefit from the setup, promotion, and support of a work-based physical activity program involving resistance training.

  2. The nanocoherer: an electrically and mechanically resettable resistive switching device based on gold clusters assembled on paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnai, Chloé; Mirigliano, Matteo; Brown, Simon A.; Milani, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    We report the realization of a resettable resistive switching device based on a nanostructured film fabricated by supersonic cluster beam deposition of gold clusters on plain paper substrates. Through the application of suitable voltage ramps, we obtain, in the same device, either a complex pattern of resistive switchings, or reproducible and stable switchings between low resistance and high resistance states, with an amplitude up to five orders of magnitude. Our device retains a state of internal resistance following the history of the applied voltage similar to that reported for memristors. The two different switching regimes in the same device are both stable, the transition between them is reversible, and it can be controlled by applying voltage ramps or by mechanical deformation of the substrate. The device behavior can be related to the formation, growth and breaking of junctions between the loosely aggregated gold clusters forming the nanostructured films. The fact that our cluster-assembled device is mechanically resettable suggests that it can be considered as the analog of the coherer: a switching device based on metallic powders used for the first radio communication system.

  3. Identifying the optimal resistive load for complex training in male rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comyns, Thomas M; Harrison, Andrew J; Hennessy, Liam; Jensen, Randall L

    2007-01-01

    Alternating a resistance exercise with a plyometric exercise is referred to as "complex training". In this study, we examined the effect of various resistive loads on the biomechanics of performance of a fast stretch-shortening cycle activity to determine if an optimal resistive load exists for complex training. Twelve elite rugby players performed three drop jumps before and after three back squat resistive loads of 65%, 80%, and 93% of a single repetition maximum (1-RM) load. All drop jumps were performed on a specially constructed sledge and force platform apparatus. Flight time, ground contact time, peak ground reaction force, reactive strength index, and leg stiffness were the dependent variables. Repeated-measures analysis of variance found that all resistive loads reduced (P benefit performance. However, it is unknown if these acute changes will produce any long-term adaptations to muscle function.

  4. Comparisons between low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction and high-intensity resistance training on quadriceps muscle mass and strength in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vechin, Felipe C; Libardi, Cleiton A; Conceição, Miguel S; Damas, Felipe R; Lixandrão, Manoel E; Berton, Ricardo P B; Tricoli, Valmor A A; Roschel, Hamilton A; Cavaglieri, Claudia R; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patricia T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HRT) has been recommended to offset age-related loss in muscle strength and mass. However, part of the elderly population is often unable to exercise at high intensities. Alternatively, low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction (LRT-BFR) has emerged. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of LRT-BFR and HRT on quadriceps muscle strength and mass in elderly. Twenty-three elderly individuals, 14 men and 9 women (age, 64.04 ± 3.81 years; weight, 72.55 ± 16.52 kg; height, 163 ± 11 cm), undertook 12 weeks of training. Subjects were ranked according to their pretraining quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) values and then randomly allocated into one of the following groups: (a) control group, (b) HRT: 4 × 10 repetitions, 70-80% one repetition maximum (1RM), and (c) LRT-BFR: 4 sets (1 × 30 and 3 × 15 repetitions), 20-30% 1RM. The occlusion pressure was set at 50% of maximum tibial arterial pressure and sustained during the whole training session. Leg press 1RM and quadriceps CSA were evaluated at before and after training. A mixed-model analysis was performed, and the significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. Both training regimes were effective in increasing pre- to post-training leg press 1RM (HRT: ∼54%, p strength gains. In summary, LRT-BFR constitutes an important surrogate approach to HRT as an effective training method to induce gains in muscle strength and mass in elderly.

  5. Chemical insight into origin of forming-free resistive random-access memory devices

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, X.

    2011-09-29

    We demonstrate the realization of a forming-step free resistive random access memory (RRAM) device using a HfOx/TiOx/HfOx/TiOxmultilayer structure, as a replacement for the conventional HfOx-based single layer structure. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), along with electron energy loss spectroscopy(EELS)analysis has been carried out to identify the distribution and the role played by Ti in the RRAM stack. Our results show that Ti out-diffusion into the HfOx layer is the chemical cause of forming-free behavior. Moreover, the capability of Ti to change its ionic state in HfOx eases the reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction, thus lead to the RRAM devices performance improvements.

  6. Properties of CMOS devices and circuits fabricated on high-resistivity, detector-grade silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, S.

    1991-11-01

    A CMOS process that is compatible with silicon p-i-n radiation detectors has been developed and characterized. A total of twelve mask layers are used in the process. The NMOS device is formed in a retrograde well while the PMOS device is fabricated directly in the high-resistivity silicon. Isolation characteristics are similar to a standard foundary CMOS process. Circuit performance using 3 μm design rules has been evaluated. The measured propagation delay and power-delay product for a 51-stage ring oscillator was 1.5 ns and 43 fJ, respectively. Measurements on a simple cascode amplifier results in a gain-bandwidth product of 200 MHz at a bias current of 15 μA. The input-referred noise of the cascode amplifier is 20 nV/√Hz at 1 MHz

  7. Elderly-technology interaction: accessibility and acceptability of technological devices promoting motor and cognitive training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callari, Tiziana C; Ciairano, Silvia; Re, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    As the world population is ageing, studies on the socio-economic and health consequences are proliferating. Little has been done on the effectiveness and impact elderly may benefit from the use of technology in their everyday life. The pilot study, implemented within a funded project aimed at identifying sustainable actions to promote Seniors' quality of life, intended to investigate this kind of interaction in terms of accessibility and acceptability that senior citizen experience with technological devices promoting motor and cognitive training. In the hypothesis, interfaces and technological artifacts, that still take in little account the seniors' physical characteristics (e.g. physiological limitations in sight, hearing, movement) and cognitive processes (selective memory often driven by practical needs), can cause elderly to mistrust technology. Study participants were twenty over seventy-year-old people, who were observed and interviewed in context in a two-hour training session regarding the technological devices user experience. The results are presented with scenario-based techniques that help represent typologies of users in different use situations. Findings confirm the hypothesis, highlighting that elderly may accept technological artifacts when they perceive them as bringing benefits in terms of well-being and health.

  8. Development of a High Fidelity Dynamic Module of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) Using Adams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, B. T.; Thompson, W. K.; Lewandowski, B. E.; Cadwell, E. E.; Newby, N. J.; Fincke, R. S.; Sheehan, C.; Mulugeta, L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) implements well-vetted computational models to predict and assess spaceflight health and performance risks, and enhance countermeasure development. DAP provides expertise and computation tools to its research customers for model development, integration, or analysis. DAP is currently supporting the NASA Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) project by integrating their biomechanical models of specific exercise movements with dynamic models of the devices on which the exercises were performed. This presentation focuses on the development of a high fidelity dynamic module of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) on board the ISS. The ARED module, illustrated in the figure below, was developed using the Adams (MSC Santa Ana, California) simulation package. The Adams package provides the capabilities to perform multi rigid body, flexible body, and mixed dynamic analyses of complex mechanisms. These capabilities were applied to accurately simulate: Inertial and mass properties of the device such as the vibration isolation system (VIS) effects and other ARED components, Non-linear joint friction effects, The gas law dynamics of the vacuum cylinders and VIS components using custom written differential state equations, The ARED flywheel dynamics, including torque limiting clutch. Design data from the JSC ARED Engineering team was utilized in developing the model. This included solid modeling geometry files, component/system specifications, engineering reports and available data sets. The Adams ARED module is importable into LifeMOD (Life Modeler, Inc., San Clemente, CA) for biomechanical analyses of different resistive exercises such as squat and dead-lift. Using motion capture data from ground test subjects, the ExPC developed biomechanical exercise models in LifeMOD. The Adams ARED device module was then integrated with the exercise subject model into one integrated dynamic model. This presentation will describe the

  9. Identification, Characterization and Antibiotic Resistance of Bacterial Isolates Obtained from Waterpipe Device Hoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed M. Masadeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The general lack of knowledge about the health effects of waterpipe smoking is among the reasons for its global spread. In this study, bacterial contamination of waterpipe hoses was investigated. Twenty hoses were collected from waterpipe cafés and screened for bacterial pathogens using standard culture and isolation techniques. Additionally, resistance of isolated bacteria to common antibiotics was determined by identifying the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of each isolate. Forty eight bacterial isolates were detected. Isolates included both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens from species that included Micrococcus (12, Corynebacterium (13 and Bacillus (9. In addition, some of the detected pathogens were found to be resistant to aztreonam (79%, cefixime (79%, norfloxacin, amoxicillin (47%, clarithromycin (46% and enrofloxacin (38%. In conclusion, the hose of the waterpipe device is a good environment for the growth of bacterial pathogens, which can then be transmitted to users.

  10. Identification, characterization and antibiotic resistance of bacterial isolates obtained from waterpipe device hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed M; Hussein, Emad I; Alzoubi, Karem H; Khabour, Omar; Shakhatreh, Muhamad Ali K; Gharaibeh, Mahmoud

    2015-05-13

    The general lack of knowledge about the health effects of waterpipe smoking is among the reasons for its global spread. In this study, bacterial contamination of waterpipe hoses was investigated. Twenty hoses were collected from waterpipe cafés and screened for bacterial pathogens using standard culture and isolation techniques. Additionally, resistance of isolated bacteria to common antibiotics was determined by identifying the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each isolate. Forty eight bacterial isolates were detected. Isolates included both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens from species that included Micrococcus (12), Corynebacterium (13) and Bacillus (9). In addition, some of the detected pathogens were found to be resistant to aztreonam (79%), cefixime (79%), norfloxacin, amoxicillin (47%), clarithromycin (46%) and enrofloxacin (38%). In conclusion, the hose of the waterpipe device is a good environment for the growth of bacterial pathogens, which can then be transmitted to users.

  11. Temporal Response of Angiogenesis and Hypertrophy to Resistance Training in Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Tanya M; Snijders, Tim; VAN Kranenburg, Janneau; VAN Loon, Luc J C; Verdijk, Lex B

    2018-01-01

    Although endurance exercise training promotes angiogenesis and improves metabolic health, the effect of resistance training on this process is less well defined. We hypothesized that capillarization would increase proportionally, and concurrently, with muscle fiber hypertrophy in response to resistance training in young men. In this double-blind, randomized control trial, 36 men (22 ± 1 yr) were randomized to placebo or protein supplementation, and participated in 12 wk of resistance training. Skeletal muscle biopsies were collected before and after 2, 4, 8, and 12 wk of training. Immunohistochemistry assessed fiber type-specific size and capillarization. Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assessed proteins involved in the molecular regulation of angiogenesis. Resistance training effectively increased Type I (15% ± 4%; P < 0.01) and Type II fiber cross-sectional area (28% ± 5%; P < 0.0001), an effect that tended to be further enhanced with protein supplementation in Type II fibers (P = 0.078). Capillary-to-fiber ratio significantly increased in Type I (P = 0.001) and II (P = 0.015) fibers after 12 wk of resistance exercise training and was evident after only 2 wk. Capillary-to-fiber perimeter exchange index increased in the Type I fibers only (P = 0.054) after 12 wk of training. Training resulted in a reduction in vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA. A (P = 0.008), while vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (P = 0.016), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (P = 0.016), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (P = 0.01) increased in both groups. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α protein content was higher in the protein group (main group effect, P = 0.02), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase content demonstrated a divergent relationship (time-group interaction, P = 0.049). This study presents novel evidence that microvascular adaptations and the molecular pathways involved are elevated after 2 wk of a 12-wk resistance training

  12. Construct validity of the resistance training skills battery in children aged 7-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Lawson, Chelsey; Hurst, Josh; Tallis, Jason; Jones, Victoria; Eyre, Emma L J

    2018-01-19

    The current study sought to examine the construct validity of the Resistance Training Skills Battery for Children (RTSBc), a movement screen purported to assess resistance training skill in children. Children aged 7-10 years (n = 27, 21 males, 6 females) undertook measures of resistance training skill via the RTSBc, motor competence and muscular fitness. Using a median split for RTSBc scores, children were categorised as high or low resistance training competence. Univariate ANCOVAs, controlling for maturation, were used to examine whether measures of muscular fitness and motor competence scores differed as a function of RTSBc competence. Children who were classified as high for resistance training competence had significantly better motor competence (P = .001) and significantly faster 10 m sprint speed (P = .001). However, medicine ball throw and standing long jump scores as well as peak and average isokinetic muscle strength did not differ as a function of RTSBc (P > 0.05). In all cases maturation was significant as a covariate. This study is the first to demonstrate construct validity of the RTSBc as a measure of general motor competence and sprint speed, but not strength, in children aged 7-10 years.

  13. Progressive resistance training in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso de Souza, M; Trajano Jorge, R; Jones, A; Lombardi Júnior, I; Natour, J

    2009-01-01

    Shoulder impingement syndrome and tendonitis of the rotator cuff are the most common intrinsic causes of shoulder pain and disability. The present literature review addresses general concepts on shoulder impingement syndrome as well as progressive resistance training and different physiotherapy interventions for this condition. The aim was to review what exists in the literature regarding progressive resistance training as a therapeutic approach to shoulder impingement syndrome. The review was carried out using the Lilacs, Medline, Pubmed and Web of Knowledge databases searching for studies published between 2000 and 2008. The following keywords were used: resistance exercises, exercises with weight, resistance training, strength training, painful shoulder, shoulder impingement syndrome, exercise and the translations of these terms in Portuguese. Controlled, randomized clinical trials that assessed the use of resistance training for shoulder impingement syndrome were selected. Articles written in English and Portuguese were included. Only one article on the subject was encountered. The authors stress the need for further studies on this topic, as the method has been widely used on a number of other musculoskeletal disorders.

  14. Addressing muscle performance impairments in cerebral palsy: Implications for upper extremity resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Noelle G; Gannotti, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    Case study and literature review. Muscle performance consists of not only strength but also muscle power, rate of force development, and endurance. Therefore, resistance training programs should address not only the force-generating capacity of the muscle but also the ability to produce force quickly. To discuss the National Strength and Conditioning Association's resistance training guidelines for youth as specifically related to optimal dosing for muscle strength versus muscle power. Dosing parameters of frequency, volume, intensity, duration, and velocity are discussed independently for strength and power. We describe how resistance training principles can be applied to the upper extremity in CP through a case study. The case describes an individual with spastic CP, who has a severe motor disability and is non-ambulatory, but has been able to perform resistance training focused on speed, power, and strength. Recommendations to optimize the dosing of this individual's resistance training program are made. Copyright © 2015 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Youth Resistance Training: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly-The Year That Was 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D

    2018-02-01

    The good news is that a growing body of evidence recognizes resistance training as foundational to long-term physical development. Original research and reviews published in 2017 conclude that early exposure to developmentally appropriate resistance training can improve markers of health, increase muscular fitness, enhance physical literacy, and reduce the risk of injury in young athletes. Although the papers discussed in the commentary add to our understanding of the pleiotropic benefits of youth resistance training, they also raise concerns. As measures of muscular strength and power have been found to track from childhood to adulthood, the bad news is that youth with low levels of muscular fitness tend to become weak adults who are at increased risk for functional limitations and adverse health outcomes. Furthermore, global participation in youth resistance training is falling far short of public health recommendations, and these ugly trends will likely impact the health and well-being of future generations. A change in current attitudes and common practices is urgently needed to educate parents, practitioners, and clinicians about the potential benefits of resistance training for all children and adolescents, not only young athletes.

  16. A comparison of assisted, resisted, and common plyometric training modes to enhance sprint and agility performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaei, Kazem; Mohammadi, Abbas; Badri, Neda

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of assisted, resisted and common plyometric training modes to enhance sprint and agility performance. Thirty active young males (age 20.67±1.12, height 174.83±4.69, weight 63.45±7.51) volunteered to participate in this study that 24 completed testing. The participants were randomly assigned into different groups: assisted, resisted and common plyometric exercises groups. Plyometric training involved three sessions per week for 4 weeks. The volume load of plyometric training modes was equated between the groups. The posttest was performed after 48 hours of the last training session. Between-group differences were analyzed with the ANCOVA and LSD post-hoc tests, and within-group differences were analyzed by a paired t-test. The findings of the present study indicated that 0-10-m, 20-30-m sprint time and the Illinois Agility Test time significantly decreased in the assisted and resisted plyometrics modes compared to the common plyometric training mode (P≤0.05). Also, the 0-10-m, 0-30-m sprint time and agility T-test time was significantly reduced with resisted plyometrics modes compared to the assisted and common plyometric modes (P≤0.05). There was no significant difference in the 10-20-m sprint time among the three plyometric training modes. The results of this study demonstrated that assisted and resisted plyometrics modes with elastic bands were effective methods to improve sprint and agility performance than common plyometric training in active males. Also, the resisted plyometrics mode was superior than the assisted plyometrics mode to improving sprint and agility tasks.

  17. Pyridostigmine Improves the Effects of Resistance Exercise Training after Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriani, Daniele J.; Coelho-Júnior, Hélio J.; de Oliveira, Juliana C. M. F.; Delbin, Maria A.; Mostarda, Cristiano T.; Dourado, Paulo M. M.; Caperuto, Érico C.; Irigoyen, Maria C. C.; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exercise training and pharmacological treatments are important strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of MI. However, little is known about the effects of resistance training combined with pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) treatment on cardiac and autonomic function, as well as on the inflammatory profile after MI. Thus, in the present study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into: control (Cont); sedentary infarcted (Inf); PYR – treated sedentary infarcted rats (Inf+P); infarcted rats undergoing resistance exercise training (Inf+RT); and infarcted rats undergoing PYR treatment plus resistance training (Inf+RT+P). After 12 weeks of resistance training (15–20 climbs per session, with a 1-min rest between each climb, at a low to moderate intensity, 5 days a week) and/or PYR treatment (0.14 mg/mL of drink water), hemodynamic function, autonomic modulation, and cytokine expressions were evaluated. We observed that 3 months of PYR treatment, either alone or in combination with exercise, can improve the deleterious effects of MI on left ventricle dimensions and function, baroreflex sensitivity, and autonomic parameters, as well as systemic and tissue inflammatory profile. Furthermore, additional benefits in a maximal load test and anti-inflammatory state of skeletal muscle were found when resistance training was combined with PYR treatment. Thus, our findings suggest that the combination of resistance training and PYR may be a good therapeutic strategy since they promote additional benefits on skeletal muscle anti-inflammatory profile after MI. PMID:29483876

  18. Pyridostigmine Improves the Effects of Resistance Exercise Training after Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele J. Feriani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction (MI remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exercise training and pharmacological treatments are important strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of MI. However, little is known about the effects of resistance training combined with pyridostigmine bromide (PYR treatment on cardiac and autonomic function, as well as on the inflammatory profile after MI. Thus, in the present study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into: control (Cont; sedentary infarcted (Inf; PYR – treated sedentary infarcted rats (Inf+P; infarcted rats undergoing resistance exercise training (Inf+RT; and infarcted rats undergoing PYR treatment plus resistance training (Inf+RT+P. After 12 weeks of resistance training (15–20 climbs per session, with a 1-min rest between each climb, at a low to moderate intensity, 5 days a week and/or PYR treatment (0.14 mg/mL of drink water, hemodynamic function, autonomic modulation, and cytokine expressions were evaluated. We observed that 3 months of PYR treatment, either alone or in combination with exercise, can improve the deleterious effects of MI on left ventricle dimensions and function, baroreflex sensitivity, and autonomic parameters, as well as systemic and tissue inflammatory profile. Furthermore, additional benefits in a maximal load test and anti-inflammatory state of skeletal muscle were found when resistance training was combined with PYR treatment. Thus, our findings suggest that the combination of resistance training and PYR may be a good therapeutic strategy since they promote additional benefits on skeletal muscle anti-inflammatory profile after MI.

  19. Pyridostigmine Improves the Effects of Resistance Exercise Training after Myocardial Infarction in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriani, Daniele J; Coelho-Júnior, Hélio J; de Oliveira, Juliana C M F; Delbin, Maria A; Mostarda, Cristiano T; Dourado, Paulo M M; Caperuto, Érico C; Irigoyen, Maria C C; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exercise training and pharmacological treatments are important strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of MI. However, little is known about the effects of resistance training combined with pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) treatment on cardiac and autonomic function, as well as on the inflammatory profile after MI. Thus, in the present study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into: control (Cont); sedentary infarcted (Inf); PYR - treated sedentary infarcted rats (Inf+P); infarcted rats undergoing resistance exercise training (Inf+RT); and infarcted rats undergoing PYR treatment plus resistance training (Inf+RT+P). After 12 weeks of resistance training (15-20 climbs per session, with a 1-min rest between each climb, at a low to moderate intensity, 5 days a week) and/or PYR treatment (0.14 mg/mL of drink water), hemodynamic function, autonomic modulation, and cytokine expressions were evaluated. We observed that 3 months of PYR treatment, either alone or in combination with exercise, can improve the deleterious effects of MI on left ventricle dimensions and function, baroreflex sensitivity, and autonomic parameters, as well as systemic and tissue inflammatory profile. Furthermore, additional benefits in a maximal load test and anti-inflammatory state of skeletal muscle were found when resistance training was combined with PYR treatment. Thus, our findings suggest that the combination of resistance training and PYR may be a good therapeutic strategy since they promote additional benefits on skeletal muscle anti-inflammatory profile after MI.

  20. Resistance training enhances insulin suppression of endogenous glucose production in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honka, Miikka-Juhani; Bucci, Marco; Andersson, Jonathan; Huovinen, Ville; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Sandboge, Samuel; Savisto, Nina; Salonen, Minna K; Badeau, Robert M; Parkkola, Riitta; Kullberg, Joel; Iozzo, Patricia; Eriksson, Johan G; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2016-03-15

    An altered prenatal environment during maternal obesity predisposes offspring to insulin resistance, obesity, and their consequent comorbidities, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Telomere shortening and frailty are additional risk factors for these conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training on hepatic metabolism and ectopic fat accumulation. Thirty-five frail elderly women, whose mothers' body mass index (BMI) was known, participated in a 4-mo resistance training program. Endogenous glucose production (EGP) and hepatic and visceral fat glucose uptake were measured during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography. Ectopic fat was measured using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging. We found that the training intervention reduced EGP during insulin stimulation [from 5.4 (interquartile range 3.0, 7.0) to 3.9 (-0.4, 6.1) μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.042] in the whole study group. Importantly, the reduction was higher among those whose EGP was more insulin resistant at baseline (higher than the median) [-5.6 (7.1) vs. 0.1 (5.4) μmol·kg body wt(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.015]. Furthermore, the decrease in EGP was associated with telomere elongation (r = -0.620, P = 0.001). The resistance training intervention did not change either hepatic or visceral fat glucose uptake or the amounts of ectopic fat. Maternal obesity did not influence the studied measures. In conclusion, resistance training improves suppression of EGP in elderly women. The finding of improved insulin sensitivity of EGP with associated telomere lengthening implies that elderly women can reduce their risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease with resistance training. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Concurrent speed endurance and resistance training improves performance, running economy, and muscle NHE1 in moderately trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christensen, Peter M; Larsen, Sonni; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Thomassen, Martin; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether speed endurance training (SET, repeated 30-s sprints) and heavy resistance training (HRT, 80-90% of 1 repetition maximum) performed in succession are compatible and lead to performance improvements in moderately trained endurance runners. For an 8-wk intervention period (INT) 23 male runners [maximum oxygen uptake (V̇O(2max)) 59 ± 1 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1); values are means ± SE] either maintained their training (CON, n = 11) or performed high-intensity concurrent training (HICT, n = 12) consisting of two weekly sessions of SET followed by HRT and two weekly sessions of aerobic training with an average reduction in running distance of 42%. After 4 wk of HICT, performance was improved (P Performance in a 1,500-m run (5:10 ± 0:05 vs. 5:27 ± 0:08 min:s) and in the Yo-Yo IR2 test (706 ± 97 vs. 491 ± 65 m) improved (P performed in succession, lead to improvements in both short- and long-term running performance together with improved running economy as well as increased dynamic muscle strength and capacity for muscular H(+) transport in moderately trained endurance runners. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. The effect of combined resisted agility and repeated sprint training vs. strength training on female elite soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalfawi, Shaher A I; Haugen, Thomas; Jakobsen, Tore A; Enoksen, Eystein; Tønnessen, Espen

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of in-season combined resisted agility and repeated sprint training with strength training on soccer players' agility, linear single sprint speed, vertical jump, repeated sprint ability (RSA), and aerobic capacity. Twenty well-trained elite female soccer players of age ± SD 19.4 ± 4.4 years volunteered to participate in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to either the agility and repeated sprint training group or to the strength training group. All the participants were tested before and after a 10-week specific conditioning program. The pretest and posttest were conducted on 3 separate days with 1 day of low-intensity training in between. Test day 1 consisted of squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and RSA. Test day 2 consisted of a 40-m maximal linear sprint and an agility test, whereas a Beep test was conducted on test day 3 to assess aerobic capacity. The agility and repeated sprint training implemented in this study did not have a significant effect on agility, although there was a tendency for moderate improvements from 8.23 ± 0.32 to 8.06 ± 0.21 seconds (d = 0.8). There was a significant (p agility performance (d = -0.1). No between-group differences were observed. The outcome of this study indicates the importance of a well-planned program of conditioning that does not result in a decreased performance of the players, the great importance of strength and conditioning specialist in implementing the training program, and the importance of choosing the time of the year to implement such conditioning training programs. However, the fact that the present training program did not cause any decline in performance indicates that it is useful in maintaining the soccer players' physical performance during the competition period.

  3. A Six-Week Resistance Training Program Does Not Change Shear Modulus of the Triceps Brachii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Ryota; Shikiba, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Jun; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effect of a 6-week resistance training program on the shear modulus of the triceps brachii (TB). Twenty-three young men were randomly assigned to either the training (n = 13) or control group (n = 10). Before and after conducting the resistance training program, the shear modulus of the long head of the TB was measured at the point 70% along the length of the upper arm from the acromial process of the scapula to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus using shear wave ultrasound elastography. Muscle thickness of the long head of the TB was also determined at the same site by ultrasonography used during both tests. A resistance exercise was performed 3 days a week for 6 weeks using a dumbbell mass-adjusted to 80% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). The training effect on the muscle thickness and 1RM was significant. Nevertheless, the muscle shear modulus was not significantly changed after the training program. From the perspective of muscle mechanical properties, the present results indicate that significant adaptation must occur to make the TB more resistant to subsequent damaging bouts during the 6-week training program to target the TB.

  4. Effects of functional resistance training on muscle strength and musculoskeletal discomfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Montechieze Cassemiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Functional resistance training (FRT is becoming increasingly popular to improve physical fitness of practitioners, however, yet there are gaps in knowledge about effectiveness of FRT in relation conventional resistance training (CRT in several ambits, as musculoskeletal complaints. Objective: Compare the effect of FRT and CRT in the musculoskeletal discomfort and magnitude of gain in muscle strength in healthy women. Methods: 52 women was divided into three groups, FRT (n = 15; 22 ± 2.35 years: functional resistance training; CRT (n = 14; 22.5 ± 1.78 years: conventional resistance training and CG (n = 13; 20.6 ± 1.10 years: no type of intervention. The training was periodized in 30 sessions over 12 weeks with 3 sessions per week. For the muscle strength variable used the 1RM test and for the musculoskeletal discomfort variable, the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ. Regarding the statistical analysis, all results took into consideration a 5% level of significance. Results: Considerable gain in muscle strength was observed for all exercises in both training groups. In addition, there was a tendency in CRT to relate a more musculoskeletal discomfort; presented 27.3% more complaints compared FRT in the MNQ. Conclusion: The FRT was as effective as the CRT for improving muscle strength, furthermore, there was a tendency for FRT to cause less musculoskeletal discomfort.

  5. The effects of concurrent resistance and endurance training follow a detraining period in elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Albano P; Marinho, Daniel A; Costa, Aldo M; Izquierdo, Mikel; Marques, Mário C

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an 8-week training period of resistance training alone (GR), or combined resistance and endurance training (GCOM), followed by 12 weeks of detraining (DT) on body composition, explosive strength, and ·VO₂max adaptations in a large sample of adolescent school boys. Forty-two healthy boys recruited from a Portuguese public high school (age: 13.3 ± 1.04 years) were assigned to 2 experimental groups to train twice a week for 8 weeks: GR (n = 15), GCOM (n = 15), and a control group (GC: n = 12; no training program). Significant training-induced differences were observed in 1- and 3-kg medicine ball throw gains (GR: +10.3 and +9.8%, respectively; GCOM: +14.4 and +7%, respectively), whereas no significant changes were observed after a DT period in both the experimental groups. Significant training-induced gains in the height and length of the countermovement (vertical-and-horizontal) jumps were observed in both the experimental groups. No differences were perceived after a DT period in lower limb power. Time at 20 m decreased significantly for both intervention programs (GR: -11.5% and GCOM: -12.4%, training, the ·VO₂max increased only significantly for GCOM (4.6%, p = 0.01). A significant loss was observed after a DT period in GR but not in GCOM. Performing resistance and endurance training in the same workout does not impair strength development in young school boys. As expected, strength training by itself does not improve aerobic capacity. Our results also suggest that training program effects even persist at the end of the DT period.

  6. Effects of two programs of metabolic resistance training on strength and hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Brandt Meister

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The effects of low intensity resistance training combined with vascular occlusion have been investigated by several studies. Similar results on strength and hypertrophy have been observed when such method was compared to high intensity protocols. However, due to the specific apparatus needed to apply vascular occlusion (ex.: Kaatsu on some exercises, alternative forms of metabolic training might be used. In the present study, an isometric contraction was performed within each concentric-eccentric transition phase, for every repetition, to elicit metabolic stress. Objective: The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of two resistance training protocols with metabolic characteristics on strength (1MR, circumference (CIRC and muscle thickness (measured with ultrasonography [MT]. Subjective perception of discomfort was also recorded with an analogical-visual pain scale (AVP. Methods: Twelve young, healthy men were trained with two different methods during 10 weeks. The right limb was trained with an isometric contraction within each concentric-eccentric transition phases for every repetition (ISO whereas the left limb was trained with a pneumatic cuff to apply vascular occlusion (OC on the knee extensor muscles. Both methods were trained at 20% 1MR. Results: It was observed increases on medial tight CIRC, proximal MT, medial MT, distal MT and 1MR, with no difference between both methods. The perception of discomfort was greater for ISO at the end of the third set and lower than reported by OC, at the beginning and end of the training program. Conclusions: Both protocols produced similar gains on strength and hypertrophy. The advantages of training with low loads are important to elderly or rehabilitation training programs. Other studies that compare this method with conventional resistance training are warranted.

  7. Resistance to the Reform of Teacher Training in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Laurie; Epp, Walter

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a project to transform part of the shattered education system of Kosovo. By way of case study, it presents some of the factors that were impediments to the formation of a reformed system for training new teachers. This was part of an attempt by international agencies to assist Kosovo in modernizing its education system.…

  8. Resisting imagination and confabulation: effects of metacognitive training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Paola; Ghetti, Simona

    2014-10-01

    False memory rejection is enhanced when individuals rely on memorability-based inferences (e.g., "I should remember this event well; if I don't, it must not have happened"). The present study investigated whether 8- and 9-year-olds and adults could be trained to engage in memorability-based inferences to reject false, but highly familiar (increased through imagination and confabulation), events. Across two experiments, participants enacted, imagined, or confabulated a series of actions differing in expected memorability. Two weeks later, half of the participants received memorability-based training before being administered an old/new recognition test in which they were asked to endorse only enacted actions. Thus, imagined and confabulated actions were to be rejected in the face of their high familiarity. Results indicated that adults, but not children, exhibited increased rejection of these false events if they were of high memorability following a training procedure that explained the functioning of memorability-based inferences (Experiment 1, N=100). Children's rejection of familiar events improved only when the training procedure closely mimicked the demands of the retrieval test (Experiment 2, N=125). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of resistance training on jumping performance in pre-adolescent rhythmic gymnasts: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Marina; Battaglia, Claudia; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Innocenti, Giovanni; Iuliano, Enzo; Aquino, Giovanna; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Giombini, Arrigo; Di Cagno, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of two different resistance training programs on lower limb explosive and reactive strength in young female athletes. Fifty seven rhythmic gymnasts were randomly assigned to unspecific resistance training with dumbbells (12 repetition maximum squats) (n = 19; age = 12.0 +/- 1.8 years) or to specific resistance training with weighted belts (6% of body mass; n = 18; age = 11.9 +/- 1.0 years). Squat jump test, counter movement jump test, hopping test, flexibility of the hip, and anthropometric measures were assessed before and after six weeks training. The main result was that both unspecific resistance training and specific resistance training protocols positively affected the jumping performance, with an increase of the lower limb explosive strength of 6-7%, with no side effects. Counter movement jump flight time increased significantly (p rhythmic gymnastics training enhance jumping ability in young female athletes.

  10. Defect engineering: reduction effect of hydrogen atom impurities in HfO2-based resistive-switching memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seonghyun; Park, Jubong; Jung, Seungjae; Lee, Wootae; Shin, Jungho; Hwang, Hyunsang; Lee, Daeseok; Woo, Jiyong; Choi, Godeuni

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we propose a new and effective methodology for improving the resistive-switching performance of memory devices by high-pressure hydrogen annealing under ambient conditions. The reduction effect results in the uniform creation of oxygen vacancies that in turn enable forming-free operation and afford uniform switching characteristics. In addition, H + and mobile hydroxyl (OH − ) ions are generated, and these induce fast switching operation due to the higher mobility compared to oxygen ions. Defect engineering, specifically, the introduction of hydrogen atom impurities, improves the device performance for metal–oxide-based resistive-switching random access memory devices. (paper)

  11. Photo-Induced Multiple-State Memory Behaviour in Non-Volatile Bipolar Resistive-Switching Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejiao; Xu, Zhiwei; Sun, Bai; Liu, Jianjun; Cao, Yanyan; Qiao, Haixia; Huang, Yong; Pang, Xiaofeng

    2018-04-01

    The recent discovery of non-volatile resistive-switching memory is a promising phenomenon for the semiconductor industry and electronic device technology. In our work, CaWO4 nanoparticles were synthesised through a one-step hydrothermal reaction. A resistive-switching memory device with Ag/CaWO4/fluorine-doped tin oxide structure was prepared. This device presents photo-induced multiple-state memory behaviour at room temperature. This study is valuable for exploring multi-functional materials and their applications in photo-controlled multiple-state non-volatile memories.

  12. Single and concurrent effects of endurance and resistance training on pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Maryam; Tayebi, Seyed Morteza; Safari, Hamed

    2013-04-01

    As not only few evidences but also contradictory results exist with regard to the effects of resistance training (RT) and resistance plus endurance training (ERT) on respiratory system, so the purpose of this research was therefore to study single and concurrent effects of endurance and resistance training on pulmonary function. Thirty seven volunteer healthy inactive women were randomly divided into 4 groups: without training as control (C), Endurance Training (ET), RT, and ERT. A spirometry test was taken 24 hrs before and after the training course. The training period (8 weeks, 3 sessions/week) for ET was 20-26 min/session running with 60-80% maximum heart rate (HR max); for RT two circuits/session, 40-60s for each exercise with 60-80% one repetition maximum (1RM), and 1 and 3 minutes active rest between exercises and circuits respectively; and for ERT was in agreement with either ET or RT protocols, but the times of running and circuits were half of ET and RT. ANCOVA showed that ET and ERT increased significantly (P0.05) on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC ratio. In conclusion, ET combined with RT (ERT) has greater effect on VC, FVC, FEF rating at25%-75%, and also on PEF except MVV, rather than RT, and just ET has greater effect rather than ERT.

  13. Obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors after long- term resistance training and ginger supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashak, Sirvan; Peeri, Maghsoud; Azarbayjani, Mohammad Ali; Stannard, Stephen Robert; Haghighi, Marjan Mosalman

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and its metabolic consequences are major risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, lifestyle interventions, including exercise training and dietary components may decrease cardiovascular risk. Hence, this study was conducted to assess the effects of ginger supplementation and progressive resistance training on some cardiovascular risk factors in obese men. In a randomized double-blind design, 32 obese Iranian men (BMI ≥ 30) were assigned in to one of four groups: Placebo (PL, n = 8); ginger group (GI, n = 8) that consumed 1 gr ginger/d for 10 wk; resistance training plus placebo (RTPL, n = 8); and 1gr ginger plus resistance exercise (RTGI, n = 8). Progressive resistance training was performed three days per week for 10 weeks and included eight exercises. At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition and anthropometric indices were measured. To identify other risk factors, venous blood samples were obtained before and 48-72 hours after the last training session for measurement of blood lipids (LDL-C, HDL-C, TG), systemic inflammation (CRP), and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). After 10 weeks both RTGI and RTPL groups showed significant decreases in waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body fat percent, body fat mass, total cholesterol, and insulin resistance (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in fat free mass (FFM) (p < 0.05), while it remained unchanged in PL and GI. Further, significant decreases in the mean values of CRP were observed in all groups except PL (p < 0.05). Our results reveal that resistance training is an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk in obese Iranian men. Further, ginger supplementation alone or in combination with resistance training, also reduces chronic inflammation. However more research on the efficacy of this supplement to reduce cardiovascular risk in humans is required. Key points Long- term resistance training reduced cardiovascular risk factors in obese men

  14. Self-learning ability realized with a resistive switching device based on a Ni-rich nickel oxide thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Chen, T. P.; Liu, Z.; Yu, Y. F.; Yu, Q.; Li, P.; Fung, S.

    2011-12-01

    The resistive switching device based on a Ni-rich nickel oxide thin film exhibits an inherent learning ability of a neural network. The device has the short-term-memory and long-term-memory functions analogous to those of the human brain, depending on the history of its experience of voltage pulsing or sweeping. Neuroplasticity could be realized with the device, as the device can be switched from a high-resistance state to a low-resistance state due to the formation of stable filaments by a series of electrical pulses, resembling the changes such as the growth of new connections and the creation of new neurons in the brain in response to experience.

  15. Early and late rate of force development: differential adaptive responses to resistance training?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L L; Andersen, Jesper Løvind; Zebis, M K

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potentially opposing influence of qualitative and quantitative muscular adaptations in response to high-intensity resistance training on contractile rate of force development (RFD) in the early (200 ms) of rising muscle force. Fifteen healthy young...... males participated in a 14-week resistance training intervention for the lower body and 10 matched subjects participated as controls. Maximal muscle strength (MVC) and RFD were measured during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Muscle biopsies were obtained from...... the vastus lateralis. The main findings were that RFD in the late phase of rising muscle force increased in response to resistance training whereas early RFD remained unchanged and early relative RFD (i.e., RFD/MVC) decreased. Quantitatively, muscle fiber cross-sectional area and MVC increased whereas...

  16. Step aerobic combined with resistance training improves cutaneous microvascular reactivity in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksom, D; Phanpheng, Y; Soogarun, S; Sapwarobol, S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on body weight and cutaneous microvascular reactivity in overweight individuals. A total of 41 overweight women aged 30-45 years (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m²) were randomized into sedentary time control (CON; N.=15), traditional aerobic dance (AD; N.=11), and step aerobic dance combined with upper-body resistance training (SAR; N.=15) groups. Exercise programs were 50 minutes/session, 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Maximal oxygen consumption and 1-RM strength of lower body increased (Pocclusive reactive hyperemia was positively and significantly correlated with adiponectin level (r=0.23). The present findings suggest that simultaneously performed step aerobic dance and resistance training exerts more favorable effects on weight loss and improving cutaneous microvascular reactivity in overweight women.

  17. Effect of resistance training on plasma nitric oxide and asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations in type I diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parivash Shekarchizadeh Esfahani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Elevated ADMA level in diabetic animals can normalize during resistance exercise. Reduced ADMA level and increased NO level following resistance training might improve cardiovascular risk in diabetic subjects.

  18. Accounting the mechanical resistance of testing device for straight-flow branch pipe in the transverse direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikov, D. V.; Klishin, S. V.; Zubarev, A. V.; Shvarts, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    The flexible inserts as a rubber-cord branch pipe are used to reduce the vibrations distributed from units of a hydraulic system through the pipelines. The device with completely rigid elements is used for the experimental determination of the stiffness characteristics of the branch pipes that determine their anti-vibration properties. In the paper the study of the mechanical resistances of an experimental device construction is carried out by method of the harmonic analysis in a frequency range of 1 Hz to 1000 Hz. Then these mechanical resistances are compared with the mechanical resistance of the branch pipe with diameter 100 mm obtained experimentally. It is found as a result it is necessary to take into account the value of the device mechanical resistance when the stiffness characteristics of the rubber-cord branch pipes with diameter 100 mm in the transverse direction at frequencies above 735 Hz are determined experimentally.

  19. Olympic weightlifting and plyometric training with children provides similar or greater performance improvements than traditional resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Anis; Hammami, Raouf; Kaabi, Sofiene; Chamari, Karim; Drinkwater, Eric J; Behm, David G

    2014-06-01

    A number of organizations recommend that advanced resistance training (RT) techniques can be implemented with children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Olympic-style weightlifting (OWL), plyometrics, and traditional RT programs with children. Sixty-three children (10-12 years) were randomly allocated to a 12-week control OWL, plyometric, or traditional RT program. Pre- and post-training tests included body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds, countermovement jump (CMJ), horizontal jump, balance, 5- and 20-m sprint times, isokinetic force and power at 60 and 300° · s(-1). Magnitude-based inferences were used to analyze the likelihood of an effect having a standardized (Cohen's) effect size exceeding 0.20. All interventions were generally superior to the control group. Olympic weightlifting was >80% likely to provide substantially better improvements than plyometric training for CMJ, horizontal jump, and 5- and 20-m sprint times, whereas >75% likely to substantially exceed traditional RT for balance and isokinetic power at 300° · s(-1). Plyometric training was >78% likely to elicit substantially better training adaptations than traditional RT for balance, isokinetic force at 60 and 300° · s(-1), isokinetic power at 300° · s(-1), and 5- and 20-m sprints. Traditional RT only exceeded plyometric training for BMI and isokinetic power at 60° · s(-1). Hence, OWL and plyometrics can provide similar or greater performance adaptations for children. It is recommended that any of the 3 training modalities can be implemented under professional supervision with proper training progressions to enhance training adaptations in children.

  20. Steep switching devices for low power applications: negative differential capacitance/resistance field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunah; Shin, Jaemin; Shin, Changhwan

    2018-01-01

    Simply including either single ferroelectric oxide layer or threshold selector, we can make conventional field effect transistor to have super steep switching characteristic, i.e., sub-60-mV/decade of subthreshold slope. One of the representative is negative capacitance FET (NCFET), in which a ferroelectric layer is added within its gate stack. The other is phase FET (i.e., negative resistance FET), in which a threshold selector is added to an electrode (e.g., source or drain) of conventional field effect transistor. Although the concept of the aforementioned two devices was presented more or less recently, numerous studies have been published. In this review paper, by reviewing the published studies over the last decade, we shall de-brief and discuss the history and the future perspectives of NCFET/phase FET, respectively. The background, experimental investigation, and future direction for developing the aforementioned two representative steep switching devices (i.e., NCFET and phase FET/negative resistance FET) are to be discussed in detail.

  1. Quantum Hall resistance standard in graphene devices under relaxed experimental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopfer, F.; Ribeiro-Palau, R.; Lafont, F.; Brun-Picard, J.; Kazazis, D.; Michon, A.; Cheynis, F.; Couturaud, O.; Consejo, C.; Jouault, B.; Poirier, W.

    Large-area and high-quality graphene devices synthesized by CVD on SiC are used to develop reliable electrical resistance standards, based on the quantum Hall effect (QHE), with state-of-the-art accuracy of 1x10-9 and under an extended range of experimental conditions of magnetic field (down to 3.5 T), temperature (up to 10 K) or current (up to 0.5 mA). These conditions are much relaxed as compared to what is required by GaAs/AlGaAs standards and will enable to broaden the use of the primary quantum electrical standards to the benefit of Science and Industry for electrical measurements. Furthermore, by comparison of these graphene devices with GaAs/AlGaAs standards, we demonstrate the universality of the QHE within an ultimate uncertainty of 8.2x10-11. This suggests the exact relation of the quantized Hall resistance with the Planck constant and the electron charge, which is crucial for the new SI to be based on fixing such fundamental constants. These results show that graphene realizes its promises and demonstrates its superiority over other materials for a demanding application. Nature Nanotech. 10, 965-971, 2015, Nature Commun. 6, 6806, 2015

  2. Integrated Resistance and Aerobic Training Maintains Cardiovascular and Skeletal Muscle Fitness During 14 Days of Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, Brent; Hackney, Kyle; Wickwire, Jason; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Snyder, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background: Known incompatibilities exist between resistance and aerobic training. Of particular importance are findings that concurrent resistance and aerobic training reduces the effectiveness of the resistance training and limits skeletal muscle adaptations (example: Dudley & Djamil, 1985). Numerous unloading studies have documented the effectiveness of resistance training alone for the maintenance of skeletal muscle size and strength. However the practical applications of those studies are limited because long ]duration crew members perform both aerobic and resistance exercise throughout missions/spaceflight. To date, such integrated training on the International Space Station (ISS) has not been fully effective in the maintenance of skeletal muscle function. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high intensity concurrent resistance and aerobic training for the maintenance of cardiovascular fitness and skeletal muscle strength, power and endurance over 14 days of strict bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest with concurrent training. Resistance and aerobic training were integrated as shown in table 1. Days that included 2 exercise sessions had a 4-8 hour rest between exercise bouts. The resistance training consisted of 3 sets of 12 repetitions of squat, heel raise, leg press and hamstring curl exercise. Aerobic exercise consisted of periodized interval training that included 30 sec, 2 min and 4 min intervals alternating by day with continuous aerobic exercise.

  3. Strength Training Improves Fatigue Resistance and Self-Rated Health in Workers with Chronic Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Brandt, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    of a randomized controlled trial investigates the effect of strength training on muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health among workers with chronic pain. Sixty-six slaughterhouse workers with chronic upper limb pain and work disability were randomly allocated to 10 weeks of strength training or usual...... (Spearman's rho = -0.40; P = 0.01). In conclusion, specific strength training improves muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health and reduces pain of the hand/wrist in manual workers with chronic upper limb pain. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01671267.......-rated health and pain. Time to fatigue, muscle strength, hand/wrist pain, and self-rated health improved significantly more following strength training than usual care (all P

  4. The effects of resistance training on explosive strength indicators in adolescent basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eduardo J A M; Janeira, Manuel A A S

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a lower- and upper-body 10-week in-season resistance training program on explosive strength development in young basketball players. Twenty-five adolescent male athletes, aged 14-15 years old, were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; n = 15) and a control group (CG; n = 10). The subjects were assessed at baseline and after training for squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), Abalakov test, drop jump, and seated medicine ball throw (MBT). The EG showed significant increases (p training program with moderate volume and intensity loads increased vertical jump and MBT performance in adolescent male basketball players. Coaches should know that such a short resistance training program specifically designed for young basketball players induce increased explosivity levels, which are essential to a better basketball performance, with no extra overload on adolescents' skeletal muscle development.

  5. Insulin and fiber type in the offspring of T2DM subjects with resistance training and detraining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schofield, Katherine L; Rehrer, Nancy J; Perry, Tracy L

    2012-01-01

    Effects of resistance training and detraining on glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose load, muscle fiber type, and muscular performance in the offspring of those with type 2 diabetes (familial insulin resistant (FIR)) were investigated.......Effects of resistance training and detraining on glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose load, muscle fiber type, and muscular performance in the offspring of those with type 2 diabetes (familial insulin resistant (FIR)) were investigated....

  6. Effectiveness of Hamstring Knee Rehabilitation Exercise Performed in Training Machine vs. Elastic Resistance Electromyography Evaluation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. D.; Sundstrup, E.; Andersen, C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during hamstring rehabilitation exercises performed in training machine compared with elastic resistance. Design Six women and 13 men aged 28-67 yrs participated in a crossover study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded.......001) during hamstring curl performed with elastic resistance (7.58 +/- 0.08) compared with hamstring curl performed in a machine (5.92 +/- 0.03). Conclusions Hamstring rehabilitation exercise performed with elastic resistance induces similar peak hamstring muscle activity but slightly lower EMG values at more...... inclinometers. Results Training machines and elastic resistance showed similar high levels of muscle activity (biceps femoris and semitendinosus peak normalized EMG >80%). EMG during the concentric phase was higher than during the eccentric phase regardless of exercise and muscle. However, compared with machine...

  7. Biomechanical Modeling of the Deadlift Exercise on the HULK Device to Improve the Efficacy of Resistive Exercise Microgravity Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodnik, K. M.; Thompson, W. K.; Gallo, C. A.; Crentsil, L.; Funk, J. H.; Funk, N. W.; Perusek, G. P.; Sheehan, C. C.; Lewandowski, B. E.

    2016-01-01

    Extended spaceflight typically results in the loss of muscular strength and bone density due to exposure to microgravity. Resistive exercise countermeasures have been developed to maintain musculoskeletal health during spaceflight. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) is the "gold standard" of available devices; however, its footprint and volume are too large for use in space capsules employed in exploration missions. The Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK) device, with its smaller footprint, is a prototype exercise device for exploration missions. This work models the deadlift exercise being performed on the HULK device using biomechanical simulation, with the long-term goal to improve and optimize astronauts' exercise prescriptions, to maximize the benefit of exercise while minimizing time and effort invested.

  8. Acute and chronic cytokine responses to resistance exercise and training in people with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, T; Dalgas, U; Gade, A B

    2016-01-01

    responses to resistance exercise training in medicated PwMS. Thirty-five people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with interferon (IFN)-β, were randomized to a 24-week progressive resistance training (PRT) or control group. Plasma interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17F, IL-23, tumor......Exercise is a well-established part of rehabilitation for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), and it has been hypothesized to stimulate an anti-inflammatory environment that might be disease modifying. Yet, investigations on exercise-induced immune responses are scarce and generally not paying...

  9. Effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density in young male powerlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuku, S; Ikegami, Y; Yabe, K

    1998-10-01

    The effects of high-intensity resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and its relationship to strength were investigated. Lumbar spine (L2-L4), proximal femur, and whole body BMD were measured in 10 male powerlifters and 11 controls using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). There were significant differences in lumbar spine and whole body BMD between powerlifters and controls, but not in proximal femur BMD. A significant correlation was found between lumbar spine BMD and powerlifting performance. These results suggest that high-intensity resistance training is effective in increasing the lumbar spine and whole body BMD.

  10. A numerical analysis and experimental demonstration of a low degradation conductive bridge resistive memory device

    KAUST Repository

    Berco, Dan

    2017-10-23

    This study investigates a low degradation metal-ion conductive bridge RAM (CBRAM) structure. The structure is based on placing a diffusion blocking layer (DBL) between the device\\'s top electrode (TE) and the resistive switching layer (RSL), unlike conventional CBRAMs, where the TE serves as a supply reservoir for metallic species diffusing into the RSL to form a conductive filament (CF) and is kept in direct contact with the RSL. The properties of a conventional CBRAM structure (Cu/HfO2/TiN), having a Cu TE, 10 nm HfO2 RSL, and a TiN bottom electrode, are compared with a 2 nm TaN DBL incorporating structure (Cu/TaN/HfO2/TiN) for 103 programming and erase simulation cycles. The low and high resistive state values for each cycle are calculated and the analysis reveals that adding the DBL yields lower degradation. In addition, the 2D distribution plots of oxygen vacancies, O ions, and Cu species within the RSL indicate that oxidation occurring in the DBL-RSL interface results in the formation of a sub-stoichiometric tantalum oxynitride with higher blocking capabilities that suppresses further Cu insertion beyond an initial CF formation phase, as well as CF lateral widening during cycling. The higher endurance of the structure with DBL may thus be attributed to the relatively low amount of Cu migrating into the RSL during the initial CF formation. Furthermore, this isomorphic CF displays similar cycling behavior to neural ionic channels. The results of numerical analysis show a good match to experimental measurements of similar device structures as well

  11. Salivary testosterone and immunoglobulin A were increased by resistance training in adults with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fornieles

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the influence of resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA levels and hormone profile in sedentary adults with Down syndrome (DS. A total of 40 male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with intellectual disabilities. All participants had medical approval for participation in physical activity. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to perform resistance training in a circuit with six stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Training intensity was based on functioning in the eight-repetition maximum (8RM test for each exercise. The control group included 16 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched adults with DS. Salivary IgA, testosterone, and cortisol levels were measured by ELISA. Work task performance was assessed using the repetitive weighted-box-stacking test. Resistance training significantly increased salivary IgA concentration (P=0.0120; d=0.94 and testosterone levels (P=0.0088; d=1.57 in the exercising group. Furthermore, it also improved work task performance. No changes were seen in the controls who had not exercised. In conclusion, a short-term resistance training protocol improved mucosal immunity response as well as salivary testosterone levels in sedentary adults with DS.

  12. The Effect of Physical Resistance Training on Baroreflex Sensitivity of Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Felipe Pereira Gomes

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Baroreceptors act as regulators of blood pressure (BP; however, its sensitivity is impaired in hypertensive patients. Among the recommendations for BP reduction, exercise training has become an important adjuvant therapy in this population. However, there are many doubts about the effects of resistance exercise training in this population. Objective: To evaluate the effect of resistance exercise training on BP and baroreceptor sensitivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Method: Rats SHR (n = 16 and Wistar (n = 16 at 8 weeks of age, at the beginning of the experiment, were randomly divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (CS, n = 8; trained control (CT, n = 8; sedentary SHR (HS, n = 8 and trained SHR (HT, n = 8. Resistance exercise training was performed in a stairmaster-type equipment (1.1 × 0.18 m, 2 cm between the steps, 80° incline with weights attached to their tails, (5 days/week, 8 weeks. Baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate (HR was tested by loading/unloading of baroreceptors with phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside. Results: Resistance exercise training increased the soleus muscle mass in SHR when compared to HS (HS 0.027 ± 0.002 g/mm and HT 0.056 ± 0.003 g/mm. Resistance exercise training did not alter BP. On the other hand, in relation to baroreflex sensitivity, bradycardic response was improved in the TH group when compared to HS (HS -1.3 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg and HT -2.6 ± 0.2 bpm/mmHg although tachycardia response was not altered by resistance exercise (CS -3.3 ± 0.2 bpm/mmHg, CT -3.3 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg, HS -1.47 ± 0.06 bpm/mmHg and HT -1.6 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg. Conclusion: Resistance exercise training was able to promote improvements on baroreflex sensitivity of SHR rats, through the improvement of bradycardic response, despite not having reduced BP.

  13. Gate tunable magneto-resistance of ultra-thin W Te2 devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Zhiran; Cai, Chaoyi; Tian, Shibing; Kushwaha, Satya; Lu, Hong; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Cava, Robert J.; Jia, Shuang; Chen, Jian-Hao

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the magneto-resistance (MR) of ultra-thin WTe2/BN heterostructures far away from electron-hole equilibrium is measured. The change of MR of such devices is found to be determined largely by a single tunable parameter, i.e. the amount of imbalance between electrons and holes. We also found that the magnetoresistive behavior of ultra-thin WTe2 devices is well-captured by a two-fluid model. According to the model, the change of MR could be as large as 400 000%, the largest potential change of MR among all materials known, if the ultra-thin samples are tuned to neutrality when preserving the mobility of 167 000 cm2 V-1 s-1 observed in bulk samples. Our findings show the prospects of ultra-thin WTe2 as a variable magnetoresistance material in future applications such as magnetic field sensors, information storage and extraction devices, and galvanic isolators. The results also provide important insight into the electronic structure and the origin of the large MR in ultra-thin WTe2 samples.

  14. First principles design of divacancy defected graphene nanoribbon based rectifying and negative differential resistance device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubhik Chakrabarty

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We have studied using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green’s function based approach, the electronic structures of 555-777 divacancy (DV defected armchair edged graphene nanoribbons (AGNR as well as the transport properties of AGNR based two-terminal devices constructed with one defected electrode and one N doped electrode. Introduction of 555-777 DV defect into AGNR results in shifting of the π and π∗ bands towards the higher energy value indicating a downward shift of the Fermi level. Formation of a potential barrier, analogous to that of conventional p-n junction, has been observed across the junction of defected and N-doped AGNR. The two terminal devices show diode like property with high rectifying efficiency for a wide range of bias voltages. The devices also show robust negative differential resistance with very high peak-to-valley ratio. Shift of the electrode energy states and modification of the transmission function with applied bias have been analyzed, in order to gain an insight into the nonlinear and asymmetric behavior of the current-voltage characteristics. Variation of the transport properties on the width of the ribbons has also been discussed.

  15. The Effect of Resistance Training on Cardio-Metabolic Factors in Males with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalavand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes is one of the most important metabolic diseases in the world and exercise is a common advice to manage diabetes and reduce its complications. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training on blood glucose, blood pressure and resting heart rate in males with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods In this semi-experimental study, 20 males with type 2 diabetes with mean age of 46 ± 3.4 years old who met the inclusion criteria were selected. The participants were randomly assigned into resistance training (n = 10 and control (n = 10 groups. Resistance exercise training program was performed for eight weeks, three sessions per week. Cardiovascular and biochemical parameters were measured before and after the intervention. To analyze the measured parameters changes t-test was used at P ≤ 0.05 significance level. Results After eight weeks, a significant decrease in fasting blood sugar (P = 0.002, glycosylated hemoglobin (P = 0.025 and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.022 was observed in the resistance group. In addition, there was a significant difference in blood sugar (P = 0.003 and glycosylated hemoglobin (P = 0.031 between the two groups. Conclusions Findings of this study confirmed the positive influence of resistance training to control blood glucose and blood pressure in males with type 2 diabetes.

  16. Hypotensive Responses of Reciprocal Supersets versus Traditional Resistance Training in Apparently Healthy Men

    OpenAIRE

    BENTES, CLAUDIO M.; COSTA, PABLO B.; CORR?A NETO, VICTOR G.; SIM?O, ROBERTO; PAZ, GABRIEL A.; MAIA, MARIANNA F.; FIGUEIREDO, TIAGO; NETO, GABRIEL R.; NOVAES, JEFFERSON S.; MIRANDA, HUMBERTO

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the hypotensive responses of reciprocal supersets (SS) versus traditional training (TRAD) methods. Thirteen men with at least five years of recreational experience in resistance training (RT) volunteered for the study. When completing the TRAD protocol, participants performed the following exercises separately in sequence: chest press (CP), low row (LR), leg extension (LE), leg curl (LC), pull down (PD), and shoulder press (SP). The SS method required ...

  17. The effect of knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training in the ACL-injured knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellona, Massimo G; Morrissey, Matthew C; Milligan, Peter; Clinton, Melissa; Amis, Andrew A

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effect of different loads of knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training on anterior knee laxity and function in the ACL-injured (ACLI) knee. Fifty-eight ACLI subjects were randomised to one of three (12-week duration) training groups. The STAND group trained according to a standardised rehabilitation protocol. Subjects in the LOW and HIGH group trained as did the STAND group but with the addition of seated knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training at loads of 2 sets of 20 repetition maximum (RM) and 20 sets of 2RM, respectively. Anterior knee laxity and measurements of physical and subjective function were performed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Thirty-six subjects were tested at both baseline and 12 weeks (STAND n = 13, LOW n = 11, HIGH n = 12). The LOW group demonstrated a reduction in 133 N anterior knee laxity between baseline and 12 weeks testing when compared to the HIGH and the STAND groups (p = 0.009). Specifically, the trained-untrained knee laxity decreased an average of approximately 5 mm in the LOW group while remaining the same in the other two groups. Twelve weeks of knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training at loads of 2 sets of 20RM led to a reduction in anterior knee laxity in the ACLI knee. This reduction in laxity does not appear to offer any significant short-term functional advantages when compared to a standard rehabilitation protocol. These results indicate that knee laxity can be decreased with resistance training of the thigh muscles. Randomised controlled trial, Level II.

  18. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Low-Load Blood Flow Restricted Resistance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer B. Cook, Brendan R. Scott, Katherine L. Hayes, Bethany G. Murphy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-load blood flow restricted (BFR resistance exercise has been suggested to be as effective as moderate and high-load resistance training for increasing muscle size and strength. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of 6 weeks of HL or low-load BFR resistance training on neuromuscular function, strength, and hypertrophy of the knee extensors. Eighteen participants aged 18-22 years old were randomized to one of three training groups: moderate load (ML: 70% of 1 repetition maximum [1-RM]; BFR (20% 1-RM with a vascular restriction set to ~180 mmHg; and a control group (CON that did not exercise. Participants performed leg extension (LE and leg press exercises 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Measurements of isometric torque, LE 1-RM, central activation, electrically evoked torque, and muscle volume of the knee extensors were obtained before and after training. Isometric peak torque did not change following the training (p = 0.13. LE 1-RM improved in the ML (34 ± 20%; d = 0.78 and BFR (14 ± 5%; d = 0.67 groups compared to the CON group (0.6 ± 8%; d = 0.09; time x group interaction p = 0.02. Muscle volume increased in the ML (5.6%; d = 0.19 and BFR groups (2.5%; d = 0.09 with no change in the CON group (time x group interaction p = 0.001. There were no changes in central activation and evoked torque in any groups following the training (p > 0.05. Strength and hypertrophy were evident following ML and BFR resistance training programs indicating that both modalities are effective, although ML training appears to be a more potent and efficient. Neuromuscular changes were not evident and warrant more research.

  19. Carotid-cardiac baroreflex response and LBNP tolerance following resistance training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatro, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.; Convertino, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of lower body resistance training on cardiovascular control mechanisms and blood pressure maintenance during an orthostatic challenge. Lower body negative pressure (LBNP) tolerance, carotid-cardiac baroreflex function (using neck chamber pressure), and calf compliance were measured in eight healthy males before and after 19 wk of knee extension and leg press training. Resistance training sessions consisted of four or five sets of 6-12 repetitions of each exercise, performed two times per week. Training increased strength 25 +/- 3 (SE) percent (P = 0.0003) and 31 +/- 6 percent (P = 0.0004), respectively, for the leg press and knee extension exercises. Average fiber size in biopsy samples of m. vastus lateralis increased 21 +/- 5 percent (P = 0.0014). Resistance training had no significant effect on LBNP tolerance. However, calf compliance decreased in five of the seven subjects measured, with the group average changing from 4.4 +/- 0.6 ml.mm Hg-1 to 3.9 +/- 0.3 ml.mm Hg-1 (P = 0.3826). The stimulus-response relationship of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex response shifted to the left on the carotid pressure axis as indicated by a reduction of 6 mm Hg in baseline systolic blood pressure (P = 0.0471). In addition, maximum slope increased from 5.4 +/- 1.3 ms.mm Hg-1 before training to 6.6 +/- 1.6 ms.mm Hg-1 after training (P = 0.0141). Our results suggest the possibility that high resistance, lower extremity exercise training can cause a chronic increase in sensitivity and resetting of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex.

  20. Resistance training among young athletes: safety, efficacy and injury prevention effects

    OpenAIRE

    Faigenbaum, A D; Myer, G D

    2009-01-01

    A literature review was employed to evaluate the current epidemiology of injury related to the safety and efficacy of youth resistance training. Several case study reports and retrospective questionnaires regarding resistance exercise and the competitive sports of weightlifting and power-lifting reveal that injuries have occurred in young lifters, although a majority can be classified as accidental. Lack of qualified instruction that underlies poor exercise technique and inappropriate trainin...

  1. The effects of a session of resistance training on sleep patterns in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Valter A Rocha; Esteves, Andrea Maculano; Boscolo, Rita Aurélia; Grassmann, Viviane; Santana, Marcos Gonçalves; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of a session of resistance training on the sleep patterns of elderly people. Forty men aged 65-80 years who were sedentary and clinically healthy were divided into two groups: the control group (n = 18) and the resistance group (n = 22). Both groups underwent two polysomnography tests, one at baseline and another after either a resistance training session (the resistance group) or no physical exercise (the control group). The resistance training session was based on 60% of one repetition maximum (a test that assesses the maximum force). We observed that the frequency with which the control group awoke (arousal index) increased from 16.29 ± 6.06 events/h to 20.09 ± 6.9 events/h, and in the resistance group, it decreased from 22.27 ± 11 events/h to 20.41 ± 8.57 events/h (t = 2.10 and p = 0.04). For stage-1 sleep, there was an increase from 4.96% at baseline to 5.40% in the control group, and there was a decrease in the resistance group from 8.32 to 6.21% after the exercise session (t = 2.12 and p = 0.04). A session of resistance training at 60% of one repetition maximum was able to modify the sleep pattern in men aged 65-80 years, suggesting that physical exercise has a modest influence on sleep consolidation.

  2. The effects of isometric resistance training on stretch reflex induced tremor in the knee extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbaba, Rade; Cassidy, Angela; Budini, Francesco; Macaluso, Andrea

    2013-06-15

    This study examines the effect of 4 wk of high-intensity isometric resistance training on induced tremor in knee extensor muscles. Fourteen healthy volunteers were assigned to either the training group (n = 7) or the nontraining control group (n = 7). Induced tremor was assessed by measuring force fluctuations during anisometric contractions against spring loading, whose compliance was varied to allow for preferential activation of the short or long latency stretch reflex components. Effects of high-intensity isometric resistance training on induced tremor was assessed under two contraction conditions: relative force matching, where the relative level of activity was equal for both pre- and post-training sessions, set at 30% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), and absolute force matching, where the level of activity was set to 30% pretrained MVC. The training group experienced a 26.5% increase in MVC in contrast to the 0.8% for the control group. For relative force-matching contractions, induced tremor amplitude and frequency did not change in either the training or control group. During absolute force-matching contractions, induced tremor amplitude was decreased by 37.5% and 31.6% for the short and long components, respectively, with no accompanying change in frequency, for the training group. No change in either measure was observed in the control group for absolute force-matching contractions. The results are consistent with high-intensity isometric resistance training induced neural changes leading to increased strength, coupled with realignment of stretch reflex automatic gain compensation to the new maximal force output. Also, previous reported reductions in anisometric tremor following strength training may partly be due to changed stretch reflex behavior.

  3. Making medical devices accessible: a drug-resistant malaria detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilkstein, Tina

    2006-01-01

    People living in areas of the world that are affected by disease, famine, or poverty could have their lives drastically improved by currently available electronic technologies, but the cost, complexity and/or limited operating environments of devices which employ these technologies can make it impossible or impractical for many of those in-need populations to actually acquire and make use of them. The barriers to acquisition and use are understandable. Most medical device companies are located in the wealthier countries, as are their clientele, and, to these companies, taking technological advances and either creating new products, or make their pre-existing products more powerful is the logical business and scientific progression. As such, devices seen in production that would be useful are often hospital grade with high-accuracy and varying amounts of adjustability so as to allow them to be used in performing a variety of functions. But it is exactly this accuracy and flexibility that makes them too expensive and complex to easily be acquired and used in environments that have limited financial and skill resources. In this paper, as an example of how to make presently inaccessible technology accessible, a method of detecting drug-resistant malaria strains in laboratories is analyzed, barriers to use of such a system in a poorer, malaria affected region are looked at, and a device is designed and a prototype built that is simple and affordable. Such a system not only allows collection of epidemiological information, but also empowers doctors and researchers to investigate new drugs without expensive laboratories.

  4. Effect of endurance versus resistance training on quadriceps muscle dysfunction in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Munch, Gregers Druedal Wibe; Rugbjerg, Mette

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exercise is an important countermeasure to limb muscle dysfunction in COPD. The two major training modalities in COPD rehabilitation, endurance training (ET) and resistance training (RT), may both be efficient in improving muscle strength, exercise capacity, and health-related quality...... of life, but the effects on quadriceps muscle characteristics have not been thoroughly described. METHODS: Thirty COPD patients (forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 56% of predicted, standard deviation [SD] 14) were randomized to 8 weeks of ET or RT. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before...

  5. Heavy Slow Resistance Versus Eccentric Training as Treatment for Achilles Tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Rikke; Kongsgaard, Mads; Hougs Kjær, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that eccentric training has a positive effect on Achilles tendinopathy, but few randomized controlled trials have compared it with other loading-based treatment regimens. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of eccentric training (ECC) and heavy slow...... resistance training (HSR) among patients with midportion Achilles tendinopathy. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: A total of 58 patients with chronic (>3 months) midportion Achilles tendinopathy were randomized to ECC or HSR for 12 weeks. Function and symptoms...... tendinopathy and that the latter tends to be associated with greater patient satisfaction after 12 weeks but not after 52 weeks....

  6. Effects of a Resistance Training Intervention on Strength, Power, and Performance in Adolescent Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowse, Rebecca A; McGuigan, Mike R; Harrison, Craig

    2017-11-01

    Dowse, RA, McGuigan, MR, and Harrison, C. Effects of a resistance training intervention on strength, power, and performance in adolescent dancers. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-The aim of this study was to determine whether a 9-week resistance training program could have a significant effect on maximum lower-body strength and power, dynamic balance, and dance performance in adolescent dancers. Twelve competitive adolescent female dancers trained in jazz, ballet, and contemporary were recruited from local dance schools and assigned to a resistance training group (dance experience 9.2 ± 2.4 years; age 14.2 ± 1.9 years; height 155.6 ± 9.1 cm; and mass 48.9 ± 13.8 kg). Anthropometry (height, seated height, mass, and skinfolds), subjective dancing performance, dynamic balance (eyes open [EO] and eyes closed), maximum lower-body strength (isometric midthigh pull), and power (vertical countermovement jump, squat jump, and single-leg countermovement jump) were assessed before and after the 9-week intervention period. Posttesting identified a significant improvement EO overall stability (p = 0.003; effect size [ES] = 0.88), EO anterior-posterior stability (p = 0.003; ES = 0.92), peak force (p change in mass (p = 0.023; ES = 0.09) that was attributed to growth and no significant change in body fat or the sum of skinfolds. This study demonstrated that resistance training can have a significant effect on dynamic balance, maximum lower-body strength, and power without adversely affecting artistic or esthetic components. The results suggest that incorporating resistance training may enhance strength and power adaptations and manage growth-related changes in adolescent dancers.

  7. Humanin skeletal muscle protein levels increase after resistance training in men with impaired glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlund, Eva-Karin; von Walden, Ferdinand; Venojärvi, Mika; Risérus, Ulf; Heinonen, Olli J; Norrbom, Jessica; Sundberg, Carl Johan

    2016-12-01

    Humanin (HN) is a mitochondrially encoded and secreted peptide linked to glucose metabolism and tissue protecting mechanisms. Whether skeletal muscle HN gene or protein expression is influenced by exercise remains unknown. In this intervention study we show, for the first time, that HN protein levels increase in human skeletal muscle following 12 weeks of resistance training in persons with prediabetes. Male subjects (n = 55) with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) were recruited and randomly assigned to resistance training, Nordic walking or a control group. The exercise interventions were performed three times per week for 12 weeks with progressively increased intensity during the intervention period. Biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle and venous blood samples were taken before and after the intervention. Skeletal muscle and serum protein levels of HN were analyzed as well as skeletal muscle gene expression of the mitochondrially encoded gene MT-RNR2, containing the open reading frame for HN To elucidate mitochondrial training adaptation, mtDNA, and nuclear DNA as well as Citrate synthase were measured. Skeletal muscle HN protein levels increased by 35% after 12 weeks of resistance training. No change in humanin protein levels was seen in serum in any of the intervention groups. There was a significant correlation between humanin levels in serum and the improvements in the 2 h glucose loading test in the resistance training group. The increase in HN protein levels in skeletal muscle after regular resistance training in prediabetic males may suggest a role for HN in the regulation of glucose metabolism. Given the preventative effect of exercise on diabetes type 2, the role of HN as a mitochondrially derived peptide and an exercise-responsive mitokine warrants further investigation. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  8. A profile of the resistance training practices of elite Spanish club teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverter-Masía, Joaquín; Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Barbany, Joan Ramón; Serrano-Ostáriz, Enrique

    2009-08-01

    This study describes the results of a survey of the resistance training practices of the following Spanish sports teams: soccer and basketball professional leagues, and top-division leagues for handball, volleyball, indoor soccer, and field hockey. The response rate was 81.8% (77 of 94). This survey examines (a) strength and conditioning (S&C) coach profiles, (b) resistance training exercises, (c) resistance training load, (d) repetition velocity, and (e) training leading to muscle failure. The results indicate that 80.5% of coaches held a university degree, with 22% holding a master's degrees, 40% held National Federation certification, and none held Strength and Conditioning Specialist certification. Respondents relied on nonscientific sources of information to develop their conditioning programs. Fifty-eight percent of the S&C coaches were hired full time, with 18% performing the duties of a first trainer. Many S&C coaches did not use weightlifting (54%), full squat (51%), load squat jump (35%), or bench press throw (100%) exercises. Thirty-eight percent of respondents did not control the load intensity or did not use a load of 50-90% of 1 repetition maximum. For these load intensities, 70% did not perform the combination of maximum repetition velocity and nonmuscular failure. More significant deficiencies in the fundamental principles of resistance training were observed in indoor soccer, soccer, field hockey, and among lower performing handball and basketball teams. These results indicate that the profile of the S&C coaches in the Spanish teams is insufficient for an optimal application of resistance training. Spanish S&C coaches should therefore take advantage of advances made through scientific research in the area of strength and conditioning by acquiring master's degrees and specific certificates and consulting peer-reviewer journals.

  9. Perceptual effects and efficacy of intermittent or continuous blood flow restriction resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitschen, P J; Kistler, B M; Jeong, J H; Chung, H R; Wu, P T; Walsh, M J; Wilund, K R

    2014-09-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) exercise may be an alternative form of resistance training; however, a side of effect of BFR resistance exercise is acute muscle pain. Typically, BFR exercise studies restrict blood flow with a cuff continuously during the exercise bout, including rest periods. However, others have used intermittent BFR where the cuff is inflated only during sets. We performed two studies to compare intermittent and continuous BFR exercise. In study one, eleven subjects randomly proceeded through three treatments of unilateral leg extensions to failure: (i) continuous BFR, (ii) intermittent BFR and (iii) control (exercise without BFR). Pain measurements were taken immediately after each set. In study two, subjects (n = 32) underwent a 5-week resistance training programme after random assignment to one of the three conditions. Lean mass and strength were assessed at baseline and after training. Continuous BFR resulted in significantly greater pain than intermittent BFR or control. Both BFR conditions resulted in significantly fewer repetitions to failure than control. This suggests that an acute bout of intermittent BFR exercise may produce as much muscle fatigue as an acute bout of continuous BFR exercise, but with less pain. With training, maximal knee extension (P = 0·033) and maximum knee flexion (P = 0·007) strength increased among all groups. There were no significant differences between groups in strength or lean mass. These results suggest that short-term low-load resistance training increases muscle strength to a similar extent as low-load resistance training without BFR. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effect of Movement Velocity During Resistance Training on Dynamic Muscular Strength: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Timothy B; Kuang, Kenny; Orr, Rhonda; Halaki, Mark; Hackett, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Movement velocity is an acute resistance-training variable that can be manipulated to potentially optimize dynamic muscular strength development. However, it is unclear whether performing faster or slower repetitions actually influences dynamic muscular strength gains. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of movement velocity during resistance training on dynamic muscular strength. Five electronic databases were searched using terms related to movement velocity and resistance training. Studies were deemed eligible for inclusion if they met the following criteria: randomized and non-randomized comparative studies; published in English; included healthy adults; used isotonic resistance-exercise interventions directly comparing fast or explosive training to slower movement velocity training; matched in prescribed intensity and volume; duration ≥4 weeks; and measured dynamic muscular strength changes. A total of 15 studies were identified that investigated movement velocity in accordance with the criteria outlined. Fast and moderate-slow resistance training were found to produce similar increases in dynamic muscular strength when all studies were included. However, when intensity was accounted for, there was a trend for a small effect favoring fast compared with moderate-slow training when moderate intensities, defined as 60-79% one repetition maximum, were used (effect size 0.31; p = 0.06). Strength gains between conditions were not influenced by training status and age. Overall, the results suggest that fast and moderate-slow resistance training improve dynamic muscular strength similarly in individuals within a wide range of training statuses and ages. Resistance training performed at fast movement velocities using moderate intensities showed a trend for superior muscular strength gains as compared to moderate-slow resistance training. Both training practices should be considered for novice to advanced, young and older

  11. The post-activation potentiation effect on sprint performance after combined resistance/sprint training in junior basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimachidis, Constantinos; Patikas, Dimitrios; Galazoulas, Christos; Bassa, Eleni; Kotzamanidis, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a 10-week combined resistance/sprint training programme in the post-activation potentiation of sprint performance before, between and after resistance training sets. Twenty-six junior basketball players were randomly divided into a control and a combined training group. The combined training group performed a combined training programme consisting of 5 sets at 5-8 RM (Repetition Maximum) half-squats with sprints performed between each set. Post-activation potentiation was considered as the increase in sprint velocity in trials executed between and after the resistance sets compared with the sprint trial performed before the resistance sets of the respective first and last training session. For sprint evaluation the running distances 0-10 and 0-30 m were selected. The intervention increased both strength and sprint performance. No post-activation potentiation effect was observed during the first training session in either group. Post-activation potentiation appeared in the combined training group during the last training session of the intervention in both 0-10 and 0-30 m sprint. This study illustrates that post-activation potentiation effect on sprint performance in junior basketball players, who did not previously follow systematic resistance training, emerges after a 10-week resistance/sprint combined training programme.

  12. Specific balance training included in an endurance-resistance exercise program improves postural balance in elderly patients undergoing haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frih, Bechir; Mkacher, Wajdi; Jaafar, Hamdi; Frih, Ameur; Ben Salah, Zohra; El May, Mezry; Hammami, Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 6 months of specific balance training included in endurance-resistance program on postural balance in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Forty-nine male patients undergoing HD were randomly assigned to an intervention group (balance training included in an endurance-resistance training, n = 26) or a control group (resistance-endurance training only, n = 23). Postural control was assessed using six clinical tests; Timed Up and Go test, Tinetti Mobility Test, Berg Balance Scale, Unipodal Stance test, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Activities Balance Confidence scale. All balance measures increased significantly after the period of rehabilitation training in the intervention group. Only the Timed Up and Go, Berg Balance Scale, Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Activities Balance Confidence scores were improved in the control group. The ranges of change in these tests were greater in the balance training group. In HD patients, specific balance training included in a usual endurance-resistance training program improves static and dynamic balance better than endurance-resistance training only. Implications for rehabilitation Rehabilitation using exercise in haemodialysis patients improved global mobility and functional abilities. Specific balance training included in usual endurance resistance training program could lead to improved static and dynamic balance.

  13. ACTN3 R577X Polymorphism and Neuromuscular Response to Resistance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Paulo; Pereira, Rinaldo W.; Leite, Tailce K.M.; Bottaro, Martim

    2011-01-01

    The R577X polymorphism at the ACTN3 gene has been associated with muscle strength, hypertrophy and athletic status. The X allele, which is associated with the absence of ACTN3 protein is supposed to impair performance of high force/velocity muscle contractions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association of the R577X polymorphism with the muscle response to resistance training in young men. One hundred forty one men performed two resistance training sessions per week for 11 weeks. Participants were tested for 1RM bench press, knee extensors peak torque, and knee extensors muscle thickness at baseline and after the training period. Genotyping was conducted using de DdeI restriction enzyme. Genotype distribution was 34.4% for RR, 47% for RX and 18.6% for the XX genotype. According to the results, the R577X polymorphism at the ACTN3 gene is not associated with baseline muscle strength or with the muscle strength response to resistance training. However, only carriers of the R allele showed increases in muscle thickness in response to training. Key points ACTN3 Genotype distribution in the present study was similar to others populations (34.4% for RR, 47% for RX, and 18.6% for the XX). The R577X polymorphism at the ACTN3 gene is not associated with baseline muscle strength or with the muscle strength response to resistance training. It appears that the R allele carriers respond better to muscle thickness gains in response to training. PMID:24149888

  14. Methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in health care workers and medical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Breves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Cross-contamination by Staphylococcus aureus among patients, professionals and medical supplies in health facilities is a constant concern, leading many researchers to study the prevalence of this pathogen in asymptomatic carriers. Objective: We investigated the colonization and the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus spp. on surfaces of medical articles and in professionals from two basic health units in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Materials and methods: Seventy-nine samples resulted in 49 isolates which underwent phenotypic and molecular characterization by polymerase chain reaction (PCR of coa, mecA and femA genes. Results: According to the phenotypes, the isolates were identified as S. aureus (n = 35, 71.42% and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS (n = 14, 28.57%. Among these 14 isolates, 42.85% were methicillin-resistant coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCoNS. Among the 35 S. aureus, 31.42% were methicillin resistant (MRSA, and 2.8% were vancomycin resistant, characterized as VRSA. Sixty-eight percent were susceptible to methicillin (MSSA. Genes coa, femA and mecA were amplified from 75.51%, 71.42% and 30.61% of the isolates, respectively. After amplification of the mecA gene, 20.41% were characterized as MRSA, and 10.20% as MRCoNS. The vancomycin-resistant strain was characterized as VRSA after detection of the vanB gene. Conclusion: Our results show a higher frequency of MSSA and MRCoNS among S. aureus and CoNS respectively, colonizing devices and health professionals. However, the already described transfer of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SSCmec from MRCoNS to MSSA may alter these results, increasing the frequency of MRSA strains.

  15. Effect of endurance versus resistance training on quadriceps muscle dysfunction in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Munch, Gregers Druedal Wibe; Rugbjerg, Mette

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exercise is an important countermeasure to limb muscle dysfunction in COPD. The two major training modalities in COPD rehabilitation, endurance training (ET) and resistance training (RT), may both be efficient in improving muscle strength, exercise capacity, and health-related quality...... and after the training intervention to assess muscle morphology and metabolic and angiogenic factors. Symptom burden, exercise capacity (6-minute walking and cycle ergometer tests), and vascular function were also assessed. RESULTS: Both training modalities improved symptom burden and exercise capacity...... with no difference between the two groups. The mean (SD) proportion of glycolytic type IIa muscle fibers was reduced after ET (from 48% [SD 11] to 42% [SD 10], Ptraining modality on muscle...

  16. Myogenic response of human skeletal muscle to 12 weeks of resistance training at light loading intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Holm, L; Reitelseder, S

    2011-01-01

    There is strong evidence for enhanced numbers of satellite cells with heavy resistance training. The satellite cell response to very light muscle loading is, however, unknown. We, therefore, designed a 12-week training protocol where volunteers trained one leg with a high load (H) and the other leg...... with a light load (L). Twelve young healthy men [mean age 25 ± 3 standard deviation (SD) years] volunteered for the study. Muscle biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis of both legs before and after the training period and satellite cells were visualized by CD56 immunohistochemistry....... A significant main effect of time was observed (P12 ± 0.03 to 0.15 ± 0.05, mean ± SD). The finding that 12 weeks of training skeletal muscle even with very light loads can induce an increase in the number of satellite...

  17. Stroke Rehabilitation in Frail Elderly with the Robotic Training Device ACRE: A Randomized Controlled Trial and Cost-Effectiveness Study

    OpenAIRE

    M. Schoone; E. Dusseldorp; M. E. van den Akker-van Marle; A. J. Doornebosch; R. Bal; A. Meems; M. P. Oderwald; R. van Balen

    2011-01-01

    The ACRE (ACtive REhabilitation) robotic device is developed to enhance therapeutic treatment of upper limbs after stroke. The aim of this study is to assess effects and costs of ACRE training for frail elderly patients and to establish if ACRE can be a valuable addition to standard therapy in nursing home rehabilitation. The study was designed as randomized controlled trial, one group receiving therapy as usual and the other receiving additional ACRE training. Changes in motor abilities, str...

  18. Effects of a group circuit progressive resistance training program compared with a treadmill training program for adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviram, Ronit; Harries, Netta; Namourah, Ibtisam; Amro, Akram; Bar-Haim, Simona

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether goal-directed group circuit progressive resistance exercise training (GT) can improve motor function in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and to compare outcomes with a treadmill training (TT) intervention. In a multi-centered matched pairs study, 95 adolescents with spastic CP (GMFCS II-III) were allocated to GT or TT interventions for 30 bi-weekly one hour training. Outcome measures of GMFM-66, GMFM-D%, GMFM-E%, TUG, 10 meter walk test (10 MWT), and 6 minute walk test (6 MWT) were made at baseline (T1), after interventions (T2) and 6 months post training (T3). Both training programs induced significant improvement in all outcome measures (T2-T1) that were mostly retained at T3. At the end of the intervention, the GT group showed an advantage in all measured changes compared to the TT group and in percentage changes. Differences were significant (p cerebral palsy. The GT program had generally greater benefits based on the functional measures.

  19. Effects of respiratory muscle and endurance training using an individualized training device on the pulmonary function and exercise capacity in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JinHong; Park, Jun Hyuck; Yim, Jongeun

    2014-12-05

    Because respiratory muscle function plays a strong role in exercise capacity and cardiopulmonary response to exercise, systematic training and measurement of respiratory muscle function should be considered in stroke patients. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an individualized respiratory muscle training device combined with conventional physical therapy exercise can improve the pulmonary function and exercise capacity of stroke patients. Twenty stroke patients were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=10) or a control group (n=10). Over 4 weeks, each group participated in exercise training interventions 3 times per week. In each session, the control group received basic exercise treatments for 30 min, followed by an automated full-body workout for 20 min. The exercise group performed the same exercise regimen as the control group, as well as an additional respiratory muscle training regimen using a respiratory exercise device for 20 min. Pulmonary function of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) and exercise capacity of a 6-min walking test and Shortness of Breath Modified Borg Dyspnea Scale (SBMBDS) scores were assessed before and after the training. A significant intergroup difference was observed in the FVC, FEV1, PEF, 6MWT, and SBMBDS scores (prespiratory muscles using an individualized respiratory device had a positive effect on pulmonary function and exercise capacity and may be used for breathing rehabilitation in stroke patients.

  20. Neurorehabilitation with versus without resistance training after botulinum toxin treatment in children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Jensen, Bente Rona; Nielsen, Lone M

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of physical rehabilitation with (PRT) and without (CON) progressive resistance training following treatment of spastic plantarflexors with botulinum toxin type A (BoNT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Fourteen children with CP performed supervised...

  1. Resistance training with soy vs whey protein supplements in hyperlipidemic males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leddy John J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most individuals at risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD can reduce risk factors through diet and exercise before resorting to drug treatment. The effect of a combination of resistance training with vegetable-based (soy versus animal-based (whey protein supplementation on CVD risk reduction has received little study. The study's purpose was to examine the effects of 12 weeks of resistance exercise training with soy versus whey protein supplementation on strength gains, body composition and serum lipid changes in overweight, hyperlipidemic men. Methods Twenty-eight overweight, male subjects (BMI 25–30 with serum cholesterol >200 mg/dl were randomly divided into 3 groups (placebo (n = 9, and soy (n = 9 or whey (n = 10 supplementation and participated in supervised resistance training for 12 weeks. Supplements were provided in a double blind fashion. Results All 3 groups had significant gains in strength, averaging 47% in all major muscle groups and significant increases in fat free mass (2.6%, with no difference among groups. Percent body fat and waist-to-hip ratio decreased significantly in all 3 groups an average of 8% and 2%, respectively, with no difference among groups. Total serum cholesterol decreased significantly, again with no difference among groups. Conclusion Participation in a 12 week resistance exercise training program significantly increased strength and improved both body composition and serum cholesterol in overweight, hypercholesterolemic men with no added benefit from protein supplementation.

  2. High responders to resistance exercise training demonstrate differential regulation of skeletal muscle microRNA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Peter K; Gallagher, Iain J; Hartman, Joseph W

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA), small noncoding RNA molecules, may regulate protein synthesis, while resistance exercise training (RT) is an efficient strategy for stimulating muscle protein synthesis in vivo. However, RT increases muscle mass, with a very wide range of effectiveness in humans. We therefore...

  3. The influence of resistance training on the magnitude of change in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obesity is a global health concern affecting all walks of life, with alarming prevalence in South African employees. Various companies have already implemented health promotion programs in order to improve employee health; however research focusing on the effect of a resistance training intervention in order to address ...

  4. Evaluating the Relationship of Computer Literacy Training Competence and Nursing Experience to CPIS Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Dorothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive/correlational project was to examine the relationship between the level of computer literacy, informatics training, nursing experience, and perceived competence in using computerized patient information systems (CPIS) and nursing resistance to using CPIS. The Nurse Computerized Patient Information…

  5. Influence of Resistance Training on Neuromuscular Function and Physical Capacity in ALS Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barner Dalgaard, Line; Djurtoft, J. B.; Bech, R D

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to explore the effect of resistance training in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a disease characterized by progressive motor neuron loss and muscle weakness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following a 12-week "lead-in" control period, a population...

  6. Neural drive increases following resistance training in patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Ulrik; Stenager, Egon; Lund, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that lower body progressive resistance training (PRT) increases the neural drive expressed as surface electromyographical (EMG) activity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The study was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) including a 12-week follow up...

  7. Impact of Polyphenol Supplementation on Acute and Chronic Response to Resistance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kyle S; Stout, Jeffrey R; Fukuda, David H; Jajtner, Adam R; Townsend, Jeremy R; Church, David D; Wang, Ran; Riffe, Joshua J; Muddle, Tyler W D; Herrlinger, Kelli A; Hoffman, Jay R

    2017-11-01

    Beyer, KS, Stout, JR, Fukuda, DH, Jajtner, AR, Townsend, JR, Church, DD, Wang, R, Riffe, JJ, Muddle, TWD, Herrlinger, KA, and Hoffman, JR. Impact of polyphenol supplementation on acute and chronic response to resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 2945-2954, 2017-This study investigated the effect of a proprietary polyphenol blend (PPB) on acute and chronic adaptations to resistance exercise. Forty untrained men were assigned to control, PPB, or placebo. Participants in PPB or placebo groups completed a 4-week supplementation period (phase I), an acute high-volume exercise bout (phase II), and a 6-week resistance training program (phase III); whereas control completed only testing during phase II. Blood draws were completed during phases I and II. Maximal strength in squat, leg press, and leg extension were assessed before and after phase III. The exercise protocol during phase II consisted of squat, leg press, and leg extension exercises using 70% of the participant's strength. The resistance training program consisted of full-body exercises performed 3 d·wk. After phase I, PPB (1.56 ± 0.48 mM) had greater total antioxidant capacity than placebo (1.00 ± 0.90 mM). Changes in strength from phase III were similar between PPB and placebo. Polyphenol blend supplementation may be an effective strategy to increase antioxidant capacity without limiting strength gains from training.

  8. Effects of Resistance versus Endurance Training on Plasma Lipocalin-2 in Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadasi, Mehrzad; Mohammadi Domieh, Amin

    2014-06-01

    Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) has been recognized as an adipocyte-derived acute phase protein that is positively correlated with obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The effects of resistance and endurance training (RT vs. ET) on plasma lipocalin-2 are still unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of RT vs. ET on plasma lipocalin-2 in young men. Twenty nine healthy and sedentary young men (age, 21-29 years) participated in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to RT group (n=9), ET group (n=10) or control group (n=10). The experimental groups performed either RT or ET, 3 days a week for 8 weeks. The endurance training program included continuous running at an intensity corresponding to 65-80% of maximal heart rate, while resistance training consisted of 2-4 sets of circuit weight training for 8 stations and at an intensity corresponding to 65-80% of 1-RM in each station. No significant changes in the body mass, BMI, body fat percentage and WHR were found after the RT and ET. The results showed that Lcn2 decreased after RT and ET compared with the control group (Presistance determined by HOMA-IR, did not change in the RT and ET compared with the control group. Lcn2 decreases after 8 weeks RT and ET, but this improvement was not accompanied by decreased hs-CRP and insulin resistance in healthy and sedentary young men.

  9. Effects of resistance training associated with whey protein supplementation on liver and kidney biomarkers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ramiro; Silva, Priscila; Alves, Jadson; Stefani, Giuseppe; Petry, Marcelo; Rhoden, Cláudia; Dal Lago, Pedro; Schneider, Claudia Dornelles

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of whey protein (WP) supplementation and resistance training (RT) on liver and kidney biomarkers. The sedentary + WP group showed higher levels of plasma liver and kidney dysfunction markers compared with the other groups. In addition, WP supplementation associated with RT resulted in physiologic cardiac hypertrophy. WP supplementation without RT affected liver and kidney function.

  10. Older Adults' Perceived Changes in Physical Self-Worth Associated with Resistance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Rylee A.; Cannon, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Using Sonstroem, Harlow, and Josephs' (1994) expanded version of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM; Sonstroem & Morgan, 1989), we explored how 9 older adults (6 women and 3 men, aged 65-72 years) involved in a resistance training program experienced and perceived changes in physical self-worth (i.e., improved strength, functional…

  11. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Resistance Training on Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SantaBarbara, Nicholas J; Whitworth, James W; Ciccolo, Joseph T

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to identify and appraise the literature that has specifically tested the independent effects of resistance training (i.e., weightlifting) on body image in adults. A comprehensive search of electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, PsycNET, and Web of Science for relevant studies published in peer-reviewed journals through December 2016 was conducted, and PRISMA guidelines were followed. Inclusion criteria were that a study had to be (a) written in English, (b) published in a peer-reviewed journal, (c) conducted an assessment of body image using a validated scale before and after a stand-alone resistance training intervention (i.e., not coupled with another mode of treatment), and (d) excluded participants younger than 18 years. Methodological quality was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. A total of 7,324 studies were identified, and 11 were included in this review. The majority (8 of 11) of studies concluded that resistance training can significantly improve multiple dimensions of body image, including body satisfaction, appearance evaluation, and social physique anxiety; however, only 3 studies were considered high quality based on their PEDro score, and several methodological limitations exist. Overall, resistance training seems to have the potential to improve body image in adults, but future high-quality studies with more rigorous testing methods and study designs are needed.

  12. Effects of Heavy Squat Training on a Vibration Platform on Maximal Strength and Jump Performance in Resistance-Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Roger L; Linton, Joshua T; Hammer, Adam M

    2018-03-06

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine maximal strength and jump performance outcomes of heavy squat training on a low-amplitude (<1.0 mm peak-to-peak) vibration platform (VP). Nineteen recreationally resistance-trained college-aged men (22.3 ± 1.66 years) completed the 6-week study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: SQT (n = 10) performed conventional back squats on the floor; SQTV (n = 9) performed back squats on the VP. Supervised training took place over 12 sessions (2 days/week) which utilized an aggressive strength development protocol (85-95 % 1-RM), which was identically followed by both groups. After the intervention, both groups showed (via t-test) a marked increase (p < 0.001) in 1-RM squat strength (SQT = 34.5 kg vs SQTV = 36.2 kg), but there was no significant difference (via mixed ANOVA) between groups (p = 0.875). Standing broad jump performance increased by an average of 5-6 cm, but was not significantly changed in either group (SQT; p = 0.199, SQTV; p = 0.087). In conclusion, squats performed with whole body vibration (WBV) were not superior to conventional squats with respect to maximal strength and jump performance outcomes. It appears that there was no additive effect of superimposed WBV training in strength beyond that caused by strength training alone. This study can help strength conditioning professionals and athletes make an informed decision on whether to invest in a VP and use WBV as an alternative or a complementary mode of training.

  13. Vascular remodeling in response to 12 wk of upper arm unilateral resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeller, Robert F; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Thompson, Benjamin C; Wenta, Marlene R; Price, Thomas B; Thompson, Paul D; Moyna, Niall M; Seip, Richard L; Clarkson, Priscilla M; Gordon, Paul M; Pescatello, Linda S; Devaney, Joseph M; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Hoffman, Eric P; Visich, Paul S

    2009-11-01

    Participation in regular aerobic exercise has been shown to increase arterial size and that exercise-induced vascular remodeling may be regional rather than systemic. However, these issues have been minimally investigated concerning resistance training. To determine whether 1) resistance training of the nondominant arm elicits an increase in diameter of the brachial artery and 2) unilateral training induces arterial remodeling in the contralateral arm. Twenty-four previously untrained participants, consisting of 18 females (aged 22.3 +/- 5.1 yr) and 6 males (aged 21.7 +/- 1.8 yr), participated in unilateral strength training of the biceps and triceps for 12 wk using their nondominant arm. Isotonic (one-repetition maximum, 1RM) and isometric (ISO) strength of the biceps were assessed before and after training on both arms. Brachial artery diameter and biceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of both arms were also measured before and after training using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brachial artery diameter increased 5.47% (P change observed in the dominant untrained arm. Biceps CSA increased 18.3% (P change (P > 0.05) in the untrained limb. Nondominant 1RM and ISO strength increased by 35.1% and 16.8%, respectively (P changes (P > 0.05) in the contralateral arm. A modest correlation was found between the increases in CSA and in brachial artery diameter (r2 = 0.19, P = 0.039). These results indicate that upper arm vascular remodeling, manifesting as increased brachial artery diameter, can result from resistance training and that these changes are localized to the trained limb and associated with increases in CSA.

  14. Effects of fast-velocity eccentric resistance training on early and late rate of force development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Corvino, Rogério Bulhões; Caputo, Fabrizio; Aagaard, Per; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether short-term maximal resistance training employing fast-velocity eccentric knee extensor actions would induce improvements in maximal isometric torque and rate of force development (RFD) at early (100 ms) of rising torque. Twenty healthy men were assigned to two experimental groups: eccentric resistance training (TG) or control (CG). Participants on the TG trained three days a week for a total of eight weeks. Training consisted of maximal unilateral eccentric knee extensors actions performed at 180 °s-1. Maximal isometric knee extensor torque (MVC) and incremental RFD in successive 50 ms time-windows from the onset contraction were analysed in absolute terms (RFDINC) or when normalised relative to MVC (RFDREL). After eight weeks, TG demonstrated increases in MVC (28%), RFDINC (0-50 ms: 30%; 50-100 ms: 31%) and RFDREL (0-50 ms: 29%; 50-100 ms: 32%). Moreover, no changes in the late phase of incremental RFD were observed in TG. No changes were found in the CG. In summary, we have demonstrated, in active individuals, that a short period of resistance training performed with eccentric fast-velocity isokinetic muscle contractions is able to enhance RFDINC and RFDREL obtained at the early phase of rising joint torque.

  15. Single- and multiple-set resistance training improves skeletal and respiratory muscle strength in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahin, Odilon; Rodrigues, Rejane P; Nascimento, Vanderson C; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo E; Sousa, Evitom C; Marçal, Anderson C

    2014-01-01

    Aging involves a progressive reduction of respiratory muscle strength as well as muscle strength. Compare the effects of resistance training volume on the maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), functional performance, and muscle strength in elderly women. Thirty elderly women were randomly assigned to a group performing either single sets (1-SET) or three sets (3-SET) of exercises. The sit-to-stand test, MIP, MEP, and muscle strength were assessed before and after 24 training sessions. Progressive resistance training was performed two times per week for a total of 8-12 repetitions, using the main muscle groups of the upper and lower limbs. The main results showed that the participants significantly increased their MEP (Ptraining sessions, muscle strength also significantly increased (Ptraining programs increased MIP, MEP, muscle strength, and sit-to-stand test performance in elderly women after 24 sessions of training. In conclusion, our results suggested that elderly women who are not in the habit of physical activity may start with single-set resistance training programs as a short-term strategy for the maintenance of health.

  16. Design and preliminary evaluation of an exoskeleton for upper limb resistance training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzong-Ming; Chen, Dar-Zen

    2012-06-01

    Resistance training is a popular form of exercise recommended by national health organizations, such as the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA). This form of training is available for most populations. A compact design of upper limb exoskeleton mechanism for homebased resistance training using a spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton with a three degree-of-freedom shoulder joint and a one degree-of-freedom elbow joint allows a patient or a healthy individual to move the upper limb with multiple joints in different planes. It can continuously increase the resistance by adjusting the spring length to train additional muscle groups and reduce the number of potential injuries to upper limb joints caused by the mass moment of inertia of the training equipment. The aim of this research is to perform a preliminary evaluation of the designed function by adopting an appropriate motion analysis system and experimental design to verify our prototype of the exoskeleton and determine the optimal configuration of the spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton.

  17. A Randomized Trial Comparing Two Tongue-Pressure Resistance Training Protocols for Post-Stroke Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M; Bayley, Mark T; Peladeau-Pigeon, Melanie; Nagy, Ahmed; Namasivayam, Ashwini M; Stokely, Shauna L; Wolkin, Talia

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of two tongue resistance training protocols. One protocol ("tongue-pressure profile training") emphasized the pressure-timing patterns that are typically seen in healthy swallows by focusing on gradual pressure release and saliva swallowing tasks. The second protocol ("tongue-pressure strength and accuracy training") emphasized strength and accuracy in tongue-palate pressure generation and did not include swallowing tasks. A prospective, randomized, parallel allocation trial was conducted. Of 26 participants who were screened for eligibility, 14 received up to 24 sessions of treatment. Outcome measures of posterior tongue strength, oral bolus control, penetration-aspiration and vallecular residue were made based on videofluoroscopy analysis by blinded raters. Complete data were available for 11 participants. Significant improvements were seen in tongue strength and post-swallow vallecular residue with thin liquids, regardless of treatment condition. Stage transition duration (a measure of the duration of the bolus presence in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation, which had been chosen to capture impairments in oral bolus control) showed no significant differences. Similarly, significant improvements were not seen in median scores on the penetration-aspiration scale. This trial suggests that tongue strength can be improved with resistance training for individuals with tongue weakness following stroke. We conclude that improved penetration-aspiration does not necessarily accompany improvements in tongue strength; however, tongue-pressure resistance training does appear to be effective for reducing thin liquid vallecular residue.

  18. ACTN3 R577X POLYMORPHISM AND NEUROMUSCULAR RESPONSE TO RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gentil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The R577X polymorphism at the ACTN3 gene has been associated with muscle strength, hypertrophy and athletic status. The X allele, which is associated with the absence of ACTN3 protein is supposed to impair performance of high force/velocity muscle contractions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association of the R577X polymorphism with the muscle response to resistance training in young men. One hundred forty one men performed two resistance training sessions per week for 11 weeks. Participants were tested for 1RM bench press, knee extensors peak torque, and knee extensors muscle thickness at baseline and after the training period. Genotyping was conducted using de DdeI restriction enzyme. Genotype distribution was 34.4% for RR, 47% for RX and 18.6% for the XX genotype. According to the results, the R577X polymorphism at the ACTN3 gene is not associated with baseline muscle strength or with the muscle strength response to resistance training. However, only carriers of the R allele showed increases in muscle thickness in response to training

  19. Effects of electrode material and configuration on the characteristics of planar resistive switching devices

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, H.Y.

    2013-11-13

    We report that electrode engineering, particularly tailoring the metal work function, measurement configuration and geometric shape, has significant effects on the bipolar resistive switching (RS) in lateral memory devices based on self-doped SrTiO3 (STO) single crystals. Metals with different work functions (Ti and Pt) and their combinations are used to control the junction transport (either ohmic or Schottky-like). We find that the electric bias is effective in manipulating the concentration of oxygen vacancies at the metal/STO interface, influencing the RS characteristics. Furthermore, we show that the geometric shapes of electrodes (e.g., rectangular, circular, or triangular) affect the electric field distribution at the metal/oxide interface, thus plays an important role in RS. These systematic results suggest that electrode engineering should be deemed as a powerful approach toward controlling and improving the characteristics of RS memories. 2013 Author(s).

  20. Prolonged adaptation to fat-rich diet and training; effects on body fat stores and insulin resistance in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effect of prolonged adaptation to training and fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on body composition and insulin resistance.......To investigate the effect of prolonged adaptation to training and fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on body composition and insulin resistance....

  1. 49 CFR 232.407 - Operations requiring use of two-way end-of-train devices; prohibition on purchase of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... employee in the caboose and the engineer on the head end of the train establish and maintain two-way voice...-train device is installed on the train or an alternative method of initiating an emergency brake... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operations requiring use of two-way end-of-train...

  2. Effects of Thermal Resistance on One-Dimensional Thermal Analysis of the Epidermal Flexible Electronic Devices Integrated with Human Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Cui, Yun

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, flexible electronic devices are increasingly used in direct contact with human skin to monitor the real-time health of human body. Based on the Fourier heat conduction equation and Pennes bio-heat transfer equation, this paper deduces the analytical solutions of one - dimensional heat transfer for flexible electronic devices integrated with human skin under the condition of a constant power. The influence of contact thermal resistance between devices and skin is considered as well. The corresponding finite element model is established to verify the correctness of analytical solutions. The results show that the finite element analysis agrees well with the analytical solution. With bigger thermal resistance, temperature increase of skin surface will decrease. This result can provide guidance for the design of flexible electronic devices to reduce the negative impact that exceeding temperature leave on human skin.

  3. The lung cancer exercise training study: a randomized trial of aerobic training, resistance training, or both in postsurgical lung cancer patients: rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford Jeffrey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lung Cancer Exercise Training Study (LUNGEVITY is a randomized trial to investigate the efficacy of different types of exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak, patient-reported outcomes, and the organ components that govern VO2peak in post-operative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Methods/Design Using a single-center, randomized design, 160 subjects (40 patients/study arm with histologically confirmed stage I-IIIA NSCLC following curative-intent complete surgical resection at Duke University Medical Center (DUMC will be potentially eligible for this trial. Following baseline assessments, eligible participants will be randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (1 aerobic training alone, (2 resistance training alone, (3 the combination of aerobic and resistance training, or (4 attention-control (progressive stretching. The ultimate goal for all exercise training groups will be 3 supervised exercise sessions per week an intensity above 70% of the individually determined VO2peak for aerobic training and an intensity between 60 and 80% of one-repetition maximum for resistance training, for 30-45 minutes/session. Progressive stretching will be matched to the exercise groups in terms of program length (i.e., 16 weeks, social interaction (participants will receive one-on-one instruction, and duration (30-45 mins/session. The primary study endpoint is VO2peak. Secondary endpoints include: patient-reported outcomes (PROs (e.g., quality of life, fatigue, depression, etc. and organ components of the oxygen cascade (i.e., pulmonary function, cardiac function, skeletal muscle function. All endpoints will be assessed at baseline and postintervention (16 weeks. Substudies will include genetic studies regarding individual responses to an exercise stimulus, theoretical determinants of exercise adherence, examination of the psychological mediators of the exercise - PRO relationship, and exercise-induced changes

  4. A numerical analysis and experimental demonstration of a low degradation conductive bridge resistive memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berco, Dan; Chand, Umesh; Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates a low degradation metal-ion conductive bridge RAM (CBRAM) structure. The structure is based on placing a diffusion blocking layer (DBL) between the device's top electrode (TE) and the resistive switching layer (RSL), unlike conventional CBRAMs, where the TE serves as a supply reservoir for metallic species diffusing into the RSL to form a conductive filament (CF) and is kept in direct contact with the RSL. The properties of a conventional CBRAM structure (Cu/HfO2/TiN), having a Cu TE, 10 nm HfO2 RSL, and a TiN bottom electrode, are compared with a 2 nm TaN DBL incorporating structure (Cu/TaN/HfO2/TiN) for 103 programming and erase simulation cycles. The low and high resistive state values for each cycle are calculated and the analysis reveals that adding the DBL yields lower degradation. In addition, the 2D distribution plots of oxygen vacancies, O ions, and Cu species within the RSL indicate that oxidation occurring in the DBL-RSL interface results in the formation of a sub-stoichiometric tantalum oxynitride with higher blocking capabilities that suppresses further Cu insertion beyond an initial CF formation phase, as well as CF lateral widening during cycling. The higher endurance of the structure with DBL may thus be attributed to the relatively low amount of Cu migrating into the RSL during the initial CF formation. Furthermore, this isomorphic CF displays similar cycling behavior to neural ionic channels. The results of numerical analysis show a good match to experimental measurements of similar device structures as well.

  5. Ground Reaction Force and Mechanical Differences Between the Interim Resistive Exercise Device (iRED) and Smith Machine While Performing a Squat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonette, William E.; Bentley, Jason R.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Loehr, James A.; Schneider, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Musculoskeletal unloading in microgravity has been shown to induce losses in bone mineral density, muscle cross-sectional area, and muscle strength. Currently, an Interim Resistive Exercise Device (iRED) is being flown on board the ISS to help counteract these losses. Free weight training has shown successful positive musculoskeletal adaptations. In biomechanical research, ground reaction forces (GRF) trajectories are used to define differences between exercise devices. The purpose of this evaluation is to quantify the differences in GRF between the iRED and free weight exercise performed on a Smith machine during a squat. Due to the differences in resistance properties, inertial loading and load application to the body between the two devices, we hypothesize that subjects using iRED will produce GRF that are significantly different from the Smith machine. There will be differences in bar/harness range of motion and the time when peak GRF occurred in the ROMbar. Three male subjects performed three sets of ten squats on the iRED and on the Smith Machine on two separate days at a 2-second cadence. Statistically significant differences were found between the two devices in all measured GRF variables. Average Fz and Fx during the Smith machine squat were significantly higher than iRED. Average Fy (16.82 plus or minus.23; p less than .043) was significantly lower during the Smith machine squat. The mean descent/ascent ratio of the magnitude of the resultant force vector of all three axes for the Smith machine and iRED was 0.95 and 0.72, respectively. Also, the point at which maximum Fz occurred in the range of motion (Dzpeak) was at different locations with the two devices.

  6. Effect of brief daily resistance training on rapid force development in painful neck and shoulder muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Schraefel, Mc; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training on rapid force development of painful neck/shoulder muscles. METHODS: 198 generally healthy adults with frequent neck/shoulder muscle pain (mean: age 43.1 years, computer use 93% of work time, 88% women......, duration of pain 186 day during the previous year) were randomly allocated to 2- or 12 min of daily progressive resistance training with elastic tubing or to a control group receiving weekly information on general health. A blinded assessor took measures at baseline and at 10-week follow-up; participants...... relationship existed between changes in rapid force development and pain (r = 0.27, Presistance training in adults with frequent neck/shoulder pain increases rapid force development and...

  7. Resistance (weight lifting) training in an adolescent with McArdle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Benítez, Sergio; Fleck, Steven J; Naclerio, Fernando; Martín, Miguel Angel; Lucia, Alejandro

    2013-06-01

    Owing to the risk of severe rhabdomyolysis, clinicians advise McArdle disease patients to refrain from strenuous exercise, particularly weight lifting. A 15-year-old male McArdle disease patient performed a 6-week, supervised, light- to moderate-intensity (~65-70% of one-repetition-maximum) resistance (weight lifting) training program (2 sessions/week). Training resulted in ~27% and ~6% increase in one-repetition-maximum bench press and multipower squat performance while inducing no myoglobinuria. The patient changed to a lower disease severity class, that is, he became virtually asymptomatic in terms of exercise limitations. The authors' preliminary data suggest that supervised, light to moderate resistance training is feasible in children with McArdle disease and has potential clinical benefits.

  8. Resistance training improves muscle strength and functional capacity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Stenager, E; Jakobsen, J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that lower extremity progressive resistance training (PRT) can improve muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to evaluate whether the improvements are maintained after the trial. METHODS: The present study was a 2-arm...... and was afterward encouraged to continue training. After the trial, the control group completed the PRT intervention. Both groups were tested before and after 12 weeks of the trial and at 24 weeks (follow-up), where isometric muscle strength of the knee extensors (KE MVC) and functional capacity (FS; combined score...... strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis, the effects persisting after 12 weeks of self-guided physical activity. Level of evidence: The present study provides level III evidence supporting the hypothesis that lower extremity progressive resistance training can improve muscle...

  9. Explosive heavy-resistance training in old and very old adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caserotti, Paolo; Aagaard, P; Buttrup Larsen, J

    2008-01-01

    Age-related decline in muscle power predicts falls, motor impairments and disability. Recent guidelines suggested that training programs should be tailored to maximize muscle power. This study investigated the effects of 12 weeks of explosive-type heavy-resistance training (75-80% of 1 repetition......% in TG80 and TG60, respectively, while jump peak power increased in TG60 (5%). Finally, LEP increased 28% in TG80 and 12% in TG60. These findings demonstrate that explosive-type heavy-resistance training seems to be safe and well tolerated in healthy women even in the eighth decade of life and elicits...... adaptive neuromuscular changes in selected physiological variables that are commonly associated with the risk of falls and disability in aged individuals....

  10. An economic evaluation of resistance training and aerobic training versus balance and toning exercises in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Davis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI represents a critical window to intervene against dementia. Exercise training is a promising intervention strategy, but the efficiency (i.e., relationship of costs and consequences of such types of training remains unknown. Thus, we estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness of resistance training or aerobic training compared with balance and tone exercises in terms of changes in executive cognitive function among senior women with probable MCI. METHODS: Economic evaluation conducted concurrently with a six-month three arm randomized controlled trial including eighty-six community dwelling women aged 70 to 80 years living in Vancouver, Canada. Participants received twice-weekly resistance training (n = 28, twice weekly aerobic training (n = 30 or twice-weekly balance and tone (control group classes (n = 28 for 6 months. The primary outcome measure of the Exercise for Cognition and Everyday Living (EXCEL study assessed executive cognitive function, a test of selective attention and conflict resolution (i.e., Stroop Test. We collected healthcare resource utilization costs over six months. RESULTS: Based on the bootstrapped estimates from our base case analysis, we found that both the aerobic training and resistance training interventions were less costly than twice weekly balance and tone classes. Compared with the balance and tone group, the resistance-training group had significantly improved performance on the Stroop Test (p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance training and aerobic training result in health care cost saving and are more effective than balance and tone classes after only 6 months of intervention. Resistance training is a promising strategy to alter the trajectory of cognitive decline in seniors with MCI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00958867.

  11. Longer Interset Rest Periods Enhance Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Resistance-Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Pope, Zachary K; Benik, Franklin M; Hester, Garrett M; Sellers, John; Nooner, Josh L; Schnaiter, Jessica A; Bond-Williams, Katherine E; Carter, Adrian S; Ross, Corbin L; Just, Brandon L; Henselmans, Menno; Krieger, James W

    2016-07-01

    Schoenfeld, BJ, Pope, ZK, Benik, FM, Hester, GM, Sellers, J, Nooner, JL, Schnaiter, JA, Bond-Williams, KE, Carter, AS, Ross, CL, Just, BL, Henselmans, M, and Krieger, JW. Longer interset rest periods enhance muscle strength and hypertrophy in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1805-1812, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short rest intervals normally associated with hypertrophy-type training versus long rest intervals traditionally used in strength-type training on muscular adaptations in a cohort of young, experienced lifters. Twenty-one young resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a group that performed a resistance training (RT) program with 1-minute rest intervals (SHORT) or a group that employed 3-minute rest intervals (LONG). All other RT variables were held constant. The study period lasted 8 weeks with subjects performing 3 total body workouts a week comprised 3 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM) of 7 different exercises per session. Testing was performed prestudy and poststudy for muscle strength (1RM bench press and back squat), muscle endurance (50% 1RM bench press to failure), and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, triceps brachii, and quadriceps femoris by ultrasound imaging. Maximal strength was significantly greater for both 1RM squat and bench press for LONG compared to SHORT. Muscle thickness was significantly greater for LONG compared to SHORT in the anterior thigh, and a trend for greater increases was noted in the triceps brachii (p = 0.06) as well. Both groups saw significant increases in local upper body muscle endurance with no significant differences noted between groups. This study provides evidence that longer rest periods promote greater increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy in young resistance-trained men.

  12. Online video-based resistance training improves the physical capacity of junior basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusemann, Markus J; Pyne, David B; Fay, Tristan S; Drinkwater, Eric J

    2012-10-01

    Junior basketball athletes require a well-designed resistance training program to improve their physical development. Lack of expert supervision and resistance training in junior development pathways may be overcome by implementing an online video-based program. The aim of this study was to compare the magnitude of improvement (change) in physical performance and strength and functional movement patterns of junior basketball athletes using either a fully supervised or an online video-based resistance training program. Thirty-eight junior basketball athletes (males, n = 17; age, 14 ± 1 year; height, 1.79 ± 0.10 m; mass, 67 ± 12 kg; females, n = 21; age, 15 ± 1 year; height, 1.70 ± 0.07 m; mass, 62 ± 8 kg) were randomly assigned into a supervised resistance training group (SG, n = 13), video training group (VG, n = 13) or control group (CG, n = 12) and participated in a 6-week controlled experimental trial. Pre- and posttesting included measures of physical performance (20-m sprint, step-in vertical jump, agility, sit and reach, line drill, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1), strength (15 s push-up and pull-up), and functional movement screening (FMS). Both SG and VG achieved 3-5% ± 2-4% (mean ± 90% confidence limits) greater improvements in several physical performance measures (vertical jump height, 20-m sprint time, and Yo-Yo endurance performance) and a 28 ± 21% greater improvement in push-up strength compared with the CG. The SG attained substantially larger gains in FMS scores over both the VG (12 ± 10%) and CG (13 ± 8%). Video-based training appears to be a viable option to improve physical performance and strength in junior basketball athletes. Qualified supervision is recommended to improve functional movement patterns in junior athletes.

  13. Investigation of the Hydrogen Silsesquioxane (HSQ) Electron Resist as Insulating Material in Phase Change Memory Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiao; Ji, Hongkai; Lan, Tian; Yan, Junbing; Zhou, Wenli; Miao, Xiangshui

    2015-01-01

    Phase change random access memory (PCRAM) affords many advantages over conventional solid-state memories due to its nonvolatility, high speed, and scalability. However, high programming current to amorphize the crystalline phase through the melt-quench process of PCRAM, known as the RESET current, poses a critical challenge and has become the most significant obstacle for its widespread commercialization. In this work, an excellent negative tone resist for high resolution electron beam lithography, hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ), has been investigated as the insulating material which locally blocks the contact between the bottom electrode and the phase change material in PCRAM devices. Fabrications of the highly scaled HSQ nanopore arrays (as small as 16 nm) are presented. The insulating properties of the HSQ material are studied, especially under e-beam exposure plus thermal curing. Some other critical issues about the thickness adjustment of HSQ films and the influence of the PCRAM electrode on electron scattering in e-beam lithography are discussed. In addition, the HSQ material was successfully integrated into the PCRAM devices, achieving ultra-low RESET current (sub-100 μA), outstanding on/off ratios (~50), and improved endurance at tens of nanometers.

  14. The acute satellite cell response and skeletal muscle hypertrophy following resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Leeann M; Joanisse, Sophie; Grubb, Amanda; Mitchell, Cameron J; McKay, Bryon R; Phillips, Stuart M; Baker, Steven; Parise, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The extent of skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance training is highly variable in humans. The main objective of this study was to explain the nature of this variability. More specifically, we focused on the myogenic stem cell population, the satellite cell (SC) as a potential mediator of hypertrophy. Twenty-three males (aged 18-35 yrs) participated in 16 wk of progressive, whole body resistance training, resulting in changes of 7.9±1.6% (range of -1.9-24.7%) and 21.0±4.0% (range of -7.0 to 51.7%) in quadriceps volume and myofibre cross-sectional area (CSA), respectively. The SC response to a single bout of resistance exercise (80% 1RM), analyzed via immunofluorescent staining resulted in an expansion of type II fibre associated SC 72 h following exercise (pre: 11.3±0.9; 72 h: 14.8±1.4 SC/type II fibre; pchange in type I associated SC 24 to 72 hours following an acute bout of resistance exercise and the percentage increase in quadriceps lean tissue mass assessed by MRI (r2 = 0.566, p = 0.012) and the relative change in type II associated SC following 16 weeks of resistance training and the percentage increase in quadriceps lean tissue mass assessed by MRI (r2 = 0.493, p = 0.027). Our results suggest that the SC response to resistance exercise is related to the extent of muscular hypertrophy induced by training.

  15. Semiconductor-Free Nonvolatile Resistive Switching Memory Devices Based on Metal Nanogaps Fabricated on Flexible Substrates via Adhesion Lithography

    KAUST Repository

    Semple, James

    2017-01-02

    Electronic memory cells are of critical importance in modern-day computing devices, including emerging technology sectors such as large-area printed electronics. One technology that has being receiving significant interest in recent years is resistive switching primarily due to its low dimensionality and nonvolatility. Here, we describe the development of resistive switching memory device arrays based on empty aluminum nanogap electrodes. By employing adhesion lithography, a low-temperature and large-area compatible nanogap fabrication technique, dense arrays of memory devices are demonstrated on both rigid and flexible plastic substrates. As-prepared devices exhibit nonvolatile memory operation with stable endurance, resistance ratios >10⁴ and retention times of several months. An intermittent analysis of the electrode microstructure reveals that controlled resistive switching is due to migration of metal from the electrodes into the nanogap under the application of an external electric field. This alternative form of resistive random access memory is promising for use in emerging sectors such as large-area electronics as well as in electronics for harsh environments, e.g., space, high/low temperature, magnetic influences, radiation, vibration, and pressure.

  16. Swiss ball abdominal crunch with added elastic resistance is an effective alternative to training machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Christoffer H; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Lars L

    2012-08-01

    Swiss ball training is recommended as a low intensity modality to improve joint position, posture, balance, and neural feedback. However, proper training intensity is difficult to obtain during Swiss ball exercises whereas strengthening exercises on machines usually are performed to induce high level of muscle activation. To compare muscle activation as measured by electromyography (EMG) of global core and thigh muscles during abdominal crunches performed on Swiss ball with elastic resistance or on an isotonic training machine when normalized for training intensity. 42 untrained individuals (18 men and 24 women) aged 28-67 years participated in the study. EMG activity was measured in 13 muscles during 3 repetitions with a 10 RM load during both abdominal crunches on training ball with elastic resistance and in the same movement utilizing a training machine (seated crunch, Technogym, Cesena, Italy). The order of performance of the exercises was randomized, and EMG amplitude was normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) EMG. When comparing between muscles, normalized EMG was highest in the rectus abdominis (Pexercises.

  17. Muscular and systemic correlates of resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Bellamy, Leeann; Parise, Gianni; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2013-01-01

    To determine relationships between post-exercise changes in systemic [testosterone, growth hormone (GH), insulin like grow factor 1 (IGF-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)], or intramuscular [skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR) protein content and p70S6K phosphorylation status] factors in a moderately-sized cohort of young men exhibiting divergent resistance training-mediated muscle hypertrophy. Twenty three adult males completed 4 sessions•wk⁻¹ of resistance training for 16 wk. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period and acutely 1 and 5 h after the first training session. Serum hormones and cytokines were measured immediately, 15, 30 and 60 minutes following the first and last training sessions of the study. Mean fiber area increased by 20% (range: -7 to 80%; Pmuscle fiber hypertrophy; however, the magnitude of the post exercise IL-6 response was correlated with muscle hypertrophy (r=0.48, P=0.019). Post-exercise increases in circulating hormones are not related to hypertrophy following training. Exercise-induced changes in IL-6 correlated with hypertrophy, but the mechanism for the role of IL-6 in hypertrophy is not known. Acute increases, in p70S6K phosphorylation and changes in muscle AR protein content correlated with muscle hypertrophy implicating intramuscular rather than systemic processes in mediating hypertrophy.

  18. Progressive resistance, whole body long-axis rotational training improves kicking motion motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, John; Love, Matthew; Burden, Robert; Krupp, Ryan; Caborn, David N M

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate lower extremity muscle activation, peak resultant ground reaction force (GRF) production and quickness during performance of a kicking motion following progressive resistance, whole body long-axis rotational training. Randomized, controlled study. Kinesiological research laboratory. Thirty-six healthy subjects were assigned to a training (Group 1) or to a control (Group 2) group. Time-synchronized EMG (1000 Hz), peak resultant GRF (1000 Hz) and two-dimensional kinematic (60 Hz) data were collected as subjects responded to an audio cue by kicking a cone. Group mean change differences (MCD) were compared using independent sample t-tests. Fisher's exact tests were used to determine group differences in the proportion of subjects that displayed earlier activation responses post-training. Group 1 MCD revealed earlier gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, medial hamstrings, and biceps femoris activation timing than Group 2 (P ≤ 0.006) and more Group 1 subjects displayed earlier activation of these muscles post-training (P ≤ 0.041). Group 1 MCD also revealed earlier peak resultant GRF timing and improved "kick quickness" than Group 2 (P ≤ 0.014) and more Group 1 subjects displayed earlier response timing for these variables post-training (P = 0.035). Progressive resistance, whole body long-axis rotational training may improve performance during sports movements that require quick, integrated trunk-lower extremity function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Myofibrillar disruption following acute concentric and eccentric resistance exercise in strength-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibala, M J; Interisano, S A; Tarnopolsky, M A; Roy, B D; MacDonald, J R; Yarasheski, K E; MacDougall, J D

    2000-08-01

    We have previously quantified the extent of myofibrillar disruption which occurs following an acute bout of resistance exercise in untrained men, however the response of well-trained subjects is not known. We therefore recruited six strength-trained men, who ceased training for 5 days and then performed 8 sets of 8 uni-lateral repetitions, using a load equivalent to 80% of their concentric (Con) 1-repetition maximum. One arm performed only Con actions by lifting the weight and the other arm performed only eccentric actions (Ecc) by lowering it. Needle biopsy samples were obtained from biceps brachii of each arm approximately 21 h following exercise, and at baseline (i.e., after 5 days without training), and subsequently analyzed using electron microscopy to quantify myofibrillar disruption. A greater (P 0.05) from baseline values. The proportion of disrupted fibres and the magnitude of disruption (quantified by sarcomere counting) was considerably less severe than previously observed in untrained subjects after an identical exercise bout. Mixed muscle protein synthesis, assessed from approximately 21-29 h post-exercise, was not different between the Con- and Ecc-exercised arms. We conclude that the Ecc phase of resistance exercise is most disruptive to skeletal muscle and that training attenuates the severity of this effect. Moreover, it appears that fibre disruption induced by habitual weightlifting exercise is essentially repaired after 5 days of inactivity in trained men.

  20. Upgraded flowing liquid lithium limiter for improving Li coverage uniformity and erosion resistance in EAST device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, G. Z.; Hu, J. S.; Maingi, R.; Yang, Q. X.; Sun, Z.; Huang, M.; Chen, Y.; Yuan, X. L.; Meng, X. C.; Xu, W.; Gentile, C.; Carpe, A.; Diallo, A.; Lunsford, R.; Mansfield, D.; Osborne, T.; Tritz, K.; Li, J. G.

    2017-12-01

    We report on design and technology improvements for a flowing liquid lithium (FLiLi) limiter inserted into auxiliary heated discharges in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak device. In order to enhance Li coverage uniformity and erosion resistance, a new liquid Li distributor with homogenous channels was implemented. In addition, two independent electromagnetic pumps and a new horizontal capillary structure contributed to an improvement in the observed Li flow uniformity (from 30% in the previous FLiLi design to >80% in this FLiLi design). To improve limiter surface erosion resistance, hot isostatic press technology was applied, which improved the thermal contact between thin stainless steel protective layers covering the Cu heat sink. The thickness of the stainless steel layer was increased from 0.1 mm to 0.5 mm, which also helped macroscopic erosion resilience. Despite the high auxiliary heating power up to 4.5 MW, no Li bursts were recorded from FLiLi, underscoring the improved performance of this new design.

  1. Shape optimization for the subsidence resistance of an interbody device using simulation-based genetic algorithms and experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Chi

    2013-07-01

    Subsidence of interbody devices into the vertebral body might result in serious clinical problems, especially when the devices are not well designed and analyzed. Recently, some novel designs were proposed to reduce the risk of subsidence, but those designs are based on the researcher's experience. The purpose of this study was to discover the interbody device design with excellent subsidence resistance by changing the device's shape. The three-dimensional nonlinear finite element models, which consisted of the interbody device and vertebral body, were created first. Then, the simulation-based genetic algorithm, which combined the finite element model and the searching algorithm, was developed by using ANSYS® Parametric Design Language. Finally, the numerical results were carefully validated with the use of biomechanical tests. The optimum shape design obtained in this study looks like a flower with many petals and it has excellent subsidence resistance when compared with the other designs provided by the past studies. The results of the present study could help surgeons to understand the subsidence resistance of interbody devices in terms of their shapes and has directly provided the design rationales to engineers. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  2. Mirror training to augment cross-education during resistance training : a hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howatson, Glyn; Zult, Tjerk; Farthing, Jonathan P.; Zijdewind, Inge; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    2013-01-01

    Resistance exercise has been shown to be a potent stimulus for neuromuscular adaptations. These adaptations are not confined to the exercising muscle and have been consistently shown to produce increases in strength and neural activity in the contralateral, homologous resting muscle; a phenomenon

  3. Stroke Rehabilitation in Frail Elderly with the Robotic Training Device ACRE: A Randomized Controlled Trial and Cost-Effectiveness Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoone, M.; Dusseldorp, E.; Akker-van Marle, M.E. van den; Doornebosch, A.J.; Bal, R.; Meems, A.; Oderwald, M.P.; Balen, R. van

    2011-01-01

    The ACRE (ACtive REhabilitation) robotic device is developed to enhance therapeutic treatment of upper limbs after stroke. The aim of this study is to assess effects and costs of ACRE training for frail elderly patients and to establish if ACRE can be a valuable addition to standard therapy in

  4. 49 CFR 232.405 - Design and performance standards for two-way end-of-train devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unit of the device shall activate the emergency air valve at the rear of the train within one second... rear unit, on receipt of a properly coded command, shall open a valve in the brake line and hold it open for a minimum of 15 seconds. This opening of the valve shall cause the brake line to vent to the...

  5. Analysis of Wearable and Smartphone-Based Technologies for the Measurement of Barbell Velocity in Different Resistance Training Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Marchante, David; Baz-Valle, Eneko; Alonso-Molero, Iván; Jiménez, Sergio L; Muñóz-López, Mario

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the validity, reliability, and accuracy of new wearable and smartphone-based technology for the measurement of barbell velocity in resistance training exercises. To do this, 10 highly trained powerlifters (age = 26.1 ± 3.9 years) performed 11 repetitions with loads ranging 50-100% of the 1-Repetition maximum in the bench-press, full-squat, and hip-thrust exercises while barbell velocity was simultaneously measured using a linear transducer (LT), two Beast wearable devices (one placed on the subjects' wrist -BW-, and the other one directly attached to the barbell -BB-) and the iOS PowerLift app. Results showed a high correlation between the LT and BW ( r = 0.94-0.98, SEE = 0.04-0.07 m•s -1 ), BB ( r = 0.97-0.98, SEE = 0.04-0.05 m•s -1 ), and the PowerLift app ( r = 0.97-0.98, SEE = 0.03-0.05 m•s -1 ) for the measurement of barbell velocity in the three exercises. Paired samples T -test revealed systematic biases between the LT and BW, BB and the app in the hip-thrust, between the LT and BW in the full-squat and between the LT and BB in the bench-press exercise ( p barbell velocity in the bench-press, full-squat, and hip-thrust exercises. These results could have potential practical applications for strength and conditioning coaches who wish to measure barbell velocity during resistance training.

  6. Stroke Rehabilitation in Frail Elderly with the Robotic Training Device ACRE: A Randomized Controlled Trial and Cost-Effectiveness Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schoone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ACRE (ACtive REhabilitation robotic device is developed to enhance therapeutic treatment of upper limbs after stroke. The aim of this study is to assess effects and costs of ACRE training for frail elderly patients and to establish if ACRE can be a valuable addition to standard therapy in nursing home rehabilitation. The study was designed as randomized controlled trial, one group receiving therapy as usual and the other receiving additional ACRE training. Changes in motor abilities, stroke impact, quality of life and emotional well-being were assessed. In total, 24 patients were included. In this small number no significant effects of the ACRE training were found. A large number of 136 patients were excluded. Main reasons for exclusion were lack of physiological or cognitive abilities. Further improvement of the ACRE can best be focused on making the system suitable for self-training and development of training software for activities of daily living.

  7. Engineering Silver Nanowire Networks: From Transparent Electrodes to Resistive Switching Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Haiwei; Wan, Tao; Qu, Bo; Cao, Fuyang; Lin, Qianru; Chen, Nan; Lin, Xi; Chu, Dewei

    2017-06-21

    Metal nanowires (NWs) networks with high conductance have shown potential applications in modern electronic components, especially the transparent electrodes over the past decade. In metal NW networks, the electrical connectivity of nanoscale NW junction can be modulated for various applications. In this work, silver nanowire (Ag NW) networks were selected to achieve the desired functions. The Ag NWs were first synthesized by a classic polyol process, and spin-coated on glass to fabricate transparent electrodes. The as-fabricated electrode showed a sheet resistance of 7.158 Ω □ -1 with an optical transmittance of 79.19% at 550 nm, indicating a comparable figure of merit (FOM, or Φ TC ) (13.55 × 10 -3 Ω -1 ). Then, two different post-treatments were designed to tune the Ag NWs for not only transparent electrode but also for threshold resistive switching (RS) application. On the one hand, the Ag NW film was mechanically pressed to significantly improve the conductance by reducing the junction resistance. On the other hand, an Ag@AgO x core-shell structure was deliberately designed by partial oxidation of Ag NWs through simple ultraviolet (UV)-ozone treatment. The Ag core can act as metallic interconnect and the insulating AgO x shell acts as a switching medium to provide a conductive pathway for Ag filament migration. By fabricating Ag/Ag@AgO x /Ag planar structure, a volatile threshold switching characteristic was observed and an on/off ratio of ∼100 was achieved. This work showed that through different post-treatments, Ag NW network can be engineered for diverse functions, transforming from transparent electrodes to RS devices.

  8. Effects of Resistance Training on Serum Level of Reproductive Hormones and Sperm Parameters in Type 2 Diabetes Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Parastesh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with reductions in fertility indices. Resistance training, on the other hand, through reducing the adverse effects of diabetes, exerts a positive impact on diabetic individuals. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of ten weeks of resistance training on serum levels of reproductive hormones and sperm parameters in Wistar rats with diabetes mellitus type 2. Materials and Methods:In this experimental study, 36 Wistar rats with mean weight of 200±50 were ran-domly assigned to healthy control, diabetic control and diabetic training groups. The diabetic resistance training group received ten weeks of resistance training (climbing up the ladder following the induction of diabetes. Twenty-four hours after the last training session, left epididymis of the rats was examined for studying sperm parameters and blood serum samples were examined for evaluating reproductive hormones. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Turkey’s Post Hoc test at 0.05%. Results: Ten weeks of resistance training induced significant increases in serum testosterone and FSH levels in the resistance training group in comparison to the diabetic group (p<0.007.Resistance training did not have any significant effects on serum LH levels in the resistance training group compared to the diabetic control group. In ad-dition, sperm parameters (sperm count, survival rate and motility presented significant improvements compared to the diabetic group(p<0.05. Conclusion: Resistance training can improve sperm parameters, including sperm count, survival rate and motility, through increasing serum testosterone, LH and FSH levels (reproductive hormones in rats with diabetes mellitus type 2.

  9. Interactions of cortisol, testosterone, and resistance training: influence of circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lawrence D; Bickerstaff, Gordon F; Baker, Julien S

    2010-06-01

    Diurnal variation of sports performance usually peaks in the late afternoon, coinciding with increased body temperature. This circadian pattern of performance may be explained by the effect of increased core temperature on peripheral mechanisms, as neural drive does not appear to exhibit nycthemeral variation. This typical diurnal regularity has been reported in a variety of physical activities spanning the energy systems, from Adenosine triphosphate-phosphocreatine (ATP-PC) to anaerobic and aerobic metabolism, and is evident across all muscle contractions (eccentric, isometric, concentric) in a large number of muscle groups. Increased nerve conduction velocity, joint suppleness, increased muscular blood flow, improvements of glycogenolysis and glycolysis, increased environmental temperature, and preferential meteorological conditions may all contribute to diurnal variation in physical performance. However, the diurnal variation in strength performance can be blunted by a repeated-morning resistance training protocol. Optimal adaptations to resistance training (muscle hypertrophy and strength increases) also seem to occur in the late afternoon, which is interesting, since cortisol and, particularly, testosterone (T) concentrations are higher in the morning. T has repeatedly been linked with resistance training adaptation, and higher concentrations appear preferential. This has been determined by suppression of endogenous production and exogenous supplementation. However, the cortisol (C)/T ratio may indicate the catabolic/anabolic environment of an organism due to their roles in protein degradation and protein synthesis, respectively. The morning elevated T level (seen as beneficial to achieve muscle hypertrophy) may be counteracted by the morning elevated C level and, therefore, protein degradation. Although T levels are higher in the morning, an increased resistance exercise-induced T response has been found in the late afternoon, suggesting greater

  10. Acute L-arginine alpha ketoglutarate supplementation fails to improve muscular performance in resistance trained and untrained men

    OpenAIRE

    Wax Benjamin; Kavazis Andreas N; Webb Heather E; Brown Stanley P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Dietary supplements containing L-arginine are marketed to improve exercise performance, but the efficacy of such supplements is not clear. Therefore, this study examined the efficacy of acute ingestion of L-arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG) muscular strength and endurance in resistance trained and untrained men. Methods Eight resistance trained and eight untrained healthy males ingested either 3000mg of AAKG or a placebo 45 minutes prior to a resistance exercise protocol...

  11. Multi-step resistive switching behavior of Li-doped ZnO resistance random access memory device controlled by compliance current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Cheng [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Mathematic and Physical Sciences, R.O.C. Air Force Academy, Kaohsiung 820, Taiwan (China); Tang, Jian-Fu; Su, Hsiu-Hsien [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Hong, Cheng-Shong; Huang, Chih-Yu [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Chu, Sheng-Yuan, E-mail: chusy@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2016-06-28

    The multi-step resistive switching (RS) behavior of a unipolar Pt/Li{sub 0.06}Zn{sub 0.94}O/Pt resistive random access memory (RRAM) device is investigated. It is found that the RRAM device exhibits normal, 2-, 3-, and 4-step RESET behaviors under different compliance currents. The transport mechanism within the device is investigated by means of current-voltage curves, in-situ transmission electron microscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is shown that the ion transport mechanism is dominated by Ohmic behavior under low electric fields and the Poole-Frenkel emission effect (normal RS behavior) or Li{sup +} ion diffusion (2-, 3-, and 4-step RESET behaviors) under high electric fields.

  12. Multi-step resistive switching behavior of Li-doped ZnO resistance random access memory device controlled by compliance current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chun-Cheng; Tang, Jian-Fu; Su, Hsiu-Hsien; Hong, Cheng-Shong; Huang, Chih-Yu; Chu, Sheng-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The multi-step resistive switching (RS) behavior of a unipolar Pt/Li 0.06 Zn 0.94 O/Pt resistive random access memory (RRAM) device is investigated. It is found that the RRAM device exhibits normal, 2-, 3-, and 4-step RESET behaviors under different compliance currents. The transport mechanism within the device is investigated by means of current-voltage curves, in-situ transmission electron microscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It is shown that the ion transport mechanism is dominated by Ohmic behavior under low electric fields and the Poole-Frenkel emission effect (normal RS behavior) or Li + ion diffusion (2-, 3-, and 4-step RESET behaviors) under high electric fields.

  13. EFFECT OF AEROBIC EXERCISE, RESISTANCE TRAINING OR COMBINED TRAINING ON GLYCAEMIC CONTROL AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mobasseri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has been proven as a useful intervention for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The purpose of this article was to compare the effects of aerobic exercise alone and resistance training alone as well as the combination of aerobic plus resistance training on glycaemic control, cardiovascular risk factors, and body composition in patients with T2DM. Eighty T2DM participants (37 men, 43 women, aged 33-69 years, were randomly divided in equal numbers (n=20 into one of four groups (aerobic, resistance, combined training, and control. Exercise training was performed three times per week for 52 weeks. After one year, 60 subjects (15 subjects in each group were entered into the statistical analysis. Seventeen parameters were evaluated. Mean HbA1c showed statistically significant reductions in the three training groups. All subjects of training groups experienced improvement in postprandial glucose, blood pressure, VO2max, and muscular percentage. Furthermore, the reduced concentration of plasma triglycerides was significant in both aerobic exercise and combined training groups. Also, a significant reduction was observed in body fat percentage in resistance and combined groups. Combination of two forms of exercise training led to an additional improvement in some of the parameters such as A1c and triglycerides compared with aerobic alone or resistance training alone. In general, the reported results in previous studies were not obtained for whole lipid profile and BMI. Both aerobic and resistance training are effective interventions for the management of T2DM complications, but combined training is associated with greater positive changes.

  14. Effect of brief daily resistance training on occupational neck/shoulder muscle activity in office workers with chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Mark; Jensen, Rene B; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study investigates the acute and longitudinal effects of resistance training on occupational muscle activity in office workers with chronic pain. METHODS: 30 female office workers with chronic neck and shoulder pain participated for 10 weeks in high-intensity elastic resistance...... training for 2 minutes per day (n = 15) or in control receiving weekly email-based information on general health (n = 15). Electromyography (EMG) from the splenius and upper trapezius was recorded during a normal workday. RESULTS: Adherence to training and control interventions were 86% and 89......%, respectively. Compared with control, training increased isometric muscle strength 6% (P training. By contrast, at 10-week follow...

  15. Effects and prevalence of nonresponders after 12 weeks of high-intensity interval or resistance training in women with insulin resistance: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Cristian; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effects and prevalence of nonresponders (NR) to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and resistance training (RT) in women with insulin resistance on cardiometabolic health parameters. Sedentary overweight/obese insulin-resistant women (age = 33.5 ± 6.5 yr; body mass index = 29.9 ± 3.7 kg/m 2 ) were randomly assigned to a triweekly HIIT program (HIIT; n = 18) or resistance training (RT; n = 17). Anthropometry (body mass, fat mass, muscle mass, waist circumference, and skinfold thickness), cardiovascular (blood pressure), metabolic [fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], as well as muscle strength, and endurance performance covariables were measured before and after 12 wk in both intervention groups. The interindividual variability to exercise training of the subjects was categorized as responders and NR using as cut points two times the typical error of measurement in mean outcomes. After intervention, significant reduction in waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, fat mass, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR ( P training. A uniqueness of the present study was to examine the NR prevalence in women with insulin resistance after high-intensity interval (HIIT) and resistance training (RT). This study demonstrates that 12 wk of HIIT and RT have similar effects and NR prevalence to improve glucose control variables. However, significantly different NR prevalence were observed in other anthropometric, cardiovascular, strength, and endurance performance measurements. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Resistance Training With Ankle Weight Cuffs Is Feasible in Patients With Acute Exacerbation of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Linette Marie; Døssing, Martin; Steentoft, Johnna

    2017-01-01

    -extension strength, the Sit-to-Stand (STS) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) tests. RESULTS: The training load increased progressively by a mean (standard deviation) of 54% ± 41% (when calculated on an individual basis), from a mean of 6.5 ± 3.3 to 9.2 ± 3.5 kg over the course of 5.6 ± 2.3 training days (P ...-extension strength improved by a mean of 12% (P = .02), whereas the TUG and STS test performances improved by 11% (P = .001) and 19% (P = .03), respectively. Ninety-eight percent of the planned training sessions were completed with no side effects. CONCLUSIONS: Progressive resistance training with ankle weight cuffs...

  17. High-intensity resistance and cardiovascular training improve physical capacity in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist, Morten; Rørth, Mikael Rahbek; Zacho, Morten

    2006-01-01

    .62+/-13.42 kg, post: 73.25+/-13.44 kg, P=0.016). There was a significant decrease in skin-fold measurements by 3% (P=0.031). The exercise intervention was well tolerated, provided that daily screening criteria were adhered to. The effects of resistance and cardiovascular training observed in this short......The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of a supervised high- and low-intensity structured training program in cancer patients concurrently undergoing chemotherapy. Seventy patients, in different stages of the disease and with different diagnoses (48 females, 22 males), between 18...... and 65 years of age (mean age 42.8) participated in a 9-h weekly training program over 6 weeks. The intervention involved physical exercise, relaxation, massage, and body-awareness training. Physical capacity (one-repetition maximum tests (1RM), VO2max) and body composition (weight, skin-fold) were...

  18. Delayed Effect of Blood Flow-restricted Resistance Training on Rapid Force Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Lindberg; Frandsen, Ulrik; Prokhorova, Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and time course of high-frequent low-load blood flow-restricted (BFR) resistance training on rapid force capacity (i.e., rate of torque development [RTD]). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten male subjects (22.8 ± 2.3 yr) performed four...... sets of knee extensor exercise (20% one-repetition maximum) to concentric failure during concurrent BFR of the thigh (100 mm Hg), and eight work-matched controls (21.9 ± 3.0 yr) trained without BFR (CON). Twenty-three training sessions were performed within 19 d. Maximal slow and fast knee joint...... in myofiber area and expression of myocellular proteins known to be modified by cellular stress (CaMKII, annexin A6, SNO-CYS). RESULTS: RTD remained unchanged after BFR training at Post5, while increasing 15%-20% Post12 (P