WorldWideScience

Sample records for resistance surveys conducted

  1. Conduction Mechanism of Valence Change Resistive Switching Memory: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee Wah Lim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistive switching effect in transition metal oxide (TMO based material is often associated with the valence change mechanism (VCM. Typical modeling of valence change resistive switching memory consists of three closely related phenomena, i.e., conductive filament (CF geometry evolution, conduction mechanism and temperature dynamic evolution. It is widely agreed that the electrochemical reduction-oxidation (redox process and oxygen vacancies migration plays an essential role in the CF forming and rupture process. However, the conduction mechanism of resistive switching memory varies considerably depending on the material used in the dielectric layer and selection of electrodes. Among the popular observations are the Poole-Frenkel emission, Schottky emission, space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC, trap-assisted tunneling (TAT and hopping conduction. In this article, we will conduct a survey on several published valence change resistive switching memories with a particular interest in the I-V characteristic and the corresponding conduction mechanism.

  2. Electrical Resistivity Survey For Conductive Soils At Gas Turbine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten (10) vertical electrical soundings (VES) using Schlumberger configuration were carried out to delineate subsurface conductive soils for the design of earthling grid for electrical materials installation at the Gas Turbine Station, Ajaokuta, SW Nigeria. Interpretation of the resistivity data revealed three major geoelectric ...

  3. Logistics report on a resistivity survey, conducted on behalf of Sandia Laboratories, July 14--September 4, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R.S.

    1979-02-01

    Geophysical surveys were conducted in the desert terrain on and around the Los Medanos WIPP study area east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. A total of sixteen Schlumberger vertical electrical soundings (VES) and three pole--dipole profile lines were completed. Equipment, field procedures, and field experience are reported. Uncorrected VES curves, pole--dipole apparent resistivity profiles, and field data are presented. 5 figures

  4. Conducting online surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selm, M. van; Jankowski, N.W.

    2006-01-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) is increasingly being used as a tool and platform for survey research. Two types of electronic or online surveys available for data collection are the email and Web based survey, and they constitute the focus of this paper. We address a multitude of issues researchers should

  5. Conducting a Withdrawal Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Sue; Rowley, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    A survey at Edge Hill College of Higher Education in Canada, designed to be part of the mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the quality of the student experience, revealed that key factors influencing withdrawal were: course not as expected, traveling difficulties, institution not as expected, domestic difficulties, and financial difficulties.…

  6. Antimicrobial resistance in leprosy: results of the first prospective open survey conducted by a WHO surveillance network for the period 2009-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambau, E; Saunderson, P; Matsuoka, M; Cole, S T; Kai, M; Suffys, P; Rosa, P S; Williams, D; Gupta, U D; Lavania, M; Cardona-Castro, N; Miyamoto, Y; Hagge, D; Srikantam, A; Hongseng, W; Indropo, A; Vissa, V; Johnson, R C; Cauchoix, B; Pannikar, V K; Cooreman, E A W D; Pemmaraju, V R R; Gillini, L

    2018-03-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a priority for surveillance in bacterial infections. For leprosy, AMR has not been assessed because Mycobacterium leprae does not grow in vitro. We aim to obtain AMR data using molecular detection of resistance genes and to conduct a prospective open survey of resistance to antileprosy drugs in countries where leprosy is endemic through a WHO surveillance network. From 2009 to 2015, multi-bacillary leprosy cases at sentinel sites of 19 countries were studied for resistance to rifampicin, dapsone and ofloxacin by PCR sequencing of the drug-resistance-determining regions of the genes rpoB, folP1 and gyrA. Among 1932 (1143 relapse and 789 new) cases studied, 154 (8.0%) M. leprae strains were found with mutations conferring resistance showing 182 resistance traits (74 for rifampicin, 87 for dapsone and 21 for ofloxacin). Twenty cases showed rifampicin and dapsone resistance, four showed ofloxacin and dapsone resistance, but no cases were resistant to rifampicin and ofloxacin. Rifampicin resistance was observed among relapse (58/1143, 5.1%) and new (16/789, 2.0%) cases in 12 countries. India, Brazil and Colombia reported more than five rifampicin-resistant cases. This is the first study reporting global data on AMR in leprosy. Rifampicin resistance emerged, stressing the need for expansion of surveillance. This is also a call for vigilance on the global use of antimicrobial agents, because ofloxacin resistance probably developed in relation to the general intake of antibiotics for other infections as it is not part of the multidrug combination used to treat leprosy. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Conducting Web-based Surveys.

    OpenAIRE

    David J. Solomon

    2001-01-01

    Web-based surveying is becoming widely used in social science and educational research. The Web offers significant advantages over more traditional survey techniques however there are still serious methodological challenges with using this approach. Currently coverage bias or the fact significant numbers of people do not have access, or choose not to use the Internet is of most concern to researchers. Survey researchers also have much to learn concerning the most effective ways to conduct s...

  8. NSTA Conducts Nuclear Energy Survey for AIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1972

    1972-01-01

    A survey conducted to determine teacher's instructional resources, methods, materials, and attitudes toward various uses of nuclear energy resulted in nearly one thousand science teachers throughout the nation responding. Results of survey are presented and five recommendations for action are made. (DF)

  9. Using Electronic Mail to Conduct Survey Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Liz

    1995-01-01

    Describes public and private online networks and the characteristics of electronic mail. Reviews the literature on survey research conducted via electronic mail, and examines the issues of design, implementation, and response. A table displays advantages and disadvantages of electronic mail surveys. (AEF)

  10. Resistive flex sensors: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saggio, Giovanni; Riillo, Francesco; Sbernini, Laura; Quitadamo, Lucia Rita

    2016-01-01

    Resistive flex sensors can be used to measure bending or flexing with relatively little effort and a relatively low budget. Their lightness, compactness, robustness, measurement effectiveness and low power consumption make these sensors useful for manifold applications in diverse fields. Here, we provide a comprehensive survey of resistive flex sensors, taking into account their working principles, manufacturing aspects, electrical characteristics and equivalent models, useful front-end conditioning circuitry, and physic-bio-chemical aspects. Particular effort is devoted to reporting on and analyzing several applications of resistive flex sensors, related to the measurement of body position and motion, and to the implementation of artificial devices. In relation to the human body, we consider the utilization of resistive flex sensors for the measurement of physical activity and for the development of interaction/interface devices driven by human gestures. Concerning artificial devices, we deal with applications related to the automotive field, robots, orthosis and prosthesis, musical instruments and measuring tools. The presented literature is collected from different sources, including bibliographic databases, company press releases, patents, master’s theses and PhD theses. (topical review)

  11. Resistive flex sensors: a survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggio, Giovanni; Riillo, Francesco; Sbernini, Laura; Quitadamo, Lucia Rita

    2016-01-01

    Resistive flex sensors can be used to measure bending or flexing with relatively little effort and a relatively low budget. Their lightness, compactness, robustness, measurement effectiveness and low power consumption make these sensors useful for manifold applications in diverse fields. Here, we provide a comprehensive survey of resistive flex sensors, taking into account their working principles, manufacturing aspects, electrical characteristics and equivalent models, useful front-end conditioning circuitry, and physic-bio-chemical aspects. Particular effort is devoted to reporting on and analyzing several applications of resistive flex sensors, related to the measurement of body position and motion, and to the implementation of artificial devices. In relation to the human body, we consider the utilization of resistive flex sensors for the measurement of physical activity and for the development of interaction/interface devices driven by human gestures. Concerning artificial devices, we deal with applications related to the automotive field, robots, orthosis and prosthesis, musical instruments and measuring tools. The presented literature is collected from different sources, including bibliographic databases, company press releases, patents, master’s theses and PhD theses.

  12. The Relative Utility of Skin Resistance and Skin Conductance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barland, Gordon

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of two circuits (constant current = skin resistance; constant voltage = skin conductance) used for measuring electrodermal activity during a psychophysiological detection of deception...

  13. Use of Internet panels to conduct surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Ron D; Liu, Honghu; Kapteyn, Arie

    2015-09-01

    The use of Internet panels to collect survey data is increasing because it is cost-effective, enables access to large and diverse samples quickly, takes less time than traditional methods to obtain data for analysis, and the standardization of the data collection process makes studies easy to replicate. A variety of probability-based panels have been created, including Telepanel/CentERpanel, Knowledge Networks (now GFK KnowledgePanel), the American Life Panel, the Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Sciences panel, and the Understanding America Study panel. Despite the advantage of having a known denominator (sampling frame), the probability-based Internet panels often have low recruitment participation rates, and some have argued that there is little practical difference between opting out of a probability sample and opting into a nonprobability (convenience) Internet panel. This article provides an overview of both probability-based and convenience panels, discussing potential benefits and cautions for each method, and summarizing the approaches used to weight panel respondents in order to better represent the underlying population. Challenges of using Internet panel data are discussed, including false answers, careless responses, giving the same answer repeatedly, getting multiple surveys from the same respondent, and panelists being members of multiple panels. More is to be learned about Internet panels generally and about Web-based data collection, as well as how to evaluate data collected using mobile devices and social-media platforms.

  14. Using tensorial electrical resistivity survey to locate fault systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro Santos, Fernando A; Plancha, João P; Marques, Jorge; Perea, Hector; Cabral, João; Massoud, Usama

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of the tensorial resistivity method for fault orientation and macroanisotropy characterization. The rotational properties of the apparent resistivity tensor are presented using 3D synthetic models representing structures with a dominant direction of low resistivity and vertical discontinuities. It is demonstrated that polar diagrams of the elements of the tensor are effective in delineating those structures. As the apparent resistivity tensor shows great inefficacy in investigating the depth of the structures, it is advised to accomplish tensorial surveys with the application of other geophysical methods. An experimental example, including tensorial, dipole–dipole and time domain surveys, is presented to illustrate the potentiality of the method. The dipole–dipole model shows high-resistivity contrasts which were interpreted as corresponding to faults crossing the area. The results from the time domain electromagnetic (TEM) sounding show high-resistivity values till depths of 40–60 m at the north part of the area. In the southern part of the survey area the soundings show an upper layer with low-resistivity values (around 30 Ω m) followed by a more resistive bedrock (resistivity >100 Ω m) at a depth ranging from 15 to 30 m. The soundings in the central part of the survey area show more variability. A thin conductive overburden is followed by a more resistive layer with resistivity in the range of 80–1800 Ω m. The north and south limits of the central part of the area as revealed by TEM survey are roughly E–W oriented and coincident with the north fault scarp and the southernmost fault detected by the dipole–dipole survey. The pattern of the polar diagrams calculated from tensorial resistivity data clearly indicates the presence of a contact between two blocks at south of the survey area with the low-resistivity block located southwards. The presence of other two faults is not so clear from the polar diagram patterns, but

  15. Drug resistance in Mexico: results from the National Survey on Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojorquez-Chapela, I; Bäcker, C E; Orejel, I; López, A; Díaz-Quiñonez, A; Hernández-Serrato, M I; Balandrano, S; Romero, M; Téllez-Rojo Solís, M M; Castellanos, M; Alpuche, C; Hernández-Ávila, M; López-Gatell, H

    2013-04-01

    To present estimations obtained from a population-level survey conducted in Mexico of prevalence rates of mono-, poly- and multidrug-resistant strains among newly diagnosed cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), as well as the main factors associated with multidrug resistance (combined resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin). Study data came from the National Survey on TB Drug Resistance (ENTB-2008), a nationally representative survey conducted during 2008-2009 in nine states with a stratified cluster sampling design. Samples were obtained for all newly diagnosed cases of pulmonary TB in selected sites. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed for anti-tuberculosis drugs. DST results were obtained for 75% of the cases. Of these, 82.2% (95%CI 79.5-84.7) were susceptible to all drugs. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) was estimated at 2.8% (95%CI 1.9-4.0). MDR-TB was associated with previous treatment (OR 3.3, 95%CI 1.1-9.4). The prevalence of drug resistance is relatively low in Mexico. ENTB-2008 can be used as a baseline for future follow-up of drug resistance.

  16. Manual for conducting radiological surveys in support of license termination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, J.D.

    1992-06-01

    This document describes a process for conducting radiological surveys during decommissioning, to demonstrate that residual radioactive material satisfies criteria established by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for termination of a license. The Manual describes procedures for design and conduct of surveys in a manner which will provide a high degree of assurance that NRC guidelines and conditions have been satisfied. The Manual also describes methods for documenting the survey findings in a final report to the NRC. This Manual updates information contained in NUREG/CR-2082, Monitoring for Compliance with Decommissioning Termination Survey Criteria, (ORNL 1981). It incorporates statistical approaches to survey design and data interpretation used by the Environmental Protection Agency for evaluation of hazardous materials sites under Superfund (CERCLA). Quality assurance is emphasized throughout. (author)

  17. Leaching of Conductive Species: Implications to Measurements of Electrical Resistivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spragg, R; Jones, S; Bu, Y; Lu, Y; Bentz, D; Snyder, K; Weiss, J

    2017-05-01

    Electrical tests have been used to characterize the microstructure of porous materials, the measured electrical response being determined by the contribution of the microstructure (porosity and tortuosity) and the electrical properties of the solution (conductivity of the pore solution) inside the pores of the material. This study has shown how differences in concentration between the pore solution (i.e., the solution in the pores) and the storage solution surrounding the test specimen leads to significant transport (leaching) of the conductive ionic species between the pore solution and the storage solution. Leaching influences the resistivity of the pore solution, thereby influencing electrical measurements on the bulk material from either a surface or uniaxial bulk resistance test. This paper has three main conclusions: 1.) Leaching of conductive species does occur with concentration gradients and that a diffusion based approach can be used to estimate the time scale associated with this change. 2.) Leaching of ions in the pore solution can influence resistivity measurements, and the ratio of surface to uniaxial resistivity can be used as a method to assess the presence of leaching and 3.) An estimation of the magnitude of leaching for standardized tests of cementitious materials.

  18. Designing and conducting survey research a comprehensive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Rea, Louis M

    2014-01-01

    The industry standard guide, updated with new ideas and SPSS analysis techniques Designing and Conducting Survey Research: A Comprehensive Guide Fourth Edition is the industry standard resource that covers all major components of the survey process, updated to include new data analysis techniques and SPSS procedures with sample data sets online. The book offers practical, actionable guidance on constructing the instrument, administrating the process, and analyzing and reporting the results, providing extensive examples and worksheets that demonstrate the appropriate use of survey and data tech

  19. Virtual resistive network and conductivity reconstruction with Faraday's law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min Gi; Ko, Min-Su; Kim, Yong-Jung

    2014-01-01

    A network-based conductivity reconstruction method is introduced using the third Maxwell equation, or Faraday's law, for a static case. The usual choice in electrical impedance tomography is the divergence-free equation for the electrical current density. However, if the electrical current density is given, the curl-free equation for the electrical field gives a direct relation between the current and the conductivity and this relation is used in this paper. Mimetic discretization is applied to the equation, which gives the virtual resistive network system. Properties of the numerical schemes introduced are investigated and their advantages over other conductivity reconstruction methods are discussed. Numerically simulated results, with an analysis of noise propagation, are presented. (paper)

  20. A survey of anthelmintic resistance on ten sheep farms in Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey to detect anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep was conducted on 10 randomly-distributed farms in the Chivhu District, Mashonaland East Province, Zimbabwe. Before the survey, a questionnaire was circulated to the farmers concerning nematode parasite control. Results showed that parasite control using anthelmintic treatment was the only method practised and that the benzimidazoles were the most frequently used anthelmintic drugs. The faecal egg count reduction test was used to detect resistance. The anthelmintic groups tested were benzimidazoles, levamisole and ivermectin. Resistance to benzimidazoles was detected on 6 of 10 farms and levamisole resistance on 2 of 3 farms. Ivermectin resistance was not observed on the farms surveyed. Post-treatment larval cultures indicated that Haemonchus contortus survived administration of fenbendazole, albendazole, oxfendazole and levamisole. A Cooperia sp. strain resistant to albendazole was detected and this is the first report in Zimbabwe of a resistant parasite in this genus.

  1. Geophysical monitoring of simulated graves with resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, conductivity and GPR in Colombia, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Carlos Martin; Pringle, Jamie K; Saumett, Miguel; Evans, Gethin T

    2016-04-01

    In most Latin American countries there are significant numbers of both missing people and forced disappearances, ∼71,000 Colombia alone. Successful detection of buried human remains by forensic search teams can be difficult in varying terrain and climates. Three clandestine burials were simulated at two different depths commonly encountered in Latin America. In order to gain critical knowledge of optimum geophysical detection techniques, burials were monitored using: ground penetrating radar, magnetic susceptibility, bulk ground conductivity and electrical resistivity up to twenty-two months post-burial. Radar survey results showed good detection of modern 1/2 clothed pig cadavers throughout the survey period on 2D profiles, with the 250MHz antennae judged optimal. Both skeletonised and decapitated and burnt human remains were poorly imaged on 2D profiles with loss in signal continuity observed throughout the survey period. Horizontal radar time slices showed good anomalies observed over targets, but these decreased in amplitude over the post-burial time. These were judged due to detecting disturbed grave soil rather than just the buried targets. Magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity were successful at target detection in contrast to bulk ground conductivity surveys which were unsuccessful. Deeper burials were all harder to image than shallower ones. Forensic geophysical surveys should be undertaken at suspected burial sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Geo electrical Resistivity Survey for Ancient Tunnel Detection at Bukit Tenggek, Setiu, Terengganu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Nazira Masrom; Mohd Hariri Arifin; Abd Rahim Harun; Abdul Rahim Samsudin

    2011-01-01

    Geo electrical resistivity survey was conducted in the Bukit Tenggek, Setiu, Terengganu to detect the possible existence of an ancient tunnel which is believed to be in the area. Geo electrical resistivity method was found very effective in searching for archaeological exploration and underground structures (tunnels and artifacts). Geo electrical resistivity survey was carried out using Terrameter ABEM SAS1000 and Wenner array electrode configuration. The survey area is located in a damp valley with a stream across the region. 2-D resistivity image showed the existence of anomalies in several areas that can be associated with the structure. Low resistivity value represents the estimated existence of the old tunnel, while isolated rounded anomalies are believed to be associated with barrels/artifacts. 3-D resistivity profiles, shows anomalies that may be caused by the existence of a horizontal and two vertical tunnels (shaft). However, the drillings work need to be done to figure out the exact cause of these anomalies. (author)

  3. The Trauma Center Organizational Culture Survey: development and conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Matthew L; Wehbe-Janek, Hania; Subacius, Haris; Pinto, Ruxandra; Nathens, Avery B

    2015-01-01

    The Trauma Center Organizational Culture Survey (TRACCS) instrument was developed to assess organizational culture of trauma centers enrolled in the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Program (ACS TQIP). The objective is to provide evidence on the psychometric properties of the factors of TRACCS and describe the current organizational culture of TQIP-enrolled trauma centers. A cross-sectional study was conducted by surveying a sampling of employees at 174 TQIP-enrolled trauma centers. Data collection was preceded by multistep survey development. Psychometric properties were assessed by an exploratory factor analysis (construct validity) and the item-total correlations and Cronbach alpha were calculated (internal reliability). Statistical outcomes of the survey responses were measured by descriptive statistics and mixed effect models. The response rate for trauma center participation in the study was 78.7% (n = 137). The factor analysis resulted in 16 items clustered into three factors as described: opportunity, pride, and diversity, trauma center leadership, and employee respect and recognition. TRACCS was found to be highly reliable with a Cronbach alpha of 0.90 in addition to the three factors (0.91, 0.90, and 0.85). Considerable variability of TRACCS overall and factor score among hospitals was measured, with the largest interhospital deviations among trauma center leadership. More than 80% of the variability in the responses occurred within rather than between hospitals. TRACCS was developed as a reliable tool for measuring trauma center organizational culture. Relationships between TQIP outcomes and measured organizational culture are under investigation. Trauma centers could apply TRACCS to better understand current organizational culture and how change tools can impact culture and subsequent patient and process outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Magnetoresistance Behavior of Conducting Filaments in Resistive-Switching NiO with Different Resistance States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Diyang; Qiao, Shuang; Luo, Yuxiang; Chen, Aitian; Zhang, Pengfei; Zheng, Ping; Sun, Zhong; Guo, Minghua; Chiang, Fu-Kuo; Wu, Jian; Luo, Jianlin; Li, Jianqi; Kokado, Satoshi; Wang, Yayu; Zhao, Yonggang

    2017-03-29

    The resistive switching (RS) effect in various materials has attracted much attention due to its interesting physics and potential for applications. NiO is an important system and its RS effect has been generally explained by the formation/rupture of Ni-related conducting filaments. These filaments are unique since they are formed by an electroforming process, so it is interesting to explore their magnetoresistance (MR) behavior, which can also shed light on unsolved issues such as the nature of the filaments and their evolution in the RS process, and this behavior is also important for multifunctional devices. Here, we focus on MR behavior in NiO RS films with different resistance states. Rich and interesting MR behaviors have been observed, including the normal and anomalous anisotropic magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance, which provide new insights into the nature of the filaments and their evolution in the RS process. First-principles calculation reveals the essential role of oxygen migration into the filaments during the RESET process and can account for the experimental results. Our work provides a new avenue for exploration of the conducting filaments in resistive switching materials and is significant for understanding the mechanism of RS effect and multifunctional devices.

  5. Simulation of variation of apparent resistivity in resistivity surveys using finite difference modelling with Monte Carlo analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, E. E.; Karchewski, B.

    2017-12-01

    DC resistivity surveying is a geophysical method that quantifies the electrical properties of the subsurface of the earth by applying a source current between two electrodes and measuring potential differences between electrodes at known distances from the source. Analytical solutions for a homogeneous half-space and simple subsurface models are well known, as the former is used to define the concept of apparent resistivity. However, in situ properties are heterogeneous meaning that simple analytical models are only an approximation, and ignoring such heterogeneity can lead to misinterpretation of survey results costing time and money. The present study examines the extent to which random variations in electrical properties (i.e. electrical conductivity) affect potential difference readings and therefore apparent resistivities, relative to an assumed homogeneous subsurface model. We simulate the DC resistivity survey using a Finite Difference (FD) approximation of an appropriate simplification of Maxwell's equations implemented in Matlab. Electrical resistivity values at each node in the simulation were defined as random variables with a given mean and variance, and are assumed to follow a log-normal distribution. The Monte Carlo analysis for a given variance of electrical resistivity was performed until the mean and variance in potential difference measured at the surface converged. Finally, we used the simulation results to examine the relationship between variance in resistivity and variation in surface potential difference (or apparent resistivity) relative to a homogeneous half-space model. For relatively low values of standard deviation in the material properties (<10% of mean), we observed a linear correlation between variance of resistivity and variance in apparent resistivity.

  6. The Effect of Tensile Hysteresis and Contact Resistance on the Performance of Strain-Resistant Elastic-Conductive Webbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien-Wei Shyr

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To use e-textiles as a strain-resistance sensor they need to be both elastic and conductive. Three kinds of elastic-conductive webbings, including flat, tubular, and belt webbings, made of Lycra fiber and carbon coated polyamide fiber, were used in this study. The strain-resistance properties of the webbings were evaluated in stretch-recovery tests and measured within 30% strain. It was found that tensile hysteresis and contact resistance significantly influence the tensile elasticity and the resistance sensitivity of the webbings. The results showed that the webbing structure definitely contributes to the tensile hysteresis and contact resistance. The smaller the friction is among the yarns in the belt webbing, the smaller the tensile hysteresis loss. However the close proximity of the conductive yarns in flat and tubular webbings results in a lower contact resistance.

  7. Physicians’ knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions concerning antibiotic resistance: a survey in a Ghanaian tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appiah-Korang Labi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the knowledge, attitudes and practices of physicians towards antibiotic resistance is key to developing interventions aimed at behavior change. The survey aimed to investigate physicians’ knowledge and attitudes towards antibiotic resistance in a tertiary-care hospital setting in Ghana. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional respondent-driven survey using a 40-item, anonymous, voluntary, traditional paper-and-pencil self-administered questionnaire among 159 physicians at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Single and multi-factor analysis were conducted to assess the study objectives. Results The survey was completed by 159 of 200 physicians (response rate of 79.5%. Of physicians, 30.1% (47/156 perceived antibiotic resistance as very important global problem, 18.5% (29/157 perceived it as very important national problem and only 8.9% (14/157 thought it as a very important problem in their hospital. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most known about antibiotic resistant bacteria of public health importance followed by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE and vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE. In multiple logistic regression analysis, senior physicians were nearly 3 times more likely to know about CRE than junior physicians. The odds of knowing about VRE increased over 4.5 times from being a junior to becoming senior physician. Among junior physicians, age had no associated effect on their knowledge of VRE or CRE. Conclusions Physicians in this survey showed variable knowledge and perceptions on antibiotic resistance. Introducing educational programs on antibiotic resistance would be a useful intervention and should focus on junior physicians.

  8. Efficiency of workplace surveys conducted by Finnish occupational health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinainen, Minna; Oksa, Panu

    2011-07-01

    In Finland, workplace surveys are used to identify and assess health risks and problems caused by work and make suggestions for continuous improvement of the work environment. With the aid of the workplace survey, occupational health services can be tailored to a company. The aims of this study were to determine how occupational health professionals gather data via the workplace survey and the effect survey results have on companies. A total of 259 occupational health nurses and 108 occupational health physicians responded to the questionnaire: 84.2% were women and 15.8% were men. The mean age of the respondents was 48.8 years (range, 26 to 65 years). Usually occupational health nurses and foremen and sometimes occupational health physicians and occupational safety and health representatives initiate the workplace survey. More than 90% of the surveys were followed by action proposals, and about 50% of these were implemented. The proposals implemented most often concerned personal protective equipment and less often leadership. Survey respondents should have both the opportunity and the authority to affect resources, the work environment, work arrangements, and tools. Teamwork among occupational health and safety professionals, management, and employees is vital for cost-effectively solving today's complex problems at workplaces around the globe. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Designing and conducting health surveys: a comprehensive guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aday, Lu Ann; Cornelius, Llewellyn Joseph

    2006-01-01

    ... and Carrying Out the Survey 311 14 Preparing the Data for Analysis 340 15 Planning and Implementing the Analysis of the Data 360 16 Writing the Research Report 391 Resource A: Personal Interview Sur...

  10. Seismic reflection survey conducted in Benton and Grant Counties, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, T.E.; Beggs, H.G.; Heineck, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The following report is devoted to a discussion of data acquisition procedures, data processing parameters and interpretation of results for a reflection seismic survey located on the Hanford Site in Benton and Grant Countries, Washington. The Pasco basin was the geologic setting for the survey. The main objectives of the program were to determine the subsurface structural attitudes of the numerous basalt flows known to exist within the basin. The location of areas associated with possible faulting and/or fracturing was also considered of prime concern as these conditions could significantly affect the integrity of the basalt

  11. Corrosion-resistant, electrically-conductive plate for use in a fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J David [Bolingbrook, IL; Mawdsley, Jennifer R [Woodridge, IL; Niyogi, Suhas [Woodridge, IL; Wang, Xiaoping [Naperville, IL; Cruse, Terry [Lisle, IL; Santos, Lilia [Lombard, IL

    2010-04-20

    A corrosion resistant, electrically-conductive, durable plate at least partially coated with an anchor coating and a corrosion resistant coating. The corrosion resistant coating made of at least a polymer and a plurality of corrosion resistant particles each having a surface area between about 1-20 m.sup.2/g and a diameter less than about 10 microns. Preferably, the plate is used as a bipolar plate in a proton exchange membrane (PEMFC) fuel cell stack.

  12. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  13. Nationwide survey of Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Gumnarai, Pornpen; Ratanachu-Ek, Thawee; Mahachai, Varocha

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to survey the antibiotic-resistant pattern of Helicobacter pylori infection in different geographical locations in Thailand and to determine factors associated with antibiotic resistance. Dyspeptic patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy from the Northern, Northeastern, Central, and Southern regions of Thailand between January 2004 and December 2012 were enrolled in this study. Two antral gastric biopsies were obtained for culture; susceptibility tests were performed using E-test. A total of 3964 were enrolled, and 1350 patients (34.1%) were infected with H. pylori as identified by rapid urease test. Cultures were positive in 619 isolates. E-test for amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, and tetracycline were successful in 400 isolates and for levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in 208 isolates. Antibiotic resistance was present in 50.3% including amoxicillin 5.2%, tetracycline 1.7%, clarithromycin 3.7%, metronidazole 36%, ciprofloxacin 7.7%, levofloxacin 7.2%, and multi-drugs in 4.2%. Clarithromycin resistance was significantly more common in those older than 40 years (i.e., 100% versus 0%; P = 0.04). The prevalence of metronidazole resistant in Southern Thailand was significantly higher than in the Northeastern region (66.7% versus 33.3% P = 0.04). Metronidazole resistance remains the most common antibiotic resistant type of H. pylori in Thailand. The pattern of H. pylori antibiotic resistance over 9 years demonstrated a fall in clarithromycin resistance such that currently age >40 years is a predictor for clarithromycin resistance in Thailand. Quinolone resistance is a growing problem. © 2013.

  14. IP and resistivity survey at the INEL cold test pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangos, W.

    1997-01-01

    Induced polarization (IP) is a technique for detection of diffuse occurrences of metallic material. The Idaho National Laboratory (INEL) Cold Test Pit (CTP) has been carefully constructed to simulate stored hazardous waste occurrences. IP and resistivity surveys of the CTP show a very strong IP response and a modest resistivity response associated with the simulated waste. Several false positive resistivity anomalies are noted. 2-D inversion of the data accurately determine the lateral limits of the waste zone. The depth of burial indicated is deeper than reported by the construction engineers. Limited depth extent is recognized, in distinction to results from other, resistivity-based, methods, but it also appears too deep. IP holds promise as a method for locating buried waste

  15. A Primer for Conducting Survey Research Using MTurk: Tips for the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Silvana; Nimon, Kim; Anthony-McMann, Paula

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents best practices for conducting survey research using Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk). Readers will learn the benefits, limitations, and trade-offs of using MTurk as compared to other recruitment services, including SurveyMonkey and Qualtrics. A synthesis of survey design guidelines along with a sample survey are presented to help…

  16. Thermal Conductivity in Soil: Theoretical Approach by 3D Infinite Resistance Grid Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changjan, A.; Intaravicha, N.

    2018-05-01

    Thermal conductivity in soil was elementary characteristic of soil that conduct heat, measured in terms of Fourier’s Law for heat conduction and useful application in many fields: such as Utilizing underground cable for transmission and distribution systems, the rate of cooling of the cable depends on the thermal properties of the soil surrounding the cable. In this paper, we investigated thermal conductivity in soil by infinite three dimensions (3D) electrical resistance circuit concept. Infinite resistance grid 3D was the grid of resistors that extends to infinity in all directions. Model of thermal conductivity in soil of this research was generated from this concept: comparison between electrical resistance and thermal resistance in soil. Finally, we investigated the analytical form of thermal conductivity in soil which helpful for engineering and science students that could exhibit education with a principle of physics that applied to real situations.

  17. Scenario Evaluator for Electrical Resistivity survey pre-modeling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Neil; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Robinson, Judith L.; Slater, Lee D.; Halford, Keith J.; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John W.; Werkema, Dale D.

    2017-01-01

    Geophysical tools have much to offer users in environmental, water resource, and geotechnical fields; however, techniques such as electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) are often oversold and/or overinterpreted due to a lack of understanding of the limitations of the techniques, such as the appropriate depth intervals or resolution of the methods. The relationship between ERI data and resistivity is nonlinear; therefore, these limitations depend on site conditions and survey design and are best assessed through forward and inverse modeling exercises prior to field investigations. In this approach, proposed field surveys are first numerically simulated given the expected electrical properties of the site, and the resulting hypothetical data are then analyzed using inverse models. Performing ERI forward/inverse modeling, however, requires substantial expertise and can take many hours to implement. We present a new spreadsheet-based tool, the Scenario Evaluator for Electrical Resistivity (SEER), which features a graphical user interface that allows users to manipulate a resistivity model and instantly view how that model would likely be interpreted by an ERI survey. The SEER tool is intended for use by those who wish to determine the value of including ERI to achieve project goals, and is designed to have broad utility in industry, teaching, and research.

  18. Seismic reflection survey conducted in Benton County, Washinton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beggs, H.G.; Heineck, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The massive Columbia River Basalt group that underlies the Hanford Site is being considered as a potential geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. As part of the effort to ascertain and better understand the physical and geological properties of these basalt flows, a multiphased seismic reflection program has been undertaken. This phase was designed to more thoroughly define geologic features and structural attitudes in an areas in the central part of the Hanford Site. The specific feature of interest is known as the Cold Creek Syncline. This seismic survey, utilized the ''VIBROSEIS'' energy source and multifold common depth point recording. 2 figs

  19. Semiconductor industry: a survey of structure, conduct, and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webbink, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    The study describes the structure, conduct, and performance of the semiconductor industry. The industry is characterized by a high rate of innovation and technological change, rapidly falling costs and prices, and rapidly rising sales in boom periods as well as large declines in sales in recession periods. These desirable performance characteristics take place in an industry that has moderately high domestic levels of concentration. However, there are many features that cause this industry to have behavior and performance that is markedly different from such highly concentrated industries as automobiles and steel. These features were investigated and are reported

  20. Implementation of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chonde, Timothy M.; Doulla, Basra; van Leth, Frank; Mfinanga, Sayoki G. M.; Range, Nyagosya; Lwilla, Fred; Mfaume, Saidi M.; van Deun, Armand; Zignol, Matteo; Cobelens, Frank G.; Egwaga, Saidi M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A drug resistance survey is an essential public health management tool for evaluating and improving the performance of National Tuberculosis control programmes. The current manuscript describes the implementation of the first national drug resistance survey in Tanzania. METHODS:

  1. The fourth national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhung, N V; Hoa, N B; Sy, D N; Hennig, C M; Dean, A S

    2015-06-01

    Viet Nam's Fourth National Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Survey was conducted in 2011. To determine the prevalence of resistance to the four main first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs in Viet Nam. Eighty clusters were selected using a probability proportion to size approach. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) against the four main first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs was performed. A total of 1629 smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients were eligible for culture. Of these, DST results were available for 1312 patients, including 1105 new TB cases, 195 previously treated TB cases and 12 cases with an unknown treatment history. The proportion of cases with resistance to any drug was 32.7% (95%CI 29.1-36.5) among new cases and 54.2% (95%CI 44.3-63.7) among previously treated cases. The proportion of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases was 4.0% (95%CI 2.5-5.4) in new cases and 23.3 (95%CI 16.7-29.9) in previously treated cases. The fourth drug resistance survey in Viet Nam found that the proportion of MDR-TB among new and previously treated cases was not significantly different from that in the 2005 survey. The National TB Programme should prioritise the detection and treatment of MDR-TB to reduce transmission of MDR-TB in the community.

  2. Measurement of thermal conductivity and diffusivity in situ: Literature survey and theoretical modelling of measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukkonen, I.; Suppala, I. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-01-01

    In situ measurements of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of bedrock were investigated with the aid of a literature survey and theoretical simulations of a measurement system. According to the surveyed literature, in situ methods can be divided into `active` drill hole methods, and `passive` indirect methods utilizing other drill hole measurements together with cutting samples and petrophysical relationships. The most common active drill hole method is a cylindrical heat producing probe whose temperature is registered as a function of time. The temperature response can be calculated and interpreted with the aid of analytical solutions of the cylindrical heat conduction equation, particularly the solution for an infinite perfectly conducting cylindrical probe in a homogeneous medium, and the solution for a line source of heat in a medium. Using both forward and inverse modellings, a theoretical measurement system was analysed with an aim at finding the basic parameters for construction of a practical measurement system. The results indicate that thermal conductivity can be relatively well estimated with borehole measurements, whereas thermal diffusivity is much more sensitive to various disturbing factors, such as thermal contact resistance and variations in probe parameters. In addition, the three-dimensional conduction effects were investigated to find out the magnitude of axial `leak` of heat in long-duration experiments. The radius of influence of a drill hole measurement is mainly dependent on the duration of the experiment. Assuming typical conductivity and diffusivity values of crystalline rocks, the measurement yields information within less than a metre from the drill hole, when the experiment lasts about 24 hours. We propose the following factors to be taken as basic parameters in the construction of a practical measurement system: the probe length 1.5-2 m, heating power 5-20 Wm{sup -1}, temperature recording with 5-7 sensors placed along the probe, and

  3. Measurement of thermal conductivity and diffusivity in situ: Literature survey and theoretical modelling of measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkonen, I.; Suppala, I.

    1999-01-01

    In situ measurements of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of bedrock were investigated with the aid of a literature survey and theoretical simulations of a measurement system. According to the surveyed literature, in situ methods can be divided into 'active' drill hole methods, and 'passive' indirect methods utilizing other drill hole measurements together with cutting samples and petrophysical relationships. The most common active drill hole method is a cylindrical heat producing probe whose temperature is registered as a function of time. The temperature response can be calculated and interpreted with the aid of analytical solutions of the cylindrical heat conduction equation, particularly the solution for an infinite perfectly conducting cylindrical probe in a homogeneous medium, and the solution for a line source of heat in a medium. Using both forward and inverse modellings, a theoretical measurement system was analysed with an aim at finding the basic parameters for construction of a practical measurement system. The results indicate that thermal conductivity can be relatively well estimated with borehole measurements, whereas thermal diffusivity is much more sensitive to various disturbing factors, such as thermal contact resistance and variations in probe parameters. In addition, the three-dimensional conduction effects were investigated to find out the magnitude of axial 'leak' of heat in long-duration experiments. The radius of influence of a drill hole measurement is mainly dependent on the duration of the experiment. Assuming typical conductivity and diffusivity values of crystalline rocks, the measurement yields information within less than a metre from the drill hole, when the experiment lasts about 24 hours. We propose the following factors to be taken as basic parameters in the construction of a practical measurement system: the probe length 1.5-2 m, heating power 5-20 Wm -1 , temperature recording with 5-7 sensors placed along the probe, and

  4. History of food consumption surveys conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 6 entitled "History of Food Consumption Surveys Conducted by The U.S. Department of Agriculture” provides an overview of the surveys conducted by USDA to monitor food use and food consumption patterns in the U.S. population since the latter part of the 19th century to 2014. This chapter in ...

  5. Conducting Surveys and Data Collection: From Traditional to Mobile and SMS-based Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Alam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fresh, bias-free and valid data collected using different survey modes is considered an essential requirement for smooth functioning and evolution of an organization. Surveys play a major role in making in-time correct decisions and generating reports. The aim of this study is to compare and investigate state-of-the-art in different survey modes including print, email, online, mobile and SMS-based surveys. Results indicated that existing methods are neither complete nor sufficient to fulfil the overall requirements of an organization which primarily rely on surveys. Also, it shows that SMS is a dominant method for data collection due to its pervasiveness. However, existing SMS-based data collection has limitations like limited number of characters per SMS, single question per SMS and lake of multimedia support. Recent trends in data collection emphasis on data collection applications for smart phones. However, in developing countries low-end mobile devices are still extensively used which makes the data collection difficult from man in the street. The paper conclude that existing survey modes and methods should be improved to get maximum responses quickly in low cost manner. The study has contributed to the area of surveying and data collection by analysing different factors such as cost, time and response rate. The results of this study can help practitioners in creating a more successful surveying method for data collection that can be effectively used for low budget projects in developed as well as developing countries.

  6. Low-power resistive random access memory by confining the formation of conducting filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yi-Jen; Lee, Si-Chen; Shen, Tzu-Hsien; Lee, Lan-Hsuan; Wen, Cheng-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Owing to their small physical size and low power consumption, resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices are potential for future memory and logic applications in microelectronics. In this study, a new resistive switching material structure, TiO_x/silver nanoparticles/TiO_x/AlTiO_x, fabricated between the fluorine-doped tin oxide bottom electrode and the indium tin oxide top electrode is demonstrated. The device exhibits excellent memory performances, such as low operation voltage (<±1 V), low operation power, small variation in resistance, reliable data retention, and a large memory window. The current-voltage measurement shows that the conducting mechanism in the device at the high resistance state is via electron hopping between oxygen vacancies in the resistive switching material. When the device is switched to the low resistance state, conducting filaments are formed in the resistive switching material as a result of accumulation of oxygen vacancies. The bottom AlTiO_x layer in the device structure limits the formation of conducting filaments; therefore, the current and power consumption of device operation are significantly reduced.

  7. Design and Construction of a Thermal Contact Resistance and Thermal Conductivity Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    thank my Mom, Dad , Allison, Jessica, and father-in-law, Tom, for always being there to listen and encourage me. xxiv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY...thermal conductivity is temperature measurement inaccuracies. A probe constructed of a poor thermally conductive material when inserted into a hot...interface- resistance-measurement-using-a-transient-method/ [26] H. Fukushima, L. T. Drzal, B. P. Rook and M. J. Rich , “Thermal conductivity of exfoliated

  8. Electrical resistivity surveys for gold-bearing veins in the Yongjang mine, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong-Oh; You, Young-June; Kim, Hee Joon

    2009-01-01

    The Yongjang mine is an Au–Ag deposit near Masan, located at the southernmost tip of the Korean Peninsula. The deposit lies within Cretaceous sedimentary rocks and contains many quartz veins which contain elements such as gold and silver, and sulfides. In the mine, the Yongjang, En and Ansan quartz veins have been found to be gold bearing. These veins have thicknesses of 2–40 cm and extents of 100–260 m. Electrical resistivity surveys were conducted to clarify the location of gold deposits at both prospect and detailed scales. Apparent resistivity data were collected with a dipole–dipole array on the ground surface and in boreholes, and with a pole–dipole array for surface-to-borehole surveys. The datasets derived from three-dimensional inversion of apparent resistivities are quite effective at delineating the geological structures related to gold-bearing quartz veins. These appear as a low-resistivity anomaly because almost all of the gold mineralization occurs in fractured areas associated with faults or shear zones. The surface-to-borehole survey had better resolution than the surface dipole–dipole survey when imaging gold-bearing quartz veins. The low-resistivity anomalies indicating the Yongjang and Ansan veins extend nearly vertically to sea level and dip steeply below sea level. They run NW–SE parallel to each other at a distance of about 70 m. The En vein is imaged near the Yonjang vein with a strike direction of N60°–70° W and a dip angle of about 45°

  9. Best Manufacturing Practices. Report of Survey Conducted at Stafford County Public Schools, Stafford County, VA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    During the week of August 8, 1994, a Best Manufacturing Practices (BMP) survey was conducted at the Stafford County Public Schools located in Stafford County, Virginia, considered one of the fastest growing counties in the state...

  10. Global solvability, non-resistive limit and magnetic boundary layer of the compressible heat-conductive MHD equations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jianwen; Zhao, Xiaokui

    2015-01-01

    In general, the resistivity is inversely proportional to the electrical conductivity, and is usually taken to be zero when the conducting fluid is of extremely high conductivity (e.g., ideal conductors). In this paper, we first establish the global well-posedness of strong solution to an initial-boundary value problem of the one-dimensional compressible, viscous, heat-conductive, non-resistive MHD equations with general heat-conductivity coefficient and large data. Then, the non-resistive lim...

  11. Electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of liquid aluminum in the two-temperature state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Yu V.; Inogamov, N. A.; Mokshin, A. V.; Galimzyanov, B. N.

    2018-01-01

    The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of liquid aluminum in the two-temperature state is calculated by using the relaxation time approach and structural factor of ions obtained by molecular dynamics simulation. Resistivity witin the Ziman-Evans approach is also considered to be higher than in the approach with previously calculated conductivity via the relaxation time. Calculations based on the construction of the ion structural factor through the classical molecular dynamics and kinetic equation for electrons are more economical in terms of computing resources and give results close to the Kubo-Greenwood with the quantum molecular dynamics calculations.

  12. Mechanisms of current conduction in Pt/BaTiO3/Pt resistive switching cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, R.K.; Zhang, T.J.; Wang, J.Y.; Wang, J.Z.; Wang, D.F.; Duan, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    The 80-nm-thickness BaTiO 3 (BT) thin film was prepared on the Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrate by the RF magnetron sputtering technique. The Pt/BT/Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si structure was investigated using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The current–voltage characteristic measurements were performed. The bipolar resistive switching behavior was found in the Pt/BT/Pt cell. The current–voltage curves were well fitted in different voltage regions at the high resistance state (HRS) and the low resistance state (LRS), respectively. The conduction mechanisms are concluded to be Ohmic conduction and Schottky emission at the LRS, while space-charge-limited conduction and Poole–Frenkel emission at the HRS. The electroforming and switching processes were explained in terms of the valence change mechanism, in which oxygen vacancies play a key role in forming conducting paths. - Highlights: ►Pt/BaTiO 3 /Pt cell shows the bipolar resistive switching behavior. ►The current–voltage curves were well fitted for different conduction mechanisms. ►The electroforming and switching processes were explained.

  13. Stabilizing effect of gas conductivity evolution on the resistive sausage mode of a propagating beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampe, M.; Joyce, G.

    1983-01-01

    Previous theoretical work has shown that a highly current-neutralized charged particle beam propagating in a preionized plasma channel of fixed conductivity is subject to a resistive sausage instability. It is shown that the instability is stabilized, for the case of beam propagation into an initially un-ionized gas, when the effect of beam-collisional ionization on the gas conductivity is modeled fully self-consistently

  14. Prion protein genotype survey confirms low frequency of scrapie-resistant K222 allele in British goat herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldmann, W.; Stewart, P.; Marier, E.; Konold, T.; Street, S.; Windl, O.; Ortiz-Pelaez, A.; Langeveld, J.

    2016-01-01

    Scrapie in goats is a transmissible, fatal prion disease, which is endemic in the British goat population. The recent success in defining caprine PRNP gene variants that provide resistance to experimental and natural classical scrapie has prompted the authors to conduct a survey of PRNP genotypes

  15. An integrated system for conducting radiological surveys of contaminated sites - 16312

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, Jay P.; Rogers, Donna M.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated detection system that has been developed to conduct radiological surveys of sites suspected of contamination of materials such as depleted uranium. This system utilizes cerium activated lanthanum bromide and thallium activated sodium iodide gamma detectors and can be easily adapted to include units for detecting neutrons. The detection system includes software controlling the collection of radiological spectra and GPS data. Two different platforms are described for conducting surveys, a modified zero turn radius (ZTR) mower and a three-wheeled cart that is manually pushed. The detection system software controlling data collection has components that facilitate completing a grid-less survey on user specified spacings. Another package confirms that all data quality activities (calibrations, etc.) are conducted prior to beginning the survey and also reviews data to identify areas that have been missed for which data quality falls below user designated parameters. Advanced digital signal processing algorithms are used to enhance the interpretation of spectra for conducting background subtractions and for mapping. Data from radiation detection instruments and GPS antennae are merged and made compatible with mapping using Geosoft Oasis montaj software. A summary of system performance during field-testing is included in the paper. This includes survey rate, detection limits, duty cycle, supporting ancillary equipment/material, and manpower requirements. The rate of false positives and false negatives is discussed with the benefits of surveys conducted using synergetic detection systems such as electromagnetic induction imaging. (authors)

  16. Evaluation of the local temperature of conductive filaments in resistive switching materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalon, E; Cohen, S; Gavrilov, A; Ritter, D

    2012-01-01

    The resistive switching effect in metal oxides and other dielectric materials is among the leading future non-volatile memory technologies. Resistive switching is widely ascribed to the formation and rupture of conductive filaments in the oxide, which are generated by temperature-enhanced nano-scale ion migration or other thermal effects. In spite of the central role of the local filament temperature on the switching effect, as well as on the conduction and reliability physics, no measurement methods of the filament temperature are yet available. In this work, we report on a method for evaluating the conducting filament temperature, using a metal–insulator–semiconductor bipolar transistor structure. The filament temperature is obtained by analyzing the thermal excitation rate of electrons from the filament Fermi level into the conduction band of a p-type semiconductor electrode. Measurements were carried out to obtain the conductive filament temperature in hafnia at varying ambient temperatures in the range of 3–300 K. Significant Joule heating of the filament was observed across the entire measured ambient temperature range. The extracted temperatures provide physical insight into the resistive switching effect. (paper)

  17. Orthotropic conductivity reconstruction with virtual-resistive network and Faraday's law

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Min-Gi

    2015-06-01

    We obtain the existence and the uniqueness at the same time in the reconstruction of orthotropic conductivity in two-space dimensions by using two sets of internal current densities and boundary conductivity. The curl-free equation of Faraday\\'s law is taken instead of the elliptic equation in a divergence form that is typically used in electrical impedance tomography. A reconstruction method based on layered bricks-type virtual-resistive network is developed to reconstruct orthotropic conductivity with up to 40% multiplicative noise.

  18. Multi-channel conduction in redox-based resistive switch modelled using quantum point contact theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, E., E-mail: enrique.miranda@uab.cat; Suñé, J. [Departament d' Enginyeria Electrònica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallés, Barcelona (Spain); Mehonic, A.; Kenyon, A. J. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-25

    A simple analytic model for the electron transport through filamentary-type structures in Si-rich silica (SiO{sub x})-based resistive switches is proposed. The model is based on a mesoscopic description and is able to account for the linear and nonlinear components of conductance that arise from both fully and partially formed conductive channels spanning the dielectric film. Channels are represented by arrays of identical scatterers whose number and quantum transmission properties determine the current magnitude in the low and high resistance states. We show that the proposed model not only reproduces the experimental current-voltage (I-V) characteristics but also the normalized differential conductance (dln(I)/dln(V)-V) curves of devices under test.

  19. Conducting filaments in Pt/ZrCuO{sub y}/Pt resistive switching memory cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulu, Berhanu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Chu, Jinn P., E-mail: jpchu@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Wang, Sea-Fue [Department of Materials and Minerals Resources Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-15

    Forming-free unipolar resistive switching with good retention time, low voltage (<1.9 V) and thin thickness (∼11 nm) is obtained in oxygen deficient Pt/ZrCuO{sub y}/Pt devices. Annealing at 150 °C is beneficial to improve the endurance from 286 to >6 × 10{sup 3} and the resistance ratio from ∼13 to ∼25. Nanoscale current path images observed using a conductive atomic force microscope reveal a current density of ∼3.0 × 10{sup 2} nA/μm{sup 2} in the ON state, almost four orders of magnitude higher than ∼3.3 × 10{sup −2} nA/μm{sup 2} in the OFF state. The resistive switching is thought to be dominated by the oxygen vacancies, which serves as the filamentary conduction in the film. - Highlights: • Oxygen deficient Pt/ZrCuOy/Pt device after annealing at 150 °C is studied. • Forming-free resistive switching with good retention time, low voltage is obtained. • Annealing is shown to improve the endurance from 286 to >6 × 10{sup 3}. • The resistive switching is thought to be dominated by the oxygen vacancies.

  20. Screening and contact precautions – A survey on infection control measures for multidrug-resistant bacteria in German university hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena M. Biehl

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To assess the scope of infection control measures for multidrug-resistant bacteria in high-risk settings, a survey among university hospitals was conducted. Fourteen professionals from 8 sites participated. Reported policies varied largely with respect to the types of wards conducting screening, sample types used for screening and implementation of contact precautions. This variability among sites highlights the need for an evidence-based consensus of current infection control policies.

  1. Magnetogravitational stability of resistive plasma through porous medium with thermal conduction and FLR corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaghela, D.S.; Chhajlani, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of stability of self gravitating magnetized plasma in porous medium is studied incorporating electrical resistivity, thermal conduction and FLR corrections. Normal mode analysis is applied to derive the dispersion relation. Wave propagation is discussed for parallel and perpendicular directions to the magnetic field. Applying Routh Hurwitz Criterion the stability of the medium is discussed and it is found that Jeans' criterion determines the stability of the medium. Magnetic field, porosity and resistivity of the medium have no effect on Jeans' Criterion in longitudinal direction. For perpendicular direction, in case of resistive medium Jeans' expression remains unaffected by magnetic field but for perfectly conducting medium magnetic field modifies the Jeans' expression to show the stabilizing effect. Thermal conductivity affects the sonic mode by making the process isothermal instead of adiabatic. Porosity of the medium is effective only in case of perpendicular direction to magnetic field for perfectly conducting plasma as it reduces the stabilizing effect of magnetic field. For longitudinal wave propagation, though Finite Larmor Radius (FLR) corrections have no effect on sonic mode but it changes the growth rate for Alfven mode. For transverse wave propagation FLR corrections and porosity affect the Jeans' expression in case of non-viscous medium but viscosity of the medium removes the effect of FLR and porosity on Jeans' condition. (author)

  2. Thermal resistance and conductivity of recycled construction and demolition waste (RCDW concrete blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Julio Apolonio Callejas

    Full Text Available Abstract In Brazil, studies to reuse construction and demolition waste are a special issue because a large amount of this material has been delivered to the public landfills and in illegal places. Some researchers have suggested reusing this material in building elements, such as bricks or blocks. It is possible to find a lot of researches in physical/mechanical characterization, while little effort has been made to characterize recycled construction and demolition waste blocks (RCDW for their thermal properties. The aim of this work was to characterize the RCDW thermal resistance and conductivity in order to provide subsidies for a building's thermal performance analysis. The hot-box method was adapted, together with measuring techniques with a heat-flow meter to determine the RCDW thermal properties. The results indicated that the RCDW block overall thermal resistance and thermal conductivity in the solid region was within the intervals of 0.33≤RT≤0.41m2KW-1 and 0.60≤l≤0.78Wm-1K-1, respectively. The lower resistance and conductivity values are justified by the presence of aggregate with a lower density and lower thermal conductivity than the natural aggregate.

  3. Extracting Archaeological Feautres from GPR Surveys Conducted with Variable Soil Moisture Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, I. M.; Glisic, B.; Gonciar, A.

    2017-12-01

    As a common tool for subsurface archaeological prospection, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a useful method for increasing the efficiency of archaeological excavations. Archaeological sites are often temporally and financially constrained, therefore having limited ability to reschedule surveys compromised by weather. Furthermore, electromagnetic GPR surveys are especially sensitive to variations in water content, soil type, and site-specific interference. In this work, GPR scans of a partially excavated Roman villa consisting of different construction materials and phases (limestone, andesite, brick) in central Romania are compared. Surveys were conducted with a 500 MHz GPR antenna in both dry (pre-rain event) and wet (post-rain event) conditions. Especially in time or depth slices, wet surveys present additional archaeological features that are not present or clear in the standard dry conditions, while simultaneously masking the clutter present in those scans. When dry, the limestone has a similar dielectric constant to the soil and does not provide enough contrast in electromagnetic properties for strong reflections despite the significant difference in their physical properties. Following precipitation, however, the electromagnetic properties of these two materials is dominated by their respective water content and the contrast is enhanced. For this reason, the wet surveys are particularly necessary for revealing reflections from the limestone features often invisible in dry surveys. GPR surveys conducted in variable environmental conditions provide unique archaeological information, with potential near-surface geophysical applications in nondestructive material characterization and identification.

  4. Synthesis of Oxidation-Resistant Cupronickel Nanowires for Transparent Conducting Nanowire Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathmall, Aaron [Duke University; Nguyen, Minh [Duke University; Wiley, Benjamin J [Duke University

    2012-01-01

    Nanowires of copper can be coated from liquids to create flexible, transparent conducting films that can potentially replace the dominant transparent conductor, indium tin oxide, in displays, solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, and electrochromic windows. One issue with these nanowire films is that copper is prone to oxidation. It was hypothesized that the resistance to oxidation could be improved by coating copper nanowires with nickel. This work demonstrates a method for synthesizing copper nanowires with nickel shells as well as the properties of cupronickel nanowires in transparent conducting films. Time- and temperature-dependent sheet resistance measurements indicate that the sheet resistance of copper and silver nanowire films will double after 3 and 36 months at room temperature, respectively. In contrast, the sheet resistance of cupronickel nanowires containing 20 mol % nickel will double in about 400 years. Coating copper nanowires to a ratio of 2:1 Cu:Ni gave them a neutral gray color, making them more suitable for use in displays and electrochromic windows. These properties, and the fact that copper and nickel are 1000 times more abundant than indium or silver, make cupronickel nanowires a promising alternative for the sustainable, efficient production of transparent conductors.

  5. Effects of contact resistance on electrical conductivity measurements of SiC-based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, G.E.; Thomsen, E.C.; Henager, C.H., E-mail: chuck.henager@pnnl.gov

    2013-11-15

    A combination 2/4-probe method was used to measure electrical resistances across a pure, monolithic CVD-SiC disc sample with contact resistance at the SiC/metallic electrode interfaces. By comparison of the almost simultaneous 2/4-probe measurements, the specific contact resistance (R{sub c}) and its temperature dependence were determined for two types (sputtered gold and porous nickel) electrodes from room temperature (RT) to ∼973 K. The R{sub c}-values behaved similarly for each type of metallic electrode: R{sub c} > ∼1000 Ω cm{sup 2} at RT, decreasing continuously to ∼1–10 Ω cm{sup 2} at 973 K. The temperature dependence of the inverse R{sub c} indicated thermally activated electrical conduction across the SiC/metallic interface with an apparent activation energy of ∼0.3 eV. For the flow channel insert application in a fusion reactor blanket, contact resistance potentially could reduce the transverse electrical conductivity by about 50%.

  6. Airborne geophysical surveys conducted in western Nebraska, 2010: contractor reports and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    This report contains three contractor reports and data files for an airborne electromagnetic survey flown from June 28 to July 7, 2010. The first report; “SkyTEM Survey: Nebraska, USA, Data” describes data aquisition and processing from a time-domain electromagnetic and magnetic survey performed by SkyTEM Canada, Inc. (the North American SkyTEM subsidiary), in western Nebraska, USA. Digital data for this report are given in Appendix 1. The airborne geophysical data from the SkyTEM survey subsequently were processed and inverted by Aarhus Geophysics ApS, Aarhus, Denmark, to produce resistivity depth sections along each flight line. The result of that processing is described in two reports presented in Appendix 2, “Processing and inversion of SkyTEM data from USGS Area UTM–13” and “Processing and inversion of SkyTEM data from USGS Area UTM–14.” Funding for these surveys was provided by the North Platte Natural Resources District, the South Platte Natural Resources District, and the Twin Platte Natural Resources District, in Scottsbluff, Sidney, and North Platte, Nebraska, respectively. Any additional information concerning the geophysical data may be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Crustal Geophysics and Geochemistry Science Center, Denver Colorado.

  7. Conducting a respondent-driven sampling survey with the use of existing resources in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Dana M; Bryant, Joanne; Crawford, Sione; de Wit, John B F

    2011-07-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a form of chain-referral sampling that is increasingly being used for HIV behavioural surveillance. When used for surveillance purposes, a sampling method should be relatively inexpensive and simple to operate. This study examined whether an RDS survey of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Sydney, Australia, could be successfully conducted through the use of minimal and existing resources. The RDS survey was conducted on the premises of a local needle and syringe program (NSP) with some adjustments to take into account the constraints of existing resources. The impact of the survey on clients and on staff was examined by summarizing NSP service data and by conducting post-survey discussions with NSP staff. From November 2009 till March 2010, 261 participants were recruited in 16 waves. A significant increase was found in the number of services provided by the NSP during and after data collection. Generally, staff felt that the survey had a positive impact by exposing a broader group of people to the NSP. However, conducting the survey may have led to privacy issues for NSP clients due to an increased number of people gathering around the NSP. This study shows that RDS can be conducted with the use of minimal and existing resources under certain conditions (e.g., use of a self-administered questionnaire and no biological samples taken). A more detailed cost-utility analysis is needed to determine whether RDS' advantages outweigh potential challenges when compared to simpler and less costly convenience methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrical-conductivity measurements of leachates for the rapid assessment of wasteform corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, B.C.; Petek, M.; Boatner, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of the electrical conductivity of leachate solutions as a function of time can be used as an efficient, informative means of evaluation and comparison in the development of nuclear waste forms and in the preliminary analysis of their corrosion resistance in distilled water. Three separate applications of this technique are described in this work. These are: (1) its use in the optimization of the corrosion resistance of a crystalline wasteform (monazite); (2) a study of the protective ability of the surface layer (gel layer) which forms on the nuclear waste glass Frit 21 + 20 wt % SRW in distilled water; and (3) making comparisons of the overall corrosion resistance of three different nuclear wasteforms (i.e., monazite, SYNROC, and borosilicate glass). A complete solution analysis of the borosilicate glass leachate and a straightforward analysis of the conductivity results agree to within +-20%. In the absence of a complete, time consuming solution analysis, conductivity measurements can be used to estimate reliably the total ionic concentration in the leachate to within a factor of 2

  9. 5 CFR 591.223 - When does OPM conduct COLA surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When does OPM conduct COLA surveys? 591.223 Section 591.223 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living...

  10. Survey of Processing Methods for High Strength High Conductivity Wires for High Field Magnet Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, K.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-10-01

    This paper will deal with the basic concepts of attaining combination of high strength and high conductivity in pure materials, in-situ composites and macrocomposites. It will survey current attainments, and outline where some future developments may lie in developing wire products that are close to the theoretical strength of future magnet applications.

  11. Survey of Processing Methods for High Strength High Conductivity Wires for High Field Magnet Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will deal with the basic concepts of attaining combination of high strength and high conductivity in pure materials, in-situ composites and macrocomposites. It will survey current attainments, and outline where some future developments may lie in developing wire products that are close to the theoretical strength of future magnet applications

  12. Comparing Lay Community and Academic Survey Center Interviewers in Conducting Household Interviews in Latino Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Golston, Alec M; Friedlander, Scott; Glik, Deborah C; Prelip, Michael L; Belin, Thomas R; Brookmeyer, Ron; Santos, Robert; Chen, Jie; Ortega, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    The employment of professional interviewers from academic survey centers to conduct surveys has been standard practice. Because one goal of community-engaged research is to provide professional skills to community residents, this paper considers whether employing locally trained lay interviewers from within the community may be as effective as employing interviewers from an academic survey center with regard to unit and item nonresponse rates and cost. To study a nutrition-focused intervention, 1035 in-person household interviews were conducted in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, 503 of which were completed by lay community interviewers. A chi-square test was used to assess differences in unit nonresponse rates between professional and community interviewers and Welch's t tests were used to assess differences in item nonresponse rates. A cost comparison analysis between the two interviewer groups was also conducted. Interviewers from the academic survey center had lower unit nonresponse rates than the lay community interviewers (16.2% vs. 23.3%; p < 0.01). However, the item nonresponse rates were lower for the community interviewers than the professional interviewers (1.4% vs. 3.3%; p < 0.01). Community interviewers cost approximately $415.38 per survey whereas professional interviewers cost approximately $537.29 per survey. With a lower cost per completed survey and lower item nonresponse rates, lay community interviewers are a viable alternative to professional interviewers for fieldwork in community-based research. Additional research is needed to assess other important aspects of data quality interviewer such as interviewer effects and response error.

  13. Anisotropic magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance of conducting filaments in NiO with different resistance states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Diyang; Qiao, Shuang; Luo, Yuxiang; Chen, Aitian; Zhang, Pengfei; Zheng, Ping; Sun, Zhong; Guo, Minghua; Chiang, F.-K.; Wu, Jian; Luo, Jianlin; Li, Jianqi; Wang, Yayu; Zhao, Yonggang; Tsinghua University Team; Chinese Academy of Sciences Collaboration

    Resistive switching (RS) effect in conductor/insulator/conductor thin-film stacks has attracted much attention due to its interesting physics and potentials for applications. NiO is one of the most representative systems and its RS effect has been generally explained by the formation and rupture of Ni related conducting filaments, which are very unique since they are formed by electric forming process. We study the MR behaviors in NiO RS films with different resistance states. Rich and interesting MR behaviors were observed, including the normal and anomalous anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR), etc., which provide new insights into the nature of the filaments and their evolution in the resistive switching process. First-principles calculation reveals the essential role of oxygen migration into the filaments during the RESET process and can account for the experimental results. Our work provides a new avenue for the exploration of the conducting filaments in RS materials, and is significant for understanding the RS mechanism as well as multifunctional device design.

  14. Conductive core of radiation-resistant high-pressure electric bushing, especially for nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajic, V

    1981-09-01

    A radiation-resistant high-pressure electric bushing was developed featuring a conductive core consisting of a hollow moulding. At the point of attachment to the bushing insulator the core moulding is widened, thus forming a ring support of a diameter larger by at least 10% than the diameter of the conductive core cylindrical section. On the outer side of the pressure body the core cavity is narrowed and tightly closed with the conductor. On the side facing the medium of higher pressure, the conductive core is provided with a thread. Core manufacture and connection of the conductor to the bushing is very simple. The bushing can be used for an environment with pressures exceeding 10 MPa.

  15. Conductive core of radiation-resistant high-pressure electric bushing, especially for nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajic, V.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation-resistant high-pressure electric bushing was developed featuring a conductive core consisting of a hollow moulding. At the point of attachment to the bushing insulator the core moulding is widened, thus forming a ring support of a diameter larger by at least 10% than the diameter of the conductive core cylindrical section. On the outer side of the pressure body the core cavity is narrowed and tightly closed with the conductor. On the side facing the medium of higher pressure, the conductive core is provided with a thread. Core manufacture and connection of the conductor to the bushing is very simple. The bushing can be used for an environment with pressures exceeding 10 MPa. (J.B.)

  16. Preparation of flexible and heat-resisting conductive transparent film by the pyrosol process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usami, Hisanao; Nakasa, Akihiko; Adachi, Mami; Suzuki, Eiji; Fujimatsu, Hitoshi; Ohashi, Tatsuya; Yamada, Shigeo; Tsugita, Kouhei; Taniguchi, Yoshio

    2006-01-01

    A pyrosol process was successfully applied for the preparation of a flexible, conductive, and transparent inorganic film, a tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) film lined with a thin mica layer. This flexible heat-resistant ITO-mica film exhibited high conductivity and transparency, comparable to ITO deposited on glass substrate. The minimum radius of bending for the film, without any recognizable change in the conductivity and appearance, was 8 mm. The ITO deposited on mica showed a large (222) diffraction peak with a smaller (400) peak, in contrast to ITO deposited with (400) orientation on an ordinary glass substrate. Using the ITO-mica film, a prototype model of a flexible organic light emitting diode was fabricated

  17. Abnormal resistance switching behaviours of NiO thin films: possible occurrence of both formation and rupturing of conducting channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chunli; Chae, S C; Chang, S H; Lee, S B; Noh, T W [ReCOE and FPRD, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J S; Kahng, B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, D-W [Division of Nano Sciences and Department of Physics, Ewha Womens University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, C U [Department of Physics, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do 449-791 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, S; Ahn, S-E [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon 440-600 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: twnoh@snu.ac.kr

    2009-01-07

    We report a detailed study on the abnormal resistance switching behaviours observed in NiO thin films which show unipolar resistance switching phenomena. During the RESET process, in which the NiO film changed from a low resistance state to a high resistance state, we sometimes observed that the resistance became smaller than the initial value. We simulated the resistance switching by using a random circuit breaker network model. We found that local conducting channels could be formed as well as ruptured during the RESET process, which result in the occurrence of such abnormal switching behaviours.

  18. 2D resistivity survey in complex geological structure area. Application to the volcanic area; Fukuzatsuna chishitsu kozo chiiki ni okeru hiteiko nijigen tansa. Kazangan chiiki deno tekiorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, S; Ikuma, T; Tanifuji, R [DIA Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Introduced herein is an application of 2D resistivity survey to a volcanic rock area where the survey result is difficult to interpret because of its complex geological structure. In a dam site survey, main problems involve the permeability of water through faults and weathered, altered zones. At this site, a 2D resistivity survey was conducted, a 2D geological structure was deduced from the resistivity section, and the result was examined. It was found that resistivity distribution was closely related to hydrographic factors, but no obvious correlation was detected between rock classes and R, Q, and D. In conducting investigations into a section planned for a highway tunnel, it was learned that the problem was a volcanic ash layer to collapse instantly upon absorbing water, and the distribution of the ash layer, not to be disclosed by boring, was subjected to a 2D resistivity survey. The survey was conducted into the structure above where the tunnel would run, and further into the face, and studies were made about what layer was reflected by the resistivity distribution obtained by analysis. The result of the analysis agreed with the details of the layer that was disclosed afterward. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Conducting a large, multi-site survey about patients’ views on broad consent: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen E. Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As biobanks play an increasing role in the genomic research that will lead to precision medicine, input from diverse and large populations of patients in a variety of health care settings will be important in order to successfully carry out such studies. One important topic is participants’ views towards consent and data sharing, especially since the 2011 Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM, and subsequently the 2015 Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM were issued by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS and Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP. These notices required that participants consent to research uses of their de-identified tissue samples and most clinical data, and allowing such consent be obtained in a one-time, open-ended or “broad” fashion. Conducting a survey across multiple sites provides clear advantages to either a single site survey or using a large online database, and is a potentially powerful way of understanding the views of diverse populations on this topic. Methods A workgroup of the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE Network, a national consortium of 9 sites (13 separate institutions, 11 clinical centers supported by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI that combines DNA biorepositories with electronic medical record (EMR systems for large-scale genetic research, conducted a survey to understand patients’ views on consent, sample and data sharing for future research, biobank governance, data protection, and return of research results. Results Working across 9 sites to design and conduct a national survey presented challenges in organization, meeting human subjects guidelines at each institution, and survey development and implementation. The challenges were met through a committee structure to address each aspect of the project with representatives from all sites. Each committee’s output was integrated into the overall survey plan. A

  20. Evaluation of the electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance for layers deposited via sputtering on stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, J.; Salas, Y.; Jiménez, C.; Pineda, Y.; Bustamante, A.

    2017-12-01

    In some Engineering fields, we need that conductive materials have a mechanic performance and specific electrical for that they maintain conditions or corrosive attack if they are in the environment or if they are closed structure. The stainless steels have an inert film on their surface and it has the function to act in contrast to external agents who generates the corrosion, especially for stings, spoiling the film until to fail. We found a solution taking into account the electrical performance and the anticorrosive; into the process we put recovering of specific oxides on, stainless steel using the method of sputtering with Unbalanced Magnetron, (UBM) varying the oxygen in the reactive environment. The coating obtained had a thickness one micron approximately and we saw on serious structural uniformity [1]. The corrosion resistance was evaluated through the potentiodynamics polarization and electrochemical spectroscopy impedance in NACL according to the standard. The cathode protection is the most important method employed for the corrosion prevention of metallic structures in the soil or immersed on the water. The electrical resistivity was evaluated with the four points methods and it showed a behaviour of diode type in some substrates with a threshold potential in several volts. We noticed a simple resistance solution when it was analysed in the Nyquist graphics whit the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy technique. With on equivalent circuit, for this reason we determinate a variation in the corrosion speed in almost two orders of magnitude when we analysed the potentiodynamics curve by Tafel approximation. The data obtained and analysed show that this type of surface modification maintains the conductivity condition at the interface, improving the resistance in relation whit the corrosion of these elements where the recovering allowed the ionic flow wished for overcoming threshold voltage, acting as an insulator in different cases.

  1. An algorithm to assess methodological quality of nutrition and mortality cross-sectional surveys: development and application to surveys conducted in Darfur, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudhon, Claudine; de Radiguès, Xavier; Dale, Nancy; Checchi, Francesco

    2011-11-09

    Nutrition and mortality surveys are the main tools whereby evidence on the health status of populations affected by disasters and armed conflict is quantified and monitored over time. Several reviews have consistently revealed a lack of rigor in many surveys. We describe an algorithm for analyzing nutritional and mortality survey reports to identify a comprehensive range of errors that may result in sampling, response, or measurement biases and score quality. We apply the algorithm to surveys conducted in Darfur, Sudan. We developed an algorithm based on internationally agreed upon methods and best practices. Penalties are attributed for a list of errors, and an overall score is built from the summation of penalties accrued by the survey as a whole. To test the algorithm reproducibility, it was independently applied by three raters on 30 randomly selected survey reports. The algorithm was further applied to more than 100 surveys conducted in Darfur, Sudan. The Intra Class Correlation coefficient was 0.79 for mortality surveys and 0.78 for nutrition surveys. The overall median quality score and range of about 100 surveys conducted in Darfur were 0.60 (0.12-0.93) and 0.675 (0.23-0.86) for mortality and nutrition surveys, respectively. They varied between the organizations conducting the surveys, with no major trend over time. Our study suggests that it is possible to systematically assess quality of surveys and reveals considerable problems with the quality of nutritional and particularly mortality surveys conducted in the Darfur crisis.

  2. Exploring innovative ways to conduct coverage surveys for neglected tropical diseases in Malawi, Mali, and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhall, Dana M; Mkwanda, Square; Dembele, Massitan; Lwanga, Harriet; Drexler, Naomi; Dubray, Christine; Harris, Jennifer; Worrell, Caitlin; Mathieu, Els

    2014-04-01

    Currently, a 30-cluster survey to monitor drug coverage after mass drug administration for neglected tropical diseases is the most common methodology used by control programs. We investigated alternative survey methodologies that could potentially provide an estimation of drug coverage. Three alternative survey methods (market, village chief, and religious leader) were conducted and compared to the 30-cluster method in Malawi, Mali, and Uganda. In Malawi, drug coverage for the 30-cluster, market, village chief, and religious leader methods were 66.8% (95% CI 60.3-73.4), 74.3%, 76.3%, and 77.8%, respectively. In Mali, results for round 1 were 62.6% (95% CI 54.4-70.7), 56.1%, 74.8%, and 83.2%, and 57.2% (95% CI 49.0-65.4), 54.5%, 72.2%, and 73.3%, respectively, for round 2. Uganda survey results were 65.7% (59.4-72.0), 43.7%, 67.2%, and 77.6% respectively. Further research is needed to test different coverage survey methodologies to determine which survey methods are the most scientifically rigorous and resource efficient. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. An Experimental Study on Heat Conduction and Thermal Contact Resistance for the AlN Flake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huann-Ming Chou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical technology has been a fast development over the past decades. Moreover, the tendency of microelements and dense division multiplex is significantly for the electrical industries. Therefore, the high thermal conductible and electrical insulating device will be popular and important. It is well known that AlN still maintains stablility in the high temperature. This is quite attractive for the research and development department. Moreover, the thermal conduct coefficient of AlN is several times larger than the others. Therefore, it has been thought to play an important role for the radiator of heat source in the future. Therefore, this paper is focused on the studies of heat conduction and thermal contact resistance between the AlN flake and the copper specimens. The heating temperatures and the contact pressures were selected as the experimental parameters. According to the experimental results, the materials are soft and the real contact areas between the interfaces significantly increase under higher temperatures. As a result, the thermal contact resistance significantly decreases and the heat transfer rate increases with increasing the heating temperature or the contact pressures.

  4. Fast prototyping of conducting polymer microelectrodes using resistance-controlled high precision drilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafka, Jan Robert; Geschke, Oliver; Skaarup, Steen

    2011-01-01

    We present a straightforward method for fast prototyping of microelectrode arrays in the highly conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Microelectrode arrays were produced by electrical resistance-controlled microdrilling through an insulating polymer layer (TOPAS® 5013...... approach the steady state currents predicted from modeling, but at a much slower rate than expected. This is shown to be caused by the use of electroactive PEDOT electrodes. Subtraction of the latter contribution gives approach to steady state currents within a few seconds, which is in very good agreement...

  5. Political struggles in disability’s visibilization: direct actions, counter-conducts and resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Martín Contino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the examination of the current situation of persons under disability, the hypothesis of conceiving disability as a device is carried out, according to the French philosopher Michel Foucault. Thus, the negative aspects experienced by subjects in situation of disability, not implying malfunction of public policy, would be logical and expected effects, the typical function of a disability device that works according to the guidelines of the Medical-Individual model. This article intends to present the tactics of counter-conduct as ways of subjectivation that resist current governmentality, becoming the visibilization of such actions, a key aspect of any strategy of political transformation.

  6. Conducting a Southern Pine Beetle Survey Using Digital Aerial Sketchmapping (DASM) - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris A. Steiner

    2011-01-01

    This is an overview on conducting a southern pine beetle (SPB) survey using Digital Aerial Sketchmapping (DASM); for a detailed treatment of DASM visit the following Web site: http://www.fs.fed.us/foresthealth/ technology/dasm.shtml. Sketchmapping – “A remote sensing technique of observing forest change events from an aircraft and documenting them manually on a map” (...

  7. Buprofezin susceptibility survey, resistance selection and preliminary determination of the resistance mechanism in Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhua; Gao, Congfen; Xu, Zhiping; Zhu, Yu Cheng; Zhang, Jiushuang; Li, Wenhong; Dai, Dejiang; Lin, Youwei; Zhou, Weijun; Shen, Jinliang

    2008-10-01

    Buprofezin has been used for many years to control Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). Assessment of susceptibility change in the insect is essential for maintaining control efficiency and resistance management. Eleven-year surveys showed that most field populations were susceptible before 2004. However, substantially higher levels of resistance (up to 28-fold) were found in most of the rice fields in China after 2004. A field population was collected and periodically selected for buprofezin resistance in the laboratory. After 65 generations (56 were selected), the colony successfully obtained 3599-fold resistance to buprofezin. Synergism tests showed that O,O-diethyl-O-phenyl phosphorothioate (SV1), piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and diethyl maleate (DEM) increased buprofezin toxicity in the resistant strain by only 1.5-1.6 fold, suggesting that esterases, P450-monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferases had no substantial effect on buprofezin resistance development. The results from this study indicate that N. lugens has the potential to develop high resistance to buprofezin. A resistance management program with rotation of buprofezin and other pesticides may efficiently delay or slow down resistance development in the insect. Further investigation is also necessary to understand the resistance mechanisms in N. lugens.

  8. Electrically Conductive, Corrosion-Resistant Coatings Through Defect Chemistry for Metallic Interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anil V. Virkar

    2006-01-01

    The principal objective of this work was to develop oxidation protective coatings for metallic interconnect based on a defect chemistry approach. It was reasoned that the effectiveness of a coating is dictated by oxygen permeation kinetics; the slower the permeation kinetics, the better the protection. All protective coating materials investigated to date are either perovskites or spinels containing metals exhibiting multiple valence states (Co, Fe, Mn, Cr, etc.). As a result, all of these oxides exhibit a reasonable level of electronic conductivity; typically at least about ∼0.05 S/cm at 800 C. For a 5 micron coating, this equates to a maximum ∼0.025 (Omega)cm 2 area specific resistance due to the coating. This suggests that the coating should be based on oxygen ion conductivity (the lower the better) and not on electronic conductivity. Measurements of ionic conductivity of prospective coating materials were conducted using Hebb-Wagner method. It was demonstrated that special precautions need to be taken to measure oxygen ion conductivity in these materials with very low oxygen vacancy concentration. A model for oxidation under a protective coating is presented. Defect chemistry based approach was developed such that by suitably doping, oxygen vacancy concentration was suppressed, thus suppressing oxygen ion transport and increasing effectiveness of the coating. For the cathode side, the best coating material identified was LaMnO 3 with Ti dopant on the Mn site (LTM). It was observed that LTM is more than 20 times as effective as Mn-containing spinels. On the anode side, LaCrO3 doped with Nb on the Cr site (LNC) was the material identified. Extensive oxidation kinetics studies were conducted on metallic alloy foils with coating ∼1 micron in thickness. From these studies, it was projected that a 5 micron coating would be sufficient to ensure 40,000 h life

  9. High Thermal Conductivity and High Wear Resistance Tool Steels for cost-effective Hot Stamping Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, I.; Hamasaiid, A.; Padré, A.

    2017-09-01

    In hot stamping/press hardening, in addition to its shaping function, the tool controls the cycle time, the quality of the stamped components through determining the cooling rate of the stamped blank, the production costs and the feasibility frontier for stamping a given component. During the stamping, heat is extracted from the stamped blank and transported through the tool to the cooling medium in the cooling lines. Hence, the tools’ thermal properties determine the cooling rate of the blank, the heat transport mechanism, stamping times and temperature distribution. The tool’s surface resistance to adhesive and abrasive wear is also an important cost factor, as it determines the tool durability and maintenance costs. Wear is influenced by many tool material parameters, such as the microstructure, composition, hardness level and distribution of strengthening phases, as well as the tool’s working temperature. A decade ago, Rovalma developed a hot work tool steel for hot stamping that features a thermal conductivity of more than double that of any conventional hot work tool steel. Since that time, many complimentary grades have been developed in order to provide tailored material solutions as a function of the production volume, degree of blank cooling and wear resistance requirements, tool geometries, tool manufacturing method, type and thickness of the blank material, etc. Recently, Rovalma has developed a new generation of high thermal conductivity, high wear resistance tool steel grades that enable the manufacture of cost effective tools for hot stamping to increase process productivity and reduce tool manufacturing costs and lead times. Both of these novel grades feature high wear resistance and high thermal conductivity to enhance tool durability and cut cycle times in the production process of hot stamped components. Furthermore, one of these new grades reduces tool manufacturing costs through low tool material cost and hardening through readily

  10. High-resolution and high-conductive electrode fabrication on a low thermal resistance flexible substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Bongchul; Kno, Jinsung; Yang, Minyang

    2011-01-01

    Processes based on the liquid-state pattern transfer, like inkjet printing, have critical limitations including low resolution and low electrical conductivity when fabricating electrodes on low thermal resistance flexible substrates such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Those are due to the nonlinear transfer mechanism and the limit of the sintering temperature. Although the laser direct curing (LDC) of metallic inks is an alternative process to improve the resolution, it is also associated with the disadvantages of causing thermal damage to the polymer substrate. This paper suggests the laser induced pattern adhesion transfer method to fabricate electrodes of both high electrical conductivity and high resolution on a PET substrate. First, solid patterns are cost-effectively created by the LDC of the organometallic silver ink on a glass that is optically and thermally stable. The solid patterns sintered on the glass are transferred to the PET substrate by the photo-thermally generated adhesion force of the substrate. Therefore, we achieved electrodes with a minimum line width of 10 µm and a specific resistance of 3.6 μΩcm on the PET substrate. The patterns also showed high mechanical reliability

  11. High-resolution and high-conductive electrode fabrication on a low thermal resistance flexible substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bongchul; Kno, Jinsung; Yang, Minyang

    2011-07-01

    Processes based on the liquid-state pattern transfer, like inkjet printing, have critical limitations including low resolution and low electrical conductivity when fabricating electrodes on low thermal resistance flexible substrates such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Those are due to the nonlinear transfer mechanism and the limit of the sintering temperature. Although the laser direct curing (LDC) of metallic inks is an alternative process to improve the resolution, it is also associated with the disadvantages of causing thermal damage to the polymer substrate. This paper suggests the laser induced pattern adhesion transfer method to fabricate electrodes of both high electrical conductivity and high resolution on a PET substrate. First, solid patterns are cost-effectively created by the LDC of the organometallic silver ink on a glass that is optically and thermally stable. The solid patterns sintered on the glass are transferred to the PET substrate by the photo-thermally generated adhesion force of the substrate. Therefore, we achieved electrodes with a minimum line width of 10 µm and a specific resistance of 3.6 μΩcm on the PET substrate. The patterns also showed high mechanical reliability.

  12. Thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance of epoxy resin fiberglass tape at superfluid helium temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouy, B.; Polinski, J.

    2009-03-01

    The system of materials composed of fiberglass epoxy resin impregnated tape constitutes in many cases the electrical insulation for "dry"-type superconducting accelerator magnet such as Nb 3Sn magnets. Nb 3Sn magnet technology is still under development in a few programs to reach higher magnetic fields than what NbTi magnets can produce. The European program, Next European Dipole (NED), is one of such programs and it aims to develop and construct a 15 T class Nb 3Sn magnet mainly for upgrading the Large Hardron Collider. Superfluid helium is considered as one possible coolant and since the magnet has been designed with a "dry" insulation, the thermal conductivity and the Kapitza resistance of the electrical insulation are the key properties that must be know for the thermal design of such a magnet. Accordingly, property measurements of the epoxy resin fiberglass tape insulation system developed for the NED project was carried out in superfluid helium. Four sheets with thicknesses varying from 40 to 300 μm have been tested in a steady-state condition. The determined thermal conductivity, k, is [(25.8 ± 2.8) · T - (12.2 ± 4.9)] × 10 -3 W m -1 K -1 and the Kapitza resistance is given by R K = (1462 ± 345) · T(-1.86 ± 0.41) × 10 -6 Km 2 W -1 in the temperature range of 1.55-2.05 K.

  13. Estimation of hydraulic conductivity on clay content in soil determined from resistivity data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevnin, Vladimir; Delgado-Rodriguez, Omar; Mousatov, Aleksandr [Mexican Petroleum Institute, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ryjov, Albert [Moscow State Geological Prospecting Academy, Geophysical Faculty, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-15

    The influence of clay content in sandy and clayey soils on hydraulic conductivity (filtration coefficient) is considered. A review of published experimental data on the relationship of hydraulic conductivity with soil lithology and grain size, as dependent on clay content is presented. Theoretical calculations include clay content. Experimental and calculated data agree, and several approximation formulas for filtration coefficient vs clay content are presented. Clay content in soil is estimated from electric resistivity data obtained from 2D VES interpretation. A two-step method is proposed, the first step including clay content calculating from soil resistivity and groundwater salinity, and the second step including filtration coefficient estimating from clay content. Two applications are presented. [Spanish] El contenido de arcilla en suelos areno-arcillosos influye sobre la permeabilidad hidraulica (coeficiente de filtracion). Se presenta una revision de datos experimentales publicados que relacionan el coeficiente de filtracion con el tipo litologico del suelo y el tamano de las particulas. A partir de calculos teoricos, se modifican las conocidas formulas que relacionan el coeficiente de filtracion con el contenido de arcilla. Se estima el contenido de arcilla a partir de los datos interpretados por el metodo SEV, y se propone un procedimiento para la estimacion del coeficiente de filtracion: (a) calculo del contenido de arcilla a partir de la resistividad del suelo y de la salinidad del agua subterranea, (b) estimacion del coeficiente de filtracion a partir del contenido de arcilla. Se presentan algunos ejemplos de la aplicacion de esta metodologia.

  14. Hyper-resistivity and electron thermal conductivity due to destroyed magnetic surfaces in axisymmetric plasma equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weening, R. H. [Department of Radiologic Sciences, Thomas Jefferson University, 901 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107-5233 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    In order to model the effects of small-scale current-driven magnetic fluctuations in a mean-field theoretical description of a large-scale plasma magnetic field B(x,t), a space and time dependent hyper-resistivity {Lambda}(x,t) can be incorporated into the Ohm's law for the parallel electric field E Dot-Operator B. Using Boozer coordinates, a theoretical method is presented that allows for a determination of the hyper-resistivity {Lambda}({psi}) functional dependence on the toroidal magnetic flux {psi} for arbitrary experimental steady-state Grad-Shafranov axisymmetric plasma equilibria, if values are given for the parallel plasma resistivity {eta}({psi}) and the local distribution of any auxiliary plasma current. Heat transport in regions of plasma magnetic surfaces destroyed by resistive tearing modes can then be modeled by an electron thermal conductivity k{sub e}({psi})=({epsilon}{sub 0}{sup 2}m{sub e}/e{sup 2}){Lambda}({psi}), where e and m{sub e} are the electron charge and mass, respectively, while {epsilon}{sub 0} is the permittivity of free space. An important result obtained for axisymmetric plasma equilibria is that the {psi}{psi}-component of the metric tensor of Boozer coordinates is given by the relation g{sup {psi}{psi}}({psi}){identical_to}{nabla}{psi} Dot-Operator {nabla}{psi}=[{mu}{sub 0}G({psi})][{mu}{sub 0}I({psi})]/{iota}({psi}), with {mu}{sub 0} the permeability of free space, G({psi}) the poloidal current outside a magnetic surface, I({psi}) the toroidal current inside a magnetic surface, and {iota}({psi}) the rotational transform.

  15. Forced convection heat transfer in rectangular ducts: general case of wall resistances and peripheral conduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyczkowski, R. W. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Solbrig, C. W. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Chicago, IL (United States); Gidaspow, D. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A numerical solution for laminar flow heat transfer between a flowing gas and its containing rectangular duct has been obtained for many different boundary conditions. The problem has been solved for the cases of insulation on no walls, one wall, two walls, and three walls with various finite resistances on the remaining walls. Results have been obtained for several duct aspect ratios in the thermal entrance and in the fully developed regions, including the constant temperature cases. When one wall is insulated and the other three are at constant temperature, the maximum temperature occurs in the fluid rather than on the insulated wall. This maximum moves toward the insulated wall with increasing axial distance. Nusselt numbers for the same constant flux on all four walls with peripheral conduction lie in a narrow band bounded by zero and infinite peripheral conduction cases. A dimensionless wall conduction group of four can be considered infinite for the purpose of estimating fully developed Nusselt numbers to within an accuracy of 3%. A decrease in wall and bulk temperatures by finite wall conduction has been demonstrated for the case of a black body radiation boundary condition.

  16. Post-precipitation bias in band-tailed pigeon surveys conducted at mineral sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, C.T.; Schmitz, R.A.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    Many animal surveys to estimate populations or index trends include protocol prohibiting counts during rain but fail to address effects of rainfall preceding the count. Prior research on Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis) documented declines in use of mineral sites during rainfall. We hypothesized that prior precipitation was associated with a short-term increase in use of mineral sites following rain. We conducted weekly counts of band-tailed pigeons at 19 Pacific Northwest mineral sites in 2001 and 20 sites in 2002. Results from regression analysis indicated higher counts ???2 days after rain (11.31??5.00% [x????SE]) compared to ???3 days. Individual index counts conducted ???2 days after rain were biased high, resulting in reduced ability to accurately estimate population trends. Models of band-tailed pigeon visitation rates throughout the summer showed increased mineral-site counts during both June and August migration periods, relative to the July breeding period. Our research supported previous studies recommending that mineral-site counts used to index the band-tailed pigeon population be conducted during July. We further recommend conducting counts >3 days after rain to avoid weather-related bias in index estimation. The design of other population sampling strategies that rely on annual counts should consider the influence of aberrant weather not only coincident with but also preceding surveys if weather patterns are thought to influence behavior or detection probability of target species.

  17. Medication errors in chemotherapy preparation and administration: a survey conducted among oncology nurses in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulas, Arife; Silay, Kamile; Akinci, Sema; Dede, Didem Sener; Akinci, Muhammed Bulent; Sendur, Mehmet Ali Nahit; Cubukcu, Erdem; Coskun, Hasan Senol; Degirmenci, Mustafa; Utkan, Gungor; Ozdemir, Nuriye; Isikdogan, Abdurrahman; Buyukcelik, Abdullah; Inanc, Mevlude; Bilici, Ahmet; Odabasi, Hatice; Cihan, Sener; Avci, Nilufer; Yalcin, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    Medication errors in oncology may cause severe clinical problems due to low therapeutic indices and high toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents. We aimed to investigate unintentional medication errors and underlying factors during chemotherapy preparation and administration based on a systematic survey conducted to reflect oncology nurses experience. This study was conducted in 18 adult chemotherapy units with volunteer participation of 206 nurses. A survey developed by primary investigators and medication errors (MAEs) defined preventable errors during prescription of medication, ordering, preparation or administration. The survey consisted of 4 parts: demographic features of nurses; workload of chemotherapy units; errors and their estimated monthly number during chemotherapy preparation and administration; and evaluation of the possible factors responsible from ME. The survey was conducted by face to face interview and data analyses were performed with descriptive statistics. Chi-square or Fisher exact tests were used for a comparative analysis of categorical data. Some 83.4% of the 210 nurses reported one or more than one error during chemotherapy preparation and administration. Prescribing or ordering wrong doses by physicians (65.7%) and noncompliance with administration sequences during chemotherapy administration (50.5%) were the most common errors. The most common estimated average monthly error was not following the administration sequence of the chemotherapeutic agents (4.1 times/month, range 1-20). The most important underlying reasons for medication errors were heavy workload (49.7%) and insufficient number of staff (36.5%). Our findings suggest that the probability of medication error is very high during chemotherapy preparation and administration, the most common involving prescribing and ordering errors. Further studies must address the strategies to minimize medication error in chemotherapy receiving patients, determine sufficient protective measures

  18. (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity survey for evaluation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENSEMBLES

    2016-05-26

    May 26, 2016 ... The VES data were presented as depth sounding curves and .... Base map of the study area. ... resistivity data are presented as sounding curves (Figure ..... occasion of water Africa exhibition Nigeria (2006) at Ikoyi hotels and.

  19. [Patient safety culture in hospitals: experiences in planning, organising and conducting a survey among hospital staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vegten, Amanda; Pfeiffer, Yvonne; Giuliani, Francesca; Manser, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the first hospital-wide survey on patient safety climate, involving all staff (medical and non-medical), in the German-speaking area. Its aim is to share our experiences with planning, organising and conducting this survey. The study was performed at the university hospital in Zurich and had a response rate of 46.8% (2,897 valid questionnaires). The survey instrument ("Patientensicherheitsklimainventar") was based on the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (AHRQ). Primarily it allowed for assessing the current patient safety climate as well as identifying specific areas for improvement and creating a hospital-wide awareness and acceptance for patient safety issues and interventions (e.g., the introduction of a Critical Incident Reporting System [CIRS]). We discuss the basic principles and the feedback concept guiding the organisation of the overall project. Critical to the success of this project were the guaranteed anonymity of the respondents, adequate communication through well-established channels within the organisation and the commitment of the management across all project phases. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Scientific substantiation of approaches to organization and conducting radiation surveys at the rehabilitated radiation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the scientific justification of approaches to the organization of the final radiation survey of facilities having radioactive contamination, after their rehabilitation. Scientific publications on the previous experience in rehabilitation of facilities contaminated with radionuclides, the organization and conducting a radiation survey before the start of the decontamination, during its implementation and after its completion were analyzed. The experience in the rehabilitation of the site for the temporary storage of spent fuel and radioactive waste in Andreeva Bay in the North-West region of Russia, the locations of peaceful nuclear explosions, experimental nuclear power plants, a radiochemical laboratory, and metallurgical plants, that do not belong to radiation facilities, has been studied. It has been established that, besides the surface contamination of the soil, areas of radioactive contamination on sites of decommissioned radiation facilities with significant depth up to 15 m along the profile are available. These local zones with depth soil contamination are persistent contaminants of the groundwater. The experience in the radiation survey of the peaceful nuclear explosions sites shows the removal of radionuclides from cavities, formed with the use of nuclear explosive technologies for peaceful purposes, on the earth’s surface. An optimized list of radionuclides to be monitored during the radiological survey of rehabilitated facilities was proposed based on the analysis of the composition of radionuclides detected at radiation sites subjected to decontamination. The optimized list includes 14 radionuclides with the half-lives of more than three years. 

  1. Testing hypotheses that link wood anatomy to cavitation resistance and hydraulic conductivity in the genus Acer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Frederic; Sperry, John S; Christman, Mairgareth A; Choat, Brendan; Rabaey, David; Jansen, Steven

    2011-05-01

    • Vulnerability to cavitation and conductive efficiency depend on xylem anatomy. We tested a large range of structure-function hypotheses, some for the first time, within a single genus to minimize phylogenetic 'noise' and maximize detection of functionally relevant variation. • This integrative study combined in-depth anatomical observations using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy of seven Acer taxa, and compared these observations with empirical measures of xylem hydraulics. • Our results reveal a 2 MPa range in species' mean cavitation pressure (MCP). MCP was strongly correlated with intervessel pit structure (membrane thickness and porosity, chamber depth), weakly correlated with pit number per vessel, and not related to pit area per vessel. At the tissue level, there was a strong correlation between MCP and mechanical strength parameters, and some of the first evidence is provided for the functional significance of vessel grouping and thickenings on inner vessel walls. In addition, a strong trade-off was observed between xylem-specific conductivity and MCP. Vessel length and intervessel wall characteristics were implicated in this safety-efficiency trade-off. • Cavitation resistance and hydraulic conductivity in Acer appear to be controlled by a very complex interaction between tissue, vessel network and pit characteristics. © 2010 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Uncorrelated multiple conductive filament nucleation and rupture in ultra-thin high-κ dielectric based resistive random access memory

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xing; Li, Kun; Raghavan, Nagarajan; Bosman, Michel; Wang, Qing-Xiao; Cha, Dong Kyu; Zhang, Xixiang; Pey, Kin-Leong

    2011-01-01

    Resistive switching in transition metal oxides could form the basis for next-generation non-volatile memory (NVM). It has been reported that the current in the high-conductivity state of several technologically relevant oxide materials flows through

  3. Association between genotype and drug resistance profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains circulating in China in a national drug resistance survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Yang; van den Hof, Susan; Wang, Shengfen; Pang, Yu; Zhao, Bing; Xia, Hui; Anthony, Richard; Ou, Xichao; Li, Qiang; Zheng, Yang; Song, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yanlin; van Soolingen, Dick

    2017-01-01

    We describe the population structure of a representative collection of 3,133 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, collected within the framework of a national resistance survey from 2007 in China. Genotyping data indicate that the epidemic strains in China can be divided into seven major complexes,

  4. Post-market clinical research conducted by medical device manufacturers: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph S; Blount, Katrina L; Ritchie, Jessica D; Hodshon, Beth; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2015-01-01

    In the US, once a medical device is made available for use, several requirements have been established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ensure ongoing post-market surveillance of device safety and effectiveness. Our objective was to determine how commonly medical device manufacturers initiate post-market clinical studies or augment FDA post-market surveillance requirements for higher-risk devices that are most often approved via the FDA's pre-market approval (PMA) pathway. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 47 manufacturers with operations in California, Minnesota, and Massachusetts who market devices approved via the PMA pathway. Among 22 respondents (response rate =47%), nearly all self-reported conducting post-market clinical research studies, commonly between 1 and 5; only 1 respondent reported never conducting post-market clinical research studies. While manufacturers most often engaged in these studies to satisfy FDA requirements, other reasons were reported, including performance monitoring and surveillance and market acceptance initiatives. Risks of conducting and not conducting post-market clinical research studies were described through open-ended response to questions. Medical device manufacturers commonly initiate post-market clinical studies at the request of the FDA. Clinical data from these studies should be integrated into national post-market surveillance initiatives.

  5. Thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity standard reference materials: tungsten SRM's 730 and 799, from 4 to 30000K. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hust, J.G.; Giarratano, P.J.

    1975-09-01

    A historical review of the development of thermophysical Standard Reference Materials, SRM's, is given and selection criteria of SRM's are listed. Thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity data for arc cast and sintered tungsten are compiled, analyzed, and correlated. Recommended values of thermal conductivity (SRM 730) and electrical resistivity (SRM 799) for these lots of tungsten are presented for the range 4 to 3000 0 K

  6. A numerical analysis and experimental demonstration of a low degradation conductive bridge resistive memory device

    KAUST Repository

    Berco, Dan

    2017-10-23

    This study investigates a low degradation metal-ion conductive bridge RAM (CBRAM) structure. The structure is based on placing a diffusion blocking layer (DBL) between the device\\'s top electrode (TE) and the resistive switching layer (RSL), unlike conventional CBRAMs, where the TE serves as a supply reservoir for metallic species diffusing into the RSL to form a conductive filament (CF) and is kept in direct contact with the RSL. The properties of a conventional CBRAM structure (Cu/HfO2/TiN), having a Cu TE, 10 nm HfO2 RSL, and a TiN bottom electrode, are compared with a 2 nm TaN DBL incorporating structure (Cu/TaN/HfO2/TiN) for 103 programming and erase simulation cycles. The low and high resistive state values for each cycle are calculated and the analysis reveals that adding the DBL yields lower degradation. In addition, the 2D distribution plots of oxygen vacancies, O ions, and Cu species within the RSL indicate that oxidation occurring in the DBL-RSL interface results in the formation of a sub-stoichiometric tantalum oxynitride with higher blocking capabilities that suppresses further Cu insertion beyond an initial CF formation phase, as well as CF lateral widening during cycling. The higher endurance of the structure with DBL may thus be attributed to the relatively low amount of Cu migrating into the RSL during the initial CF formation. Furthermore, this isomorphic CF displays similar cycling behavior to neural ionic channels. The results of numerical analysis show a good match to experimental measurements of similar device structures as well

  7. A numerical analysis and experimental demonstration of a low degradation conductive bridge resistive memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berco, Dan; Chand, Umesh; Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates a low degradation metal-ion conductive bridge RAM (CBRAM) structure. The structure is based on placing a diffusion blocking layer (DBL) between the device's top electrode (TE) and the resistive switching layer (RSL), unlike conventional CBRAMs, where the TE serves as a supply reservoir for metallic species diffusing into the RSL to form a conductive filament (CF) and is kept in direct contact with the RSL. The properties of a conventional CBRAM structure (Cu/HfO2/TiN), having a Cu TE, 10 nm HfO2 RSL, and a TiN bottom electrode, are compared with a 2 nm TaN DBL incorporating structure (Cu/TaN/HfO2/TiN) for 103 programming and erase simulation cycles. The low and high resistive state values for each cycle are calculated and the analysis reveals that adding the DBL yields lower degradation. In addition, the 2D distribution plots of oxygen vacancies, O ions, and Cu species within the RSL indicate that oxidation occurring in the DBL-RSL interface results in the formation of a sub-stoichiometric tantalum oxynitride with higher blocking capabilities that suppresses further Cu insertion beyond an initial CF formation phase, as well as CF lateral widening during cycling. The higher endurance of the structure with DBL may thus be attributed to the relatively low amount of Cu migrating into the RSL during the initial CF formation. Furthermore, this isomorphic CF displays similar cycling behavior to neural ionic channels. The results of numerical analysis show a good match to experimental measurements of similar device structures as well.

  8. A numerical analysis and experimental demonstration of a low degradation conductive bridge resistive memory device

    KAUST Repository

    Berco, Dan; Chand, Umesh; Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates a low degradation metal-ion conductive bridge RAM (CBRAM) structure. The structure is based on placing a diffusion blocking layer (DBL) between the device's top electrode (TE) and the resistive switching layer (RSL), unlike conventional CBRAMs, where the TE serves as a supply reservoir for metallic species diffusing into the RSL to form a conductive filament (CF) and is kept in direct contact with the RSL. The properties of a conventional CBRAM structure (Cu/HfO2/TiN), having a Cu TE, 10 nm HfO2 RSL, and a TiN bottom electrode, are compared with a 2 nm TaN DBL incorporating structure (Cu/TaN/HfO2/TiN) for 103 programming and erase simulation cycles. The low and high resistive state values for each cycle are calculated and the analysis reveals that adding the DBL yields lower degradation. In addition, the 2D distribution plots of oxygen vacancies, O ions, and Cu species within the RSL indicate that oxidation occurring in the DBL-RSL interface results in the formation of a sub-stoichiometric tantalum oxynitride with higher blocking capabilities that suppresses further Cu insertion beyond an initial CF formation phase, as well as CF lateral widening during cycling. The higher endurance of the structure with DBL may thus be attributed to the relatively low amount of Cu migrating into the RSL during the initial CF formation. Furthermore, this isomorphic CF displays similar cycling behavior to neural ionic channels. The results of numerical analysis show a good match to experimental measurements of similar device structures as well

  9. An algorithm to assess methodological quality of nutrition and mortality cross-sectional surveys: development and application to surveys conducted in Darfur, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudhon Claudine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrition and mortality surveys are the main tools whereby evidence on the health status of populations affected by disasters and armed conflict is quantified and monitored over time. Several reviews have consistently revealed a lack of rigor in many surveys. We describe an algorithm for analyzing nutritional and mortality survey reports to identify a comprehensive range of errors that may result in sampling, response, or measurement biases and score quality. We apply the algorithm to surveys conducted in Darfur, Sudan. Methods We developed an algorithm based on internationally agreed upon methods and best practices. Penalties are attributed for a list of errors, and an overall score is built from the summation of penalties accrued by the survey as a whole. To test the algorithm reproducibility, it was independently applied by three raters on 30 randomly selected survey reports. The algorithm was further applied to more than 100 surveys conducted in Darfur, Sudan. Results The Intra Class Correlation coefficient was 0.79 for mortality surveys and 0.78 for nutrition surveys. The overall median quality score and range of about 100 surveys conducted in Darfur were 0.60 (0.12-0.93 and 0.675 (0.23-0.86 for mortality and nutrition surveys, respectively. They varied between the organizations conducting the surveys, with no major trend over time. Conclusion Our study suggests that it is possible to systematically assess quality of surveys and reveals considerable problems with the quality of nutritional and particularly mortality surveys conducted in the Darfur crisis.

  10. Conductive heat flow at the TAG Active Hydrothermal Mound: Results from 1993-1995 submersible surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K.; Von Herzen, R.; Kirklin, J.; Evans, R.; Kadko, D.; Kinoshita, M.; Matsubayashi, O.; Mills, R.; Schultz, A.; Rona, P.

    We report 70 measurements of conductive heat flow at the 50-m-high, 200-m-diameter TAG active hydrothermal mound, made during submersible surveys with Alvin in 1993 and 1995 and Shinkai 6500 in 1994. The stations were all measured with 5-thermistor, 0.6- or 1-m-long Alvin heat flow probes, which are capable of determining both gradient and thermal conductivity, and were transponder-navigated to an estimated accuracy of ±5-10 m relative to the 10-m-diameter central complex of black smokers. Within 20 m of this complex, conductive heat flow values are extremely variable (0.1- > 100 W/m²), which can only be due to local spatial and possible temporal variability in the immediate vicinity of the vigorous discharge sites. A similar local variability is suggested in the “Kremlin” area of white smokers to the southeast of the black smoker complex. On the south and southeast side of the mound, there is very high heat flow (3.7- > 25 W/m²) on the sedimented terraces that slope down from the Kremlin area. Heat flow is also high (0.3-3 W/m²) in the pelagic carbonate sediments on the surrounding seafloor within a few tens of meters of the southwest, northwest, and northeast sides of the mound. On the west side of the sulfide rubble plateau that surrounds the central black smoker peak, there is a coherent belt of very low heat flow (smokers, suggestive of local, shallow recharge of bottom water. The three submersible surveys spanned nearly two years, but showed no indication of any temporal variability in conductive heat flow over this time scale, whether natural or induced by ODP drilling in 1994.

  11. DC resistivity survey for the assessment of groundwater potential in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clayey sand/sandy clay weathered basement, partly weathered/fractured basement and fresh basement with resistivity values that ranged from 20 - 360 Ωm, 25 - 850 Ωm, 476 - 979 Ωm and infinity ohm-m respectively, while the thickness values ...

  12. Direct observation of conductive filament formation in Alq3 based organic resistive memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busby, Y., E-mail: yan.busby@unamur.be; Pireaux, J.-J. [Research Center in the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Spectroscopie Electronique (LISE), University of Namur, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Nau, S.; Sax, S. [NanoTecCenter Weiz Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Franz-Pichler Straße 32, A-8160 Weiz (Austria); List-Kratochvil, E. J. W. [NanoTecCenter Weiz Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Franz-Pichler Straße 32, A-8160 Weiz (Austria); Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Novak, J.; Banerjee, R.; Schreiber, F. [Institute of Applied Physics, Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2015-08-21

    This work explores resistive switching mechanisms in non-volatile organic memory devices based on tris(8-hydroxyquinolie)aluminum (Alq{sub 3}). Advanced characterization tools are applied to investigate metal diffusion in ITO/Alq{sub 3}/Ag memory device stacks leading to conductive filament formation. The morphology of Alq{sub 3}/Ag layers as a function of the metal evaporation conditions is studied by X-ray reflectivity, while depth profile analysis with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry is applied to characterize operational memory elements displaying reliable bistable current-voltage characteristics. 3D images of the distribution of silver inside the organic layer clearly point towards the existence of conductive filaments and allow for the identification of the initial filament formation and inactivation mechanisms during switching of the device. Initial filament formation is suggested to be driven by field assisted diffusion of silver from abundant structures formed during the top electrode evaporation, whereas thermochemical effects lead to local filament inactivation.

  13. Report on the results of the safety culture survey conducted in PNRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Corazon M.; Nohay, Carl M.; Badinas, Nelson P.; Melendez, Johnylen V.; Parami, Vangeline K.

    2001-01-01

    An initial safety culture survey was conducted in the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI). Sixty six (66) questionnaires as given in A. Adams and A. Williamson's Measurement of Safety Culture in the Nuclear Industry, UNSW, July 1999 were distributed to the different units of PNRI. The number of sets of survey sheets distributed to the different units corresponded to the number of personnel in the unit based on the information obtained from them. Results were obtained from only 33 respondents. ANSTO has been requested to analyze the results of this survey. While waiting for the results from ANSTO, we attempted to proceed with this analysis in order to learn and practice applying the procedure based on the reference cited above.The respondents from the PNRI showed on the overall neutral views towards safety and their work. Although a minority showed positive responses to safety while a small minority showed negative responses. A remarkable result is that all respondents show strong concern over the welfare of the institute, indicating that there is still a good chance for safety culture to be developed positively among the employees given the proper strategies for motivation. (author)

  14. Renal studies in safety pharmacology and toxicology: A survey conducted in the top 15 pharmaceutical companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Amanda; Gallacher, David J; Greiter-Wilke, Andrea; Guillon, Jean-Michel; Kasai, Cheiko; Ledieu, David; Levesque, Paul; Prelle, Katja; Ratcliffe, Sian; Sannajust, Frederick; Valentin, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    With the recent development of more sensitive biomarkers to assess kidney injury preclinically, a survey was designed i) to investigate what strategies are used to investigate renal toxicity in both ICH S7A compliant Safety Pharmacology (SP) studies after a single dose of a compound and within repeat-dose toxicity studies by large pharmaceutical companies today; ii) to understand whether renal SP studies have impact or utility in drug development and/or if it may be more appropriate to assess renal effects after multiple doses of compounds; iii) to ascertain how much mechanistic work is performed by the top 15 largest pharmaceutical companies (as determined by R&D revenue size); iv) to gain an insight into the impact of the validation of DIKI biomarkers and their introduction in the safety evaluation paradigm; and v) to understand the impact of renal/urinary safety study data on progression of projects. Two short anonymous surveys were submitted to SP leaders of the top 15 pharmaceutical companies, as defined by 2012 R&D portfolio size. Fourteen multiple choice questions were designed to explore the strategies used to investigate renal effects in both ICH S7A compliant SP studies and within toxicology studies. A 67% and 60% response rate was obtained in the first and second surveys, respectively. Nine out of ten respondent companies conduct renal excretory measurements (eg. urine analysis) in toxicology studies whereas only five out of ten conduct specific renal SP studies; and all of those 5 also conduct the renal excretory measurements in toxicology studies. These companies measure and/or calculate a variety of parameters as part of these studies, and also on a case by case basis include regulatory qualified and non-qualified DIKI biomarkers. Finally, only one company has used renal/urinary functional data alone to stop a project, whereas the majority of respondents combine renal data with other target organ assessments to form an integrated decision-making set

  15. Seasonal electrical resistivity surveys of a coastal bluff, Barter Island, North Slope Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Johnson, Cordell; Lorenson, Thomas; Conaway, Christopher H.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Erikson, Li; Richmond, Bruce M.; Waldrop, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Select coastal regions of the North Slope of Alaska are experiencing high erosion rates that can be attributed in part to recent warming trends and associated increased storm intensity and frequency. The upper sediment column of the coastal North Slope of Alaska can be described as continuous permafrost underlying a thin (typically less than 1–2 m) active layer that responds variably to seasonal thaw cycles. Assessing the temporal and spatial variability of the active layer and underlying permafrost is essential to better constrain how heightened erosion may impact material fluxes to the atmosphere and the coastal ocean, and how enhanced thaw cycles may impact the stability of the coastal bluffs. In this study, multi-channel electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used to image shallow subsurface features of a coastal bluff west of Kaktovik, on Barter Island, northeast Alaska. A comparison of a suite of paired resistivity surveys conducted in early and late summer 2014 provided detailed information on how the active layer and permafrost are impacted during the short Arctic summer. Such results are useful in the development of coastal resilience models that tie together fluvial, terrestrial, climatic, geologic, and oceanographic forcings on shoreline stability.

  16. Implementation of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mfaume Saidi M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A drug resistance survey is an essential public health management tool for evaluating and improving the performance of National Tuberculosis control programmes. The current manuscript describes the implementation of the first national drug resistance survey in Tanzania. Methods Description of the implementation process of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania, in relation to the study protocol and Standard Operating Procedures. Results Factors contributing positively to the implementation of the survey were a continuous commitment of the key stakeholders, the existence of a well organized National Tuberculosis Programme, and a detailed design of cluster-specific arrangements for rapid sputum transportation. Factors contributing negatively to the implementation were a long delay between training and actual survey activities, limited monitoring of activities, and an unclear design of the data capture forms leading to difficulties in form-filling. Conclusion Careful preparation of the survey, timing of planned activities, a strong emphasis on data capture tools and data management, and timely supervision are essential for a proper implementation of a national drug resistance survey.

  17. Implementation of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonde, Timothy M; Doulla, Basra; van Leth, Frank; Mfinanga, Sayoki G M; Range, Nyagosya; Lwilla, Fred; Mfaume, Saidi M; van Deun, Armand; Zignol, Matteo; Cobelens, Frank G; Egwaga, Saidi M

    2008-12-30

    A drug resistance survey is an essential public health management tool for evaluating and improving the performance of National Tuberculosis control programmes. The current manuscript describes the implementation of the first national drug resistance survey in Tanzania. Description of the implementation process of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania, in relation to the study protocol and Standard Operating Procedures. Factors contributing positively to the implementation of the survey were a continuous commitment of the key stakeholders, the existence of a well organized National Tuberculosis Programme, and a detailed design of cluster-specific arrangements for rapid sputum transportation. Factors contributing negatively to the implementation were a long delay between training and actual survey activities, limited monitoring of activities, and an unclear design of the data capture forms leading to difficulties in form-filling. Careful preparation of the survey, timing of planned activities, a strong emphasis on data capture tools and data management, and timely supervision are essential for a proper implementation of a national drug resistance survey.

  18. Modified resistivity-strain behavior through the incorporation of metallic particles in conductive polymer composite fibers containing carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, L.; Deng, H.; Gao, X.; Zhang, S.M.; Bilotti, E.; Peijs, A.A.J.M.; Fu, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Eutectic metal particles and carbon nanotubes are incorporated into a thermoplastic polyurethane matrix through a simple but efficient method, melt compounding, to tune the resistivity-strain behavior of conductive polymer composite (CPC) fibers. Such a combination of conductive fillers is rarely

  19. Post-market clinical research conducted by medical device manufacturers: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross JS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Joseph S Ross, Katrina L Blount, Jessica D Ritchie, Beth Hodshon, Harlan M Krumholz Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT, USA Background: In the US, once a medical device is made available for use, several requirements have been established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA to ensure ongoing post-market surveillance of device safety and effectiveness. Our objective was to determine how commonly medical device manufacturers initiate post-market clinical studies or augment FDA post-market surveillance requirements for higher-risk devices that are most often approved via the FDA's pre-market approval (PMA pathway. Methods and results: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 47 manufacturers with operations in California, Minnesota, and Massachusetts who market devices approved via the PMA pathway. Among 22 respondents (response rate =47%, nearly all self-reported conducting post-market clinical research studies, commonly between 1 and 5; only 1 respondent reported never conducting post-market clinical research studies. While manufacturers most often engaged in these studies to satisfy FDA requirements, other reasons were reported, including performance monitoring and surveillance and market acceptance initiatives. Risks of conducting and not conducting post-market clinical research studies were described through open-ended response to questions. Conclusion: Medical device manufacturers commonly initiate post-market clinical studies at the request of the FDA. Clinical data from these studies should be integrated into national post-market surveillance initiatives. Keywords: FDA, PMA pathway, post-market surveillance

  20. Survey on Ethical Conduct Thresholds in Cardiologal Medical Practice in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doval, Hernán C; Tajer, Carlos D; Borracci, Raúl A; Nuñez, Carmen; Samarelli, Marisa; Tamini, Susana

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the attitude of a group of cardiologists on the ethical conducts they would accept or adopt when encountered with different hypothetical situations of medical practice. Between August and September of 2011, 700 Argentine cardiologists were surveyed in situations which posed ethical dilemmas in the patient-physician relationship, among colleagues or involving financial agreements with employers or the pharmaceutical industry. Ethical conflicts were evidenced in a series of inappropriate conducts such as differential fees, trips and meals sponsored by laboratories, splitting fees, overbilling, self-referral, charging for patient referral, financial compensation for ordering medical procedures, and various situations derived from the relationship with employers. In general, financial compensation from the pharmaceutical industry was more accepted than the conflictive situations which directly involved patients, colleagues or employers. The rejection of these conducts, the physicians' deontological education and the improvement of financial and organizational conditions in medical practice will help to encourage better medical professionalism and avoid unseemly behaviors. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of SiC/Si ecoceramics prepared from sapele wood biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfen'eva, L. S.; Orlova, T. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Mucha, J.; Jezowski, A.; Gutierrez-Pardo, A.; Ramirez-Rico, J.

    2012-10-01

    Samples of β-SiC/Si ecoceramics with a silicon concentration of ˜21 vol % have been prepared using a series of consecutive procedures (carbonization of sapele wood biocarbon, synthesis of high-porosity biocarbon with channel-type pores, infiltration of molten silicon into empty channels of the biocarbon, formation of β-SiC, and retention of residual silicon in channels of β-SiC). The electrical resistivity ρ and thermal conductivity κ of the β-SiC/Si ecoceramic samples have been measured in the temperature range 5-300 K. The values of ρ{Si/chan}( T) and κ{Si/chan}( T) have been determined for silicon Sichan located in β-SiC channels of the synthesized β-SiC/Si ecoceramics. Based on the performed analysis of the obtained results, the concentration of charge carriers (holes) in Sichan has been estimated as p ˜ 1019 cm-3. The factors that can be responsible for such a high value of p have been discussed. The prospects for practical application of β-SiC/Si ecoceramics have been considered.

  2. Application of the surface azimuthal electrical resistivity survey method to determine patterns of regional joint orientation in glacial tills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, D.

    2010-01-01

    Joints within unconsolidated material such as glacial till can be primary avenues for the flow of electrical charge, water, and contaminants. To facilitate the siting and design of remediation programs, a need exists to map anisotropic distribution of such pathways within glacial tills by determining the azimuth of the dominant joint set. The azimuthal survey method uses standard resistivity equipment with a Wenner array rotated about a fixed center point at selected degree intervals that yields an apparent resistivity ellipse. From this ellipse, joint set orientation can be determined. Azimuthal surveys were conducted at 21 sites in a 500-km2 (193 mi2) area around Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and more specifically, at sites having more than 30 m (98 ft) of glacial till (to minimize the influence of underlying bedrock joints). The 26 azimuthal surveys revealed a systematic pattern to the trend of the dominant joint set within the tills, which is approximately parallel to ice flow direction during till deposition. The average orientation of the joint set parallel with the ice flow direction is N77??E and N37??E for the Oak Creek and Ozaukee tills, respectively. The mean difference between average direct observation of joint set orientations and average azimuthal resistivity results is 8??, which is one fifth of the difference of ice flow direction between the Ozaukee and Oak Creek tills. The results of this study suggest that the surface azimuthal electrical resistivity survey method used for local in situ studies can be a useful noninvasive method for delineating joint sets within shallow geologic material for regional studies. Copyright ?? 2010 The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  3. Visualization of conduit-matrix conductivity differences in a karst aquifer using time-lapse electrical resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Steven B.; Karaoulis, Marios; Fiebig, Florian; Maxwell, Reed M.; Revil, André; Martin, Jonathan B.; Graham, Wendy D.

    2012-12-01

    In the karstic upper Floridan aquifer, surface water flows into conduits of the groundwater system and may exchange with water in the aquifer matrix. This exchange has been hypothesized to occur based on differences in discharge at the Santa Fe River Sink-Rise system, north central Florida, but has yet to be visualized using any geophysical techniques. Using electrical resistivity tomography, we conducted a time-lapse study at two locations with mapped conduits connecting the Santa Fe River Sink to the Santa Fe River Rise to study changes of electrical conductivity during times of varying discharge over a six-week period. Our results show conductivity differences between matrix, conduit changes in resistivity occurring through time at the locations of mapped karst conduits, and changes in electrical conductivity during rainfall infiltration. These observations provide insight into time scales and matrix conduit conductivity differences, illustrating how surface water flow recharged to conduits may flow in a groundwater system in a karst aquifer.

  4. Structural changes and conductance thresholds in metal-free intrinsic SiOx resistive random access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehonic, Adnan; Buckwell, Mark; Montesi, Luca; Garnett, Leon; Hudziak, Stephen; Kenyon, Anthony J.; Fearn, Sarah; Chater, Richard; McPhail, David

    2015-01-01

    We present an investigation of structural changes in silicon-rich silicon oxide metal-insulator-metal resistive RAM devices. The observed unipolar switching, which is intrinsic to the bulk oxide material and does not involve movement of metal ions, correlates with changes in the structure of the oxide. We use atomic force microscopy, conductive atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy to examine the structural changes occurring as a result of switching. We confirm that protrusions formed at the surface of samples during switching are bubbles, which are likely to be related to the outdiffusion of oxygen. This supports existing models for valence-change based resistive switching in oxides. In addition, we describe parallel linear and nonlinear conduction pathways and suggest that the conductance quantum, G 0 , is a natural boundary between the high and low resistance states of our devices

  5. Structural changes and conductance thresholds in metal-free intrinsic SiOx resistive random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehonic, Adnan; Buckwell, Mark; Montesi, Luca; Garnett, Leon; Hudziak, Stephen; Fearn, Sarah; Chater, Richard; McPhail, David; Kenyon, Anthony J.

    2015-03-01

    We present an investigation of structural changes in silicon-rich silicon oxide metal-insulator-metal resistive RAM devices. The observed unipolar switching, which is intrinsic to the bulk oxide material and does not involve movement of metal ions, correlates with changes in the structure of the oxide. We use atomic force microscopy, conductive atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy to examine the structural changes occurring as a result of switching. We confirm that protrusions formed at the surface of samples during switching are bubbles, which are likely to be related to the outdiffusion of oxygen. This supports existing models for valence-change based resistive switching in oxides. In addition, we describe parallel linear and nonlinear conduction pathways and suggest that the conductance quantum, G0, is a natural boundary between the high and low resistance states of our devices.

  6. Highly sensitive piezo-resistive graphite nanoplatelet-carbon nanotube hybrids/polydimethylsilicone composites with improved conductive network construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hang; Bai, Jinbo

    2015-05-13

    The constructions of internal conductive network are dependent on microstructures of conductive fillers, determining various electrical performances of composites. Here, we present the advanced graphite nanoplatelet-carbon nanotube hybrids/polydimethylsilicone (GCHs/PDMS) composites with high piezo-resistive performance. GCH particles were synthesized by the catalyst chemical vapor deposition approach. The synthesized GCHs can be well dispersed in the matrix through the mechanical blending process. Due to the exfoliated GNP and aligned CNTs coupling structure, the flexible composite shows an ultralow percolation threshold (0.64 vol %) and high piezo-resistive sensitivity (gauge factor ∼ 10(3) and pressure sensitivity ∼ 0.6 kPa(-1)). Slight motions of finger can be detected and distinguished accurately using the composite film as a typical wearable sensor. These results indicate that designing the internal conductive network could be a reasonable strategy to improve the piezo-resistive performance of composites.

  7. Structural changes and conductance thresholds in metal-free intrinsic SiO{sub x} resistive random access memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehonic, Adnan, E-mail: a.mehonic@ee.ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: t.kenyon@ucl.ac.uk; Buckwell, Mark; Montesi, Luca; Garnett, Leon; Hudziak, Stephen; Kenyon, Anthony J., E-mail: a.mehonic@ee.ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: t.kenyon@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, UCL, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Fearn, Sarah; Chater, Richard; McPhail, David [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-28

    We present an investigation of structural changes in silicon-rich silicon oxide metal-insulator-metal resistive RAM devices. The observed unipolar switching, which is intrinsic to the bulk oxide material and does not involve movement of metal ions, correlates with changes in the structure of the oxide. We use atomic force microscopy, conductive atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy to examine the structural changes occurring as a result of switching. We confirm that protrusions formed at the surface of samples during switching are bubbles, which are likely to be related to the outdiffusion of oxygen. This supports existing models for valence-change based resistive switching in oxides. In addition, we describe parallel linear and nonlinear conduction pathways and suggest that the conductance quantum, G{sub 0}, is a natural boundary between the high and low resistance states of our devices.

  8. Geo-electrical investigation of near surface conductive structures suitable for groundwater accumulation in a resistive crystalline basement environment: A case study of Isuada, southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayode, J. S.; Adelusi, A. O.; Nawawi, M. N. M.; Bawallah, M.; Olowolafe, T. S.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a geophysical surveying for groundwater identification in a resistive crystalline basement hard rock in Isuada area, Southwestern Nigeria. Very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic and electrical resistivity geophysical techniques combined with well log were used to characterize the concealed near surface conductive structures suitable for groundwater accumulation. Prior to this work; little was known about the groundwater potential of this area. Qualitative and semi-quantitative interpretations of the data collected along eight traverses at 20 m spacing discovered conductive zones suspected to be fractures, faults, and cracks which were further mapped using Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) technique. Forty VES stations were utilized using Schlumberger configurations with AB/2 varying from 1 to 100 m. Four layers i.e. the top soil, the weathered layer, the partially weathered/fractured basement and the fresh basement were delineated from the interpreted resistivity curves. The weathered layers constitute the major aquifer unit in the area and are characterized by moderately low resistivity values which ranged between about 52 Ωm and 270 Ωm while the thickness varied from 1 to 35 m. The depth to the basement and the permeable nature of the weathered layer obtained from both the borehole and the hand-dug wells was used to categorize the groundwater potential of the study area into high, medium and low ratings. The groundwater potential map revealed that about 45% of the study area falls within the low groundwater potential rating while about 10% constitutes the medium groundwater potential and the remaining 45% constitutes high groundwater potential. The low resistivity, thick overburden, and fractured bedrock constitute the aquifer units and the series of basement depressions identified from the geoelectric sections as potential conductive zones appropriate for groundwater development.

  9. Parity and increased risk of insulin resistance in postmenopausal women: the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hwi; Lee, Sung Jong

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association between parity and insulin resistance in nondiabetic, postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey administered by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare. A total of 1,243 nondiabetic postmenopausal women were included in this study and subdivided into three groups according to parity (1-2, 3-4, and ≥5 live births). Insulin resistance was measured using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. The relationship between parity and insulin resistance was investigated using analysis of covariance. HOMA-IR showed a positive relationship with parity. Mean HOMA-IR (geometric mean and 95% CI) increased according to increasing parity group (1-2, 3-4, and ≥5 live births) after adjustment for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income, and body mass index as follows: 2.1 (2.0-2.2) insulin resistance was accompanied by obesity. The mean parity of the obese and insulin-resistant group was significantly higher than that of the nonobese insulin-sensitive group (3.6 ± 0.1 vs 3.2 ± 0.1, P = 0.047). Our study provides the first evidence that parity is significantly associated with insulin resistance in nondiabetic postmenopausal women. Further prospective longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the impact of parity on insulin resistance.

  10. Generic radiological characterization protocol for surveys conducted for DOE remedial action programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berven, B.A.; Cottrell, W.D.; Leggett, R.W.; Little, C.A.; Myrick, T.E.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Haywood, F.F.

    1986-05-01

    This report describes goals and methodology that can be used by radiological survey contractors in surveys at properties associated with the Department of Energy's remedial action programs. The description includes: (1) a general discussion of the history of the remedial action programs; (2) the types of surveys that may be employed by the Radiological Survey Activities (RASA) contractor; (3) generic survey methods that may be used during radiological surveys; and (4) a format for presenting information and data in a survey report. 9 refs

  11. Learning lessons from field surveys in humanitarian contexts: a case study of field surveys conducted in North Kivu, DRC 2006-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grellety Emmanuel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Survey estimates of mortality and malnutrition are commonly used to guide humanitarian decision-making. Currently, different methods of conducting field surveys are the subject of debate among epidemiologists. Beyond the technical arguments, decision makers may find it difficult to conceptualize what the estimates actually mean. For instance, what makes this particular situation an emergency? And how should the operational response be adapted accordingly. This brings into question not only the quality of the survey methodology, but also the difficulties epidemiologists face in interpreting results and selecting the most important information to guide operations. As a case study, we reviewed mortality and nutritional surveys conducted in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC published from January 2006 to January 2009. We performed a PubMed/Medline search for published articles and scanned publicly available humanitarian databases and clearinghouses for grey literature. To evaluate the surveys, we developed minimum reporting criteria based on available guidelines and selected peer-review articles. We identified 38 reports through our search strategy; three surveys met our inclusion criteria. The surveys varied in methodological quality. Reporting against minimum criteria was generally good, but presentation of ethical procedures, raw data and survey limitations were missed in all surveys. All surveys also failed to consider contextual factors important for data interpretation. From this review, we conclude that mechanisms to ensure sound survey design and conduct must be implemented by operational organisations to improve data quality and reporting. Training in data interpretation would also be useful. Novel survey methods should be trialled and prospective data gathering (surveillance employed wherever feasible.

  12. Conducting health survey research in a deep rural South African community: challenges and adaptive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Marisa; Lane, Tyler; Sello, Lebo; Kuo, Caroline; Cluver, Lucie

    2013-04-24

    In many parts of the developing world, rural health requires focused policy attention, informed by reliable, representative health data. Yet there is surprisingly little published material to guide health researchers who face the unique set of hurdles associated with conducting field research in remote rural areas. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the key challenges encountered during health survey field research carried out in 2010 in a deep rural site in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The aim of the field research was to collect data on the health of children aged 10 to 17 years old, and their primary adult caregivers, as part of a larger national health survey; the research was a collaboration between several South African and foreign universities, South African national government departments, and various NGO partners. In presenting each of the four fieldwork challenges encountered on this site, we describe the initial planning decisions made, the difficulties faced when implementing these in the field, and the adaptive strategies we used to respond to these challenges. We reflect on learnings of potential relevance for the research community. Our four key fieldwork challenges were scarce research capacity, staff relocation tensions, logistical constraints, and difficulties related to community buy-in. Addressing each of these obstacles required timely assessment of the situation and adaptation of field plans, in collaboration with our local NGO partner. Adaptive strategies included a greater use of local knowledge; the adoption of tribal authority boundaries as the smallest geopolitical units for sampling; a creative developmental approach to capacity building; and planned, on-going engagement with multiple community representatives. We argue that in order to maintain high scientific standards of research and manage to 'get the job done' on the ground, it is necessary to respond to fieldwork challenges that arise as a cohesive team, with timely

  13. Development of a Survey Instrument to Measure TEFL Academics' Perceptions about, Individual and Workplace Characteristics for Conducting Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li; Hudson, Peter; Millwater, Jan; Tones, Megan

    2013-01-01

    A 30-item survey was devised to determine Chinese TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) academics' potential for conducting research. A five-part Likert scale was used to gather data from 182 academics on four factors: (1) perceptions on teaching-research nexus, (2) personal perspectives for conducting research, (3) predispositions for…

  14. Survey indicated that core outcome set development is increasingly including patients, being conducted internationally and using Delphi surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggane, Alice M; Brading, Lucy; Ravaud, Philippe; Young, Bridget; Williamson, Paula R

    2018-02-17

    There are numerous challenges in including patients in a core outcome set (COS) study, these can vary depending on the patient group. This study describes current efforts to include patients in the development of COS, with the aim of identifying areas for further improvement and study. Using the COMET database, corresponding authors of COS projects registered or published from 1 January 2013 to 2 February 2017 were invited via a personalised email to participate in a short online survey. The survey and emails were constructed to maximise the response rate by following the academic literature on enhancing survey responses. Personalised reminder emails were sent to non-responders. This survey explored the frequency of patient input in COS studies, who was involved, what methods were used and whether or not the COS development was international. One hundred and ninety-two COS developers were sent the survey. Responses were collected from 21 February 2017 until 7 May 2017. One hundred and forty-six unique developers responded, yielding a 76% response rate and data in relation to 195 unique COSs (as some developers had worked on multiple COSs). Of focus here are their responses regarding 162 COSs at the published, completed or ongoing stages of development. Inclusion of patient participants was indicated in 87% (141/162) of COSs in the published completed or ongoing stages and over 94% (65/69) of ongoing COS projects. Nearly half (65/135) of COSs included patient participants from two or more countries and 22% (30/135) included patient participants from five or more countries. The Delphi survey was reported as being used singularly or in combination with other methods in 85% (119/140) of projects. Almost a quarter (16/65) of ongoing studies reported using a combination of qualitative interviews, Delphi survey and consensus meeting. These findings indicated that the Delphi survey is the most popular method of facilitating patient participation, while the combination of

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Mixed-Conducting Corrosion Resistant Oxide Supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramani, Vijay K. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-01-31

    /C and Pt/RTO cathode catalyst layers were 150 and 12 mΩ-cm2, respectively. Pt/RTO catalyst layer has about an order or magnitude lower proton transfer resistance than Pt/C catalyst layer. Since the ionomer/support ratio that was used in formulating the ink for both catalysts was the same (0.9), it is expected that the volumetric coverage of ionomer of both catalysts will be significantly different due to the disparity in the surface areas (Pt/C had ~ 800 m2/g, while Pt/RTO had ~ 50 m2/g). The differences in the ionomer volumetric coverage and the ionomer film thickness may explain the significantly higher proton conductivity in the Pt/RTO catalyst layer when compared to Pt/HSAC. It is therefore very important to optimize the ionomer loadings when synthesizing new catalyst supports (and never rely on values for carbon-based commercial catalysts). Finally, NTCNA has elaborated a cost model for non-carbon support materials considering their durability benefits. Material costs for production of Pt/ RuO2-TiO2 electrodes were compared to Pt/C. RuO2-TiO2 support was more expensive than carbon but the total material cost was still dominated by platinum cost. Though ruthenium is considered a precious metal, its cost is far less than platinum. It should also be noted that ruthenium only makes up 38% of the mass of the support, while the rest is inexpensive TiO2. After considering the durability advantages of Pt/RTO, cost model showed that even with almost double the Pt loading (0.35 vs 0.18 mgPt/cm2), Pt/RTO ($22.7/kWnet) is only slightly more expensive than Pt/C ($21.9/kWnet).

  16. Survey the Effect of Mycorrhiza and Azospirillum of Wheat Cultivars Resistance in Yellow Rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jiriaie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Wheat is one of the major agricultural crops with respect to human nutrition. It is cultivated over a wide range of environments, because of wide adaptation to diverse environmental conditions. In Iran, 6.2 million hectares are under wheat cultivation, of which 33% is irrigated and 67% is rain-fed, the irrigated wheat growing areas (2 million hectares are located mostly in southern, central and east of Iran Production of crops is under the influence of plant genetic structure, environmental conditions and their interactions. Biotic and abiotic stresses are considered to lower production. Among the biotic stress, the fungal disease is the main factor limiting production of crop plants in hot and humid regions. Stripe rust was not a serious economic concern to the wheat industry for most of the 1990’s due to the use of resistant varieties. However, by 2003 it had developed into a significant issue, particularly as new path types evolved. Even in the dry years of 2003 and 2004, stripe rust cost growers significant income. Provide country's need for wheat as a strategic product, meanwhile, production is free from chemical fungicide is a high but achievable goal. So in order to achieve fertilizer and fungicide resources that in addition to having no adverse effects on consumers and the environment, has been economically able to provide nutrition need of crop plant, is very important. Materials and Methods: With this approach, to survey the effect of Mycorrhiza and Azospirillum in resistance to yellow rust in wheat cultivars, an experiment was conducted at the research station of the Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran in 2012-13. The experimental design was factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments include of Mycorrhiza fungi in three levels (without application of Mycorrhiza strain and using strain Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae, Azospirillum lipoferum bacterium in two

  17. Comparing spatial series of soil bulk electrical conductivity as obtained by Time Domain Reflectometry and Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Ali; Dragonetti, Giovanna; Comegna, Allessandro; Garre, Sarah; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Coppola, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Conventional ground survey of soil root zone salinity by direct soil sampling are time consuming, costly and destructive. Alternatively, soil salinity can be evaluated by measuring the bulk electrical conductivity, σb, in the field. This approach is faster and cheaper, and allows a more intensive surveying. Measurements of σb can be made either in situ or with remote devices. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) sensors allow simultaneous measurements of water content, θ, and σb. They may be calibrated for estimating the electrical conductivity of the soil solution (σw). However, they have a relatively small observation window and thus they are thought to only provide local-scale measurements. The spatial range of the sensors is limited to tens of centimeters and extension of the information to a large area can be problematic. Also, information on the vertical distribution of the σb soil profile may only be obtained by installing sensors at different depths. In this sense, the TDR may be considered as an invasive technique. Compared to the TDR, other geophysical methods based for example on the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) techniques represent an alternative in respect to those traditional for soil salinity characterization. In order to deduce the actual distribution of the bulk electrical conductivity, σb, in the soil profile, one needs to invert the signal coming from ERT sensors. The latter, in turn, depends on the specific depth distribution of the σb, as well as on the electrical configuration of the sensor used. With these premises, the main aim of this study is to estimate the vertical σb distribution starting from resistivity data series measured using the ERT method under different salinity conditions and using TDR data as ground-truth data for calibration and validation of the ERT sensor. This way, limited measured TDR data may be used for translating extensive ERT apparent electrical conductivity, σa, measurements to estimate depth

  18. A first-principles analysis of ballistic conductance, grain boundary scattering and vertical resistance in aluminum interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tianji; Lanzillo, Nicholas A.; Bhosale, Prasad; Gall, Daniel; Quon, Roger

    2018-05-01

    We present an ab initio evaluation of electron scattering mechanisms in Al interconnects from a back-end-of-line (BEOL) perspective. We consider the ballistic conductance as a function of nanowire size, as well as the impact of surface oxidation on electron transport. We also consider several representative twin grain boundaries and calculate the specific resistivity and reflection coefficients for each case. Lastly, we calculate the vertical resistance across the Al/Ta(N)/Al and Cu/Ta(N)/Cu interfaces, which are representative of typical vertical interconnect structures with diffusion barriers. Despite a high ballistic conductance, the calculated specific resistivities at grain boundaries are 70-100% higher in Al than in Cu, and the vertical resistance across Ta(N) diffusion barriers are 60-100% larger for Al than for Cu. These results suggest that in addition to the well-known electromigration limitations in Al interconnects, electron scattering represents a major problem in achieving low interconnect line resistance at fine dimensions.

  19. Analysis of Printing Substrate, Ink Age and Number of IR Drying Influence on Electrical Resistance of Conductive Inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Jerić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of availability of new technologies, functional printing as a segment has become one of the most interesting directions of research and development in graphic technology. Conductive inks are not a novelty and they already have broad possibilities in production of everyday products. There is still a big market for the broadening of their use, as well as a possibility of further enhancing their properties. This paper analyzes the influence of printing substrate, age of ink and the number of IR drying on the electrical resistance of the conductive inks. In the paper, subject of analysis was the change of electrical resistance in the line that was 9 cm long and 10 typographic points wide. The semi-automated screen-printing machine was used for printing. Three types of printing substrates were used; uncoated, coated and recycled paper. Two types of inks were used; newly opened ink and ink that was out of date for half year. After the printing, prints were dried using the IR dryer. Prints were dried once, and then additional three times. After the first and last drying, multimeter was used to measure electrical resistance of the lines. Analysis of the data shows that the older ink produces prints with higher electrical resistance. There are also notable differences in the electrical resistance based on the printing substrate.

  20. The survey of shigellosis frequency and determination of antibiotic resistance profile of isolated strains from infected children in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Abbaspour

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shigellosis is endemic throughout the world and it is among the most common causes of bacterial diarrheal diseases. Antibiotic resistance of Shigella is becoming a progressive problem in world. The aim of this study was the survey of shigellosis frequency and determination of antibiotic resistance profile of isolated strains from infected children in Tehran. Material and Methods: This study conducted on 9131 patients with acute diarrheal disease. For isolation of Shigella spp. from stool samples, culture performed on different selective and differential media. After confirmation of bacteria by biochemical tests, susceptibility testing was done by disc diffusion method according to clinical and laboratory standards (CLSI recomendations. Results: Among 9131 stool samples, Shigella spp. was isolated from 90 cases. Shigella sonnei was the most common isolated species. 92/2 % of isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole. In contrast, most of the Shigella spp. was founded to be sensitive to ciprofloxacin, imipenem and third-generation cephalosporins. Conclusion: Surveillance programs on antimicrobial resistance not only identify pathogenic bacterial species, by reporting data like serotyping, microorganisms incidence rates, and susceptibility to the antimicrobial agents currently used for treatment, but also contribute to monitoring the intervention strategies including removing organism from reservoirs.

  1. A Prospective Observational Survey on the Long-Term Effect of LDL Apheresis on Drug-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Muso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: LDL apheresis (LDL-A is used for drug-resistant nephrotic syndrome (NS as an alternative therapy to induce remission by improvement of hyperlipidemia. Several clinical studies have suggested the efficacy of LDL-A for refractory NS, but the level of evidence remains insufficient. A multicenter prospective study, POLARIS (Prospective Observational Survey on the Long-Term Effects of LDL Apheresis on Drug-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome, was conducted to evaluate its clinical efficacy with high-level evidence. Methods: Patients with NS who showed resistance to primary medication for at least 4 weeks were prospectively recruited to the study and treated with LDL-A. The long-term outcome was evaluated based on the rate of remission of NS 2 years after treatment. Factors affecting the outcome were also examined. Results: A total of 58 refractory NS patients from 40 facilities were recruited and enrolled as subjects of the POLARIS study. Of the 44 subjects followed for 2 years, 21 (47.7% showed remission of NS based on a urinary protein (UP level Conclusions: Almost half of the cases of drug-resistant NS showed remission 2 years after LDL-A. Improvement of nephrotic parameters at termination of the LDL-A treatment was a predictor of a favorable outcome.

  2. Assessing thermal conductivity of composting reactor with attention on varying thermal resistance between compost and the inner surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjiang; Niu, Wenjuan; Ai, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic estimation of heat transfer through composting reactor wall was crucial for insulating design and maintaining a sanitary temperature. A model, incorporating conductive, convective and radiative heat transfer mechanisms, was developed in this paper to provide thermal resistance calculations for composting reactor wall. The mechanism of thermal transfer from compost to inner surface of structural layer, as a first step of heat loss, was important for improving insulation performance, which was divided into conduction and convection and discussed specifically in this study. It was found decreasing conductive resistance was responsible for the drop of insulation between compost and reactor wall. Increasing compost porosity or manufacturing a curved surface, decreasing the contact area of compost and the reactor wall, might improve the insulation performance. Upon modeling of heat transfers from compost to ambient environment, the study yielded a condensed and simplified model that could be used to conduct thermal resistance analysis for composting reactor. With theoretical derivations and a case application, the model was applicable for both dynamic estimation and typical composting scenario. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Low temperature resistivity studies of SmB6: Observation of two-dimensional variable-range hopping conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batkova, Marianna; Batko, Ivan; Gabáni, Slavomír; Gažo, Emil; Konovalova, Elena; Filippov, Vladimir

    2018-05-01

    We studied electrical resistance of a single-crystalline SmB6 sample with a focus on the region of the "low-temperature resistivity plateau". Our observations did not show any true saturation of the electrical resistance at temperatures below 3 K down to 70 mK. According to our findings, temperature dependence of the electrical conduction in a certain temperature interval above 70 mK can be decomposed into a temperature-independent term and a temperature-activated term that can be described by variable-range hopping formula for two-dimensional systems, exp [ -(T0 / T) 1 / 3 ]. Thus, our results indicate importance of hopping type of electrical transport in the near-surface region of SmB6.

  4. Orthotropic conductivity reconstruction with virtual-resistive network and Faraday's law

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Min-Gi; Ko, Min-Su; Kim, Yong-Jung

    2015-01-01

    We obtain the existence and the uniqueness at the same time in the reconstruction of orthotropic conductivity in two-space dimensions by using two sets of internal current densities and boundary conductivity. The curl-free equation of Faraday's law

  5. Development and Life Prediction of Erosion Resistant Turbine Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2010-01-01

    Future rotorcraft propulsion systems are required to operate under highly-loaded conditions and in harsh sand erosion environments, thereby imposing significant material design and durability issues. The incorporation of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBC) in high pressure turbine systems enables engine designs with higher inlet temperatures, thus improving the engine efficiency, power density and reliability. The impact and erosion resistance of turbine thermal barrier coating systems are crucial to the turbine coating technology application, because a robust turbine blade TBC system is a prerequisite for fully utilizing the potential coating technology benefit in the rotorcraft propulsion. This paper describes the turbine blade TBC development in addressing the coating impact and erosion resistance. Advanced thermal barrier coating systems with improved performance have also been validated in laboratory simulated engine erosion and/or thermal gradient environments. A preliminary life prediction modeling approach to emphasize the turbine blade coating erosion is also presented.

  6. Highly stretchable resistive pressure sensors using a conductive elastomeric composite on a micropyramid array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Chwee-Lin; Shim, Mun-Bo; Lee, Byoung-Sun; Jeon, Sanghun; Ko, Dong-Su; Kang, Tae-Hyung; Bae, Jihyun; Lee, Sung Hoon; Byun, Kyung-Eun; Im, Jungkyun; Jeong, Yong Jin; Park, Chan Eon; Park, Jong-Jin; Chung, U-In

    2014-06-04

    A stretchable resistive pressure sensor is achieved by coating a compressible substrate with a highly stretchable electrode. The substrate contains an array of microscale pyramidal features, and the electrode comprises a polymer composite. When the pressure-induced geometrical change experienced by the electrode is maximized at 40% elongation, a sensitivity of 10.3 kPa(-1) is achieved. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The Burden of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Papua New Guinea: Results of a Large Population-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Aia

    Full Text Available Reliable estimates of the burden of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB are crucial for effective control and prevention of tuberculosis (TB. Papua New Guinea (PNG is a high TB burden country with limited information on the magnitude of the MDR-TB problem.A cross-sectional study was conducted in four PNG provinces: Madang, Morobe, National Capital District and Western Province. Patient sputum samples were tested for rifampicin resistance by the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and those showing the presence of resistance underwent phenotypic susceptibility testing to first- and second-line anti-TB drugs including streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, ofloxacin, amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin.Among 1,182 TB patients enrolled in the study, MDR-TB was detected in 20 new (2.7%; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.1-4.3% and 24 previously treated (19.1%; 95%CI: 8.5-29.8% TB cases. No case of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB was detected. Thirty percent (6/20 of new and 33.3% (8/24 of previously treated cases with MDR-TB were detected in a single cluster in Western Province.In PNG the proportion of MDR-TB in new cases is slightly lower than the regional average of 4.4% (95%CI: 2.6-6.3%. A large proportion of MDR-TB cases were identified from a single hospital in Western Province, suggesting that the prevalence of MDR-TB across the country is heterogeneous. Future surveys should further explore this finding. The survey also helped strengthening the use of smear microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF testing as diagnostic tools for TB in the country.

  8. Differential conductance measurements of low-resistance CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, S.; Hamada, Y.V.; Matsumoto, R.; Mizuguchi, M.; Shiraishi, M.; Fukushima, A.; Kubota, H.; Nagahama, T.; Yuasa, S.; Maehara, H.; Nagamine, Y.; Tsunekawa, K.; Djayaprawira, D.D.; Watanabe, N.; Suzuki, Y.

    2007-01-01

    We measured differential conductance spectra of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with thin MgO barrier and low-resistance area product. The spectra of MTJs with MgO barrier thicker than 1.05 nm were essentially the same except for slight decrease of contributions from low-energy excitations, such as magnons. The spectra of MTJ with 1.01 nm MgO barrier were thoroughly different from the MTJs with thicker barrier. The result reveals that an MTJ with very thin MgO barrier thickness has different conduction characteristics from those with thicker MgO barriers

  9. [Resistance of gonococci in the Netherlands; results of a survey of medical microbiology laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loo, I H M; Spaargaren, J; van de Laar, M J W

    2005-05-28

    To collect information about the incidence ofgonorrhoea and gonococcal resistance in the Netherlands. A questionnaire was sent to 39 medical microbiology laboratories to obtain information on current diagnostics and the susceptibility testing method, and on the number of positive results and the susceptibility pattern of gonococcal isolates in 2002 and 2003 (up to and including November). 32 laboratories participated in this survey. 13 laboratories used culture alone and 19 laboratories used culture and/or a molecular test. Gonorrhoea was diagnosed 2,666 times in 2002 and 2,190 times in 2003, with an incidence of 33.5 and 27.0 per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The rate of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin and amoxicillin) was 12.2% and 10.7% in 2002 and 2003, respectively, and the rates of resistance to tetracycline were 18.5% and 20.6%. An increase in the resistance to quinolones was observed from 6.6% in 2002 to 9.5% in 2003. Resistance to cephalosporins was low (0.5% in 2002 and 1.2% in 2003). Furthermore, regional differences in susceptibility were found within the Netherlands. The observed gonococcal incidence and resistance form the basis for a gonorrhoea prevention and treatment programme in the Netherlands.

  10. Investigation of the resistive switching in Ag{sub x}AsS{sub 2} layer by conductive AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bo [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, Pardubice, 532 10 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Kutalek, Petr [Joint Laboratory of Solid State Chemistry of Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, v.v.i., and University of Pardubice, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, Pardubice, 532 10 (Czech Republic); Knotek, Petr [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, Pardubice, 532 10 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Hromadko, Ludek; Macak, Jan M. [Center of Materials and Nanotechnologies, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Nam. Cs. Legii 565, Pardubice, 53002 (Czech Republic); Wagner, Tomas, E-mail: tomas.wagner@upce.cz [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, Pardubice, 532 10 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Center of Materials and Nanotechnologies, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Nam. Cs. Legii 565, Pardubice, 53002 (Czech Republic)

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • The resistive switching was studied from topological maps and spread current maps by conductive AFM. • Both surface particles and filaments were created under bias from conductive AFM. • The combination of topological map and spread current map proves the current did not flow through surface particles. • A model, consisting of interactions between charge carriers and Ag ions, were introduced to explain the experiment phenomena. - Abstract: In this paper, a study of resistive switching in Ag{sub x}AsS{sub 2} layer, based on a utilization of conductive atomic force microscope (AFM), is reported. As the result of biasing, two distinct regions were created on the surface (the conductive region and non-conductive region). Both were analysed from the spread current maps. The volume change, corresponding to the growth of Ag particles, was derived from the topological maps, recorded simultaneously with the current maps. Based on the results, a model explaining the mechanism of the Ag particle and Ag filament formation was proposed from the distribution of charge carriers and Ag ions.

  11. The Second Zambian National Tuberculosis Drug Resistance survey - a comparison of conventional and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapata, Nathan; Mbulo, Grace; Cobelens, Frank; de Haas, Petra; Schaap, Ab; Mwamba, Pike; Mwanza, Winnie; Muvwimi, Mweemba; Muyoyeta, Monde; Moyo, Maureen; Mulenga, Lutinala; Grobusch, Martin P; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Ayles, Helen

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of MDR-TB in Zambia was estimated to be 1.8% in 2001. A second drug resistance survey was conducted in 2008 to determine trends; the use of the Genotype MTBDRplus assay was applied to compare results to the gold standard. A two-stage cluster sampling, with health facilities as primary sampling units. Processed sputum specimens were inoculated on solid media for culture; heat-inactivated bacterial suspensions from sputum samples were tested on a commercial line probe assay for the identification of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance. A total of 917 patients with TB were enrolled and 883 (96.3%) analysed. A total of 574 (65%) had LJ results and 824 (93.3%) had results from MTBDRplus assay. The median age was 32, and 63.3% were males. MDR-TB according to LJ-based DST was 1.1% (CI 0.1-2.4) whereas according to MDTBDRplus assay was 1.6% (CI 0.6-2.6). Isoniazid monoresistance in new cases was 2.4% (CI 0.613-4.26) based on LJ results and 5.0% (CI 3.2-6.7) based on the MTBDRplus; in retreatment cases, it was 4.4% (CI 0.3-8.6) and 2.40% (CI <0.1-5.1) on LJ and MTBDRplus, respectively. Rifampicin monoresistance in new cases was 0.1% (CI <0.1-0.4) based on LJ and 0.6% (CI 0.01-1.1) based on the MTBDRplus; in retreatment cases, it was 0% (CI 0-3.8) and 1.8% (CI <0.1-4.0) on LJ and MTBDRplus, respectively. There were no XDR-TB cases found and no association between MDR-TB and HIV. There was no increase in MDR-TB prevalence in Zambia from 2001 to 2008; results from the two methods were similar. Molecular methods were quicker and simpler to use. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A Portrait of the Audience for Instruction in Web Searching: Results of a Survey Conducted at Two Canadian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillotson, Joy

    2003-01-01

    Describes a survey that was conducted involving participants in the library instruction program at two Canadian universities in order to describe the characteristics of students receiving instruction in Web searching. Examines criteria for evaluating Web sites, search strategies, use of search engines, and frequency of use. Questionnaire is…

  13. Improvement of corrosion resistance of transparent conductive multilayer coating consisting of silver layers and transparent metal oxide layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Katsuhiko; Yamazaki, Fumiharu; Okamura, Tomoyuki; Fukuda, Shin

    2007-01-01

    An optical filter for plasma display panel (PDP) requires an electromagnetic shield with very high ability. The authors investigated a transparent conductive multilayer coating consisting of silver (Ag) layers and transparent metal oxide layers. The durability of the multilayer sputter coating, including the silver layer, is very sensitive to the surrounding atmosphere. For example, after an exposure test they found discolored points on the multilayer sputter coatings, possibly caused by migration of silver atoms in the silver layers. In their investigation, they modified the top surface of the multilayer sputter coatings with transition metals to improve the corrosion resistance of the multilayer coating. Specifically, they deposited transition metals 0.5-2 nm thick on the top surface of the multilayer coatings by sputtering. They chose indium tin oxide (ITO) as the transparent metal oxide. They applied the multilayer sputter coatings of seven layers to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film substrate. A cross-sectional structure of the film with the multilayer coatings is PET film/ITO/Ag/ITO/Ag/ITO/Ag/ITO. They evaluated the corrosion resistance of the films by a salt-water immersion test. In the test, they immersed the film with multilayer coatings into salt water, and then evaluated the appearance, transmittance, and electrical resistance of the multilayer coatings. They investigated several transition metals as the modifying material, and found that titanium and tantalum drastically improved the resistance of the multilayer coatings to the salt-water exposure without a significant decline in transmittance. They also investigated the relation between elapsed time after deposition of the modifying materials and resistance to the salt water. Furthermore, they investigated the effects of a heat treatment and an oxide plasma treatment on resistance to the salt water

  14. Prion protein genotype survey confirms low frequency of scrapie-resistant K222 allele in British goat herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, W; Marier, E; Stewart, P; Konold, T; Street, S; Langeveld, J; Windl, O; Ortiz-Pelaez, A

    2016-02-13

    Scrapie in goats is a transmissible, fatal prion disease, which is endemic in the British goat population. The recent success in defining caprine PRNP gene variants that provide resistance to experimental and natural classical scrapie has prompted the authors to conduct a survey of PRNP genotypes in 10 goat breeds and 52 herds to find goats with the resistant K222 allele. They report here the frequencies in 1236 tested animals of the resistance-associated K222 and several other alleles by breed and herd. Eight animals were found to be heterozygous QK222 goats (0.64 per cent genotype frequency, 95 per cent CI 0.28 to 1.27 per cent) but no homozygous KK222 goats were detected. The K222 allele was found in Saanen, Toggenburg and Anglo-Nubian goats. The fact that only a few goats with the K222 allele have been identified does not preclude the possibility to design and implement successful breeding programmes at national level. British Veterinary Association.

  15. The iron and cerium oxide influence on the electric conductivity and the corrosion resistance of anodized aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Kellie Provazi de

    2006-01-01

    The influence of different treatments on the aluminum system covered with aluminum oxide is investigated. The aluminum anodization in sulphuric media and in mixed sulphuric and phosphoric media was used to alter the corrosion resistance, thickness, coverage degree and microhardness of the anodic oxide. Iron electrodeposition inside the anodic oxide was used to change its electric conductivity and corrosion resistance. Direct and pulsed current were used for iron electrodeposition and the Fe(SO 4 ) 2 (NH 4 ) 2 .6H 2 O electrolyte composition was changed with the addition of boric and ascorbic acids. To the sealing treatment the CeCl 3 composition was varied. The energy dispersive x-ray (EDS), the x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (FRX) and the morphologic analysis by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) allowed to verify that, the pulsed current increase the iron content inside the anodic layer and that the use of the additives inhibits the iron oxidation. The chronopotentiometric curves obtained during iron electrodeposition indicated that the boric and ascorbic acids mixture increased the electrodeposition process efficiency. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIE), the Vickers (Hv) microhardness measurements and morphologic analysis evidenced that the sealing treatment improves the corrosion resistance of the anodic film modified with iron. The electrical impedance (EI) technique allowed to prove the electric conductivity increase of the anodized aluminum with iron electrodeposited even after the cerium low concentration treatment. Iron nanowires were prepared by using the anodic oxide pores as template. (author)

  16. Design and Performance Optimizations of Advanced Erosion-Resistant Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings for Rotorcraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings will be more aggressively designed to protect gas turbine engine hot-section components in order to meet future rotorcraft engine higher fuel efficiency and lower emission goals. For thermal barrier coatings designed for rotorcraft turbine airfoil applications, further improved erosion and impact resistance are crucial for engine performance and durability, because the rotorcraft are often operated in the most severe sand erosive environments. Advanced low thermal conductivity and erosion-resistant thermal barrier coatings are being developed, with the current emphasis being placed on thermal barrier coating toughness improvements using multicomponent alloying and processing optimization approaches. The performance of the advanced thermal barrier coatings has been evaluated in a high temperature erosion burner rig and a laser heat-flux rig to simulate engine erosion and thermal gradient environments. The results have shown that the coating composition and architecture optimizations can effectively improve the erosion and impact resistance of the coating systems, while maintaining low thermal conductivity and cyclic oxidation durability

  17. [Survey on the transmission of HIV drug resistance in Kunming, Yunnan province in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Ma, Yan-ling; Chu, Cheng-xia; Xing, Hui; Xu, Yan-sheng; Su, Ying-zhen; Yang, Ying; Chen, Hui-chao; Luo, Hong-bing; Jia, Man-hong; Lu, Lin

    2012-01-01

    To study the HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) transmission in Kunming city of Yunnan province in 2010. Referring to the guidelines for HIV drug resistance threshold survey (HIVDR-TS) set by WHO, 62 plasma samples of recently reported HIV-infected individuals who were older than 25 years of age, were collected from January to August 2010. Genotyping of pol genetic mutations associated with HIVDR with reverse transcriptional PCR was performed and the prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance transmission was evaluated. Of the 62 plasma samples, 54 were successfully sequenced and genotyped on pol sequence. Based on the pol sequences, HIV subtypes including CRF08_BC (53.2%), CRF07_BC (25.5%), CRF01_AE (19.1%) and C (2.1%) were identified. According to the time of sampling, the first 47 sequenced samples were used for drug resistance prevalence analysis. A protease inhibitor (PI) relative mutation was found in one sample. Based on the WHO standard, the prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance was scientific management to AIDS patients seemed to be quite important.

  18. A numerical study on the flow and performance characteristics of a piezoelectric micropump with electromagnetic resistance for electrically conducting fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Yong Jun; Choi, Chung Ryul; Kim, Chang Nyung

    2008-01-01

    A numerical analysis has been conducted for flow characteristics and performance of a micropump with piezodisk and MHD (MagnetoHydroDynamics) fluid. Various micro systems which could not be considered in the past have been recently growing with the development of MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical System) and micro machining technology. Especially, micropumps, essential part of micro fluidic devices, are being lively studied by many researchers. In the present study, the piezo electric micropump with electromagnetic resistance for electrically conducting fluids is considered. The prescribed grid deformation method is used for the displacement of the membrane. The change of the performance of the micropump and flow characteristics of the electrically conducting fluid with the magnitude of the magnetic fields, duct size, the position of the inlet and outlet duct are investigated in the present study

  19. Social Media and Unprofessional Pharmacist Conduct: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Boards of Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Elmore, PharmD, BCPS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine how often boards of pharmacy (BOPs receive complaints related to licensee’s online behavior, and what types of online behaviors may prompt an investigation of a licensee.Methods: A survey (consisting of questions related to BOP’s management of complaints against licensee online behavior and 10 case vignettes was adapted from a previous survey of United States medical boards. Vignettes encompassed themes such as patient confidentiality, derogatory language, alcohol use, false or misleading product claims, and others. Following institutional review board approval, survey materials were distributed via email by the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy to 63 domestic and international boards of pharmacy. Completed surveys were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The proportion of respondents who indicated that the vignette would “very likely” or “likely” result in an investigation was used to determine consensus. Proportions of >75%, 50%-75% and <50% were classified as high, moderate and low consensus, respectively.Results: Fourteen completed surveys (22.2% were received. Sixty percent of respondents stated that their board has been involved in managing a complaint regarding the online behavior of a licensee, and that disciplinary actions including revocation or suspension of license, letter of reprimand, and monetary fines have been enacted. While 79% of responding BOPs have a policy regarding Internet usage, 36% are unsure whether the policies are sufficient to cover online professionalism. One vignette, where a pharmacist made misleading claims regarding a compounded product, achieved high consensus for likelihood to prompt an investigation. Moderate consensus was achieved for a breach of patient confidentiality, inappropriate alcohol use, and misrepresentation of professional credentials.Conclusion: Boards of pharmacy are widely varied in what types of online behaviors may prompt an investigation

  20. Social Media and Unprofessional Pharmacist Conduct: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Boards of Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Skelley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine how often boards of pharmacy (BOPs receive complaints related to licensee's online behavior, and what types online behaviors may prompt an investigation of a licensee. Methods: A survey (consisting of questions related to BOP's management of complaints against licensee online behavior and 10 case vignettes was adapted from a previous survey of United States medical boards. Vignettes encompassed themes such as patient confidentiality, derogatory language, alcohol use, false or misleading product claims, and others. Following institutional review board approval, survey materials were distributed via email by the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy to 63 domestic and international boards of pharmacy. Completed surveys were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The proportion of respondents who indicated that the vignette would "very likely" or "likely" result in an investigation was used to determine consensus. Proportions of >75%, 50%-75% and <50% were classified as high, moderate and low consensus, respectively. Results: Fourteen completed surveys (22.2% were received. Sixty percent of respondents stated that their board has been involved in managing a complaint regarding the online behavior of a licensee, and that disciplinary actions including revocation or suspension of license, letter of reprimand, and monetary fines have been enacted. While 79% of responding BOPs have a policy regarding Internet usage, 36% are unsure whether the policies are sufficient to cover online professionalism. One vignette, where a pharmacist made misleading claims regarding a compounded product, achieved high consensus for likelihood to prompt an investigation. Moderate consensus was achieved for a breach of patient confidentiality, inappropriate alcohol use, and misrepresentation of professional credentials. Conclusion: Boards of pharmacy are widely varied in what types of online behaviors may prompt an investigation. Additional

  1. National Survey of Practices to Prevent Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Ratz, David; Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Patel, Payal K; Weber, David J; Saint, Sanjay; Greene, M Todd

    2017-05-15

    We evaluated the extent to which hospital characteristics, infection control practices, and compliance with prevention bundles impacted multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) infections in Thai hospitals. From 1 January 2014 to 30 November 2014, we surveyed all Thai hospitals with an intensive care unit and ≥250 beds. Infection control practices for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) were assessed. Linear regression was used to examine associations between hospital characteristics and prevention bundle compliance and changes in MDRO infection rates. A total of 212 of 245 (86.5%) eligible hospitals responded. Most hospitals regularly used several fundamental infection control practices for MRSA and MDR-AB (ie, contact precautions, private room/cohorting, hand hygiene, environmental cleaning, and antibiotic stewardship); advanced infection control practices (ie, active surveillance, chlorhexidine bathing, decolonization for MRSA, and hydrogen peroxide vaporizer for MDR-AB) were used less commonly. Facilities with ≥75% compliance with the MRSA prevention bundle experienced a 17.4% reduction in MRSA rates (P = .03). Although the presence of environmental cleaning services (41.3% reduction, P = .01) and a microbiology laboratory (82.8% reduction, P = .02) were among characteristics associated with decreases in MDR-AB rates, greater compliance with the MDR-AB prevention bundle did not lead to reductions in MDR-AB rates. Although fundamental MRSA and MDR-AB control practices are used regularly in most Thai hospitals, compliance with more comprehensive bundled prevention approaches is suboptimal. Improving compliance with bundled infection prevention approaches and promoting the integration of certain hospital factors into infection control efforts may help reduce MDRO infections in Thai hospitals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America

  2. Conducting atomic force microscopy studies on doped CulnO2 thin films for resistive memory device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, B.R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Delafosite thin films have interesting structural, optical and electronic properties due to the highly anisotropic crystal structure and possibility of bipolar conductivity. In this presentation, optical, structural and electrical properties of Sn (n type) and Ca (p type) doped CulnO 2 layers grown by rf magnetron sputtering technique will be discussed. Depending on doping and deposition temperature, these films show nanocolumnar structure with (110) and (006) preferred orientations. The observed decrease in activation energy from 0.9 eV to about 0.10 eV and a large decrease in conductivity from 2.11 x 10 -10 Scm -1 to 1.66 x 10 -1 Scm -1 on Sn doping has been explained due to the change in preferred orientation along with efficient doping. Our results show that crystallite orientation is the most important factor controlling the electrical conduction in delafossite thin films. The anisotropy of electrical conduction along (006) and (110) directions in tin doped samples has been further established using conducting atomic force microscopy (CAFM) measurements. The CAFM measurements shows the presence of nanoconducting region when the current flow direction is aligned along the BO 6 layer and complete absence of conducting regions when the current direction is perpendicular to the film surface. Resistive memory devices based on Sn and Ca doped CulnO 2 films show stable and reproducible 'on' and 'off' states. CAFM measurement on these devices carried out before and after 'forming' show the growth of nanoconducting filaments on the application of a threshold voltage. It is possible to control resistance in the 'on' and 'off' states and magnitude of the forming and switching voltages by controlling the doping concentration and crystallite orientation in CulnO 2 layers

  3. Proton Conductive Channel Optimization in Methanol Resistive Hybrid Hyperbranched Polyamide Proton Exchange Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a previously developed polyamide proton conductive macromolecule, the nano-scale structure of the self-assembled proton conductive channels (PCCs is adjusted via enlarging the nano-scale pore size within the macromolecules. Hyperbranched polyamide macromolecules with different size are synthesized from different monomers to tune the nano-scale pore size within the macromolecules, and a series of hybrid membranes are prepared from these two micromoles to optimize the PCC structure in the proton exchange membrane. The optimized membrane exhibits methanol permeability low to 2.2 × 10−7 cm2/s, while the proton conductivity of the hybrid membrane can reach 0.25 S/cm at 80 °C, which was much higher than the value of the Nafion 117 membrane (0.192 S/cm. By considering the mechanical, dimensional, and the thermal properties, the hybrid hyperbranched polyamide proton exchange membrane (PEM exhibits promising application potential in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC.

  4. The split-cross-bridge resistor for measuring the sheet resistance, linewidth, and line spacing of conducting layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, M. G.; Hershey, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    A new test structure was developed for evaluating the line spacing between conductors on the same layer using an electrical measurement technique. This compact structure can also be used to measure the sheet resistance, linewidth, and line pitch of the conducting layer. Using an integrated-circuit fabrication process, this structure was fabricated in diffused polycrystalline silicon and metal layers and measured optically and electrically. For the techniques used, the optical measurements were typically one-quarter micron greater than the electrical measurements. Most electrically measured line pitch values were within 2 percent of the designed value. A small difference between the measured and designed line pitch is used to validate sheet resistance, linewidth, and line spacing values.

  5. A robotic system to conduct radiation and contamination surveys on nuclear waste transport casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrigan, R.W.; Sanders, T.L.

    1990-06-01

    The feasibility of performing, numerous spent fuel cask operations using fully integrated robotic systems is under evaluation. Using existing technology, operational and descriptive software and hardware in the form of robotic end effectors are being designed in conjunction with interfacing cask components. A robotic radiation and contamination survey system has been developed and used on mock-up cask hardware to evaluate the impact of such fully automated operations on cask design features and productivity. Based on experience gained from the survey system, numerous health physics operations can be reliably performed with little human intervention using a fully automated system. Such operations can also significantly reduce time requirements for cask-receiving operations. 7 refs., 51 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Are Corporate Universities (CU possible in emerging countries? A survey conducted in Argentina showed impacting results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro A. Viltard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available At the time of our investigation, the CU was not a widespread concept in Argentina, being viewed as a “foreign - far long project” (coming from developed countries and standing for the long term. It is suggested that the rate of CU evolution, in emerging countries like Argentina, is more related to mentality issues than to CU strategic or operative limitations. Although the executives who replied to a survey were not the only power factor in their organization, their comments allow us to think that, in those countries, the CU may have a better future perspective. The research used a quali-quantitative methodology, which was based on a survey to top executives of different kinds of companies located in Argentina. The research design was not experimental and transversal, as it was limited to a specific moment in time.

  7. Silver nanosheet-coated copper nanowire/epoxy resin nanocomposites with enhanced electrical conductivity and wear resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ningning; Ma, Jingyi; Zhang, Yujuan; Yang, Guangbin; Zhang, Shengmao, E-mail: zsm@henu.edu.cn; Zhang, Pingyu [Henan University, Engineering Research Center for Nanomaterials (China)

    2017-03-15

    Silver (Ag) nanosheet-coated Cu nanowires (denoted as Cu@AgNWs) were prepared with a facile transmetalation reaction method. The effect of reaction conditions on the morphology and microstructure of the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs was investigated, and the thermal stability of Cu@AgNWs was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis. In the meantime, the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs were used as the nanofillers of epoxy resin (EP), and their effect on the electrical conductivity and wear resistance of the EP-matrix composites was examined. Results indicate that the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs consist of CuNW core and Ag nanosheet shell. The Ag nanosheet shell can well inhibit the oxidation of the CuNW core, thereby providing the as-prepared Cu@AgNWs with good thermal stability even at an elevated temperature of 230 °C. The reaction temperature, Cu/Ag molar ratio, Cu dispersion concentration, and the dropping speed of silver ammonia reagent are suggested to be 40 °C, 5:1, 1% (mass fraction), and poured directly, respectively. Resultant Cu@AgNWs exhibit desired morphology and performance and can effectively increase the electrical conductivity and wear resistance of EP. This could make it feasible for the Cu@AgNW-EP composite to be applied as an electrostatic conductive material.

  8. Direct patterning of highly-conductive graphene@copper composites using copper naphthenate as a resist for graphene device applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Kaixi; Xiang, Quan; Chen, Yiqin; Shi, Huimin; Li, Zhiqin; Lin, Jun; Zhang, Yongzhe; Wan, Qiang; Zhang, Guanhua; Qin, Shiqiao; Zhang, Xueao; Duan, Huigao

    2017-11-09

    We report an electron-beam lithography process to directly fabricate graphene@copper composite patterns without involving metal deposition, lift-off and etching processes using copper naphthenate as a high-resolution negative-tone resist. As a commonly used industrial painting product, copper naphthenate is extremely cheap with a long shelf time but demonstrates an unexpected patterning resolution better than 10 nm. With appropriate annealing under a hydrogen atmosphere, the produced graphene@copper composite patterns show high conductivity of ∼400 S cm -1 . X-ray diffraction, conformal Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to analyze the chemical composition of the final patterns. With the properties of high resolution and high conductivity, the patterned graphene@copper composites could be used as conductive pads and interconnects for graphene electronic devices with ohmic contacts. Compared to common fabrication processes involving metal evaporation and lift-off steps, this pattern-transfer-free fabrication process using copper naphthenate resist is direct and simple but allows comparable device performance in practical device applications.

  9. Market applications of Resistivity, Induced Polarisation, Magnetic Resonance and Electromagnetic methods for Groundwater Investigations, Mining Exploration, Environmental and Engineering Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Manufacturers of geophysical instruments have been facing these past decades the fast evolution of the electronics and of the computer sciences. More automatisms have been introduced into the equipment and into the processing and interpretation software which may let believe that conducting geophysical surveys requires less understanding of the method and less experience than in the past. Hence some misunderstandings in the skills that are needed to make the geophysical results well integrated among the global information which the applied geologist needs to acquire to be successful in his applications. Globally, the demand in geophysical investigation goes towards more penetration depth, requiring more powerful transmitters, and towards a better resolution, requiring more data such as in 3D analysis. Budgets aspects strongly suggest a high efficiency in the field associated to high speed data processing. The innovation is required in all aspects of geophysics to fit with the market needs, including new technological (instruments, software) and methodological (methods, procedures, arrays) developments. The structures in charge of the geophysical work can be public organisations (institutes, ministries, geological surveys,…) or can come from the private sector (large companies, sub-contractors, consultants, …), each one of them getting their own constraints in the field work and in the processing and interpretation phases. In the applications concerning Groundwater investigations, Mining Exploration, Environmental and Engineering surveys, examples of data and their interpretation presently carried out all around the world will be presented for DC Resistivity (Vertical Electrical Sounding, 2D, 3D Resistivity Imaging, Resistivity Monitoring), Induced Polarisation (Time Domain 2D, 3D arrays for mining and environmental), Magnetic Resonance Sounding (direct detection and characterisation of groundwater) and Electromagnetic (multi-component and multi

  10. [Nationwide Survey on Informed Consent and Ethical Review at Hospitals Conducting Post-marketing Studies Sponsored by Pharmaceutical Companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushihara, Hisashi; Murakami, Yuka; Matsui, Kenji; Tashiro, Shimon

    2018-01-01

     Under the Japanese drug regulatory system, post-marketing studies (PMS) must be in compliance with Good Post-marketing Study Practice (GPSP). The GPSP Ordinance lacks standards for the ethical conduct of PMSs; although only post-marketing clinical trials are subject to Good Clinical Practice. We conducted a web-based questionnaire survey on the ethical conduct of PMSs in collaboration with the Japanese Society of Hospital Pharmacists and pharmacists belonging to the Society. 1819 hospitals around Japan answered the questionnaire, of which 503 hospitals had conducted company-sponsored PMSs in 2015. 40.2% of the hospitals had obtained informed consent from participating patients in at least one PMS conducted in 2015, the majority of which was in written form. The first and second most frequent reasons for seeking informed consent in PMSs were to meet protocol requirements, followed by the requirement to meet institutional standard operational procedures and the request of the ethical review board of the hospital. Ethical review of PMSs was conducted in 251 hospitals. Despite a lack of standards for informed consent and ethical review in PMSs, a considerable number of study sites employed informed consent and ethical review for PMSs. While company policies and protocols are likely to be major determinants of the ethical conduct of PMSs, the governmental regulatory agency should also play a significant role in implementing a standardized ethical code for the conduct of PMSs.

  11. Shallow to intermediate resistivity features of the Colfiorito Fault System inferred by DC and MT survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Siniscalchi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade electromagnetic (EM measurements have provided new constraints on the upper-crustal structure of the major fault zones in the world, both when they act as conduit and as a barrier, due to strong sensitivity of resistivity to fluids circulation and mineralization. On the track of a high impact magnetotelluric (MT study performed across the San Andreas Fault, high resolution EM data were collected in the Colfiorito epicentral area along profiles crossing some main fault lineaments. Being the study focussed both on shallow that on intermediate resistivity distribution in the brittle upper-crust, a MT profile was integrated by several electrical resistivity tomographies (ERT. The latter were successful in locating faults even where the structures are buried by a wide covering of Quaternary deposits and in the recognition of different electrical signatures of the faults. MT resistivity model crossing Mt. Prefoglio normal fault clearly imaged the typical thrust structures of the area and a high conductive zone spatially related to the fault. Seismicity seems to be located outside such conductive area, whose behaviour suggests a fluidised and altered zone incapable of supporting significant stress internally.

  12. Standardization of soil apparent electrical conductivity using multi-temporal surveys across multiple production fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) is an efficient technique for understanding within-field variability of physical and chemical soil characteristics. Commercial devices are readily available for collecting ECa on whole fields and used broadly for crop management in precision agriculture; h...

  13. Aluminum exposure for one hour decreases vascular reactivity in conductance and resistance arteries in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Patrícia Medeiros; Escobar, Alyne Goulart; Torres, João Guilherme Dini; Martinez, Caroline Silveira; Rizzetti, Danize Aparecida; Kunz, Simone Noremberg; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Alonso, María Jesús; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Aluminum (Al) is an important environmental contaminant; however, there are not enough evidences of Al-induced cardiovascular dysfunction. We investigated the effects of acute exposure to aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) on blood pressure, vascular reactivity and oxidative stress. Methods and results: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Untreated: vehicle (ultrapure water, ip) and AlCl 3 : single dose of AlCl 3 (100 mg/kg,ip). Concentration-response curves to phenylephrine in the absence and presence of endothelium, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, the potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium, and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin were performed in segments from aortic and mesenteric resistance arteries. NO released was assessed in aorta and reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde, non-protein thiol levels, antioxidant capacity and enzymatic antioxidant activities were investigated in plasma, aorta and/or mesenteric arteries. After one hour of AlCl 3 exposure serum Al levels attained 147.7 ± 25.0 μg/L. Al treatment: 1) did not affect blood pressure, heart rate and vasodilator responses induced by acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside; 2) decreased phenylephrine-induced vasoconstrictor responses; 3) increased endothelial modulation of contractile responses, NO release and vascular ROS production from NADPH oxidase; 4) increased plasmatic, aortic and mesenteric malondialdehyde and ROS production, and 5) decreased antioxidant capacity and affected the antioxidant biomarkers non-protein thiol levels, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymatic activities. Conclusion: AlCl 3 -acute exposure reduces vascular reactivity. This effect is associated with increased NO production, probably acting on K + channels, which seems to occur as a compensatory mechanism against Al-induced oxidative stress. Our results suggest that Al exerts toxic effects to the vascular system. - Highlights:

  14. Aluminum exposure for one hour decreases vascular reactivity in conductance and resistance arteries in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Patrícia Medeiros; Escobar, Alyne Goulart; Torres, João Guilherme Dini; Martinez, Caroline Silveira; Rizzetti, Danize Aparecida; Kunz, Simone Noremberg [Postgraduate Program in Biochemistry, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Vassallo, Dalton Valentim [Department of Physiological Sciences, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Espirito Santo (Brazil); Alonso, María Jesús [Department of Basic Health Sciences, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón (Spain); Peçanha, Franck Maciel [Postgraduate Program in Biochemistry, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra, E-mail: giuliawp@gmail.com [Postgraduate Program in Biochemistry, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    Aims: Aluminum (Al) is an important environmental contaminant; however, there are not enough evidences of Al-induced cardiovascular dysfunction. We investigated the effects of acute exposure to aluminum chloride (AlCl{sub 3}) on blood pressure, vascular reactivity and oxidative stress. Methods and results: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Untreated: vehicle (ultrapure water, ip) and AlCl{sub 3}: single dose of AlCl{sub 3} (100 mg/kg,ip). Concentration-response curves to phenylephrine in the absence and presence of endothelium, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, the potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium, and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin were performed in segments from aortic and mesenteric resistance arteries. NO released was assessed in aorta and reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde, non-protein thiol levels, antioxidant capacity and enzymatic antioxidant activities were investigated in plasma, aorta and/or mesenteric arteries. After one hour of AlCl{sub 3} exposure serum Al levels attained 147.7 ± 25.0 μg/L. Al treatment: 1) did not affect blood pressure, heart rate and vasodilator responses induced by acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside; 2) decreased phenylephrine-induced vasoconstrictor responses; 3) increased endothelial modulation of contractile responses, NO release and vascular ROS production from NADPH oxidase; 4) increased plasmatic, aortic and mesenteric malondialdehyde and ROS production, and 5) decreased antioxidant capacity and affected the antioxidant biomarkers non-protein thiol levels, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymatic activities. Conclusion: AlCl{sub 3}-acute exposure reduces vascular reactivity. This effect is associated with increased NO production, probably acting on K{sup +} channels, which seems to occur as a compensatory mechanism against Al-induced oxidative stress. Our results suggest that Al exerts toxic effects to the vascular

  15. Culture and Next-generation sequencing-based drug susceptibility testing unveil high levels of drug-resistant-TB in Djibouti: results from the first national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliani, Elisa; Hassan, Mohamed Osman; Waberi, Yacine; De Filippo, Maria Rosaria; Falzon, Dennis; Dean, Anna; Zignol, Matteo; Supply, Philip; Abdoulkader, Mohamed Ali; Hassangue, Hawa; Cirillo, Daniela Maria

    2017-12-15

    Djibouti is a small country in the Horn of Africa with a high TB incidence (378/100,000 in 2015). Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and resistance to second-line agents have been previously identified in the country but the extent of the problem has yet to be quantified. A national survey was conducted to estimate the proportion of MDR-TB among a representative sample of TB patients. Sputum was tested using XpertMTB/RIF and samples positive for MTB and resistant to rifampicin underwent first line phenotypic susceptibility testing. The TB supranational reference laboratory in Milan, Italy, undertook external quality assurance, genotypic testing based on whole genome and targeted-deep sequencing and phylogenetic studies. 301 new and 66 previously treated TB cases were enrolled. MDR-TB was detected in 34 patients: 4.7% of new and 31% of previously treated cases. Resistance to pyrazinamide, aminoglycosides and capreomycin was detected in 68%, 18% and 29% of MDR-TB strains respectively, while resistance to fluoroquinolones was not detected. Cluster analysis identified transmission of MDR-TB as a critical factor fostering drug resistance in the country. Levels of MDR-TB in Djibouti are among the highest on the African continent. High prevalence of resistance to pyrazinamide and second-line injectable agents have important implications for treatment regimens.

  16. A Continuous 3D-Graphene Network to Overcome Threshold Issues and Contact Resistance in Thermally Conductive Graphene Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Conrado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome thermal resistance issues in polymeric matrix composites, self-standing graphene aerogels were synthetized and infiltrated with an epoxy resin, in order to create conductive preferential pathways through which heat can be easily transported. These continuous highly thermally conductive 3D-structures show, due to the high interconnection degree of graphene flakes, enhanced transport properties. Two kinds of aerogels were investigated, obtained by hydrothermal synthesis (HS and ice-templated direct freeze synthesis (DFS. Following HS method an isotropic structure is obtained, and following DFS method instead an anisotropic arrangement of graphene flakes results. The density of the structure can be tuned leading to a different amount of graphene inside the final composite. The residual oxygen, known to be detrimental to thermal properties, was removed by thermal treatment before the infiltration process. With 1,25 wt.% of graphene, using HS method, the thermal conductivity of the polymeric resin was increased by 80%, suggesting that this technique is a valid route to improve the thermal performance of graphene-based composites. When preferential orientation of the filler was present (DFS case, thermal conductivity was increased more than 25% with a graphene content of only 0,27 wt.%, demonstrating that oriented structures can further improve the thermal transport efficiency.

  17. GESE: A Small UV Space Telescope to Conduct a Large Spectroscopic Survey of Z-1 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Gong, Qian; Hull, Tony; Kruk, Jeffrey; Purves, Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    One of the key goals of NASA's astrophysics program is to answer the question: How did galaxies evolve into the spirals and elliptical galaxies that we see today? We describe a space mission concept called Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer (GESE) to address this question by making a large spectroscopic survey of galaxies at a redshift, z is approximately 1 (look-back time of approximately 8 billion years). GESE is a 1.5-meter space telescope with an ultraviolet (UV) multi-object slit spectrograph that can obtain spectra of hundreds of galaxies per exposure. The spectrograph covers the spectral range, 0.2-0.4 micrometers at a spectral resolving power, R approximately 500. This observed spectral range corresponds to 0.1-0.2 micrometers as emitted by a galaxy at a redshift, z=1. The mission concept takes advantage of two new technological advances: (1) light-weighted, wide-field telescope mirrors, and (2) the Next- Generation MicroShutter Array (NG-MSA) to be used as a slit generator in the multi-object slit spectrograph.

  18. Amorphous transparent conducting oxides in context: Work function survey, trends, and facile modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, T. C.; Zhu, Q.; Buchholz, D. B.; Martinson, A. B.; Chang, R. P. H.; Mason, T. O.

    2015-03-01

    The work functions of various amorphous and crystalline transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) were measured using Kelvin probe. The films, made by pulsed laser deposition, exhibited varying work functions dependent on the composition and deposition parameters. Tin oxide showed the largest work functions of the oxides measured, while zinc oxide showed the lowest. Binary and ternary combinations of the basis TCOs showed intermediate work functions dependent on the endpoint components. Amorphous TCOs, important in OPV and other technological applications, exhibited similar work functions to their crystalline counterparts. UV/ozone treatment of TCOs temporarily increased the work function, consistent with proposed defect mechanisms associated with near-surface changes in carrier content and Fermi level. Finally, a method for facile adjustment of the work function of commercial TCOs by atomic layer deposition (ALD) capping layers was presented, illustrated by the growth of zinc oxide layers on commercial crystalline ITO films.

  19. Nonvolatile conductive filaments resistive switching behaviors in Ag/GaO{sub x} /Nb:SrTiO{sub 3}/Ag structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, P.G. [Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communication, Beijing (China); Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Center for Optoelectronics Materials and Devices, Hangzhou (China); Zhi, Y.S.; An, Y.H.; Guo, D.Y.; Tang, W.H.; Xiao, J.H. [Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communication, Beijing (China); Wang, P.C. [Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Center for Optoelectronics Materials and Devices, Hangzhou (China); Sun, Z.B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Electronics and Information Technology for Space Systems, National Space Science Center, Beijing (China); Li, L.H. [State University of New York at Potsdam, Department of Physics, Potsdam, NY (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Ag/GaO{sub x} /NSTO/Ag structures were fabricated, and the electrical properties measurement results show that the device behaviors a unipolar resistance switching characteristic with bi-stable resistance ratio of three orders. In the positive voltage region, the dominant conducting mechanism of high resistance state obeys Poole-Frenkel emission rules, while in the negative region, that obeys space-charge-limited current mechanism. Both the I-V curves of ON and OFF states and temperature-dependent variation resistances indicate that the unipolar resistance switching behavior can be explained by the formation/rupture of conductive filaments, which composed of oxygen vacancies. The stable switching results demonstrated that the structure can be applied in resistance random access memory devices. (orig.)

  20. Chagas disease: national survey of seroprevalence in children under five years of age conducted in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomando, Graciela; Cousiño, Blanca; Sanchez, Zunilda; Franco, Laura X; Nara, Eva M; Chena, Lilian; Martínez, Magaly; Galeano, María E; Benitez, Lucio

    2017-05-01

    Since the early 1990s, programs to control Chagas disease in South America have focused on eradicating domiciliary Triatoma infestans, the main vector. Seroprevalence studies of the chagasic infection are included as part of the vector control programs; they are essential to assess the impact of vector control measures and to monitor the prevention of vector transmission. To assess the interruption of domiciliary vector transmission of Chagas disease by T. infestans in Paraguay by evaluating the current state of transmission in rural areas. A survey of seroprevalence of Chagas disease was carried out in a representative sample group of Paraguayans aged one to five years living in rural areas of Paraguay in 2008. Blood samples collected on filter paper from 12,776 children were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children whose serology was positive or undetermined (n = 41) were recalled to donate a whole blood sample for retesting. Their homes were inspected for current triatomine infestation. Blood samples from their respective mothers were also collected and tested to check possible transmission of the disease by a congenital route. A seroprevalence rate of 0.24% for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected in children under five years of age among the country's rural population. Our findings indicate that T. cruzi was transmitted to these children vertically. The total number of infected children, aged one to five years living in these departments, was estimated at 1,691 cases with an annual incidence of congenital transmission of 338 cases per year. We determined the impact of vector control in the transmission of T. cruzi, following uninterrupted vector control measures employed since 1999 in contiguous T. infestans-endemic areas of Paraguay, and this allowed us to estimate the degree of risk of congenital transmission in the country.

  1. Chagas disease: national survey of seroprevalence in children under five years of age conducted in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Russomando

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since the early 1990s, programs to control Chagas disease in South America have focused on eradicating domiciliary Triatoma infestans, the main vector. Seroprevalence studies of the chagasic infection are included as part of the vector control programs; they are essential to assess the impact of vector control measures and to monitor the prevention of vector transmission. OBJECTIVE To assess the interruption of domiciliary vector transmission of Chagas disease by T. infestans in Paraguay by evaluating the current state of transmission in rural areas. METHODS A survey of seroprevalence of Chagas disease was carried out in a representative sample group of Paraguayans aged one to five years living in rural areas of Paraguay in 2008. Blood samples collected on filter paper from 12,776 children were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Children whose serology was positive or undetermined (n = 41 were recalled to donate a whole blood sample for retesting. Their homes were inspected for current triatomine infestation. Blood samples from their respective mothers were also collected and tested to check possible transmission of the disease by a congenital route. FINDINGS A seroprevalence rate of 0.24% for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was detected in children under five years of age among the country’s rural population. Our findings indicate that T. cruzi was transmitted to these children vertically. The total number of infected children, aged one to five years living in these departments, was estimated at 1,691 cases with an annual incidence of congenital transmission of 338 cases per year. MAIN CONCLUSION We determined the impact of vector control in the transmission of T. cruzi, following uninterrupted vector control measures employed since 1999 in contiguous T. infestans-endemic areas of Paraguay, and this allowed us to estimate the degree of risk of congenital transmission in the country.

  2. Integrating Apparent Conductance in Resistivity Sounding to Constrain 2D Gravity Modeling for Subsurface Structure Associated with Uranium Mineralization across South Purulia Shear Zone, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkoprovo Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available South Purulia Shear Zone (SPSZ is an important area for the prospect of uranium mineralization and no detailed geophysical investigations have been carried out in this region. To delineate the subsurface structure in the present area, vertical electrical soundings using Schlumberger array and gravity survey were carried out along a profile perpendicular to the SPSZ. Apparent conductance in the subsurface revealed a possible connection from SPSZ to Raghunathpur. The gravity model reveals the presence of a northerly dipping low density zone (most likely the shear zone extending up to Raghunathpur under a thin cover of granitic schist of Chotanagpur Granite Gneissic Complex (CGGC. The gravity model also depicts the depth of the zone of density low within this shear zone at ~400 m near Raghunathpur village and this zone truncates with a steep slope. Integration of resistivity and gravity study revealed two possible contact zones within this low density zone in the subsurface at depth of 40 m and 200 m. Our study reveals a good correlation with previous studies in Raghunathpur area characterized by medium to high hydro-uranium anomaly. Thus the conducting zone coinciding with the low gravity anomaly is inferred to be a possible uranium mineralized zone.

  3. Determining the boundary of inclusions with known conductivities using a Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm by electrical resistance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Chao; Xu, Yaoyuan; Dong, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) is a non-intrusive technique to image the electrical conductivity distribution of a closed vessel by injecting exciting current into the vessel and measuring the boundary voltages induced. ERT image reconstruction is characterized as a severely nonlinear and ill-posed inverse problem with many unknowns. In recent years, a growing number of papers have been published which aim to determine the locations and shapes of inclusions by assuming that their conductivities are piecewise constant and isotropic. In this work, the boundary of inclusions is reconstructed by ERT with a boundary element method. The Jacobian matrix of the forward problem is first calculated with a direct linearization method based on the boundary element, and validated through comparison with that determined by the finite element method and analytical method. A boundary reconstruction algorithm is later presented based on the Levenberg–Marquardt (L-M) method. Several numerical simulations and static experiments were conducted to study the reconstruction quality, where much importance was given to the smoothness of boundaries in the reconstruction; thus, a restriction of the curve radius is introduced to adjust the damping parameter for the L-M algorithm. Analytical results on the stability and precision of the boundary reconstruction demonstrate that stable reconstruction can be achieved when the conductivity of the objects differs much from that of the background medium, and convex boundaries can also be precisely reconstructed. Contrarily, the reconstructions for inclusions with similar conductivities to the background medium are not stable. The situation of an incorrect initial estimation of the inclusions' number is numerically studied and the results show that the boundary of inclusions could be correctly reconstructed with a splitting/merging function under the aforementioned proper operation condition of the present algorithm

  4. Combined use of frequency‐domain electromagnetic and electrical resistivity surveys to delineate the freshwater/saltwater interface near saline lakes in the Nebraska Sand Hills, Nebraska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, John T.; White, Eric A.; Lane, John W.; Halihan, Todd; Zlotnik, Vitaly A; Butler, Dwain K.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the use of frequency‐domain electromagnetic (FDEM) and electrical resistivity (ER) surveys for rapid and detailed characterization of the direction of lake‐aquifer fluxes and the configuration of salt plumes generated from saline lakes. This methodology was developed and applied at several lakes in the Nebraska Sand Hills, Nebraska, in an area with both freshwater and saline lakes hydraulically connected to the freshwater surficial aquifer. The FDEM survey was conducted by mounting the instrument on a fiberglass cart towed by an all‐terrain vehicle. The towed FDEM surveys covered about 25 km per day and served as a reconnaissance method for choosing locations for the more quantitative and detailed ER surveys. Around the saline lakes, areas with high electrical conductivity are consistent with the regional direction of ground‐water flow. Lower electrical conductivity was measured around the freshwater lakes with anomalies correlating to a paleovalley axis inferred from previous studies. The efficacy of this geophysical approach is attributed to: (1) significant contrast in electrical conductivity between freshwater and saltwater, (2) near‐surface location of the freshwater/saltwater interface, (3) minimal cultural interference, and (4) relative homogeneity of the aquifer materials.

  5. Uncorrelated multiple conductive filament nucleation and rupture in ultra-thin high-κ dielectric based resistive random access memory

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xing

    2011-08-29

    Resistive switching in transition metal oxides could form the basis for next-generation non-volatile memory (NVM). It has been reported that the current in the high-conductivity state of several technologically relevant oxide materials flows through localized filaments, but these filaments have been characterized only individually, limiting our understanding of the possibility of multiple conductive filaments nucleation and rupture and the correlation kinetics of their evolution. In this study, direct visualization of uncorrelated multiple conductive filaments in ultra-thin HfO2-based high-κ dielectricresistive random access memory (RRAM) device has been achieved by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), along with electron energy loss spectroscopy(EELS), for nanoscale chemical analysis. The locations of these multiple filaments are found to be spatially uncorrelated. The evolution of these microstructural changes and chemical properties of these filaments will provide a fundamental understanding of the switching mechanism for RRAM in thin oxide films and pave way for the investigation into improving the stability and scalability of switching memory devices.

  6. Ion Transport in Confined Geometries below the Nanoscale: Access Resistance Dominates Protein Channel Conductance in Diluted Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, Antonio; López, M Lidón; Queralt-Martín, María; Aguilella, Vicente M

    2017-10-24

    Synthetic nanopores and mesoscopic protein channels have common traits like the importance of electrostatic interactions between the permeating ions and the nanochannel. Ion transport at the nanoscale occurs under confinement conditions so that the usual assumptions made in microfluidics are challenged, among others, by interfacial effects such as access resistance (AR). Here, we show that a sound interpretation of electrophysiological measurements in terms of channel ion selective properties requires the consideration of interfacial effects, up to the point that they dominate protein channel conductance in diluted solutions. We measure AR in a large ion channel, the bacterial porin OmpF, by means of single-channel conductance measurements in electrolyte solutions containing varying concentrations of high molecular weight PEG, sterically excluded from the pore. Comparison of experiments performed in charged and neutral planar membranes shows that lipid surface charges modify the ion distribution and determine the value of AR, indicating that lipid molecules are more than passive scaffolds even in the case of large transmembrane proteins. We also found that AR may reach up to 80% of the total channel conductance in diluted solutions, where electrophysiological recordings register essentially the AR of the system and depend marginally on the pore characteristics. These findings may have implications for several low aspect ratio biological channels that perform their physiological function in a low ionic strength and macromolecule crowded environment, just the two conditions enhancing the AR contribution.

  7. Anisotropic Magnetoresistance of Nano-conductive Filament in Co/HfO2/Pt Resistive Switching Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leilei; Liu, Yang; Teng, Jiao; Long, Shibing; Guo, Qixun; Zhang, Meiyun; Wu, Yu; Yu, Guanghua; Liu, Qi; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) has been extensively studied as a next-generation non-volatile memory. The conductive filament (CF) shows rich physical effects such as conductance quantization and magnetic effect. But so far, the study of filaments is not very sufficient. In this work, Co/HfO 2 /Pt CBRAM device with magnetic CF was designed and fabricated. By electrical manipulation with a partial-RESET method, we controlled the size of ferromagnetic metal filament. The resistance-temperature characteristics of the ON-state after various partial-RESET behaviors have been studied. Using two kinds of magnetic measurement methods, we measured the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) of the CF at different temperatures to reflect the magnetic structure characteristics. By rotating the direction of the magnetic field and by sweeping the magnitude, we obtained the spatial direction as well as the easy-axis of the CF. The results indicate that the easy-axis of the CF is along the direction perpendicular to the top electrode plane. The maximum magnetoresistance was found to appear when the angle between the direction of magnetic field and that of the electric current in the CF is about 30°, and this angle varies slightly with temperature, indicating that the current is tilted.

  8. [Attractiveness of France for international clinical research: 8th survey conducted by Leem (French association for pharmaceutical companies)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaup, Ariane; Barthélémy, Philippe; Pouletty-Lefebvre, Brigitte; Béhier, Jehan-Michel; Zetlaoui, Jean; Borel, Thomas

    2018-04-18

    The Leem (French association of pharmaceutical companies) has conducted the eighth survey on attractiveness of France for clinical research. It serves to measure France's global competitiveness for international clinical trials and assess its strengths and areas of excellence. It also highlights the potential for progress and emerging trends at a time when the regulatory environment in France and Europe is undergoing change. This survey has been updated every two years since 2002 using the same methodology. It assesses the current status of research undertaken in France by the pharmaceutical industry between January 1st 2014 and December 31st 2015. Thirty companies (62% of the French market) have participated in this 8th survey which involved 3474 centers (versus 2860 in 2014) and 16,622 patients (versus 14,634 in 2014) enrolled in France across 586 clinical trials (versus 613 in 2014). This survey shows a reduction in the number of phase I and phase II trials. It also confirms that the studies conducted in France are primarily concerned with oncology (45%). Despite improvements across hospital contracts times (due to the adoption of the sole agreement) and performance indicators in trials (such as the number of patients enrolled by center), trial setup times in France are still overly lengthy (with stable times by French authorities). Ensuring that clinical research remains a priority issue for country is crucial for patients because of rapid access to innovation but also for the vitality of the French economy. Constructive dialogue with stakeholders on the subject of clinical research is essential to enhance the attractiveness of France and to improve the continuum between research, innovation and care. Copyright © 2018 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. RESULTS OF THE SURVEY CONDUCTED AMONG OPHTHALMOLOGISTS ON THE ISSUE OF EQUIPMENT OF MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS WITH OPHTHALMOLOGY DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Seraphimov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The problem of limited accessibility and quality of ophthalmic medical care remains one of the leading ones in the national healthcare. This article presents results of the survey conducted among ophthalmologists about the effect of large-scale equipment of all medical institutions in the Leningrad Region with modern ophthalmologic devices over the recent years.Objective is to determine the contribution of the health care modernization program to equipping the medical institutions of the Leningrad Region with modern ophthalmologic medical devices, and to identify the main areas for improving the ophthalmologic care for residents of the Leningrad region with cataracts.Materials and methods. According to a specially developed questionnaire, 105 ophthalmologists from the Leningrad Region were interviewed. The survey was conducted among physicians working both in out-patient medical facilities and in medical facilities with in-patient modalities.Results. The results of the study confirmed positive changes that occurred in recent years as a result of equipping medical institutions with modern medical devices. Almost two-thirds (59.9% of respondents noted that equipping with modern medical devices had a significant impact on the quality of the medical and diagnostic measures carried out in healthcare facilities of the region.Conclusions. The equipment had a significant impact on the diagnosis and treatment of all kinds of diseases of the eye and its appendages, especially such eye disease which is so common among the population of the Leningrad Region as cataracts (75.0 per 100 ophthalmologists surveyed. At the same time, in spite of these efforts, the standard for equipping ophthalmologic departments in individual medical institutions has not been fully provided. Only every fifth (20.9% ophthalmologist noted during the survey that the list of available ophthalmic devices was sufficient, and that they all worked properly.

  10. Technical report on NEDO-conducted Western US steam coal (for power generation and boiler) survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) conducted studies covering Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and North Dakota, all in the West. Illinois and Gulf-Texas are also included. The bituminous coal of Utah and Colorado is given the highest priority as coal to be exported to Japan. It is feared, however, that the price of the bituminous coal from these areas may soar if demand increases. As for sub-bituminous coal, its price is far more stable because its reserves are basically limitless. The sub-bituminous coal, however, is not expected to be imported to Japan in the very near future because it is low in calorific power and fails to meet the conditions prerequisite to Japan's boiler fuel. Illinois can receive large orders but its coal contains more sulfur than the Western coal and a longer distance has to be covered for its transportation. As for transportation to the West Cost, freight cars are available and the port capacity can be enlarged dependent on the magnitude of demand for coal. Loading a deep draft bulk ship off shore with coarse coal slurry by pipeline is an attractive scheme. (NEDO)

  11. Technical report on NEDO-conducted Western US steam coal (for power generation and boiler) survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) conducted studies covering Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and North Dakota, all in the West. Illinois and Gulf-Texas are also included. The bituminous coal of Utah and Colorado is given the highest priority as coal to be exported to Japan. It is feared, however, that the price of the bituminous coal from these areas may soar if demand increases. As for sub-bituminous coal, its price is far more stable because its reserves are basically limitless. The sub-bituminous coal, however, is not expected to be imported to Japan in the very near future because it is low in calorific power and fails to meet the conditions prerequisite to Japan's boiler fuel. Illinois can receive large orders but its coal contains more sulfur than the Western coal and a longer distance has to be covered for its transportation. As for transportation to the West Cost, freight cars are available and the port capacity can be enlarged dependent on the magnitude of demand for coal. Loading a deep draft bulk ship off shore with coarse coal slurry by pipeline is an attractive scheme. (NEDO)

  12. Ablation resistance and mechanical/conductive properties of ZrB{sub 2} reinforced carbon based composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.T.; Shi, J.L.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, G.B.; Guo, Q.G.; Liu, L. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China)

    2007-02-15

    Zirconium diboride reinforced carbon (ZrB{sub 2}/C) particulate composites are prepared from petroleum coke, coal tar pitch, and ZrB{sub 2} powder by hot-pressing. The ablation, mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of the composites are studied. Results show that the composites have excellent flexural strength and thermal conductivity, with highest values reaching 131 MPa and 161 W/mK for a 10% ZrB{sub 2} addition in raw materials. The electrical resistivity reduces rapidly with increasing amount of ZrB{sub 2}. The values of mass and linear ablation rates are lower in the composites than those measured for pure carbon, decreasing with increasing ZrB{sub 2} content, confirming that these materials are promising for ultrahigh temperature materials. Correlations between properties and microstructure of the composites are also discussed.

  13. Antibiotic overusage and resistance: A cross-sectional survey among pediatric dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Konde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Most human orofacial infections originate from odontogenic infections and prescribing antibiotics has become a ubiquitous phenomenon. The World Health Organization (WHO has recognized the inappropriate, indiscriminate, and irrational use of antibiotics leading to antibiotic resistance as a global problem. Objective: The objective of this survey is to compare the antibiotic prescription pattern and the awareness of antibiotic resistance among Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS practitioners and pediatric dentists. Materials and methods: A hundred BDS practitioners and 100 pediatric dentists included in the study were given a questionnaire containing both open-ended and closed-ended questions. The questionnaire comprised information pertaining to antibiotic prescription for most common oral conditions, commonly prescribed antibiotics, their dosage, etc. Results: The majority of the practitioners prescribed antibiotics for managing oral diseases. On comparing the prescription patterns between the BDS practitioners and pediatric dentists, there was an overprescription in the BDS group for many conditions, which was statistically significant. Amoxicillin was the most commonly prescribed drug in both the groups. In the presence of an anaerobic infection, the most preferred drug was a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid with metronidazole. With regard to the duration of antibiotic prescription, 74% BDS practitioners prescribed antibiotics as a 3-day course and 60% pediatric dentists resorted to a 5-day course, which was statistically significant. The awareness regarding antibiotic prophylaxis and antibiotic resistance was found to be adequate in both the groups. However, there was a general lack of awareness with regard to the guidelines for antibiotic prescribing in both the groups. Conclusion: Practitioners should prescribe antibiotics in accordance with the guidelines to curb antibiotic resistance, an emerging public health

  14. SOCIAL PERCEPTION OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEM REFORM. SURVEY CONDUCTED IN UPPER HIGH SCHOOLS OF BIHOR COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabau Remus Mircea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Between the elements which mark the global processes, we can include educational issues, the management of processes in pre-university education. Therefore, the synthetic approach to educational problems in Romania, studied in terms of the processes and the phenomena of social development, but also due to the need for submiting the pre-university Romanian educational process to the European Union requirements, appears to be current and important. This analysis focuses on the decentralization of education. This theme is a true significant of the stage and of the the changing potential of the management practice in the public area. Its actuality is also hard to contest under the conditions in which changes in this area have been slow compared to those of the other countries that joined the European Union (Hungary, Czech Republic, Poland, contradictory and inconsistent (Herczynski and Levitas, 2001: 1-2. The legislative changes, training facilities, as well as the constant institutional reorganization of pre-university education show the presence of an active interest in this matter. However, the real reform of university education still requires essential improvements. This study analyzes the social perception of performers in pre-university system, establishes positive and negative aspects of the reform in pre-university education, all from the perspective of teachers. The research was conducted between March 1st, 2011 and April 1st, 2011. During this time the questionnaire was applied and the data interpreted. The data obtained from the questionnaire interpretation were introduced into the SPSS program. For the analysis and interpretation of data we used SPSS 15.0. under Windows license. My investigation efforts were directed towards the impact of decentralization on the performers in pre-university education system and on their perception. The main purpose of the experimental study was to determine the essential perceptions of the performers

  15. Results of the 2008/2009 Knowledge and Opinions Surveys Conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmoyer, R. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Truett, Tykey [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cooper, Christy [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Chew, Andrea [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2010-04-01

    This report presents results of a 2008/2009 survey of hydrogen and fuel cell awareness conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 2008/2009 survey follows up on a similar DOE survey conducted in 2004, measuring levels of awareness and understanding of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in four populations: (1) the general public, (2) students, (3) personnel in state and local governments, and (4) potential end users of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in business and industry. The 2008/2009 survey includes these four groups and adds a fifth group, safety and code officials. The same survey methods were used for both surveys; the 2008/2009 survey report includes a comparison of 2004 and 2008/2009 findings. Information from these surveys will be used to enhance hydrogen and fuel cell education strategies.

  16. Methods used to conduct the pan-European Union survey on consumer attitudes to physical activity, body weight and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, J M; Kearney, M J; McElhone, S; Gibney, M J

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of conducting this survey was to identify data on consumer attitudes towards and beliefs about physical activity, body weight and health among the 15 countries of the EU. A cross-sectional study to get a picture of the attitudes to physical activity, body weight and health in the EU. For this, it was considered important that samples be nationally representative so that inferences drawn from the data could be applied to the population in each country as well as to the EU population as a whole. Using a non-probability sampling method employing quota controls (and the national weight) we obtained large sample sizes from each country which were nationally representative in terms of the variables age, sex and regional distribution. To ensure samples were truly nationally representative a national weight was used when analysing the data using the same characteristics as those used to define quotas. When examining pooled estimates for the total EU sample a population weight was applied. In total, 15,239 subjects aged 15 years and upwards in the EU completed the survey. This article gives details on the methods used in carrying out the survey from design of the questionnaire to sample selection, questionnaire administration and analysis of the data. The methods and their limitations are discussed.

  17. Trials and tribulations of conducting bio-behavioral surveys in prisons: implementation science and lessons from Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azbel, Lyuba; Grishaev, Yevgeny; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Chernova, Olena; Dvoryak, Sergey; Polonsky, Maxim; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - Ukraine is home to Europe's worst HIV epidemic, overwhelmingly fueled by people who inject drugs who face harsh prison sentences. In Ukraine, HIV and other infectious diseases are concentrated in prisons, yet the magnitude of this problem had not been quantified. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the systematic health survey of prisoners in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative interviews were carried out with research and prison administrative staff to assess the barriers and facilitators to conducting a bio-behavioral survey in Ukrainian prisons. Findings - Crucial barriers at the institutional, staff, and participant level require addressing by: first, ensuring Prison Department involvement at every stage; second, tackling pre-conceived attitudes about drug addiction and treatment among staff; and third, guaranteeing confidentiality for participants. Originality/value - The burden of many diseases is higher than expected and much higher than in the community. Notwithstanding the challenges, scientifically rigorous bio-behavioral surveys are attainable in criminal justice systems in the FSU with collaboration and careful consideration of this specific context.

  18. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing for the diagnosis of conductive hearing loss: survey of pediatric otolaryngologists' knowledge and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargie, Jenna M; Zhou, Guangwei; Dornan, Briana K; Whittemore, Kenneth R

    2014-11-01

    To assess physicians' knowledge and beliefs regarding vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing in children. A survey was delivered via email in html format to 1069 members of the American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery who identified as pediatric otolaryngologists. Study data were collected and managed using the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) tools. 443 (41.4%) physicians opened the email. 190 (42.9% of opens) initiated the survey, of which 117 (61.9%) fully completed the survey of the physicians who responded to a question regarding knowledge of VEMP, 16% of respondents had never heard of the test. 16% of participants would use it in the setting of diagnosing pediatric conductive hearing loss. Responses regarding the youngest age at which VEMP is possible ranged from younger than 6 months through greater than 13 years of age. Beliefs regarding utility and reliability of VEMP varied, with 'unsure' as the most frequent response. Additionally, only 26% of pediatric otolaryngologists indicated some access to the test. The knowledge and availability of VEMP testing in the pediatric otolaryngology community varies widely. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Structure, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity of beech wood biocarbon produced at carbonization temperatures below 1000°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfen'eva, L. S.; Orlova, T. S.; Kartenko, N. F.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.; Muha, J.; Vera, M. C.

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports on measurements of the thermal conductivity κ and the electrical resistivity ρ in the temperature range 5-300 K, and, at 300 K, on X-ray diffraction studies of high-porosity (with a channel pore volume fraction of ˜47 vol %) of the beech wood biocarbon prepared by pyrolysis (carbonization) of tree wood in an argon flow at the carbonization temperature T carb = 800°C. It has been shown that the biocarbon template of the samples studied represents essentially a nanocomposite made up of amorphous carbon and nanocrystallites—"graphite fragments" and graphene layers. The sizes of the nanocrystallites forming these nanocomposites have been determined. The dependences ρ( T) and κ( T) have been measured for the samples cut along and perpendicular to the tree growth direction, thus permitting determination of the magnitude of the anisotropy of these parameters. The dependences ρ( T) and κ( T), which have been obtained for beech biocarbon samples prepared at T carb = 800°C, are compared with the data amassed by us earlier for samples fabricated at T carb = 1000 and 2400°C. The magnitude and temperature dependence of the phonon thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite making up the beech biocarbon template at T carb = 800°C have been found.

  20. Patterns of chloroquine use and resistance in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of household survey and molecular data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background As a result of widespread chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance, 90% of sub-Saharan African countries had adopted policies of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for treatment of uncomplicated malaria by 2007. In Malawi, cessation of chloroquine use was followed by the re-emergence of chloroquine-susceptible malaria. It was expected that introduction of ACT would lead to a return in chloroquine susceptibility throughout Africa, but this has not yet widely occurred. This observation suggests that there is continuing use of ineffective anti-malarials in Africa and that persistent chloroquine-resistant malaria is due to ongoing drug pressure despite national policy changes. Methods To estimate drug use on a national level, 2006-2007 Demographic Health Survey and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey data from 21 African countries were analysed. Resistance data were compiled by systematic review of the published literature on the prevalence of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter polymorphism at codon 76, which causes chloroquine resistance. Results Chloroquine was the most common anti-malarial used according to surveys from 14 of 21 countries analysed, predominantly in West Africa. SP was most commonly reported in two of 21 countries. Among eight countries with longitudinal molecular resistance data, the four countries where the highest proportion of children treated for fever received chloroquine (Uganda, Burkina Faso, Guinea Bissau, and Mali) also showed no significant declines in the prevalence of chloroquine-resistant infections. The three countries with low or decreasing chloroquine use among children who reported fever treatment (Malawi, Kenya, and Tanzania) had statistically significant declines in the prevalence of chloroquine resistance. Conclusions This study demonstrates that in 2006-2007, chloroquine and SP continued to be used at high rates in many African countries. In countries reporting

  1. A survey of the pyrabactin resistance-like abscisic acid receptor gene family in poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jingling; Li, Hejuan; Peng, Yajing; Yang, Lei; Zhao, Fugeng; Luan, Sheng; Lan, Wenzhi

    2017-08-03

    The conserved PYR/PYL/RCAR family acts as abscisic acid (ABA) receptors for land plants to adapt to terrestrial environments. Our recent study reported that the exogenous overexpression of poplar PtPYRL1 and PtPYRL5, the PYR/PYL/RCAR orthologs, promoted the sensitivity of transgenic Arabidopsis to ABA responses. Here, we surveyed the PtPYRL family in poplar, and revealed that although the sequence and structure are relatively conserved among these receptors, PtPYRL members have differential expression patterns and the sensitivity to ABA or drought treatment, suggesting that PtPYRLs might be good candidates to a future biotechnological use to enhance poplar resistance to water-stress environments.

  2. [Survey of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus control measures in hospitals participating in the VINCat program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopena-Galindo, Nieves; Hornero-Lopez, Anna; Freixas-Sala, Núria; Bella-Cueto, Feliu; Pérez-Jové, Josefa; Limon-Cáceres, Enric; Gudiol-Munté, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    VINCat is a nosocomial infection surveillance program in hospitals in Catalonia. The aim of the study was to determine the surveillance and control measures of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in these centres. An e-mail survey was carried out from January to March 2013 with questions related to the characteristics of the hospitals and their control measures for MRSA. A response was received from 53 hospitals (>500 beds: 7; 200-500 beds: 14;prevent MRSA in hospitals participating in the VINCat program. Most of the centres have an MRSA protocol, however compliance with it should be improved, especially in areas such as active detection on admission in patients at risk, hand hygiene adherence, cleaning frequency and optimising the use of antibiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT surveys on glacial deposits in Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei ZAMOSTEANU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study presents preliminary results regarding the use of electrical resistivity surveys in the assessment of the internal structure of the glacial deposits from the Romanian Carpathians.ERT is a geophysical method used to quantify changes in electrical resistivity of the ground towards passing electric current across an array of electrodes and simultaneous measurement of the induced potential gradient. Using specific software the measurements are further processed and correlated with the topography in order to obtain bedrock resistivity features. Therefore, the method is useful to evaluate the characteristics of geological strata and is widely used for mapping shallow subsurface geological structures. In the mountain regions ERT studies have been applied in different glacial and periglacial geomorphological studies - for permafrost detection (in Romanian Carpathians - Urdea et. al., 2008; Vespremeanu-Stroe et al., 2012, slope deformation analysis, the assessment of slip surface depths, sediment thickness, groundwater levels etc. One of the most commonly 2-D array used is the Wenner electrode configuration, which is moderately sensitive to both horizontal and vertical ground structures.Due to their elevations and Pleistocene’s climatic conditions, the Romanian Carpathians have been partially affected by Quaternary glaciations. The glaciers descended to about 1050-1200 m a.s.l. (Urdea and Reurther, 2009 in the Transylvanian Alps and Rodna Mountains (Eastern Carpathians carving a large number of U-shaped valleys and glacial cirques (Mîndrescu, 2006 and forming accumulations of unconsolidated glacial debris (moraines. Our study areas are two sites located in the northern (Rodna Mts. and southern (Iezer Păpuşa Mts. part of the mountain range.

  4. Using repeat electrical resistivity surveys to assess heterogeneity in soil moisture dynamics under contrasting vegetation types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jonathan; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Bradford, John; Soulsby, Chris

    2018-04-01

    As the relationship between vegetation and soil moisture is complex and reciprocal, there is a need to understand how spatial patterns in soil moisture influence the distribution of vegetation, and how the structure of vegetation canopies and root networks regulates the partitioning of precipitation. Spatial patterns of soil moisture are often difficult to visualise as usually, soil moisture is measured at point scales, and often difficult to extrapolate. Here, we address the difficulties in collecting large amounts of spatial soil moisture data through a study combining plot- and transect-scale electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys to estimate soil moisture in a 3.2 km2 upland catchment in the Scottish Highlands. The aim was to assess the spatio-temporal variability in soil moisture under Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris) and heather moorland shrubs (Calluna vulgaris); the two dominant vegetation types in the Scottish Highlands. The study focussed on one year of fortnightly ERT surveys. The surveyed resistivity data was inverted and Archie's law was used to calculate volumetric soil moisture by estimating parameters and comparing against field measured data. Results showed that spatial soil moisture patterns were more heterogeneous in the forest site, as were patterns of wetting and drying, which can be linked to vegetation distribution and canopy structure. The heather site showed a less heterogeneous response to wetting and drying, reflecting the more uniform vegetation cover of the shrubs. Comparing soil moisture temporal variability during growing and non-growing seasons revealed further contrasts: under the heather there was little change in soil moisture during the growing season. Greatest changes in the forest were in areas where the trees were concentrated reflecting water uptake and canopy partitioning. Such differences have implications for climate and land use changes; increased forest cover can lead to greater spatial variability, greater

  5. Thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of cadmium arsenide (Cd3As2) in the temperature range 4.2-40K1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartkowski, K.; Ratalowicz, J.; Zdanowicz, W.

    1986-01-01

    Results on electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity measured in the temperature range 4.2-40 K are presented for single-crystal and polycrystalline samples of Cd 3 As 2 . Hall effect has been studied at temperatures of 4.2, 77, and 300K. The calculated value of the conduction electron concentration was in the range 1.87-1.95 10 24 m -3 . Electrical resistivity of all investigated samples was independent of temperature up to about 10K and increased slowsly at higher temperatures. The thermal conductivity shows a maximum in the region in which the lattice component of thermal conductivity dominates. The strong anistropy of the lattice component determines the anisotropy of the total thermal conductivity. The electronic component of thermal conductivity does not exhibit any anisotropy and shows a maximum at a temperature of about 300 K

  6. Analysis of β-Lactamase Resistance Determinants in Enterobacteriaceae from Chicago Children: a Multicenter Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujer, Andrea M.; Marshall, Steven H.; Domitrovic, T. Nicholas; Rudin, Susan D.; Zheng, Xiaotian; Qureshi, Nadia K.; Hayden, Mary K.; Scaggs, Felicia A.; Karadkhele, Anand; Bonomo, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae infections are increasing in U.S. children; however, there is a paucity of multicentered analyses of antibiotic resistance genes responsible for MDR phenotypes among pediatric Enterobacteriaceae isolates. In this study, 225 isolates phenotypically identified as extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) or carbapenemase producers, recovered from children ages 0 to 18 years hospitalized between January 2011 and April 2015 at three Chicago area hospitals, were analyzed. We used DNA microarray platforms to detect ESBL, plasmid-mediated AmpC (pAmpC), and carbapenemase type β-lactamase (bla) genes. Repetitive-sequence-based PCR and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed to assess isolate similarity. Plasmid replicon typing was conducted to classify plasmids. The median patient age was 4.2 years, 56% were female, and 44% presented in the outpatient setting. The majority (60.9%) of isolates were Escherichia coli and from urinary sources (69.8%). Of 225 isolates exhibiting ESBL- or carbapenemase-producing phenotypes, 90.7% contained a bla gene. The most common genotype was the blaCTX-M-1 group (49.8%); 1.8% were carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (three blaKPC and one blaIMP). Overall, pAmpC (blaACT/MIR and blaCMY) were present in 14.2%. The predominant E. coli phylogenetic group was the virulent B2 group (67.6%) associated with ST43/ST131 (Pasteur/Achtman MLST scheme) containing the blaCTX-M-1 group (84%), and plasmid replicon types FIA, FII, and FIB. K. pneumoniae harboring blaKPC were non-ST258 with replicon types I1 and A/C. Enterobacter spp. carrying blaACT/MIR contained plasmid replicon FIIA. We found that β-lactam resistance in children is diverse and that certain resistance mechanisms differ from known circulating genotypes in adults in an endemic area. The potential impact of complex molecular types and the silent dissemination of MDR Enterobacteriaceae in a vulnerable population needs to be studied further

  7. Large-scale survey for novel genotypes of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance gene pfcrt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Nobuyuki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Plasmodium falciparum, resistance to chloroquine (CQ is conferred by a K to T mutation at amino acid position 76 (K76T in the P. falciparum CQ transporter (PfCRT. To date, at least 15 pfcrt genotypes, which are represented by combinations of five amino acids at positions 72-76, have been described in field isolates from various endemic regions. To identify novel mutant pfcrt genotypes and to reveal the genetic relatedness of pfcrt genotypes, a large-scale survey over a wide geographic area was performed. Methods Sequences for exon 2 in pfcrt, including known polymorphic sites at amino acid positions 72, 74, 75 and 76, were obtained from 256 P. falciparum isolates collected from eight endemic countries in Asia (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Lao P.D.R., the Philippines and Thailand, Melanesia (Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu and Africa (Ghana. A haplotype network was constructed based on six microsatellite markers located -29 kb to 24 kb from pfcrt in order to examine the genetic relatedness among mutant pfcrt genotypes. Results In addition to wild type (CVMNK at positions 72-76, four mutant pfcrt were identified; CVIET, CVIDT, SVMNT and CVMNT (mutated amino acids underlined. Haplotype network revealed that there were only three mutant pfcrt lineages, originating in Indochina, Philippines and Melanesia. Importantly, the Indochina lineage contained two mutant pfcrt genotypes, CVIET (n = 95 and CVIDT (n = 14, indicating that CVIDT shares a common origin with CVIET. Similarly, one major haplotype in the Melanesian lineage contained two pfcrt genotypes; SVMNT (n = 71 and CVMNT (n = 3. In Africa, all mutant pfcrt genotypes were the CVIET of the Indochina lineage, probably resulting from the intercontinental migration of CQ resistance from Southeast Asia. Conclusions The number of CQ-mutant lineages observed in this study was identical to that found in previous studies. This supports the hypothesis that the emergence of novel CQ resistance

  8. Heat Conductivity Resistance of Concrete Wall Panel by Water Flowing in Different Orientations of Internal PVC pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umi, N. N.; Norazman, M. N.; Daud, N. M.; Yusof, M. A.; Yahya, M. A.; Othman, M.

    2018-04-01

    Green building technology and sustainability development is current focus in the world nowadays. In Malaysia and most tropical countries the maximum temperature recorded typically at 35°C. Air-conditioning system has become a necessity in occupied buildings, thereby increasing the cost of electric consumption. The aim of this study is to find out the solution in minimizing heat transfer from the external environment and intentions towards going green. In this study, the experimental work includes testing three types of concrete wall panels. The main heat intervention material in this research is 2 inch diameter Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pipe embedded at the center of the concrete wall panel, while the EPS foam beads were added to the cement content in the concrete mix forming the outer layer of the wall panel. Water from the rainwater harvesting system is regulated in the PVC pipe to intervene with the heat conductivity through the wall panel. Results from the experimental works show that the internal surface temperature of these heat resistance wall panels is to 3□C lower than control wall panel from plain interlocking bricks.

  9. Capacitively coupled and direct-current resistivity surveys of selected reaches of Cozad, Thirty-Mile, Orchard-Alfalfa, Kearney, and Outlet Canals in Nebraska, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobza, Christopher M.; Burton, Bethany L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Tompkins, Ryan E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the spatial characteristics of leakage from canals is critical to effectively managing and utilizing water resources for irrigation and hydroelectric purposes. Canal leakage in some parts of Nebraska is the primary source of water for groundwater recharge and helps maintain the base flow of streams. Because surface-water supplies depend on the streamflow of the Platte River and the available water stored in upstream reservoirs, water managers seek to minimize conveyance losses, which can include canal leakage. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Central Platte Natural Resources District and Nebraska Public Power District, used capacitively coupled (CC) and direct-current (DC) resistivity techniques for continuous resistivity profiling to map near-surface lithologies near and underlying the Cozad, Thirty-Mile, Orchard-Alfalfa, Kearney, and Outlet Canals. Approximately 84 kilometers (km) of CC-resistivity data were collected along the five canals. The CC-resistivity data were compared with results from continuous sediment cores and electrical conductivity logs. Generally, the highest resistivities were recorded at the upstream reaches of the Cozad, Thirty-Mile, and Orchard-Alfalfa canals where flood-plain deposits of silt and clay mantle coarser channel deposits of sand and gravel. The finer grained deposits gradually thicken with increasing distance away from the Platte River. Consequently, for many surveyed reaches the thickness of fine-grained deposits exceeded the 8-meter depth of investigation. A detailed geophysical investigation along a 5-km reach of the Outlet Canal southwest of North Platte, Nebraska, used CC and DC resistivity to examine the condition of a compacted-core bank structure and characterized other potential controls on areas of focused seepage. CC-resistivity data, collected along the 5-km study reach, were compared with continuous sediment cores and DC-resistivity data collected near a selected seep near Outlet

  10. Groundfish/Shrimp and Red Snapper trawl surveys conducted in the Gulf of Mexico from 1990-01-01 to 2014-12-30 (NCEI Accession 0147703)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories has conducted standardized groundfish trawl surveys in the Gulf of Mexico since 1987. Prior to 1987,...

  11. Bowhead whale aerial abundance survey conducted by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 2011-04-19 to 2011-06-11 (NCEI Accession 0133937)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial photographic surveys for bowhead whales were conducted near Point Barrow, Alaska, from 19 April to 6 June in 2011. Approximately 4,594 photographs containing...

  12. Investigation of Superficial Resistance of Different Purity Copper at Boiling Nitrogen Temperature Depending on Treatment of Current-Conducting Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutovoj, V.A.; Nikolaenko, A.A.; Stoev, P.I.

    2007-01-01

    Results of this scientific work show influence of annealing temperature and deformation degree of initial MOB copper and after electron beam refining on superficial resistance at temperature of boiling nitrogen. It is shown, that 30 % deformation and annealing in 873...923 K temperature range results in appreciable reduction of superficial resistance at the investigated samples of copper. The lowest values of superficial resistance after thermal and mechanical treatment were observed in the samples after electron beam refinement

  13. Improved characterisation and modelling of measurement errors in electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Chak-Hau Michael; Kuras, Oliver; Wilkinson, Paul B.; Uhlemann, Sebastian; Chambers, Jonathan E.; Meldrum, Philip I.; Graham, James; Sherlock, Emma F.; Binley, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Measurement errors can play a pivotal role in geophysical inversion. Most inverse models require users to prescribe or assume a statistical model of data errors before inversion. Wrongly prescribed errors can lead to over- or under-fitting of data; however, the derivation of models of data errors is often neglected. With the heightening interest in uncertainty estimation within hydrogeophysics, better characterisation and treatment of measurement errors is needed to provide improved image appraisal. Here we focus on the role of measurement errors in electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). We have analysed two time-lapse ERT datasets: one contains 96 sets of direct and reciprocal data collected from a surface ERT line within a 24 h timeframe; the other is a two-year-long cross-borehole survey at a UK nuclear site with 246 sets of over 50,000 measurements. Our study includes the characterisation of the spatial and temporal behaviour of measurement errors using autocorrelation and correlation coefficient analysis. We find that, in addition to well-known proportionality effects, ERT measurements can also be sensitive to the combination of electrodes used, i.e. errors may not be uncorrelated as often assumed. Based on these findings, we develop a new error model that allows grouping based on electrode number in addition to fitting a linear model to transfer resistance. The new model explains the observed measurement errors better and shows superior inversion results and uncertainty estimates in synthetic examples. It is robust, because it groups errors together based on the electrodes used to make the measurements. The new model can be readily applied to the diagonal data weighting matrix widely used in common inversion methods, as well as to the data covariance matrix in a Bayesian inversion framework. We demonstrate its application using extensive ERT monitoring datasets from the two aforementioned sites.

  14. Infections by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in SCT recipients: a nationwide retrospective survey from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girmenia, C; Rossolini, G M; Piciocchi, A; Bertaina, A; Pisapia, G; Pastore, D; Sica, S; Severino, A; Cudillo, L; Ciceri, F; Scimè, R; Lombardini, L; Viscoli, C; Rambaldi, A

    2015-02-01

    Infections by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp) represent a challenging problem after SCT. A retrospective survey (January 2010 to July 2013) involving 52 Italian centers was performed to assess the epidemiology and the prognostic factors of CRKp infections in auto- and allo-SCT. Cases of CRKp infection were reported in 53.4% of centers. CRKp infections were documented in 25 auto-SCTs and 87 allo-SCTs, with an incidence of 0.4% (from 0.1% in 2010 to 0.7% in 2013) and 2% (from 0.4% in 2010 to 2.9% in 2013), respectively. A CRKp colonization documented before or after transplant was followed by an infection in 25.8% of auto-SCT and 39.2% of allo-SCT patients. The infection-related mortality rates were 16% and 64.4%, respectively. A pre-transplant CRKp infection (hazard ratio (HR) 0.33, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 0.15-0.74; P=0.007) and a not CRKp-targeted first-line treatment (HR 2.67, 95% CI 1.43-4.99; P=0.002) were independent factors associated with an increased mortality in allo-SCT patients who developed a CRKp infection. Our study shows challenging findings of CRKp infections in SCT patients in Italy particularly after allo-SCT. The detection of carriers and the definition of early therapeutic strategies represent critical aspects of the management of CRKp infections after SCT.

  15. Effect of current compliance and voltage sweep rate on the resistive switching of HfO2/ITO/Invar structure as measured by conductive atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, You-Lin; Liao, Chun-Wei; Ling, Jing-Jenn

    2014-01-01

    The electrical characterization of HfO 2 /ITO/Invar resistive switching memory structure was studied using conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a semiconductor parameter analyzer, Agilent 4156C. The metal alloy Invar was used as the metal substrate to ensure good ohmic contact with the substrate holder of the AFM. A conductive Pt/Ir AFM tip was placed in direct contact with the HfO 2 surface, such that it acted as the top electrode. Nanoscale current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the HfO 2 /ITO/Invar structure were measured by applying a ramp voltage through the conductive AFM tip at various current compliances and ramp voltage sweep rates. It was found that the resistance of the low resistance state (RLRS) decreased with increasing current compliance value, but resistance of high resistance state (RHRS) barely changed. However, both the RHRS and RLRS decreased as the voltage sweep rate increased. The reasons for this dependency on current compliance and voltage sweep rate are discussed.

  16. Service utilization by children with conduct disorders: findings from the 2004 Great Britain child mental health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivram, Raghuram; Bankart, John; Meltzer, Howard; Ford, Tamsin; Vostanis, Panos; Goodman, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Children with conduct disorders (CD) and their families are in contact with multiple agencies, but there is limited evidence on their patterns of service utilization. The aim of this study was to establish the patterns, barriers and correlates of service use by analysing the cohort of the 2004 Great Britain child mental health survey (N = 7,977). Use of social services was significantly higher by children with CD than emotional disorders (ED) in the absence of co-morbidity, while use of specialist child mental health and paediatric was significantly higher by children with hyperkinetic disorders (HD) than CD. Children who had comorbid physical disorders used more primary healthcare services compared to those without physical disorders. Utilization of specialist child mental heath and social services was significantly higher among children with unsocialized CD than socialized CD and oppositional defiant disorders. Services utilization and its correlates varied with the type of service. Overall, specialist services use was associated with co-morbidity with learning disabilities, physical and psychiatric disorders. Several correlates of services use in CD appeared non-specific, i.e. associated with use of different services indicating the possibility of indiscriminate use of different types of services. The findings led to the conclusion that there is the need for effective organization and co-ordination of services, and clear care pathways. Involvement of specialist child mental health services should be requested in the presence of mental health co-morbidity.

  17. Resistive switching of organic–inorganic hybrid devices of conductive polymer and permeable ultra-thin SiO2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shunsuke; Kitanaka, Takahisa; Miyashita, Tokuji; Mitsuishi, Masaya

    2018-06-01

    We propose a resistive switching device composed of conductive polymer (PEDOT:PSS) and SiO2 ultra-thin films. The SiO2 film was fabricated from silsesquioxane polymer nanosheets as a resistive switching layer. Devices with metal (Ag or Au)∣SiO2∣PEDOT:PSS architecture show good resistive switching performance with set–reset voltages as low as several hundred millivolts. The device properties and the working mechanism were investigated by varying the electrode material, surrounding atmosphere, and SiO2 film thickness. Results show that resistive switching is based on water and ion migration at the PEDOT:PSS∣SiO2 interface.

  18. Well Water and Subsurface Salinity of Tuba Basin Langkawi by Hydrochemical Analysis and Vertical Electrical Resistivity Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar Hamzah; Abdul Rahim Samsudin; Abdul Ghani Rafek; Khairul Azlan Razak

    2009-01-01

    Tuba basin is an alluvial deposit located between granitic hill in the western part of Tuba Island and the Setul formation sedimentary rocks in the eastern site of the island. This basin stretched along 3 km in the NE-SW direction with an estimated width of about 2 km. A geophysical survey using geo electrical technique was carried out to figure out the subsurface structure, to detect the presence of underground aquifers and to investigate any saltwater intrusion into these aquifers in the basin. Concentrations of several elements in the well water were also analyzed to investigate any occurrence of salt water intrusion into the coastal aquifers. For this purpose, the vertical electrical sounding surveys were carried out at 22 randomly distributed stations in the study area. Water samples were also taken from 11 wells for hydrochemical analysis in the laboratory. Our results showed that all water samples were of fresh water type. Electrical resistivity profile constructed from stations located in NE-SW direction from Teluk Berembang to Telok Bujur shows a wide range of resistivities ranging from 4 Ωm to infinity. The top layer with a thickness of 1-3 m and resistivity values of 4 - 12 Ωm is interpreted as clay zone. This layer is overlying a much thicker layer of 10-50 m with resistivity values of 2 - 280 Ωm representing sandy material that may contain fresh water or sand with brackish water. Layers with resistivity values from thousands ohm.m to infinity are interpreted as either granite or limestone bedrock. Maximum thickness observed in this resistivity survey is approximately 70 m. (author)

  19. Role of Al2O3 thin layer on improving the resistive switching properties of Ta5Si3-based conductive bridge random accesses memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dayanand; Aluguri, Rakesh; Chand, Umesh; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2018-04-01

    Ta5Si3-based conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) devices have been investigated to improve their resistive switching characteristics for their application in future nonvolatile memory technology. Changes in the switching characteristics by the addition of a thin Al2O3 layer of different thicknesses at the bottom electrode interface of a Ta5Si3-based CBRAM devices have been studied. The double-layer device with a 1 nm Al2O3 layer has shown improved resistive switching characteristics over the single layer one with a high on/off resistance ratio of 102, high endurance of more than 104 cycles, and good retention for more than 105 s at the temperature of 130 °C. The higher thermal conductivity of Al2O3 over Ta5Si3 has been attributed to the enhanced switching properties of the double-layer devices.

  20. Enhanced Corrosion Resistance and Interfacial Conductivity of TiC x/a-C Nanolayered Coatings via Synergy of Substrate Bias Voltage for Bipolar Plates Applications in PEMFCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Peiyun; Zhang, Weixin; Bi, Feifei; Peng, Linfa; Lai, Xinmin

    2018-06-06

    Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are one kind of renewable and clean energy conversion device, whose metallic bipolar plates are one of the key components. However, high interfacial contact resistance and poor corrosion resistance are still great challenges for the commercialization of metallic bipolar plates. In this study, we demonstrated a novel strategy for depositing TiC x /amorphous carbon (a-C) nanolayered coatings by synergy of 60 and 300 V bias voltage to enhance corrosion resistance and interfacial conductivity. The synergistic effects of bias voltage on the composition, microstructure, surface roughness, electrochemical corrosion behaviors, and interfacial conductivity of TiC x /a-C coatings were explored. The results revealed that the columnar structures in the inner layer were suppressed and the surface became rougher with the 300 V a-C layer outside. The composition analysis indicated that the sp 2 content increased with an increase of 300 V sputtering time. Due to the synergy strategy of bias voltage, lower corrosion current densities were achieved both in potentiostatic polarization (1.6 V vs standard hydrogen electrode) and potentiodynamic polarization. With the increase of 300 V sputtering time, the interfacial conductivity was improved. The enhanced corrosion resistance and interfacial conductivity of the TiC x /a-C coatings would provide new opportunities for commercial bipolar plates.

  1. Using detection dogs to conduct simultaneous surveys of northern spotted (Strix occidentalis caurina and barred owls (Strix varia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel K Wasser

    Full Text Available State and federal actions to conserve northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina habitat are largely initiated by establishing habitat occupancy. Northern spotted owl occupancy is typically assessed by eliciting their response to simulated conspecific vocalizations. However, proximity of barred owls (Strix varia-a significant threat to northern spotted owls-can suppress northern spotted owl responsiveness to vocalization surveys and hence their probability of detection. We developed a survey method to simultaneously detect both species that does not require vocalization. Detection dogs (Canis familiaris located owl pellets accumulated under roost sites, within search areas selected using habitat association maps. We compared success of detection dog surveys to vocalization surveys slightly modified from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Draft 2010 Survey Protocol. Seventeen 2 km × 2 km polygons were each surveyed multiple times in an area where northern spotted owls were known to nest prior to 1997 and barred owl density was thought to be low. Mitochondrial DNA was used to confirm species from pellets detected by dogs. Spotted owl and barred owl detection probabilities were significantly higher for dog than vocalization surveys. For spotted owls, this difference increased with number of site visits. Cumulative detection probabilities of northern spotted owls were 29% after session 1, 62% after session 2, and 87% after session 3 for dog surveys, compared to 25% after session 1, increasing to 59% by session 6 for vocalization surveys. Mean detection probability for barred owls was 20.1% for dog surveys and 7.3% for vocal surveys. Results suggest that detection dog surveys can complement vocalization surveys by providing a reliable method for establishing occupancy of both northern spotted and barred owl without requiring owl vocalization. This helps meet objectives of Recovery Actions 24 and 25 of the Revised Recovery Plan for the

  2. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INTERVIEWERS CONDUCTING SOCIOLOGICAL SURVEYS: THE USE OF THE PSYCHOTYPES THEORY AND ANALYSIS OF RESPONDENTS’ NONVERBAL REACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ж В Пузанова

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of sociological data is the problem that cannot lose relevance in the works of methodologists and practicing sociologists for decades. Procedures and techniques for the improvement of the quality of information for all type of survey methods are developing. The purpose of the article is to inform the interviewers conducting semi-structured or unstructured interviews of the recommendations developed on the basis of the theory of psychotypes (by V.V. Ponomarenko. This technology will allow to improve the quality of sociological data. Identification of the psychotype of the respondent and his emotional reactions to different sensitive topics during the interview are the basis of this technology. Emotional reactions can be traced by nonverbal cues (facial expressions, gestures and poses and interpreted by the technology of the analysis of nonverbal reactions developed and approved earlier. During the multi-stage experiment, the reactions significant in the course of interview were traced and analyzed - irritation, surprise, sadness, contempt, joy, fear, disgust, stress/discomfort, doubt/indecision, manifestations of mental processes. At the first phase, representatives of ‘ideal types’ of each psychotype were selected by an abridged psychological test and external diagnostics based on sensitive topics. As a result, the recommendations for a semi-structured interview were formulated. To use this technique, it is necessary to test an interviewee before the interview by the abridged psychological technique (in case there are doubts after the visual diagnostics. According to the psychotype the interviewer pays attention to the sensitive topics of the in-terview, and during the interview can reformulate the open-ended questions to reduce the sensitivity of significant topics for each respondent.

  3. Assessing the incidence of ciguatera fish poisoning with two surveys conducted in Culebra, Puerto Rico, during 2005 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Luber, George; Conklin, Laura; Tosteson, Thomas R; Granade, Hudson R; Dickey, Robert W; Backer, Lorraine C

    2012-04-01

    Although ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most common seafood intoxication worldwide, its burden has been difficult to establish because there are no biomarkers to diagnose human exposure. We explored the incidence of CFP, percentage of CFP case-patients with laboratory-confirmed ciguatoxic meal remnants, cost of CFP illness, and potential risk factors for CFP. During 2005 and again during 2006, we conducted a census of all occupied households on the island of Culebra, Puerto Rico, where locally caught fish are a staple food. We defined CFP case-patients as persons with gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, or nausea) and neurological symptoms (extremity paresthesia, arthralgia, myalgia, malaise, pruritus, headache, dizziness, metallic taste, visual disturbance, circumoral paresthesia, temperature reversal, or toothache) or systemic symptoms (e.g., bradycardia) within 72 hr of eating fish during the previous year. Participants were asked to save fish remnants eaten by case-patients for ciguatoxin analysis at the Food and Drug Administration laboratory in Dauphin Island, Alabama (USA). We surveyed 340 households during 2005 and 335 households during 2006. The estimated annual incidence of possible CFP was 4.0 per 1,000 person-years, and that of probable CFP was 7.5 per 1,000 person-years. One of three fish samples submitted by probable case-patients was positive for ciguatoxins. None of the case-patients required respiratory support. Households that typically consumed barracuda were more likely to report CFP (p = 0.02). Our estimates, which are consistent with previous studies using similar case findings, contribute to the overall information available to support public health decision making about CFP prevention.

  4. Knowledge and attitude of general pratictioners towards direct-to-consumer genomic tests: a survey conducted in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Baroncini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personal genomic tests (PGT offered directly-to-consumers (DTC for complex disease risk assessment have raised several concerns regarding their potential adverse impact. To mitigate worries continuing professional education has been advocated and the central gatekeeper role of family physicians has been highlighted. Nevertheless, to date, only few studies have been published on awareness, involvement and attitudes of  primary healthcare providers on DTC marketing of PGT and, to the best of our knowledge, none in Italy.Methods: An exploratory survey to achieve information about knowledge and attitudes towards DTC-PGT of a selected group of family physicians participating to courses on predictive medicine and public health genomics was conducted. Results: A total amount of 114 partially or fully filled questionnaires was obtained. The majority of the primary care providers (68,4%  expressed that they are unaware that companies are selling genomic tests directly to consumers, while 31,6% was aware.  In terms of attitudes toward testing 61,1% of the aware respondents deemed the DTC-PGT for chronic complex diseases to be ‘‘not clinically useful.’’  The overwhelming majority of our respondents (95,6% felt unprepared to answer patients’ questions on DTC-PGT. If only aware respondents are considered this percentage results obviously  lower (86,1%, though still very high. Conclusion: The low percentage of aware respondents suggests that DTC advertising in the realm of genomic testing is still limited in Italy. Should DTC-PGT become more widely used, a comprehensive education program may be necessary to increase family physicians’ awareness and help them discuss testing with their patients. 

  5. A review of methodology and analysis of nutrition and mortality surveys conducted in humanitarian emergencies from October 1993 to April 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiegel Paul B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition prevalence and mortality rates are increasingly used as essential indicators to assess the severity of a crisis, to follow trends, and to guide decision-making, including allocation of funds. Although consensus has slowly developed on the methodology to accurately measure these indicators, errors in the application of the survey methodology and analysis have persisted. The aim of this study was to identify common methodological weaknesses in nutrition and mortality surveys and to provide practical recommendations for improvement. Methods Nutrition (N = 368 and crude mortality rate (CMR; N = 158 surveys conducted by 33 non-governmental organisations and United Nations agencies in 17 countries from October 1993 to April 2004 were analysed for sampling validity, precision, quality of measurement and calculation according to several criteria. Results One hundred and thirty (35.3% nutrition surveys and 5 (3.2% CMR surveys met the criteria for quality. Quality of surveys varied significantly depending on the agency. The proportion of nutrition surveys that met criteria for quality rose significantly from 1993 to 2004; there was no improvement for mortality surveys during this period. Conclusion Significant errors and imprecision in the methodology and reporting of nutrition and mortality surveys were identified. While there was an improvement in the quality of nutrition surveys over the years, the quality of mortality surveys remained poor. Recent initiatives aimed at standardising nutrition and mortality survey quality should be strengthened. There are still a number of methodological issues in nutrition and mortality surveys in humanitarian emergencies that need further study.

  6. Room-Temperature Voltage Stressing Effects on Resistive Switching of Conductive-Bridging RAM Cells with Cu-Doped SiO2 Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Yang Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available SiO2 or Cu-doped SiO2 (Cu:SiO2 insulating films combined with Cu or W upper electrodes were constructed on the W/Si substrates to form the conductive-bridging RAM (CB-RAM cells. The CB-RAMs were then subjected to a constant-voltage stressing (CVS at room temperature. The experimental results show that the room-temperature CVS treatment can effectively affect the current conduction behavior and stabilize the resistive switching of the memory cells. After the CVS, the current conduction mechanisms in the high resistance state during the set process of the Cu/Cu:SiO2/W cell can be changed from Ohm’s law and the space charge limited conduction to Ohm’s law, the Schottky emission, and the space charge limited conduction. Presumably, it is due to the breakage of the conduction filaments during the CVS treatment that the conduction electrons cannot go back to the back electrode smoothly.

  7. Detection and management of depression in adult primary care patients in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional survey conducted by a primary care practice-based research network

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, KTY; Wong, SYS; Chiu, BCF; Chin, WY; Lam, TP; Lam, CLK; Fong, DYT; Lo, YCY

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine the prevalence, risk factors, detection rates and management of primary care depression in Hong Kong. Methods A cross-sectional survey containing the PHQ-9 instrument was conducted on waiting room patients of 59 primary care doctors. Doctors blinded to the PHQ-9 scores reported whether they thought their patients had depression and their management. Results 10,179 patients completed the survey (response rate 81%). The prevalence of PHQ-9 positive screeni...

  8. Application of Electrical Resistivity Imaging and Land Surveying in the Analysis of Underground Construction Impact on the Warsaw Scarp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmarek Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the II Underground Line construction’s impact on the Warsaw Scarp with the use of the electrical resistivity imaging (ERI, also known as the electrical resistivity tomography and further total station position measurements.The underground passes under the scarp perpendicular in the area of Dynasy Street 6, in Down-town district.The electrical resistivity imaging was performed for recognition of the geological structure and a potential land slide surface or zone.The gradient system was used during the prospection. In these analyses, the longitudinal section was 40 m long, and the depth of survey amounted to 6 m. In the case of the 200 m long transverse section, the resulted depth of survey was 30 m.The geophysical image of the longitudinal section,does not contain loosening soil zones,which could indicates lip surface.Next, total station measurements, which were tied to the archival geodetic observations’ results, were carried out. The aim of the measurements was to verify the activity of the horizontal and vertical displacements. The TBM excavation process led to summary vertical displacements up to approx. 24 mm and horizontal displacements amounting to approx. 13 mm. To sum up, the current land surveys reveals minor under ground line’ s construction impact on the scarp displacement. Nevertheless, the sensitive urban environment requires further monitoring, especially that the operation loads can result in displacement rate change.

  9. Monitoring percolation of a conductive tracer, as a proxy for nitrate transport, through glacial till and fractured sandstone in the vadose zone underlying a potato field, using 3D cross-hole electrical resistivity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Butler, K. E.; Serban, D.; Petersen, B.; Grimmett, M.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrate is a necessary nutrient for crops, but high surface water and groundwater concentrations can negatively affect aquatic ecosystem and human health. At AAFC-AAC Harrington Research Farm (PEI, Canada), 3D cross-hole electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is being used to investigate the percolation of a conductive tracer (KCl) through a 17 m thick vadose zone as a proxy for the transport of nitrate under natural recharge conditions. The objectives are to investigate the effect of heterogeneity on transport pathways and infer how long it would take for changes in farming practices at the surface to affect nitrate loading to the underlying aquifer. The resistivity array consists of 96 permanently installed electrodes - 24 at 0.68 m spacing in each of three 16 m deep boreholes arranged in a triangle with 9 m sides, and 24 at 1 m spacing buried in shallow trenches connecting the boreholes. A background survey revealed five sub-horizontal layers of alternating resistivity in general agreement with the geology of 6 m soil and glacial till overburden overlying interbedded sandstone and shaley sandstone layers. On March 27th, 2015, 1.1 m of snow was removed from a 15.2 m2 area positioned symmetrically inside the triangular array and 100 kg of granular KCl was distributed on the ground surface. The removed snow was immediately replaced to await the spring thaw. Post-tracer surveys indicate tracer had percolated to depths of 1 m, 1.2 m, 3.0 m and 3.5 m by the 4th, 26th, 30th, and 46th days after tracer application. Its movement slowed significantly by early May, 2015, with the end of snow melt. Tracer spread laterally very slowly through the summer and early fall, 2015, but has remained within the triangular array. The shallow conductivity anomaly produced by the tracer diminished significantly over the winter and spring of 2016 but showed little evidence of bulk matrix flow below 3.5 m depth. It is speculated that fractures in the glacial till, too thin to be resolved by

  10. Capacitively Coupled Resistivity Survey of Selected Irrigation Canals Within the North Platte River Valley, Western Nebraska and Eastern Wyoming, 2004 and 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Bethany L.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Vrabel, Joseph; Imig, Brian H.; Payne, Jason; Tompkins, Ryan E.

    2009-01-01

    Due to water resources of portions of the North Platte River basin being designated as over-appropriated by the State of Nebraska Department of Natural Resources (DNR), the North Platte Natural Resources District (NPNRD), in cooperation with the DNR, is developing an Integrated Management Plan (IMP) for groundwater and surface water in the NPNRD. As part of the IMP, a three-dimensional numerical finite difference groundwater-flow model is being developed to evaluate the effectiveness of using leakage of water from selected irrigation canal systems to manage groundwater recharge. To determine the relative leakage potential of the upper 8 m of the selected irrigation canals within the North Platte River valley in western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming, the U.S. Geological Survey performed a land-based capacitively coupled (CC) resistivity survey along nearly 630 km of 13 canals and 2 laterals in 2004 and from 2007 to 2009. These 13 canals were selected from the 27 irrigation canals in the North Platte valley due to their location, size, irrigated area, and relation to the active North Platte valley flood plain and related paleochannels and terrace deposits where most of the saturated thickness in the alluvium exists. The resistivity data were then compared to continuous cores at 62 test holes down to a maximum depth of 8 m. Borehole electrical conductivity (EC) measurements at 36 of those test holes were done to correlate resistivity values with grain sizes in order to determine potential vertical leakage along the canals as recharge to the underlying alluvial aquifer. The data acquired in 2004, as well as the 25 test hole cores from 2004, are presented elsewhere. These data were reprocessed using the same updated processing and inversion algorithms used on the 2007 through 2009 datasets, providing a consistent and complete dataset for all collection periods. Thirty-seven test hole cores and borehole electrical conductivity measurements were acquired based on the 2008

  11. Wide range local resistance imaging on fragile materials by conducting probe atomic force microscopy in intermittent contact mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchiola, Aymeric [Laboratoire de Génie électrique et électronique de Paris (GeePs), UMR 8507 CNRS-CentraleSupélec, Paris-Sud and UPMC Universities, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Concept Scientific Instruments, ZA de Courtaboeuf, 2 rue de la Terre de Feu, 91940 Les Ulis (France); Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS-Thales UMR 137, 1 avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Chrétien, Pascal; Schneegans, Olivier; Mencaraglia, Denis; Houzé, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.houze@geeps.centralesupelec.fr [Laboratoire de Génie électrique et électronique de Paris (GeePs), UMR 8507 CNRS-CentraleSupélec, Paris-Sud and UPMC Universities, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Delprat, Sophie [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS-Thales UMR 137, 1 avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); UPMC, Université Paris 06, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Bouzehouane, Karim; Seneor, Pierre; Mattana, Richard [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS-Thales UMR 137, 1 avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Tatay, Sergio [Molecular Science Institute, University of Valencia, 46980 Paterna (Spain); Geffroy, Bernard [Lab. Physique des Interfaces et Couches minces (PICM), UMR 7647 CNRS-École polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Lab. d' Innovation en Chimie des Surfaces et Nanosciences (LICSEN), NIMBE UMR 3685 CNRS-CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); and others

    2016-06-13

    An imaging technique associating a slowly intermittent contact mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a home-made multi-purpose resistance sensing device is presented. It aims at extending the widespread resistance measurements classically operated in contact mode AFM to broaden their application fields to soft materials (molecular electronics, biology) and fragile or weakly anchored nano-objects, for which nanoscale electrical characterization is highly demanded and often proves to be a challenging task in contact mode. Compared with the state of the art concerning less aggressive solutions for AFM electrical imaging, our technique brings a significantly wider range of resistance measurement (over 10 decades) without any manual switching, which is a major advantage for the characterization of materials with large on-sample resistance variations. After describing the basics of the set-up, we report on preliminary investigations focused on academic samples of self-assembled monolayers with various thicknesses as a demonstrator of the imaging capabilities of our instrument, from qualitative and semi-quantitative viewpoints. Then two application examples are presented, regarding an organic photovoltaic thin film and an array of individual vertical carbon nanotubes. Both attest the relevance of the technique for the control and optimization of technological processes.

  12. Development of Conductivity Method as an Alternative to Titration for Hydrolytic Resistance Testing Used for Evaluation of Glass Vials Used in Pharmaceutical Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Kiyoshi; Lee, Hans; Phillips, Joseph; Nashed-Samuel, Yasser

    The European Pharmacopeia surface test to analyze the hydrolytic resistance is a common industrial method to understand and ensure the quality of produced glass vials. Hydrolytic resistance is evaluated by calculating the alkalinity of water extract from autoclaved vials by titration. As an alternative to this titration technique, a conductivity technique was assessed, which directly measures the ions in the water extract. A conductivity meter with a 12 mm diameter electrode was calibrated with a 100 μS/cm conductivity standard and carryover minimized by rinsing the probe in a water beaker per analysis. The limit of quantification at 1 μS/cm was determined as having a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 compared with the water blank. The conductivity method was selective for glass-composing elements (boron, sodium, aluminum, silicon, potassium, and calcium) within the vial extract. Accuracies of spiked conductivity standard within the range of 1 to 100 μS/cm were ±7% and had linearity with coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of ≥0.9999. Intraday precision had a relative standard deviation (RSD) (n = 5) of ≤6% for spiked conductivity standard within the range of 1 to 100 μS/cm. Interday precision had a RSD (n = 4) of ≤6% for 10 vials from three glass vial lots. Conductivity of water extracts from nine sets of seven lots of glass vials had a precise linear relationship [R 2 = 0.9876, RSD = 1% (n = 9)] with titration volumes of the same lots. Conductivity results in μS/cm could be converted to titration volumes in milliliters by a conversion factor of 0.0275. The simplicity, sample stability, and individual vial analysis of the conductivity technique were more advantageous than the current titration technique. The quality of glass vials used as primary containers in the pharmaceutical industry is of concern due to recent observations of glass flake-like delamination, or lamellae, under specific storage conditions. The current European Pharmacopoeia method to assess

  13. Spatial and temporal country-wide survey of temephos resistance in Brazilian populations of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Chediak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The organophosphate temephos has been the main insecticide used against larvae of the dengue and yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti in Brazil since the mid-1980s. Reports of resistance date back to 1995; however, no systematic reports of widespread temephos resistance have occurred to date. As resistance investigation is paramount for strategic decision-making by health officials, our objective here was to investigate the spatial and temporal spread of temephos resistance in Ae. aegypti in Brazil for the last 12 years using discriminating temephos concentrations and the bioassay protocols of the World Health Organization. The mortality results obtained were subjected to spatial analysis for distance interpolation using semi-variance models to generate maps that depict the spread of temephos resistance in Brazil since 1999. The problem has been expanding. Since 2002-2003, approximately half the country has exhibited mosquito populations resistant to temephos. The frequency of temephos resistance and, likely, control failures, which start when the insecticide mortality level drops below 80%, has increased even further since 2004. Few parts of Brazil are able to achieve the target 80% efficacy threshold by 2010/2011, resulting in a significant risk of control failure by temephos in most of the country. The widespread resistance to temephos in Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations greatly compromise effective mosquito control efforts using this insecticide and indicates the urgent need to identify alternative insecticides aided by the preventive elimination of potential mosquito breeding sites.

  14. Characterization of polymer, DNA-based, and silk thin film resistivities and of DNA-based films prepared for enhanced electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaney, Perry P.; Ouchen, Fahima; Grote, James G.

    2009-08-01

    DC resistivity studies were carried out on biopolymer films of DNA-CTMA and silk fibroin, and on selected traditional polymer films, including PMMA and APC. Films of DNA-CTMA versus molecular weight and with conductive dopants PCBM, BAYTRON P and ammonium tetrachloroplatinate are reported. The films were spin coated on glass slides configured for measurements of volume dc resistance. The measurements used the alternating polarity method to record the applied voltage-dependent current independent of charging and background currents. The Arrhenius equation plus a constant was fitted to the conductivity versus temperature data of the polymers and the non-doped DNA-based biopolymers with activation energies ranging from 0.8 to 1.4 eV.

  15. Performance and optimum design of convective-radiative rectangular fin with convective base heating, wall conduction resistance, and contact resistance between the wall and the fin base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Abdul; Beers-Green, Arlen B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance and optimum design of a longitudinal rectangular fin attached to a convectively heated wall of finite thickness. The exposed surfaces of the fin lose heat to the environmental sink by simultaneous convection and radiation. The tip of the fin is assumed to lose heat by convection and radiation to the same sink. The analysis and optimization of the fin is conducted numerically using the symbolic algebra package Maple. The temperature distribution, the heat transfer rates, and the fin efficiency data is presented illustrating how the thermal performance of the fin is affected by the convection-conduction number, the radiation-conduction number, the base convection Biot number, the convection and radiation Biot numbers at the tip, and the dimensionless sink temperature. Charts are presented showing the relationship between the optimum convection-conduction number and the optimum radiation-conduction number for different values of the base convection Biot number and dimensionless sink temperature and fixed values of the convection and radiation Biot numbers at the tip. Unlike the few other papers which have applied the Adomian's decomposition and the differential quadrature element method to this problem but give illustrative results for specific fin geometry and thermal variables, the present graphical data are generally applicable and can be used by fin designers without delving into the mathematical details of the computational techniques.

  16. Aeromagnetic and aerial photographic survey in the South Shetland Islands,Antarctica, conducted by a small unmanned aerial vehicle (Ant-Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Funaki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Two small unmanned aerial vehicles, Ant-Plane 6 and Ant-Plane 3, were assembled using parts and technologies developed for model airplanes. The aerial vehicles were scheduled to conduct aero magnetic and photographic surveys of the Brans?eld Basin, from a takeoff runway at Marsh Air?eld on the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, during January 2011. However, the scheduled surveys were not conducted on account of poor weather. Research was later conducted on a glacier, using a takeoff runway at St. Kliment Ohridski Base, Livingston Island, during December 2011. A ?ight from St. Kliment Ohridski Base to Deception Island yielded satisfactory results; the total distance of 302.4 km was traversed in 3 h 7 min (3:07. On this ?ight, aeromagnetic and aerial photographic data were obtained from an altitude of 780 m for a 9×18 km area on the northern half of Deception Island. Aerial photographs of Deception Island and South Bay showed the distributions of glaciers and their crevasses. The Ant-Plane ?ew over the Antarctic horizon and surveyed above Deception Island. That was the successful venture of this kind, demonstrating that airborne surveys by Ant-Planes are useful for Antarctic research investigations. Airborne surveys provide a safe and economical approach to data acquisition as compared with manned aerial operations.

  17. Anthelmic Resistance Survey in Commercial Pig Herds in Thika District Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagira, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The use of anthelmintics is the single most important action taken by the farmers to control worm infections. However due to improper use of these drugs, anthelmintic resistance (AR) has been reported in several countries. Most of the AR reports have been on sheep and goats with very few on pigs. Thus, the occurrence of resistance to three different anthelmintics was studied in four pig herds in Thika District, Kenya by means of faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and larval development assay (LDA) test. The FECRT showed that the piperazine and levamisole were less than 95% effective (one farm each) against Oesophagostomum spp., and this was confirmed using the LDA test. A resistant strain of Trichuris suis against levamisole was also detected in one farm. The results show that anthelmintic resistance is present in pig farms in Thika district, and by extension the problem could occur elsewhere in Kenya. Relevant veterinary authorities should advice farmers on strategies to reduce such occurrence

  18. Survey on the phage resistance mechanisms displayed by a dairy Lactobacillus helveticus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Miriam; Orrù, Luigi; Rossetti, Lia; Lamontanara, Antonella; Fornasari, Maria Emanuela; Bonvini, Barbara; Meucci, Aurora; Carminati, Domenico; Cattivelli, Luigi; Giraffa, Giorgio

    2017-09-01

    In this study the presence and functionality of phage defence mechanisms in Lactobacillus helveticus ATCC 10386, a strain of dairy origin which is sensitive to ΦLh56, were investigated. After exposure of ATCC 10386 to ΦLh56, the whole-genome sequences of ATCC 10386 and of a phage-resistant derivative (LhM3) were compared. LhM3 showed deletions in the S-layer protein and a higher expression of the genes involved in the restriction/modification (R/M) system. Genetic data were substantiated by measurements of bacteriophage adsorption rates, efficiency of plaquing, cell wall protein size and by gene expression analysis. In LhM3 two phage resistance mechanisms, the inhibition of phage adsorption and the upregulation of Type I R/M genes, take place and explain its resistance to ΦLh56. Although present in both ATCC 10386 and LhM3 genomes, the CRISPR machinery did not seem to play a role in the phage resistance of LhM3. Overall, the natural selection of phage resistant strains resulted successful in detecting variants carrying multiple phage defence mechanisms in L. helveticus. The concurrent presence of multiple phage-resistance systems should provide starter strains with increased fitness and robustness in dairy ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Model for multi-filamentary conduction in graphene/hexagonal-boron-nitride/graphene based resistive switching devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chengbin; Miranda, Enrique; Villena, Marco A.; Xiao, Na; Jing, Xu; Xie, Xiaoming; Wu, Tianru; Hui, Fei; Shi, Yuanyuan; Lanza, Mario

    2017-06-01

    Despite the enormous interest raised by graphene and related materials, recent global concern about their real usefulness in industry has raised, as there is a preoccupying lack of 2D materials based electronic devices in the market. Moreover, analytical tools capable of describing and predicting the behavior of the devices (which are necessary before facing mass production) are very scarce. In this work we synthesize a resistive random access memory (RRAM) using graphene/hexagonal-boron-nitride/graphene (G/h-BN/G) van der Waals structures, and we develop a compact model that accurately describes its functioning. The devices were fabricated using scalable methods (i.e. CVD for material growth and shadow mask for electrode patterning), and they show reproducible resistive switching (RS). The measured characteristics during the forming, set and reset processes were fitted using the model developed. The model is based on the nonlinear Landauer approach for mesoscopic conductors, in this case atomic-sized filaments formed within the 2D materials system. Besides providing excellent overall fitting results (which have been corroborated in log-log, log-linear and linear-linear plots), the model is able to explain the dispersion of the data obtained from cycle-to-cycle in terms of the particular features of the filamentary paths, mainly their confinement potential barrier height.

  20. Ink for Ink-Jet Printing of Electrically Conductive Structures on Flexible Substrates with Low Thermal Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mościcki, A.; Smolarek-Nowak, A.; Felba, J.; Kinart, A.

    2017-07-01

    The development of new technologies in electronics related to flexible polymeric substrates forces the industry to introduce suitable tools (special type of dispensers) and modern conductive materials for printing electronic circuits. Moreover, due to the wide use of inexpensive polymeric foils (polyethene, PE, or poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET), there is a need to develop materials with the lowest possible processing temperatures. The present paper presents the selection criteria of suitable components and their preparation for obtaining electrically conductive ink with a special nanosilver base. In the case of the discussed solution, all components allow to make circuits in relatively low sintering temperature (even below 130°C). Additionally, the authors show the most significant ink parameters that should be taken into consideration during Research and Development (R&D) works with electrically conductive inks. Moreover, ink stability parameters are discussed and some examples of printed circuits are presented.

  1. Correlation between the transport mechanisms in conductive filaments inside Ta2O5-based resistive switching devices and in substoichiometric TaOx thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Carlos M. M.; Thöner, Bo; Schönhals, Alexander; Menzel, Stephan; Wuttig, Matthias; Waser, Rainer; Sobolev, Nikolai A.; Wouters, Dirk J.

    2018-05-01

    Conductive filaments play a key role in redox-based resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices based on the valence change mechanism, where the change of the resistance is ascribed to the modulation of the oxygen content in a local region of these conductive filaments. However, a deep understanding of the filaments' composition and structure is still a matter of debate. We approached the problem by comparing the electronic transport, at temperatures from 300 K down to 2 K, in the filaments and in TaOx films exhibiting a substoichiometric oxygen content. The filaments were created in Ta (15 nm)/Ta2O5 (5 nm)/Pt crossbar ReRAM structures. In the TaOx thin films with various oxygen contents, the in-plane transport was studied. There is a close similarity between the electrical properties of the conductive filaments in the ReRAM devices and of the TaOx films with x ˜ 1, evidencing also no dimensionality difference for the electrical transport. More specifically, for both systems there are two different conduction processes: one in the higher temperature range (from 50 K up to ˜300 K), where the conductivity follows a √{ T } dependence, and one at lower temperatures (<50 K), where the conductivity follows the exp(-1 / √{ T } ) dependence. This suggests a strong similarity between the material composition and structure of the filaments and those of the substoichiometric TaOx films. We also discuss the temperature dependence of the conductivity in the framework of possible transport mechanisms, mainly of those normally observed for granular metals.

  2. Hydrogeologic inferences from drillers' logs and from gravity and resistivity surveys in the Amargosa Desert, southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oatfield, W.J.; Czarnecki, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The Amargosa Desert of southern Nevada, in the Basin and Range province, is hydraulically downgradient from Yucca Mountain, the potential site of a repository for high-level nuclear waste. Ground-water flow paths and flow rates beneath the Amargosa Desert are controlled in part by the total saturated thickness and the hydraulic properties of basin-fill alluvial sediments. Drillers' logs of water wells completed in alluvium were analyzed to help characterize the hydrogeologic framework underlying the Amargosa Desert. Fractions of coarse-grained sediments, calculated from each of these logs, were contoured using a universal-kriging routine to interpolate values. Results from a previous electrical sounding survey also were contoured, including the estimated depth to Paleozoic basement rocks. The vertical electric sounding results were obtained from individual depth-to-resistivity profiles, from which the average resistivity of the total profile and the resistivity of the upper 75 meters were calculated. the distribution and variations in average resistivity of the total depth correlated reasonably well with the distribution of variations in regional gravity. 24 refs., 17 figs

  3. Studies of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} degradation and surface conductivity properties by Scanning Spreading Resistance Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truchly, Martin, E-mail: martin.truchly@fmph.uniba.sk [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Plecenik, Tomas; Krsko, Ondrej; Gregor, Maros; Satrapinskyy, Leonid; Roch, Tomas; Grancic, Branislav; Mikula, Marian [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Dujavova, Agata; Chromik, Stefan [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 84104 Bratislava (Slovakia); Kus, Peter; Plecenik, Andrej [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-12-14

    Local surface conductivity properties and surface degradation of c-axis oriented YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} (YBCO) thin films were studied by Scanning Spreading Resistance Microscopy (SSRM). For the surface degradation studies, the YBCO surface was cleaned by ion beam etching and the SSRM surface conductivity map has been subsequently repeatedly measured over several hours in air and pure nitrogen. Average surface conductivity of the scanned area was gradually decreasing over time in both cases, faster in air. This was explained by oxygen out-diffusion in both cases and chemical reactions with water vapor in air. The obtained surface conductivity images also revealed its high inhomogenity on micrometer and nanometer scale with numerous regions of highly enhanced conductivity compared to the surroundings. Furthermore, it has been shown that the size of these conductive regions considerably depends on the applied voltage. We propose that such inhomogeneous surface conductivity is most likely caused by varying thickness of degraded YBCO surface layer as well as varying oxygen concentration (x parameter) within this layer, what was confirmed by scanning Auger electron microscopy (SAM). In our opinion the presented findings might be important for analysis of current-voltage and differential characteristics measured on classical planar junctions on YBCO as well as other perovskites.

  4. Conducting Anonymous, Incentivized, Online Surveys With Sexual and Gender Minority Adolescents: Lessons Learned From a National Polyvictimization Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzing, Paul R; Gartner, Rachel E; McGeough, Briana L

    2018-03-01

    Sexual and gender minority adolescents represent an understudied and hard-to-reach population who experience higher rates of mental and behavioral health problems in comparison to their cisgender, heterosexual peers. Online surveys and the proliferation of Internet-connected devices among adolescents offer an exciting opportunity for researchers to begin addressing research gaps and past methodological limitations with these hard-to-reach populations. The purpose of this article is to provide guidance to researchers who are designing and implementing anonymous, incentivized, online surveys by examining the following critical domains-(a) recruitment and engagement: means of leveraging social media and videos to recruit and engage a more nationally representative sample; (b) safety and protection: strategies for administering informed consent and protecting participant anonymity and well-being; and (c) data integrity: mechanisms to detect dishonest and repeat responders. To facilitate discussion of these aims, concrete examples are used from SpeakOut-a 3-year, national study funded by the National Institute of Justice that utilized an anonymous, incentivized, online survey with a large sample of sexual and gender minority adolescents ( N = 1,177) to identify the prevalence, incidence, and correlates of polyvictimization. The article concludes with lessons learned from this national study and recommendations for technological innovations and future research that will strengthen the utility of anonymous, incentivized, online surveys to study sexual and gender minority adolescents and other hard-to-reach populations.

  5. Longitudinal survey of public opinion toward nuclear power generation. The result of a survey conducted one year after the Mihama Unit 3 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Atsuko

    2006-01-01

    As part of an ongoing public opinion survey, regarding nuclear power generation, which started in 1993, a survey was carried out in the Kansai area in 2005, one year and two months after the accident at Unit 3 of the Mihama Nuclear Power Plant. It was found that people's memory about the accident decreased drastically. All questionnaire items that indicated a negative change two months after the accident returned to pre-accident levels. It was confirmed that the accident had only a temporary influence on public opinions. Moreover, the study also revealed a decrease in the public distrust of unclear power. It seems that people's evaluation of and attitude toward nuclear power generation have become slightly more positive since 2002. (author)

  6. Report of a parent survey of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use in pediatric treatment-resistant epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Brenda E; Jacobson, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    Severe childhood epilepsies are characterized by frequent seizures, neurodevelopmental delays, and impaired quality of life. In these treatment-resistant epilepsies, families often seek alternative treatments. This survey explored the use of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis in children with treatment-resistant epilepsy. The survey was presented to parents belonging to a Facebook group dedicated to sharing information about the use of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis to treat their child's seizures. Nineteen responses met the following inclusion criteria for the study: a diagnosis of epilepsy and current use of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis. Thirteen children had Dravet syndrome, four had Doose syndrome, and one each had Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and idiopathic epilepsy. The average number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) tried before using cannabidiol-enriched cannabis was 12. Sixteen (84%) of the 19 parents reported a reduction in their child's seizure frequency while taking cannabidiol-enriched cannabis. Of these, two (11%) reported complete seizure freedom, eight (42%) reported a greater than 80% reduction in seizure frequency, and six (32%) reported a 25-60% seizure reduction. Other beneficial effects included increased alertness, better mood, and improved sleep. Side effects included drowsiness and fatigue. Our survey shows that parents are using cannabidiol-enriched cannabis as a treatment for their children with treatment-resistant epilepsy. Because of the increasing number of states that allow access to medical cannabis, its use will likely be a growing concern for the epilepsy community. Safety and tolerability data for cannabidiol-enriched cannabis use among children are not available. Objective measurements of a standardized preparation of pure cannabidiol are needed to determine whether it is safe, well tolerated, and efficacious at controlling seizures in this pediatric population with difficult-to-treat seizures. © 2013.

  7. Termination of Vernakalant-Resistant Atrial Fibrillation by Inhibition of Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Jonas Goldin; Skibsbye, Lasse; Simó-Vicens, Rafel

    2017-01-01

    Background Evidence has emerged that small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels constitute a new target for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). SK channels are predominantly expressed in the atria as compared with the ventricles. Various marketed antiarrhythmic drugs are limited by vent...

  8. Fabrication and electrical resistivity of Mo-doped VO2 thin films coated on graphite conductive plates by a sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, W.; Jung, H.M.; Um, S. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). School of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Vanadium oxides (VO2) can be used in optical devices, thermochromic smart windows and sensors. This paper reported on a study in which vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) powder was prepared and mixed with Molybdenum Oxides (MoO3) to form Mo-doped and -undoped VO2 thin films by a sol-gel method on graphite conductive substrates. The micro-structure and chemical compositions of the Mo-doped and -undoped VO2 thin films was investigated using X-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Changes in electrical resistivity were measured as a function of the stoichiometric compositions between vanadium and molybdenum. In this study. Mo-doped and -undoped VO2 thin films showed the typical metal to insulator transition (MIT), where temperature range could be adjusted by modifying the dopant atomic ratio. The through-plane substrate structure of the Mo-doped layer influences the electrical resistivity of the graphite substrate. As the amount of the molybdenum increases, the electrical resistivity of the graphite conductive substrate decreases in the lower temperature range below the freezing point of water. The experimental results showed that if carefully controlled, thermal dissipation of VO2 thin films can be used as a self-heating source to melt frozen water with the electrical current flowing through the graphite substrate. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Skin conductance biofeedback training in adults with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy and stress-triggered seizures: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Kotwas, Iliana; Lanteaume, Laura; Berthet, Christelle; Bastien, Mireille; Vion-Dury, Jean; McGonigal, Aileen; Bartolomei, Fabrice

    2014-12-01

    The present proof-of-concept study investigated the feasibility of skin conductance biofeedback training in reducing seizures in adults with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), whose seizures are triggered by stress. Skin conductance biofeedback aims to increase levels of peripheral sympathetic arousal in order to reduce cortical excitability. This might seem somewhat counterintuitive, since such autonomic arousal may also be associated with increased stress and anxiety. Thus, this sought to verify that patients with TLE and stress-triggered seizures are not worsened in terms of stress, anxiety, and negative emotional response to this nonpharmacological treatment. Eleven patients with drug-resistant TLE with seizures triggered by stress were treated with 12 sessions of biofeedback. Patients did not worsen on cognitive evaluation of attentional biases towards negative emotional stimuli (P>.05) or on psychometric evaluation with state anxiety inventory (P = .059); in addition, a significant improvement was found in the Negative Affect Schedule (P = .014) and in the Beck Depression Inventory (P = .009). Biofeedback training significantly reduced seizure frequency with a mean reduction of -48.61% (SD = 27.79) (P = .005). There was a correlation between the mean change in skin conductance activity over the biofeedback treatment and the reduction of seizure frequency (r(11) = .62, P = .042). Thus, the skin conductance biofeedback used in the present study, which teaches patients to achieve an increased level of peripheral sympathetic arousal, was a well-tolerated nonpharmacological treatment. Further, well-controlled studies are needed to confirm the therapeutic value of this nonpharmacological treatment in reducing seizures in adults with drug-resistant TLE with seizures triggered by stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Carriage of multidrug-resistant organisms in a tertiary university hospital in Albania—a point prevalence survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falzon A. Parascandalo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance has been recognised as a serious global Public Health problem. Prevalence of Multiple-Drug-Resistant (MDR organism carriage in Albania is largely unknown since no national surveillance system is in place and few publications are accessible in the literature. Methods A 1-day point-prevalence-survey (PPS screening for nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and rectal MDR Gram-negative carriage was carried out at the high-dependency wards in the country’s only tertiary care hospital, in Tirana. Results A total of 106 nasal and 104 rectal swabs were collected. 14.2 % of patients (95 % Confidence Interval [95 CI]: 8.1–22.3 % were MRSA nasal carriers. Resistance to aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones was common in these isolates (≥80 % but no resistance was identified against glycopeptides, nitrofurantoin and the relatively newer agents, tigecycline and linezolid. Fifty Enterobacteriaceae isolates were cultivated from 33 of 104 screened patients (31.7 % [95 CI: 22.9–41.6 % 95 CI]. The prevalence of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL production in Enterobacteriaceae was 41.3 % (95 CI: 31.8–51.4 %. The two more commonly isolated Enterobacteriaceae were E. coli ([n = 28], 24 ESBL positive; 1 AmpC positive and 3 without an identified mechanism of resistance and Klebsiella pneumoniae ([n = 13], all ESBL positive; 1 also AmpC and metallo-β-lactamase (MBL positive. Susceptibility to carbapenems (≥98 %, fosfomycin (90 % and amikacin (70 + 20 % intermediate was high but a high level of resistance to all other agents tested was noted. Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli were less commonly isolated {22 isolates: Acinetobacter baumannii (9; Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (5}. Conclusion Although a significant rate of MRSA carriage was identified, the main resistance challenge in Albania appears to be linked with Gram

  11. How to Conduct Multimethod Field Studies in the Operating Room: The iPad Combined With a Survey App as a Valid and Reliable Data Collection Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscholl, David W; Weiss, Mona; Spahn, Donat R; Noethiger, Christoph B

    2016-01-05

    Tablet computers such as the Apple iPad are progressively replacing traditional paper-and-pencil-based data collection. We combined the iPad with the ready-to-use survey software, iSurvey (from Harvestyourdata), to create a straightforward tool for data collection during the Anesthesia Pre-Induction Checklist (APIC) study, a hospital-wide multimethod intervention study involving observation of team performance and team member surveys in the operating room (OR). We aimed to provide an analysis of the factors that led to the use of the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool for data collection, illustrate our experiences with the use of this data collection tool, and report the results of an expert survey about user experience with this tool. We used an iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to observe anesthesia inductions conducted by 205 teams (N=557 team members) in the OR. In Phase 1, expert raters used the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to rate team performance during anesthesia inductions, and anesthesia team members were asked to indicate their perceptions after the inductions. In Phase 2, we surveyed the expert raters about their perceptions regarding the use of the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to observe, rate, and survey teams in the ORs. The results of Phase 1 showed that training data collectors on the iPad- and iSurvey-based data collection tool was effortless and there were no serious problems during data collection, upload, download, and export. Interrater agreement of the combined data collection tool was found to be very high for the team observations (median Fleiss' kappa=0.88, 95% CI 0.78-1.00). The results of the follow-up expert rater survey (Phase 2) showed that the raters did not prefer a paper-and-pencil-based data collection method they had used during other earlier studies over the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool (median response 1, IQR 1-1; 1=do not agree, 2=somewhat disagree, 3=neutral, 4=somewhat agree, 5=fully agree). They found the iPad (median 5, IQR 4

  12. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) survey at the Giribaile site (upper Guadalquivir valley; southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J.; Rey, J.; Gutiérrez, L. M.; Novo, A.; Ortiz, A. J.; Alejo, M.; Galdón, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Giribaile archaeological site is one of the most important Iberian enclaves of the Alto Guadalquivir (Southern Spain). However, to date, only minimal excavation work has been performed at the site. Evaluation requires a preliminary, non-destructive general analysis to determine high-interest areas. This stage required a geophysical survey. Specifically, a 100 m2 grid was selected, where an initial campaign of nine electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) profiles was performed, where each profile was 111 m in length; these profiles were previously located using a detailed topographical survey. A total of 112 electrodes were used for each profile, spaced at 1 m apart with a Wenner-Schlumberger configuration. Secondly, 201 GPR profiles were created using a 500 MHz antenna. The 100 m long profiles were spaced 0.5 m apart and parallel to one another. The present research analyses the efficiency of each of these geophysical tools in supporting archaeological research. Using these methodologies, the position, morphology, and depth of different buried structures can be determined. 3D interpretation of the geophysical survey in 100 × 100 m grid allowed to differentiate structures square and rectangular, interesting buildings in a semicircle (interpreted as ovens) plus delineate different streets. From the geophysical survey follows the Carthaginian presence inside this ancient Iberian enclave.

  13. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in the United Kingdom-a national survey of the structure, conduct, interpretation and funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, T; Bates, S; Sharp, T; Richardson, K; Bali, S; Plumb, J; Anderson, H; Prentis, J; Swart, M; Levett, D Z H

    2018-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is an exercise stress test with concomitant expired gas analysis that provides an objective, non-invasive measure of functional capacity under stress. CPET-derived variables predict postoperative morbidity and mortality after major abdominal and thoracic surgery. Two previous surveys have reported increasing utilisation of CPET preoperatively in England. We aimed to evaluate current CPET practice in the UK, to identify who performs CPET, how it is performed, how the data generated are used and the funding models. All anaesthetic departments in trusts with adult elective surgery in the UK were contacted by telephone to obtain contacts for their pre-assessment and CPET service leads. An online survey was sent to all leads between November 2016 and March 2017. The response rate to the online survey was 73.1% (144/197) with 68.1% (98/144) reporting an established clinical service and 3.5% (5/144) setting up a service. Approximately 30,000 tests are performed a year with 93.0% (80/86) using cycle ergometry. Colorectal surgical patients are the most frequently tested (89.5%, 77/86). The majority of tests are performed and interpreted by anaesthetists. There is variability in the methods of interpretation and reporting of CPET and limited external validation of results. This survey has identified the continued expansion of perioperative CPET services in the UK which have doubled since 2011. The vast majority of CPET tests are performed and reported by anaesthetists. It has highlighted variation in practice and a lack of standardised reporting implying a need for practice guidelines and standardised training to ensure high-quality data to inform perioperative decision making.

  14. Forced convection heat transfer in rectangular ducts - general case of wall resistances and peripheral conduction for ventilation cooling of nuclear waste repositories [ heat transfer and nuclear disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyczkowski, R. W.; Solbrig, C. W.; Gidaspow, D.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical solution for laminar flow heat transfer between a flowing gas and its containing rectangular duct has been obtained for many different boundary conditions which may arise in nuclear waste repository ventilation corridors. The problem has been solved for the cases of insulation on no walls, one wall, two walls, and three walls with various finite resistances on the remaining walls. Simplifications are made to decouple the convective heat transfer problem for the far field conduction problem, but peripheral conduction is retained. Results have been obtained for several duct aspect ratios in the thermal entrance and in the fully developed regions, including the constant temperature cases. When one wall is insulated and the other three are at constant temperature, the maximum temperature occurs in the fluid rather than on the insulated wall. This maximum moves toward the insulated wall with increasing axial distance. Nusselt numbers for the same constant flux on all four walls with peripheral conduction lie in a narrow band bounded by zero and infinite peripheral conduction cases. A dimensionless wall conduction group of four can be considered infinite for the purpose of estimating fully developed Nusselt numbers to within an accuracy of 3%. A decrease in wall and bulk temperatures by finite wall conduction has been demonstrated for the case of a black body radiation boundary condition. Nusselt numbers for the case of constant temperature on the top and bottom walls and constant heat flux on the side walls exhibited unexpected behavior.

  15. Forced convection heat transfer in rectangular ducts - general case of wall resistances and peripheral conduction for ventilation cooling of nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyczkowski, R.W.; Solbrig, C.W.; Gidaspow, D.

    1982-01-01

    A numerical solution for laminar flow heat transfer between a flowing gas and its containing rectangular duct has been obtained for many different boundary conditions which may arise in nuclear waste repository ventilation corridors. The problem has been solved for the cases of insulation on no walls, one wall, two walls, and three walls with various finite resistances on the remaining walls. Simplifications are made to decouple the convective heat transfer problem from the far field conduction problem, but peripheral conduction is retained. Results have been obtained for several duct aspect ratios in the thermal entrance and in the fully developed regions, including the constant temperature cases. When one wall is insulated and the other three are at constant temperature, the maximum temperature occurs in the fluid rather than on the insulated wall. This maximum moves toward the insulated wall with increasing axial distance. Nusselt numbers for the same constant flux on all four walls with peripheral conduction lie in a narrow band bounded by zero and infinite peripheral conduction cases. A dimensionsless wall conduction group of four can be considered infinite for the purpose of estimating fully developed Nusselt numbers to within an accuracy of 3%. A decrease in wall and bulk temperatures by finite wall conduction has been demonstrated for the case of a black body radiation boundary condition. Nusselt numbers for the case of constant temperature on the top and bottom walls and constant heat flux on the side walls exhibited unexpected behavior. (orig.)

  16. Forced convection heat transfer in rectangular ducts - general case of wall resistances and peripheral conduction for ventilation cooling of nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyczkowski, R.W.; Solbrig, C.W.; Gidaspow, D.

    1980-01-01

    A numerical solution for laminar flow heat transfer between a flowing gas and its containing rectangular duct has been obtained for many different boundary conditions which may arise in nuclear waste repository ventilation corridors. The problem has been solved for the cases of insulation on no walls, one wall, two walls, and three walls with various finite resistances on the remaining walls. Simplifications are made to decouple the convective heat transfer problem for the far field conduction problem, but peripheral conduction is retained. Results have been obtained for several duct aspect ratios in the thermal entrance and in the fully developed regions, including the constant temperature cases. When one wall is insulated and the other three are at constant temperature, the maximum temperature occurs in the fluid rather than on the insulated wall. This maximum moves toward the insulated wall with increasing axial distance. Nusselt numbers for the same constant flux on all four walls with peripheral conduction lie in a narrow band bounded by zero and infinite peripheral conduction cases. A dimensionless wall conduction group of four can be considered infinite for the purpose of estimating fully developed Nusselt numbers to within an accuracy of 3%. A decrease in wall and bulk temperatures by finite wall conduction has been demonstrated for the case of a black body radiation boundary condition. Nusselt numbers for the case of constant temperature on the top and bottom walls and constant heat flux on the side walls exhibited unexpected behavior

  17. Forced convection heat transfer in rectangular ducts - general case of wall resistances and peripheral conduction for ventilation cooling of nuclear waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyczkowski, R W [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA); Solbrig, C W [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls (USA); Gidaspow, D [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1982-02-01

    A numerical solution for laminar flow heat transfer between a flowing gas and its containing rectangular duct has been obtained for many different boundary conditions which may arise in nuclear waste repository ventilation corridors. The problem has been solved for the cases of insulation on no walls, one wall, two walls, and three walls with various finite resistances on the remaining walls. Simplifications are made to decouple the convective heat transfer problem from the far field conduction problem, but peripheral conduction is retained. Results have been obtained for several duct aspect ratios in the thermal entrance and in the fully developed regions, including the constant temperature cases. When one wall is insulated and the other three are at constant temperature, the maximum temperature occurs in the fluid rather than on the insulated wall. This maximum moves toward the insulated wall with increasing axial distance. Nusselt numbers for the same constant flux on all four walls with peripheral conduction lie in a narrow band bounded by zero and infinite peripheral conduction cases. A dimensionsless wall conduction group of four can be considered infinite for the purpose of estimating fully developed Nusselt numbers to within an accuracy of 3%. A decrease in wall and bulk temperatures by finite wall conduction has been demonstrated for the case of a black body radiation boundary condition. Nusselt numbers for the case of constant temperature on the top and bottom walls and constant heat flux on the side walls exhibited unexpected behavior.

  18. Survey of chloroquine-resistant mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr-1 genes in Hadhramout, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaga, Omar A A; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2015-09-01

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in Yemen. More than 95% of the malaria cases are due to Plasmodium ‎falciparum‎. Recently in Yemen, the antimalarial treatment policy was changed from chloroquine (CQ) to artemisinin combination therapy (ACTs). However, CQ is still available and prescribed in the Yemeni market. The persistence of CQ resistance will be prolonged if the shift to ACT and the simultaneous withdrawal of CQ are not rigorously implemented. The aim of the current survey is to detect chloroquine-resistant mutations in P. falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multi-drug resistance-1 (pfmdr1) genes. These data will be important for future monitoring and assessment of antimalarial drug policy in Yemen. Blood specimens were collected from 735 individuals from different districts of the Hadhramout province, Yemen by house-to-house visit. Mutation-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods were used to investigate the mutations in the pfmdr1(codons 86 and 1246) and pfcrt (codons 76, 271, 326, 356 and 371) genes. The overall prevalence of pfcrt mutations at codons 76, 271, 326 and 371 were 50.4%, 58.7%, 54.3% and 44.9%, respectively. All isolates had wild-type pfcrt 356 allele. The majority of pfmdr1 86 alleles (83.3%) and all pfmdr1 1246 alleles were wild type. There was no association between pfcrt mutations and symptomatology, gender and age groups. In conclusion, point mutations in codons 76, 271, 326 and 371 of pfcrt of P. falciparum are high suggesting a sustained high CQ resistance even after 4 years of shifting to ACTs. These findings warrant complete withdrawal of CQ use from the Yemeni market for P. falciparum and careful usage of CQ for treating Plasmodium vivax. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spread of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Myanmar: a cross-sectional survey of the K13 molecular marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Kyaw M; Imwong, Mallika; Lwin, Khin M; Win, Aye A; Hlaing, Tin M; Hlaing, Thaung; Lin, Khin; Kyaw, Myat P; Plewes, Katherine; Faiz, M Abul; Dhorda, Mehul; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Ashley, Elizabeth A; Anderson, Tim J C; Nair, Shalini; McDew-White, Marina; Flegg, Jennifer A; Grist, Eric P M; Guerin, Philippe; Maude, Richard J; Smithuis, Frank; Dondorp, Arjen M; Day, Nicholas P J; Nosten, François; White, Nicholas J; Woodrow, Charles J

    2015-04-01

    Emergence of artemisinin resistance in southeast Asia poses a serious threat to the global control of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Discovery of the K13 marker has transformed approaches to the monitoring of artemisinin resistance, allowing introduction of molecular surveillance in remote areas through analysis of DNA. We aimed to assess the spread of artemisinin-resistant P falciparum in Myanmar by determining the relative prevalence of P falciparum parasites carrying K13-propeller mutations. We did this cross-sectional survey at malaria treatment centres at 55 sites in ten administrative regions in Myanmar, and in relevant border regions in Thailand and Bangladesh, between January, 2013, and September, 2014. K13 sequences from P falciparum infections were obtained mainly by passive case detection. We entered data into two geostatistical models to produce predictive maps of the estimated prevalence of mutations of the K13 propeller region across Myanmar. Overall, 371 (39%) of 940 samples carried a K13-propeller mutation. We recorded 26 different mutations, including nine mutations not described previously in southeast Asia. In seven (70%) of the ten administrative regions of Myanmar, the combined K13-mutation prevalence was more than 20%. Geospatial mapping showed that the overall prevalence of K13 mutations exceeded 10% in much of the east and north of the country. In Homalin, Sagaing Region, 25 km from the Indian border, 21 (47%) of 45 parasite samples carried K13-propeller mutations. Artemisinin resistance extends across much of Myanmar. We recorded P falciparum parasites carrying K13-propeller mutations at high prevalence next to the northwestern border with India. Appropriate therapeutic regimens should be tested urgently and implemented comprehensively if spread of artemisinin resistance to other regions is to be avoided. Wellcome Trust-Mahidol University-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Programme and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2015

  20. Tapping soil survey information for rapid assessment of sagebrush ecosystem resilience and resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy D. Maestas; Steven B. Campbell; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant; Richard F. Miller

    2016-01-01

    A new ecologically-based approach to risk abatement has emerged that can aid land managers in grappling with escalating impacts of large-scale wildfire and invasive annual grasses in sagebrush ecosystems, particularly in the Great Basin. Specifically, ecosystem resilience and resistance (R&R) concepts have been more fully operationalized from regional...

  1. Results from the Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) 2014-16 in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torumkuney, D; Zemlickova, H; Maruscak, M; Morrissey, I

    2018-04-01

    To determine the antibiotic susceptibility of isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae collected in 2014-16 from patients with community-acquired respiratory infections in the Czech Republic. MICs were determined by CLSI broth microdilution and susceptibility was assessed using CLSI, EUCAST and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints. S. pneumoniae isolates (n = 200) showed high rates of susceptibility (>95%) to amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, penicillin [intravenous (iv) non-meningitis], ceftriaxone, cefuroxime and the fluoroquinolones using CLSI breakpoints. Susceptibility to cefaclor and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was 94%-94.5%, to penicillin (oral) 91.5% and to the macrolides 89.5%. Susceptibility of H. influenzae (n = 197) to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, azithromycin and the fluoroquinolones was ≥98% by CLSI criteria. Rates of susceptibility to the remaining agents were ≥75% except for clarithromycin at 37.1%. Great variability was seen across breakpoints, especially for the macrolides, cefaclor and cefuroxime (oral), 98.0% of H. influenzae showing susceptibility to the latter by CLSI criteria, 69.5% by PK/PD and 1.5% by EUCAST standards. The β-lactamase rate was 13.7% with no β-lactamase-negative-ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) isolates by CLSI criteria. Antibiotic resistance among the two major respiratory pathogens remained low in the Czech Republic. These findings support local clinicians in continuing the historically restrictive use of antibiotics in the Czech Republic, with selection of narrower-spectrum agents for the empirical therapy of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. This highlights one of the great benefits of continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance: knowledge of current local resistance patterns reduces the need to choose broad-spectrum agents that contribute to increasing resistance worldwide.

  2. Small cetacean aerial survey conducted in Alaskan waters by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 1997-05-08 to 1999-07-04 (NCEI Accession 0131991)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys were conducted to produce abundance estimates for the three Alaska stocks of harbor porpoise. Surveys occurred from May to July 1997 for the Southeast...

  3. Cetacean line-transect survey conducted in the eastern Bering Sea shelf by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from NOAA Ship Miller Freeman from 1999-07-07 to 2004-06-30 (NCEI Accession 0131862)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visual surveys for cetaceans were conducted on the eastern Bering Sea shelf along transect lines, in association with the AFSC’s echo integration trawl surveys for...

  4. Wood anatomy reveals high theoretical hydraulic conductivity and low resistance to vessel implosion in a Cretaceous fossil forest from northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I; Estrada-Ruiz, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The Olmos Formation (upper Campanian), with over 60 angiosperm leaf morphotypes, is Mexico's richest Cretaceous flora. Paleoclimate leaf physiognomy estimates indicate that the Olmos paleoforest grew under wet and warm conditions, similar to those present in modern tropical rainforests. Leaf surface area, tree size and climate reconstructions suggest that this was a highly productive system. Efficient carbon fixation requires hydraulic efficiency to meet the evaporative demands of the photosynthetic surface, but it comes at the expense of increased risk of drought-induced cavitation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the Olmos paleoforest had high hydraulic efficiency, but was prone to cavitation. We characterized the hydraulic properties of the Olmos paleoforest using theoretical conductivity (Ks), vessel composition (S) and vessel fraction (F), and measured drought resistance using vessel implosion resistance (t/b)h(2) and the water potential at which there is 50% loss of hydraulic conductivity (P50). We found that the Olmos paleoforest had high hydraulic efficiency, similar to that present in several extant tropical-wet or semi-deciduous forest communities. Remarkably, the fossil flora had the lowest (t/b)h(2), which, together with low median P50 (-1.9 MPa), indicate that the Olmos paleoforest species were extremely vulnerable to drought-induced cavitation. Our findings support paleoclimate inferences from leaf physiognomy and paleoclimatic models suggesting it represented a highly productive wet tropical rainforest. Our results also indicate that the Olmos Formation plants had a large range of water conduction strategies, but more restricted variation in cavitation resistance. These straightforward methods for measuring hydraulic properties, used herein for the first time, can provide useful information on the ecological strategies of paleofloras and on temporal shifts in ecological function of fossil forests chronosequences.

  5. Thermal conductivity, electric resistivity, and Lorenz function for some transition metals measured by a direct electric heating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkele, Ludolf

    1985-01-01

    The validity of the Wiedemann-Franz-Lorenz law in its standard form is disputed in the case of transition metals. However, normal behaviour could be demonstrated for the transition metals molybdenum, tantalum, and niobium by the application of an already tried and tested, and recently improved, modified Kohlrausch measuring method; that is, the high-temperature Lorenz number of these metals takes the Sommerfeld value, within measuring uncertainties of approx. 3%. In the case of tungsten, saturation was observed 16.7% above the Sommerfeld value. Even the Lorenz number of platinum seems to take on a saturation value at that level at temperatures above 1400 K. The lattice conductivity separated by various processes displays a temperature dependence describable by an exponential law for all the metals studied, in contrast to previous assumptions. (author)

  6. Transmission electron microscopy assessment of conductive-filament formation in Ni-HfO2-Si resistive-switching operational devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Gemma; González, Mireia B.; Campabadal, Francesca; Peiró, Francesca; Cornet, Albert; Estradé, Sònia

    2018-01-01

    Resistive random-access memory (ReRAM) devices are currently the object of extensive research to replace flash non-volatile memory. However, elucidation of the conductive-filament formation mechanisms in ReRAM devices at nanoscale is mandatory. In this study, the different states created under real operation conditions of HfO2-based ReRAM devices are characterized through transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. The physical mechanism behind the conductive-filament formation in Ni/HfO2/Si ReRAM devices based on the diffusion of Ni from the electrode to the Si substrate and of Si from the substrate to the electrode through the HfO2 layer is demonstrated.

  7. Anisotropy of the thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of the SiC/Si biomorphic composite based on a white-eucalyptus biocarbon template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfen'eva, L. S.; Orlova, T. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Mucha, J.; Jezowski, A.; de Arellano-Lopez, A. R.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.; Varela-Feria, F. M.

    2006-12-01

    The thermal conductivity κ and electrical resistivity ρ of a cellular ecoceramic, namely, the SiC/Si biomorphic composite, are measured in the temperature range 5 300 K. The SiC/Si biomorphic composite is fabricated using a cellular biocarbon template prepared from white eucalyptus wood by pyrolysis in an argon atmosphere with subsequent infiltration of molten silicon into empty through cellular channels of the template. The temperature dependences κ(T) and ρ(T) of the 3C-SiC/Si biomorphic composite at a silicon content of ˜30 vol % are measured for samples cut out parallel and perpendicular to the direction of tree growth. Data on the anisotropy of the thermal conductivity κ are presented. The behavior of the dependences κ(T) and ρ(T) of the SiC/Si biomorphic composite at different silicon contents is discussed in terms of the results obtained and data available in the literature.

  8. Low transferrin saturation is associated with impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance in the South Korean adults: the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, R J; Moon, J D

    2015-05-01

    The associations of transferrin saturation with diabetes have not been well evaluated and conflicting results have been reported. The purpose of this study is to examine the association of iron indices (serum ferritin and transferrin saturation) with risk of impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2413 individuals (1150 men and 1263 women) aged 20-50 years who participated in the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were free of diabetes, malignancy, liver cirrhosis, chronic renal failure, anaemia, pregnancy and menopause. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured as the outcomes. Impaired fasting glucose was more prevalent in the highest compared with the lowest serum ferritin quartile among men (odds ratio [OR], 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-3.24) after adjustment for multiple covariates. Following the same adjustment, impaired fasting glucose was less prevalent in the highest compared with the lowest transferrin saturation quartile among men (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.25-0.80) and women (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.14-0.77). Moreover, a higher ferritin level was significantly associated with higher HOMA-IR after adjusting for confounders in men. Lower transferrin saturation was also significantly associated with higher insulin levels and HOMA-IR in both sexes. Lower transferrin saturations were associated with an increased risk of impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance among general South Korean population. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  9. Rapid fabrication of transparent conductive films with controllable sheet resistance on glass substrates by laser annealing of diamond-like carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keunhee; Ki, Hyungson

    2016-01-01

    We report a laser-based method for directly fabricating large-area, transparent conductive films with customizable electrical resistance on glass. In this method, a diamond-like carbon (DLC) film is deposited first on a glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition, which is then annealed in a helium shielding environment by a 2 kW continuous-wave fiber laser with a wavelength of 1070 nm, which is transparent to glass but is absorbed by DLC to transform the amorphous carbons to graphene. When a 510 nm thick film was annealed at a scanning speed of 1 m/s by a 200 μm top-hat laser beam, the sp 3 fraction was decreased from 43.1% to 8.1% after the annealing process, and the transformed film showed a transparency of ∼80% (at 550 nm) and a sheet resistance of ∼2050 Ω/sq. We also showed that sheet resistance and transparency can be controlled by changing processing parameters. To show the scalability of the method, a 15 mm wide line beam was used to produce a 15 mm × 15 mm film. This method is simple, fully scalable, transfer-free and catalyst-free, and we believe that the fabricated films can have many applications with further research, such as transparent heating films, electromagnetic shielding films, and transparent electrodes.

  10. Thermal contact resistance measurement of conduction cooled binary current lead joint block in cryocooler based self field I-V characterization facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Ananya, E-mail: ananya@ipr.res.in; Das, Subrat Kumar; Agarwal, Anees Bano Pooja; Pradhan, Subrata [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

    2016-05-23

    In the present study thermal resistance of conduction cooled current lead joint block employing two different interfacial material namely AlN sheet and Kapton Film have been studied in the temperature range 5K-35K. In each case, the performance of different interlayer materials e.g. Indium foil for moderately pressurized contacts (contact pressure <1 MPa), and Apiezon N Grease, GE varnish for low pressurized contact (contact pressure <1 MPa) is studied. The performances of AlN joint with Indium foil and with Apeizon N Grease are studied and it is observed that the contact resistance reduces more with indium foil as compared to greased contact. The contact resistance measurements of Kapton film with Apiezon N grease and with GE varnish were also carried out in the same temperature range. A comparative study of AlN joint with Indium foil and Kapton with GE varnish as filler material is carried out to demonstrate better candidate material among Kapton and AlN for a particular filler material in the same temperature range.

  11. Prevalence, symptoms and chronicity of ciguatera in New Caledonia: results from an adult population survey conducted in Noumea during 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Francine; Bourrat, Marie-Blanche; Pauillac, Serge

    2010-10-01

    Ciguatera is a widespread ichthyosarcotoxism which causes gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. Investigations conducted by ORSTOM in 1992 highlighted a prevalence of 25% in the adult population of Noumea, New Caledonia. The main objective of our study was to estimate the prevalence of ciguatera and the persistence of symptoms by sex and by ethnicity among adult patients of a nurse clinic in Noumea in 2005. Investigations were conducted from 1st January to 15th June 2005. During this period, 559 patients were included: 165 males and 394 females. Among them, 37.8% were poisoned at least once in their life. This rate was independent of gender and ethnicity, but was significantly higher in age groups above 40 years. Neurological signs were more frequent (>80%) than gastrointestinal (ciguatera prevalence, and its chronicity for 1/5 of European cases. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Utilization of Point Clouds Characteristics in Interpretation and Evaluation Geophysical Resistivity Surveying of Unstable Running Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Brejcha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Close to human residences the places often abound where anthropogenic activity and external factors cause their changes. The changes can often influence their inhabitants’ life thanks to incipient dangerous places. The project of successful design of measures to ensure stability of unstable running blocks depends on chosen approaches and primary resource preparation. Utilization of modern technologies in their taking and processing is required nowadays. The paper describes the taking and processing of data for project of solution „Stabilization of unstable running block“ in a municipal settled part with efficient utilization of unusual method of processing of geophysical resistivity method.

  13. GESE: a small UV space telescope to conduct a large spectroscopic survey of z˜1 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Sara R.; Gong, Qian; Hull, Tony; Kruk, Jeffrey; Purves, Lloyd

    2014-11-01

    One of the key goals of NASA's astrophysics program is to answer the question: How did galaxies evolve into the spirals and elliptical galaxies that we see today? We describe a space mission concept called Galaxy Evolution Spectroscopic Explorer (GESE) to address this question by making a large spectroscopic survey of galaxies at a redshift, z˜1 (look-back time of ˜8 billion years). GESE is a 1.5-m space telescope with an ultraviolet (UV) multi-object slit spectrograph that can obtain spectra of hundreds of galaxies per exposure. The spectrograph covers the spectral range, 0.2-0.4 μm at a spectral resolving power, R˜500. This observed spectral range corresponds to 0.1-0.2 μm as emitted by a galaxy at a redshift, z=1. The mission concept takes advantage of two new technological advances: (1) light-weighted, wide-field telescope mirrors, and (2) the Next-Generation MicroShutter Array (NG-MSA) to be used as a slit generator in the multi-object slit spectrograph.

  14. Global Positioning System data collection, processing, and analysis conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jessica R.; Svarc, Jerry L.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Science Center collects and processes Global Positioning System (GPS) data throughout the western United States to measure crustal deformation related to earthquakes and tectonic processes as part of a long‐term program of research and monitoring. Here, we outline data collection procedures and present the GPS dataset built through repeated temporary deployments since 1992. This dataset consists of observations at ∼1950 locations. In addition, this article details our data processing and analysis procedures, which consist of the following. We process the raw data collected through temporary deployments, in addition to data from continuously operating western U.S. GPS stations operated by multiple agencies, using the GIPSY software package to obtain position time series. Subsequently, we align the positions to a common reference frame, determine the optimal parameters for a temporally correlated noise model, and apply this noise model when carrying out time‐series analysis to derive deformation measures, including constant interseismic velocities, coseismic offsets, and transient postseismic motion.

  15. Subspeciality training in hematology and oncology, 2003: results of a survey of training program directors conducted by the American Society of Hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Robert F; Gitlin, Scott D; Burns, Linda J

    2004-06-15

    A survey of directors of adult and pediatric hematology/oncology subspecialty training programs in the United States and Canada was conducted to assess the environment in which recruitment and training is conducted in these medical disciplines. A total of 107 program directors responded to the survey, representing 66% of internal medicine and 47% of pediatric subspecialty programs in hematology or hematology/oncology. Specific areas covered in the web-based questionnaire included the type and demographics of the training program, profile of the training program director, characteristics of the applicant pool and existing trainee recruits, characteristics of the training program environment and curricula, research productivity of trainees, and the career pathways taken by recent training program graduates (including dominant areas of clinical interest). The results of this survey show considerable heterogeneity in the recruiting practices and the environment in which subspecialty training occurs, leading the authors to recommend improvements in or a heightened attention to issues, including recruitment of minority trainees, flexibility to recruit international medical school graduates, timing of trainee acceptance, maintaining the financial support of Medicare graduation medical education (GME), training of physician scientists, organization of the continuity clinic experience, visibility of nonmalignant hematology as a career path, and level of training program director support.

  16. The Researchers' View of Scientific Rigor-Survey on the Conduct and Reporting of In Vivo Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichlin, Thomas S; Vogt, Lucile; Würbel, Hanno

    2016-01-01

    Reproducibility in animal research is alarmingly low, and a lack of scientific rigor has been proposed as a major cause. Systematic reviews found low reporting rates of measures against risks of bias (e.g., randomization, blinding), and a correlation between low reporting rates and overstated treatment effects. Reporting rates of measures against bias are thus used as a proxy measure for scientific rigor, and reporting guidelines (e.g., ARRIVE) have become a major weapon in the fight against risks of bias in animal research. Surprisingly, animal scientists have never been asked about their use of measures against risks of bias and how they report these in publications. Whether poor reporting reflects poor use of such measures, and whether reporting guidelines may effectively reduce risks of bias has therefore remained elusive. To address these questions, we asked in vivo researchers about their use and reporting of measures against risks of bias and examined how self-reports relate to reporting rates obtained through systematic reviews. An online survey was sent out to all registered in vivo researchers in Switzerland (N = 1891) and was complemented by personal interviews with five representative in vivo researchers to facilitate interpretation of the survey results. Return rate was 28% (N = 530), of which 302 participants (16%) returned fully completed questionnaires that were used for further analysis. According to the researchers' self-report, they use measures against risks of bias to a much greater extent than suggested by reporting rates obtained through systematic reviews. However, the researchers' self-reports are likely biased to some extent. Thus, although they claimed to be reporting measures against risks of bias at much lower rates than they claimed to be using these measures, the self-reported reporting rates were considerably higher than reporting rates found by systematic reviews. Furthermore, participants performed rather poorly when asked to

  17. Exploring midwifery students' views and experiences of caseload midwifery: A cross-sectional survey conducted in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Kate; Newton, Michelle; Forster, Della; McLachlan, Helen

    2015-02-01

    in Australia, models of maternity care that offer women continuity of care with a known midwife have been promoted. Little is known about the intentions of the future midwifery workforce to work in such models. This study aimed to explore midwifery students' views and experiences of caseload midwifery and their work intentions in relation to the caseload model following graduation. cross-sectional survey. Victoria, Australia. 129 midwifery students representing all midwifery course pathways (Post Graduate Diploma, Bachelor of Midwifery, Bachelor of Nursing/Bachelor of Midwifery) in Victoria. midwifery students from all course pathways considered that continuity of care is important to women and indicated that exposure to continuity models during their course was very positive. Two-thirds of the students (67%) considered that the continuity experiences made them want to work in a caseload model; only 5% reported that their experiences had discouraged them from continuity of care work in the future. Most wanted a period of consolidation to gain experience as a midwife prior to commencing in the caseload model. Perceived barriers to caseload work were being on-call, and challenges in regard to work/life balance and family commitments. midwifery students in this study were very positive about caseload midwifery and most would consider working in caseload after a period of consolidation. Continuity of care experiences during students' midwifery education programmes appeared to provide students with insight and understanding of continuity of care for both women and midwives. Further research should explore what factors influence students' future midwifery work, whether or not their plans are fulfilled, and whether or not the caseload midwifery workforce can be sustained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Oral contraception in France in 2001: results of an opinion poll survey conducted on 3609 women between 15 and 45].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laveissière, M N; Pélissier, C; Lê, M G

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study concerning the taking of the pill in France in 2001 was threefold, i.e. to assess its rate as well as its characteristics of use, and to appraise the most frequent side effects as reported by women. Three thousand six hundred and nine women representative of the French female population between 15 and 45 years of age were recruited thanks to a survey, which took place in 2001. The data were collected from self-questionnaires. Women on the whole have quite a good opinion of oral contraception and most of them are convinced of its efficiency. As far as pill tolerance is concerned, opinions do vary, more than half of the women judging that being on the pill is not without side-effects. Though, the rate of use of oral contraceptives has increased by 12% since 1994. Most women (48%) use first and second generation pills and this in all age brackets. Thirty per cent of women aged 30 to 45 keep loyal to the same patent medicine, which they keep using for more than 10 years. Among the side-effects that can be found, two of them--putting on weight (31%) and hydrosodium retention (26%)--are the most frequently quoted, in all age brackets. This accounts for the relatively low ratio of women who find their pill quite satisfactory (58% of the cases). Despite the diversity of all the different patented pills that are available, efforts are still to be made in order to reduce what side-effects are encountered when using them.

  19. A common language to assess allergic rhinitis control: results from a survey conducted during EAACI 2013 Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellings, Peter W; Muraro, Antonella; Fokkens, Wytske; Mullol, Joaquim; Bachert, Claus; Canonica, G Walter; Price, David; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Scadding, Glenis; Rasp, Gerd; Demoly, Pascal; Murray, Ruth; Bousquet, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The concept of control is gaining importance in the field of allergic rhinitis (AR), with a visual analogue scale (VAS) score being a validated, easy and attractive tool to evaluate AR symptom control. The doctors' perception of a VAS score as a good tool for evaluating AR symptom control is unknown, as is the level of AR control perceived by physicians who treat patients. 307 voluntarily selected physicians attending the annual (2013) European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) meeting completed a digital survey. Delegates were asked to (1) estimate how many AR patients/week they saw during the season, (2) estimate the proportion of patients they considered to have well-, partly- and un-controlled AR, (3) communicate how they gauged this control and (4) assess how useful they would find a VAS as a method of gauging control. 257 questionnaires were filled out completely and analysed. EAACI delegates reported seeing 46.8 [standard deviation (SD) 68.5] AR patients/week during the season. They estimated that 38.7 % (SD 24.0), 34.2 % (SD 20.2) and 20.0 % (SD 16.34) of their AR patients had well-controlled (no AR symptoms), partly-controlled (some AR symptoms), or un-controlled-(moderate/severe AR symptoms) disease despite taking medication [remainder unknown (7.1 %)]. However, AR control was assessed in many ways, including symptom severity (74 %), frequency of day- and night-time symptoms (67 %), activity impairment (57 %), respiratory function monitoring (nasal and/or lung function; 40 %) and incidence of AR exacerbations (50 %). 91 % of delegates felt a simple VAS would be a useful tool to gauge AR symptom control. A substantial portion of patients with AR are perceived as having uncontrolled or partly controlled disease even when treated. A simple VAS score is considered a useful tool to monitor AR control.

  20. The Survey of Withani somnifera Extraction against Resistant Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteria to Selective Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bokaeian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Due  to  more  resistance  of  pathogenic  bacteria  to  new  and  current antibiotics  researchers  are  looking  to  find  the  agents  of  herbal  with  antimicrobial activities in order to replace chemical drugs.Methods:   The herbal extract of Withani somnifera was done by using a rotary vacuum,20 strains of Pseudomons aeruginosa were isolated from urinary infections hospitalized patients  in  city of Zabol  hospital.  The  MIC  Withani  somnifera  were  determined  by dilution method in various concentrations. Sensitivity of strains to multiple antibiotics was evaluated by standard disk diffusion Kirby-Bauer.Results:    The  result  showed  that  P.  aeruginosa  were  resistance  to  4  of the  agents including ampicillin  (85%, nitrofurantoin  (65%, nalidixic acid  (65%, ciprofloxacin (15% and for 5 strains of Pseudomonas showed MIC with activity of 100 ppm.Conclusion:   This  study  has  suggested  the  effect  of  winter  cherry  extract  on  P. aeruginosa in the in vitro assay. It s effectiveness of on in vivo system can be examined in future.

  1. Substance use and sexual behaviours of Japanese men who have sex with men: A nationwide internet survey conducted in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Hirokazu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese men who have sex with men (MSM, especially those living in large metropolitan areas such as Tokyo and Osaka, are facing a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. Although the Internet is used as a new venue for meeting sex partners, it can also serve as a useful research tool for investigating the risk behaviours of Japanese MSM. This Internet survey explored the extent of substance use and its association with sexual risk behaviours among Japanese MSM. Methods Between 28 February 2003 and 16 May 2003 MSM were recruited through 57 Japanese gay-oriented Web sites, gay magazines, and Internet mailing lists. Participants completed a structured questionnaire anonymously through the Internet. Results In total, 2,062 Japanese MSM completed the questionnaire. The average age of participants was 29.0 years and 70.5% identified as gay, 20.8% as bisexual, and 8.7% as other. Overall, 34.5% reported never using a substance, 45% reported ever using one type of substance (lifetime reported single substance users, and 19.6% had used more than 1 type of substance (lifetime reported multiple substance users in their lifetimes. The substances most commonly used were amyl nitrite (63.2%, 5-methoxy-N, N-diisopropyltryptamine (5MEO-DIPT (9.3%, and marijuana (5.7%. In the multivariate analysis, unprotected anal intercourse, having had 6 or more sexual partners, visiting a sex club/gay venue in the previous 6 months, a lower education level, and being 30 to 39 years of age were associated with both lifetime single and lifetime multiple substance use. Lifetime reported multiple substance use was also correlated with having a casual sex partner, having symptoms of depression, being diagnosed as HIV-positive, and greater HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Conclusion This is the first Internet-based research focused on the sexual and substance use behaviours of MSM in Asia. Our findings suggest a compelling need for prevention interventions to reduce HIV risk

  2. Integrated geophysical characterisation of Sunyani municipal solid waste disposal site using magnetic gradiometry, magnetic susceptibility survey and electrical resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiah, Isaac; Wemegah, David Dotse; Asare, Van-Dycke Sarpong; Danuor, Sylvester K.; Forson, Eric Dominic

    2018-06-01

    Non-invasive geophysical investigation using magnetic gradiometry, magnetic susceptibility survey and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was carried out on the Sunyani Municipal Assembly (SMA) solid waste disposal (SWD) site. The study was aimed at delineating the physical boundaries and the area extent of the waste deposit, mapping the distribution of the waste at the site, detecting and delineating zones of leachate contamination and its preferential migration pathways beneath the waste deposit and its surroundings. The results of both magnetic susceptibility and gradiometric methods displayed in anomaly maps clearly delineated the physical boundaries of the waste deposit with an approximate area extent of 82,650 m2 that are characterised by high magnetic susceptibilities between 426 × 10-5 SI and 9890 × 10-5 SI. They also revealed high magnetic anomalies erratically distributed within the waste deposit attributable to its heterogeneous and uncontrolled nature. The high magnetic anomalies outside the designated waste boundaries were also attributed to indiscriminate deposition of the waste. Similarly, the ERT sections delineated and characterised zones of leachate contamination beneath the waste body and its close surroundings as well as pathways for leachate migration with low resistivity signatures up to 43.9 Ωm. In spite of the successes reported herein using the ERT, this research also revealed that the ERT is less effective in estimating the thickness of the waste deposit in unlined SWD sites due to leachate infiltration into the ground beneath it that masks the resistivities of the top level ground and makes it indistinguishable from the waste body.

  3. Sarcopenia exacerbates obesity-associated insulin resistance and dysglycemia: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Srikanthan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia often co-exists with obesity, and may have additive effects on insulin resistance. Sarcopenic obese individuals could be at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. We performed a study to determine whether sarcopenia is associated with impairment in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in obese and non-obese individuals.We performed a cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III data utilizing subjects of 20 years or older, non-pregnant (N = 14,528. Sarcopenia was identified from bioelectrical impedance measurement of muscle mass. Obesity was identified from body mass index. Outcomes were homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA IR, glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1C, and prevalence of pre-diabetes (6.0≤ HbA1C<6.5 and not on medication and type 2 diabetes. Covariates in multiple regression were age, educational level, ethnicity and sex.Sarcopenia was associated with insulin resistance in non-obese (HOMA IR ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.26 to 1.52 and obese individuals (HOMA-IR ratio 1.16, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.18. Sarcopenia was associated with dysglycemia in obese individuals (HbA1C ratio 1.021, 95% CI 1.011 to 1.043 but not in non-obese individuals. Associations were stronger in those under 60 years of age. We acknowledge that the cross-sectional study design limits our ability to draw causal inferences.Sarcopenia, independent of obesity, is associated with adverse glucose metabolism, and the association is strongest in individuals under 60 years of age, which suggests that low muscle mass may be an early predictor of diabetes susceptibility. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, further research is urgently needed to develop interventions to prevent sarcopenic obesity and its metabolic consequences.

  4. A survey of detergents for the purification of stable, active human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Ellen; Zhang, Qinghai; Cant, Natasha; Ding, Haitao; Dai, Qun; Peng, Lingling; Fu, Yu; DeLucas, Lawrence J; Ford, Robert; Kappes, John C; Urbatsch, Ina L

    2014-11-01

    Structural knowledge of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) requires developing methods to purify and stabilize this aggregation-prone membrane protein above 1mg/ml. Starting with green fluorescent protein- and epitope-tagged human CFTR produced in mammalian cells known to properly fold and process CFTR, we devised a rapid tandem affinity purification scheme to minimize CFTR exposure to detergent in order to preserve its ATPase function. We compared a panel of detergents, including widely used detergents (maltosides, neopentyl glycols (MNG), C12E8, lysolipids, Chaps) and innovative detergents (branched alkylmaltosides, facial amphiphiles) for CFTR purification, function, monodispersity and stability. ATPase activity after reconstitution into proteoliposomes was 2-3 times higher when CFTR was purified using facial amphiphiles. ATPase activity was also demonstrated in purified CFTR samples without detergent removal using a novel lipid supplementation assay. By electron microscopy, negatively stained CFTR samples were monodisperse at low concentration, and size exclusion chromatography showed a predominance of monomer even after CFTR concentration above 1mg/ml. Rates of CFTR aggregation quantified in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that detergents which best preserved reconstituted ATPase activity also supported the greatest stability, with CFTR monomer half-lives of 6-9days in MNG or Chaps, and 12-17days in facial amphiphile. Cryoelectron microscopy of concentrated CFTR in MNG or facial amphiphile confirmed mostly monomeric protein, producing low resolution reconstructions in conformity with similar proteins. These protocols can be used to generate samples of pure, functional, stable CFTR at concentrations amenable to biophysical characterization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Accurate measurement of junctional conductance between electrically coupled cells with dual whole-cell voltage-clamp under conditions of high series resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartveit, Espen; Veruki, Margaret Lin

    2010-03-15

    Accurate measurement of the junctional conductance (G(j)) between electrically coupled cells can provide important information about the functional properties of coupling. With the development of tight-seal, whole-cell recording, it became possible to use dual, single-electrode voltage-clamp recording from pairs of small cells to measure G(j). Experiments that require reduced perturbation of the intracellular environment can be performed with high-resistance pipettes or the perforated-patch technique, but an accompanying increase in series resistance (R(s)) compromises voltage-clamp control and reduces the accuracy of G(j) measurements. Here, we present a detailed analysis of methodologies available for accurate determination of steady-state G(j) and related parameters under conditions of high R(s), using continuous or discontinuous single-electrode voltage-clamp (CSEVC or DSEVC) amplifiers to quantify the parameters of different equivalent electrical circuit model cells. Both types of amplifiers can provide accurate measurements of G(j), with errors less than 5% for a wide range of R(s) and G(j) values. However, CSEVC amplifiers need to be combined with R(s)-compensation or mathematical correction for the effects of nonzero R(s) and finite membrane resistance (R(m)). R(s)-compensation is difficult for higher values of R(s) and leads to instability that can damage the recorded cells. Mathematical correction for R(s) and R(m) yields highly accurate results, but depends on accurate estimates of R(s) throughout an experiment. DSEVC amplifiers display very accurate measurements over a larger range of R(s) values than CSEVC amplifiers and have the advantage that knowledge of R(s) is unnecessary, suggesting that they are preferable for long-duration experiments and/or recordings with high R(s). Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Findings of a retrospective survey conducted after the Lodgepole sour gas well blowout to determine if the natural occurrence of bovine abortions and fetal anomalies increased

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klavano, G.G.; Christian, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    A survey was conducted after the Lodgepole sour gas well blowout of October 1982 to determine if the incident changed the number and type of bovine abortions and abnormal bovine feti submitted to the diagnostic laboratory from the blowout area. The records of the total number of bovine feti submitted were compared between three areas to determine if there was a significant difference between the areas closer to the well site and the larger total area. No changes or trends could be ascribed to the well blowout. 2 refs., 5 tabs

  7. Results from the Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) 2011-13 in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshchenko, Y; Dzyublik, A; Pertseva, T; Bratus, E; Dzyublik, Y; Gladka, G; Morrissey, I; Torumkuney, D

    2016-05-01

    To determine the antibiotic susceptibility of respiratory isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae collected in 2011-13 from Ukraine. MICs were determined by CLSI broth microdilution and susceptibility was assessed using CLSI, EUCAST and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints. A total of 134 isolates of S. pneumoniae and 67 of H. influenzae were collected from eight sites in Ukraine. Overall, 87.3% of S. pneumoniae were penicillin susceptible by CLSI oral breakpoints and 99.3% by CLSI iv breakpoints. Susceptibility to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (amoxicillin), ceftriaxone and levofloxacin was 100% by CLSI and PK/PD breakpoints. Cephalosporin and macrolide susceptibility was ≥95.5% and 88.1%, respectively using CLSI breakpoints. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was essentially inactive against pneumococci. Of the 67 H. influenzae tested, 4.5% were β-lactamase positive and all H. influenzae were fully susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, cefixime and levofloxacin (all breakpoints). Cefuroxime susceptibility was 100% by CLSI but 73.1% by EUCAST and PK/PD breakpoints. A discrepancy was found in macrolide susceptibility between CLSI (∼100% susceptible), EUCAST (22%-43% susceptible) and PK/PD (0%-22% susceptible) breakpoints. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was poorly active (59.7% susceptible). Generally, antibiotic resistance was low in respiratory pathogens from Ukraine. However, only amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (amoxicillin), ceftriaxone and levofloxacin were fully active against both species. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was the least active, particularly against S. pneumoniae. Some susceptibility differences were apparent between CLSI, EUCAST and PK/PD breakpoints, especially with macrolides against H. influenzae. These data suggest that further efforts are required to harmonize these international breakpoints. Future studies are warranted to monitor continued low resistance levels in Ukraine

  8. Pathway to care for drug resistant tuberculosis cases identified during a retrospective study conducted in high TB burden wards in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Eunice; Shah, Shimoni; Rangan, Sheela; Dholakia, Yatin; Mistry, Nerges

    2018-05-10

    Background: Mumbai is witnessing a rising incidence of all forms of drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). Methods: A population-based, retrospective study was conducted between April and July 2014, in 15 high TB burden wards in Mumbai, to capture the patient pathways to TB care. A total of 23 DR-TB patients were identified and their pathways to access DR-TB care were recorded using semi-structured interviews. Results: The total DR-TB pathway time of new patients (who did not report any past episode of TB) (180 days; IQR 123,346) was found to be more than twice that of retreatment patients (who reported a past episode of TB) (69 days; IQR 42,128). Conclusions: The unacceptable delay for diagnosis and treatment of DR-TB in Mumbai advocates for consistent implementation of early screening of patients using rapid gene-based technologies.

  9. [Gastroesophageal reflux and sleep position of infants. A survey conducted in France by 493 pediatricians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaïche, M; Bargaoui, K; Jung, C; Maigret, P; Clerson, P

    2017-01-01

    The supine sleeping position with the head higher than the legs has no impact on regurgitations in infants. Inclined ventral decubitus decreases regurgitations but is associated with an increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The LUNE study aimed to evaluate the impact of regurgitations on the choice of sleeping position by pediatricians and parents. Cross-sectional case-control study (ratio 1:1) conducted in France in 2013. A representative sample of pediatricians recruited 3-week to 4-month-old breast- or formula-fed infants. Cases and controls were defined by the presence or absence of regurgitations. Collected data included Vandenplas codification for regurgitations (VD, range 0-6), associated symptoms, and variations in sleeping position since maternity hospital discharge. A total of 1347 cases and 1346 controls were recruited by 493 pediatricians. Regurgitations were evaluated at VD1 (minor, 22 % of cases), VD2 (mild, 47 % of cases), or VD≥3 (moderate to severe, 31 % of cases). At the maternity hospital, the supine position was recommended to 96 % of parents for SIDS prevention. Since discharge, parents asked questions about the relationship between sleeping position and regurgitations (79 % of infants with GER versus 45 % of controls). The sleeping position was modified at least once since maternity discharge (42 % of infants with GER versus 35 % of controls). At inclusion, 86 % of infants with GER and 86 % of controls were sleeping on their back. Fifty-one percent of infants with GER and 28 % of controls slept in an inclined position. Pediatricians repeated the prescription of dorsal decubitus for 91 % of infants with GER and recommended an inclined position in 70 %. Regurgitations had no impact on supine sleeping position. The inclined supine sleeping position was more frequent in infants with regurgitations with pediatricians' assent, which is not in agreement with evidence-based medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson

  10. Electrical resistivity tomography survey for delineating uncharted mine galleries in West Bengal, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillol, J.M.; Sen, N.

    1999-01-01

    The history of subsidence, fires, flooding and other kinds of environmental hazards related to shallow coal workings in India goes back to colonial times some 300 years ago. As coal production accelerated in modern times, so did the environmental and socio-economic drawbacks related to exploitation. In the mid-1980s, a hydropneumatic sand-stowing method was developed to fill in abandoned galleries but their exact location had to be known. Unfortunately, most of these old workings are uncharted and consequently large tracts of land cannot be stabilized. A research program making use of integrated surface, borehole and cross-hole geophysical methods was undertaken over a five-year span to try to solve this problem. Surface geophysical methods, being cheaper and faster than their cross- and downhole counterparts, were used to cover larger areas on an exploratory basis, while cross-hole methods were employed to locate more accurately one or a network of galleries to be perforated by drillhole(s) and used as a conduit for sand stowing. The authors report the results of one of the cross-hole geophysical methods: electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). A pole-dipole configuration is used and both cross-hole and surface-borehole methodologies are tested. Forward modelling and inversion of synthetic data making use of downhole and surface physical and geometrical parameters are presented first. This phase is followed by the inversion of real data. It is concluded that ERT is not applicable for the detection of dry voids, but is effective in a waterlogged environment which is estimated to represent 85--90% of the cases. In waterlogged galleries, ERT is applicable in both cross-hole and surface-downhole modes, the latter allowing a larger surface coverage at low cost. ERT is thus a reliable geophysical tool to image water-filled voids and an adequate technique to address environmental and geotechnical problems

  11. Survey of anthelmintic resistance on Danish horse farms, using 5 different methods of calculating faecal egg count reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, J.; Bjørn, H.; Henriksen, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    of resistance in sheep was the most sensitive procedure for detecting resistance. Using this method benzimidazole resistance was detected on 33 of 42 farms (79%) examined. Pyrantel was tested on 15 farms and FECR tests indicate resistance on 3 (30%) farms. On 2 farms on which resistance to pyrantel was detected...... resistance to benzimidazoles was also detected. On one of 16 farms examined ivermectin resistance was indicated at Day 14 but not at Day 19. On the 15 remaining farms ivermectin was effective. Due to the high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in Danish horse herds it is recommended that tests...

  12. Results of the 2008/2009 Knowledge and Opinions Surveys Conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Truett, Lorena Faith [ORNL; Cooper, Christy [U.S. Department of Energy; Chew, Andrea [U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program (FCT) conducts comprehensive efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of fuel cells in diverse sectors of the economy - with emphasis on applications that will most effectively strengthen our nation's energy security and improve our stewardship of the environment. Expanding the use of fuel cells requires a sustained education effort to lay the foundation for future commercial market introduction. The FCT education subprogram seeks to facilitate fuel cell demonstrations and support future commercialization by providing technically accurate and objective information to key target audiences both directly and indirectly involved in the use of fuel cells today. These key target audiences include a public that is familiar and comfortable with using a new fuel, state and local government officials who understand the near-term realities and long-term potential of the technology, an educated business and industry component, and trained safety and codes officials. With this in mind, the DOE FCT program established an education key activity to address the training and informational needs of target audiences that have a role in the near-term transition and the long-term development of a hydrogen economy. Whether or not changes can be attributed to the program, designing and maintaining an effective education program entails measuring baseline awareness and periodically measuring what has been learned. The purpose of this report is to document the data and results of statistical surveys undertaken in 2008 and 2009 to measure and establish changes in understanding and awareness about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies since a baseline survey was conducted in 2004. This report is essentially a data book, a digest of the survey data and an exposition of changes in knowledge of and opinions about hydrogen and fuel cell technology since 2004. Many conclusions can be made from the survey data. However

  13. The readiness of German GPs to recommend and conduct cancer screening is associated with patient-physician gender concordance. Results of a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Jennifer; Dahlhaus, Anne; Güthlin, Corina

    2017-12-01

    Cancer screening participation rates in Germany differ depending on patients' gender. International studies have found that patient-physician gender concordance fosters recommendation and conducting of cancer screening, and especially cancer screening for women. We aimed to ascertain whether gender concordance influences general practitioners' (GPs') rating of the usefulness of cancer screening, as well as their recommendations and readiness to conduct cancer screening in general practice in Germany. For an exploratory cross-sectional survey, 500 randomly selected GPs from all over Germany were asked to fill in a questionnaire on cancer screening in general practice between March and June 2015. We asked them to rate the usefulness of each cancer screening examination, how frequently they recommended and conducted them and whether they viewed GPs or specialists as responsible for carrying them out. We used multiple logistic regression to analyse gender effect size by calculating odds ratios. Our study sample consisted of 139 GPs of which 65% were male. Male and female GPs did not differ significantly in their rating of the general usefulness of any of the specified cancer screening examinations. Male GPs were 2.9 to 6.8 times as likely to consider GPs responsible for recommending and conducting PSA testing and digital rectal examinations and were 3.7 to 7.9 times as likely to recommend and conduct these examinations on a regular basis. Patient-physician gender concordance made it more likely that male-specific cancer screenings would be recommended and conducted, but not female-specific screenings. [Box: see text].

  14. Thermal conductivity and Kapitza resistance of cyanate ester epoxy mix and tri-functional epoxy electrical insulations at superfluid helium temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Pietrowicz, S; Jones, S; Canfer, S; Baudouy, B

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the European Union FP7 project EuCARD, two composite insulation systems made of cyanate ester epoxy mix and tri-functional epoxy (TGPAP-DETDA) with S-glass fiber have been thermally tested as possible candidates to be the electrical insulation of 13 T Nb$_{3}$Sn high field magnets under development for this program. Since it is expected to be operated in pressurized superfluid helium at 1.9 K and 1 atm, the thermal conductivity and the Kapitza resistance are the most important input parameters for the thermal design of this type of magnet and have been determined in this study. For determining these thermal properties, three sheets of each material with different thicknesses varying from 245 μm to 598 μm have been tested in steady-state condition in the temperature range of 1.6 K - 2.0 K. The thermal conductivity for the tri-functional epoxy (TGPAP-DETDA) epoxy resin insulation is found to be k=[(34.2±5.5).T-(16.4±8.2)]×10-3 Wm-1K-1 and for the cyanate ester epoxy k=[(26.8±4.8).T- (9...

  15. A bibliography of research conducted by the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Office, U.S. Geological Survey : 1975-1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Helen L.

    1984-01-01

    , Alaska, in 1980. EROS functions were realined under the National Mapping Division of the Geological Survey in Fiscal Year 1983, when the EROS Headquarters Office v/as closed. EROS research and applications functions are now conducted by the EROS Data Center and the EROS Field Office in Anchorage. Approximately 50 civil servants and 250 contract personnel carry out the EROS mission of research, development, and technology transfer in remote sensing, geographic information systems, and digital data base applications. This bibliography is a compilation of publications between 1975 and 1982 by EROS Program personnel and by persons under contract to the EROS Program. Requests for information regarding EROS research and/or publications should be directed to: Chief, EROS Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota 5719P.

  16. Sodium Channel Nav1.8 Underlies TTX-Resistant Axonal Action Potential Conduction in Somatosensory C-Fibers of Distal Cutaneous Nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Amanda H; Vyshnevska, Alina; Hartke, Timothy V; De Col, Roberto; Mankowski, Joseph L; Turnquist, Brian; Bosmans, Frank; Reeh, Peter W; Schmelz, Martin; Carr, Richard W; Ringkamp, Matthias

    2017-05-17

    Voltage-gated sodium (Na V ) channels are responsible for the initiation and conduction of action potentials within primary afferents. The nine Na V channel isoforms recognized in mammals are often functionally divided into tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive (TTX-s) channels (Na V 1.1-Na V 1.4, Na V 1.6-Na V 1.7) that are blocked by nanomolar concentrations and TTX-resistant (TTX-r) channels (Na V 1.8 and Na V 1.9) inhibited by millimolar concentrations, with Na V 1.5 having an intermediate toxin sensitivity. For small-diameter primary afferent neurons, it is unclear to what extent different Na V channel isoforms are distributed along the peripheral and central branches of their bifurcated axons. To determine the relative contribution of TTX-s and TTX-r channels to action potential conduction in different axonal compartments, we investigated the effects of TTX on C-fiber-mediated compound action potentials (C-CAPs) of proximal and distal peripheral nerve segments and dorsal roots from mice and pigtail monkeys ( Macaca nemestrina ). In the dorsal roots and proximal peripheral nerves of mice and nonhuman primates, TTX reduced the C-CAP amplitude to 16% of the baseline. In contrast, >30% of the C-CAP was resistant to TTX in distal peripheral branches of monkeys and WT and Na V 1.9 -/- mice. In nerves from Na V 1.8 -/- mice, TTX-r C-CAPs could not be detected. These data indicate that Na V 1.8 is the primary isoform underlying TTX-r conduction in distal axons of somatosensory C-fibers. Furthermore, there is a differential spatial distribution of Na V 1.8 within C-fiber axons, being functionally more prominent in the most distal axons and terminal regions. The enrichment of Na V 1.8 in distal axons may provide a useful target in the treatment of pain of peripheral origin. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT It is unclear whether individual sodium channel isoforms exert differential roles in action potential conduction along the axonal membrane of nociceptive, unmyelinated peripheral nerve

  17. Obesity and Insulin Resistance Screening Tools in American Adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joey A; Laurson, Kelly R

    2016-08-01

    To identify which feasible obesity and insulin resistance (IR) screening tools are most strongly associated in adolescents by using a nationally representative sample. Adolescents aged 12.0 to 18.9 years who were participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n=3584) and who were measured for height, weight, waist circumference (WC), triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, glycated hemoglobin, fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) level were included. Adolescents were split by gender and grouped by body mass index (BMI) percentile. Age- and gender-specific classifications were constructed for each obesity screening tool measure to account for growth and maturation. General linear models were used to establish groups objectively for analysis based on when IR began to increase. Additional general linear models were used to identify when IR significantly increased for each IR measure as obesity group increased and to identify the variance accounted for among each obesity-IR screening tool relationship. As the obesity group increased, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and FI significantly increased, while FG increased only (above the referent) in groups with BMI percentiles ≥95.0, and glycated hemoglobin level did not vary across obesity groups. The most strongly associated screening tools were WC and FI in boys (R(2)=0.253) and girls (R(2)=0.257). FI had the strongest association with all of the obesity measures. BMI associations were slightly weaker than WC in each in relation to IR. Our findings show that WC and FI are the most strongly associated obesity and IR screening tool measures in adolescents. These feasible screening tools should be utilized in screening practices for at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Genetic Survey of Pyrethroid Insecticide Resistance in Aphids in New Brunswick, Canada, with Particular Emphasis on Aphids as Vectors of Potato virus Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Tyler D B; Arju, Irin; Poirier, René; Singh, Mathuresh

    2018-05-28

    Aphids are viral vectors in potatoes, most importantly of Potato virus Y (PVY), and insecticides are frequently used to reduce viral spread during the crop season. Aphids collected from the potato belt of New Brunswick, Canada, in 2015 and 2016 were surveyed for known and novel mutations in the Na-channel (para) gene, coding for the target of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides. Specific genetic mutations known to confer resistance (kdr and skdr) were found in great abundance in Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), which rose from 76% in 2015 to 96% in 2016. Aphids other than M. persicae showed lower frequency of resistance. In 2015, 3% of individuals contained the resistance mutation skdr, rising to 13% in 2016 (of 45 species). Several novel resistance mutations or mutations not before reported in aphids were identified in this gene target. One of these mutations, I936V, is known to confer pyrethroid resistance in another unrelated insect, and three others occur immediately adjacent and prompt similar chemical shifts in the primary protein structure, to previously characterized mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance. Most novel mutations were found in species other than M. persicae or others currently tracked individually by the provincial aphid monitoring program, which were determined by cytochrome C oxidase I (cox1) sequencing. Through our cox1 DNA barcoding survey, at least 45 species of aphids were discovered in NB potato fields in 2015 and 2016, many of which are known carriers of PVY.

  19. Exposure to and colonisation by antibiotic-resistant E. coli in UK coastal water users: Environmental surveillance, exposure assessment, and epidemiological study (Beach Bum Survey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Anne F C; Zhang, Lihong; Balfour, Andrew J; Garside, Ruth; Hawkey, Peter M; Murray, Aimee K; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Gaze, William H

    2018-05-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) present a global public health problem. With numbers of community-acquired resistant infections increasing, understanding the mechanisms by which people are exposed to and colonised by ARB can help inform effective strategies to prevent their spread. The role natural environments play in this is poorly understood. This is the first study to combine surveillance of ARB in bathing waters, human exposure estimates and association between exposure and colonisation by ARB in water users. 97 bathing water samples from England and Wales were analysed for the proportion of E. coli harbouring bla CTX-M . These data were used to estimate the likelihood of water users ingesting bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli. Having identified surfers as being at risk of exposure to ARB, a cross-sectional study was conducted. Regular surfers and non-surfers were recruited to assess whether there is an association between surfing and gut colonisation by bla CTX-M- bearing E. coli. 11 of 97 bathing waters sampled were found to contain bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli. While the percentage of bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli in bathing waters was low (0.07%), water users are at risk of ingesting these ARB. It is estimated that over 2.5 million water sports sessions occurred in 2015 resulting in the ingestion of at least one bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli. In the epidemiological survey, 9/143 (6.3%) surfers were colonised by bla CTX-M -bearing E. coli, as compared to 2/130 (1.5%) of non-surfers (risk ratio=4.09, 95% CI 1.02 to 16.4, p=0.046). Surfers are at risk of exposure to and colonisation by clinically important antibiotic-resistant E. coli in coastal waters. Further research must be done on the role natural environments play in the transmission of ARB. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Combined 2-D Electrical Resistivity and Self Potential Survey to Investigate the Pattern of the Watukosek Fault System Around the Lusi Eruption Site, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, A.; Husein, A.; Mauri, G.; Lupi, M.; Hadi, S.; Kemna, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Lusi mud eruption is located in the Sidoarjo area, Indonesia and is continuously erupting hot mud since its birth in May 2006. A comprehensive combined electrical resistivity and self-potential (SP) survey was performed in the 7 km2 area inside the Lusi embankment that had been built to contain the erupted mud and to prevent flooding of the surrounding roads and settlements. The goal of the geophysical survey is to map the near-surface occurrence of the Watukosek fault system, upon which LUSI resides, delineate its spatial pattern and monitor its development. We completed six lines of measurements combining resistivity measurement using Wenner configuration and SP measurements using roll-along technique. Three subparallel lines were located either to the north and to the south of the main crater. Each line was approximately W-E oriented extending for ~1.26 km. The surveyed regions consist of dried mud breccia (containing clayey-silty-sandy admixture with clast up to ~ 10 cm in size). The thickness of the dry walkable mud is approximately 2-3 m and the deeper layer consist of water saturated mud that could be vulnerable to a liquefaction scenario in case of significant seismic activity in the region. The resistivity data were inverted into 2-D resistivity images with a maximum exploration depth of almost 200 m. The resistivity images consistently reveal a region of about 300 m in width (between 30-90 m depth) characterized by anomalous resistivities, which are lower than the value observed in the surounding area. The position of these anomalies is also supported by the SP data, which suggests that their origin is related to fluid flow path in the subsurface. Thus the combined resistivity and SP results allow inference of an improved model of the Watukosek fault system.

  1. Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activity is Associated with Divergent Regulation of Calponin-1 in Conductance and Resistance Arteries in Hypertension-induced Early Vascular Dysfunction and Remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Juliana M; Pereira, Camila A; Oliveira-Paula, Gustavo H; Tanus-Santos, José E; Tostes, Rita C; Castro, Michele M

    2017-10-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 participates in hypertension-induced maladaptive vascular remodelling by degrading extra- and intracellular proteins. The consequent extracellular matrix rearrangement and phenotype switch of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) lead to increased cellular migration and proliferation. As calponin-1 degradation by MMP-2 may lead to VSMC proliferation during hypertension, the hypothesis of this study is that increased MMP-2 activity contributes to early hypertension-induced maladaptive remodelling in conductance and resistance arteries via regulation of calponin-1. The main objective was to analyse whether MMP-2 exerts similar effects on the structure and function of the resistance and conductance arteries during early hypertension. Two-kidney, one-clip (2K-1C) hypertensive male rats and corresponding controls were treated with doxycycline (30 mg/kg/day) or water until reaching one week of hypertension. Systolic blood pressure was increased in 2K-1C rats, and doxycycline did not reduce it. Aortas and mesenteric arteries were analysed. MMP-2 activity and expression were increased in both arteries, and doxycycline reduced it. Significant hypertrophic remodelling and VSMC proliferation were observed in aortas but not in mesenteric arteries of 2K-1C rats. The contractility of mesenteric arteries to phenylephrine was increased in 2K-1C rats, and doxycycline prevented this alteration. The potency of phenylephrine to contract aortas of 2K-1C rats was increased, and doxycycline decreased it. Whereas calponin-1 expression was increased in 2K-1C mesenteric arteries, calponin-1 was reduced in aortas. Doxycycline treatment reverted changes in calponin-1 expression. MMP-2 contributes to hypertrophic remodelling in aortas by decreasing calponin-1 levels, which may result in VSMC proliferation. On the other hand, MMP-2-dependent increased calponin-1 in mesenteric arteries may contribute to vascular hypercontractility in 2K-1C rats. Divergent

  2. Can health workers reliably assess their own work? A test-retest study of bias among data collectors conducting a Lot Quality Assurance Sampling survey in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckworth, Colin A; Davis, Rosemary H; Faragher, Brian; Valadez, Joseph J

    2015-03-01

    Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) is a classification method that enables local health staff to assess health programmes for which they are responsible. While LQAS has been favourably reviewed by the World Bank and World Health Organization (WHO), questions remain about whether using local health staff as data collectors can lead to biased data. In this test-retest research, Pallisa Health District in Uganda is subdivided into four administrative units called supervision areas (SA). Data collectors from each SA conducted an LQAS survey. A week later, the data collectors were swapped to a different SA, outside their area of responsibility, to repeat the LQAS survey with the same respondents. The two data sets were analysed for agreement using Cohens' kappa coefficient and disagreements were analysed. Kappa values ranged from 0.19 to 0.97. On average, there was a moderate degree of agreement for knowledge indicators and a substantial level for practice indicators. Respondents were found to be systematically more knowledgeable on retest indicating bias favouring the retest, although no evidence of bias was found for practices indicators. In this initial study, using local health care providers to collect data did not bias data collection. The bias observed in the knowledge indicators is most likely due to the 'practice effect', whereby respondents increased their knowledge as a result of completing the first survey, as no corresponding effect was seen in the practices indicators. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  3. Use of social media to conduct a cross-sectional epidemiologic and quality of life survey of patients with neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Tarrik; Burzawa, Jennifer; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Bodurka, Diane C; Ramondetta, Lois M; Brown, Jubilee; Frumovitz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of using social media to perform cross-sectional epidemiologic and quality-of-life research on patients with rare gynecologic tumors, we performed a survey of patients with neuroendocrine tumors of the cervix using Facebook. After approval from our Institutional Review Board, a support group of patients with neuroendocrine tumors of the cervix was identified on Facebook. Group members were asked to complete a survey comprising 84 questions evaluating clinical presentation; treatment; recurrence; quality of life; and sexual function. The survey was posted for 30 days, during which 57 women responded from 8 countries across 4 continents treated at 51 centers. All respondents provided a detailed clinical and tumor history. The mean age was 38.5 years. The stage distribution was stage I, 36 patients (63%); II, 13 (23%); III, 2 (4%); and IV, 6 (11%). Forty-nine patients (86%) had small cell and 8 (14%) had large cell tumors. Forty-five of the respondents (79%) had completed primary therapy and were without evidence of disease. Five (9%) had recurrence, 3 (5%) had persistent disease after therapy, and 4 (7%) were still under treatment. Forty-one patients (72%) reported symptoms at time of presentation. Thirty-seven patients (65%) received multimodality primary therapy. Quality of life instruments demonstrated high scores for anxiety and a negative impact of anxiety and cancer on functional and emotional well-being. Sexual function scores did not differ significantly between respondents and the PROMIS reference population. Use of a social media network to perform epidemiologic and quality of life research on patients with rare gynecologic tumors is feasible and permits such research to be conducted efficiently and rapidly. © 2013.

  4. Prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis and imputed burden in South Africa: a national and sub-national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nazir Ahmed; Mvusi, Lindiwe; Nanoo, Ananta; Dreyer, Andries; Omar, Shaheed V; Babatunde, Sanni; Molebatsi, Thabo; van der Walt, Martie; Adelekan, Adeboye; Deyde, Varough; Ihekweazu, Chikwe; Madhi, Shabir A

    2018-04-20

    Globally, per-capita, South Africa reports a disproportionately high number of cases of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis. We sought to estimate the prevalence of resistance to tuberculosis drugs in newly diagnosed and retreated patients with tuberculosis provincially and nationally, and compared these with the 2001-02 estimates. A cross-sectional survey was done between June 15, 2012-June 14, 2014, using population proportionate randomised cluster sampling in the nine provinces in South Africa. 343 clusters were included, ranging between 31 and 48 per province. A patient was eligible for inclusion in the survey if he or she presented as a presumptive case during the intake period at a drug resistance survey enrolling facility. Consenting participants (≥18 years old) completed a questionnaire and had a sputum sample tested for resistance to first-line and second-line drugs. Analysis was by logistic regression with robust SEs, inverse probability weighted against routine data, and estimates were derived using a random effects model. 101 422 participants were tested in 2012-14. Nationally, the prevalence of MDR tuberculosis was 2·1% (95% CI 1·5-2·7) among new tuberculosis cases and 4·6% (3·2-6·0) among retreatment cases. The provincial point prevalence of MDR tuberculosis ranged between 1·6% (95% CI 0·9-2·9) and 5·1% (3·7-7·0). Overall, the prevalence of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (4·6%, 95% CI 3·5-5·7) was higher than the prevalence of MDR tuberculosis (2·8%, 2·0-3·6; p=0·01). Comparing the current survey with the previous (2001-02) survey, the overall MDR tuberculosis prevalence was 2·8% versus 2·9% and prevalance of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis was 3·4% versus 1·8%, respectively. The prevalence of isoniazid mono-resistant tuberculosis was above 5% in all provinces. The prevalence of ethionamide and pyrazinamide resistance among MDR tuberculosis cases was 44·7% (95% CI 25

  5. Summary of U.S. Geological Survey studies conducted in cooperation with the Citizen Potawatomi Nation, central Oklahoma, 2011–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, William J.; Becker, Carol J.; Ryter, Derek W.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2016-01-19

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted hydrologic studies and published three U.S. Geological Survey scientific investigations reports in cooperation with the Citizen Potawatomi Nation from 2011 to 2014 to characterize the quality and quantity of water resources. The study areas of those reports consisted of approximately 960 square miles in parts of three counties in central Oklahoma. This study area has multiple abundant sources of water, being underlain by three principal aquifers (alluvial/terrace, Central Oklahoma, and Vamoosa-Ada), being bordered by two major rivers (North Canadian and Canadian), and having several smaller drainages including the Little River in the central part of the study area and Salt Creek in the southeastern part of the study area. The Central Oklahoma aquifer (also referred to as the “Garber-Wellington aquifer”) underlies approximately 3,000 square miles in central Oklahoma in parts of Cleveland, Logan, Lincoln, Oklahoma, and Pottawatomie Counties and much of the study area. Water from these aquifers is used for municipal, industrial, commercial, agricultural, and domestic supplies.

  6. Relationship between high white blood cell count and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in Korean children and adolescents: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J-M; Lee, D-C; Lee, Y-J

    2017-05-01

    Increasing evidence has indicated that insulin resistance is associated with inflammation. However, few studies have investigated the association between white blood cell (WBC) count and insulin resistance, as measured by a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in a general pediatric population. This study aimed to examine the association between WBC count and insulin resistance as measured by HOMA-IR in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents. In total, 2761 participants (1479 boys and 1282 girls) aged 10-18 years were selected from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Insulin resistance was defined as a HOMA-IR value greater than the 90th percentile. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for insulin resistance were determined using multiple logistic regression analysis. The mean values of most cardiometabolic variables tended to increase proportionally with WBC count quartiles. The prevalence of insulin resistance significantly increased in accordance with WBC count quartiles in both boys and girls. Compared to individuals in the lowest WBC count quartile, the odds ratio for insulin resistance for individuals in the highest quartile was 2.84 in boys and 3.20 in girls, after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, and waist circumference. A higher WBC count was positively associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in Korean children and adolescents. This study suggests that WBC count could facilitate the identification of children and adolescents with insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermal conductivity of a graphite bipolar plate (BPP) and its thermal contact resistance with fuel cell gas diffusion layers: Effect of compression, PTFE, micro porous layer (MPL), BPP out-of-flatness and cyclic load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghifar, Hamidreza; Djilali, Ned; Bahrami, Majid

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on measurements of thermal conductivity of a graphite bipolar plate (BPP) as a function of temperature and its thermal contact resistance (TCR) with treated and untreated gas diffusion layers (GDLs). The thermal conductivity of the BPP decreases with temperature and its thermal contact resistance with GDLs, which has been overlooked in the literature, is found to be dominant over a relatively wide range of compression. The effects of PTFE loading, micro porous layer (MPL), compression, and BPP out-of-flatness are also investigated experimentally. It is found that high PTFE loadings, MPL and even small BPP out-of-flatness increase the BPP-GDL thermal contact resistance dramatically. The paper also presents the effect of cyclic load on the total resistance of a GDL-BPP assembly, which sheds light on the behavior of these materials under operating conditions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  8. Survey of rice blast race identity for blast resistance gene identification in the USA and Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast disease is a significant threat to stable rice production in the USA and worldwide. The major resistance gene (Pi-ta) located within a cluster of resistance genes on rice chromosome 12 has been demonstrated to confer resistance to the rice blast disease. Katy, a rice cultivar released in ...

  9. Evaluation of fall armyworm resistance in maize germplasm lines using visual leaf injury rating and predator survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    After examining ear-colonizing pest resistance, 20 maize lines from the USDA-ARS germplasm enhancement of Maize (GEM) Program were evaluated for whorl-feeding fall armyworm (FAW) (Spodoptera frugiperda) resistance using four maize inbred lines as the resistant and susceptible controls. Both FAW inju...

  10. Inflammatory adipokines, high molecular weight adiponectin, and insulin resistance: a population-based survey in prepubertal schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Murdolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate sex differences and associations of high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, leptin and proinflammatory adipokines, individually or in combinations, with adiposity and insulin resistance (IR measures in prepubertal childhood. METHODOLOGY: We studied 305 prepubertal children (boys/girls: 144/161; Tanner stage 1; age: 5-13 yr, included in a cohort of 44,231 adolescents who participated in an extensive Italian school-based survey. According to Cole's criteria, 105 individuals were lean (L; boys/girls: 59/46, 60 overweight (OW; boys/girls: 32/28 and 140 obese (OB; boys/girls: 70/70. Measurements comprised total and HMW adiponectin, leptin, as well as a panel of proinflammatory adipokines/chemokines associated with diabetes risk. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Leptin-, and the leptin-to-HMW adiponectin ratio (L/HMW-, increased progressively (p<0.0001 from L to OW to OB boys and girls. When compared with L peers, OW and OB girls exhibited lower (p<0.001 HMW adiponectin levels, while in boys the HMW multimers did not differ significantly across the BMI-stratified groups. OB girls displayed higher (p<0.05 IL-8, IL-18, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels (sICAM-1 than L girls, whereas increased macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF concentrations in OB vs OW boys were seen. HMW adiponectin (negatively, leptin or inflammatory markers (positively correlated with adiposity and IR measures. In multivariate models, leptin represented a strong and independent determinant of HOMA-IR (R(2 0.378; p<0.01. Adjustment for age, BMI(z-score, lipids and inflammatory mediators abolished the association between leptin and HOMA-IR in boys, while in girls leptin remained still a significant predictor of IR (R(2 0.513; p<0.01. Finally, in both sexes, the joint effect of the L/HMW did not improve the prediction of basal IR as compared with leptin levels alone, which were

  11. Electric resistivity and seismic refraction tomography: a challenging joint underwater survey at Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ronczka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tunnelling below water passages is a challenging task in terms of planning, pre-investigation and construction. Fracture zones in the underlying bedrock lead to low rock quality and thus reduced stability. For natural reasons, they tend to be more frequent at water passages. Ground investigations that provide information on the subsurface are necessary prior to the construction phase, but these can be logistically difficult. Geophysics can help close the gaps between local point information by producing subsurface images. An approach that combines seismic refraction tomography and electrical resistivity tomography has been tested at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL. The aim was to detect fracture zones in a well-known but logistically challenging area from a measuring perspective. The presented surveys cover a water passage along part of a tunnel that connects surface facilities with an underground test laboratory. The tunnel is approximately 100 m below and 20 m east of the survey line and gives evidence for one major and several minor fracture zones. The geological and general test site conditions, e.g. with strong power line noise from the nearby nuclear power plant, are challenging for geophysical measurements. Co-located positions for seismic and ERT sensors and source positions are used on the 450 m underwater section of the 700 m profile. Because of a large transition zone that appeared in the ERT result and the missing coverage of the seismic data, fracture zones at the southern and northern parts of the underwater passage cannot be detected by separated inversion. Synthetic studies show that significant three-dimensional (3-D artefacts occur in the ERT model that even exceed the positioning errors of underwater electrodes. The model coverage is closely connected to the resolution and can be used to display the model uncertainty by introducing thresholds to fade-out regions of medium and low resolution. A structural

  12. Electric resistivity and seismic refraction tomography: a challenging joint underwater survey at Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronczka, Mathias; Hellman, Kristofer; Günther, Thomas; Wisén, Roger; Dahlin, Torleif

    2017-06-01

    Tunnelling below water passages is a challenging task in terms of planning, pre-investigation and construction. Fracture zones in the underlying bedrock lead to low rock quality and thus reduced stability. For natural reasons, they tend to be more frequent at water passages. Ground investigations that provide information on the subsurface are necessary prior to the construction phase, but these can be logistically difficult. Geophysics can help close the gaps between local point information by producing subsurface images. An approach that combines seismic refraction tomography and electrical resistivity tomography has been tested at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). The aim was to detect fracture zones in a well-known but logistically challenging area from a measuring perspective. The presented surveys cover a water passage along part of a tunnel that connects surface facilities with an underground test laboratory. The tunnel is approximately 100 m below and 20 m east of the survey line and gives evidence for one major and several minor fracture zones. The geological and general test site conditions, e.g. with strong power line noise from the nearby nuclear power plant, are challenging for geophysical measurements. Co-located positions for seismic and ERT sensors and source positions are used on the 450 m underwater section of the 700 m profile. Because of a large transition zone that appeared in the ERT result and the missing coverage of the seismic data, fracture zones at the southern and northern parts of the underwater passage cannot be detected by separated inversion. Synthetic studies show that significant three-dimensional (3-D) artefacts occur in the ERT model that even exceed the positioning errors of underwater electrodes. The model coverage is closely connected to the resolution and can be used to display the model uncertainty by introducing thresholds to fade-out regions of medium and low resolution. A structural coupling cooperative inversion

  13. Employee stress status during the past decade (1982-1992) based on a nation-wide survey conducted by the Ministry of Labour in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Makino, S; Takata, T

    1997-07-01

    In this paper we will report the results of nation-wide surveys on employee health conducted and published by the Ministry of Labour in 1982, 1987, and 1992. The subjects were approximately 20,000 employees in 1982, approximately 15,000 in 1987, and approximately 16,000 in 1992, from throughout Japan. Using the results of the surveys, we will show trends in the status of employee work-related stress, as well as trends in means of relaxation over the past decade. The percentage of employees with work-related stress among all subjects gradually increased as follows: 50.6% in 1982, 55.0% in 1987, and 57.3% in 1992. The percentage of employees with work-related stress increased remarkably from 1982 through 1992 among the following groups: the 50-59 age group in males; employees in the electricity, gas, heat and water-supply industries; those in the real estate industry; administrative and managerial workers; employees of large establishments with more than 5,000 employees; and employees performing shift work involving no night duty. The problem of "human relationships in the workplace" was associated with the increasing stress levels among 50-59-year-old males, 40-49-year-old females, employees of large establishments with more than 5,000 employees, those in the real estate industry, and service workers. In terms of means of relaxing to relieve fatigue and stress, employees tended to engage in active pursuits such as "eating out and shopping" and "driving and traveling" over the past decade. In 1992, on the other hand, 22.0% of males and 5.9% of females selected "smoking" as a means of relaxation. This shows the need for stress management in the workplace in order to prevent health problems related to smoking.

  14. Work related stress and its anticipated solutions among post-graduate medical resident doctors: a cross-sectional survey conducted at a tertiary municipal hospital in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Pavithra; Bellare, Bharati

    2011-03-01

    It is now known that resident doctors registered for postgraduate studies are prone to work related stress and eventual burnout. Though stress can happen in any profession, reduced performance of resident doctors due to vocational stress could cause an increase in medical errors and thus affect the quality of life of the patients. Resident doctors at a Municipal hospital in India form a unique population as number of stresses they undergo are many and varied. To study the prevalence of work-related stress and its anticipated solutions among the resident doctors registered for postgraduate studies in clinical subjects at a tertiary Municipal hospital. A stratified sampling cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Inpatient, Outpatient, and Intensive Care Units at a tertiary Municipal hospital in Mumbai, India. Data collection was done using a validated 20-point questionnaire to assess the factors causing stress and their anticipated solutions. Simple percentage analysis of stress questionnaire. 71 resident doctors completed the survey. The major stressors in this cohort were inadequate hostel/quarter facilities (92.1%), and the need to perform extra duties (80.0%). Also, non-conducive environment for clinical training and studies (81.7%), inadequate study (78.9%) and break (81.2%), threat from deadly infections (74.6%), and overburdening with work (69.0%) were the other major stress causing factors. The perceived stress busters were good music (40.8%) and family and friends (40.8%). Eighty-seven percent of the respondents perceived regular physical exercise to be an effective mode of stress management and 83.8% expressed their need to have a simple therapeutic gymnasium established within the campus with a qualified trainer. There is a high level of work related stress among the resident doctors registered for postgraduate clinical studies at a tertiary Municipal hospital in Mumbai. One of the perceived stress busters is regular physical exercise that is

  15. Psychiatrists' awareness of adherence to antipsychotic medication in patients with schizophrenia: results from a survey conducted across Europe, the Middle East, and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, José Manuel; Alptekin, Köksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Emsley, Robin; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M; Naber, Dieter; Papageorgiou, George; Roca, Miquel; Thomas, Pierre; Martinez, Guadalupe; Schreiner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Nonadherence is common among patients with schizophrenia, although the rates vary according to means of assessment and patient population. Failure to adhere to medication can have a major impact on the course of illness and treatment outcomes, including increasing the risk of relapse and rehospitalization. Understanding psychiatrists' perception of the causes and consequences of nonadherence is crucial to addressing adherence problems effectively. The Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) Spanish Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) survey was conducted by questionnaire during January-March 2010 among psychiatrists treating patients with schizophrenia in 36 countries. The survey comprised 20 questions. In addition to recording the demographic details of the 4722 respondents (~12% response rate), it canvassed their preferred methods of assessing adherence, their perceptions of adherence rates, reasons for nonadherence, and strategies to improve adherence. Psychiatrists estimated that 53% of their patients with schizophrenia were partially/nonadherent during the previous month. They estimated only one-third of patients who deteriorated after stopping medication were able to attribute this to nonadherence. Psychiatrists assessed adherence most often by patient interview. Lack of insight was viewed as the most important cause of medication discontinuation, followed by patients feeling better and thinking their medication unnecessary, and experiencing undesirable side effects. Considerably fewer psychiatrists viewed insufficient efficacy, cognitive impairment, or drug/alcohol abuse as the most important reasons for their patients stopping medication. Psychiatrists throughout EMEA recognize the impact of partial/nonadherence to medication, with patient enquiry being the most commonly used means of assessment. There remains a need for more proactive management of patients with schizophrenia, particularly in increasing patient insight of their illness

  16. Psychiatrists’ awareness of adherence to antipsychotic medication in patients with schizophrenia: results from a survey conducted across Europe, the Middle East, and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, José Manuel; Alptekin, Köksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Emsley, Robin; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M; Naber, Dieter; Papageorgiou, George; Roca, Miquel; Thomas, Pierre; Martinez, Guadalupe; Schreiner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background Nonadherence is common among patients with schizophrenia, although the rates vary according to means of assessment and patient population. Failure to adhere to medication can have a major impact on the course of illness and treatment outcomes, including increasing the risk of relapse and rehospitalization. Understanding psychiatrists’ perception of the causes and consequences of nonadherence is crucial to addressing adherence problems effectively. Methods The Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) Spanish Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) survey was conducted by questionnaire during January–March 2010 among psychiatrists treating patients with schizophrenia in 36 countries. The survey comprised 20 questions. In addition to recording the demographic details of the 4722 respondents (~12% response rate), it canvassed their preferred methods of assessing adherence, their perceptions of adherence rates, reasons for nonadherence, and strategies to improve adherence. Results Psychiatrists estimated that 53% of their patients with schizophrenia were partially/nonadherent during the previous month. They estimated only one-third of patients who deteriorated after stopping medication were able to attribute this to nonadherence. Psychiatrists assessed adherence most often by patient interview. Lack of insight was viewed as the most important cause of medication discontinuation, followed by patients feeling better and thinking their medication unnecessary, and experiencing undesirable side effects. Considerably fewer psychiatrists viewed insufficient efficacy, cognitive impairment, or drug/alcohol abuse as the most important reasons for their patients stopping medication. Conclusion Psychiatrists throughout EMEA recognize the impact of partial/nonadherence to medication, with patient enquiry being the most commonly used means of assessment. There remains a need for more proactive management of patients with schizophrenia, particularly in

  17. Conserved allosteric hot spots in the transmembrane domains of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shipeng; Roessler, Bryan C; Chauvet, Sylvain; Guo, Jingyu; Hartman, John L; Kirk, Kevin L

    2014-07-18

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are an ancient family of transmembrane proteins that utilize ATPase activity to move substrates across cell membranes. The ABCC subfamily of the ABC transporters includes active drug exporters (the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs)) and a unique ATP-gated ion channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)). The CFTR channel shares gating principles with conventional ligand-gated ion channels, but the allosteric network that couples ATP binding at its nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) with conformational changes in its transmembrane helices (TMs) is poorly defined. It is also unclear whether the mechanisms that govern CFTR gating are conserved with the thermodynamically distinct MRPs. Here we report a new class of gain of function (GOF) mutation of a conserved proline at the base of the pore-lining TM6. Multiple substitutions of this proline promoted ATP-free CFTR activity and activation by the weak agonist, 5'-adenylyl-β,γ-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). TM6 proline mutations exhibited additive GOF effects when combined with a previously reported GOF mutation located in an outer collar of TMs that surrounds the pore-lining TMs. Each TM substitution allosterically rescued the ATP sensitivity of CFTR gating when introduced into an NBD mutant with defective ATP binding. Both classes of GOF mutations also rescued defective drug export by a yeast MRP (Yor1p) with ATP binding defects in its NBDs. We conclude that the conserved TM6 proline helps set the energy barrier to both CFTR channel opening and MRP-mediated drug efflux and that CFTR channels and MRP pumps utilize similar allosteric mechanisms for coupling conformational changes in their translocation pathways to ATP binding at their NBDs. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Sea floor topography and backscatter intensity of the Historic Area Remediation Site (HARS), offshore of New York, based on multibeam surveys conducted in 1996, 1998, and 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford; Danforth, W.W.; Knowles, S.C.; May, Brian; Serrett, Laurie

    2000-01-01

    An area offshore of Sandy Hook, New Jersey, has been used extensively for disposal of dredged and other materials, derived from the New York/New Jersey Harbor and surrounding areas, since the late 1800's (Figure 1). Between 1976 and 1995, the New York Bight Dredged Material Disposal Site, also known as the Mud Dump Site (Figure 2), received on average about 6 million cubic yards of material each year from federal and private maintenance dredging and from harbor deepening activities (Massa and others, 1996). In September 1997 the Mud Dump Site (MDS) was closed as an official ocean disposal site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (http://www.epa.gov/), and the MDS and surrounding areas were designated as the Historic Area Remediation Site (HARS). The HARS is subdivided into a Primary Remediation Area (PRA, subdivided into 9 cells), a Buffer Zone, and a No-Discharge Zone (Figure 2). The sea floor of the HARS, approximately 9 square nautical miles in area, is being remediated by placing at least a one-meter cap of Category I (clean) dredged material on top of the existing surface sediments that exhibit varying degrees of degradation. (See http://www.nan.usace.army.mil/business/prjlinks/dmmp/benefic/hars.htm)(Category I sediments have no potential short or long-term impacts and are acceptable for unrestricted ocean disposal (EPA, 1996)). About 1.1 million cubic yards of dredged material for remediation was placed in the HARS in 1999, and 2.5 million cubic yards in 2000. Three multibeam echosounder surveys were carried out to map the topography and surficial geology of the HARS. The surveys were conducted November 23 - December 3, 1996, October 26 - November 11, 1998, and April 6 - 30, 2000. The surveys were carried out as part of a larger survey of the Hudson Shelf Valley and adjacent shelf (Butman and others, 1998, (http://pubs.usgs.gov/openfile/of98-616/). This report presents maps showing topography, shaded relief, and backscatter intensity (a measure of sea

  19. Cross-sectional survey of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from diseased farm livestock in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, T E A; Smith, R P; Hutchinson, J P; Brunton, L A; Pritchard, G; Teale, C J

    2015-09-01

    Between 2005 and 2007, E. coli obtained from clinical diagnostic submissions from cattle, goats, pigs and sheep to government laboratories in England and Wales were tested for sensitivity to 16 antimicrobials. Resistance was most commonly observed against ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracyclines. Resistance levels varied significantly between species, with isolates from cattle frequently showing the highest levels. Verocytotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) expressed less resistance than non-VTEC. Only 19·3% of non-VTEC and 43·5% of VTEC were susceptible to all antimicrobials, while 47·1% and 30·4%, respectively, were resistant to ⩾5 antimicrobials. The resistance phenotype SSuT was commonly observed, and isolates resistant to third-generation cephalosporins were also identified. We recommend judicious antimicrobial usage in the livestock industry in order to preserve efficacy.

  20. Survey of strain distribution and antibiotic resistance pattern of group B streptococci (Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi, Seyed Masoud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aims of the present study were to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profils with particular emphasis on susceptible or resistant strains to macrolides and lincosamids antibiotics and to determine possible antibiotic resistance mechanisms occurring in group B streptococci (GBS strains using PCR assay and disk diffusion method.Methods: A total of 62 clinical GBS strains were investigated. Antibacterial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method and inducible resistance test for clindamycin by standard double disk diffusion or D-zone test for all isolates to differentiate macrolide resistance phenotype (M, constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B phenotype (cMLS and induced macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B phenotype (iMLS. In addition, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of penicillin were determined for all isolates. Finally, possible existence of antibiotic resistance genes for erythromycin , and and for clindamycin were examined among isolates using PCR assay.Results: All 62 isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, linezolid, cefazoline and vancomycin. However, 93.5% (n=58 of isolates showed an increased MIC to penicillin. The overall rate of erythromycin resistance was 35.5% (n=22. All erythromycin-resistant isolates displayed the M phenotype (100%, n=22. All three erythromycin resistance genes (i.e. , and were found in erythromycin-resistant isolates.Conclusion: It was concluded that prescribing antibiotic without antibacterial susceptibility tests should be prevented because of the high prevalence of erythromycin-resistant GBS strains and the fact that erythromycin-resistant GBS strains has shown an increased MIC to penicillin, as the drug of choice for treating GBS infections.

  1. Slingram EMI Devices for Characterizing Resistive Features Using Apparent Conductivity Measurements: check of the DualEM-421S Instrument and Field Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Dabas , Michel; Anest , Antoine; Thiesson , Julien; Tabbagh , Alain

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This article addresses the characterization of resistive archaeological targets and near surface structures by electromagnetic induction (EMI). It presents tests achieved with the DualEM-421S instrument (Dualem Inc., Milton, Canada) in order to be able to quantitatively compare these measurements to the standard technique of direct-current (d.c.) resistivity. The test was done over the Gallo-roman site of Vieil-Evreux in Normandy, France and one-dimensional (1D) and th...

  2. Developing a survey instrument to assess the readiness of primary care data, genetic and disease registries to conduct linked research: TRANSFoRm International Research Readiness (TIRRE survey instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Leppenwell

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Clinical data are collected for routine care in family practice; there are also a growing number of genetic and cancer registry data repositories. The Translational Research and Patient Safety in Europe (TRANSFoRm project seeks to facilitate research using linked data from more than one source. We performed a requirements analysis which identified a wide range of data and business process requirements that need to be met before linking primary care and either genetic or disease registry data.Objectives To develop a survey to assess the readiness of data repositories to participate in linked research – the Transform International Research Readiness (TIRRE survey.Method We develop the questionnaire based on our requirement analysis; with questions at micro-, meso- and macro levels of granularity, study-specific questions about diabetes and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD, and research track record. The scope of the data required was extensive. We piloted this instrument, conducting ten preliminary telephone interviews to evaluate the response to the questionnaire.Results Using feedback gained from these interviews we revised the questionnaire; clarifying questions that were difficult to answer and utilising skip logic to create different series of questions for the various types of data repository. We simplified the questionnaire replacing free-text responses with yes/no or picking list options, wherever possible. We placed the final questionnaire online and encouraged its use (www.clininf.eu/jointirre/info.html.Conclusion Limited field testing suggests that TIRRE is capable of collecting comprehensive and relevant data about the suitability and readiness of data repositories to participate in linked data research.

  3. What do farmers' weed control decisions imply about glyphosate resistance? Evidence from surveys of US corn fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Seth J; McFadden, Jonathan R; Smith, David J

    2018-05-01

    The first case of glyphosate-resistant weeds in the United States was documented in 1998, 2 years after the commercialization of genetically engineered herbicide-resistant (HR) corn and soybeans. Currently, over 15 glyphosate-resistant weed species affect US crop production areas. These weeds have the potential to reduce yields, increase costs, and lower farm profitability. The objective of our study is to develop a behavioral model of farmers' weed management decisions and use it to analyze weed resistance to glyphosate in US corn farms. On average, we find that weed control increased US corn yields by 3700 kg ha -1 (worth approximately $US 255 ha -1 ) in 2005 and 3500 kg ha -1 (worth approximately $US 575 ha -1 ) in 2010. If glyphosate resistant weeds were absent, glyphosate killed approximately 99% of weeds, on average, when applied at the label rate in HR production systems. Average control was dramatically lower in states where glyphosate resistance was widespread. We find that glyphosate resistance had a significant impact on weed control costs and corn yields of US farmers in 2005 and 2010. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Psychiatrists’ awareness of adherence to antipsychotic medication in patients with schizophrenia: results from a survey conducted across Europe, the Middle East, and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivares JM

    2013-01-01

    effectively.Methods: The Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA Spanish Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES survey was conducted by questionnaire during January–March 2010 among psychiatrists treating patients with schizophrenia in 36 countries. The survey comprised 20 questions. In addition to recording the demographic details of the 4722 respondents (~12% response rate, it canvassed their preferred methods of assessing adherence, their perceptions of adherence rates, reasons for nonadherence, and strategies to improve adherence.Results: Psychiatrists estimated that 53% of their patients with schizophrenia were partially/nonadherent during the previous month. They estimated only one-third of patients who deteriorated after stopping medication were able to attribute this to nonadherence. Psychiatrists assessed adherence most often by patient interview. Lack of insight was viewed as the most important cause of medication discontinuation, followed by patients feeling better and thinking their medication unnecessary, and experiencing undesirable side effects. Considerably fewer psychiatrists viewed insufficient efficacy, cognitive impairment, or drug/alcohol abuse as the most important reasons for their patients stopping medication.Conclusion: Psychiatrists throughout EMEA recognize the impact of partial/nonadherence to medication, with patient enquiry being the most commonly used means of assessment. There remains a need for more proactive management of patients with schizophrenia, particularly in increasing patient insight of their illness in order to improve adherence and minimize the consequences of relapse. Strategies focused on raising awareness of the importance of adherence are also warranted, with the aim of improving patient outcomes in schizophrenia.Keywords: adherence, schizophrenia, psychiatrist, survey, ADHES

  5. Measuring Quality of Healthcare Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes from Routine Data: a Seven-nation Survey Conducted by the IMIA Primary Health Care Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, W; Liyanage, H; McGovern, A; Liaw, S-T; Kuziemsky, C; Munro, N; de Lusignan, S

    2017-08-01

    Background: The Institute of Medicine framework defines six dimensions of quality for healthcare systems: (1) safety, (2) effectiveness, (3) patient centeredness, (4) timeliness of care, (5) efficiency, and (6) equity. Large health datasets provide an opportunity to assess quality in these areas. Objective: To perform an international comparison of the measurability of the delivery of these aims, in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from large datasets. Method: We conducted a survey to assess healthcare outcomes data quality of existing databases and disseminated this through professional networks. We examined the data sources used to collect the data, frequency of data uploads, and data types used for identifying people with T2DM. We compared data completeness across the six areas of healthcare quality, using selected measures pertinent to T2DM management. Results: We received 14 responses from seven countries (Australia, Canada, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey and the UK). Most databases reported frequent data uploads and would be capable of near real time analysis of healthcare quality.The majority of recorded data related to safety (particularly medication adverse events) and treatment efficacy (glycaemic control and microvascular disease). Data potentially measuring equity was less well recorded. Recording levels were lowest for patient-centred care, timeliness of care, and system efficiency, with the majority of databases containing no data in these areas. Databases using primary care sources had higher data quality across all areas measured. Conclusion: Data quality could be improved particularly in the areas of patient-centred care, timeliness, and efficiency. Primary care derived datasets may be most suited to healthcare quality assessment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  6. Metallic and semi-conducting resistivity behaviour of La0.7Ca0.3- x K x MnO3 ( x = 0.05, 0.1) manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Dinesh; Dodiya, Neha

    2015-12-01

    The temperature dependence of electrical resistivity, ρ, of ceramic La0.7Ca0.3- x K x MnO3 ( x = 0.05, 0.1) is investigated in metallic and semi-conducting phase. The metallic resistivity is attributed to be caused by electron-phonon, electron-electron and electron-magnon scattering. Substitutions affect average mass and ionic radii of A-site resulting in an increase in Debye temperature θ D attributed to hardening of lattice with K doping. The optical phonon modes shift gradually to lower mode frequencies leading to phonon softening. Estimated resistivity compared with reported metallic resistivity, accordingly ρ diff. = [ ρ exp. - { ρ 0 + ρ e-ph (= ρ ac + ρ op)}], infers electron-electron and electron-magnon dependence over most of the temperature range. Semi-conducting nature is discussed with variable range hopping and small polaron conduction model. The decrease in activation energies and increase in density of states at the Fermi level with enhanced Ca doping is consistently explained by cationic disorder and Mn valence.

  7. The geometry of the active strike-slip El Tigre Fault, Precordillera of San Juan, Central-Western Argentina: integrating resistivity surveys with structural and geomorphological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzito, Sabrina Y.; Cortés, José M.; Rapalini, Augusto E.; Terrizzano, Carla M.

    2013-07-01

    The geometry and related geomorphological features of the right-lateral strike-slip El Tigre Fault, one of the main morphostructural discontinuities in the Central-Western Precordillera of Argentina, were investigated. Achievements of this survey include: recognition of structural and geometrical discontinuities along the fault trace, identification and classification of landforms associated with local transpressional and transtensional sectors, observation of significant changes in the fault strike and detection of right and left bends of different wavelength. In the Central Segment of the El Tigre Fault, 2D electrical resistivity tomography surveys were carried out across the fault zone. The resistivity imaging permitted to infer the orientation of the main fault surface, the presence of blind fault branches along the fault zone, tectonic tilting of the Quaternary sedimentary cover, subsurface structure of pressure ridges and depth to the water table. Based on this information, it is possible to characterize the El Tigre Fault also as an important hydro-geological barrier. Our survey shows that the main fault surface changes along different segments from a high-angle to a subvertical setting whilst the vertical-slip component is either reverse or normal, depending on the local transpressive or transtensive regime induced by major bends along the trace. These local variations are expressed as sections of a few kilometres in length with relatively homogeneous behaviour and frequently separated by oblique or transversal structures.

  8. Survey of pollution-resistant plants and their cultivating techniques; Osen busshitsu taisei shokubutsu to sono shokusai gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The reduction of forests due to environmental pollution has been surveyed, to investigate the pollution-resistant plants and solid microorganisms. In Japan, the blight of needle-leaf trees (pine and momi fir) and of Japanese oak has occurred, and blight of some other trees, such as wild cherry trees, Japanese apricot trees, birch, Japanese cedar, cypress and bamboo, has been reported from various regions. In this article, plants reported to be resistant to pollutants are listed, and the physiological features of these plants are described. Furthermore, to develop pollution-resistant plants, reports relating to clarification of the mechanism of resistance development and the genes involved are reviewed. Microorganisms which symbioses for roots support these root functions. They also suppress the activity of pathogenic microorganisms and improve the environment around the roots, thus helping plants to grow normally. The roles played by symbiotic microorganisms and how to utilize these organisms are discussed. Their functions in coping with acid rain and heavy metal pollution, and how to utilize such functions are also discussed. 707 refs., 13 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. Is violence associated with increased risk behavior among MSM? Evidence from a population-based survey conducted across nine cities in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Jennifer; Anfinson, Katherine; Valvert, Dennis; Lungo, Susana

    2014-01-01

    There is a dearth of research examining the linkages between violence and HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), including those who identify as transgender women (TW), particularly in Central America where violence is widespread. In this paper, we use population-based survey results to independently examine the correlations between physical, emotional and sexual violence and HIV risk behavior among MSM populations in five countries in Central America. As part of USAID's Combination Prevention for HIV program in Central America, PASMO conducted population based surveys using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in nine cities in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Initial seeds were recruited using the following criteria: individuals who represented subgroups of MSM by self-identification (homosexual vs. heterosexual or bisexual vs. transgender), social economic strata, and by sex work practices. This study examines the association between violence and 1) HIV risk behaviors relevant to the study populations; 2) protective behaviors; and 3) reported STIs. Individualized RDS estimator weights for each outcome variable were calculated using RDSAT software, and logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between different forms of violence and the outcome variables. MSM who experienced physical violence were more likely to be engaged in transactional sex (OR: 1.76 [1.42-2.18]), have multiple partners in the past 30 days (OR: 1.37 [1.09-1.71]), and have engaged in sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs (OR: 1.51 [1.24-1.83]). Both physical violence and psychological/verbal violence were also associated with reporting STI symptoms or diagnosis within the past 12 months (OR: 1.72 [1.34-2.21] and 1.80 [1.45-2.23]). The effects of violence on the outcomes were observed after controlling for other risk factors. Transgender women were 3.9 times more likely to report engaging in transactional sex. Respondents who

  10. Is violence associated with increased risk behavior among MSM? Evidence from a population-based survey conducted across nine cities in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wheeler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: There is a dearth of research examining the linkages between violence and HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM, including those who identify as transgender women (TW, particularly in Central America where violence is widespread. In this paper, we use population-based survey results to independently examine the correlations between physical, emotional and sexual violence and HIV risk behavior among MSM populations in five countries in Central America. Design: As part of USAID's Combination Prevention for HIV program in Central America, PASMO conducted population based surveys using respondent-driven sampling (RDS in nine cities in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. Initial seeds were recruited using the following criteria: individuals who represented subgroups of MSM by self-identification (homosexual vs. heterosexual or bisexual vs. transgender, social economic strata, and by sex work practices. This study examines the association between violence and 1 HIV risk behaviors relevant to the study populations; 2 protective behaviors; and 3 reported STIs. Individualized RDS estimator weights for each outcome variable were calculated using RDSAT software, and logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between different forms of violence and the outcome variables. Results: MSM who experienced physical violence were more likely to be engaged in transactional sex (OR: 1.76 [1.42–2.18], have multiple partners in the past 30 days (OR: 1.37 [1.09–1.71], and have engaged in sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs (OR: 1.51 [1.24–1.83]. Both physical violence and psychological/verbal violence were also associated with reporting STI symptoms or diagnosis within the past 12 months (OR: 1.72 [1.34–2.21] and 1.80 [1.45–2.23]. The effects of violence on the outcomes were observed after controlling for other risk factors. Transgender women were 3.9 times more likely

  11. Indonesian infertility patients’ health seeking behaviour and patterns of access to biomedical infertility care: an interviewer administered survey conducted in three clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Indonesia has high levels of biological need for infertility treatment, great sociological and psychological demand for children, and yet existing infertility services are underutilized. Access to adequate comprehensive reproductive health services, including infertility care, is a basic reproductive right regardless of the economic circumstances in which individuals are born into. Thus, identifying and implementing strategies to improve access to assisted reproductive technology (ART) in Indonesia is imperative. The principle objectives of this article are to improve our understanding of infertility patients’ patterns of health seeking behaviour and their patterns of access to infertility treatment in Indonesia, in order to highlight the possibilities for improving access. Methods An interviewer-administered survey was conducted with 212 female infertility patients recruited through three Indonesian infertility clinics between July and September 2011. Participants were self-selected and data was subject to descriptive statistical analysis. Results Patients identified a number of barriers to access, including: low confidence in infertility treatment and high rates of switching between providers due to perceived treatment failure; the number and location of clinics; the lack of a well established referral system; the cost of treatment; and patients also experienced fear of receiving a diagnosis of sterility, of vaginal examinations and of embarrassment. Women’s age of marriage and the timing of their initial presentation to gynaecologists were not found to be barriers to timely access to infertility care. Conclusions The findings based on the responses of 212 female infertility patients indicated four key areas of opportunity for improving access to infertility care. Firstly, greater patient education about the nature and progression of infertility care was required among this group of women. Secondly, increased resources in terms of the number and

  12. Molecular epidemiological survey of the quinolone- and carbapenem-resistant genotype and its association with the type III secretion system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Melina Lorraine; Dantas, Raquel Cavalcanti; Faria, Ana Luiza Souza; Gonçalves, Iara Rossi; Silveira de Brito, Cristiane; Queiroz, Lícia Ludendorff; Gontijo-Filho, Paulo P; Ribas, Rosineide Marques

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the predictors of mortality and the impact of inappropriate therapy on the outcomes of patients with bacteraemia and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Additionally, we evaluated the correlation of the type III secretion system (TTSS) effector genotype with resistance to carbapenems and fluoroquinolones, mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs), metallo-β-lactamase and virulence factors. A retrospective cohort was conducted at a tertiary hospital in patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa bacteraemia (157 patients) and VAP (60 patients). The genes for blaIMP, blaVIM, blaSIM, blaGIM and blaSPM and virulence genes (exoT, exoS, exoY, exoU, lasB, algD and toxA) were detected; sequencing was conducted for QRDR genes on fluoroquinolone-resistant strains. The multivariate analyses showed that the predictors independently associated with death in patients with bacteraemia were cancer and inappropriate therapy. Carbapenem resistance was more frequent among strains causing VAP (53.3 %), and in blood we observed the blaSPM genotype (66.6 %) and blaVIM genotype (33.3 %). The exoS gene was found in all isolates, whilst the frequency was low for exoU (9.4 %). Substitution of threonine to isoleucine at position 83 in gyrA was the most frequent mutation among fluoroquinolone-resistant strains. Our study showed a mutation at position 91 in the parC gene (Glu91Lys) associated with a mutation in gyrA (Thre83Ile) in a strain of extensively drug-resistant P. aeruginosa, with the exoT(+)exoS(+)exoU(+) genotype, that has not yet been described in Brazil to the best of our knowledge. This comprehensive analysis of resistance mechanisms to carbapenem and fluoroquinolones and their association with TTSS virulence genes, covering MDR P. aeruginosa in Brazil, is the largest reported to date. © 2015 The Authors.

  13. Cross-Canada Survey of Resistance of 2747 Aerobic Blood Culture Isolates to Piperacillin/Tazobactam and Other Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Forward

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the activity of piperacillin/tazobactam with that of other broad parenteral antibiotics against aerobic and facultative anaerobic blood culture isolates in a Canada-wide survey.

  14. Survey of Candidate Genes for Maize Resistance to Infection by Aspergillus flavus and/or Aflatoxin Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Leigh K.; Tang, Juliet D.; Tomashek, John; Alves Oliveira, Dafne; Ogunola, Oluwaseun F.; Smith, J. Spencer; Williams, W. Paul

    2018-01-01

    Many projects have identified candidate genes for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation or Aspergillus flavus infection and growth in maize using genetic mapping, genomics, transcriptomics and/or proteomics studies. However, only a small percentage of these candidates have been validated in field conditions, and their relative contribution to resistance, if any, is unknown. This study presents a consolidated list of candidate genes identified in past studies or in-house studies, with descriptive data including genetic location, gene annotation, known protein identifiers, and associated pathway information, if known. A candidate gene pipeline to test the phenotypic effect of any maize DNA sequence on aflatoxin accumulation resistance was used in this study to determine any measurable effect on polymorphisms within or linked to the candidate gene sequences, and the results are published here. PMID:29385107

  15. Survey of Candidate Genes for Maize Resistance to Infection by Aspergillus flavus and/or Aflatoxin Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh K. Hawkins

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many projects have identified candidate genes for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation or Aspergillus flavus infection and growth in maize using genetic mapping, genomics, transcriptomics and/or proteomics studies. However, only a small percentage of these candidates have been validated in field conditions, and their relative contribution to resistance, if any, is unknown. This study presents a consolidated list of candidate genes identified in past studies or in-house studies, with descriptive data including genetic location, gene annotation, known protein identifiers, and associated pathway information, if known. A candidate gene pipeline to test the phenotypic effect of any maize DNA sequence on aflatoxin accumulation resistance was used in this study to determine any measurable effect on polymorphisms within or linked to the candidate gene sequences, and the results are published here.

  16. Magnetron sputtered Hf-B-Si-C-N films with controlled electrical conductivity and optical transparency, and with ultrahigh oxidation resistance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šímová, V.; Vlček, J.; Zuzjaková, Š.; Houška, J.; Shen, Y.; Jiang, J. C.; Meletis, E. I.; Peřina, Vratislav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 653, č. 5 (2018), s. 333-340 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Hf-B-Si-C-N films * pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering * electrical conductivitiy * optical transparency * high-temperature oxidation resistance Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.879, year: 2016

  17. Update on exotic ash collection for hybrid breeding and survey for EAB-resistance in native North American species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary E. Mason; Daniel A. Herms; David W. Carey; Kathleen S. Knight; Nurul I. Faridi; Jennifer. Koch

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to the high levels of devastation observed on North American ash species infested with emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), reports from Asia indicate that EAB-induced destruction of Asian ash species is limited to stressed trees. This indicates that Asian ash species have co-evolved resistance, or at least a high degree...

  18. Literature survey of heat transfer and hydraulic resistance of water, carbon dioxide, helium and other fluids at supercritical and near-critical pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioro, I.L.; Duffey, R.B

    2003-04-01

    This survey consists of 430 references, including 269 Russian publications and 161 Western publications devoted to the problems of heat transfer and hydraulic resistance of a fluid at near-critical and supercritical pressures. The objective of the literature survey is to compile and summarize findings in the area of heat transfer and hydraulic resistance at supercritical pressures for various fluids for the last fifty years published in the open Russian and Western literature. The analysis of the publications showed that the majority of the papers were devoted to the heat transfer of fluids at near-critical and supercritical pressures flowing inside a circular tube. Three major working fluids are involved: water, carbon dioxide, and helium. The main objective of these studies was the development and design of supercritical steam generators for power stations (utilizing water as a working fluid) in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Carbon dioxide was usually used as the modeling fluid due to lower values of the critical parameters. Helium, and sometimes carbon dioxide, were considered as possible working fluids in some special designs of nuclear reactors. (author)

  19. 2D resistivity imaging and magnetic survey for characterization of thermal springs: A case study of Gergedi thermal springs in the northwest of Wonji, Main Ethiopian Rift, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkadir, Yahya Ali; Eritro, Tigistu Haile

    2017-09-01

    Electrical resistivity imaging and magnetic surveys were carried out at Gergedi thermal springs, located in the Main Ethiopian Rift, to characterize the geothermal condition of the area. The area is geologically characterized by alluvial and lacustrine deposits, basaltic lava, ignimbrites, and rhyolites. The prominent structural feature in this part of the Main Ethiopian Rift, the SW -NE trending structures of the Wonji Fault Belt System, crosse over the study area. Three lines of imaging data and numerous magnetic data, encompassing the active thermal springs, were collected. Analysis of the geophysical data shows that the area is covered by low resistivity response regions at shallow depths which resulted from saline moisturized soil subsurface horizon. Relatively medium and high resistivity responses resulting from the weathered basalt, rhyolites, and ignimbrites are also mapped. Qualitative interpretation of the magnetic data shows the presence of structures that could act as pathways for heat and fluids manifesting as springs and also characterize the degree of thermal alteration of the area. Results from the investigations suggest that the Gergedi thermal springs area is controlled by fault systems oriented parallel and sub-parallel to the main tectonic lines of the Main Ethiopian Rift.

  20. Survey of Staphylococcus isolates among hospital personnel, environment and their antibiogram with special emphasis on methicillin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find the prevalence of Staphylococcus spp. carriage among hospital personnel and hospital environment and their antibiogram with special emphasis on methicillin resistance. A total of 205 samples from hospital personnel and environment were collected from casualty, oncology and multidisciplinary cardiac unit ward of Kasturba Medical College Hospital, Manipal. Samples were collected using sterile cotton wool swabs and inoculated into brain heart infusion broth. Subcultures were done onto blood agar and MacConkey′s agar. Isolates were identified by standard methods up to species level. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed according to standardized disc diffusion Kirby-Bauer method. Each of the isolates was screened for methicillin resistance using oxacillin disc on Mueller Hinton agar plate followed by MIC for methicillin and cefoxitin susceptibility test by disc diffusion method. Sixty five out of 205 strains (31.7% were Staphylococcus spp. and all of them were coagulase negative. Most of the strains belonged to S.epidermidis 49.23%(32/65 followed by S. saprophyticus 26.15%(17/65. Maximum isolates of S.epidermidis were from anterior nares 28.12%(9/32 strains of S.epidermidis . Highest number of methicillin resistant coagulase negative strains (3/9, 33.33% were isolated from stethoscope of multidisciplinary cardiac unit ward followed by carriers in the anterior nares (2/9, 22.22%. Methicillin resistant coagulase negative staphylococci are prevalent in anterior nares of hospital personnel and in the hospital environment thereby providing a definite source for hospital acquired infection. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and amikacin.

  1. Evaluation of sequence ambiguities of the HIV-1 pol gene as a method to identify recent HIV-1 infection in transmitted drug resistance surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Emmi; Shao, Wei; Bontell, Irene; Cham, Fatim; Cuong, Do Duy; Wondwossen, Amogne; Morris, Lynn; Hunt, Gillian; Sönnerborg, Anders; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Maldarelli, Frank; Jordan, Michael R

    2013-08-01

    Identification of recent HIV infection within populations is a public health priority for accurate estimation of HIV incidence rates and transmitted drug resistance at population level. Determining HIV incidence rates by prospective follow-up of HIV-uninfected individuals is challenging and serological assays have important limitations. HIV diversity within an infected host increases with duration of infection. We explore a simple bioinformatics approach to assess viral diversity by determining the percentage of ambiguous base calls in sequences derived from standard genotyping of HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase. Sequences from 691 recently infected (≤1 year) and chronically infected (>1 year) individuals from Sweden, Vietnam and Ethiopia were analyzed for ambiguity. A significant difference (p<0.0001) in the proportion of ambiguous bases was observed between sequences from individuals with recent and chronic infection in both HIV-1 subtype B and non-B infection, consistent with previous studies. In our analysis, a cutoff of <0.47% ambiguous base calls identified recent infection with a sensitivity and specificity of 88.8% and 74.6% respectively. 1,728 protease and reverse transcriptase sequences from 36 surveys of transmitted HIV drug resistance performed following World Health Organization guidance were analyzed for ambiguity. The 0.47% ambiguity cutoff was applied and survey sequences were classified as likely derived from recently or chronically infected individuals. 71% of patients were classified as likely to have been infected within one year of genotyping but results varied considerably amongst surveys. This bioinformatics approach may provide supporting population-level information to identify recent infection but its application is limited by infection with more than one viral variant, decreasing viral diversity in advanced disease and technical aspects of population based sequencing. Standardization of sequencing techniques and base calling

  2. Trachoma in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Results of 46 Baseline Prevalence Surveys Conducted with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilangalanga, Janvier; Ndjemba, Jean Marie; Uvon, Pitchouna A; Kibangala, Felix M; Mwandulo, Jean-Lebone Safari B; Mavula, Nicaise; Ndombe, Martin; Kazadi, Junior; Limbaka, Henry; Cohn, Daniel; Tougoue, Jean-Jacques; Kabore, Achille; Rotondo, Lisa; Willis, Rebecca; Bio, Amadou Alfa; Kadri, Boubacar; Bakhtiari, Ana; Ngondi, Jeremiah M; Solomon, Anthony W

    2017-08-29

    Trachoma was suspected to be endemic in parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). We aimed to estimate prevalences of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF), trichiasis, and water and sanitation (WASH) indicators in suspected-endemic Health Zones. A population-based prevalence survey was undertaken in each of 46 Health Zones across nine provinces of DRC, using Global Trachoma Mapping Project methods. A two-stage cluster random sampling design was used in each Health Zone, whereby 25 villages (clusters) and 30 households per cluster were sampled. Consenting eligible participants (children aged 1-9 years and adults aged ≥15 years) were examined for trachoma by GTMP-certified graders; households were assessed for access to WASH. A total of 32,758 households were surveyed, and 141,853 participants (98.2% of those enumerated) were examined for trachoma. Health Zone-level TF prevalence in 1-9-year-olds ranged from 1.9-41.6%. Among people aged ≥15 years, trichiasis prevalences ranged from 0.02-5.1% (95% CI 3.3-6.8). TF prevalence in 1-9-year-olds was ≥5% in 30 Health Zones, while trichiasis prevalence was ≥0.2% in 37 Health Zones. Trachoma is a public health problem in 39 of 46 Health Zones surveyed. To meet elimination targets, 37 Health Zones require expanded trichiasis surgery services while 30 health zones require antibiotics, facial cleanliness and environmental improvement interventions. Survey data suggest that trachoma is widespread: further surveys are warranted.

  3. The iron and cerium oxide influence on the electric conductivity and the corrosion resistance of anodized aluminium; A influencia do ferro e do oxido de cerio sobre a condutividade eletrica e a resistencia a corrosao do aluminio anodizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Kellie Provazi de

    2006-07-01

    The influence of different treatments on the aluminum system covered with aluminum oxide is investigated. The aluminum anodization in sulphuric media and in mixed sulphuric and phosphoric media was used to alter the corrosion resistance, thickness, coverage degree and microhardness of the anodic oxide. Iron electrodeposition inside the anodic oxide was used to change its electric conductivity and corrosion resistance. Direct and pulsed current were used for iron electrodeposition and the Fe(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O electrolyte composition was changed with the addition of boric and ascorbic acids. To the sealing treatment the CeCl{sub 3} composition was varied. The energy dispersive x-ray (EDS), the x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (FRX) and the morphologic analysis by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) allowed to verify that, the pulsed current increase the iron content inside the anodic layer and that the use of the additives inhibits the iron oxidation. The chronopotentiometric curves obtained during iron electrodeposition indicated that the boric and ascorbic acids mixture increased the electrodeposition process efficiency. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIE), the Vickers (Hv) microhardness measurements and morphologic analysis evidenced that the sealing treatment improves the corrosion resistance of the anodic film modified with iron. The electrical impedance (EI) technique allowed to prove the electric conductivity increase of the anodized aluminum with iron electrodeposited even after the cerium low concentration treatment. Iron nanowires were prepared by using the anodic oxide pores as template. (author)

  4. Temperature, salinity, and extracted chlorophyll_a surface data collected at discrete stations during shipboard surveys conducted between January 1998 and August 2012 in South Florida coastal waters.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Sea-Bird Electronics Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) instrument and a Sea-Bird Electronics Thermosalinograph (TSG) flow-through system were utilized during...

  5. Beluga whales aerial survey conducted by Alaska Fisheries Scientific Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 1993-06-02 to 2014-06-12 (NCEI Accession 0133936)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has conducted aerial counts of Cook Inlet beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from 1993 to 2014 (excluding 2013)....

  6. Conductivity, Temperature, Depth (CTD) data collected during shipboard surveys during 2010 and 2011 in Vieques Sound, Virgin Passage and surrounding regions (NODC Accession 0088063)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea-Bird Electronics CTDs were utilized during cruises conducted between March 2010 and April 2011 in Vieques Sound, Puerto Rico, Virgin Passage USVI, and the...

  7. The survey of bacterial etiology and their resistance to antibiotics of urinary tract infections in children of Birjand city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azita Fesharakinia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Urinary tract infection is one of the most prevalent bacterial infections in childhood, which due to an inapproto determine the common bacteria and their antibiotic susceptibility in children with urinary tract infection.   Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical and prospective study was done in 2009-2010 on urine samples of all children under 13 years who had been referred to Emmam-Reza hospital laboratory in Birjand and had positive urine culture. Sex and age of children, the kind of isolated bacteria in urine culture, susceptibility and resistance of these bacteria to current antibiotics were studied.The obtained data was analyzed by means of SPSS using Fisher exact- test.   Results: 100 children (84 girls and 16 boys with positive urine culture were studied. The most common age of urinary tract infection was under two years. In all ages the rate of urinary tract infection in females was more than males. E.coli was the most common cause in both sexes. There was a significant relationship between kind of microorganism and age of infection. The most prevalent cause of urinary tract infection in all ages was E.coli (75% ,infection by Proteus was 11%, and other microorganism caused 14% of the cases. E.coli had the most susceptibility to ceftriaxone and ceftazidime and the most resistance to cephalexin and co-trimoxazol. Not taking the type of microorganism into consideration, the most sensitive antibiotics were ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefexim and nalidixic acid and the most resistance was against co-trimoxasol and cefalexin.   Conclusion: Regarding the results, it is recommended to use cefexime and nalidixic acid for outpatient treatment of urinary infection , and ceftazidime and ceftriaxon for inpatient treatment.Selecting of antibiotics for urinary infection therapy should be based on the local prevalence of pathogenic bacteria and antibiotic sensitivities rather than on a universal guideline.

  8. Electrical Methods: Resistivity Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface electrical resistivity surveying is based on the principle that the distribution of electrical potential in the ground around a current-carrying electrode depends on the electrical resistivities and distribution of the surrounding soils and rocks.

  9. Electrical resistivity imaging survey to detect uncharted mine galleries in the mining district of Linares, Jaén, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, J.; Rey, J.; Dueñas, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Benavente, J.

    2012-02-01

    The scarcity of information about the existence of old mining shafts and galleries in urban areas is an important issue for future urban development. Electrical resistivity tomography is a non-destructive geophysical technique that can detect and characterize such subsurface cavities based on differences in the behaviour of electrical current in the void and in the embedding rock. Here we present a study in which this technique was used to determine the location of old engineered structures around the city of Linares, southern Spain, and to relate these structures to the abandoned deep mines present in the area. Eight electrical resistivity imaging profiles were performed, with a total of 22 808 measurements. Correlations between geoelectrical anomalies allow detection of the depth and the direction of several galleries, as well as the voids that result from mining extraction. Given the depth at which these structures are located (in some cases less than 5 m), they pose an important risk for future construction projects in areas of urban expansion. This technique is shown to be a useful tool for locating areas that pose important urban risks and, by extension, for the decision-making process in territorial planning, especially in areas with a history of deep mining.

  10. Electrical resistivity imaging survey to detect uncharted mine galleries in the mining district of Linares, Jaén, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-López, J; Rey, J; Hidalgo, C; Dueñas, J; Benavente, J

    2012-01-01

    The scarcity of information about the existence of old mining shafts and galleries in urban areas is an important issue for future urban development. Electrical resistivity tomography is a non-destructive geophysical technique that can detect and characterize such subsurface cavities based on differences in the behaviour of electrical current in the void and in the embedding rock. Here we present a study in which this technique was used to determine the location of old engineered structures around the city of Linares, southern Spain, and to relate these structures to the abandoned deep mines present in the area. Eight electrical resistivity imaging profiles were performed, with a total of 22 808 measurements. Correlations between geoelectrical anomalies allow detection of the depth and the direction of several galleries, as well as the voids that result from mining extraction. Given the depth at which these structures are located (in some cases less than 5 m), they pose an important risk for future construction projects in areas of urban expansion. This technique is shown to be a useful tool for locating areas that pose important urban risks and, by extension, for the decision-making process in territorial planning, especially in areas with a history of deep mining

  11. Negative voltage modulated multi-level resistive switching by using a Cr/BaTiOx/TiN structure and quantum conductance through evidence of H2O2 sensing mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Somsubhra; Ginnaram, Sreekanth; Jana, Surajit; Wu, Zong-Yi; Singh, Kanishk; Roy, Anisha; Kumar, Pankaj; Maikap, Siddheswar; Qiu, Jian-Tai; Cheng, Hsin-Ming; Tsai, Ling-Na; Chang, Ya-Ling; Mahapatra, Rajat; Yang, Jer-Ren

    2017-07-05

    Negative voltage modulated multi-level resistive switching with quantum conductance during staircase-type RESET and its transport characteristics in Cr/BaTiO x /TiN structure have been investigated for the first time. The as-deposited amorphous BaTiO x film has been confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy shows different oxidation states of Ba in the switching material, which is responsible for tunable more than 10 resistance states by varying negative stop voltage owing to slow decay value of RESET slope (217.39 mV/decade). Quantum conductance phenomenon has been observed in staircase RESET cycle of the memory devices. By inspecting the oxidation states of Ba + and Ba 2+ through measuring H 2 O 2 with a low concentration of 1 nM in electrolyte/BaTiO x /SiO 2 /p-Si structure, the switching mechanism of each HRS level as well as the multi-level phenomenon has been explained by gradual dissolution of oxygen vacancy filament. Along with negative stop voltage modulated multi-level, current compliance dependent multi-level has also been demonstrated and resistance ratio up to 2000 has been achieved even for a thin (voltage switching curve has been simulated as well. Hence, multi-level resistive switching of Cr/BaTiO x /TiN structure implies the promising applications in high dense, multistate non-volatile memories in near future.

  12. Conducting Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    would exhibit electronic conductivity, their conductivities (of compressed pellets) were indeed measured by others, and were found to be .... Polyaniline. Polyphenylene. Polypheny lene- vinylene. Table 1. G!NeRAl I ARTICl! structure. Maximum conductivity Stem Stability. Processability. ~. 1.5 x 105. Reacts with Film not n air.

  13. Sclerosing Epithelioid Fibrosarcoma of the Bone: A Case Report of High Resistance to Chemotherapy and a Survey of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. P. Grunewald

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF is a rare soft tissue sarcoma mostly occurring in extraosseous sites. SEF represents a clinically challenging entity especially because no standardized treatment regimens are available. Intraosseous localization is an additional challenge with respect to the therapeutical approach. We report on a 16-year-old patient with SEF of the right proximal tibia. The patient underwent standardized neoadjuvant chemotherapy analogous to the EURAMOS-1 protocol for the treatment of osteosarcoma followed by tumor resection and endoprosthetic reconstruction. Histopathological analysis of the resected tumor showed >90% vital tumor cells suggesting no response to chemotherapy. Therefore, therapy was reassigned to the CWS 2002 High-Risk protocol for the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma. To date (22 months after diagnosis, there is no evidence of relapse or metastasis. Our data suggest that SEF may be resistant to a chemotherapy regimen containing Cisplatin, Doxorubicin, and Methotrexate, which should be considered in planning treatment for patients with SEF.

  14. Antimicrobial use and resistance in aquaculture: findings of a globally administered survey of aquaculture-allied professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuševljak, N; Dutil, L; Rajić, A; Uhland, F C; McClure, C; St-Hilaire, S; Reid-Smith, R J; McEwen, S A

    2013-09-01

    There is limited published information regarding antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in aquaculture. Our objective was to determine the opinions of aquaculture-allied professionals around the world on the frequency of AMU and AMR in common aquatic species. The study questionnaire included five sections: respondent demographics, extent of AMU in aquaculture, frequency of observations of AMR in aquaculture, AMR monitoring and surveillance and antimicrobial susceptibility testing in various jurisdictions. It was administered in English and Spanish to 604 professionals in 25 countries and with varying expertise in aquaculture. The response rate was 33% (199/604). Over half of the participants had >10 years of experience in aquaculture: 70% (140/199) were involved in fish health/clinical work and their primary experience was with salmon, tilapia, trout, shrimp (including prawn) and/or catfish. Tetracycline use was reported by 28%, 46%, 18%, 37% and 9% of respondents working with catfish, salmon, tilapia, trout and shrimp, respectively. Resistance to tetracycline in one or more species of bacteria was reported as 'frequent-to-almost always' for the same aquaculture species by 39%, 28%, 17%, 52% and 36% of respondents, respectively. 'Frequent-to-almost always' use of quinolone was reported by 70% (32/46) and 67% (8/12) of respondents from the United States and Canada, respectively, where quinolone products are not approved for aquaculture, and extra-label fluoroquinolone use is either prohibited (United States) or discouraged (Canada). Similar frequencies of quinolone use were also reported by the majority of respondents from Europe [70% (7/10)] and Asia [90% (9/10)] where labelled indications exist. This baseline information can be used to prioritize research or surveillance for AMU and AMR in aquaculture. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Temporary formation of highly conducting domain walls for non-destructive read-out of ferroelectric domain-wall resistance switching memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Bai, Zi Long; Chen, Zhi Hui; He, Long; Zhang, David Wei; Zhang, Qing Hua; Shi, Jin An; Park, Min Hyuk; Scott, James F.; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Jiang, An Quan

    2018-01-01

    Erasable conductive domain walls in insulating ferroelectric thin films can be used for non-destructive electrical read-out of the polarization states in ferroelectric memories. Still, the domain-wall currents extracted by these devices have not yet reached the intensity and stability required to drive read-out circuits operating at high speeds. This study demonstrated non-destructive read-out of digital data stored using specific domain-wall configurations in epitaxial BiFeO3 thin films formed in mesa-geometry structures. Partially switched domains, which enable the formation of conductive walls during the read operation, spontaneously retract when the read voltage is removed, reducing the accumulation of mobile defects at the domain walls and potentially improving the device stability. Three-terminal memory devices produced 14 nA read currents at an operating voltage of 5 V, and operated up to T = 85 °C. The gap length can also be smaller than the film thickness, allowing the realization of ferroelectric memories with device dimensions far below 100 nm.

  16. The role of conduct disorder in the association between ADHD and alcohol use (disorder). Results from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuithof, Marlous; ten Have, Margreet; van den Brink, Wim; Vollebergh, Wilma; de Graaf, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Much is unclear about the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and alcohol use (disorder). Research on this subject is hindered by the role of conduct disorder (CD). We investigate whether (1) childhood ADHD is associated with higher prevalence and earlier onset of

  17. Evaluation on changes caused by volcanic activities in the groundwater environment as a natural barrier for the HLW disposal. Literature survey and groundwater observation conducted at Mt. Iwate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahara, Yasunori; Nakata, Eiji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2000-01-01

    It is very important in the site characterization for the HLW disposal to understand changes in geochemical performances caused by volcanic activities in the groundwater environment as the natural barrier. The various effects and its magnitude of changes were listed up and were filed from literature surveys of the correlation between volcanic activities and hydrological can geochemical changes (e.g. water temperature, water pressure, water level, dissolved gas concentration of He and Rn, isotopic ratio of He, and chloride concentration) in volcanic aquifer. However, it is difficult to evaluate the magnitude of impacts, which volcanic activities will give to the groundwater environment in the natural barrier, through only the literature surveys. We have started monitoring of groundwater level and changes in groundwater quality, since volcanic activities have enhanced at Mt. Iwate from June in 1998. Judging from variation of isotopic ratio of dissolved He in groundwater, a prompt and sharp signals indicating volcanic activities will easily be found in shallow groundwater and discharged ponds. On the other hands, geochemical conditions in deep groundwater surroundings from some 100 m to 1000 m deep will be very stable, if the area being more than 5 km apart from the volcanic active center. Consequently, our observed results suggest that the groundwater environment which is not directly disturbed by the underground magmatic activities spreads under the area that is connected to trench side of the volcanic front. (author)

  18. Does the active use of nutrition labeling reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus? Results of insulin resistance using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Seung Ju; Kim, Dong Jun; Kim, Sun Jung

    2018-05-29

    In 1995, nutrition labeling became mandatory in South Korea. These regulations help consumers make reasonable choices when purchasing food based on nutritional value by providing the nutritional properties of processed foods. We investigated the association between perceptions about nutrition labeling and insulin resistance (IR) in people with no diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM). This study used data from the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI-3 in 2015, n=2931). We used multiple regression analysis to investigate the relationship between perceptions about nutrition labeling and the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). 75.2% of participants were aware of nutrition labeling and 24.8% of participants checked nutrition labeling and actively used the information. "Actively checked and used the nutrition labeling" was inversely associated with HOMA-IR scores (check nutrition facts and make labeling-dependent purchase decisions: β=-0.108, p=0.0164). These associations were more significant in people who were obese or paid more attention to their health. High levels of perceptions about nutrition labeling and active use of such information could have positive effects on reducing IR and preventing DM. Therefore, it is necessary to improve public perception for effective implementation of healthcare programs. Copyright © 2018 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus surveys in the North American Intermountain West: utilizing citizen scientists to conduct monitoring across a broad geographic scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Miller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus is an open-country species breeding in the northern United States and Canada, and has likely experienced a long-term, range-wide, and substantial decline. However, the cause and magnitude of the decline is not well understood. We set forth to address the first two of six previously proposed conservation priorities to be addressed for this species: (1 better define habitat use and (2 improve population monitoring. We recruited 131 volunteers to survey over 6.2 million ha within the state of Idaho for Short-eared Owls during the 2015 breeding season. We surveyed 75 transects, 71 of which were surveyed twice, and detected Short-eared Owls on 27 transects. We performed multiscale occupancy modeling to identify habitat associations, and performed multiscale abundance modeling to generate a state-wide population estimate. Our results suggest that within the state of Idaho, Short-eared Owls are more often found in areas with marshland or riparian habitat or areas with greater amounts of sagebrush habitat at the 1750 ha transect scale. At the 50 ha point scale, Short-eared Owls tend to associate positively with fallow and bare dirt agricultural land and negatively with grassland. Cropland was not chosen at the broader transect scale suggesting that Short-eared Owls may prefer more heterogeneous landscapes. On the surface our results may seem contradictory to the presumed land use by a "grassland" species; however, the grasslands of the Intermountain West, consisting largely of invasive cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum, lack the complex structure shown to be preferred by these owls. We suggest the local adaptation to agriculture represents the next best habitat to their historical native habitat preferences. Regardless, we have confirmed regional differences that should be considered in conservation planning for this species. Last, our results demonstrate the feasibility, efficiency, and effectiveness of utilizing public

  20. Role of resistant starch on diabetes risk factors in people with prediabetes: Design, conduct, and baseline results of the STARCH trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlatt, Kara L; White, Ursula A; Beyl, Robbie A; Peterson, Courtney M; Martin, Corby K; Marco, Maria L; Keenan, Michael J; Martin, Roy J; Aryana, Kayanush J; Ravussin, Eric

    2018-02-01

    Dietary resistant starch (RS) might alter gastrointestinal tract function in a manner that improves human health, particularly among adults at risk for diabetes. Here, we report the design and baseline results (with emphasis on race differences) from the STARCH trial, the first comprehensive metabolic phenotyping of people with prediabetes enrolled in a randomized clinical trial testing the effect of RS on risk factors for diabetes. Overweight/obese participants (BMI≥27kg/m 2 and weight≤143kg), age 35-75y, with confirmed prediabetes were eligible. Participants were randomized to consume 45g/day of RS (RS=amylose) or amylopectin (Control) for 12weeks. The study was designed to evaluate the effect of RS on insulin sensitivity and secretion, ectopic fat, and inflammatory markers. Secondary outcomes included energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, appetite, food intake, colonic microbial composition, fecal and plasma levels of short-chain fatty acids, fecal RS excretion, and gut permeability. Out of 280 individuals screened, 68 were randomized, 65 started the intervention, and 63 were analyzed at baseline (mean age 55y, BMI 35.6kg/m 2 ); 2 were excluded from baseline analyses due to abnormal insulin and diabetes. Sex and race comparisons at baseline were reported. African-Americans had higher baseline acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg measured by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test) compared to Caucasians, despite having less visceral adipose tissue mass and intrahepatic lipid; all other glycemic variables were similar between races. Sleep energy expenditure was ~90-100kcal/day lower in African-Americans after adjusting for insulin sensitivity and secretion. This manuscript provides an overview of the strategy used to enroll people with prediabetes into the STARCH trial and describes methodologies used in the assessment of risk factors for diabetes. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: STARCH (NCT01708694). The present study reference can be

  1. THE USE OF EU SUPPORT BY ORCHARDS OWNERS IN FARMS IN THE GRÓJEC COUNTY, ON THE BASIS OF THE CONDUCTED SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Olewnicki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the state of fruit producers’ knowledge, as well as methods of EU support application under the various programmes available in both the period before and after Poland’s accession to the EU. Farmers, including gardeners, could apply for funding under the SAPARD programme already before the accession. These grants were the beginning of the support Poland received during this period. EU aid became applied on a large scale just after the accession. A large part of manufacturers began to apply for support i.a. under the Rural Development Programme for 2007–2013 (hereinafter RDP 2007–2013. The survey involved 103 fruit producers from the Grójec County, which is the area of greatest importance in the Polish fruit production. Nearly three quarters of the surveyed respondents claimed that they had benefi ted from the EU support. Those producers who benefi ted from the RDP 2007–2013, the granted funds in 63% invested in modernizing their farms. A lot of producers the received funds earmarked for the purchase of machines. Preferential loans also gained in popularity, especially those that could be applied for after disasters which had destroyed growers’ crops, e.g. spring ground frost, hail etc. 30% of respondents benefi ted from this type of support. It is worth emphasising that almost three quarters of the respondents obtained assistance in making applications from private companies, and not from the state institutions. The biggest obstacle encountered by the producers when applying for EU funds, was the intricate procedure in fi lling in the applications.

  2. Use of antimicrobial resistance information and prescribing guidance for management of urinary tract infections: survey of general practitioners in the West Midlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironmonger, Dean; Edeghere, Obaghe; Gossain, Savita; Hawkey, Peter M

    2016-05-24

    There is a marked variation in both antibiotic prescribing practice and urine sampling rates for diagnostic microbiology across general practices in England. To help understand factors driving this variation, we undertook a survey in 2012/13 to determine sampling protocols and antibiotic formularies used by general practitioners (GPs) for managing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the West Midlands region of England. Cross-sectional survey of all eligible general practices in the West Midlands region of England undertaken in November 2012. GPs were invited to complete an online survey questionnaire to gather information on policies used within the practice for urine sampling for microbiological examination, and the source of antibiotic formularies used to guide treatment of UTIs. The questionnaire also gathered information on how they would manage five hypothetical clinical scenarios encountered in the community. The response rate was 11.3 % (409/3635 GPs), equivalent to a practice response rate of 26 % (248/950). Only 50 % of GPs reported having a practice policy for urine sampling. Although there was good agreement from GPs regarding collecting specimens in scenarios symbolising treatment failure (98 %), UTI in an adult male (98 %) and asymptomatic UTI in pregnancy (97 %), there was variation in GPs requesting a specimen for the scenarios involving a suspected uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) and an asymptomatic catheterised elderly patient; with 40 and 38 % respectively indicating they would collect a specimen for microbiological examination. Standardised evidence based clinical management policies and antibiotic formularies for GPs should be readily available. This will promote the rational use of diagnostic microbiology services, improve antimicrobial stewardship and aid the interpretation of ongoing antimicrobial resistance surveillance.

  3. A stratified random survey of the proportion of poor quality oral artesunate sold at medicine outlets in the Lao PDR – implications for therapeutic failure and drug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vongsack Latsamy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Counterfeit oral artesunate has been a major public health problem in mainland SE Asia, impeding malaria control. A countrywide stratified random survey was performed to determine the availability and quality of oral artesunate in pharmacies and outlets (shops selling medicines in the Lao PDR (Laos. Methods In 2003, 'mystery' shoppers were asked to buy artesunate tablets from 180 outlets in 12 of the 18 Lao provinces. Outlets were selected using stratified random sampling by investigators not involved in sampling. Samples were analysed for packaging characteristics, by the Fast Red Dye test, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, mass spectrometry (MS, X-ray diffractometry and pollen analysis. Results Of 180 outlets sampled, 25 (13.9% sold oral artesunate. Outlets selling artesunate were more commonly found in the more malarious southern Laos. Of the 25 outlets, 22 (88%; 95%CI 68–97% sold counterfeit artesunate, as defined by packaging and chemistry. No artesunate was detected in the counterfeits by any of the chemical analysis techniques and analysis of the packaging demonstrated seven different counterfeit types. There was complete agreement between the Fast Red dye test, HPLC and MS analysis. A wide variety of wrong active ingredients were found by MS. Of great concern, 4/27 (14.8% fakes contained detectable amounts of artemisinin (0.26–115.7 mg/tablet. Conclusion This random survey confirms results from previous convenience surveys that counterfeit artesunate is a severe public health problem. The presence of artemisinin in counterfeits may encourage malaria resistance to artemisinin derivatives. With increasing accessibility of artemisinin-derivative combination therapy (ACT in Laos, the removal of artesunate monotherapy from pharmacies may be an effective intervention.

  4. Electrically Conductive Epoxy Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Bai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Conductive adhesives are widely used in electronic packaging applications such as die attachment and solderless interconnections, component repair, display interconnections, and heat dissipation. The effects of film thickness as functions of filler volume fraction, conductive filler size, shape, as well as uncured adhesive matrix viscosity on the electrical conduction behavior of epoxy-based adhesives are presented in this work. For this purpose, epoxy-based adhesives were prepared using conductive fillers of different size, shape, and types, including Ni powder, flakes, and filaments, Ag powder, and Cu powder. The filaments were 20 μm in diameter, and 160 or 260 μm in length. HCl and H3PO4 acid solutions were used to etch and remove the surface oxide layers from the fillers. The plane resistance of filled adhesive films was measured using the four-point method. In all cases of conductive filler addition, the planar resistivity levels for the composite adhesive films increased when the film thickness was reduced. The shape of resistivity-thickness curves was negative exponential decaying type and was modeled using a mathematical relation. The relationships between the conductive film resistivities and the filler volume fractions were also derived mathematically based on the experimental data. Thus, the effects of surface treatment of filler particles, the type, size, shape of fillers, and the uncured epoxy viscosity could be included empirically by using these mathematical relations based on the experimental data. By utilizing the relations we proposed to model thickness-dependent and volume fraction-dependent conduction behaviors separately, we were able to describe the combined and coupled volume fraction-film thickness relationship mathematically based on our experimental data.

  5. Antimicrobial consumption and resistance in adult hospital inpatients in 53 countries: results of an internet-based global point prevalence survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Versporten, MPH

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: The Global Point Prevalence Survey (Global-PPS established an international network of hospitals to measure antimicrobial prescribing and resistance worldwide. We aimed to assess antimicrobial prescribing and resistance in hospital inpatients. Methods: We used a standardised surveillance method to collect detailed data about antimicrobial prescribing and resistance from hospitals worldwide, which were grouped by UN region. The internet-based survey included all inpatients (adults, children, and neonates receiving an antimicrobial who were on the ward at 0800 h on one specific day between January and September, 2015. Hospitals were classified as primary, secondary, tertiary (including infectious diseases hospitals, and paediatric hospitals. Five main ward types were defined: medical wards, surgical wards, intensive-care units, haematology oncology wards, and medical transplantation (bone marrow or solid transplants wards. Data recorded included patient characteristics, antimicrobials received, diagnosis, therapeutic indication according to predefined lists, and markers of prescribing quality (eg, whether a stop or review date were recorded, and whether local prescribing guidelines existed and were adhered to. We report findings for adult inpatients. Findings: The Global-PPS for 2015 included adult data from 303 hospitals in 53 countries, including eight lower-middle-income and 17 upper-middle-income countries. 86 776 inpatients were admitted to 3315 adult wards, of whom 29 891 (34·4% received at least one antimicrobial. 41 213 antimicrobial prescriptions were issued, of which 36 792 (89·3% were antibacterial agents for systemic use. The top three antibiotics prescribed worldwide were penicillins with β-lactamase inhibitors, third-generation cephalosporins, and fluoroquinolones. Carbapenems were most frequently prescribed in Latin America and west and central Asia. Of patients who received at least one antimicrobial

  6. [Investigation of the frequency of alcohol related problems in Józsefváros, Budapest. Data and conclusions of three surveys conducted among doctors and outpatients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapos, Miklós Péter

    2012-08-12

    The role of permanent alcohol consumption in the development of diseases is well-known. To study the occurrence of alcohol related problems among patients of a municipal pulmonology out-patient clinic as well as in the family practice of three physicians. In addition, a survey was performed among physicians of a municipal health service and also among family practitioners working in the same district by investigating health problems, habits and professional careers of physicians, and their addictive problems, their attitude toward addict patients and their opinion upon chemical dependency. CAGE-test was used to examine the presence of alcohol problem and a questionnaire was constructed for the study undertaken among physicians. The response rate was 60.18% and 32.98% among patients who visited the pulmonology out-patient clinic and their family physician, respectively. Among those who responded to the test, as many as 6.02% and 4.82% of the cases would need a further medical examination to make clear whether alcohol related health problem was present or not, whilst 9.77% and 11.67% of the patients proved to be alcohol dependent, respectively. The response rate in the survey among physicians was 41.28%. As stated, physicians not only screen the patients for alcohol and drug dependence, but also refer them to a specialist. The general experience seems to oppose this statement. The majority of health professionals considered chemical dependence as a chronic disease, whereas a kind of moral judgment of the problem was also seen, particularly among family physicians. If they had the opportunity to choose whom to treat: an alcoholic or a drug dependent patient, the majority of them would treat patients brought under the first category. The CAGE test revealed alcohol problem in three family physicians, but none in specialists. Nearly all physicians consumed coffee, but the majority of them were non-smokers. As the risk for committing suicide is higher among physicians

  7. Proposing an International Collaboration on Lightweight Autonomous Vehicles to Conduct Scientific Traverses and Surveys over Antarctica and the Surrounding Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, Frank; Behar, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    We have continued to develop a concept for use of autonomous rovers, originally developed for use in planetary exploration, in polar science on Earth; the concept was the subject of a workshop, and this report summarizes and extends that workshop. The workshop on Antarctic Autonomous Scientific Vehicles and Traverses met at the National Geographic Society on February 14 and 15, 2001 to discuss scientific objectives and benefits of the use of autonomous rovers. The participants enthusiastically viewed rovers as being uniquely valuable for such tasks as data taking on tedious or repetitive routes, traverses in polar night, difficult or hazardous routes, extremely remote regions, routes requiring only simple instrumentation, traverses that must be conducted at low speed, augments of manned traverses, and scientific procedures not compatible with human presence or combustion engines. The workshop has concluded that instrumented autonomous vehicles, of the type being developed for planetary exploration, have the potential to contribute significantly to the way science in conducted in Antarctica while also aiding planetary technology development, and engaging the public's interest. Specific objectives can be supported in understanding ice sheet mass balance, sea ice heat and momentum exchange, and surface air chemistry processes. In the interval since the workshop, we have concluded that organized program to employ such rovers to perform scientific tasks in the Fourth International Polar Year would serve the objectives of that program well.

  8. An Electric Resistivity Study of the Chelungpu Fault in the Taichung Area, Taiwan

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    Ping-Hu Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted an electric resistivity survey consisting of six resistivity image profilings and several resistivity measurements on outcrops of strata in the Taichung area to investigate the subsurface structures of the Chelungpu fault. Three magnetotelluric sounding results are added to infer rock formations at depth. Based on the resistivity measurements on outcrops of the strata and the correlations between the interpretative resistivity structures and the rock formations recognized from drilling cores and the outcrops of the strata, the resistivity spectra of rock formations are obtained, and the geological structures are deduced.

  9. Pediatrician and Parent Opinion on Nutrition in Infants Under 3 Years: Results of Pilot Survey Conducted in Central Federal District of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana E. Borovik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rational nutrition management in infants under 3 years is an important part of their adequate development at this age and in future.Objective: Our aim was to evaluate awareness of pediatricians and parents concerning rational nutrition management in infants under 3 years.Methods: 300 pediatricians and 300 parents of infants under 3 years who live in Moscow, Ivanovo, and Yaroslavl were enrolled in pilot survey.Results: Pediatricians' recommendations on child nutrition management satisfied the majority of parents (252; 84%, however, less than half of families (135; 45% followed them. In other cases the child's ration depended on mother's opinion on the matter (96; 32% and on child's food preference. «Unhealthy» food such as groceries and provision, processed food, spices, seafood, fast food, chocolate, candies, and sweets as well as soda was included in child's ration at the age of 2 and its consumption frequency increased significantly at the age of 3. Pediatricians strongly recommended special dairy for infants from the age of 1 (known as the 3rd formula. In fact, only half of children in Moscow eat them, and 27–30% of children in Ivanovo and Yaroslavl.Conclusion: Harmful breach of nutrition management in infants under 3 years is detected. Evidently, parents are not competent on the question. Optimization of educational activities performed by pediatricians, medical stuff, and mass media is required.

  10. Analysis of gender-based differences among surgeons in Japan: results of a survey conducted by the Japan Surgical Society. Part 1: Working style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Kazumi; Nomura, Kyoko; Tominaga, Ryuji; Iwase, Hirotaka; Ogawa, Tomoko; Shibasaki, Ikuko; Shimada, Mitsuo; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Takeshita, Emiko; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Nomura, Sachiyo; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Hanashi, Tomoko; Yamashita, Hiroko; Kokudo, Norihiro; Maeda, Kotaro

    2018-01-01

    To assess the working styles of men and women working as surgeons in Japan. In July, 2014, the Japan Surgical Society invited all their members (n = 29,861), through an internet campaign, to participate in a nationwide survey of surgeons. The items investigated in this descriptive study included demographic information and working styles, based on a questionnaire. In total, 6211 surgeons participated (response rate 20.8%, 5586 men and 625 women). The largest age stratum was 40-49 years for men and 30-39 years for women. Overall, respondents identified their labor contract, including salary and work hours, as the highest priority for improvement. Women with children were more likely to be part-time employees, work fewer hours, and take fewer house calls/on-calls than their male counterparts. Moreover, women of all ages earned a lower annual income than men, irrespective of whether they had children. Perception scores for discrimination related to work and promotion were significantly higher among women than men (p working style was observed between men and women working as surgeons in Japan.

  11. Public expectations concerning confidentiality protection of adolescents' sexual and reproductive health care in Lithuania: findings of the surveys conducted in 2005 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Lazarus, Jeffrey Victor

    2014-04-01

    An adolescent's right to confidential healthcare is protected by international law and professional consensus. However, parental and social support for confidential sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, in particular, varies greatly. This study documents Lithuanian residents' expectations with regard to confidentiality protection for adolescents in this domain, and explores the factors related to the diversity of these expectations. Two national surveys of Lithuanian residents completed in 2005 and 2012 using anonymous questionnaires. Participants rated their expectations for confidentiality using a five-point Likert scale for eight types of SRH consultations. Public anticipation for confidentiality depended on whether issues related to sexual behaviour or to its consequences were addressed during adolescent consultation. Only younger respondents had higher expectations for confidentiality in both contexts. Public expectations regarding confidentiality were less demanding in 2012 than in 2005. The expectation of confidentiality protection was greater for topics related to sexual behaviour than for the consequences of sexual behaviour, such as pregnancy, abortion or a sexually transmitted infection. This implies a need for targeted information strategies for the general population and explicit guidance for physicians on when and for whom care should remain confidential.

  12. Analysis of gender-based differences among surgeons in Japan: results of a survey conducted by the Japan Surgical Society. Part. 2: personal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Kazumi; Nomura, Kyoko; Tominaga, Ryuji; Iwase, Hirotaka; Ogawa, Tomoko; Shibasaki, Ikuko; Shimada, Mitsuo; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Takeshita, Emiko; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Nomura, Sachiyo; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro; Hanashi, Tomoko; Yamashita, Hiroko; Kokudo, Norihiro; Maeda, Kotaro

    2018-03-01

    To assess the true conditions and perceptions of the personal lives of men and women working as surgeons in Japan. In 2014, all e-mail subscribed members of the Japan Surgical Society (JSS, n = 29,861) were invited to complete a web-based survey. The questions covered demographic information, work environment, and personal life (including marital status, childcare, and nursing care for adult family members). In total, 6211 surgeons (5586 men and 625 women) returned the questionnaires, representing a response rate of 20.8%. Based on the questionnaire responses, surgeons generally prioritize work and spend most of their time at work, although women with children prioritize their family over work; men spend significantly fewer hours on domestic work/childcare than do their female counterparts (men 0.76 h/day vs. women 2.93 h/day, p women surgeons, regardless of their age or whether they have children, place more importance on the role of women in the family. The personal lives of Japanese surgeons differed significantly according to gender and whether they have children. The conservative idea that women should bear primary responsibility for the family still pertains for both men and women working as surgeons in Japan.

  13. Heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigull, U.; Sandner, H.

    1984-01-01

    Included are discussions of rates of heat transfer by conduction, the effects of varying and changing properties, thermal explosions, distributed heat sources, moving heat sources, and non-steady three-dimensional conduction processes. Throughout, the importance of thinking both numerically and symbolically is stressed, as this is essential to the development of the intuitive understanding of numerical values needed for successful designing. Extensive tables of thermophysical properties, including thermal conductivity and diffusivity, are presented. Also included are exact and approximate solutions to many of the problems that arise in practical situations

  14. Phytotoxicology surveys conducted in the Town of Elmira: Uniroyal Corporation, 1989, Sulco Canada Colours Ltd. , 1990, Varnicolor Chemical Ltd. , 1990. Report No. ARB-027-92-PHYTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlveen, W D

    1993-01-01

    The Town of Elmira is a centre for several small chemical industries. With the discovery of NDMA in the Town of Elmira's water supplies in November 1989, residents became concerned about possible contamination of soil and vegetation from air and surface-water transport from the other chemical industries in the town. This report is a compilation of the data obtained from the investigations conducted in the vicinity of the Uniroyal Corp., Sulco Canada Ltd., and Varnicolor Chemical Ltd. Sample sites were selected around each of the sources based on scale of operation, nature of the probable contaminants, availability of vegetation which still had attached foliage at the time of the initial visit, and at various distances and directions including the residential parts of the town.

  15. The radon hazard in non - uranium European mines: Retrospective of a survey conducted between 1978 and 1982 in different mines across Europe and new results in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard, S.; Pineau, J.F.; Zettwoog, P.; Skowronek, J.

    1996-01-01

    From 1979 to 1982, a study of the hazard due to the natural radioactivity in non-uranium mines has been initiated by the CEC. The programme of the work involved coal, potash salt, fluors par, gypsum, clay, graphite, tungsten, antimony, bauxite, cassiterite, slate, iron, pyrites, lead-zinc, tin, silver-zinc, as well as gold mines, situated in Belgium, France, United Kingdom, Germany and Italy. In all studies mines, a radiological and ventilation audit have been conducted and an individual dosimetry has been implemented for a group of a few tens of miners in some of the mines. An overview of the results is presented here, giving information about the radiological risk treatming the miner's health. The overview is completed with recent measurements made more recently, on a routine basis, in some French non-uranium mines. (author). 47 refs, 8 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Shallow Depth Geophysical Investigation Through the Application of Magnetic and Electric Resistance Techniques: AN Evaluation Study of the Responses of Magnetic and Electric Resistance Techniques to Archaeogeophysical Prospection Surveys in Greece and Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Apostolos

    The response characteristics of total intensity and vertical gradient magnetic techniques have been investigated in detail and compared with electric resistivity and other geophysical techniques. Four case studies from archaeological sites of Greece and Cyprus have been used as the experimental basis of this research project. Data from shallow depth geophysical investigations in these sites were collected over a period of four years. Interpretation of the geophysical results was based on the integration of the various prospecting methods. The results of the comparative study between the different techniques showed a strong correlation among all methods allowing the detection of certain features and the determination of their dimensions. The application of a large range of geophysical prospecting techniques in the surveyed archaeological sites has been able to detect the approximate position of the subsurface remains and to compare the different techniques in terms of the information that they reveal. Each one of these techniques has been used to examine the characteristic response of each method to the geophysical anomalies associated with the surveyed sites. Magnetic susceptibility measurements at two frequencies have identified areas and levels of intense human activity. A number of processing techniques such as low, high and band pass filtering in the spatial and frequency domain, computation of the residuals and fast Fourier transformation (FFT) of the magnetic potential data have been applied to the geophysical measurements. The subsequent convolution with filters representing apparent susceptibility, reduction to pole and equator, Gaussian and Butterworth regional and residual distributions, and inverse filtering in terms of spiking deconvolution have revealed a wealth of information necessary to obtain a more accurate picture of the concealed features. Inverse modelling of isolated magnetic anomalies has further enriched the information database of the

  17. Public perceptions of nuclear power, climate change and energy options in Britain: summary findings of a survey conducted during October and November 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouter Poortinga; Nick Pidgeon; Irene Lorenzoni [University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Risk, School of Environmental Sciences

    2006-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a large-scale British survey (n=1491) of public opinion towards future energy options for the nation, with a focus on attitudes to nuclear power in the context of climate change. People are generally more interested and concerned about climate change than they are about nuclear power. People tend to favour renewable energy sources over fossil fuels, whilst nuclear power is the least favoured of the three. When asked about the future contribution of energy sources to reliable and secure electricity supplies, a slightly different picture appears: renewables are still most favoured, but nuclear power now gains a ranking above coal and oil and one comparable with gas. People do differentiate various electricity generation sources in terms of their (generally positive and negative) factors. In this respect the general stigma attached to nuclear power remains. Specifically, many people think it creates dangerous waste and is a hazard to human health. On the other hand, most people perceive wind power as clean, safe, good for the economy and cheap. Coal on the other hand is seen as polluting and (correctly) as a cause of climate change. If the costs of supplying the UK's energy needs were the same from either nuclear power or renewable energy sources, 77% of the respondents indicated they would prefer renewable energy sources. Less than 10% would prefer nuclear power over renewables under such circumstances. There was a strong preference for solutions other than nuclear power to mitigate climate change, such as promoting renewable energies (78%), or through lifestyle changes and energy efficiency (76%). 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  19. Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... objections runs away from home often truant from school Children who exhibit these behaviors should receive a comprehensive evaluation by an experience mental health professional. Many children with a conduct disorder may ...

  20. Factors associated with diarrhea in children under five years old in the state of Pernambuco, according to surveys conducted in 1997 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Maria Josemere de Oliveira Borba; Rissin, Anete; Figueiroa, José Natal; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral de; Batista Filho, Malaquias

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Describe and compare variations of the factors associated with the prevalence of diarrhea in children under five years old in the state of Pernambuco. METHODS We used the databases of two population-based surveys from the years 1997 and 2006, with 2,078 and 1,650 children, respectively, evaluated in 18 municipalities of Pernambuco (Metropolitan Region of Recife, urban and rural interior). The variables, allocated at hierarchical levels, were analyzed using prevalence and Poisson regression ratios. RESULTS Only four variables were independently associated and were included in the final hierarchical model: geographical area, number of people per room, maternal age and the age of the child. In 1997: urban interior = 1.33 (95%CI 1.06-1.66), rural interior = 1.22 (95%CI 0.97-1.53) and in 2006: urban interior = 1.87 (95%CI 1.31-2.66), rural interior = 2.07 (95%CI 1.50-2.85); number of persons per room (1997): 1 to less than 2 = 1.29 (95%CI 0.98-1.68), two or more = 1.47 (95%CI 1.11-1.95) and in 2006: 1 to less than 2 = 0.86 (95%CI 0.68-1.09), two or more = 1.29 (95%CI 0.94-1.75); maternal age (1997): 10 to 19 years = 1.48 (95%CI 1.05-2.08), 20 to 24 years = 1.23 (95%CI 0.94-1.60), 25 to 34 years = 1.01 (95%CI 0.78-1.30) and in 2006: 10 to 19 years old = 1.70 (95%CI 1.08-2.66), 20 to 24 years old = 1.64 (95%CI 1.16-2.32), 25 to 34 years = 1.20 (95%CI 0.89-1.62); and age of the child (1997): 0-11 months = 1.57 (95%CI 1.27-1.94), 12-23 months = 1.73 (95%CI 1.41-2.12) and in 2006: 0-11 months = 1.04 (95%CI 0.76-1.41), 12-23 months = 1.77 (95%CI 1.41-2.23). CONCLUSIONS There was a great variability of the conditioners of diarrhea in children between the two periods analyzed. At the public policy level, despite changes in terms of people, time sequences, and geographic spaces, diarrhea remains on an important scale in the ranking of government power.

  1. Attitudes toward and experiences of gender issues among physician teachers: A survey study conducted at a university teaching hospital in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westman Göran

    2008-02-01

    from women and avoidance more common in comments from men. Conclusion The surveyed physician teachers gave many examples of gender-related problems in medical work and education, but comments describing gender as an area of competence and knowledge were few. Approaches to gender characterized by avoidance and simplification suggest that faculty development programs on gender need to address and reflect on attitudes as well as knowledge.

  2. Identification of leaf rust resistant gene Lr10 in Pakistani wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf (brown) rust is the major disease of wheat in Pakistan and other countries. The disease is more effectively controlled when several rust resistance genes are pyramided into a single line. Molecular survey was conducted to screen 25 Pakistan wheat germplasm for the presence of leaf rust resistance gene Lr10 using ...

  3. Influence of carbon content on the copper-telluride phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior of carbon alloyed Cu-Te conductive bridge random access memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devulder, Wouter; De Schutter, Bob; Detavernier, Christophe; Opsomer, Karl; Franquet, Alexis; Meersschaut, Johan; Muller, Robert; Van Elshocht, Sven; Jurczak, Malgorzata; Goux, Ludovic; Belmonte, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the carbon content on the Cu-Te phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior in carbon alloyed Cu 0.6 Te 0.4 based conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) cells. Carbon alloying of copper-tellurium inhibits the crystallization, while attractive switching behavior is preserved when using the material as Cu-supply layer in CBRAM cells. The phase formation is first investigated in a combinatorial way. With increasing carbon content, an enlargement of the temperature window in which the material stays amorphous was observed. Moreover, if crystalline phases are formed, subsequent phase transformations are inhibited. The electrical switching behavior of memory cells with different carbon contents is then investigated by implementing them in 580 μm diameter dot TiN/Cu 0.6 Te 0.4 -C/Al 2 O 3 /Si memory cells. Reliable switching behavior is observed for carbon contents up to 40 at. %, with a resistive window of more than 2 orders of magnitude, whereas for 50 at. % carbon, a higher current in the off state and only a small resistive window are present after repeated cycling. This degradation can be ascribed to the higher thermal and lower drift contribution to the reset operation due to a lower Cu affinity towards the supply layer, leading cycle-after-cycle to an increasing amount of Cu in the switching layer, which contributes to the current. The thermal diffusion of Cu into Al 2 O 3 under annealing also gives an indication of the Cu affinity of the source layer. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy was used to investigate this migration depth in Al 2 O 3 before and after annealing, showing a higher Cu, Te, and C migration for high carbon contents

  4. Influence of carbon content on the copper-telluride phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior of carbon alloyed Cu-Te conductive bridge random access memory cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devulder, Wouter; Opsomer, Karl; Franquet, Alexis; Meersschaut, Johan; Belmonte, Attilio; Muller, Robert; De Schutter, Bob; Van Elshocht, Sven; Jurczak, Malgorzata; Goux, Ludovic; Detavernier, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the carbon content on the Cu-Te phase formation and on the resistive switching behavior in carbon alloyed Cu0.6Te0.4 based conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) cells. Carbon alloying of copper-tellurium inhibits the crystallization, while attractive switching behavior is preserved when using the material as Cu-supply layer in CBRAM cells. The phase formation is first investigated in a combinatorial way. With increasing carbon content, an enlargement of the temperature window in which the material stays amorphous was observed. Moreover, if crystalline phases are formed, subsequent phase transformations are inhibited. The electrical switching behavior of memory cells with different carbon contents is then investigated by implementing them in 580 μm diameter dot TiN/Cu0.6Te0.4-C/Al2O3/Si memory cells. Reliable switching behavior is observed for carbon contents up to 40 at. %, with a resistive window of more than 2 orders of magnitude, whereas for 50 at. % carbon, a higher current in the off state and only a small resistive window are present after repeated cycling. This degradation can be ascribed to the higher thermal and lower drift contribution to the reset operation due to a lower Cu affinity towards the supply layer, leading cycle-after-cycle to an increasing amount of Cu in the switching layer, which contributes to the current. The thermal diffusion of Cu into Al2O3 under annealing also gives an indication of the Cu affinity of the source layer. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy was used to investigate this migration depth in Al2O3 before and after annealing, showing a higher Cu, Te, and C migration for high carbon contents.

  5. Evaluation of electrical resistivity anisotropy in geological mapping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Key words: Electrical resistivity anisotropy, radial vertical electrical sounding, anisotropy polygons. INTRODUCTION ... electrical resistivity survey in the geological interpretation ... resistivity and other electrical or electromagnetic based.

  6. Uniform Self-rectifying Resistive Switching Behavior via Preformed Conducting Paths in a Vertical-type Ta2O5/HfO2-x Structure with a Sub-μm(2) Cell Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung Ho; Yoo, Sijung; Song, Seul Ji; Yoon, Kyung Jean; Kwon, Dae Eun; Kwon, Young Jae; Park, Tae Hyung; Kim, Hye Jin; Shao, Xing Long; Kim, Yumin; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2016-07-20

    To replace or succeed the present NAND flash memory, resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) should be implemented in the vertical-type crossbar array configuration. The ReRAM cell must have a highly reproducible resistive switching (RS) performance and an electroforming-free, self-rectifying, low-power-consumption, multilevel-switching, and easy fabrication process with a deep sub-μm(2) cell area. In this work, a Pt/Ta2O5/HfO2-x/TiN RS memory cell fabricated in the form of a vertical-type structure was presented as a feasible contender to meet the above requirements. While the fundamental RS characteristics of this material based on the electron trapping/detrapping mechanisms have been reported elsewhere, the influence of the cell scaling size to 0.34 μm(2) on the RS performance by adopting the vertical integration scheme was carefully examined in this work. The smaller cell area provided much better switching uniformity while all the other benefits of this specific material system were preserved. Using the overstressing technique, the nature of RS through the localized conducting path was further examined, which elucidated the fundamental difference between the present material system and the general ionic-motion-related bipolar RS mechanism.

  7. Conduct disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Smeets, K.C.; Herpers, P.; Scheepers, F.; Glennon, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic

  8. An epidemiologic survey of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by combined use of mec-HVR genotyping and toxin genotyping in a university hospital in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Junichiro; Yoshinaga, Masao; Miyanohara, Hiroaki; Kawahara, Motoshi; Kawabata, Masaharu; Motoya, Toshiro; Owaki, Tetsuhiro; Oiso, Shigeru; Kawakami, Masayuki; Kamewari, Shigeko; Koyama, Yumiko; Wakimoto, Naoko; Tokuda, Koichi; Manago, Kunihiro; Maruyama, Ikuro

    2002-09-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of an assay using two polymerase chain reaction-based genotyping methods in the practical surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Nosocomial infection and colonization were surveyed monthly in a university hospital in Japan for 20 months. Genotyping with mec-HVR is based on the size of the mec-associated hypervariable region amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Toxin genotyping uses a multiplex polymerase chain reaction method to amplify eight staphylococcal toxin genes. Eight hundred nine MRSA isolates were classified into 49 genotypes. We observed differing prevalences of genotypes for different hospital wards, and could rapidly demonstrate the similarity of genotype for outbreak isolates. The incidence of genotype D: SEC/TSST1 was significantly higher in isolates causing nosocomial infections (49.5%; 48 of 97) than in nasal isolates (31.4%; 54 of 172) (P = .004), suggesting that this genotype may represent the nosocomial strains. The combined use of these two genotyping methods resulted in improved discriminatory ability and should be further investigated.

  9. Academic Librarians Would Benefit from Instruction on Conducting Research. A Review of: Kennedy, M. R., & Brancolini, K. R. (2012. Academic librarian research: A survey of attitudes, involvement, and perceived capabilities. College & Research Libraries, 73(5, 431-448.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-06-01

    of performing research.The demographic section of the survey provided the authors with information regarding research support from institutions, and asked librarians if they are tenure track/promotion, promotion only, or not eligible for tenure and promotion. The results showed that 45% were eligible for tenure, 28% achieved tenure, 48% had been through the tenure process, and 40% had other degrees in addition to their LIS qualification.Conclusion – By surveying a sample of academic librarians, the authors were hoping to gather information about their confidence level, training level, and current practices with regard to research. The data was collected as a way to inform the authors as to how they could best design a curriculum for continuing education in research practice. The survey results show that academic librarians are confident with regard to consumption of the literature and developing research questions, but less confident with regard to gathering and analyzing data.The proposed curriculum would provide training on conducting research, and the authors’ eventual goal is to offer an “Institute for Research Design in Librarianship” that would help librarians, especially those who are required to do research for tenure and promotion purposes, to perform the more difficult aspects of research such as design and analysis. Librarians would complete the course and be able to return to their home institutions with the capability to perform all steps in the research process.

  10. Determination of slope failure using 2-D resistivity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muztaza, Nordiana Mohd; Saad, Rosli; Ismail, Nur Azwin; Bery, Andy Anderson

    2017-07-01

    Landslides and slope failure may give negative economic effects including the cost to repair structures, loss of property value and medical costs in the event of injury. To avoid landslide, slope failure and disturbance of the ecosystem, good and detailed planning must be done when developing hilly area. Slope failure classification and various factors contributing to the instability using 2-D resistivity survey conducted in Selangor, Malaysia are described. The study on landslide and slope failure was conducted at Site A and Site B, Selangor using 2-D resistivity method. The implications of the anticipated ground conditions as well as the field observation of the actual conditions are discussed. Nine 2-D resistivity survey lines were conducted in Site A and six 2-D resistivity survey lines with 5 m minimum electrode spacing using Pole-dipole array were performed in Site B. The data were processed using Res2Dinv and Surfer10 software to evaluate the subsurface characteristics. 2-D resistivity results from both locations show that the study areas consist of two main zones. The first zone is alluvium or highly weathered with the resistivity of 100-1000 Ωm at 20-70 m depth. This zone consists of saturated area (1-100 Ωm) and boulders with resistivity value of 1200-3000 Ωm. The second zone with resistivity values of > 3000 Ωm was interpreted as granitic bedrock. The study area was characterized by saturated zones, highly weathered zone, highly contain of sand and boulders that will trigger slope failure in the survey area. Based on the results obtained from the study findings, it can be concluded that 2-D resistivity method is useful method in determination of slope failure.

  11. Improvement in the mechanical properties, proton conductivity, and methanol resistance of highly branched sulfonated poly(arylene ether)/graphene oxide grafted with flexible alkylsulfonated side chains nanocomposite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Peng, Jinhua; Li, Zhuoyao; Liu, Bin; Wang, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Sulfonated polymer/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites exhibit excellent properties as proton exchange membranes. However, few investigations on highly branched sulfonated poly(arylene ether)s (HBSPE)/GO nanocomposites as proton exchange membranes are reported. In order to obtain HBSPE-based nanocomposite membranes with better dispersibility and properties, a novel GO containing flexible alkylsulfonated side chains (SGO) is designed and prepared for the first time in this work. The HBSPE/SGO nanocomposite membranes with excellent dispersibility are successfully prepared. The properties of these membranes, including the mechanical properties, ion-exchange capacity, water uptake, proton conductivity, and methanol resistance, are characterized. The nanocomposite membranes exhibit higher tensile strength (32.67 MPa), higher proton conductivity (0.39 S cm-1 at 80 °C) and lower methanol permeability (4.89 × 10-7 cm2 s-1) than the pristine membrane. The nanocomposite membranes also achieve a higher maximum power density (82.36 mW cm-2) than the pristine membrane (67.85 mW cm-2) in single-cell direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) tests, demonstrating their considerable potential for applications in DMFCs.

  12. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Measurement of thermal conductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.

    1977-01-01

    The 6-m long, 45-kG, warm-iron superconducting magnets envisioned for the Energy Doubler stage of the Fermilab accelerator require stiff supports with minimized thermal conductances in order to keep the refrigeration power reasonable. The large number of supports involved in the system required a careful study of their heat conduction from the room temperature wall to the intercepting refrigeration at 20 0 K and to the liquid helium. For this purpose the thermal conductance of this support was measured by comparing it with the thermal conductance of a copper strap of known geometry. An association of steady-state thermal analysis and experimental thermal conductivity techniques forms the basis of this method. An important advantage is the automatic simulation of the 20 0 K refrigeration intercept by the copper strap, which simplifies the apparatus considerably. This relative resistance technique, which uses electrical analogy as a guideline, is applicable with no restrictions for materials with temperature-independent thermal conductivity. For other materials the results obtained are functions of the specific temperature interval involved in the measurements. A comprehensive review of the literature on thermal conductivity indicates that this approach has not been used before. A demonstration of its self-consistency is stressed here rather than results obtained for different supports

  14. Inverse association between insulin resistance and gait speed in nondiabetic older men: results from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yau-Hua

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have revealed the associations between insulin resistance (IR and geriatric conditions such as frailty and cognitive impairment. However, little is known about the relation of IR to physical impairment and limitation in the aging process, eg. slow gait speed and poor muscle strength. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of IR in performance-based physical function, specifically gait speed and leg strength, among nondiabetic older adults. Methods Cross-sectional data were from the population-based National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2002. A total of 1168 nondiabetic adults (≥ 50 years with nonmissing values in fasting measures of insulin and glucose, habitual gait speed (HGS, and leg strength were analyzed. IR was assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR, whereas HGS and peak leg strength by the 20-foot timed walk test and an isokinetic dynamometer, respectively. We used multiple linear regression to examine the association between IR and performance-based physical function. Results IR was inversely associated with gait speed among the men. After adjusting demographics, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking status, chronic co-morbidities, and markers of nutrition and cardiovascular risk, each increment of 1 standard deviation in the HOMA-IR level was associated with a 0.04 m/sec decrease (p = 0.003 in the HGS in men. We did not find such association among the women. The IR-HGS association was not changed after further adjustment of leg strength. Last, HOMA-IR was not demonstrated in association with peak leg strength. Conclusion IR is inversely associated with HGS among older men without diabetes. The results suggest that IR, an important indicator of gait function among men, could be further investigated as an intervenable target to prevent walking limitation.

  15. Thermophilic spore-forming bacteria isolated from spoiled canned food and their heat resistance. Results of a French ten-year survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, S; Zuber, F; Remize, F

    2013-07-15

    Thermal processing of Low Acid Canned Foods (LACF), which are safe and shelf-stable at ambient temperature for several years, results in heat inactivation of all vegetative microorganisms and the partial or total inactivation of spores. Good Manufacturing Hygienic Practices include stability tests for managing the pathogen risk related to surviving mesophilic bacterial spores. LACF are also often submitted to additional incubation conditions, typically 55 °C for 7 days, to monitor spoilage by thermophiles. In this study we identified the bacterial species responsible for non-stability after prolonged at 55 °C of incubation of LACF from 455 samples collected from 122 French canneries over 10 years. Bacteria were identified by microsequencing or a recent developed tool for group-specific PCR detection (SporeTraQ™). A single species was identified for 93% of examined samples. Three genera were responsible for more than 80% of all non-stability cases: mostly Moorella (36%) and Geobacillus (35%), and less frequently Thermoanaerobacterium (10%). The other most frequent bacterial genera identified were Bacillus, Thermoanaerobacter, Caldanaerobius, Anoxybacillus, Paenibacillus and Clostridium. Species frequency was dependent on food category, i.e. vegetables, ready-made meals containing meat, seafood or other recipes, products containing fatty duck, and related to the intensity of the thermal treatment applied in these food categories. The spore heat resistance parameters (D or δ and z values) from 36 strains isolated in this study were determined. Taken together, our results single out the species most suitable for use as indicators for thermal process settings. This extensively-documented survey of the species that cause non-stability at 55 °C in LACF will help canneries to improve the management of microbial contamination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of bacterial blight resistance genes Xa4 in Pakistani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-04

    Mar 4, 2008 ... Bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae (Xoo) is a major biotic constraint in the irrigated rice belts. Genetic resistance is the most effective and economical control for bacterial blight. Molecular survey was conducted to identify the rice germplasm/lines for the presence of Xa4, a.

  17. Electromagnetic survey (TEM method) in Teradomari and examination of resistivity structure to be based on near surface information; Niigataken Teradomarimachi ni okeru denji tansa kekka (TEM ho) no doshitsu joho ni yoru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, H; Mitsuhata, Y; Matsuo, K; Tanaka, H [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center; Wada, K [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    TEM method was applied to estimate soil structure from resistivity change of underground water saturated stratum featured by slow S wave and fast P wave over 1500m/s. Vertical magnetic field was measured by underlaying a transmission loop of 60m{times}60m around a measuring point in Teradomari, Niigata prefecture, and by installing a magnetic sensor at the measuring point. From comparison of a soil profile with the resistivity profile obtained by TEM data, the former well consisted with the latter. The surface low resistivity stratum corresponded to alluvium from comparison of it with soil and logging data. This alluvium base with fast P wave over 1500m/s satisfied the condition of optimum blasting depth because of a saturated stratum in the surface base. The resistivity structure was related to a saturated stratum. Sand bed was thick at the interface between alluvium low ground and hill area, and from the analytical result, the depth of sand bed showing high resistivity was more shallow than that of the alluvium base, pointing out necessary notice in interpretation. Resistivity survey is promising as simple method for optimum blasting depth. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Geological survey by high resolution electrical survey on granite areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Naoyuki

    2002-03-01

    As an Integral part of the geological survey in 'The study of the regions ground water flow system' that we are carrying out with Tono Geoscience Center, we proved the relation between the uncontinuation structure such as lineament in the base rock and resistivity structure (resistivity distribution), for the purpose of that confirms the efficacy of the high resolution electrical survey as geological survey, we carried out high resolution electrical survey on granite area. We obtained the following result, by the comparison of resistivity distribution with established geological survey, lineament analysis and investigative drilling. 1. The resistivity structure of this survey area is almost able to classify it into the following four range. 1) the low resistivity range of 50-800 Ωm, 2) The resistivity range like the middle of 200-2000 Ωm, 3) The high resistivity range of 2000 Ωm over, 4) The low resistivity range of depth of the survey line 400-550 section. 2. The low resistivity range of 4) that correspond with the established geological data is not admitted. 3. It was confirmed that resistivity structure almost correspond to geological structure by the comparison with the established data. 4. The small-scale low resistivity area is admitted in the point equivalent to the lineament position of established. 5. We carried out it with the simulation method about the low resistivity range of 4). As a result, it understood that it has the possibility that the narrow ratio low resistivity area is shown as the wide ratio resistivity range in the analysis section. In the survey in this time, it is conceivable that the resistivity distribution with the possibility of the unhomogeneous and uncontinuation structure of the base rock is being shown conspicuously, the efficacy of the high resolution resistivity survey as geological survey on granite was shown. (author)

  19. Conduct disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitelaar, Jan K; Smeets, Kirsten C; Herpers, Pierre; Scheepers, Floor; Glennon, Jeffrey; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-02-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to CD in the light of the forthcoming DSM-5 definition. The diagnostic criteria for CD will remain unchanged in DSM-5, but the introduction of a specifier of CD with a callous-unemotional (CU) presentation is new. Linked to this, we discuss the pros and cons of various other ways to subtype aggression/CD symptoms. Existing guidelines for CD are, with few exceptions, already of a relatively older date and emphasize that clinical assessment should be systematic and comprehensive and based on a multi-informant approach. Non-medical psychosocial interventions are recommended as the first option for the treatment of CD. There is a role for medication in the treatment of comorbid syndromes and/or in case of insufficient response to psychosocial interventions and severe and dangerous aggressive and violent behaviours.

  20. Hospital-based child protection teams that care for parents who abuse or neglect their children recognize the need for multidisciplinary collaborative practice involving perinatal care and mental health professionals: a questionnaire survey conducted in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okato, Ayumi; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Tanaka, Mami; Tachibana, Masumi; Machizawa, Akira; Okayama, Jun; Endo, Mamiko; Senda, Masayoshi; Saito, Naoki; Iyo, Masaomi

    2018-01-01

    Child abuse and/or neglect is a serious issue, and in many cases, parents are the perpetrators. Hospital-based child protection teams (CPTs) play pivotal roles in the management of not only abused and/or neglected children but also of their parents; this is generally conducted through multidisciplinary practice. The aim of this study is to survey hospital-based CPT members to determine the professions they perceive to be most applicable to participation in CPTs. The participants were members of CPTs affiliated with hospitals that had pediatric emergency departments and which were located in Chiba Prefecture; specifically, 114 CPT members from 23 hospitals responded to this survey. The two main questionnaire items concerned are as follows: 1) each respondent's evaluation of conducting assessments, providing support, and implementing multidisciplinary collaborative practice in the treatment of abusive and negligent parents, and 2) each CPT member's opinion on the professions that are most important for CPT activities. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to explore the factor structure of the data, and a correlation analysis was performed using the result obtained. The EFA returned two factors: multidisciplinary collaborative practice (α = 0.84) and assessment and support (α = 0.89). A correlational analysis showed that multidisciplinary collaborative practice had a positive correlation for obstetricians ( r = 0.315, p = 0.001), neonatologists ( r = 0.261, p = 0.007), midwives ( r = 0.248, p = 0.011), and psychiatrists ( r = 0.194, p = 0.048); however, assessment and support was only significantly correlated with midwives ( r = 0.208, p = 0.039). This study showed that hospital-based CPT members highly evaluate multidisciplinary collaborative practice for the management of abusive and/or negligent parents, and they believe that, in addition to pediatric physicians and nurses, perinatal care and mental health professionals are the most important

  1. Transparent conducting film: Effect of mechanical stretching

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We describe in this paper a transparent conducting film (TCF). ... conducting carbon nanotube film which is crack-resistant for solar cell applications. ... CA 90095, USA; Nanocomp Technologies, Inc, 162 Pembroke Road, Concord, NH 03301 ...

  2. FY 2000 report on the survey on energy conservation technology of large plant using ultra high corrosion resistant materials; 2000 nendo chokotaishokusei zairyo wo mochiita ogata plant no sho energy gijutsu ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of achieving remarkable energy conservation/resource conservation in large plants, the paper carried out an investigational survey of effects obtained in case of applying amorphous super metal which is the newest corrosion resistant material. Amorphous alloys as an ultra high corrosion resistant material are a peculiar material which shows the extremely excellent corrosion resistance even in much strong acid by containing passivated elements with the needed concentration. The corrosion resistant amorphous alloy applied to large plants need the thickness and diameter of more than several millimeters as a bulk material. The subjects are scaling-up of bulk materials and stabilization of characteristics. Even under the tough dew point corrosion environment of the waste power plant, etc., heat recovery from exhaust gas is made possible by heat exchanger applied with ultra high corrosion resistant materials. Effects of the annual heat recovery from the nationwide refuse incinerators and coal thermal power plants are estimated to be approximately 5.2 million kL toe, that is, to be equal to energy conservation of 6 x a million kW class power plant. (NEDO)

  3. Transparent conducting oxide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivov, Yahya; Singh, Vivek; Ding, Yuchen; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-09-01

    Thin film or porous membranes made of hollow, transparent, conducting oxide (TCO) nanotubes, with high chemical stability, functionalized surfaces and large surface areas, can provide an excellent platform for a wide variety of nanostructured photovoltaic, photodetector, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic devices. While large-bandgap oxide semiconductors offer transparency for incident light (below their nominal bandgap), their low carrier concentration and poor conductivity makes them unsuitable for charge conduction. Moreover, materials with high conductivity have nominally low bandgaps and hence poor light transmittance. Here, we demonstrate thin films and membranes made from TiO2 nanotubes heavily-doped with shallow Niobium (Nb) donors (up to 10%, without phase segregation), using a modified electrochemical anodization process, to fabricate transparent conducting hollow nanotubes. Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics revealed that TiO2 TCO nanotubes, doped with 10% Nb, show metal-like behavior with resistivity decreasing from 6.5 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 300 K (compared to 6.5 × 10-1 Ωcm for nominally undoped nanotubes) to 2.2 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 20 K. Optical properties, studied by reflectance measurements, showed light transmittance up to 90%, within wavelength range 400 nm-1000 nm. Nb doping also improves the field emission properties of TCO nanotubes demonstrating an order of magnitude increase in field-emitter current, compared to undoped samples.

  4. Low thermal conductivity skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleurial, J P; Caillat, T; Borshchevsky, A

    1997-07-01

    Recent experimental results on semiconductors with the skutterudite crystal structure show that these materials possess attractive transport properties and have a good potential for achieving ZT values substantially larger than for state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. Both n-type and p-type conductivity samples have been obtained, using several preparation techniques. Associated with a low hole effective mass, very high carrier mobilities, low electrical resistivities and moderate Seebeck coefficients are obtained in p-type skutterudites. For a comparable doping level, the carrier mobilities of n-type samples are about an order of magnitude lower than the values achieved on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients make n-type skutterudite promising candidates as well. Unfortunately, the thermal conductivities of the binary skutterudites compounds are too large, particularly at low temperatures, to be useful for thermoelectric applications. Several approaches to the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity in skutterudites are being pursued: heavy doping, formation of solid solutions and alloys, study of novel ternary and filled skutterudite compounds. All those approaches have already resulted in skutterudite compositions with substantially lower thermal conductivity values in these materials. Recently, superior thermoelectric properties in the moderate to high temperature range were achieved for compositions combining alloying and filling of the skutterudite structure. Experimental results and mechanisms responsible for low thermal conductivity in skutterudites are discussed.

  5. Web-Based Surveys: Not Your Basic Survey Anymore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Web-based surveys are not new to the library environment. Although such surveys began as extensions of print surveys, the Web-based environment offers a number of approaches to conducting a survey that the print environment cannot duplicate easily. Since 1994, the author and others have conducted national surveys of public library Internet…

  6. Distribution of Serum Total Homocysteine and Its Association with Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Mexican American Men: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillum Richard

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data have been published on the association of variables of the insulin resistance syndrome and serum total homocysteine (tHcy, a putative risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity, in representative samples of total populations or in Hispanic Americans. Methods To describe the distributions of serum tHcy concentration and variables associated with insulin resistance in Mexican American men and to assess their association, data from a cross-sectional survey of a large national sample, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Analyses were restricted to Mexican American men aged 40–74 years with data on glycated hemoglobin (%, body mass index (BMI, body fat distribution, HDL cholesterol, fasting serum insulin, serum triglycerides and serum tHcy concentrations. Results Cumulative distributions of serum tHcy shifted to the right with increasing age. Log serum tHcy was not associated with prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus or glycated hemoglobin percent or other risk factors other than age. Log serum tHcy concentration showed borderline significant (p = 0.049 positive association with fasting serum insulin concentration independent of age and BMI, only in men aged 60–74. Conclusion No consistent association of tHcy with diabetes prevalence or variables of the insulin resistance syndrome were found in Mexican American men aged 40–74 years. Further research is needed on the associations of serum tHcy concentration with insulin resistance and other components of the insulin resistance syndrome in persons of varying ethnicity.

  7. Association of insulin resistance with near peak bone mass in the femur and lumbar spine of Korean adults aged 25-35: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Min Soo; Choi, Se Rin; Han, Jun Hyun; Lee, Seong Ho

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between insulin resistance and the bone mineral density (BMD) of femur and lumbar spine in Korean adults who are expected to exhibit near peak bone mass. Methods Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2010 were analyzed. A total of 2,750 participants aged 25−35 years were included. Insulin resistance was assessed using a homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and serum fasting insulin. Results In a multivariate linear regression analysis, the HOMA-IR was significantly inversely associated with the BMD of the total hip (TH, β = −0.052, P = 0.002), femoral neck (FN, β = −0.072, Pinsulin was significantly inversely associated with the BMD of the TH (β = −0.055, P = 0.001), FN (β = −0.072, Pinsulin resistance may be independently and inversely associated with the near peak bone mass of the femur and lumbar spine. PMID:28704413

  8. Alumni Perspectives Survey, 2010. Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Sabeen

    2010-01-01

    During the months of April and September of 2009, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) conducted the Alumni Perspectives Survey, a longitudinal study of prior respondents to the Global Management Education Graduate Survey of management students nearing graduation. A total of 3,708 alumni responded to the April 2009 survey,…

  9. Environmental surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa-Ribeiro, C.

    1977-01-01

    An environmental survey conducted in high natural radioactivity areas and methods used to evaluated radiation doses received by the population are presented. It is shown doses absorved due to ingestion of radioactively contaminated food and water. Exposure to external gamma radiation fields or inhalation of abnormal quantities of natural airborne radioactivity are discussed [pt

  10. Preliminary survey of antibiotic-resistant fecal indicator bacteria and pathogenic Escherichia coli from river-water samples collected in Oakland County, Michigan, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Aichele, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary study was done in Oakland County, Michigan, to determine the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliform bacteria and enterococci), antibiotic resistance patterns of these two groups, and the presence of potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli). For selected sites, specific members of these groups [E. coli, Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis)] were isolated and tested for levels of resistance to specific antibiotics used to treat human infections by pathogens in these groups and for their potential to transfer these resistances. In addition, water samples from all sites were tested for indicators of potentially pathogenic E. coli by three assays: a growth-based assay for sorbitol-negative E. coli, an immunological assay for E. coli O157, and a molecular assay for three virulence and two serotype genes. Samples were also collected from two non-urbanized sites outside of Oakland County. Results from the urbanized Oakland County area were compared to those from these two non-urbanized sites. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded State of Michigan recreational water-quality standards and (or) recommended U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards in samples from all but two Oakland County sites. Multiple-antibiotic-resistant fecal coliform bacteria were found at all sites, including two reference sites from outside the county. Two sites (Stony Creek and Paint Creek) yielded fecal coliform isolates resistant to all tested antibiotics. Patterns indicative of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)- producing fecal coliform bacteria were found at eight sites in Oakland County and E. coli resistant to clinically significant antibiotics were recovered from the River Rouge, Clinton River, and Paint Creek. Vancomycin-resistant presumptive enterococci were found at six sites in Oakland County and were not found at the reference sites. Evidence of acquired antibiotic resistances was

  11. GDOT employee survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    The research team worked in collaboration with GDOT to conduct the 2016 GDOT Employee Survey. This research study aimed to increase the response rate and the usefulness of the feedback from the GDOT employee survey to support organizational decisions...

  12. MAX and Survey Linkages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...

  13. Individual’s Resistance Regarding BPM Initiative: Case Study of the Insurance Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Bach Mirjana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Though the individual’s resistance is very often considered a significant barrier to BPM success, the literature on that topic is quite scarce. With the aim to shed light on this topic, we have conducted research of a Croatian insurance company. We examined the impact of individual’s resistance regarding BPM initiative using the theory of reasoned action. Structural equation model was developed using the data collected by the survey among company employees. The results indicate that subjective norms are positively related to the individual’s resistance regarding BPM initiative, while positive initial belief regarding BPM initiative tends to decrease the probability of resistance to change.

  14. High prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis, Republic of Lithuania, 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dewan, P; Sosnovskaja, A; Thomsen, V

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nations of the former Soviet Union have the world's highest reported levels of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs. We conducted the first national survey of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in the Republic of Lithuania. METHODS: We tested Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from all...... isolates, 475 (41%) were resistant to at least one first-line drug, and 263 (23%) were resistant to at least INH and RMP (MDR); this included 76/818 (9.3%) from new patients and 187/345 (54%) from previously treated patients. Of 52 MDR isolates randomly selected for extended testing at an international...

  15. Use of flexible ureteroscopy in the clinical practice for the treatment of renal stones: results from a large European survey conducted by the EAU Young Academic Urologists-Working Party on Endourology and Urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguedolce, F; Liatsikos, E; Verze, P; Hruby, S; Breda, A; Beatty, J D; Knoll, T

    2014-08-01

    Treatment of renal stones using flexible ureteroscopy (fURS) is increasingly common despite the poor evidence in literature supporting its use and indications. With this study, we wanted to investigate the current use and indication of fURS for the treatment of renal stones in the clinical practice across the European countries. A survey was conducted using an emailed questionnaire consisting of 21 items; 2,894 recipients were selected via the EAU membership database. The questionnaires were collected through the SurveyMonkey system and the data were processed with the SPSS statistical package. Frequencies, cross tabs and Pearson correlation coefficients were applied as appropriate. 1,168 questionnaires were collected (response rate 40.4%). fURS was performed in 72.9% of the respondents' institutions, and 54.2% of the respondents were performing the procedure. For 95% of the users, fURS was considered first-line treatment, for stone of lower pole stone (45.9%) and <1 cm (44.2%) and 2 cm (43.8%) in size. The ureteral access sheaths were used routinely by more than 70% of the respondents. Lower pole stone repositioning technique was routinely performed by 45.9% of the surgeons. After fragmentation, 47.2% of the responders preferred to retrieve only the bigger fragments. At the end of fURS, lower volume surgeons were more likely to place routinely a double-J stent (p = 0.001). Higher volume surgeons estimated a higher durability of devices, both optical and digital ones (p < 0.001), and were more prone to consider fURS cost-effective when compared to other treatment modalities (p < 0.001). fURS is widely used for the treatment of renal stones and its use and indication can vary according to the age and surgeons' case volume. Higher volume surgeons are more prompt to extend international guidelines indications and to consider the technology cost-effective.

  16. Thermal conductivity of high purity vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and electrical resistivity of four high-purity vanadium samples were measured over the temperature range 5 to 300 0 K. The highest purity sample had a resistance ratio (rho 273 /rho 4 . 2 ) of 1524. The highest purity sample had a thermal conductivity maximum of 920 W/mK at 9 0 K and had a thermal conductivity of 35 W/mK at room temperature. At low temperatures, the thermal resistivity was limited by the scattering of electrons by impurities and phonons. The thermal resistivity of vanadium departed from Matthiessen's rule at low temperatures. The electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of high purity vanadium showed no anomalous behavior above 130 0 K. The intrinsic electrical resistivity at low temperatures was due primarily to interband scattering of electrons. The Seebeck coefficient was positive from 10 to 240 0 K and had a maximum which was dependent upon sample purity

  17. Numerical modeling to assess the sensitivity and resolution of long-electrode electrical resistance tomography (LEERT) surveys to monitor CO2 migration, Phase 1B area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Abelardo L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-05-18

    This document describes the results of a numerical modeling study that evaluated whether LEERT could be used successfully to monitor CO2 distribution in the Weyburn- Midale reservoir, Phase 1B area. The magnitude of electrical resistivity changes and the technique’s resolution depend on many site-specific factors including well separation distances, casing lengths, reservoir depth, thickness, and composition, and the effect of CO2 on the electrical properties of the reservoir. Phase 1B-specific numerical modeling of the electrical response to CO2 injection has been performed to assess sensitivity and resolution of the electrical surveys.

  18. The environmental survey manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance to the Survey and Sampling and Analysis teams that conduct the one-time Environmental Survey of the major US Department of Energy (DOE) operating facilities. This manual includes a discussion of DOE's policy on environmental issues, a review of statutory guidance as it applies to the Survey, the procedures and protocols to be used by the Survey teams, criteria for the use of the Survey teams in evaluating existing environmental data for the Survey effort, generic technical checklists used in every Survey, health and safety guidelines for the personnel conducting the Survey, including the identification of potential hazards, prescribed protective equipment, and emergency procedures, the required formats for the Survey reports, guidance on identifying environmental problems that need immediate attention by the Operations Office responsible for the particular facility, and procedures and protocols for the conduct of sampling and analysis

  19. Evaluation of groundwater potentiality survey in south Ataqa-northwestern part of Gulf of Suez by using resistivity data and site-selection modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sultan Awad; Essa, Khalid Sayed Ahmed Tawfik; Khalil, Mohamed Hassan; El-Nahry, Alaa Eldin Hassan; Galal, Alaa Nayef Hasan

    2017-06-01

    The integration between advanced techniques for groundwater exploration is necessary to manage and protect the vital resources. Direct current (DC) resistivity geoelectrical technique, Enhanced Thematic Mapper Landsat (ETM+) images and a geographic information system (GIS) are integrated to identify the groundwater potentiality in the study area. The interpretation of the one-dimensional (1-D) inversion of the acquired resistivity data are implemented for mapping the fresh to slightly brackish water aquifer. This number of vertical electric sounding is quite enough for different geologic mapping. The depth to the top of the ground water table (obtained from the existing Water well) and subsurface lithological information are used to calibrate the results of the resistivity data inversion. This research discussed how the integration between the geoelectrical parameters and hydrological data, could be used to determine the appropriate locations of dams construction and recommend the appropriate methods for management and rehabilitation of the aquifer.

  20. TIGA-CUB - manualised psychoanalytic child psychotherapy versus treatment as usual for children aged 5-11 years with treatment-resistant conduct disorders and their primary carers: study protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edginton, Elizabeth; Walwyn, Rebecca; Burton, Kayleigh; Cicero, Robert; Graham, Liz; Reed, Sadie; Tubeuf, Sandy; Twiddy, Maureen; Wright-Hughes, Alex; Ellis, Lynda; Evans, Dot; Hughes, Tom; Midgley, Nick; Wallis, Paul; Cottrell, David

    2017-09-15

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends evidence-based parenting programmes as a first-line intervention for conduct disorders (CD) in children aged 5-11 years. As these are not effective in 25-33% of cases, NICE has requested research into second-line interventions. Child and Adolescent Psychotherapists (CAPTs) address highly complex problems where first-line treatments have failed and there have been small-scale studies of Psychoanalytic Child Psychotherapy (PCP) for CD. A feasibility trial is needed to determine whether a confirmatory trial of manualised PCP (mPCP) versus Treatment as Usual (TaU) for CD is practicable or needs refinement. The aim of this paper is to publish the abridged protocol of this feasibility trial. TIGA-CUB (Trial on improving Inter-Generational Attachment for Children Undergoing Behaviour problems) is a two-arm, pragmatic, parallel-group, multicentre, individually randomised (1:1) controlled feasibility trial (target n = 60) with blinded outcome assessment (at 4 and 8 months), which aims to develop an optimum practicable protocol for a confirmatory, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial (RCT) (primary outcome: child's behaviour; secondary outcomes: parental reflective functioning and mental health, child and parent quality of life), comparing mPCP and TaU as second-line treatments for children aged 5-11 years with treatment-resistant CD and inter-generational attachment difficulties, and for their primary carers. Child-primary carer dyads will be recruited following a referral to, or re-referral within, National Health Service (NHS) Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) after an unsuccessful first-line parenting intervention. PCP will be delivered by qualified CAPTs working in routine NHS clinical practice, using a trial-specific PCP manual (a brief version of established PCP clinical practice). Outcomes are: (1) feasibility of recruitment methods, (2) uptake and follow-up rates, (3

  1. Using a constructive pavement texture index for skid resistance screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Pei Chou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Skid resistance measurement is one of the major measurements used to assess road safety. Typical devices used for measuring skid resistance include single point checking type and continuous measurements type. However, conducting periodic full roadway network skid resistance survey can be a relatively time consuming and difficult task because of the limited water carrying capacity used by all kinds of devices, including the continuous types. On the contrary, measurement of pavement surface texture can be conducted easily and continuously by most profilers. This research investigates the relation between pavement skid resistance and surface texture. The focus is on the development of a texture index that can serve as a screening indicator to filter out the high-risk pavement sections for further skid resistance measurement. Two measuring devices, GripTester (GT and National Taiwan University laser profiler (NTU Profiler, were used to collect data on pavement skid resistance and texture in a network of 555 sections, respectively. The pavement texture index of the mean difference of elevation (MDE is calculated at a 1 mm profile interval, which is a very promising indicator to represent pavement skid resistance. Through a sensitivity study, the MDE threshold of 0.15 mm is observed to provide a relatively reasonable screening function that filters out 29.01% of the entire surveyed network for further skid resistance inspection. It averted more than 70% skid resistance measurement capacity of the entire network. The accuracy of correct judgment by the selected threshold is about 80%, only 3.78% of roadway sections considered for further inspection of the recommended list are not included. Keywords: Skid resistance, Pavement texture, Macrotexture, Laser profiler, GripTester

  2. Results of a survey on the electricity end uses conducted in Guadalajara and Monterrey homes; Resultados de una encuesta de usos finales de electricidad en los hogares de Guadalajara y Monterrey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, Rafael; Nixon, Michael [University of California, Berkeley, CA. (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents here the results of a survey conducted in summer 1992 at Guadalajara and Monterrey homes. The survey main objective was to examine the potential of the replacement of incandescent bulbs for fluorescent compact bulbs (FCBs) to save electricity. Additionally it was determined the saturation level of other electric home appliances. Considering the physical restrictions of lanterns, during the evening demand peak hours a maximum of about 3.6 million of FCBs can be introduced into the electric network between 8:00 and 9:00 Pm, economizing about 207 MW. It was found that the importance of lighting, the potential of FCBs and the equipment with electric home appliances varies significantly in accordance with the electricity consumption at home. Lighting represents at least about 22% and 14% of the total electricity consumption in the homes of Guadalajara and Monterrey, respectively. This percentage is higher among low electricity consumption users. The saturation in electrical home appliances demonstrated the importance of the refrigerators, TV sets, and air conditioning units (these ones only for Monterrey). In both cities about 1.5 TV sets and 0.96 refrigerators per home were reported. In Monterrey 0.4 air conditioning units and 1.6 electric fans per home were reported. In Guadalajara only about 0.5 fans per home were reported. The results of this survey show the importance of promoting programs to increase the energy efficiency to cover the lighting and refrigeration needs in both cities and air conditioning in Monterrey. [Espanol] Se muestran los resultados de una encuesta realizada en el verano de 1992 en los hogares de Guadalajara y Monterrey. La encuesta tenia como objetivo principal examinar el potencial de reemplazo de focos incandescentes con focos compactos fluorescentes (FCFs) para ahorrar electricidad. Ademas se determino el nivel de saturacion de otros enseres electricos en los hogares. Tomando en cuenta restricciones fisicas de luminarias

  3. Hospital-based child protection teams that care for parents who abuse or neglect their children recognize the need for multidisciplinary collaborative practice involving perinatal care and mental health professionals: a questionnaire survey conducted in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okato A

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ayumi Okato,1 Tasuku Hashimoto,1 Mami Tanaka,2 Masumi Tachibana,1 Akira Machizawa,3 Jun Okayama,4 Mamiko Endo,5 Masayoshi Senda,6,7 Naoki Saito,5,7 Masaomi Iyo1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 2Division of Clinical Study on Juvenile Delinquency, Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba University, 3Department of Psychiatry, Chiba University Hospital, 4Department of Reproductive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 5Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 6Department of Pediatrics, Asahi General Hospital, 7Division of Clinical Forensic Medicine, Education and Research Center of Legal Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan Background: Child abuse and/or neglect is a serious issue, and in many cases, parents are the perpetrators. Hospital-based child protection teams (CPTs play pivotal roles in the management of not only abused and/or neglected children but also of their parents; this is generally conducted through multidisciplinary practice. The aim of this study is to survey hospital-based CPT members to determine the professions they perceive to be most applicable to participation in CPTs. Participants and methods: The participants were members of CPTs affiliated with hospitals that had pediatric emergency departments and which were located in Chiba Prefecture; specifically, 114 CPT members from 23 hospitals responded to this survey. The two main questionnaire items concerned are as follows: 1 each respondent’s evaluation of conducting assessments, providing support, and implementing multidisciplinary collaborative practice in the treatment of abusive and negligent parents, and 2 each CPT member’s opinion on the professions that are most important for CPT activities. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA was performed to explore the factor structure of the data, and a correlation analysis was performed using the result obtained. Results: The EFA

  4. [Drug advertising--users want information. Report of telephone survey conducted by North-Rhine Westphalia Public Health Service on the topic of drug advertising and drug information for users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puteanus, U

    2000-10-01

    In Germany, drug advertising of non-prescription drugs is a controversial subject. On the one hand, consumer organisations plead for placing a ban on advertising or at least to offer a detailed description of medical risks in respect of protection. On the other hand, the pharmaceutical industry is keen on liberalizing the specific advertising law for drugs. A representative telephone survey among the population of North Rhine-Westphalia was conducted in April and May 1999. It showed consumer interest in advertising, the value of information on risks, the institution with maximum credibility in drug information for consumers, the importance of the now obligatory sentence after every advertisement: Regarding risks and side effects read the leaflet in the package and ask your physician or pharmacist, and to what extend the consumer would take advice from independent experts over the telephone about drugs. It was found that, in particular women, about 30% are occasionally interested in advertising, younger people are more open-minded about advertising than older people; and that doctors and pharmacists have the most credibility and are consulted for further information. It was also found that more than 80% of the population demanded precise information on the side effects of drugs. One-third of the consumers declared that the obligatory sentence (see above) led to greater demand for information from doctors or to read attentively the instruction leaflet. Nevertheless, there is a need for more information from more than half of the consumers, who would take advantage of an independent advice centre if this should exist.

  5. The Use of Resistivity Methods in Terrestrial Forensic Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R. C.; Raisuddin, I.; Bank, C.

    2013-12-01

    The increasing use of near-surface geophysical methods in forensic searches has demonstrated the need for further studies to identify the ideal physical, environmental and temporal settings for each geophysical method. Previous studies using resistivity methods have shown promising results, but additional work is required to more accurately interpret and analyze survey findings. The Ontario Provincial Police's UCRT (Urban Search and Rescue; Chemical, Biolgical, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosives; Response Team) is collaborating with the University of Toronto and two additional universities in a multi-year study investigating the applications of near-surface geophysical methods to terrestrial forensic searches. In the summer of 2012, on a test site near Bolton, Ontario, the OPP buried weapons, drums and pigs (naked, tarped, and clothed) to simulate clandestine graves and caches. Our study aims to conduct repeat surveys using an IRIS Syscal Junior with 48 electrode switching system resistivity-meter. These surveys will monitor changes in resistivity reflecting decomposition of the object since burial, and identify the strengths and weaknesses of resistivity when used in a rural, clandestine burial setting. Our initial findings indicate the usefulness of this method, as prominent resistivity changes have been observed. We anticipate our results will help to assist law enforcement agencies in determining the type of resistivity results to expect based on time since burial, depth of burial and state of dress of the body.

  6. The survey of the Omagari fault using electric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Koichi; Kishimoto, Munemaru; Negi, Tateyuki; Teshima, Minoru

    2005-08-01

    The present document is to report the results of geophysical survey by electric survey around a site proposed for the Horonobe Underground Research Program at Horonobe-cho, Hokkaido by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute. Electric survey using dipole-dipole array was carried out at 2,061 points using 101 electrodes over 1 km survey line in the area of Hokushin in Horonobe-cho near presumed Omagari-fault. Two dimensional resistivity inversion analysis was carried out and the resistivity structure from the surface to 250 m below sea level became clear. The resistivity structure was studied by comparing structure presumed from existing geological and geophysical informations. Resistivity distribution near surface was about 100 ohm-m and it became from 10 to 2 ohm-m as the depth increasing. Resistivity near presumed Omagari-fault was relatively lower than around that fault. Resistivity distribution was good agreement with two dimensional resistivity structure perfumed by AMT survey (2003) and existing electrical resistivity log data. Resistivity distribution of shallow zone at survey area was clear because the density of survey points were very high. (author)

  7. Thermal conductivity of granular porous media: A pore scale modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Askari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pore scale modeling method has been widely used in the petrophysical studies to estimate macroscopic properties (e.g. porosity, permeability, and electrical resistivity of porous media with respect to their micro structures. Although there is a sumptuous literature about the application of the method to study flow in porous media, there are fewer studies regarding its application to thermal conduction characterization, and the estimation of effective thermal conductivity, which is a salient parameter in many engineering surveys (e.g. geothermal resources and heavy oil recovery. By considering thermal contact resistance, we demonstrate the robustness of the method for predicting the effective thermal conductivity. According to our results obtained from Utah oil sand samples simulations, the simulation of thermal contact resistance is pivotal to grant reliable estimates of effective thermal conductivity. Our estimated effective thermal conductivities exhibit a better compatibility with the experimental data in companion with some famous experimental and analytical equations for the calculation of the effective thermal conductivity. In addition, we reconstruct a porous medium for an Alberta oil sand sample. By increasing roughness, we observe the effect of thermal contact resistance in the decrease of the effective thermal conductivity. However, the roughness effect becomes more noticeable when there is a higher thermal conductivity of solid to fluid ratio. Moreover, by considering the thermal resistance in porous media with different grains sizes, we find that the effective thermal conductivity augments with increased grain size. Our observation is in a reasonable accordance with experimental results. This demonstrates the usefulness of our modeling approach for further computational studies of heat transfer in porous media.

  8. Analysis of polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum genes related to drug resistance: a survey over four decades under different treatment policies in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Juliana; Lopes, Dinora; do Rosário, Virgílio; Machado, Marta; Hristov, Angélica D; Lima, Giselle Fmc; Costa-Nascimento, Maria J; Segurado, Aluísio C; Di Santi, Silvia M

    2014-09-19

    Anti-malarial resistance in Plasmodium falciparum remains an obstacle for malaria control. Resistance-associated genes were analysed in Brazilian samples over four decades to evaluate the impact of different treatment regimens on the parasite genetic profile. Samples were collected on filter paper from patients infected in the Amazon region from 1984 to 2011. DNA was extracted with Chelex® 100 and monoinfection confirmed by PCR. SNPs in the pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhfr and pfdhps genes were assessed by PCR-RFLP. The pfmdr1 copy number was estimated using real time quantitative PCR with SYBR® Green. Parasite response was assessed ex vivo with seven concentrations of each anti-malarial. Patients were treated according to Brazilian guidelines: quinine plus tetracycline or mefloquine in period 1 and ACT in period 2. All 96 samples presented the pfcrt 76T mutant throughout the assessed periods. In addition, all isolates showed ex vivo chloroquine resistance. The pfmdr1 86Y was detected in 1.5% of samples in period 1, and in 25% in period 2. All samples presented the pfmdr1 1246Y. The analysis of pfmdr1 copy number showed amplification in 37.3% in period 1 and in 42% in period 2. Mutations in pfdhfr were shown as follows: 51I in all samples in period 1 and in 81.2% in period 2; 59R in 6.4% in period 2. The pfdhfr 108N and the pfdhps 437G were seen in all samples along time; the pfdhps 540E in 93.7% in period 1 and in 75% in period 2. The 76T mutation associated to chloroquine resistance is still present in the parasite population, although this anti-malarial was withdrawn from the chemotherapy of P. falciparum in Brazil in the mid-1980s. All isolates assayed ex vivo for chloroquine showed resistant phenotype and 76T. No association was observed between pfmdr1 mutations and resistance to quinine, mefloquine and artemisinin derivatives. Additionally, the pfdhfr 108N mutation was detected in all samples throughout the evaluated periods, demonstrating fixation of the mutant

  9. In-Situ Survey System of Resistive and Thermoelectric Properties of Either Pure or Mixed Materials in Thin Films Evaporated Under Ultra High Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechevallier, L.; Le Huerou, J.-Y.; Richon, G.; Sarrau, J.-M.; Gouault, J.

    1995-04-01

    The study of thermoelectric and resistive in situ behaviours depending on temperature for thin films of either pure or composite materials obtained under ultra-high vacuum, is very interesting, since they can be used as strain gauges or superficial resistances. However, studies become particularly difficult when the measurements generate very low-level electrical signals. Indeed, these turn out to be hardly detectable because of the perturbations brought by the experimental environment. The apparatus described below allows for the measurement of resistance with a relative uncertainty of 2×10^{-4}, resistance variation with an absolute uncertainty of 2 mΩ and thermoelectric e.m.f. of about 2 μV. Films studied in the laboratory generally exhibit resistances lower than 100 Ω and resistance variations due to temperature variations of about a few ohms. So this device has sufficient technical characteristics for our studies. It can be connected to a PC, which allows for easy data collection and treatment. L'étude des comportements résistif et thermoélectrique in situ en fonction de la température de couches minces de matériaux simples ou composites obtenus en milieu raréfié s'avére intéressante en vue d'applications comme jauge de contrainte ou résistance superficielle mais particulièrement délicate lorsque les mesures donnent naissance à des signaux électriques de très faible amplitude. Ces derniers deviennent en effet difficilement décelables en raison des perturbations apportées par l'environnement expérimental. Le système qui est décrit ici permet de mesurer des résistances avec une certitude relative de 2×10^{-4} et d'apprécier des variations de résistance de 2 mΩ et des f.e.m. thermoélectriques de l'ordre de 2 μV. Les couches étudiées au laboratoire présentent généralement des résistances inférieures à 100 Ω et des variations de résistance dues aux variations de température de l'ordre de quelques Ω. Le dispositif de mesure

  10. Investigating Resistance of Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. ‎Populations to Tribenuron-Methyl Herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ‎ Mehdi Afshari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tribenuron-methyl is commonly used for post emergence control of broad leaf weeds in wheat fields. In order to survey suspicious resistant weeds in wheat fields to this herbicide thirty-eight fields of Kermanshah province were investigated during 2012- 2013. Seeds of suspected resistance of wild mustard were gathered and tested in a randomized complete blocks design experiment with three replications. First, for early detection of herbicide resistance, the suspected population was screened using discriminating dose of tribenuron-methyl. Determining of the resistance degree was conducted by whole plant bioassay tests using dose-response curves. The resistance mechanisms were assayed by molecular methods, especially using the ALS gene cloning by PJET1.2/blunt Vector. For susceptible populations, the concentration required for complete control was 10.4 g ai ha-1 tribenuron-methyl. Also, in screening tests 50% of populations as resistant populations were identified. According to the Beckie and Tardif, it was found that 57.8% of these population did have a very high degree of resistance, 31.5% with high resistance and 10/5% with low resistance degree. GR50 of the resistant weeds was also increased as compared to sensitive weed, which indicates resistance in this province, Thus to control the resistant populations Z15, this amount increased to 1309 g ai ha-1.The results of DNA sequencing showed that mutation by replacing proline amino acid at position Ala122 causes resistance based on target-site mutation.

  11. Relationship between insulin resistance-associated metabolic parameters and anthropometric measurements with sugar-sweetened beverage intake and physical activity levels in US adolescents: findings from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Andrew A; Auinger, Peggy; Byrd, Robert S

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship between insulin resistance-associated metabolic parameters and anthropometric measurements with sugar-sweetened beverage intake and physical activity levels. A cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. Nationally representative samples of US adolescents participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during the years 1999-2004. A total of 6967 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and physical activity levels. Glucose and insulin concentrations, a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, triglyceride concentrations, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) percentile for age and sex. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that increased sugar-sweetened beverage intake was independently associated with increased HOMA-IR, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index percentile for age and sex and decreased HDL cholesterol concentrations; alternatively, increased physical activity levels were independently associated with decreased HOMA-IR, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, and triglyceride concentrations and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Furthermore, low sugar-sweetened beverage intake and high physical activity levels appear to modify each others' effects of decreasing HOMA-IR and triglyceride concentrations and increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake and physical activity levels are each independently associated with insulin resistance-associated metabolic parameters and anthropometric measurements in adolescents. Moreover, low sugar

  12. Taking stock of infections and antibiotic resistance in the elderly and long-term care facilities: A survey of existing and upcoming challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, S; Bonomo, R A

    2011-09-01

    Treating elderly patients with infections represents one of the greatest challenges to health-care providers. Older adults are the largest growing sector of the population and suffer excessively from infectious diseases such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and skin and soft-tissue infections. Often because of disabilities, the elderly require treatment of infectious diseases in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). As a result of antibiotic use, LTCFs have become "reservoirs of resistance" and multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens are frequently recovered. Clinicians also need to be aware of the impairment of immune function and other emerging chronic infections (HIV, HCV) that are now present in the elderly. Despite vigilance regarding this issue, delays in diagnosis and initiation of therapy are common. This article reviews the changing landscape of infections in the elderly and the challenge these syndromes present in the context of an increasing older population that requires dedicated resources.

  13. Nanostructured conductive polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed H.

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) are a suitable alternative to metals in many applications due to their light-weight, corrosion resistance, low cost, ease of processing and design flexibility. CPCs have been formulated using different types of conductive fillers. In this PhD thesis, the focus is on CPCs for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and electromagnetic interference (EMI) attenuation. Despite the versatility of conductive fillers, carbon black (CB) has been the dominant filler to make CPCs for ESD protection applications because CB/polymer composites have a cost advantage over all other CPCs. For EMI shielding, stainless steel fibres and metal coated fibers are the preferred fillers, however CPCs made of those fibers are not the dominant EMI shielding materials. Metal coated and polymer plated polymers are the most widely used EMI shielding options. The limited use of CPCs in the EMI shielding market is because the high filler loading required to formulate a composite with an adequate level of shielding remarkably increases the composite price. In order to increase the competitiveness of CPCs, percolation threshold should be minimized as much as possible and composites with high EMI shielding capabilities at low filler loading should be formulated because all conductive fillers are expensive compared to polymers. In this thesis, two different methodologies to reduce percolation threshold in CPCs have been successfully developed and a CPC with exceptional EMI shielding capability has been formulated using copper nanowires as conductive filler. The first percolation threshold reduction technique is based on the selective localization of CB at the interface of immiscible polymer blend. The technique requires adding a copolymer that prefers the blend's interface and for which CB nanoparticles has the highest affinity. The second method is based on producing a CPC powder and then using this powder as a conductive filler to produce composite by dry

  14. High prevalence of hospital-acquired infections caused by gram-negative carbapenem resistant strains in Vietnamese pediatric ICUs: A multi-centre point prevalence survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, N.K.; Wertheim, H.F.L.; Vu, P.D.; Khu, D.T.; Le, H.T.; Hoang, B.T.; Vo, V.T.; Lam, Y.M.; Vu, D.T.; Nguyen, Thanh Son; Thai, T.Q.; Nilsson, L.E.; Rydell, U.; Nguyen, K.V.; Nadjm, B.; Clarkson, L.; Hanberger, H.; Larsson, M.

    2016-01-01

    There is scarce information regarding hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) among children in resource-constrained settings. This study aims to measure prevalence of HAIs in Vietnamese pediatric hospitals.Monthly point prevalence surveys (PPSs) in 6 pediatric intensive care units (ICUs) in 3 referral

  15. Adiposity in the Relationship between Serum Vitamin D Level and Insulin Resistance in Middle-Aged and Elderly Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Kang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe role of adiposity in the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and insulin resistance has not yet been fully studied. This aim of this study is to clarify the role of adiposity in the relationship between serum vitamin D level and insulin resistance among middle-aged and elderly Korean adults.MethodsWe used data from 2,710 individuals aged ≥50 years based on national data from a representative sample of the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV-2 in 2008.ResultsAfter adjustment for potential confounders, body mass index (BMI was significantly associated with 25(OH vitamin D (P=0.008. However, waist circumference was not significantly associated with 25(OH vitamin D. In the stratified analyses, 25(OH vitamin D was found to be negatively associated with fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR in participants with BMIs ≥25 kg/m2 (P=0.003 for both insulin and HOMR-IR but was not found to be associated in those with BMIs <23 kg/m2. However, we observed a significant inverse in the association of 25(OH vitamin D with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR in both the normal (P=0.001 and P<0.001 and the abdominally obese group (P=0.010 and P=0.009 in the stratified analyses according to abdominal obesity.ConclusionOur results support that the idea that endogenously-produced vitamin D might be stored in subcutaneous fat deposits. In addition, the association of vitamin D with insulin resistance in middle-aged and elderly Korean adults was stronger when it was stratified by BMI than when abdominal obesity status.

  16. Association of insulin resistance with near peak bone mass in the femur and lumbar spine of Korean adults aged 25-35: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Soo Choo

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between insulin resistance and the bone mineral density (BMD of femur and lumbar spine in Korean adults who are expected to exhibit near peak bone mass.Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010 were analyzed. A total of 2,750 participants aged 25-35 years were included. Insulin resistance was assessed using a homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and serum fasting insulin.In a multivariate linear regression analysis, the HOMA-IR was significantly inversely associated with the BMD of the total hip (TH, β = -0.052, P = 0.002, femoral neck (FN, β = -0.072, P<0.001, femoral trochanter (FTr, β = -0.055, P = 0.003, femoral intertrochanter (FITr, β = -0.041, P = 0.015, and lumbar spine (LS, β = -0.063, P = 0.001 among all study subjects after adjustment for gender, age, height, weight, whole body fat mass percentage, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, vitamin D, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, education level, and household income in both genders as well as labor, the use of oral contraceptives, and age at menarche in females. The serum fasting insulin was significantly inversely associated with the BMD of the TH (β = -0.055, P = 0.001, FN (β = -0.072, P<0.001, FTr (β = -0.055, P = 0.003, FITr (β = -0.045, P = 0.009, and LS (β = -0.064, P = 0.001 among all subjects in a multivariate linear regression analysis.Our results suggest that insulin resistance may be independently and inversely associated with the near peak bone mass of the femur and lumbar spine.

  17. Status of surface conduction in topological insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barua, Sourabh; Rajeev, K. P.

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we scrutinize the thickness dependent resistivity data from the recent literature on electrical transport measurements in topological insulators. A linear increase in resistivity with increase in thickness is expected in the case of these materials since they have an insulating bulk and a conducting surface. However, such a trend is not seen in the resistivity versus thickness data for all the cases examined, except for some samples, where it holds for a range of thickness

  18. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to anodized surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic, electrostaticdischarge- suppressing finishes: examples include silver impregnated anodized, black electroless nickel, black chrome, and black copper. In

  19. Gray whale survey and sightings ranging from California to Kodiak Island, Alaska conducted by the National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 1993-07-05 to 2014-10-24 (NCEI Accession 0145636)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) survey and sightings data from 1993 - 2014 collected by the National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem...

  20. Nearshore fish survey in northern Bristol Bay, Alaska conducted from 2009-07 to 2009-08 by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Resource Ecology and Fisheries Management division (NCEI Accession 0144625)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project consisted of a nearshore fish, invertebrate, and habitat survey in northern Bristol Bay, Alaska. A 32-ft. gillnet vessel, the F/V Willow was chartered...

  1. Visual surveys of cetaceans conducted in the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 2010-08-25 to 2015-09-28 (NCEI Accession 0137906)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of several inter-agency agreements between the National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), visual surveys of...

  2. North Pacific right whale aerial surveys conducted in the southeastern Bering Sea by the Alaska Fisheries Scientific Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 2008-07-24 to 2009-08-25 (NCEI Accession 0135767)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of an inter-agency agreement between the National Marine Mammal Laboratory and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, aerial surveys of the North Aleutian...

  3. AFSC/REFM: Inshore research surveys in the eastern and central Gulf of Alaska, 2010-2013, conducted by the middle trophic level component of the GOA Integrated Ecosystem Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains the results of a series of inshore research surveys that took place during 2010-2013 as part of the Gulf of Alaska Integrated Ecosystem...

  4. Killer whale surveys conducted in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 2001-07-01 to 2010-07-12 (NCEI Accession 0137766)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of line-transect data collected on surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010....

  5. Delineation of graves using electrical resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nero, Callistus; Aning, Akwasi Acheampong; Danuor, Sylvester K.; Noye, Reginald M.

    2016-03-01

    A suspected old royal cemetery has been surveyed at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) campus, Kumasi, Ghana using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) with the objective of detecting graves in order to make informed decisions with regard to the future use of the area. The survey was conducted on a 10,000 m2 area. Continuous Vertical Electrical Sounding (CVES) was combined with the roll along technique for 51 profiles with 1 m probe separation separated by 2 m. Inverted data results indicated wide resistivity variations ranging between 9.34 Ωm and 600 Ωm in the near surface. Such heterogeneity suggests a disturbance of the soil at this level. Both high (≥ 600 Ωm) and low resistivity (≤ 74.7 Ωm) anomalies, relative to background levels, were identified within the first 4 m of the subsurface. These were suspected to be burial tombs because of their rectangular geometries and resistivity contrasts. The results were validated with forward numerical modeling results. The study area is therefore an old cemetery and should be preserved as a cultural heritage site.

  6. Surveying Future Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, John E.

    2016-06-01

    The now standard model of cosmology has been tested and refined by the analysis of increasingly sensitive, large astronomical surveys, especially with statistically significant millimeter-wave surveys of the cosmic microwave background and optical surveys of the distribution of galaxies. This talk will offer a glimpse of the future, which promises an acceleration of this trend with cosmological information coming from new surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as particles and even gravitational waves.

  7. Realization of the Switching Mechanism in Resistance Random Access Memory™ Devices: Structural and Electronic Properties Affecting Electron Conductivity in a Hafnium Oxide-Electrode System Through First-Principles Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspera, Susan Meñez; Kasai, Hideaki; Kishi, Hirofumi; Awaya, Nobuyoshi; Ohnishi, Shigeo; Tamai, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    The resistance random access memory (RRAM™) device, with its electrically induced nanoscale resistive switching capacity, has attracted considerable attention as a future nonvolatile memory device. Here, we propose a mechanism of switching based on an oxygen vacancy migration-driven change in the electronic properties of the transition-metal oxide film stimulated by set pulse voltages. We used density functional theory-based calculations to account for the effect of oxygen vacancies and their migration on the electronic properties of HfO2 and Ta/HfO2 systems, thereby providing a complete explanation of the RRAM™ switching mechanism. Furthermore, computational results on the activation energy barrier for oxygen vacancy migration were found to be consistent with the set and reset pulse voltage obtained from experiments. Understanding this mechanism will be beneficial to effectively realizing the materials design in these devices.

  8. Dalton Highway 9 to 11 Mile expedient resistivity permafrost investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This project performed capacitive coupled resistivity surveys over a roadway reconstruction project in Interior Alaska, for the determination of permafrost extent. The : objective was to ascertain the ability of an expedient earth resistivity survey ...

  9. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Jack J.; Elling, David; Reams, Walter

    1990-01-01

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  10. Mathematical studies and measurements of the influence of the heat conductivity of mortar on the thermal resistance of brick walls. Pt. 2. Rechnerische und messtechnische Untersuchungen ueber den Einfluss der Waermeleitfaehigkeit des Moertels auf den Waermedurchlasswiderstand von Mauerwerk. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The equivalent thermal conductivity of hollow block walls - using different kinds of mortar - was calculated as a factor of the thermal conductivity of the stone for ten different types of hollow stone. Improved dimensions were developed for brickwork with light-weight mortar as compared to brickwork connected with normal mortar. Depending on the stone dimensioning and type of stone the improvement of thermal conductivity lies between 0,03 W(mxK) and 0,07 W/(mxK) given a thermal conductivity of mortar of 0,30 W(mxK). If the latter is 0,15 W(mxK) it comes down to between 0,04 W(mxK) and 0,09 W(mxK).

  11. Helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic geophysical survey data, Swedeburg and Sprague study areas, eastern Nebraska, May 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.D.; Abraham, J.D.; Cannia, J.C.; Minsley, B.J.; Ball, L.B.; Steele, G.V.; Deszcz-Pan, M.

    2011-01-01

    This report is a release of digital data from a helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic survey conducted by Fugro Airborne Surveys in areas of eastern Nebraska as part of a joint hydrologic study by the Lower Platte North and Lower Platte South Natural Resources Districts, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The survey flight lines covered 1,418.6 line km (882 line mile). The survey was flown from April 22 to May 2, 2009. The objective of the contracted survey was to improve the understanding of the relation between surface water and groundwater systems critical to developing groundwater models used in management programs for water resources. The electromagnetic equipment consisted of six different coil-pair orientations that measured resistivity at separate frequencies from about 400 hertz to about 140,000 hertz. The electromagnetic data were converted to georeferenced electrical resistivity grids and maps for each frequency that represent different approximate depths of investigation for each survey area. The electrical resistivity data were input into a numerical inversion to estimate resistivity variations with depth. In addition to the electromagnetic data, total field magnetic data and digital elevation data were collected. Data released in this report consist of flight line data, digital grids, digital databases of the inverted electrical resistivity with depth, and digital maps of the apparent resistivity and total magnetic field. The range of subsurface investigation is comparable to the depth of shallow aquifers. The survey areas, Swedeburg and Sprague, were chosen based on results from test flights in 2007 in eastern Nebraska and needs of local water managers. The geophysical and hydrologic information from U.S. Geological Survey studies are being used by resource managers to develop groundwater resource plans for the area.

  12. Should Colleges Focus More on Personal and Social Responsibility? Initial Findings from Campus Surveys Conducted for the Association of American Colleges and Universities as Part of Its Initiative, Core Commitments: Educating Students for Personal and Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonaros, Mary; Barnhardt, Cassie; Holsapple, Matthew; Moronski, Karen; Vergoth, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    On behalf of the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U), researchers at the University of Michigan's Center for the Study of Higher and Postsecondary Education surveyed 23,000 undergraduate students and 9,000 campus professionals (faculty, academic administrators, and student affairs staff) at 23 institutions participating in…

  13. High-frequency CSMT (HFCSMT) survey system for fine resistivity structures in the shallow subsurface; Hyoso hiteiko seimitsu sokutei sochi (HFCSMT) no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handa, S [Saga University, Saga (Japan); Kinoshita, T; Kozato, T [Construction Project Consultant Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    HFCSMT system has been developed to enhance resolution in CSMT technology. The system covers a frequency band of 1.4kHz-106kHz for transmission, and measurement is performed using 16 frequencies. The transmitter power amplifier operating on a 12V cell is capable of a maximum output of approximately 3A, and the signals can be received at points several 100s of meters away. As for the selection of frequencies, synchronization is ensured for the receiver set no matter what instant the measuring process is commenced, the process being fully automated including the gain control. Phase and amplification values obtained for the electric and magnetic fields are subjected to A/D conversion. The data are stored in the microcomputer memory as apparent resistivity and phase data, and are forwarded to the host computer upon termination of the measuring process. Since both analog processing and digital processing are used, the measurement process is over in approximately 96 seconds. This system is being tested in various fields of technology. 1 fig.

  14. Resisting dehumanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger Marie

    2018-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in the influx of asylum-seekers in Scandinavia, and in Denmark this has led to ever-tighter immigration control. This article discusses emerging practices of refugee solidarity and resistance to hegemonic migration policy in Danish civil society in the wake...... of what has been referred to as the European refugee crisis. It further reflects upon what it means to be a Danish citizen facing the dilemma of law-abiding conduct versus human decency, in line with what Foucault (1983) referred to as ‘ethical self-formation’. This is illustrated through a case study...... of an incident from September 2015, when a member of a Danish City Council offered private shelter to immigrants who were on their way to Norway. The incident led to legal proceedings in August 2016 for what the defendant referred to as ‘the offense of helping fellow human beings in need’. The study is informed...

  15. Engaging patients in the prevention of health care-associated infections: a survey of patients' awareness, knowledge, and perceptions regarding the risks and consequences of infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottum, Andrew; Sethi, Ajay K; Jacobs, Elizabeth; Zerbel, Sara; Gaines, Martha E; Safdar, Nasia

    2013-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are major health care-associated infections (HAIs). Little is known about patients' knowledge of these HAIs. Therefore, we surveyed patients to determine awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of MRSA infections and CDI. An interviewer-administered questionnaire. A tertiary care academic medical center. Adult patients who met at least one of the following criteria: at risk of CDI or MRSA infection, current CDI or colonization or current MRSA infection or colonization, or history of CDI or MRSA infection. Two unique surveys were developed and administered to 100 patients in 2011. Overall, 76% of patients surveyed were aware of MRSA, whereas 44% were aware of C difficile. The strongest predictor of patients' awareness of these infections was having a history of HAI. Patients with a history of HAI were significantly more likely to have heard of both MRSA (odds ratio, 13.29; 95% confidence interval, 2.84-62.14; P = .001) and C difficile (odds ratio, 9.78; 95% confidence interval, 2.66-35.95; P = .001), than those patients without a history of HAI. There was also a significant positive association between having a history of HAI and greater knowledge of the risk factors, health consequences, and prevention techniques relative to CDI and MRSA infections. There are additional opportunities to engage patients about the risks and consequences of MRSA and CDIs, particularly those without a history of HAI. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobial Resistance Control Strategies: A Coordinated Research Initiative Experience in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Lisette; Asenjo, Gabriela; Vergara, Constanza; Cornejo, Javiera

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to gather information on the status of antimicrobial surveillance in the Asia Pacific region and suggest control strategies. Twenty-one economies of the Asia Pacific region participated in this initiative. A survey was conducted on antimicrobial use and surveillance throughout the region. A workshop was carried out to create awareness about the issue and discuss the implementation of control strategies. Based on the survey results and workshop conclusions, it can be established that there is better understanding of the implications of antimicrobial resistance in the human medicine area. Only few economies take actions to control antimicrobial resistance on a veterinary/agricultural level. To confront antimicrobial resistance, it is critical to raise awareness; cooperation between all countries is needed to apply international standards, to be able to have harmonized public policies. Countries must align and improve their systems for surveillance and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in human, animals, and the environment.

  17. Transition conductivity study of high temperature superconductor compounds: the role of fluctuations; Etude de la transition resistive sur des composes supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique le role des fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnon, V

    1991-04-01

    This memory subject is the transition conductivity study of high temperature superconductors in corelation with their anisotropy. Systematic conductivity measurements were made on YBaCuO and BaSrCaCuO in relation with temperature from 4.2 K to 1200 K, and with a magnetic field up to 8 T in several directions. Oxygen order has an effect on the characteristics at YBaCuO transition conductivity. The activation energy for oxygen absorption is about 0.5eV. One method of analysis of the conductivity fluctuations about the transition temperature is proposed. Two separate rates are noticeable in YBaCuO compound. The 3 D fluctuations rate in the immediate neighbourghood of the transition lets place to the 2 D fluctuations rate at high temperature. Transitions temperatures governing each rate are different, that`s incompatible with the formula proposed by Lawrence and Doniach. On the other hand, the analogy with quasi-2 D magnetic systems seems more relevant. A magnetic field application or a lowering of oxygen concentration removes the 3 D fluctuations rate. Non ohmic effects observed at the transition conductivity foot are analysis as a non-linear 2 D excitation manifestation of the supraconductive phase. Finally, by measurements on strontium doped YBaCuO crystals, we confirm a metal-insulator transition along the C-Axe when oxygen concentration reduces. This is connected with the specific heat jump. All these results uplighten the fundamental bidimensional character of high transition temperature superconductivity.

  18. 1999 Annual Cathodic Protection Survey Report for PFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOWMAN, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    This cathodic protection (CP) report documents the results of the 1999 annual CP survey of the underground piping within PFP property. An annual survey of CP systems is required by Washington Administrative Code (WAC). A spreadsheet to document the 1999 annual survey polarization data is included in this report. Graphs are included to trend the cathodic voltages and the polarization voltages at each test station on PFP property. The trending spans from 1994 to 1999. Graphs are also included to trend voltage and amperage outputs of each rectifier during the annual surveys. During the annual survey, resistance testing between the underground piping was conducted at each test station. The testing showed that all piping (with test leads into the test stations) was continuous with every pipe represented in the test stations. The resistance data is not documented in this report but can be accessed in work package 22-99-01003. During the annual survey, the wiring configurations of anode junction boxes AJB(R45-1) and AJB(45-1) were documented. The sketches can be accessed from the JCS work record of work package 22-99-01003. Analysis, conclusions, and recommendations of the 1999 annual CP survey results are included in this report

  19. Ion conductivity of nasicon ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoj, J.W.; Engell, J.

    1989-01-01

    The Nasicon ss ,Na 1 + X Zr 2 Si X P 3 - X O 12 o , X , 3, includes some of the best solid state sodium conductors known today. Compositions in the interval 1.6 , X , 2.6 show conductivities comparable to the best β double-prime-alumina ceramics. It is well known that the ion conductivity of β-alumina is strongly dependent on the texture of the ceramic. Here a similar behavior is reported for Nasicon ceramics. Ceramics of the bulk composition Na 2.94 Zr 1.49 Si 2.20 P 0.80 O 10.85 were prepared by a gel method. The final ceramics consist of Nasicon crystals with x = 2.14 and a glass phase. The grain size and texture of the ceramics were controlled by varying the thermal history of the gel based raw materials and the sintering conditions. The room temperature resistivity of the resulting ceramics varies from 3.65*10 3 ohm cm to 1.23*10 3 ohm cm. Using the temperature comparison method and estimates of the area of grain boundaries in the ceramics, the resistivity of the Nasicon phase is estimated to be 225 ohm cm at 25 degrees C. B 2 O 3 - or Al 2 O 3 -doping of the glass bearing Nasicon ceramic lower the room temperature resistivity by a factor 2 to 5. The dopants do not substitute into the Nasicon phase in substantial amounts

  20. A remote-control datalogger for large-scale resistivity surveys and robust processing of its signals using a software lock-in approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppermann, Frank; Günther, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    We present a new versatile datalogger that can be used for a wide range of possible applications in geosciences. It is adjustable in signal strength and sampling frequency, battery saving and can remotely be controlled over a Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) connection so that it saves running costs, particularly in monitoring experiments. The internet connection allows for checking functionality, controlling schedules and optimizing pre-amplification. We mainly use it for large-scale electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), where it independently registers voltage time series on three channels, while a square-wave current is injected. For the analysis of this time series we present a new approach that is based on the lock-in (LI) method, mainly known from electronic circuits. The method searches the working point (phase) using three different functions based on a mask signal, and determines the amplitude using a direct current (DC) correlation function. We use synthetic data with different types of noise to compare the new method with existing approaches, i.e. selective stacking and a modified fast Fourier transformation (FFT)-based approach that assumes a 1/f noise characteristics. All methods give comparable results, but the LI is better than the well-established stacking method. The FFT approach can be even better but only if the noise strictly follows the assumed characteristics. If overshoots are present in the data, which is typical in the field, FFT performs worse even with good data, which is why we conclude that the new LI approach is the most robust solution. This is also proved by a field data set from a long 2-D ERT profile.

  1. No apparent transmission of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC398 in a survey of staff at a regional Danish hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else Toft Würtz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA multi locus sequence type CC398 has spread widely in the livestock production in Europe. The rates of LA-MRSA in hospitals have been found to be largely determined by contact to and density of livestock in the area. Methods This is a cross sectional study of the prevalence of LA-MRSA among hospital staff in a Danish hospital situated in a livestock production region. We analysed nasal swabs, air and dust samples for the presence of MRSA using PCR and mass spectrometry. Results Of 1745 employees, 545 (31% contributed nasal swabs. MRSA was not detected in any participant, nor was it detected in air or dust at the hospital or in houses of employees living on farms. Four percent of the participants had contact to pigs either directly or through household members. LA-MRSA was detected in two of 26 samples from animal sheds, both of them from pig farms. The participation rate was relatively low, but participants were representative for the source population with regards to animal contact and job titles. Conclusions The study suggests a low point prevalence of LA-MRSA carriage in Danish hospital staff even in regions where livestock production is dense. Should more studies confirm our findings we see no need for additional hospital precautions towards LA-MRSA in Denmark at the moment. We think that our data might reduce potential stigmatization of hospital workers with contact to LA-MRSA positive farms at their work places and in their communities.

  2. Antibiotic resistance in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Mary D; Pratt, Rachael; Hart, Wendy S

    2003-01-01

    There is currently no systematic surveillance or monitoring of antibiotic resistance in Australian animals. Registration of antibiotics for use in animals is tightly controlled and has been very conservative. Fluoroquinolones have not been registered for use in food producing animals and other products have been removed from the market because of human health concerns. In the late 1970s, the Animal Health Committee coordinated a survey of resistance in Salmonella and Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs and poultry and in bovine Staphylococcus aureus. Some additional information is available from published case reports. In samples collected prior to the withdrawal of avoparcin from the market, no vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis were detected in samples collected from pigs, whereas some vanA enterococci, including E. faecium and E. faecalis, were found in chickens. No vanB enterococci were detected in either species. Virginiamycin resistance was common in both pig and poultry isolates. Multiple resistance was common in E. coli and salmonellae isolates. No fluoroquinolone resistance was found in salmonellae, E. coli or Campylobacter. Beta-lactamase production is common in isolates from bovine mastitis, but no methicillin resistance has been detected. However, methicillin resistance has been reported in canine isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius and extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli has been found in dogs.

  3. The Application of 2-D Resistivity and Self Potential (SP) Methods in Determining the Water Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordiana, M. M.; Tajudeen Olugbenga, Adeeko; Afiq Saharudin, Muhamad; nabila, S.; El Hidayah Ismail, Noer

    2018-04-01

    Existence of water flow at urban area will decrease the shear strength and increase hydraulic conductivity of soil which finally caused subsurface problems at this area. To avoid landslide, slope instability and disturbance of the ecosystem, good and detailed planning must be done when developing hilly area. The understanding about geological condition has to be considering before construction activities be done. Six 2-D resistivity survey lines with minimum 5 m electrode spacing were executed using Pole-dipole array. The field investigation such as borehole was carried out at multiple locations in the area where the 2-D resistivity method have been conducted. The directions and intensities of the water were evaluated with self-potential (SP) method. Subsequently, the results from borehole were used to verify the results of electrical resistivity method. Interpretation of 2-D resistivity data showed a low resistivity value (ohm-m), which appears to be a zone that is fully saturated with sandy silt and this could be an influence factor the increasing water level because sandy silt is highly permeable in nature. The borehole, support the results of 2-D resistivity method relating a saturated zone in the survey area. There is a good correlation between the 2-D resistivity investigations and the results of borehole records.

  4. An introductory survey of helminth control practices in South Africa and anthelmintic resistance on Thoroughbred stud farms in the Western Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matthee

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-one per cent of 110 questionnaires, designed for obtaining information on helminth control practices and management on Thoroughbred stud farms in South Africa, were completed by farmers during 2000. The number of horses per farm included in the questionnaire survey ranged from 15 to 410. Foals, yearlings and adult horses were treated with anthelmintics at a mean of 7.3+ / -3.0, 6.6+ / -2.7 and 5.3+ / -2.3 times per year, respectively. An average of 3.4 different drugs were used annually, with ivermectin being used by most farmers during 1997-2000. On 43% of farms the weights of horses were estimated by weigh band and 45% of farmers estimated visually, while both were used on 7% of farms and scales on the remaining 5%. Doses were based on average group weight on 50% of the farms and on individual weights on 46%. Forty-three per cent of farmers performed faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT. Most farmers rotated horses between pastures and treated new horses at introduction. Faecal removal was practiced on 61% of farms and less than 50% of farmers used alternate grazing with ruminants. Faecal egg count reduction tests were done on 283 horses, using oxibendazole, ivermectin and moxidectin on 10, 9 and 5 farms, respectively, in the Western Cape Province during 2001. While the efficacy of oxibendazole was estimated by FECRT to range from 0-88% and moxidectin from 99-100%, ivermectin resulted in a 100% reduction in egg counts. Only cyathostome larvae were recovered from post-treatment faecal cultures.

  5. Impact of globalization under the ICH guidelines on the conduct of reproductive toxicity studies--report on current status in Japan, Europe and the U.S. by questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineshima, Hiroshi; Endo, Yoshihiko; Ogasawara, Hiroyuki; Nishigaki, Keiji; Numa, Toshiaki; Hirano, Fumiya; Matsuzawa, Toshiaki

    2004-08-01

    We surveyed interpretation of the ICH guidelines concerning reproductive toxicology. Valid responses were obtained from Japan (JPN), Europe (EUR) and the U.S. The results obtained were compared to those at the time of a previous survey targeted at JPN facilities in 1995-1996 as well as compared among all three regions. Compared to the previous survey in Japan, the number of facilities performing toxicokinetics (TK) in rats has slightly increased. This result was considered to represent changes of attitude toward TK in reproductive toxicity studies. Differences in interpretation of the guidelines between JPN, EUR and the US were widely seen. Clear differences were noted in sperm examinations, postnatal tests, fetal examinations, some examinations for F1 animals after culling and TK. Researchers in the West seemed to be interpreting the ICH guidelines more flexibly from the scientific point of view. JPN researchers appeared to interpret the guidelines, including notes, as rigid requirements. Most of the parts which produced different interpretations were the notes in the guidelines. The force of mention in the notes should be defined in the future. In addition, there were doubts about some parts, including notes, which had been found to have become unsuitable for the implementation of studies because of scientific progress or from long experience in using the guidelines. Therefore, updates of the guidelines may be needed in the future as well as the remedy of interpretation by JPN researchers. In JPN, the number of reproductive toxicity studies has decreased. The scanty experience in JPN therefore raises apprehension of appropriate selection and stagnating development of methodology, and might hinder the maintenance of the guidelines. In the future, the cooperation of CROs as well as global collaboration will be essential not only to scientific developments of reproductive toxicology but also updates of the guidelines.

  6. Multidimensional Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Analytical theory of multidimensional heat conduction. General heat conduction equation in three dimensions. Steay state, analytical solutions. The Laplace equation. Method of separation of variables. Principle of superposition. Shape factors. Transient, multidimensional heat conduction....

  7. Analytical representation of the thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity of UC/sub 1 +- x/, PuC/sub 1-x/, and (U/sub y/Pu/sub 1-y/)C/sub 1 +- x/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storms, E.K.

    1982-12-01

    This report uses selected measurements from the literature to construct analytical expressions that describe the electrical and thermal conductivity of pure, high-density UC/sub 1 +- x/, PuC/sub 1-x/, and (U/sub y/Pu/sub 1-y/C/sub 1 +- x/ as a function of x,y, and temperature. The approach shows that many of the differences between the reported measurements can be resolved if the carbon cntent of the single-phase material is taken into account. Analytical expressions are also given that describe the temperature variation of the phase boundaries for these phases. 16 figures

  8. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  9. Primer on Health Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Nordstrom

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce novice researchers to surveys as a method of data collection. It starts with the definition of a survey, its major purposes and types as well as changes in the goals surveys have helped to achieve over time. Advantages and disadvantages of surveys over population censuses and medic