WorldWideScience

Sample records for resistance strategies project

  1. Strategy as Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Pedersen, Carsten; Ritter, Thomas; Andersen, Torben Juul

    This paper proposes the adoption of a project-based view to analyze strategy formation and strategic renewal over time. Projects are resource-committing, empirically-tracable investments, and as such, particularly suitable for the analysis of different manifestations of intended strategies as well...... as post-hoc manifestations of deviant, even rebellious, actions taken in opposition to the initial strategy announcement. The paper presents an analytical framework (a 5x2 matrix) of ten different project categories that together allows researchers to investigate how strategic renewal is realized through...... the enactment of different types of project initiatives throughout the organization. The developed framework is validated by two field studies that outline the robustness of the proposed matrix. In addition to the demonstration of the advantages of the framework, we discuss the limitations of the strategy-as-projects...

  2. The HGF strategy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knebel, J.U.; Fellmoser, F.; Lefhalm, C.; Mack, K.; Pettan, C.; Piecha, H.; Konys, J.; Adelhelm, C.; Glasbrenner, H.; Muscher, H.; Novotny, J.; Voss, Z.; Wedemeyer, O.; Mueller, G.; Heinzel, A.; Schumacher, G.; Huber, R.; Zimmermann, F.; Groetzbach, G.; Dorr, B.; Carteciano, L.N.

    2000-01-01

    Within the Hermann von Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF) an HGF-Strategy Fund Project entitled 'Innovative Technologies to Reduce Radiotoxicity' is funded since October 1999. The objectives of this HGF-Strategy Fund Project is the development of new methods and technologies to design and manufacture thin-walled and highly thermally-loaded surfaces which are cooled by a corrosive heavy liquid metal (lead-bismuth eutectic). The result of this project will be the basic scientific-technical tool which allows the conception and the design of a European Demonstrator of an ADS system (cf. 32.23.05). The work performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe is embedded in a broad European research and development programme on ADS systems. The project is divided in three sub-projects: Sub-Project 1: Thermalhydraulic Investigations, Sub-Project 2: Material Specific Investigations, Sub-Project 3: Oxygen Control System. This progress report gives a general description of the project and its envisaged objectives. As a selection of the results achieved, first, FLUTAN calculations for the COULI beam window design and, second, the oxygen control system for the KArlsruhe Lead LAboratory KALLA are described in detail. Finally, the design and status of KALLA is given. (orig.)

  3. Projecting the epidemiological effect, cost-effectiveness and transmission of HIV drug resistance in Vietnam associated with viral load monitoring strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Quang Duy; Wilson, David P; Nguyen, Thuong Vu; Do, Nhan Thi; Truong, Lien Xuan; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Zhang, Lei

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential epidemiological impact of viral load (VL) monitoring and its cost-effectiveness in Vietnam, where transmitted HIV drug resistance (TDR) prevalence has increased from HIV drug-resistance tests. We assessed the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted for each scenario. Projecting expected ART scale-up levels, to approximately double the number of people on ART by 2030, will lead to an estimated 18 510 cases (95% CI: 9120-34 600 cases) of TDR and 55 180 cases (95% CI: 40 540-65 900 cases) of acquired drug resistance (ADR) in the absence of VL monitoring. This projection corresponds to a TDR prevalence of 16% (95% CI: 11%-24%) and ADR of 18% (95% CI: 15%-20%). Annual or biennial VL monitoring with 30% coverage is expected to relieve 12%-31% of TDR (2260-5860 cases), 25%-59% of ADR (9620-22 650 cases), 2%-6% of HIV-related deaths (360-880 cases) and 19 270-51 400 DALYs during 2015-30. The 30% coverage of VL monitoring is estimated to cost US$4848-5154 per DALY averted. The projected additional cost for implementing this strategy is US$105-268 million over 2015-30. Our study suggests that a programmatically achievable 30% coverage of VL monitoring can have considerable benefits for individuals and leads to population health benefits by reducing the overall national burden of HIV drug resistance. It is marginally cost-effective according to common willingness-to-pay thresholds. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hee Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic (PD properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST, clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care, the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing. The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics.

  5. Naesliden project: FEM modelling strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, T.

    1980-05-15

    A schematized description is given of the different stages in the project. The aim is to show the development of the project and the strategies which have been chosen. The four different stages in the project are treated from the following points of view: the reasons for the choice of material models; the determination of model properties; and the control of the calculated values. In the origin plan for the project it was stated to only use a joint element model. However, it was shown to be a reasonable strategy to use both a general linear elastic model and a geometric restricted model with joint elements. During the course of the Project's development stages, it was found that a reduction in the number of rock types could be made without loss of generality. A modified strategy is suggested based on more studies of the rock bahavior and less advanced calculations in the first stages of the project.

  6. Molecular strategies towards anthracnose resistance in lupin

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the project was to develop a strategy towards anthracnose resistance in lupin using molecular techniques. Colletotrichum species are considered to be major plant pathogens of cereals and legumes around the world, causing significant crop losses. Colletotrichum acutatum causes anthracnose disease on lupin. Sweet white lupin (Lupinus albus) is a high protein grain crop that could alleviate protein shortage in South Africa, since it has the highest protein levels (34-45%) compared to ...

  7. Math Fact Strategies Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boso, Annie

    2011-01-01

    An action research project was conducted in order to determine effective math fact strategies for first graders. The traditional way of teaching math facts included using timed tests and flashcards, with most students counting on their fingers or a number line. Six new research-based strategies were taught and analyzed to decide which methods…

  8. Random Assignment of Schools to Groups in the Drug Resistance Strategies Rural Project: Some New Methodological Twists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice L.; Zhou, Jiangxiu; Hecht, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Random assignment to groups is the foundation for scientifically rigorous clinical trials. But assignment is challenging in group randomized trials when only a few units (schools) are assigned to each condition. In the DRSR project, we assigned 39 rural Pennsylvania and Ohio schools to three conditions (rural, classic, control). But even with 13 schools per condition, achieving pretest equivalence on important variables is not guaranteed. We collected data on six important school-level variables: rurality, number of grades in the school, enrollment per grade, percent white, percent receiving free/assisted lunch, and test scores. Key to our procedure was the inclusion of school-level drug use data, available for a subset of the schools. Also, key was that we handled the partial data with modern missing data techniques. We chose to create one composite stratifying variable based on the seven school-level variables available. Principal components analysis with the seven variables yielded two factors, which were averaged to form the composite inflate-suppress (CIS) score which was the basis of stratification. The CIS score was broken into three strata within each state; schools were assigned at random to the three program conditions from within each stratum, within each state. Results showed that program group membership was unrelated to the CIS score, the two factors making up the CIS score, and the seven items making up the factors. Program group membership was not significantly related to pretest measures of drug use (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, chewing tobacco; smallest p>.15), thus verifying that pretest equivalence was achieved. PMID:23722619

  9. Plutonium accident resistant container project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1978-09-01

    The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission). This PAT-1 (plutonium air transportable) package survives a very severe sequential test program of impact, crush, puncture, slash, burn, and water immersion. There is also an individual hydrostatic pressure test. The package has a payload mass capacity of 2 kg of PuO 2 and a thermal capacity of 25 watts. The design rationale for very high energy absorption (impact, crush, puncture, and slash protection) with residual high-level fire protection, resulted in a reasonably small air-transportable package, advancing the packaging state-of-art. Optimization design iterations were utilized in the areas of impact energy absorption and stress and thermal analysis. Package test results are presented in relation to radioactive materials containment acceptance criteria, shielding and criticality standards

  10. Plutonium accident resistant container project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1978-05-01

    The PARC (plutonium accident resistant container) project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air-transportable plutonium package (shipping container) for certification by the USNRC. This PAT-1 (plutonium air transportable) package survives a very severe sequential test program of impact, crush, puncture, slash, burn, and water immersion. There is also an individual hydrostatic pressure test. The package has a payload mass capacity of 2 kg of PuO2 and a thermal capacity of 25 watts. The design rationale for very high energy absorption (impact, crush, puncture, and slash protection) with residual high-level fire protection, resulted in a reasonalby small air-transportable package, advancing the packaging state-of-art. Optimization design iterations were utilized in the areas of impact energy absorption and stress and thermal analysis. Package test results are presented in relation to radioactive materials containment acceptance criteria, shielding and criticality standards

  11. Project management strategies for prototyping breakdowns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granlien, Maren Sander; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2009-01-01

    , managing the explorative and iterative aspects of prototyping projects is not a trivial task. We examine the managerial challenges in a small scale prototyping project in the Danish healthcare sector where a prototype breakdown and project escalation occurs. From this study we derive a framework...... of strategies for coping with escalation in troubled prototyping projects; the framework is based on project management triangle theory and is useful when considering how to manage prototype breakdown and escalation. All strategies were applied in the project case at different points in time. The strategies led...

  12. CONCEAL TO SURVIVE: RESISTANCE STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Zuleide Duarte de Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the strategy of concealment, theoretically bounded by Accetto (2001, and used by Delfina, character in the novel O Alegre Canto da Perdiz of Paulina Chiziane, Mozambican writer. Focuses, among other things, the relationship colonizer versus colonized, discussing the con­dition of female inferiority that forces a reaction apparently submissive, which assumes the sale of the body and the rejection of their ancestral tra­ditions. To interpret the attitudes of Delfina as a strategy that masks resent­ment against abusive domain power.

  13. INTEGRATION OF PROGRESS STRATEGY IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Дмитрий Георгиевич БЕЗУГЛЫЙ

    2015-01-01

    The methods and tools of the developed project promotion, the planning system of promotion strategy are suggested; the main approaches used in the project promotion have been identified. The conclusions about the importance, necessity and role in the promotion of a holistic project management system have been made.

  14. Managing regional innovation strategy projects

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Patricia; Hanisch, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative interview study with 28 RIS project managers that aimed at understanding whether or not this is true in the context of regional innovation and what the specifics of managing regional innovation projects are. In taking up a recent claim for policy intervention studies which allow to “derive precise suggestions for their design and management”.  The study investigated the interrelation between the agility of the management approach and the achievements of RIS p...

  15. A critical evaluation of the strategy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B. J.; Liland, A.; Beresford, N. A.; Andersson, K. G.; Cox, G.; Gil, J. M.; Hunt, J.; Nisbet, A.; Oughton, D. H.; Voigt, G.

    2004-01-01

    The STRATEGY project (sustainable restoration and long-term management of contaminated rural, urban and industrial ecosystems; www.strategy-ec.org.uk) addressed the need for a holistic decision framework for the selection of optimal remediation strategies for long-term sustainable management of contaminated areas in Western Europe. The project considered both technical and social aspects of implementing restoration strategies for urban and rural environments. The importance of considering socially relevant objectives in addition to the dose reduction was emphasised. A critical evaluation was carried out on 101 selected countermeasures, (including rural waste disposal options), a model was developed to aid optimising countermeasure strategies and a method of carrying out participatory decision-making suggested. The outputs of the project are described and critically evaluated. (authors)

  16. A critical evaluation of the STRATEGY project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, B.J.; Liland, A.; Beresford, N.A.

    2004-01-01

    The STRATEGY project (sustainable restoration and long-term management of contaminated rural, urban and industrial ecosystems; www.strategy-ec.org.uk) addressed the need for a holistic decision framework for the selection of optimal remediation strategies for long-term sustainable management...... of contaminated areas in Western Europe. The project considered both technical and social aspects of implementing restoration strategies for urban and rural environments. The importance of considering socially relevant objectives in addition to the dose reduction was emphasised. A critical evaluation was carried...... out on 101 selected countermeasures, (including rural waste disposal options), a model was developed to aid optimising countermeasure strategies and a method of carrying out participatory decision-making suggested. The outputs of the project are described and critically evaluated....

  17. LINKING PROJECTS TO BUSINESS STRATEGY THROUGH PROJECT PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Buys

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In many organisations, a chasm exists between the development of strategy and its successful implementation. Failure to cross this chasm may ultimately result in strategy failure and the loss of competitive advantage, profits, and employment. Project Portfolio Management (PPM is theorised as a management methodology that links a portfolio of projects to the business strategy. However, current literature lacks empirical evidence of the levels of employment, functionality, and success of the Project Portfolio Management approach in South Africa. A survey of respondents in 32 technology organisations was used to analyze the reasons for the following: strategy implementation and project delivery failure in South African technology organisations; the South African situation regarding the chasm that exists in many organisations between strategy development and successful strategy implementation; and the extent to which – and with what success – Project Portfolio Management is employed in South African technology organisations.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In baie organisasies bestaan daar ’n gaping tussen strategie-ontwikkeling en suksesvolle strategie-implementering. Die onvermoë om die gaping te oorbrug sal uiteindelik lei tot strategiefaling en die verlies van mededingende voordeel, winste, en werksgeleenthede. Projekportefeuljebestuur (PPB word voorgehou as ’n bestuursmetodologie wat ’n portefeulje van projekte koppel aan die besigheidstrategie. Bestaande literatuur gaan egter mank aan empiriese bewyse ten opsigte van die vlakke van indiensneming, funksionaliteit, en sukses van die Projekportefeuljebestuursbenadering in Suid-Afrika. ’n Opname van respondente in 32 tegnologie-organisasies is gebruik om die volgende aspekte te ondersoek: die redes vir falings in strategie-implementering en projekaflewering in Suid-Afrikaanse tegnologie-organisasies; die Suid-Afrikaanse situasie rakende die gaping wat bestaan tussen

  18. Bacterial strategies of resistance to antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hwang-Soo; Fu, Chih-Iung; Otto, Michael

    2016-05-26

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a key component of the host's innate immune system, targeting invasive and colonizing bacteria. For successful survival and colonization of the host, bacteria have a series of mechanisms to interfere with AMP activity, and AMP resistance is intimately connected with the virulence potential of bacterial pathogens. In particular, because AMPs are considered as potential novel antimicrobial drugs, it is vital to understand bacterial AMP resistance mechanisms. This review gives a comparative overview of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strategies of resistance to various AMPs, such as repulsion or sequestration by bacterial surface structures, alteration of membrane charge or fluidity, degradation and removal by efflux pumps.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. [Global and national strategies against antibiotic resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Sin, Muna; Nahrgang, Saskia; Ziegelmann, Antina; Clarici, Alexandra; Matz, Sibylle; Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois; Eckmanns, Tim

    2018-05-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is increasingly perceived as a global health problem. To tackle AMR effectively, a multisectoral one health approach is needed. We present some of the initiatives and activities at the national and global level that target the AMR challenge. The Global Action Plan on AMR, which has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), in close collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is considered a blueprint to combat AMR. Member states endorsed the action plan during the World Health Assembly 2015 and committed themselves to develop national action plans on AMR. The German Antibiotic Resistance Strategy (DART 2020) is based on the main objectives of the global action plan and was revised and published in 2015. Several examples of the implementation of DART 2020 are outlined here.

  20. Strategies for local community wind energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Garry

    1993-01-01

    This paper sets out some near term actions and policies which may improve the prospects for 'local group owned' wind turbines in the UK. Topics covered briefly include the advantages and disadvantages of local group owned wind projects, legal and institutional structures, the scale of projects and investment, subsidies and the NFFO, debt guarantees, public electricity supply franchises and finally the elements of a local ownership strategy for the UK. (UK)

  1. Integrating Project Portfolio With Business Strategy: Imagineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Buaes Dal Maso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aligning project management to the strategy of a big company is a difficult job. Through Imagineering (the business department and project management program, The Walt Disney Company has done this alignment in an exemplary way. Using a theoretical investigation, this study analyzed the Imagineering as a reference in strategic management of global projects through Disney´s business portfolio, a global benchmarking and with Malmberg et al. (2010 as a company guide. As the main results of the correlations carried out, it was noted that the Imagineers who work in project teams apply tools and techniques with a strategic vision focused on differentiation, generating value, and mixing imagination with technical capacity. The Blue Sky department and its integrated units make possible the creation and deployment of the attractions, the theme parks, hotels, resorts and the Disney sea cruises, demonstrating in this way, to be a highly effective project management office.

  2. Water Integration Project Science Strategies White Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alan K. Yonk

    2003-01-01

    This white paper has been prepared to document the approach to develop strategies to address Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) science and technology needs/uncertainties to support completion of INEEL Idaho Completion Project (Environmental Management [EM]) projects against the 2012 plan. Important Idaho Completion Project remediation and clean-up projects include the 2008 OU 10-08 Record of Decision, completion of EM by 2012, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tanks, INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility, and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The objective of this effort was to develop prioritized operational needs and uncertainties that would assist Operations in remediation and clean-up efforts at the INEEL and develop a proposed path forward for the development of science strategies to address these prioritized needs. Fifteen needs/uncertainties were selected to develop an initial approach to science strategies. For each of the 15 needs/uncertainties, a detailed definition was developed. This included extracting information from the past interviews with Operations personnel to provide a detailed description of the need/uncertainty. For each of the 15 prioritized research and development needs, a search was performed to identify the state of the associated knowledge. The knowledge search was performed primarily evaluating ongoing research. The ongoing research reviewed included Environmental Systems Research Analysis, Environmental Management Science Program, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, Inland Northwest Research Alliance, United States Geological Survey, and ongoing Operations supported projects. Results of the knowledge search are documented as part of this document

  3. Water Integration Project Science Strategies White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan K. Yonk

    2003-09-01

    This white paper has been prepared to document the approach to develop strategies to address Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) science and technology needs/uncertainties to support completion of INEEL Idaho Completion Project (Environmental Management [EM]) projects against the 2012 plan. Important Idaho Completion Project remediation and clean-up projects include the 2008 OU 10-08 Record of Decision, completion of EM by 2012, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tanks, INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility, and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The objective of this effort was to develop prioritized operational needs and uncertainties that would assist Operations in remediation and clean-up efforts at the INEEL and develop a proposed path forward for the development of science strategies to address these prioritized needs. Fifteen needs/uncertainties were selected to develop an initial approach to science strategies. For each of the 15 needs/uncertainties, a detailed definition was developed. This included extracting information from the past interviews with Operations personnel to provide a detailed description of the need/uncertainty. For each of the 15 prioritized research and development needs, a search was performed to identify the state of the associated knowledge. The knowledge search was performed primarily evaluating ongoing research. The ongoing research reviewed included Environmental Systems Research Analysis, Environmental Management Science Program, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, Inland Northwest Research Alliance, United States Geological Survey, and ongoing Operations supported projects. Results of the knowledge search are documented as part of this document.

  4. Bomber Deployments: A New Power Projection Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-21

    AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE DISTANCE LEARNING AIR UNIVERSITY BOMBER DEPLOYMENTS: A NEW POWER PROJECTION STRATEGY by...operating base (FOB), main operating base ( MOB ) and intermediate staging base (ISB).10 Each type of base requires certain actions to make it suitable for...closure of many main operating bases ( MOB ) overseas and the reluctance of many nations to permit permanent military bases on their soil.”15 This

  5. Antibiotic resistance: current issues and future strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Scarafile

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic resistance (antimicrobial resistance – AMR and the particular emergence of multi-resistant bacterial strains, is a problem of clinical relevance involving serious threats to public health worldwide. From early this decade, a lot of studies have demonstrated a significant increase in the rates of antibiotic resistance by bacterial pathogens responsible for nosocomial and community infections all over the world. The AMR leads to a reduced drug efficacy in the treatment options available and therefore, to an increase in mortality rates. The original causes of the phenomenon are: environmental factors which favor a mutation of the genetic bacterial inheritance, thereby inhibiting the active ingredient of the antibiotics; unsuitable administering of antibiotics in veterinary, incorrect taking both in hospitals and at home and, lately, lack of investments in the development of new drugs. The alarming epidemiological data prompted the World Health Organization (WHO in 2011 to coin the slogan "No action today, no cure tomorrow" in order to immediately implement a new strategy to improve the use of available drugs and to accelerate the introduction of new ones through a new phase of research involving private and public institutions. The European Union has stressed that the surveillance is considered an essential factor for an effective response to this problem but it has also highlighted that the results produced have been lower than expectations because of serious shortcomings such as lack of methodological standards, insufficient data sharing and no coordination among European countries. In Italy the situation is much more troubling; in fact, according to the Ministry of Health, 5000-7000 yearly deaths are deemed due to nosocomial infections, with an annual cost of more than 100 million €.These figures explain how the fight against infections is far from being won. The purpose of this review is to analyze the basic causes of the

  6. Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Jonas; Rollenhagen, Carl; Hollnagel, Erik; Rankin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance. This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigat...

  7. Financing strategy for Indonesian Nuclear Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subki, I.M.; Arbie, B.; Adiwardojo; Seotrisnanto, A.Y.

    1998-01-01

    In anticipation of the introduction in the early 2000s of a nuclear power plant, the Government of Indonesia (GOI), through the National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) , has formulated a Bid Invitation Specification (BIS) in parallel with the completion of the NPP Feasibility Study. This BIS formulation assumed an open international tender for the first unit of the NPP with project financing as a conventional loan. The GOI's recent policy is to minimize government financial support for power development. This paper summarizes a financing strategy for the Indonesian NPP project to make the NPP economically viable, and provides a general discussion on project financing using a conventional approach, Build--Own-Operate (BOO) and a counter-purchase approach. Innovative approaches for financing are still being pursued in order to obtain an optimum solution for investors and owners, to fulfill the Indonesian government's requirements. (author)

  8. Research Activities at IPT, DTU on Resistance Projection Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Resistance welding processes and among these especially the resistance projection welding is considered an industrially strategic process with increasing applications as alternative to other welding processes, soldering, brazing and mechanical assembling. This is due to increasing requirements...... as regards quality assurance and the special possibilities of joining complex metal combinations and geometries using resistance projection welding....

  9. Final Project Report for "Interfacial Thermal Resistance of Carbon Nanotubes”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumings, John [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-04-15

    This report describes an ongoing project to comprehensively study the interfacial thermal boundary resistance (Kapitza resistance) of carbon nanotubes. It includes a list of publications, personnel supported, the overall approach, accomplishments and future plans.

  10. Strategies for improving rust resistance in oats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, D.E.; McKenzie, R.I.H.; Martens, J.W.; Brown, P.D.

    1977-01-01

    During the history of breeding oats for rust resistance in Canada the known sources of resistance proved inadequate to counter the virulence potential of both stem rust (Puccinia graminis avenae) and crown rust (P. coronata avenae). A major programme to overcome the rust problem was undertaken at Winnipeg, involving four alternate approaches: (1) A search for new resistance in wild oat species, particularly Avena sterilis, has provided a wealth of good resistance to crown rust, but less to stem rust. Much of the A. sterilis-derived crown rust resistance is now being used world-wide; (2) Efforts at synthesizing new resistance by mutation breeding methods have not been successful. Of about seven million plants examined, only one showed significant new resistance, but this was associated with poor plant type; (3) Resistance with low levels of expression but which appears broadly effective has been observed against both stem and crown rusts. It appears that numbers of these low-level genes exist, and that they can be accumulated to provide increasingly effective resistance. Problems in using this type of resistance in a practical way are discussed; (4) Excellent rust resistance has been found in lower ploidy species such as A. barbata, but it was not previously possible to stabilize this resistance in hexaploid species. By using mutagenic treatments attempts have been made to translocate smaller portions of the A. barbata chromosome carrying the resistance to the hexaploid cultivar Rodney. In conclusion, mutation breeding methods at present appear to have limited application in synthesizing new rust-resistant genotypes in oats. The search for already existing genetic resistance and its synthesis into multi-genic resistant lines appears to be the most effective way at present of resolving the rust problem in oats. (author)

  11. Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, J.; Rollenhagen, C.; Hollnagel, E.

    2012-01-01

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance....... This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of effective...... strategies for achieving change associated with accident investigation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Jonas; Rollenhagen, Carl; Hollnagel, Erik; Rankin, Amy

    2012-03-01

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance. This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of effective strategies for achieving change associated with accident investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A critical evaluation of the strategy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Liland, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Experience after the Chernobyl accident has shown that remediation strategies need to consider a wide range of different issues to ensure the long-term sustainability of radioactively contaminated areas. The STRATEGY project (Sustainable Restoration And Long-Term Management Of Contaminated Rural, Urban And Industrial Ecosystems (www.strategy-ec.org.uk) had the overall objective of establishing a holistic decision framework for the selection of optimal remediation strategies for long-term sustainable management of contaminated areas in Western Europe. The project carried out a critical evaluation of a series of countermeasures and waste disposal options including a consideration of their technical feasibility and practicality and whether they (i) incur considerable direct or side-effect costs; (ii) have significant environmental side effects; and (iii) are acceptable to society. A main output was a comprehensive, documented evaluation of more than 100 countermeasures (in the form of standardized templates) that would be relevant for off-site nuclear emergency management in the mid to long term. Stakeholder participation is an important mechanism to explore these additional benefits or disadvantages to the use of countermeasures, and is an essential step in developing a decision framework which avoids problems previously experienced in emergency management. Close liaison with the FARMING stakeholder network facilitated evaluation of countermeasure templates for rural ecosystems. Stakeholder opinion suggested that some countermeasures were as likely to be rejected an socio-ethical grounds as technical and economic grounds. Rejection of specific countermeasures would be expected to show site, context and national differences. Suitable approaches for successfully communicating with a wide range of stakeholders were explored. The way in which countermeasure evaluation and selection is carried out is particularly relevant for ethical evaluation of remediation

  14. Strategies and motives for resistance to persuasion: an integrative framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Marieke L.; Smit, Edith G.; Verlegh, Peeter W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Persuasion is an important element of human communication. But in many situations, we resist rather than embrace persuasive attempts. Resistance to persuasion has been studied in many different disciplines, including communication science, psychology, and marketing. The present paper reviews and connects these diverse literatures, and provides an organizing framework for understanding and studying resistance. Four clusters of resistance strategies are defined (avoidance, contesting, biased processing, and empowerment), and these clusters are related to different motivations for resisting persuasion (threat to freedom, reluctance to change, and concerns of deception). We propose that, while avoidance strategies may be triggered by any of these motivations, contesting strategies are linked primarily to concerns of deception, while empowerment and biased processing strategies are most common when people are reluctant to change. PMID:26322006

  15. Project Management and the Project Manager: A Strategy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Management Review ... collapse, project failure, project abandonment, project cost and time overruns, etc. ... component parts that constitute project management in the building construction industry.

  16. Phalaris minor control, resistance development and strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... strategies for integrated management of resistance to fenoxaprop-ethyl ... 1University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, 40100, Pakistan. ... However, tillage method, planting time, method of herbicide.

  17. Strategies to introduce resistance to viroids (Book Chapter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little or no naturally occurring durable resistance to viroids has been found in most viroid host species; therefore efforts to engineer viroid resistance in these plant hosts have been made. These efforts include strategies that incorporate viroid-specific antisense RNAs, sense and antisense viroid...

  18. Model for evaluating nuclear strategies with proliferation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, M.R.; Hardie, R.W.; Omberg, R.P.

    1979-03-01

    A model was developed at HEDL to specifically analyze proliferation resistant strategies. The model was not designed to predict the future, but rather to provide a method for estimating the consequences of decisions affecting proliferation resistance in a rational and plausible manner. The characteristics of the model are described

  19. Transgenic strategies for improving rice disease resistance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... practice. However, the useful life-span of many resistant cultivars is only a few years, due to the breakdown of the .... Thus, suppression of insect feeding by transgenic .... different types of defense-responsive genes were found.

  20. Project n.4: local strategies for decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, Ph. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Ramzaev, V. [Branch of Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Karchovka, Bryandk (Russian Federation); Antsypov, G. [Chernobyl State Committee of the Republic of Belarus, (Belarus); Sobotovich, E. [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Ore formation, Kiev (Ukraine); Anisimova, L. [EMERCOM, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The efficiencies of a great number of techniques for decontamination or dose reduction in contaminated areas have been investigated by several teams of E.C. and CIS scientists (ECP4 project). Modelling, laboratory and field experiments, and a return from experience from the area contaminated by the Chernobyl accident allowed to assess radiological efficiencies and requirements for the operation of numerous practical solutions. Then those data were supplemented with data on cost and waste generation in order to elaborate all the information for the optimisation of decontamination strategies. Results are presented for about 70 techniques. However, a technique cannot be compared to another from a generic point of view. Rather it is designed for a specific target and the best technology depends on the objectives. It has been decided to implement decision analyses on case studies and the local conditions and objectives have been investigated. Individual doses ranged from 1 to 5 mSv, with the contrasted contributions of internal and external doses. The desire to restore a normal activity in a partially depopulated settlement and concerns about the recent increase in internal doses were typical incentives for action. The decision aiding analysis illustrated that actions can be usually recommended. Results are outlined. (authors). 23 refs.

  1. Project n.4: local strategies for decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, Ph [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Ramzaev, V [Branch of Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Karchovka, Bryandk (Russian Federation); Antsypov, G [Chernobyl State Committee of the Republic of Belarus, (Belarus); Sobotovich, E [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Ore formation, Kiev (Ukraine); Anisimova, L [EMERCOM, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The efficiencies of a great number of techniques for decontamination or dose reduction in contaminated areas have been investigated by several teams of E.C. and CIS scientists (ECP4 project). Modelling, laboratory and field experiments, and a return from experience from the area contaminated by the Chernobyl accident allowed to assess radiological efficiencies and requirements for the operation of numerous practical solutions. Then those data were supplemented with data on cost and waste generation in order to elaborate all the information for the optimisation of decontamination strategies. Results are presented for about 70 techniques. However, a technique cannot be compared to another from a generic point of view. Rather it is designed for a specific target and the best technology depends on the objectives. It has been decided to implement decision analyses on case studies and the local conditions and objectives have been investigated. Individual doses ranged from 1 to 5 mSv, with the contrasted contributions of internal and external doses. The desire to restore a normal activity in a partially depopulated settlement and concerns about the recent increase in internal doses were typical incentives for action. The decision aiding analysis illustrated that actions can be usually recommended. Results are outlined. (authors). 23 refs.

  2. Project n.4: local strategies for decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Ph.; Antsypov, G.; Sobotovich, E.; Anisimova, L.

    1995-01-01

    The efficiencies of a great number of techniques for decontamination or dose reduction in contaminated areas have been investigated by several teams of E.C. and CIS scientists (ECP4 project). Modelling, laboratory and field experiments, and a return from experience from the area contaminated by the Chernobyl accident allowed to assess radiological efficiencies and requirements for the operation of numerous practical solutions. Then those data were supplemented with data on cost and waste generation in order to elaborate all the information for the optimisation of decontamination strategies. Results are presented for about 70 techniques. However, a technique cannot be compared to another from a generic point of view. Rather it is designed for a specific target and the best technology depends on the objectives. It has been decided to implement decision analyses on case studies and the local conditions and objectives have been investigated. Individual doses ranged from 1 to 5 mSv, with the contrasted contributions of internal and external doses. The desire to restore a normal activity in a partially depopulated settlement and concerns about the recent increase in internal doses were typical incentives for action. The decision aiding analysis illustrated that actions can be usually recommended. Results are outlined. (authors)

  3. Development of a resistance management strategy for ixodid ticks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strategy developed for managing resistance in ticks with the acaricidal products on the market was based on mode of action of the active ingredients. The strategy requires the rotaional use of the acaricidal products in ways that reduces the selection pressure of active ingredients of same chemistry on the target-site in ...

  4. MARKETING STRATEGIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитрий Георгиевич БЕЗУГЛЫЙ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to marketing in project management, as the scope of activities aimed at improving the quality characteristics of the project for its further effective market promotion in an increasingly competitive environment. Particular attention is paid to marketing strategies during the development and subsequent sale of the project to the investor. The problem of effective combination of marketing strategies and project management process is being solved.

  5. Exploring Post-Treatment Reversion of Antimicrobial Resistance in Enteric Bacteria of Food Animals as a Resistance Mitigation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Victoriya V; KuKanich, Butch; Riviere, Jim E

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial drug use in food animals is associated with an elevation in relative abundance of bacteria resistant to the drug among the animal enteric bacteria. Some of these bacteria are potential foodborne pathogens. Evidence suggests that at least in the enteric nontype-specific Escherichia coli, after treatment the resistance abundance reverts to the background pre-treatment levels, without further interventions. We hypothesize that it is possible to define the distribution of the time period after treatment within which resistance to the administered drug, and possibly other drugs in case of coselection, in fecal bacteria of the treated animals returns to the background pre-treatment levels. Furthermore, it is possible that a novel resistance mitigation strategy for microbiological food safety could be developed based on this resistance reversion phenomenon. The strategy would be conceptually similar to existing antimicrobial drug withdrawal periods, which is a well-established and accepted mitigation strategy for avoiding violative drug residues in the edible products from the treated animals. For developing resistance-relevant withdrawals, a mathematical framework can be used to join the necessary pharmacological, microbiological, and animal production components to project the distributions of the post-treatment resistance reversion periods in the production animal populations for major antimicrobial drug classes in use. The framework can also help guide design of empirical studies into the resistance-relevant withdrawal periods and development of mitigation approaches to reduce the treatment-associated elevation of resistance in animal enteric bacteria. We outline this framework, schematically and through exemplar equations, and how its components could be formulated.

  6. Resistance projection welding small pins in vacuum tube feedthrough assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuncz, F. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Resistance projection welding of two stainless steel pins to a cup is successfully accomplished by specially designed electrodes and by forming domes on the pin ends. Details of electrode and pin construction are given, as well as welding parameters

  7. Strategies for Overcoming Resistance in Tumours Harboring BRAF Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourah Mohammad Obaid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of resistance to previously effective treatments has been a challenge for health care providers and a fear for patients undergoing cancer therapy. This is an unfortunately frequent occurrence for patients undergoing targeted therapy for tumours harboring the activating V600E mutation of the BRAF gene. Since the initial identification of the BRAF mutation in 2002, a series of small molecular inhibitors that target the BRAFV600E have been developed, but intrinsic and acquired resistance to these drugs has presented an ongoing challenge. More recently, improvements in therapy have been achieved by combining the use of BRAF inhibitors with other drugs, such as inhibitors of the downstream effector mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK/extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK kinase (MEK. Despite improved success in response rates and in delaying resistance using combination therapy, ultimately, the acquisition of resistance remains a concern. Recent research articles have shed light on some of the underlying mechanisms of this resistance and have proposed numerous strategies that might be employed to overcome or avoid resistance to targeted therapies. This review will explore some of the resistance mechanisms, compare what is known in melanoma cancer to colorectal cancer, and discuss strategies under development to manage the development of resistance.

  8. 12 strategies for managing capital projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoudt, Richard L

    2013-05-01

    To reduce the amount of time and cost associated with capital projects, healthcare leaders should: Begin the project with a clear objective and a concise master facilities plan. Select qualified team members who share the vision of the owner. Base the size of the project on a conservative business plan. Minimize incremental program requirements. Evaluate the cost impact of the building footprint. Consider alternative delivery methods.

  9. Transgenic Strategies for Enhancement of Nematode Resistance in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Ali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs are obligate biotrophic parasites causing serious damage and reduction in crop yields. Several economically important genera parasitize various crop plants. The root-knot, root lesion, and cyst nematodes are the three most economically damaging genera of PPNs on crops within the family Heteroderidae. It is very important to devise various management strategies against PPNs in economically important crop plants. Genetic engineering has proven a promising tool for the development of biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Additionally, the genetic engineering leading to transgenic plants harboring nematode resistance genes has demonstrated its significance in the field of plant nematology. Here, we have discussed the use of genetic engineering for the development of nematode resistance in plants. This review article also provides a detailed account of transgenic strategies for the resistance against PPNs. The strategies include natural resistance genes, cloning of proteinase inhibitor coding genes, anti-nematodal proteins and use of RNA interference to suppress nematode effectors. Furthermore, the manipulation of expression levels of genes induced and suppressed by nematodes has also been suggested as an innovative approach for inducing nematode resistance in plants. The information in this article will provide an array of possibilities to engineer resistance against PPNs in different crop plants.

  10. Radiogenetic therapy: strategies to overcome tumor resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marples, B; Greco, O; Joiner, M C; Scott, S D

    2003-01-01

    The aim of cancer gene therapy is to selectively kill malignant cells at the tumor site, by exploiting traits specific to cancer cells and/or solid tumors. Strategies that take advantage of biological features common to different tumor types are particularly promising, since they have wide clinical applicability. Much attention has focused on genetic methods that complement radiotherapy, the principal treatment modality, or that exploit hypoxia, the most ubiquitous characteristic of most solid cancers. The goal of this review is to highlight two promising gene therapy methods developed specifically to target the tumor volume that can be readily used in combination with radiotherapy. The first approach uses radiation-responsive gene promoters to control the selective expression of a suicide gene (e.g., herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase) to irradiated tissue only, leading to targeted cell killing in the presence of a prodrug (e.g., ganciclovir). The second method utilizes oxygen-dependent promoters to produce selective therapeutic gene expression and prodrug activation in hypoxic cells, which are refractive to conventional radiotherapy. Further refining of tumor targeting can be achieved by combining radiation and hypoxia responsive elements in chimeric promoters activated by either and dual stimuli. The in vitro and in vivo studies described in this review suggest that the combination of gene therapy and radiotherapy protocols has potential for use in cancer care, particularly in cases currently refractory to treatment as a result of inherent or hypoxia-mediated radioresistance.

  11. Forty project management strategies for the medical practice staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2010-01-01

    Most every medical practice will embark at one time or another on a large and complex new project. The practice may, for instance, undertake a project in office construction or renovation, practice expansion, new technology, or a new large-scale event. The medical practice staff may find itself creating the project plan, overseeing its execution, and working through the plan day to day until its completion. In short, the staff may find itself responsible for project management. This article contains 40 specific, easy-to-implement project management strategies medical practice employees can use to manage both the large and small projects they undertake on behalf of the practice. It suggests effective project management strategies the staff can use before the onset of a new project as well as strategies to help define the project, to deliver the project, and to close and review the project. This article also describes five reasons medical practices often fail at project management and suggests more effective approaches that will ensure that the projects the medical practice undertakes are completed well, on time, and within budget.

  12. Contractor firm strategies in delivering green project: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powmya, Ayisha; Abidin, Nazirah Zainul; Azizi, Nurul Sakina Mokhtar

    2017-10-01

    Building green requires effort from various parties, from those who plan, design, manage and construct the building. Contractors are responsible for converting the design on paper into a real building and their role at the construction site support environmental sustainability by implementing responsible construction practices. Inefficient or inexperienced contractor in green construction project may find that delivering this type of project is not an easy task due to added requirement in design, stringent practices at site and the use of green technology and materials. Adopting suitable strategies at firm level will assist in preparatory process and readiness of delivering the green project. This paper reviews the strategies at firm level to deliver green construction project. From extensive literature review, it was discovered that there are six strategies to be adopted by the contractor. Understanding these strategies is expected to promote more contractors to be proactive in delivering green projects.

  13. PARC (Plutonium Accident Resistant Container) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Response by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to a public law limiting the air transport of plutonium resulted in a new Qualification Criteria and led to the PARC project. The PARC project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air transportable radioactive materials package for certification by the NRC. This package, identified by the NRC as the Model PAT-1 Package (PAT = Plutonium Air Transportable), has a mass capacity of 2 kg of PuO 2 and a thermal capacity of 25 watts; the internal volume of the inner containment vessel is 1460 cm 3 ; the package dimensions are 62 cm (24 - 1/2 in.) O.D. x 108 cm (42 - 1/2 in.) length and a mass of 227 kg (500 lbs). The design rationale for very high energy absorption (impact, crush, puncture, and slash protection) with residual high-level fire protection, resulted in a reasonably small air-transportable package, advancing the packaging state-of-the-art. Optimization design interactions were utilized in the areas of impact energy absorption and stress and thermal analysis. Package test results are presented in relation to the containment acceptance criteria of the Qualification Criteria and ANSI N 14.5 leaktight standards and the IAEA Safety Series No. 6 A2 radioactive material release quantities. Acceptability of the pre-accident and post-accident package configuration with respect to shielding and criticality standards are ascertained

  14. The SGHWR decommissioning project-waste strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, G.; Napper, M.

    1999-01-01

    Every facility must reach a stage in the decommissioning process where low-level waste (LLW) becomes the major factor in the decommissioning costs, therefore a cost-effective strategy for dealing with the waste must be sought. This paper describes the waste management strategy process that was carried out at the steam generating heavy water reactor (SGHWR) at Winfrith in Dorset. Obviously, each facility will have its own specific radiological problems, with its own unique fingerprint, which will have to be addressed, and, therefore, the optimum waste management strategy will differ for each facility. However, from the work done at SGHWR, it can be seen that it is possible to formulate a structured approach for dealing with LLW which meets the requirements of all stake holders, is safe, technically acceptable, cost-effective, and, furthermore, is equally applicable to other plants. (author)

  15. Strategies for the prevention and containment of antibiotic resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic resistance may emerge by antibiotic selection pressure but is perpetuated by diverse risk factors and maintained within environments as a result of poor infection control. Population-specific drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics also play a role. The WHO, US, UK and EU have initiated strategies for the ...

  16. Knowledge Governance Strategies in Project-based Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Müller, Ralf; Söderlund, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge governance (KG) aims at strategically influencing knowledge processes by implementing governance mechanisms. Little is known about whether, how, or why such strategies differ among firms. We utilize a large-scale empirical study of 20 organizations to develop a typology of KG strategies...... in project-based organizations; we then explore how these strategies emerge and affect organizational knowledge processes. Six strategies are identified: Protector, Deliverer, Polisher, Explorer, Supporter, and Analyzer. This paper posits a multi-level categorization model to facilitate comparisons among KG...... strategies. We uncover three main drivers of organizations' chosen knowledge governance strategies-namely, attitudes about humans, knowledge, and knowledge control....

  17. Natural gas projects, strategies and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaide, G.

    2000-01-01

    This article summarizes the content of some of the posters presented during the WOC 9 working committee of the CMG 2000 worldwide gas congress: natural gas in the new worldwide energy balance; eastern Russia: the last gas projects; the new underwater technologies and the availability of natural gas. (J.S.)

  18. Accidental oil spills - project management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobic, V.; Benkovic, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Planning and organisation, as well as actions taken during accidental discharging of hazardous substances (hydrocarbons) into the soil and water, show that without integrating all the functions of safety, occupational safety, fire and explosion protection, technical safety, all the way to the environmental protection, procedure of cleaning, rehabilitation and remediation of polluted areas into their original state cannot be successfully carried out. Neglecting any of the mentioned links/components of the procedure represents a risk to people's health and life, while pollution to the environment remains a constant threat. Development of technologies is quickly transforming the environment in which the professionals of all disciplines work. Therefore, the response to changes by application of new technologies and procedures in all domains is indispensable, however, through a comprehensive and expert perception and consideration of each of the essential correlations comprising the safety management in all the fields. Through management of safety projects in environmental protection, it has become obvious that a united management of different fields is necessary, as well as management of safety in general. Engineering, health, legislation, public, environmental standards, occupational safety, hazards, biophysical and socio-economic aspects are parts of an integral management. Experts joined efforts through interaction and communications are inter-disciplinary characteristics, i.e. multi-disciplinary safety management, but also the management of each project separately. Exactly this knowledge exchange is highly productive and becomes an indispensable element in recognition of indirect and cumulative actions, thus applicable in any field. Implementation of European standards and accreditation of procedures pursuant to the corresponding standards, from risk assessment through rehabilitation to independent expert confirmation of efficiency in implementing the entire

  19. Universal precautions: employee resistance and strategies for planned organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, K P; Hogg, M

    1988-01-01

    Health care organizations have been strongly encouraged to design and implement procedures to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS in the workplace. The procedures will have a dramatic impact on the work habits of health care workers and may even challenge some dominant health care values. Therefore, precautionary procedures are likely to meet with mixed reactions and, perhaps, outright resistance from health care workers. This article identifies some plausible causes for employee resistance to precautionary procedures. After describing the dilemma in terms of competing values and conflicting objectives, some practical managerial strategies for reconciling differences and securing broad-based commitment to preventive policies and procedures are proposed.

  20. Strategy for implementing a bioremediation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memood, T.; Malik, S.A.; Kazmi, S.A.R.; Alam, T.

    2005-01-01

    Biodegradation, is the partial simplification or complete destruction of the molecular structure of environmental pollutants by physiological reactions catalyzed by microorganisms, by applying chemical and physiological assays to laboratory incubations of flasks containing pure culture of microorganism, mixed cultures or environmental. whereas Bioremediation is the intentional use of biodegradation process to eliminate environmental pollutants from sites where they have been released either intentionally or inadvertently, as documented most readily in laboratory assays to eliminate or reduce the concentration of environmental pollutants in field sites to levels that acceptable to site owners or Regulatory Agencies. The poster highlights the demonstration, how the diverse techniques derived from the Science of microbial contaminants from field sites., which is inherently multidisciplinary Bioremediation integrate the approaches, protocols, strategies and analysis from Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Hydrology, Soil Science, Physiology and Analytical Chemistry. (author)

  1. Marketing strategy of the project My Better Myself

    OpenAIRE

    Radimský, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this bachelor thesis was to create a marketing strategy of a non-profit educational project aimed on Czech highschool students. The strategy is based on the concept of the project My Better Myself. As the main methods to achieve the goals were used the marketing strategy analysis tools such as market research, marketing mix or SWOT analysis, whose use in practice ultimately leads to achieving competitive advantage that is based on the uniqueness and simplicity of the idea of the p...

  2. An Assessment of risk response strategies practiced in software projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita Bhoola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk management and success in projects are highly intertwined – better approaches to project risk management tend to increase chances of project success in terms of achieving scope & quality, schedule and cost targets. The process of responding to risk factors during a project’s life cycle is a crucial aspect of risk management referred to as risk response strategies, in this paper. The current research explores the status of risk response strategies applied in the software development projects in India. India provides a young IT-savvy English-speaking population, which is also cost effective. Other than the workforce, the environment for implementation of software projects in India is different from the matured economies. Risk management process is a commonly discussed theme, though its implementation in practice has a huge scope for improvement in India. The paper talks about four fundamental treatments to risk response – Avoidance, Transference, Mitigation and Acceptance (ATMA. From a primary data of 302 project managers, the paper attempts to address the risk response factors that lead to successful achievement of project scope & quality, schedule and cost targets, by using a series of regressions followed with Seemingly Unrelated Regression Equations (SURE modelling. Mitigation emerged as the most significant risk response strategy to achieve project targets. Acceptance, transference, and avoidance of risk were mostly manifested in the forms of transparency in communication across stakeholders, careful study of the nature of risks and close coordination between project team, customers/end-users and top management.

  3. Strategies to Combat Antibiotic Resistance in the Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Barancheshme

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this manuscript is to review different treatment strategies and mechanisms for combating the antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs in the wastewater environment. The high amount of antibiotics is released into the wastewater that may promote selection of ARB and ARGs which find their way into natural environments. Emerging microbial pathogens and increasing antibiotic resistance among them is a global public health issue. The propagation and spread of ARB and ARGs in the environment may result in an increase of antibiotic resistant microbial pathogens which is a worldwide environmental and public health concern. A proper treatment of wastewater is essential before its discharge into rivers, lake, or sewage system to prevent the spread of ARB and ARGs into the environment. This review discusses various treatment options applied for combating the spread of ARB and ARGs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. It was reported that low-energy anaerobic–aerobic treatment reactors, constructed wetlands, and disinfection processes have shown good removal efficiencies. Nanomaterials and biochar combined with other treatment methods and coagulation process are very recent strategies regarding ARB and ARGs removal and need more investigation and research. Based on current studies a wide-ranging removal efficiency of ARGs can be achieved depending on the type of genes present and treatment processes used, still, there are gaps that need to be further investigated. In order to find solutions to control dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the environment, it is important to (1 study innovative strategies in large scale and over a long time to reach an actual evaluation, (2 develop risk assessment studies to precisely understand occurrence and abundance of ARB/ARGs so that their potential risks to human health can be determined, and (3 consider operating and environmental factors that affect the

  4. Resisting chocolate temptation using a brief mindfulness strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, K. T.; Tapper, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We examined the effects of two mindfulness-based strategies on chocolate consumption amongst individuals who were trying to reduce the amount of chocolate they consumed.\\ud \\ud Methods: Participants (n = 137) were allocated to one of three conditions and employed either cognitive defusion, acceptance, or relaxation (control) techniques to help them resist chocolate over 5 days. During this period, they carried a bag of chocolates with them and recorded any chocolate or chocolate-r...

  5. Transgenic strategies to confer resistance against viruses in rice plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahide eSasaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is cultivated in more than 100 countries and supports nearly half of the world’s population. Developing efficient methods to control rice viruses is thus an urgent necessity because viruses cause serious losses in rice yield. Most rice viruses are transmitted by insect vectors, notably planthoppers and leafhoppers. Viruliferous insect vectors can disperse their viruses over relatively long distances, and eradication of the viruses is very difficult once they become widespread. Exploitation of natural genetic sources of resistance is one of the most effective approaches to protect crops from virus infection; however, only a few naturally occurring rice genes confer resistance against rice viruses. In an effort to improve control, many investigators are using genetic engineering of rice plants as a potential strategy to control viral diseases. Using viral genes to confer pathogen-derived resistance against crops is a well-established procedure, and the expression of various viral gene products has proved to be effective in preventing or reducing infection by various plant viruses since the 1990s. RNA-interference (RNAi, also known as RNA silencing, is one of the most efficient methods to confer resistance against plant viruses on their respective crops. In this article, we review the recent progress, mainly conducted by our research group, in transgenic strategies to confer resistance against tenuiviruses and reoviruses in rice plants. Our findings also illustrate that not all RNAi constructs against viral RNAs are equally effective in preventing virus infection and that it is important to identify the viral Achilles’ heel gene to target for RNAi attack when engineering plants.

  6. Resisting chocolate temptation using a brief mindfulness strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kim T; Tapper, Katy

    2014-09-01

    We examined the effects of two mindfulness-based strategies on chocolate consumption amongst individuals who were trying to reduce the amount of chocolate they consumed. Participants (n = 137) were allocated to one of three conditions and employed either cognitive defusion, acceptance, or relaxation (control) techniques to help them resist chocolate over 5 days. During this period, they carried a bag of chocolates with them and recorded any chocolate or chocolate-related products they consumed. They also completed a questionnaire measure of the extent to which chocolate consumption was automatic, both before and after the 5-day period. Results showed that compared to controls, those in the cognitive defusion group ate significantly less chocolate from the bag (p = .046) and less chocolate according to the diary measure (p = .053). There was evidence that these changes were brought about by reductions in the extent to which chocolate consumption was automatic. There were no differences in chocolate consumption between the acceptance and control groups. Our results point to a promising brief intervention strategy and highlight the importance of disentangling the effects of different mindfulness-based techniques. What is already known on this subject? Multicomponent mindfulness interventions have been successfully applied to a range of health behaviours. Low levels of self-control are associated with weight gain and a higher BMI. What does this study add? The results show that a brief mindfulness strategy (defusion) helps individuals resist chocolate over 5 days. The results suggest this may be brought about by reductions in the extent to which eating chocolate is automatic. A second brief mindfulness strategy (acceptance) failed to help individuals resist chocolate. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Policy resistance undermines superspreader vaccination strategies for influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad R Wells

    Full Text Available Theoretical models of infection spread on networks predict that targeting vaccination at individuals with a very large number of contacts (superspreaders can reduce infection incidence by a significant margin. These models generally assume that superspreaders will always agree to be vaccinated. Hence, they cannot capture unintended consequences such as policy resistance, where the behavioral response induced by a new vaccine policy tends to reduce the expected benefits of the policy. Here, we couple a model of influenza transmission on an empirically-based contact network with a psychologically structured model of influenza vaccinating behavior, where individual vaccinating decisions depend on social learning and past experiences of perceived infections, vaccine complications and vaccine failures. We find that policy resistance almost completely undermines the effectiveness of superspreader strategies: the most commonly explored approaches that target a randomly chosen neighbor of an individual, or that preferentially choose neighbors with many contacts, provide at best a 2% relative improvement over their non-targeted counterpart as compared to 12% when behavioral feedbacks are ignored. Increased vaccine coverage in super spreaders is offset by decreased coverage in non-superspreaders, and superspreaders also have a higher rate of perceived vaccine failures on account of being infected more often. Including incentives for vaccination provides modest improvements in outcomes. We conclude that the design of influenza vaccine strategies involving widespread incentive use and/or targeting of superspreaders should account for policy resistance, and mitigate it whenever possible.

  8. Resistance projection welding of vacuum tube getter assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuncz, F. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Tungsten inert gas welding the leads to a vacuum tube getter assembly can result in fusion of gettering powder, lowering gas absorption capability. Using resistance projection welding with ball-ended leads, getter bodies were successfully bonded to the leads. Special electrodes were designed. Materials and methods are given for producing ball-ended leads, designating and building special electrodes, and for welding the leads to the body

  9. Treatment strategy for a multidrug-resistant Klebsiella UTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Erin; Heil, Emily L; Hynicka, Lauren M

    2014-01-01

    To describe the management strategy for a multidrug-resistant (MDR) Klebsiella urinary tract infection (UTI). A 69-year-old Caucasian woman with a past medical history of recurrent UTIs and a right-lung transplant presented with fever to 101.4°F, chills, malaise, and cloudy, foul-smelling urine for approximately 1 week. She was found to have a MDR Klebsiella UTI that was sensitive to tigecycline and cefepime. To further evaluate the degree of resistance Etest minimum inhibitory concentrations were requested for cefepime, amikacin, meropenem, and ertapenem. The patient received a 14-day course of amikacin, which resulted in resolution of her symptoms. One month later, the patient's UTI symptoms returned. The urine culture again grew MDR Klebsiella, sensitive only to tigecycline. Fosfomycin was initiated and resulted in limited resolution of her symptoms. Colistin was started, however, therapy was discontinued on day 5 secondary to the development of acute kidney injury. Despite the short course of therapy, the patient's symptoms resolved. The case presented lends itself well to numerous discussion items that are important to consider when determining optimal treatment for MDR Gram-negative bacilli (GNBs). Susceptibility testing is an important tool for optimizing antibiotic therapy, however, automated systems may overestimate the susceptibility profile for a MDR GNB. Treatment strategies evaluated to treat MDR GNB, include combination therapy with a carbepenem and synergy using polymyxin. We have described the management strategy for a MDR Klebsiella UTI, the consequences of the initial management strategy, and potential strategies to manage these types of infections in future patients.

  10. Antimicrobial Peptides: A Promising Therapeutic Strategy in Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, Ramya; Goud, Nerella S; Saraswati, A Prasanth; Alvala, Ravi; Alvala, Mallika

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has posed a serious threat to global public health and it requires immediate action, preferably long term. Current drug therapies have failed to curb this menace due to the ability of microbes to circumvent the mechanisms through which the drugs act. From the drug discovery point of view, the majority of drugs currently employed for antimicrobial therapy are small molecules. Recent trends reveal a surge in the use of peptides as drug candidates as they offer remarkable advantages over small molecules. Newer synthetic strategies like organometalic complexes, Peptide-polymer conjugates, solid phase, liquid phase and recombinant DNA technology encouraging the use of peptides as therapeutic agents with a host of chemical functions, and tailored for specific applications. In the last decade, many peptide based drugs have been successfully approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This success can be attributed to their high specificity, selectivity and efficacy, high penetrability into the tissues, less immunogenicity and less tissue accumulation. Considering the enormity of AMR, the use of Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs) can be a viable alternative to current therapeutics strategies. AMPs are naturally abundant allowing synthetic chemists to develop semi-synthetics peptide molecules. AMPs have a broad spectrum of activity towards microbes and they possess the ability to bypass the resistance induction mechanisms of microbes. The present review focuses on the potential applications of AMPs against various microbial disorders and their future prospects. Several resistance mechanisms and their strategies have also been discussed to highlight the importance in the current scenario. Breakthroughs in AMP designing, peptide synthesis and biotechnology have shown promise in tackling this challenge and has revived the interest of using AMPs as an important weapon in fighting AMR. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries

  11. Strategies for Enhanced Crop Resistance to Insect Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Angela E

    2018-04-29

    Insect pests are responsible for substantial crop losses worldwide through direct damage and transmission of plant diseases, and novel approaches that complement or replace broad-spectrum chemical insecticides will facilitate the sustainable intensification of food production in the coming decades. Multiple strategies for improved crop resistance to insect pests, especially strategies relating to plant secondary metabolism and immunity and microbiome science, are becoming available. Recent advances in metabolic engineering of plant secondary chemistry offer the promise of specific toxicity or deterrence to insect pests; improved understanding of plant immunity against insects provides routes to optimize plant defenses against insects; and the microbiomes of insect pests can be exploited, either as a target or as a vehicle for delivery of insecticidal agents. Implementation of these advances will be facilitated by ongoing advances in plant breeding and genetic technologies.

  12. Combination Therapy Strategies Against Multiple-Resistant Streptococcus Suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen, an emerging zoonotic agent responsible for meningitis, endocarditis and septicaemia followed by deafness in humans. The development of antimicrobial resistance in S. suis increases the risk for therapeutic failure in both animals and humans. In this study, we report the synergism of combination therapy against multi-resistant S. suis isolates from swine. Twelve antibiotic profiles were determined against 11 S. suis strains. To investigate their synergistic/antagonistic activity, checkerboard assay was performed for all the possible combinations. In-vitro killing curves and in-vivo treatment trials were used to confirm the synergistic activity of special combinations against S. suis dominant clones. In this study, 11 S. suis isolates were highly resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline with ratios of 80–100%, and the resistance percentages to enrofloxacin, florfenicol, and spectinomycin were ~50%. The checkerboard data identified two combination regimens, ampicillin plus apramycin and tiamulin plus spectinomycin which gave the greatest level of synergism against the S. suis strains. In-vitro kill-curves showed a bacterial reduction of over 3-logCFU with the use of combination treatments, whilst the application of mono-therapies achieve less than a 2-logCFU cell killing. In-vivo models confirm that administration of these two combinations significantly reduced the number of bacterial cells after 24 h of treatment. In conclusions, the combinations of ampicillin plus apramycin and tiamulin plus spectinomycin showed the greatest synergism and may be potential strategies for treatment of multi-resistant S. suis in animal.

  13. Effective Strategies for Teaching Evolution: The Primary Evolution Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    When Chris Hatcher joined the Primary Evolution Project team at the University of Reading, his goal was to find effective strategies to teach evolution in a way that keeps children engaged and enthused. Hatcher has collaborated with colleagues at the University's Institute of Education to break the evolution unit down into distinct topics and…

  14. Offset-electrode profile acquisition strategy for electrical resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Austin R.; Plattner, Alain

    2018-04-01

    We present an electrode layout strategy that allows electrical resistivity profiles to image the third dimension close to the profile plane. This "offset-electrode profile" approach involves laterally displacing electrodes away from the profile line in an alternating fashion and then inverting the resulting data using three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography software. In our synthetic and field surveys, the offset-electrode method succeeds in revealing three-dimensional structures in the vicinity of the profile plane, which we could not achieve using three-dimensional inversions of linear profiles. We confirm and explain the limits of linear electrode profiles through a discussion of the three-dimensional sensitivity patterns: For a homogeneous starting model together with a linear electrode layout, all sensitivities remain symmetric with respect to the profile plane through each inversion step. This limitation can be overcome with offset-electrode layouts by breaking the symmetry pattern among the sensitivities. Thanks to freely available powerful three-dimensional resistivity tomography software and cheap modern computing power, the requirement for full three-dimensional calculations does not create a significant burden and renders the offset-electrode approach a cost-effective method. By offsetting the electrodes in an alternating pattern, as opposed to laying the profile out in a U-shape, we minimize shortening the profile length.

  15. Spent nuclear fuels project characterization data quality objectives strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, L.A.; Thornton, T.A.; Redus, K.S.

    1994-12-01

    A strategy is presented for implementation of the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process to the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project (SNFP) characterization activities. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are teaming in the characterization of the SNF on the Hanford Site and are committed to the DQO process outlined in this strategy. The SNFP characterization activities will collect and evaluate the required data to support project initiatives and decisions related to interim safe storage and the path forward for disposal. The DQO process is the basis for the activity specific SNF characterization requirements, termed the SNF Characterization DQO for that specific activity, which will be issued by the WHC or PNL organization responsible for the specific activity. The Characterization Plan prepared by PNL defines safety, remediation, and disposal issues. The ongoing Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) requirement and plans and the fuel storage and disposition options studies provide the need and direction for the activity specific DQO process. The hierarchy of characterization and DQO related documentation requirements is presented in this strategy. The management of the DQO process and the means of documenting the DQO process are described as well as the tailoring of the DQO process to the specific need of the SNFP characterization activities. This strategy will assure stakeholder and project management that the proper data was collected and evaluated to support programmatic decisions

  16. Getting to social action: the Youth Empowerment Strategies (YES!) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nance; Minkler, Meredith; Dasho, Stefan; Wallerstein, Nina; Martin, Anna C

    2008-10-01

    This article describes the social action component of the Youth Empowerment Strategies (YES!) project funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through its community-based prevention research (CBPR) initiative. YES! is designed to promote problem-solving skills, social action, and civic participation among underserved elementary and middle school youth. The after-school program focuses on identifying and building youths' capacities and strengths as a means of ultimately decreasing rates of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and other risky behaviors. The article discusses the conceptual models of risk and intervention and factors contributing to successful social action work, including group dynamics, intragroup leadership, facilitator skills, and school-community contexts. Attention is focused on how the nature of the projects themselves played a key role in determining the likelihood of experiencing success. Implications and recommendations for other youth-focused empowerment education projects are discussed, including the effective use of Photovoice in such projects.

  17. Strategies for sustainable households. The SusHouse project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergragt, Ph.J.; Knot, J.M.C.

    2001-01-01

    The international SusHouse project has developed a strategy design approach that can contribute to major (factor 20) efficiency improvements in household activities. Stakeholder workshops have been held to develop scenarios for a sustainable future (2050). These scenarios were evaluated on their economic consequences, environmental impacts and consumer acceptance. the results were then used as the input for a second round of stakeholder workshops, which aimed at developing short-term strategies and implementation plans. This Research Note reviews the SusHouse approach and its results. It ends with suggestions for further steps to be taken. A SusHouse CD-ROM is available, containing all final project reports as well as a scenario presentation in the form of images and short texts. 22 refs

  18. Habitat Demonstration Unit Project Leadership and Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) led multi-center Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) project leadership and management strategies. The HDU project team constructed and tested an analog prototype lunar surface habitat/laboratory called the Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) during 2010. The prototype unit subsystems were integrated in a short amount of time, utilizing a tiger team approach that brought together over 20 habitation-related technologies and innovations from a variety of NASA centers. This paper describes the leadership and management strategies as well as lessons learned pertaining to leading and managing a multi-center diverse team in a rapid prototype environment. The PEM configuration went from a paper design to an operational surface habitat demonstration unit in less than 12 months. The HDU project is part of the strategic plan from the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Directorate Integration Office (DIO) and the Exploration Mission Systems Office (EMSO) to test destination elements in analog environments. The 2011 HDU-Deep Space Habitat (DSH) configuration will build upon the PEM work, and emphasize validity of crew operations (remote working and living), EVA operations, mission operations, logistics operations, and science operations that might be required in a deep space context for Near Earth Object (NEO) exploration mission architectures. The 2011 HDU-DSH will be field-tested during the 2011 Desert Research and Technologies Studies (DRaTS) field tests. The HDU project is a "technology-pull" project that integrates technologies and innovations from multiple NASA centers. This project will repurpose the HDU 2010 demo unit that was field tested in the 2010 DRaTS, adding habitation functionality to the prototype unit. This paper will describe the strategy of establishing a multi-center project management team that put in place the key multi-center leadership skills and

  19. Responsible Mining: A Human Resources Strategy for Mine Development Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sampathkumar, Sriram (Ram)

    2012-01-01

    Mining is a global industry. Most mining companies operate internationally, often in remote, challenging environments and consequently frequently have respond to unusual and demanding Human Resource (HR) requirements. It is my opinion that the strategic imperative behind success in mining industry is responsible mining. The purpose of this paper is to examine how an effective HR strategy can be a competitive advantage that contributes to the success of a mining project in the global mining in...

  20. MARKETING STRATEGIES AND TACTICS OF ADVERTISING PROJECTS FOR TOURISM COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    O. M. Tolmachev

    2016-01-01

    The subject / topic. The relevance of the article is that today tourism is a massive social and economic phenomenon of global scale, as is known, any vacation begins with advertising. Therefore, for the progressive development of tourism companies need to develop an eff ective strategy and tactics of advertising projects. Potential consumers have become more discerning and prudent, so a consultant position with the fl ood of information does not work. Works expert position, when the product i...

  1. Knowledge Sharing Strategies for Large Complex Building Projects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Bektas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is a project-based sector with a myriad of actors such as architects, construction companies, consultants, producers of building materials (Anumba et al., 2005. The interaction between the project partners is often quite limited, which leads to insufficient knowledge sharing during the project and knowledge being unavailable for reuse (Fruchter et al. 2002. The result can be a considerable amount of extra work, delays and cost overruns. Design outcomes that are supposed to function as boundary objects across different disciplines can lead to misinterpretation of requirements, project content and objectives. In this research, knowledge is seen as resulting from social interactions; knowledge resides in communities and it is generated through social relationships (Wenger 1998, Olsson et al. 2008. Knowledge is often tacit, intangible and context-dependent and it is articulated in the changing responsibilities, roles, attitudes and values that are present in the work environment (Bresnen et al., 2003. In a project environment, knowledge enables individuals to solve problems, take decisions, and apply these decisions to actions. In order to achieve a shared understanding and minimize the misunderstanding and misinterpretations among project actors, it is necessary to share knowledge (Fong 2003. Sharing knowledge is particularly crucial in large complex building projects (LCBPs in order to accelerate the building process, improve architectural quality and prevent mistakes or undesirable results. However, knowledge sharing is often hampered through professional or organizational boundaries or contractual concerns. When knowledge is seen as an organizational asset, there is little willingness among project organizations to share their knowledge. Individual people may recognize the need to promote knowledge sharing throughout the project, but typically there is no deliberate strategy agreed by all project partners to address

  2. Guanacaste Geothermal Project. Technical prefeasibility report. Annex C. Electric resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    This report is the third of six annexes to the Summary Report on the First Phase of the Guanacaste Geothermal Project. The studies covered an area of 500 km/sup 2/ on the SW flanks of the Rincon de la Vieja and Miravalles volcanoes of the Guanacaste Volcanic Range in NW Costa Rica, and were aimed at locating zones of high geothermal gradient, and reconstruction of the stratigraphic column. The formations in the area under study can be grouped into six resistivity ranges, varying from less than 5 to more than 200 ohm-meters. Values from 200 to as high as 30,000 ohm-meters generally correspond to fractured and porous lavas, their fracturing and porosity, as well as their drainability, increasing with resistivity. The values above 100 ohm-meters were recorded in zones of recent lava flows, in spurs of the volcanoes Rincon de la Vieja and Santa Maria, and in the slopes of the Miravalles volcano, and correspond to shallow formations (maximum depths of 150 meters) which may constitute recharge zones for the underground aquifiers. The values in the 100 to 200 ohm-meter range were generally recorded directly under layers constituted by drained, porous lavas, or under shallow layers where no recent lavas are present. The third group comprises materials with resistivities in the 25 to 100 ohm-meter range, occurring at two different depth levels: a deep one (more than 1000 meters) and a shallow one (less than 400 meters). Resistivities less than 25 ohm-meters were recorded at depths of 250 meters and more, and may correspond to material typical of the Aguacate formation, which probably constitutes the reservoir rock of the geothermal fluids. In order to locate the zones of most geothermal interest, this range was classified into the three remaining of the six groups, viz 10 to 25, 5 to 10, and less than 5 ohm-meters, the last group appearing to be that of greatest geothermal potential.

  3. Strategies to potentiate antimicrobial photoinactivation by overcoming resistant phenotypes†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, D. Mariano A.; Haynes, Mark H; Ball, Anthony R.; Dai, D. Tianhong; Astrakas, Christos; Kelso, Michael J; Hamblin, Michael R; Tegos, George P.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional antimicrobial strategies have become increasingly ineffective due to the emergence of multidrug resistance among pathogenic microorganisms. The need to overcome these deficiencies has triggered the exploration of alternative treatments and unconventional approaches towards controlling microbial infections. Photodynamic therapy was originally established as an anti-cancer modality and is currently used in the treatment of age related macular degeneration. The concept of photodynamic inactivation requires cell exposure to light energy, typically wavelengths in the visible region that causes the excitation of photosensitizer molecules either exogenous or endogenous, which results in the production of reactive oxygen species. ROS produce cell inactivation and death through modification of intracellular components. The versatile characteristics of PDT prompted its investigation as an anti-infective discovery platform. Advances in understanding of microbial physiology have shed light on a series of pathways, and phenotypes that serve as putative targets for antimicrobial drug discovery. Investigations of these phenotypic elements in concert with PDT have been reported focused on multidrug efflux systems, biofilms, virulence and pathogenesis determinants. In many instances the results are promising but only preliminary and require further investigation. This review discusses the different antimicrobial PDT strategies and highlights the need for highly informative and comprehensive discovery approaches. PMID:22242675

  4. Pyramiding, alternating or mixing: comparative performances of deployment strategies of nematode resistance genes to promote plant resistance efficiency and durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djian-Caporalino, Caroline; Palloix, Alain; Fazari, Ariane; Marteu, Nathalie; Barbary, Arnaud; Abad, Pierre; Sage-Palloix, Anne-Marie; Mateille, Thierry; Risso, Sabine; Lanza, Roger; Taussig, Catherine; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe

    2014-02-22

    Resistant cultivars are key elements for pathogen control and pesticide reduction, but their repeated use may lead to the emergence of virulent pathogen populations, able to overcome the resistance. Increased research efforts, mainly based on theoretical studies, explore spatio-temporal deployment strategies of resistance genes in order to maximize their durability. We evaluated experimentally three of these strategies to control root-knot nematodes: cultivar mixtures, alternating and pyramiding resistance genes, under controlled and field conditions over a 3-years period, assessing the efficiency and the durability of resistance in a protected crop rotation system with pepper as summer crop and lettuce as winter crop. The choice of the resistance gene and the genetic background in which it is introgressed, affected the frequency of resistance breakdown. The pyramiding of two different resistance genes in one genotype suppressed the emergence of virulent isolates. Alternating different resistance genes in rotation was also efficient to decrease virulent populations in fields due to the specificity of the virulence and the trapping effect of resistant plants. Mixing resistant cultivars together appeared as a less efficient strategy to control nematodes. This work provides experimental evidence that, in a cropping system with seasonal sequences of vegetable species, pyramiding or alternating resistance genes benefit yields in the long-term by increasing the durability of resistant cultivars and improving the long-term control of a soil-borne pest. To our knowledge, this result is the first one obtained for a plant-nematode interaction, which helps demonstrate the general applicability of such strategies for breeding and sustainable management of resistant cultivars against pathogens.

  5. Applying Project Management Strategies in a Large Curriculum Conversion Project in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Joel; Bennett, Patrick A.; Hyatt, Niccole; Stoker, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Higher education is undergoing great changes that require universities to adapt quickly, and making these changes can be difficult. One discipline that can aid in executing change is project management, which has developed a set of clear processes and strategies for completing initiatives quickly and effectively. Several authors have identified…

  6. Cellular resistance in radio- and chemotherapy: biological basis and strategies for circumvention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twentyman, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    In this review the author points out that resistance to cytotoxic drugs is a complex, multifactorial phenomenon involving a range of mechanisms. There is accumulating evidence that these are of relevance to both inherent and acquired resistance in the clinic. Demonstration that mechanisms of drug and radiation resistance are closely linked provides a basis for the related patterns of responsiveness observed in clinical practice. Strategies for circumvention of resistance mechanisms will depend for success upon finding ways of improving therapeutic ratio. Optimal clinical trial of resistance circumvention strategies will require the use of quantitative markers of resistance mechanisms in tumour and normal tissues. (author)

  7. Current status of RCA projects and strategies for future implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kong

    1998-12-01

    This report is intended to provide basic overall information about ways to promote technical cooperation within the framework of RCA to accelerate and coordinate cooperative activities in nuclear science and technology in Asia and the Pacific region through a thorough review on the current status and through suggesting future implementation strategies. The contents of this report include an overall introduction of RCA, guidelines and operating rules for RCA programmes, current status and future plans for RCA projects as well as the RCA vision for the next 25 years. By reviewing the current status and future implementation strategies for RCA projects, it will help to set up a national nuclear policy aimed at seeking maximum benefits from participation in RCA projects and to implement programmes for nuclear cooperation with Asian-Pacific countries. It is expected that as a lead country for the energy sector, which is one of five thematic areas for the year 1999 - 2000 cycle programmes, Korea will continue to make significant contributions towards the implementation of RCA programmes in the future. With this report, we plan to keep up with future developments as well as implement an effective cooperation with the countries in the region so that the opinion of Korea, one of the nuclear advanced countries in the region, can be fully reflected in the establishment of future plans for RCA programmes. (author). 3 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  8. The deregulated global economy: women workers and strategies of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, A

    1996-10-01

    This article discusses the lack of input from women in international debates about the global economy. Women in the South are the most vulnerable to exploitation and most ignored in international discussions of how to protect fair labor standards. Restructuring has led to loss of secure jobs in the public sector and the expansion of female employment in low-paid, insecure, unskilled jobs. Businesses desire a cheap and flexible workforce. Declines in social services, the elimination of subsidies on basic goods, and the introduction of user fees puts pressure on women to supplement family income. A parallel outcome is reduced employment rights, neglect of health and safety standards, and increased disregard among women for their domestic responsibilities. There is a need for alternative models of development. The Self-Employed Women's Organization in India serves as a model for resisting exploitation among self-employed and home-based employees. Female industrial strikers are demanding attention to excessive hours of work, enforced overtime, bullying, and lack of sanitary and medical facilities. There is always fear that organized resistance will lead to industrial relocation or loss of jobs. The International Labor Organization has had a code for 20 years, but the threat of exposure to the press is sometimes more effective. There must be regulation throughout subcontracting chains of transnational companies. International alliances should revolve around issues/strategies identified by workers. International alliances are needed for influencing multinational companies and national governments and lobbying global economic and financial institutions. Standards that are included in social clause discussions are minimum requirements that do not address gender-specific issues. Women Working Worldwide is developing a position statement of social clauses that incorporates a women's perspective.

  9. MARKETING STRATEGIES AND TACTICS OF ADVERTISING PROJECTS FOR TOURISM COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Tolmachev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject / topic. The relevance of the article is that today tourism is a massive social and economic phenomenon of global scale, as is known, any vacation begins with advertising. Therefore, for the progressive development of tourism companies need to develop an eff ective strategy and tactics of advertising projects. Potential consumers have become more discerning and prudent, so a consultant position with the fl ood of information does not work. Works expert position, when the product is as if created for the client, that is, the product exists only in synchronism with the buyer. In view of this increased competition between operators of tourist services, and certain segments of the market saturation of a significant amount of travel products with a similar orientation, a unique role for the positioning on the basis of marketing strategy as a process for creating a unique tourism product in the market.The purpose / goal. The aim of the article is to study the features of the marketing strategies of advertising processes in the market of travel agencies and find directions of their improvement in current economic conditions.Article Objectives: To investigate the nature and content of the concept of "marketing strategy of advertising processes"; systematize criteria for the classification of the Company's strategy in the market of tourist services; analyze the features of advertising projects and identify promising directions for improving the marketing strategies.Methodology. The methodological basis of this article are comparative analysis methods.Results. The essence and content of the concept of "marketing strategy of advertising processes." The features of the market of tourist services, allocated target audiences, identifies key factors and trends in the development of this market.The new system is a product of values, square S. Kovalev, who identified four existing mentality of the person. When advertising article or video include

  10. Some Convergence Strategies for the Alternating Generalized Projection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricarmen Andrade

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we extend the application of the alternating projection algorithm to solve the problem of finding a point in the intersection of $n$ sets ($n\\geq2$, which are not all of them convex sets. Here we term such method as alternating generalized projection (AGP method. In particular, we are interested in addressing the problem of avoiding the so-called trap points, which may prevent an algorithm to obtain a feasible solution in two or more sets not all convex. Some strategies that allow us to reach the feasible solution are established and conjectured. Finally, we present simple numerical results that illustrate the efficiency of the iterative methods considered.

  11. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Safety Basis Implementation Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRAWINSKI, B.J.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the Safety Basis Implementation is to ensure that implementation of activities is accomplished in order to support readiness to move spent fuel from K West Basin. Activities may be performed directly by the Safety Basis Implementation Team or they may be performed by other organizations and tracked by the Team. This strategy will focus on five key elements, (1) Administration of Safety Basis Implementation (general items), (2) Implementing documents, (3) Implementing equipment (including verification of operability), (4) Training, (5) SNF Project Technical Requirements (STRS) database system

  12. Quantitative Resistance to Plant Pathogens in Pyramiding Strategies for Durable Crop Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laure Pilet-Nayel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative resistance has gained interest in plant breeding for pathogen control in low-input cropping systems. Although quantitative resistance frequently has only a partial effect and is difficult to select, it is considered more durable than major resistance (R genes. With the exponential development of molecular markers over the past 20 years, resistance QTL have been more accurately detected and better integrated into breeding strategies for resistant varieties with increased potential for durability. This review summarizes current knowledge on the genetic inheritance, molecular basis, and durability of quantitative resistance. Based on this knowledge, we discuss how strategies that combine major R genes and QTL in crops can maintain the effectiveness of plant resistance to pathogens. Combining resistance QTL with complementary modes of action appears to be an interesting strategy for breeding effective and potentially durable resistance. Combining quantitative resistance with major R genes has proven to be a valuable approach for extending the effectiveness of major genes. In the plant genomics era, improved tools and methods are becoming available to better integrate quantitative resistance into breeding strategies. Nevertheless, optimal combinations of resistance loci will still have to be identified to preserve resistance effectiveness over time for durable crop protection.

  13. Using historical crash data as part of traffic work zone safety planning and project management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This funding enabled the project entitled, USING HISTORICAL CRASH DATA AS PART OF TRAFFIC WORK ZONE SAFETY : PLANNING AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES to address the following: : Evaluate current organizational strategies with respect to w...

  14. Proliferation Resistance and Material Type considerations within the Collaborative Project for a European Sodium Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renda, Guido; Alim, Fatih; Cojazzi, Giacomo GM.

    2015-01-01

    The collaborative project for a European Sodium Fast Reactor (CP‑ESFR) is an international project where 25 European partners developed Research & Development solutions and concepts for a European sodium fast reactor. The project was funded by the 7. European Union Framework Programme and covered topics such as the reactor architectures and components, the fuel, the fuel element and the fuel cycle, and the safety concepts. Within sub‑project 3, dedicated to safety, a task addressed proliferation resistance considerations. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR and PP) Evaluation Methodology has been selected as the general framework for this work, complemented by punctual aspects of the IAEA‑INPRO Proliferation Resistance methodology and other literature studies - in particular for material type characterization. The activity has been carried out taking the GIF PR and PP Evaluation Methodology and its Addendum as the general guideline for identifying potential nuclear material diversion targets. The targets proliferation attractiveness has been analyzed in terms of the suitability of the targets’ nuclear material as the basis for its use in nuclear explosives. To this aim the PR and PP Fissile Material Type measure was supplemented by other literature studies, whose related metrics have been applied to the nuclear material items present in the considered core alternatives. This paper will firstly summarize the main ESFR design aspects relevant for PR following the structure of the GIF PR and PP White Paper template. An analysis on proliferation targets is then discussed, with emphasis on their characterization from a nuclear material point of view. Finally, a high‑level ESFR PR analysis according to the four main proliferation strategies identified by the GIF PR and PP Evaluation Methodology (concealed diversion, concealed misuse, breakout, clandestine production in clandestine facilities) is

  15. Habitat Demonstration Unit Project: Leadership and Management Strategies for a Rapid Prototyping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Toup, Larry; Gill, Tracy; Tri, Terry; Howe, Scott; Smitherman, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) led multi-center Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) project leadership and management strategies being used by the NASA HDU team for a rapid prototyping project. The HDU project team constructed and tested an analog prototype lunar surface habitat/laboratory called the Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) during 2010. The prototype unit subsystems were integrated in a short amount of time, utilizing a tiger team rapid prototyping approach that brought together over 20 habitation-related technologies and innovations from a variety of NASA centers. This paper describes the leadership and management strategies as well as lessons learned pertaining to leading and managing a multi-center diverse team in a rapid prototype environment. The PEM configuration went from a paper design to an operational surface habitat demonstration unit in less than 12 months. The HDU project is part of the strategic plan from the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Directorate Integration Office (DIO) and the Exploration Mission Systems Office (EMSO) to test destination elements in analog environments. The 2011 HDU-Deep Space Habitat (DSH) configuration will build upon the PEM work, and emphasize validity of crew operations (remote working and living), EVA operations, mission operations, logistics operations, and science operations that might be required in a deep space context for Near Earth Object (NEO) exploration mission architectures. The 2011 HDU-DSH will be field-tested during the 2011 Desert Research and Technologies Studies (DRaTS) field tests. The HDU project is a "technology-pull" project that integrates technologies and innovations from multiple NASA centers. This project will repurpose the HDU 2010 demo unit that was field tested in the 2010 DRaTS, adding habitation functionality to the prototype unit. This paper will describe the strategy of establishing a multi-center project

  16. Managing the Right Projects: Best Practices to Align Project and Corporate Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Bobby

    2012-01-01

    If there's a human endeavor that exemplifies teamwork, it is space exploration. And that teamwork absolutely cannot happen effectively if the boots on the ground the people doing the work - don't understand how their work aligns with the larger goal. This presentation will discuss some best management practices from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center that have succeeded in helping employees become informed, engaged and committed to the space agency's important missions. Specific topics include: Alignment Criteria: Linking Projects To Corporate Strategy. Resource Management: Best Practices For Resource Management. Strategic Analysis: Supporting Decision Making In A Changing Environment. Communication Strategies: Best Practices To Communicate Change. Benefits Achieved And Lessons Learned.

  17. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevention strategies in the ICU: a clinical decision analysis*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziakas, Panayiotis D; Zacharioudakis, Ioannis M; Zervou, Fainareti N; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-02-01

    ICUs are a major reservoir of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Our aim was to estimate costs and effectiveness of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevention policies. We evaluated three up-to-date methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevention policies, namely, 1) nasal screening and contact precautions of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-positive patients; 2) nasal screening, contact precautions, and decolonization (targeted decolonization) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers; and 3) universal decolonization without screening. We implemented a decision-analytic model with deterministic and probabilistic analyses. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections averted, quality-adjusted life years gained, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated. Cost-effectiveness planes and acceptability curves were plotted for various willingness-to-pay thresholds to address uncertainty. At base-case scenario, universal decolonization was the dominant strategy; it averted 1.31% and 1.59% of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections over targeted decolonization and screening and contact precautions, respectively, and saved $16,203/quality-adjusted life year over targeted decolonization and 14,562/quality-adjusted life year over screening and contact precautions. Results were robust in sensitivity analysis for a wide range of input variables. In probabilistic analysis, universal decolonization increased quality-adjusted life years by 1.06% (95% CI, 1.02-1.09) over targeted decolonization and by 1.29% (95% CI, 1.24-1.33) over screening and contact precautions; universal decolonization resulted in average savings of $172 (95% CI, $168-$175) and $189 (95% CI, $185-$193) over targeted decolonization and screening and contact precautions, respectively. With willingness-to-pay threshold per quality-adjusted life year gained ranging from $0 to $50,000, universal decolonization was dominant

  18. Russian neo-revisionist strategy and the Eurasian Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Dzarasov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the real meaning of the Eurasian Integration Project for East–West relations. The author departs from Sakwa’s treatment of Russian strategy as neo-revisionist. It does not aspire to change the current world order while trying to make the West observe its national interests within the existing framework. This perspective is treated in the article from the standpoint of world-systems analysis. The Eurasian Project is understood as a reaction of the Russian state to the failure of the neoliberal attempt to integrate into the world economy and the international security system. The two great trade mega-unions—the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP and the Trans-Atlantic Partnership—are seen as geoeconomic bolt clamps, which put Russia under enormous pressure. The Russian strategy in the Ukrainian and Syrian crises is designed to find the way out of strategic isolation. The Eurasian Union is expected by the Russian ruling elite to be an important tool to forestall the isolation of the country and secure her economic, military and international security.

  19. Adolescents' Compliance-Resistance: Effects of Parents' Compliance Strategy and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kim D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined choice of compliance-resisting behaviors among adolescents. Findings from 118 high school students revealed significant differences in resistance strategy the adolescent selected on basis of parent gender, adolescent gender, and compliance-gaining strategy (manipulation, nonnegotiation, emotional appeal, personal rejection, empathic…

  20. Exploring Culturally Specific Drug Resistance Strategies of Hawaiian Youth in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Po'a-Kekuawela, Ka'ohinani; Chin, Coralee I. H.; Nebre, La Risa H.; Helm, Susana

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the drug resistance strategies of Hawaiian youth residing in rural communities in Hawai'i. Forty seven youth participated in 14 focus groups which focused on the social and environmental context of drug use for these youth. The findings indicated that there were 47 references to resistance strategies used in drug…

  1. A typology and analysis of drug resistance strategies of rural Native Hawaiian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Scott K; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis; Kawano, Kaycee Nahe; Kulis, Stephen

    2010-12-01

    This study examines the drug resistance strategies described by Native Hawaiian youth residing in rural communities. Sixty-four youth from 7 middle and intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i participated in a series of gender-specific focus groups. Youth responded to 15 drug-related problem situations developed and validated from prior research. A total of 509 responses reflecting primary or secondary drug resistance strategies were identified by the youth, which were qualitatively collapsed into 16 different categories. Primary drug resistance strategies were those that participants listed as a single response, or the first part of a two-part response, while secondary drug resistance strategies were those that were used in tandem with primary drug resistance strategies. Over half of the responses reflecting primary drug resistance strategies fell into three different categories ("refuse," "explain," or "angry refusal"), whereas over half of the responses reflecting secondary drug resistance strategies represented one category ("explain"). Significant gender differences were found in the frequency of using different strategies as well as variations in the frequency of using different strategies based on the type of drug offerer (family versus friends/peers). Implications for prevention practice are discussed.

  2. Antibiotic consumption and resistance: results of the SPIN-UTI project of the GISIO-SItI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agodi, Antonella; Auxilia, Francesco; Barchitta, Martina; Brusaferro, Silvio; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Pasquarella, Cesira; Tardivo, Stefano; Mura, Ida

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate trends and association between antibiotic consumption and resistance during an eight-year period, from 2006 to 2013. Prospective multicenter study. Intensive Care Units (ICUs) participating in the four editions of the Italian nosocomial infections surveillance in the ICU Network (Sorveglianza Prospettica delle Infezioni Nosocomiali nelle Unità di Terapia Intensiva, SPIN-UTI project). The isolation density of selected species of microorganisms, antibiotic resistance rates (RRs), incidence density of resistant isolates and antimicrobial usage density were calculated. RRs of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, of third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant K. pneumoniae and of 3GC-resistant Escherichia coli showed significant increasing trends (p ≤0.001). The consumption of each antibiotic class varied with years, although not significantly. Significant strongly positive correlations were detected between RRs and antibiotic consumption. The present study describes high RRs and increasing trends of resistant microorganisms and highlights the need for continuous comprehensive strategies targeting not only the prudent use of antibiotics, but also infection control measures to limit the epidemic spread of resistant isolates.

  3. A Structural View on Medicinal Chemistry Strategies against Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, Stefano; Brand, Michael; Chellat, Mathieu F; Gazzola, Silvia; Riedl, Rainer

    2018-05-30

    The natural phenomenon of drug resistance represents a generic impairment that hampers the benefits of drugs in all major clinical indications. Antibacterials and antifungals are affected as well as compounds for the treatment of cancer, viral infections or parasitic diseases. Despite the very diverse set of biological targets and organisms involved in the development of drug resistance, underlying molecular processes have been identified to understand the emergence of resistance and to overcome this detrimental mechanism. Detailed structural information of the root causes for drug resistance is nowadays frequently available to design next generation drugs anticipated to suffer less from resistance. This knowledge-based approach is a prerequisite in the fight against the inevitable occurrence of drug resistance to secure the achievements of medicinal chemistry in the future. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Gene Expression Profiling and Identification of Resistance Genes to Aspergillus flavus Infection in Peanut through EST and Microarray Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhu Guo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus infect peanut seeds and produce aflatoxins, which are associated with various diseases in domestic animals and humans throughout the world. The most cost-effective strategy to minimize aflatoxin contamination involves the development of peanut cultivars that are resistant to fungal infection and/or aflatoxin production. To identify peanut Aspergillus-interactive and peanut Aspergillus-resistance genes, we carried out a large scale peanut Expressed Sequence Tag (EST project which we used to construct a peanut glass slide oligonucleotide microarray. The fabricated microarray represents over 40% of the protein coding genes in the peanut genome. For expression profiling, resistant and susceptible peanut cultivars were infected with a mixture of Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus spores. The subsequent microarray analysis identified 62 genes in resistant cultivars that were up-expressed in response to Aspergillus infection. In addition, we identified 22 putative Aspergillus-resistance genes that were constitutively up-expressed in the resistant cultivar in comparison to the susceptible cultivar. Some of these genes were homologous to peanut, corn, and soybean genes that were previously shown to confer resistance to fungal infection. This study is a first step towards a comprehensive genome-scale platform for developing Aspergillus-resistant peanut cultivars through targeted marker-assisted breeding and genetic engineering.

  5. Strategies for selecting and breeding EAB-resistant ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; Kathleen Knight; Therese Poland; David W. Carey; Daniel A. Herms; Mary E. Mason

    2011-01-01

    Breeding for pest resistance in forest trees is a proven approach for managing both native and nonnative insects and diseases. A recent study by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reports 255 forest tree breeding programs for insect or disease resistance in 33 diff erent countries (http://www.fao.org/forestry/26445/en/). Advantages to...

  6. Potential strategies for the eradication of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwaitat, Rawan; McCloskey, Alice P; Gilmore, Brendan F; Laverty, Garry

    2016-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is one of the leading threats to society. The increasing burden of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infection is particularly concerning as such bacteria are demonstrating resistance to nearly all currently licensed therapies. Various strategies have been hypothesized to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections including: targeting the Gram-negative outer membrane; neutralization of lipopolysaccharide; inhibition of bacterial efflux pumps and prevention of protein folding. Silver and silver nanoparticles, fusogenic liposomes and nanotubes are potential strategies for extending the activity of licensed, Gram-positive selective, antibiotics to Gram-negatives. This may serve as a strategy to fill the current void in pharmaceutical development in the short term. This review outlines the most promising strategies that could be implemented to solve the threat of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections.

  7. Fuel strategies for natural gas fired cogeneration and IPP projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper as published is the outline of a presentation on managing the risk of varying fuel costs as part of a successful fuel strategy for natural gas fired cogeneration and Independent Power Producer (IPP) projects. So long as the fuel cost that electric utilities recover from their ratepayers differs from the fuel costs incurred by IPP and Qualifying Facility (QF) plant operators, the largest variable cost risk of any QF or IPP will continue to be the cost of fuel. Managing that risk is the mission of any successful fuel procurement strategy. Unfortunately, a quick review of the last 20 years in the oil and gas industry reveals dramatic and substantial changes in price and fuel availability that few, if any, industry experts could have predicted in 1971. Recognizing that the fuel cost risk to a QF or IPP investor also spans a 20 year period, the typical term of a QF or IPP power purchase contract, a successful fuel procurement strategy must consider and address the likelihood of future changes. Due to federal and state regulatory changes made from 1978 to 1989, the current structure of the oil and gas industry appears to provide end-users with the tools to improve the manageability of fuel cost risks. QF and IPP developers can choose the type of service they desire and can negotiate most of the contractual elements of that service. Until electric utilities are allowed to flow through their rates the fuel costs incurred by QFs and IPPs, a thorough analysis of the available fuel procurement options prior to development of a QF or IPP will continue to be absolutely necessary

  8. The Crop Evaluation Research for Environmental Strategies (CERES) Remote Sensing 2008 Project Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Joseph C.; Glaser, John A.; Copenhaver, Kenneth L.; May, George

    2009-01-01

    resistance development. The two agencies have entered into an agreement which could potentially lead to the development of next generation NASA sensors that will more specifically address the requirements of the USEPA's resistance development strategy and offer opportunities to study the ever changing ecosystem complexities. The USEPA/NASA/ITD team has developed a broad research project entitled CERES (Crop Evaluation Research for Environmental Strategies). CERES is a research effort leading to decision support system tools that are designed to integrate multi-resolution NASA remote sensing data products and USEPA geo -spatial models to monitor the potential for insect pest resistance development from the regional to the landscape and then to the field level.

  9. Eksperimental evaluation of efficacy of the strategies for the persuasion resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žeželj Iris

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research took an experimental approach to examining strategies of resistance to persuasion. We tested the effects of two strategies (counterarguing and source derogation and their relation to channel through which a message is received (print, audio and video. The experiment is based on modified experimental paradigm used in one previous research (Cameron et al, 2002 in order to retest their findings and examine the role of communication modality in inoculation. Persuasive message generated statistically significant effects- attitude towards abortion was significantly changed. Both resistance strategies, on the other hand, failed to elicit resistance and measured attitude change wasn't significantly related to communication channel.

  10. Evaluation of stem borer resistance management strategies for Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-06-01

    Jun 1, 2011 ... cultivars were identified as cost-effective, flexible, easily adoptable and ... Key words: Refugia, cost-benefit analysis, Bt-maize, insect pest resistance management. ..... Refugia are part of stewardship plan for the Bt maize.

  11. [Strategies for improving care of oncologic patients: SHARE Project results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reñones Crego, María de la Concepción; Fernández Pérez, Dolores; Vena Fernández, Carmen; Zamudio Sánchez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Cancer treatment is a major burden for the patient and its family that requires an individualized management by healthcare professionals. Nurses are in charge of coordinating care and are the closest healthcare professionals to patient and family; however, in Spain, there are not standard protocols yet for the management of oncology patients. The Spanish Oncology Nursing Society developed between 2012 and 2014 the SHARE project, with the aim of establishing strategies to improve quality of life and nursing care in oncology patients. It was developed in 3 phases. First, a literature search and review was performed to identify nursing strategies, interventions and tools to improve cancer patients' care. At the second stage, these interventions were agreed within a group of oncology nursing experts; and at the third phase, a different group of experts in oncology care categorized the interventions to identify the ones with highest priority and most feasible to be implemented. As a result, 3 strategic actions were identified to improve nursing care during cancer treatment: To provide a named nurse to carry out the follow up process by attending to the clinic or telephonic consultation, develop therapeutic education with adapted protocols for each tumor type and treatment and ensure specific training for nurses on the management of the cancer patients. Strategic actions proposed in this paper aim to improve cancer patients' healthcare and quality of life through the development of advanced nursing roles based on a higher level of autonomy, situating nurses as care coordinators to assure an holistic care in oncology patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Fuel supply strategy for power projects in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, D.

    1997-01-01

    Electricity generation is forecast to grow in Asia over the next twenty years. This will bring with it a significant growth in demand for energy resources. Major Asian utility coal procurement strategy to date has aimed at securing a balance between two conflicting needs - security of supply and low cost of supply. Despite the oversupply of coal in the eighties, the two countries experiencing significant growth in demand, Japan and Korea, planned their fuel strategies to ensure security of supply. The supply shortage over the past two years has justified their forward thinking in keeping long term coal contracts in place. Changes are already happening. Recent developments are seeing a move towards the positive attributes of low ash/low sulphur coals appropriately focusing suppliers thoughts on the need in the future to develop and concentrate on environmentally attractive coals to achieve greater returns. Indeed, generally there is a trend in North Asia to demand coal with lower sulphur, and lower ash. The aim now should be to persuade consumers to amend the narrow benchmark view in favour of one that considers the value in use of a particular coal to the customer. The method of pricing thermal coals is also likely to be influenced by the liberalization of the electricity market itself. The introduction of competition amongst generators and the appearance and growth of the Independent Power Producers could well see further pressure on the current simplistic benchmark system. Those financing such projects will seek to reduce risk by every means possible and, in particular, will want to be confident of the long term security of coal supplies

  13. Gene pyramiding as a Bt resistance management strategy: How ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports on the emergence of insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis delta endotoxins have raised doubts on the sustainability of Bt-toxin based pest management technologies. Corporate industry has responded to this challenge with innovations that include gene pyramiding among others. Pyramiding entails stacking ...

  14. Evaluation of stem borer resistance management strategies for Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem borers are the major insect pests of maize in Kenya. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) technology is an effective way of controlling lepidopteran pests. However, the likelihood of development of resistance to the Bt toxins by the target stem borer species is a concern. Forages, sorghum and maize varieties were ...

  15. Residual Resistance Data from Cavity Production Projects at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Geng, Rongli; Mammosser, John; Saunders, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental limitation towards achieving high quality factors in superconducting radio-frequency cavities is the so-called residual resistance. Understanding and controlling the residual resistance has important implications towards improving the efficiency and reduce the operating cost of continuous wave superconducting linear accelerators. In this contribution we will report on the residual resistance values obtained from measurements of the quality factor of a large set of cavities, with resonant frequency between 805 MHz and 1.5 GHz, all of them processed and tested at Jefferson Lab. Surface treatments included both buffered chemical polishing and electropolishing. The results indicate an approximate value of the residual resistance of about 7-10 n Omega.

  16. Acquired resistance to EGFR inhibitors: mechanisms and prevention strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viloria-Petit, Alicia M.; Kerbel, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    Potent and specific, or relatively specific, inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, including monoclonal antibodies and small molecular weight compounds, have been successfully developed. Both types of agent have been found to have significant antitumor activity, especially when used in combination with radio- hormone- and chemotherapy in preclinical studies. Because of the potentiation of the conventional drug activity in these combination settings, inhibitors of EGFR signaling have often been referred to as sensitizers for chemotherapy or radiation, as well as drug resistance reversal agents. Phase II clinical trials in head-and-neck as well as lung cancer suggested this concept of chemosensitization might translate into the clinic, but this remains to be definitively proven in randomized, double-blind Phase III trials. Given the extensive preclinical literature on EGFR blocking drugs and the advanced clinical development of such agents, it is surprising that the possibility of development of acquired resistance to the EGFR inhibitors themselves, a common clinical problem with virtually all other currently used anticancer drugs, remains a largely unexplored subject of investigation. Here we summarize some of the possible mechanisms that can result in acquired resistance to EGFR-targeting drugs. Alternative combination therapies to circumvent and delay this problem are suggested

  17. Strategies to prevent the occurrence of resistance against antibiotics by using advanced materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassegoda, Arnau; Ivanova, Kristina; Ramon, Eva; Tzanov, Tzanko

    2018-03-01

    Drug resistance occurrence is a global healthcare concern responsible for the increased morbidity and mortality in hospitals, time of hospitalisation and huge financial loss. The failure of the most antibiotics to kill "superbugs" poses the urgent need to develop innovative strategies aimed at not only controlling bacterial infection but also the spread of resistance. The prevention of pathogen host invasion by inhibiting bacterial virulence and biofilm formation, and the utilisation of bactericidal agents with different mode of action than classic antibiotics are the two most promising new alternative strategies to overcome antibiotic resistance. Based on these novel approaches, researchers are developing different advanced materials (nanoparticles, hydrogels and surface coatings) with novel antimicrobial properties. In this review, we summarise the recent advances in terms of engineered materials to prevent bacteria-resistant infections according to the antimicrobial strategies underlying their design.

  18. Current scenario of antibiotic resistance and latest strategies to overcome it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohankumar J Megha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in microorganisms has become a critical health issue these days and has evolved to become a worldwide health threat. Over a decade, the resistance level of bacteria has increased many folds due to various factors, accounting to the added pressure on the environmental resistome. Infections that are resistant to these antibiotics show potentially devastating effects on public health, often affecting developing countries. This review focuses on the present scenario of antibiotic resistance and enlists some of the strategies to combat this global community threat.

  19. NPD project portfolio selection using reinvestment strategy in competitive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ghassemi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to design a new model for selecting most fitting new product development projects in a pool of projects. To catch the best model, we assume new products will be introduced to the competitive markets. Also, we suppose the revenue yielded by completed projects can be reinvested on implementation of other projects. Other sources of financing are borrowing loans from banks and initial capital of the firm. These limited resources determine most evaluated projects to be performed. Several types of interactions among different projects are considered to make the chosen projects more like a portfolio. In addition, some numerical examples from the real world are provided to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. These examples show how the particular considerations in the suggested model affect the results.

  20. Fundraising Strategies Developed by MBA Students in Project-Based Learning Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes do Amaral, Joao Alberto; Petroni, Liége Mariel; Hess, Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    The ability to raise funds is a skill that most modern project managers need. While a good deal of literature exists on the strategies NGOs employ to raise funds for their operations, less attention has been paid to the strategies used by students involved in Project-Based Learning courses that often partner with NGOs. Fundraising is an important…

  1. Operations Strategy Development in Project-based Production – a building contractor implements Lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Friis, Ole Uhrskov

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study how operations strategy innovation occurs in project-based production and organisation. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal case study encompassing the processes at the company headquarters and in two projects using Lean. Findings: The operations strategy development com...

  2. Utilising Planning and Financing Strategies in the Management of Community Development Projects in Enugu State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obetta, Chukwuemeka K.; Oreh, Catherine I.

    2017-01-01

    Utilisation of community management strategies is an approach to governance that is based on community and organisational involvement. Communities with development projects have formed community projects management committees (CPMCs) that are encouraged to adopt the community management strategy in the planning and financing of community…

  3. Discovering Strategies to Improve Business Value in Outsourcing Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponisio, Laura; van Eck, Pascal; Vruggink, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of leveraging client business value in a software development outsourcing relationship. We have observed software development projects from two different Dutch IT outsourcing companies and studied the approach they apply in their (successful) projects. The results

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance Control Strategies: A Coordinated Research Initiative Experience in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Lisette; Asenjo, Gabriela; Vergara, Constanza; Cornejo, Javiera

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to gather information on the status of antimicrobial surveillance in the Asia Pacific region and suggest control strategies. Twenty-one economies of the Asia Pacific region participated in this initiative. A survey was conducted on antimicrobial use and surveillance throughout the region. A workshop was carried out to create awareness about the issue and discuss the implementation of control strategies. Based on the survey results and workshop conclusions, it can be established that there is better understanding of the implications of antimicrobial resistance in the human medicine area. Only few economies take actions to control antimicrobial resistance on a veterinary/agricultural level. To confront antimicrobial resistance, it is critical to raise awareness; cooperation between all countries is needed to apply international standards, to be able to have harmonized public policies. Countries must align and improve their systems for surveillance and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in human, animals, and the environment.

  5. Multistrain models predict sequential multidrug treatment strategies to result in less antimicrobial resistance than combination treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Zachariasen, Camilla; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2016-01-01

    generated by a mathematical model of the competitive growth of multiple strains of Escherichia coli.Results: Simulation studies showed that sequential use of tetracycline and ampicillin reduced the level of double resistance, when compared to the combination treatment. The effect of the cycling frequency...... frequency did not play a role in suppressing the growth of resistant strains, but the specific order of the two antimicrobials did. Predictions made from the study could be used to redesign multidrug treatment strategies not only for intramuscular treatment in pigs, but also for other dosing routes.......Background: Combination treatment is increasingly used to fight infections caused by bacteria resistant to two or more antimicrobials. While multiple studies have evaluated treatment strategies to minimize the emergence of resistant strains for single antimicrobial treatment, fewer studies have...

  6. Resistance Training Using Different Hypoxic Training Strategies: a Basis for Hypertrophy and Muscle Power Development

    OpenAIRE

    Feriche, Bel?n; Garc?a-Ramos, Amador; Morales-Artacho, Antonio J.; Padial, Paulino

    2017-01-01

    The possible muscular strength, hypertrophy, and muscle power benefits of resistance training under environmental conditions of hypoxia are currently being investigated. Nowadays, resistance training in hypoxia constitutes a promising new training strategy for strength and muscle gains. The main mechanisms responsible for these effects seem to be related to increased metabolite accumulation due to hypoxia. However, no data are reported in the literature to describe and compare the efficacy of...

  7. Obtaining of coffee varieties with durable resistance to illnesses, using the genetic diversity as improvement strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Ruiz, German

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of producing improved coffee varieties with resistance to the leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix), the national federation of coffee growers of Colombia initiated in 1970 a research program, whose first results achieved in 1982 were the abstention of the Colombia coffee variety. The use of genetic variability as a strategy in plant breeding for a durable resistance is discussed. In addition, the breeding outline is described and the main features of the developed materials are presented

  8. Combined strategies to control antinematicidal -resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants on organized farms in pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, K. K. [University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Parasitology

    2014-03-15

    Combined strategies to control antinematicidal -resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants on organized farms in Pakistan Antinematicidal resistance has been rooted on all the continents particularly in areas where ovine and caprine are being reared intensively due to frequent annual use of broad-spectrum dewormers. Farmers rely on mono-strategic scheme by using synthetic drugs to treat their livestock which is deemed the easier way to control gastrointestinal nematode infections as compared to the other strategies. On the other hand, recurrent employment of antinematicidal chemotherapeutics has conduced to development and prevalence of resistance among nematode populations. In this regard, other advocating strategies such as grazing management, rotation of antinematicidal drugs (although it is too late), amelioration of animal immunity, genetic approaches, biological control, nutritional supplementation, avoidance of mass treatment, improvement of management, eradication of concurrent diseases, and phytotherapy should be considered too. Although, by far there are no commercialized substantial alternatives to chemotherapy, but the current substitutes could decrease the parasitic burden, which, in turn, restrict indiscriminate use of synthetic drugs. The resistance is more rampant on organized farms as compared to non organized farms in rural areas in Asian, African and South Latin American countries because tamed animal raisers in those areas depend on ethnobotanicals to treat parasitism due to high cost of allopathic drugs. Therefore, in this review, the different strategies to control the antinematicidal resistance on organized farms in Pakistan will be elaborated. (author)

  9. Combined strategies to control antinematicidal -resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants on organized farms in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, K.K.

    2014-01-01

    Combined strategies to control antinematicidal -resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants on organized farms in Pakistan Antinematicidal resistance has been rooted on all the continents particularly in areas where ovine and caprine are being reared intensively due to frequent annual use of broad-spectrum dewormers. Farmers rely on mono-strategic scheme by using synthetic drugs to treat their livestock which is deemed the easier way to control gastrointestinal nematode infections as compared to the other strategies. On the other hand, recurrent employment of antinematicidal chemotherapeutics has conduced to development and prevalence of resistance among nematode populations. In this regard, other advocating strategies such as grazing management, rotation of antinematicidal drugs (although it is too late), amelioration of animal immunity, genetic approaches, biological control, nutritional supplementation, avoidance of mass treatment, improvement of management, eradication of concurrent diseases, and phytotherapy should be considered too. Although, by far there are no commercialized substantial alternatives to chemotherapy, but the current substitutes could decrease the parasitic burden, which, in turn, restrict indiscriminate use of synthetic drugs. The resistance is more rampant on organized farms as compared to non organized farms in rural areas in Asian, African and South Latin American countries because tamed animal raisers in those areas depend on ethnobotanicals to treat parasitism due to high cost of allopathic drugs. Therefore, in this review, the different strategies to control the antinematicidal resistance on organized farms in Pakistan will be elaborated. (author)

  10. Challenges and Strategies for Breeding Resistance in Capsicum annuum to the Multifarious Pathogen, Phytophthora capsici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek W. Barchenger

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora capsici is the most devastating pathogen for chile pepper production worldwide and current management strategies are not effective. The population structure of the pathogen is highly variable and few sources of widely applicable host resistance have been identified. Recent genomic advancements in the host and the pathogen provide important insights into the difficulties reported by epidemiological and physiological studies published over the past century. This review highlights important challenges unique to this complex pathosystem and suggests strategies for resistance breeding to help limit losses associated with P. capsici.

  11. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Thai isolates of Plasmodium falciparum after an artemisinin resistance containment project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thita, Thunyapit; Jadsri, Pimrat; Thamkhantho, Jarupatr; Ruang-Areerate, Toon; Suwandittakul, Nantana; Sitthichot, Naruemon; Mahotorn, Kittiya; Tan-Ariya, Peerapan; Mungthin, Mathirut

    2018-05-15

    In Thailand, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been used to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria since 1995. Unfortunately, artemisinin resistance has been reported from Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries since 2003. Malarone ® , a combination of atovaquone-proguanil (ATQ-PG), has been used to cease artemisinin pressure in some areas along Thai-Cambodia border, as part of an artemisinin resistance containment project since 2009. This study aimed to determine genotypes and phenotypes of Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected from the Thai-Cambodia border after the artemisinin resistance containment project compared with those collected before. One hundred and nine of P. falciparum isolates collected from Thai-Cambodia border from Chanthaburi and Trat provinces during 1988-2016 were used in this study. Of these, 58 isolates were collected after the containment. These parasite isolates were characterized for in vitro antimalarial sensitivities including chloroquine (CQ), quinine (QN), mefloquine (MQ), piperaquine (PPQ), artesunate (AS), dihydroartemisinin (DHA), ATQ and PG and genetic markers for drug resistance including the Kelch13 (k13), Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt), P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes. Mean CQ, QN, MQ, PPQ and AS IC 50 s of the parasite isolates collected from 2009 to 2016 exhibited significantly higher than those of parasites collected before 2009. Approximately 57% exhibited in vitro MQ resistance. Approximately 94% of the isolates collected from 2009 to 2016 contained the pfmdr1 184F allele. Mutations of the k13 gene were detected in approximately 90% of the parasites collected from 2009 to 2016 which were significantly higher than the parasite isolates collected before. No ATQ-resistant genotype and phenotype of P. falciparum were found among the isolates collected after the containment project. Although the containment project had been

  12. Final report on LDRD project ''proliferation-resistant fuel cycles''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, N W; Hassberger, J A.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides a summary of LDRD work completed during 1997 and 1998 to develop the ideas and concepts that lead to the Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor (STAR) program proposals to the DOE Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI). The STAR program consists of a team of three national laboratories (LLNL, ANL, and LANL), three universities, (UC Berkeley, TAMU, and MIT) and the Westinghouse Research Center. Based on the LLNL work and their own efforts on related work this team prepared and integrated a package of twelve proposals that will carry the LDRD work outlined here into the next phase of development. We are proposing to develop a new nuclear system that meets stringent requirements for a high degree of safety and proliferation resistance, and also deals directly with the related nuclear waste and spent fuel management issues

  13. [Physical projects atelier: strategy for physical resources administration learning on nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganov, Patricia Bover; Sanna, Maria Cristina

    2011-09-01

    The success of learning involves adequate strategies. Those inspired on andragogy, which is the science of teaching adults, seem to be ideal for the nursing undergraduate subject "projects", with a focus on the administration of physical resources for nursing. This study reports teaching strategies that try to estimulate the acquisition of competences that make the nurse capable of a dialogue on projects with a multiprofessional team. The strategy involved a workshop composed by four stages: reading of projects, health assistance institute (HAI) attributions, notions on physical scaling strategies and development of a glossary. The strategy, proposed by a graduate student in the subject "Strategies to the teaching of Administration", was tested through practical application, evaluated and approved by graduate students and teachers. The conditions for its implementation are working with few students, availability of proper classrooms and equipment, and partnership with HAIs.

  14. Clean air strategy for Alberta: Background project reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    As a background to the development of a clean air strategy for Alberta, reports are presented which cover the definition of what clean air is, the applicability of full cost accounting to this strategy, market-based approaches to managing Alberta air emissions, gas and electric utility incentives programs for energy efficiency, energy efficiency legislation in Alberta and other jurisdictions, initiatives which address emissions reduction in the transportation sector, coordination of science and technology relevant to clean air issues, and initiatives in energy and environmental education

  15. Improved projects execution and contract strategies. The Hyde experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the obtained experience from the Hyde development project on the UK continental shelf. The industry is searching for more effective ways to develop North Sea oil and gas assets. Hyde, like many other projects, was uneconomic using current industry development and operation norms. BP, as a results, challenged its management to change the norms and achieve new levels of performance. The Hyde field was discovered in 1967. At that time, and until late 1991, it was assessed non-commercial. Between discovery and late 1991, gas prices increased in real terms but not as much as capital and operating costs. The initial BP challenge for Hyde was to make it commercial. The paper discusses the sanction phase, the mould breaking, and the project development breakthrough. 2 figs

  16. Psychological strategies to reduce energy consumption: project summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, L J; Seligman, C; Darley, J M

    1979-06-30

    This report reviews the research conducted in connection with a project to apply psychological theory and procedures to the problems of encouraging residential energy conservation. A major part of the project involved surveys of residents' energy-related attitudes. The best (and only consistent) attitudinal predictor of residents' actual energy consumption was their attitude about thermal comfort. A number of other attitudes that could conceivably have been related to consumption, such as attitudes about the reality of the crisis, were not found to be related to consumption. Another major focus of the project was on the effectiveness of feedback (that is, giving residents information about their energy use) as an aid to residents' conservation efforts. A series of experiments demonstrated that frequent, credible energy-consumption feedback, coupled with encouragement to adopt a reasonable but difficult energy-conservation goal, could facilitate conservation. However, these studies also demonstrated that residents could not be given just any kind of information about their energy use as feedback and that even proper feedback would not lead to conservation in all households. Conditions that are crucial for the success of feedback as a conservation aid are discussed. Other studies conducted by the project looked at the effect on energy consumption of (1) a device to reduce air-conditioning waste by signalling when it is cool outside, (2) an automatic multi-setback thermostat, and (3) utility companies' average payment plans. A survey of residents' knowledge of their energy use also was conducted. 23 references.

  17. Exploring organisational competences in Human Factors and UX project work: managing careers, project tactics and organisational strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, Dominic; Curzon, Paul; Blandford, Ann

    2018-06-01

    Organisational competence in Human Factors and UX (user experience) has not been looked at before despite its relevance to project success. We define organisational competence as the collective competence of the individuals, bringing together their complementary abilities to deliver an outcome that is typically more than the sum of its parts. Twenty-two UX and Human Factors practitioners were interviewed about their project work in two contrasting domains: web design and safety-critical systems to explore organisational competences. Through doing a FRAM analysis, 29 functions and 6 main areas of competences were identified: the central project process; the process of learning about the problem; maintaining and developing client relations; staff development; evolving practices; and the management of documentation for audit and quality control. These dynamic and situated competences form a web of interactions. Managing competences is essential for project success. Implications for managing careers, project tactics and organisational strategy are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Organisational competences impact how routine and non-routine project work is performed, but these have received little attention in the literature. Six key areas of competences in Human Factors and UX project work were identified from practitioner interviews. Managing combinations of adaptive competences is important for developing careers, project tactics and organisational strategies.

  18. Molecular Breeding Strategy and Challenges toward Improvement of Blast Disease Resistance in Rice Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh eAshkani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice is a staple and most important security food crop consumed by almost half of the world’s population. More rice production is needed due to the rapid population growth in the world. Rice blast caused by the fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop in different part of the world. Breakdown of blast resistance is the major cause of yield instability in several rice growing areas. There is a need to develop strategies providing long-lasting disease resistance against a broad spectrum of pathogens, giving protection for a long time over a broad geographic area, promising for sustainable rice production in the future. So far, molecular breeding approaches involving DNA markers, such as QTL mapping, marker-aided selection, gene pyramiding, allele mining and genetic transformation have been used to develop new resistant rice cultivars. Such techniques now are used as a low-cost, high-throughput alternative to conventional methods allowing rapid introgression of disease resistance genes into susceptible varieties as well as the incorporation of multiple genes into individual lines for more durable blast resistance. The paper briefly reviewed the progress of studies on this aspect to provide the interest information for rice disease resistance breeding. This review includes examples of how advanced molecular method have been used in breeding programs for improve blast resistance. New information and knowledge gained from previous research on the recent strategy and challenges toward improvement of blast disease such as pyramiding disease resistance gene for creating new rice varieties with high resistance against multiple diseases will undoubtedly provide new insights into the rice disease control.

  19. A Community Stakeholder Analysis of Drug Resistance Strategies of Rural Native Hawaiian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Delp, Justin A.; Stone, Kristina; Dinson, Ay-Laina; Stetkiewicz, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study examines and validates the drug resistance strategies identified by rural Hawaiian youth from prior research with a sample of community stakeholders on the Island of Hawai'i. One hundred thirty-eight stakeholders with a vested interest in reducing youth substance use (i.e., teachers, principals, social service agency providers, and…

  20. Biotechnological strategies and tools for Plum pox virus resistance: trans-, intra-, cis-genesis, and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilardi, Vincenza; Tavazza, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is the etiological agent of sharka, the most devastating and economically important viral disease affecting Prunus species. It is widespread in most stone fruits producing countries even though eradication and quarantine programs are in place. The development of resistant cultivars and rootstocks remains the most ecologically and economically suitable approach to achieve long-term control of sharka disease. However, the few PPV resistance genetic resources found in Prunus germplasm along with some intrinsic biological features of stone fruit trees pose limits for efficient and fast breeding programs. This review focuses on an array of biotechnological strategies and tools, which have been used, or may be exploited to confer PPV resistance. A considerable number of scientific studies clearly indicate that robust and predictable resistance can be achieved by transforming plant species with constructs encoding intron-spliced hairpin RNAs homologous to conserved regions of the PPV genome. In addition, we discuss how recent advances in our understanding of PPV biology can be profitably exploited to develop viral interference strategies. In particular, genetic manipulation of host genes by which PPV accomplishes its infection cycle already permits the creation of intragenic resistant plants. Finally, we review the emerging genome editing technologies based on ZFN, TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 engineered nucleases and how the knockout of host susceptibility genes will open up next generation of PPV resistant plants. PMID:26106397

  1. Green Performance Contracting Strategy for Highway Construction Projects

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    With the growing awareness of sustainability and global climate change, state highway agencies are taking essential steps to reduce carbon emissions from highway infrastructure on a life cycle basis. While much is known regarding climate change mitigation and adaption strategies during highway operation, very little is understood about how climate change issues should be integrated into highway planning, delivery, and construction processes. This paper presents the current contracting pra...

  2. Strategies for financing energy projects in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortino, S.E. [Texaco Inc., White Plains, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses financing options available for energy (power/steam) projects in East Central Europe. It is intended to be an overview and practical guide to such options in today`s environment. A survey is made of the principal multilateral and other financial institutions providing funding and/or credit support in the region. These include the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation, the export credit agencies, and the commercial banks. Specific guarantee and other support mechanisms which some of these institutions provide are covered, including the latest developments. In addition to loan financing, potential sources of equity financing are discussed. Next, a description of the credit rating process by such institutions as Standard and Poor`s, and an example of a successful rating effort in the Czech Republic, lead into a discussion of accessing foreign and domestic bond markets to finance energy projects in the region.

  3. Synenco Energy's Northern Lights Project : update and key strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshka, E.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation described the Northern Lights Project and addressed the unique characteristics of oil sands which have led to innovative mine and extraction techniques. A table indicating the mining projects in development was presented with reference to recoverable bitumen and ore grade. The marketing aspects of synthetic crude that influence the choice of bitumen upgrader design and economics were discussed. It was noted that new pipeline developments should open up new market opportunities. The expected market for Synenco crude is the northern portion of the United States Midwest. There may also be a possibility to sell the product as diluent because Synenco crude has a lower vacuum gas oil (VGO) content and more naphtha than other synthetic crude. The properties of Synenco crude components were listed with reference to gravity, density, sulfur content, cetane number, smoke point, and feed quality. The trade-off between capital costs, operating cost and risk mitigation was also examined. tabs., figs

  4. Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) Project Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-18

    The E3SM project will assert and maintain an international scientific leadership position in the development of Earth system and climate models at the leading edge of scientific knowledge and computational capabilities. With its collaborators, it will demonstrate its leadership by using these models to achieve the goal of designing, executing, and analyzing climate and Earth system simulations that address the most critical scientific questions for the nation and DOE.

  5. Forecasting for the second half-century of nuclear energy using. Projection and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a professional, global and unrestricted overview of the nuclear energy development and using, and the worldwide related research. The document also presents the projection and strategies for the second half-century

  6. STRATEGY AND PLANNING - PROJECT FOR MONITORING STRICTO SENSU POSTGRADUATE ALUMNI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Antonio Maccari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES has been contributing to the development of post-graduate studies in Brazil, through its system of evaluation. Lately, CAPES signaled the importance of follow the professional performance of the alumni as a way to measure the quality of courses. One difficulty reported by institutions that intend to recognize the trajectory of its graduates is to compile a lot of isolated and outdated data. In order to structure the data collection and to assist educational managers in decision making, we propose the development of a system that enables the evolution of the students and alumni professional career, in order to diagnose the influence of the courses. Based on literature review, this study presents an analysis and makes recommendations about the Monitoring Alumni Project planning. As a result, it is expected that the analysis will serve as a driver for conducting the project, aiming to contribute to the academic reflections, and in practice, contribute to improve educational projects quality.

  7. How externalities impact an evaluation of strategies to prevent antimicrobial resistance in health care organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenine R. Leal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rates of antimicrobial-resistant organisms (ARO continue to increase for both hospitalized and community patients. Few resources have been allocated to reduce the spread of resistance on global, national and local levels, in part because the broader economic impact of antimicrobial resistance (i.e. the externality is not fully considered when determining how much to invest to prevent AROs, including strategies to contain antimicrobial resistance, such as antimicrobial stewardship programs. To determine how best to measure and incorporate the impact of externalities associated with the antimicrobial resistance when making resource allocation decisions aimed to reduce antimicrobial resistance within healthcare facilities, we reviewed the literature to identify publications which 1 described the externalities of antimicrobial resistance, 2 described approaches to quantifying the externalities associated with antimicrobial resistance or 3 described macro-level policy options to consider the impact of externalities. Medline was reviewed to identify published studies up to September 2016. Main body An externality is a cost or a benefit associated with one person’s activity that impacts others who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit. We did not identify a well-accepted method of accurately quantifying the externality associated with antimicrobial resistance. We did identify three main methods that have gained popularity to try to take into account the externalities of antimicrobial resistance, including regulation, charges or taxes on the use of antimicrobials, and the right to trade permits or licenses for antimicrobial use. To our knowledge, regulating use of antimicrobials is the only strategy currently being used by health care systems to reduce antimicrobial use, and thereby reduce AROs. To justify expenditures on programs that reduce AROs (i.e. to formally incorporate the impact of the negative externality of

  8. Low-Level Waste Vitrification Plant Project contracting strategy decision analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felise, P.; Phillips, J.D.

    1994-10-17

    Ten basic contracting strategies were developed after a review of past strategies that had been used at the Hanford Site, other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites, other US government agencies, and in the private sector. As applicable to the Low-Level Waste Vitrification Plant (LLWVP) Project, each strategy was described and depicted in a schedule format to assess compatibility with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, al so known as the Tri-Party Agreement (Ecology et al. 1994) milestones, key decision points, and other project requirements. The-pro and con aspects of each strategy also were tabulated. Using this information as a basis, the LLWVP Project team members, along with representatives of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Engineering, TWRS Programs, and Procurement Materials Management, formed a Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) evaluation team to select the best strategy. Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis techniques were used in facilitated meetings to arrive at the best balanced choice.

  9. Low-Level Waste Vitrification Plant Project contracting strategy decision analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felise, P.; Phillips, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Ten basic contracting strategies were developed after a review of past strategies that had been used at the Hanford Site, other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites, other US government agencies, and in the private sector. As applicable to the Low-Level Waste Vitrification Plant (LLWVP) Project, each strategy was described and depicted in a schedule format to assess compatibility with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, al so known as the Tri-Party Agreement (Ecology et al. 1994) milestones, key decision points, and other project requirements. The-pro and con aspects of each strategy also were tabulated. Using this information as a basis, the LLWVP Project team members, along with representatives of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Engineering, TWRS Programs, and Procurement Materials Management, formed a Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) evaluation team to select the best strategy. Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis techniques were used in facilitated meetings to arrive at the best balanced choice

  10. Transportation energy strategy: Project {number_sign}5 of the Hawaii Energy Strategy Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This study was prepared for the State Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) as part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy program. Authority and responsibility for energy planning activities, such as the Hawaii Energy Strategy, rests with the State Energy Resources Coordinator, who is the Director of DBEDT. Hawaii Energy Strategy Study No. 5, Transportation Energy Strategy Development, was prepared to: collect and synthesize information on the present and future use of energy in Hawaii`s transportation sector, examine the potential of energy conservation to affect future energy demand; analyze the possibility of satisfying a portion of the state`s future transportation energy demand through alternative fuels; and recommend a program targeting energy use in the state`s transportation sector to help achieve state goals. The analyses and conclusions of this report should be assessed in relation to the other Hawaii Energy Strategy Studies in developing a comprehensive state energy program. 56 figs., 87 tabs.

  11. Comparison of Strategies to Overcome Drug Resistance: Learning from Various Kingdoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ogawara

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance, especially antibiotic resistance, is a growing threat to human health. To overcome this problem, it is significant to know precisely the mechanisms of drug resistance and/or self-resistance in various kingdoms, from bacteria through plants to animals, once more. This review compares the molecular mechanisms of the resistance against phycotoxins, toxins from marine and terrestrial animals, plants and fungi, and antibiotics. The results reveal that each kingdom possesses the characteristic features. The main mechanisms in each kingdom are transporters/efflux pumps in phycotoxins, mutation and modification of targets and sequestration in marine and terrestrial animal toxins, ABC transporters and sequestration in plant toxins, transporters in fungal toxins, and various or mixed mechanisms in antibiotics. Antibiotic producers in particular make tremendous efforts for avoiding suicide, and are more flexible and adaptable to the changes of environments. With these features in mind, potential alternative strategies to overcome these resistance problems are discussed. This paper will provide clues for solving the issues of drug resistance.

  12. Strategies to be used in the struggle between resistance and virulence genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitelli, G.; Vallega, V.

    1977-01-01

    The cultivation of wheat varieties resistant to diseases such as stem and leaf rusts, mildew and septoria plays an important role in modern agriculture. However, the problem of how to keep varieties resistant for a long period has not yet been solved. Whatever type of resistance (specific, non-specific, tolerance etc.) the breeder chooses to use in his breeding work, the resistance stability will depend very much on the strategy used. There are many different approaches: (i) To introduce single specific factors into the cultivated varieties; (ii) To introduce the maximum number of factors in the same variety; (iii) To create multiline varieties; (iv) To cultivate different varieties carrying different resistant factors. Such a ''mosaic'' artificially creates, as in the case of multiline varieties, conditions similar to those which we find in wild populations. The use of multiline varieties and of ''mosaic'' varieties stresses the need for finding a greater number of different genes for resistance. At present we know that a large number of genes for resistance to rusts and to mildew is available in bread and durum wheats and in related species. (author)

  13. Inhibition of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein: time for a change of strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Richard; Luk, Frederick; Bebawy, Mary

    2014-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a key player in the multidrug-resistant phenotype in cancer. The protein confers resistance by mediating the ATP-dependent efflux of an astonishing array of anticancer drugs. Its broad specificity has been the subject of numerous attempts to inhibit the protein and restore the efficacy of anticancer drugs. The general strategy has been to develop compounds that either compete with anticancer drugs for transport or act as direct inhibitors of P-gp. Despite considerable in vitro success, there are no compounds currently available to "block" P-gp-mediated resistance in the clinic. The failure may be attributed to toxicity, adverse drug interaction, and numerous pharmacokinetic issues. This review provides a description of several alternative approaches to overcome the activity of P-gp in drug-resistant cells. These include 1) drugs that specifically target resistant cells, 2) novel nanotechnologies to provide high-dose, targeted delivery of anticancer drugs, 3) compounds that interfere with nongenomic transfer of resistance, and 4) approaches to reduce the expression of P-gp within tumors. Such approaches have been developed through the pursuit of greater understanding of resistance mediators such as P-gp, and they show considerable potential for further application.

  14. Prevention strategies for antimicrobial resistance: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney P Caron

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Whitney P Caron1, Shaker A Mousa1,21The Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Center of Excellence of Infection Prevention (CEIP, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY, USA; 2King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Antibiotics offer great benefits by reducing the duration and severity of illnesses and aiding in infection transmission control. With this being said, the inexorable process of antimicrobial drug resistance is to some degree unavoidable. Although drug resistance will likely persist and is to be expected, the overall level can be dramatically decreased with increased attention to antibiotic overuse and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of different drug formulations, and the use of proper hygiene and protective barriers. Implementation of such practices as microbial surveillance and prophylaxis has been shown to result in decreased hospital length of stay, health care costs and mortality due to drug-resistant infections. This review will summarize current progress in preventative techniques aimed at reducing the incidence of infection by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant strains. By employing a variety of prevention strategies, including proper personal hygiene, prescreening for carrier status before hospital admission, disinfection of hospital rooms, and careful monitoring of antimicrobial prescribing, marked progress can be achieved in the control of drug-resistant pathogens, which can translate into more effective antimicrobial therapy.Keywords: infection prevention, antibiotic, personal hygiene, disinfection, microbial surveillance, drug-resistant pathogen

  15. Cost-effectiveness of strategies to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission and infection in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidengil, Courtney A; Gay, Charlene; Huang, Susan S; Platt, Richard; Yokoe, Deborah; Lee, Grace M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To create a national policy model to evaluate the projected cost-effectiveness of multiple hospital-based strategies to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission and infection. DESIGN Cost-effectiveness analysis using a Markov microsimulation model that simulates the natural history of MRSA acquisition and infection. PATIENTS AND SETTING Hypothetical cohort of 10,000 adult patients admitted to a US intensive care unit. METHODS We compared 7 strategies to standard precautions using a hospital perspective: (1) active surveillance cultures; (2) active surveillance cultures plus selective decolonization; (3) universal contact precautions (UCP); (4) universal chlorhexidine gluconate baths; (5) universal decolonization; (6) UCP + chlorhexidine gluconate baths; and (7) UCP+decolonization. For each strategy, both efficacy and compliance were considered. Outcomes of interest were: (1) MRSA colonization averted; (2) MRSA infection averted; (3) incremental cost per colonization averted; (4) incremental cost per infection averted. RESULTS A total of 1989 cases of colonization and 544 MRSA invasive infections occurred under standard precautions per 10,000 patients. Universal decolonization was the least expensive strategy and was more effective compared with all strategies except UCP+decolonization and UCP+chlorhexidine gluconate. UCP+decolonization was more effective than universal decolonization but would cost $2469 per colonization averted and $9007 per infection averted. If MRSA colonization prevalence decreases from 12% to 5%, active surveillance cultures plus selective decolonization becomes the least expensive strategy. CONCLUSIONS Universal decolonization is cost-saving, preventing 44% of cases of MRSA colonization and 45% of cases of MRSA infection. Our model provides useful guidance for decision makers choosing between multiple available hospital-based strategies to prevent MRSA transmission.

  16. Recycling as a Teaching Strategy for Environmental Conservation (Project execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Yaneth Bonilla García

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research study will aim to implement recycling as a teaching strategy for Environmental conservation aimed at students of the state Concentrared Sabaneta School of core Rural School No. 001 pedraza Municipality, Barinas State. It will focus on the qualitative paradigm and design will use action-research participant. The techniques of collecting information to be used will be the semi-structured interview and participant observation, taking as informants 3 students 2 teachers of the institution under study, analysis of information developed through qualitative techniques that will break down the data in their respective categories and sub categories with the final purpose responding to the questions raised in the context of study. This process will seek to integrate into a coherent and logical research results with the contributions of the authors outlined the theoretical framework after work crosscheck everything. The validity and reliability will be established through an exhaustive process of triangulation, in order to establish concrete actions to address the weaknesses detected in relation to the need to implement educational strategies supported in recycling to assist in environmental conservation.

  17. A study on strategies for effective participation in the IAEA/RCA projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Joon Keuk; Jun, Byung Jin; Lee, Man Ki; Jin, Joon Ha; Choi, Pyung Hoon; Kim, Myung Ro; Min, Do Young

    2002-07-01

    In an effort to achieve the objectives, the following provisions were made. First of all, how this project supported RCA events that were held in Korea during the project period was described. Also, participation in RCA major policy level meetings, RCA-30 Scientific Forum, RCA Regional Office Opening were briefly reviewed. Secondly, RCA's general features including history and objective of its establishment, basic policy, administrative structure, major meetings was also reviewed. Thirdly, Overview of RCA projects, project implementation mechanism, on-going and planned project, review of technology utilization so fat and success stories were described. Fourthly, the issues related to the effective RCA management such as lead countries, Regional Resources Units (RRUs), RCA future vision and outsourcing of technical cooperation projects were reviewed. Finally, proper strategies and recommendations for active implementation of RCA projects were presented. This study can be utilized as basic reference material in the efficient implementation of RCA programmes in the future and for the personnel involved in the RCA projects as the fundamental elements for implementing the RCA cooperation are presented. The effective implementation direction for RCA programmes and strategies for strengthening Korea's participation in RCA projects can be utilized as basic reference material for the effective planning and implementation of RCA projects. It is hoped that this study will be widely utilized for expanding Korea's participation in the RCA project and for establishing a future direction for RCA projects by the governments, industries, academic circles and research institutions

  18. Impact of government and corporate strategy on the performance of technology projects in road construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caerteling, Jasper; Halman, Johannes I.M.; Song, Michael; Song, Michael; Doree, Andries G.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we focus on road construction and analyze technology development projects. Based on the business strategy literature and literature on technology policy, we test the relative importance of a firm's strategies and government as a buyer and champion. Our empirical findings stress the

  19. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: Resources and Strategies for the Use of Writing Projects in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latulippe, Joe; Latulippe, Christine

    2014-01-01

    As an often recommended but under-utilized pedagogical strategy, writing in mathematics has many benefits for students. However, creating and grading worthwhile writing projects can be more time-consuming than utilizing more traditional forms of assessment. This paper provides a concrete example of a writing project prompt, questions, directions,…

  20. How Teaching Science Using Project-Based Learning Strategies Affects the Classroom Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugerat, Muhamad

    2016-01-01

    This study involved 458 ninth-grade students from two different Arab middle schools in Israel. Half of the students learned science using project-based learning strategies and the other half learned using traditional methods (non-project-based). The classes were heterogeneous regarding their achievements in the sciences. The adapted questionnaire…

  1. Resistance strategies of Phragmites australis (common reed to Pb pollution in flood and drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance strategies of clonal organs, and parent and offspring shoots of Phragmites australis (common reed to heavy metal pollution in soils are not well known. To clarify the tolerance or resistance strategies in reeds, we conducted a pot experiment with five levels of Pb concentration (0∼4,500 mg kg−1 in flood and drought conditions. Lead toxicity had no inhibitory effect on the number of offspring shoots in flood environment; however, biomass accumulation, and photosynthetic and clonal growth parameters were inhibited in both water environment. At each treatment of Pb concentration, offspring shoots had greater biomass and higher photosynthesis indicators than parent shoots. The lowest Pb allocation was found in rhizomes. More of the Pb transported to above-ground parts tended to accumulate in parent shoots rather than in offspring shoots. Biomass and photosynthesis of offspring shoots, rhizome length, and the number of buds, rhizomes and offspring shoots in the flooded treatment were significantly greater than those in the drought treatment. Our results indicated that the tolerance strategies used by reeds, including higher biomass accumulation and photosynthesis in offspring shoots, low allocation of Pb in rhizomes and offspring shoots, and stable clonal growth, maintained the stability of population propagation and productivity, improving the resistance of reeds to Pb pollution in flood environment. However, the resistance or tolerance was significantly reduced by the synergistic effect of Pb and drought, which significantly inhibited biomass accumulation, photosynthesis, and clonal growth of reeds.

  2. Strategies and molecular tools to fight antimicrobial resistance: resistome, transcriptome and antimicrobial peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Stephan Tavares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of antibiotic resistant bacteria motivates prospective research towards discovery of new antimicrobial active substances. There are, however, controversies concerning the cost-effectiveness of such research with regards to the description of new substances with novel cellular interactions, or description of new uses of existing substances to overcome resistance. Although examination of bacteria isolated from remote locations with limited exposure to humans has revealed an absence of antibiotic resistance genes, it is accepted that antibiotic resistance genes were both abundant and diverse in ancient living organisms, as detected in DNA recovered from Pleistocene deposits (30,000 years ago. Indeed, even before the first clinical use of antibiotics more than 60 years ago, resistant organisms had been isolated. Bacteria can exhibit different strategies for resistance against antibiotics. New genetic information may lead to the modification of protein structure affecting the antibiotic carriage into the cell, enzymatic inactivation of drugs, or even modification of cellular structure interfering in the drug-bacteria interaction. There are still plenty of new genes out there in the environment that can be appropriated by putative pathogenic bacteria to resist antimicrobial agents. On the other hand, there are compounds with antibiotic activity just waiting to be discovered. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are molecules which are wide-spread in all forms of life, from multi-cellular organisms to bacterial cells used to interfere with microbial growth. Several AMPs have been shown to be effective against multi-drug resistant bacteria and have low propensity to resistance development, probably due to their unique mode of action, different from well known antimicrobial drugs. These substances may interact in different ways with bacterial cell membrane, protein synthesis, protein modulation and protein folding.

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance: Its Surveillance, Impact, and Alternative Management Strategies in Dairy Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Rokana, Namita; Chandra, Mudit; Singh, Brij Pal; Gulhane, Rohini Devidas; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh; Ray, Pallab; Puniya, Anil Kumar; Panwar, Harsh

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), one among the most common priority areas identified by both national and international agencies, is mushrooming as a silent pandemic. The advancement in public health care through introduction of antibiotics against infectious agents is now being threatened by global development of multidrug-resistant strains. These strains are product of both continuous evolution and un-checked antimicrobial usage (AMU). Though antibiotic application in livestock has largely contributed toward health and productivity, it has also played significant role in evolution of resistant strains. Although, a significant emphasis has been given to AMR in humans, trends in animals, on other hand, are not much emphasized. Dairy farming involves surplus use of antibiotics as prophylactic and growth promoting agents. This non-therapeutic application of antibiotics, their dosage, and withdrawal period needs to be re-evaluated and rationally defined. A dairy animal also poses a serious risk of transmission of resistant strains to humans and environment. Outlining the scope of the problem is necessary for formulating and monitoring an active response to AMR. Effective and commendably connected surveillance programs at multidisciplinary level can contribute to better understand and minimize the emergence of resistance. Besides, it requires a renewed emphasis on investments into research for finding alternate, safe, cost effective, and innovative strategies, parallel to discovery of new antibiotics. Nevertheless, numerous direct or indirect novel approaches based on host–microbial interaction and molecular mechanisms of pathogens are also being developed and corroborated by researchers to combat the threat of resistance. This review places a concerted effort to club the current outline of AMU and AMR in dairy animals; ongoing global surveillance and monitoring programs; its impact at animal human interface; and strategies for combating resistance with an extensive

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance: Its Surveillance, Impact, and Alternative Management Strategies in Dairy Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Rokana, Namita; Chandra, Mudit; Singh, Brij Pal; Gulhane, Rohini Devidas; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh; Ray, Pallab; Puniya, Anil Kumar; Panwar, Harsh

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), one among the most common priority areas identified by both national and international agencies, is mushrooming as a silent pandemic. The advancement in public health care through introduction of antibiotics against infectious agents is now being threatened by global development of multidrug-resistant strains. These strains are product of both continuous evolution and un-checked antimicrobial usage (AMU). Though antibiotic application in livestock has largely contributed toward health and productivity, it has also played significant role in evolution of resistant strains. Although, a significant emphasis has been given to AMR in humans, trends in animals, on other hand, are not much emphasized. Dairy farming involves surplus use of antibiotics as prophylactic and growth promoting agents. This non-therapeutic application of antibiotics, their dosage, and withdrawal period needs to be re-evaluated and rationally defined. A dairy animal also poses a serious risk of transmission of resistant strains to humans and environment. Outlining the scope of the problem is necessary for formulating and monitoring an active response to AMR. Effective and commendably connected surveillance programs at multidisciplinary level can contribute to better understand and minimize the emergence of resistance. Besides, it requires a renewed emphasis on investments into research for finding alternate, safe, cost effective, and innovative strategies, parallel to discovery of new antibiotics. Nevertheless, numerous direct or indirect novel approaches based on host-microbial interaction and molecular mechanisms of pathogens are also being developed and corroborated by researchers to combat the threat of resistance. This review places a concerted effort to club the current outline of AMU and AMR in dairy animals; ongoing global surveillance and monitoring programs; its impact at animal human interface; and strategies for combating resistance with an extensive

  5. Metal Chelation as a Powerful Strategy to Probe Cellular Circuitry Governing Fungal Drug Resistance and Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J Polvi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to sense host-relevant cues and coordinate cellular responses, which enable virulence and drug resistance. Defining circuitry controlling these traits opens new opportunities for chemical diversity in therapeutics, as the cognate inhibitors are rarely explored by conventional screening approaches. This has great potential to address the pressing need for new therapeutic strategies for invasive fungal infections, which have a staggering impact on human health. To explore this approach, we focused on a leading human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, and screened 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds to identify those that potentiate the activity of echinocandins, which are front-line therapeutics that target fungal cell wall synthesis. We identified 19 compounds that enhance activity of the echinocandin caspofungin against an echinocandin-resistant clinical isolate, with the broad-spectrum chelator DTPA demonstrating the greatest synergistic activity. We found that DTPA increases susceptibility to echinocandins via chelation of magnesium. Whole genome sequencing of mutants resistant to the combination of DTPA and caspofungin identified mutations in the histidine kinase gene NIK1 that confer resistance to the combination. Functional analyses demonstrated that DTPA activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase Hog1, and that NIK1 mutations block Hog1 activation in response to both caspofungin and DTPA. The combination has therapeutic relevance as DTPA enhanced the efficacy of caspofungin in a mouse model of echinocandin-resistant candidiasis. We found that DTPA not only reduces drug resistance but also modulates morphogenesis, a key virulence trait that is normally regulated by environmental cues. DTPA induced filamentation via depletion of zinc, in a manner that is contingent upon Ras1-PKA signaling, as well as the transcription factors Brg1 and Rob1. Thus, we establish a new mechanism by which

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance: Its Surveillance, Impact, and Alternative Management Strategies in Dairy Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Sharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance (AMR, one among the most common priority areas identified by both national and international agencies, is mushrooming as a silent pandemic. The advancement in public health care through introduction of antibiotics against infectious agents is now being threatened by global development of multidrug-resistant strains. These strains are product of both continuous evolution and un-checked antimicrobial usage (AMU. Though antibiotic application in livestock has largely contributed toward health and productivity, it has also played significant role in evolution of resistant strains. Although, a significant emphasis has been given to AMR in humans, trends in animals, on other hand, are not much emphasized. Dairy farming involves surplus use of antibiotics as prophylactic and growth promoting agents. This non-therapeutic application of antibiotics, their dosage, and withdrawal period needs to be re-evaluated and rationally defined. A dairy animal also poses a serious risk of transmission of resistant strains to humans and environment. Outlining the scope of the problem is necessary for formulating and monitoring an active response to AMR. Effective and commendably connected surveillance programs at multidisciplinary level can contribute to better understand and minimize the emergence of resistance. Besides, it requires a renewed emphasis on investments into research for finding alternate, safe, cost effective, and innovative strategies, parallel to discovery of new antibiotics. Nevertheless, numerous direct or indirect novel approaches based on host–microbial interaction and molecular mechanisms of pathogens are also being developed and corroborated by researchers to combat the threat of resistance. This review places a concerted effort to club the current outline of AMU and AMR in dairy animals; ongoing global surveillance and monitoring programs; its impact at animal human interface; and strategies for combating resistance

  7. Increasing awareness about antibiotic use and resistance: a hands-on project for high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria João; Santos, Catarina L; Costa, Patrício; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Health-promoting education is essential to foster an informed society able to make decisions about socio-scientific issues based on scientifically sustained criteria. Antibiotic resistance is currently a major public health issue. Considering that irrational antibiotic use has been associated with the development and widespread of antibiotic resistant bacteria, educational interventions to promote prudent antibiotic consumption are required. This study focuses on the outcomes of an interventional program implemented at the University of Porto, Portugal, to promote awareness about antibiotic resistance at high school levels (15-17 year old). The project Microbiology recipes: antibiotics à la carte articulates a set of wet and dry lab activities designed to promote the participants' understanding of concepts and processes underlying antibiotics' production and activity, such as the notion of mechanisms of action of antibiotics. Following a mix-method approach based on a pre-/post design, the effectiveness of this project was assessed by gathering data from surveys, direct observation and analysis of artifacts of 42 high school students (aged 15 and 16 years). The results indicate that the participants developed a more comprehensive picture of antibiotic resistance. The project was shown to promote more sophisticated conceptualizations of bacteria and antibiotics, increased awareness about the perils of antibiotic resistance, and enhanced consciousness towards measures that can be undertaken to mitigate the problem. The participants regarded their experiences as enjoyable and useful, and believed that the project contributed to improve their understanding and raise their interest about the issues discussed. Furthermore, there were also improvements in their procedural skills concerning the laboratory techniques performed. This study evidences the possibility of increasing high school students' awareness about the consequences of antibiotic resistance and the

  8. Management and financing of e-Government projects in India: Does financing strategy add value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Ojha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available How do managers structure e-government projects and address challenges of risks, lack of technical expertise, and mitigation of strategic error for preventing loss of investments? Our aim was to compare the traditional finance approach and the strategy-driven, innovative financing approaches under the PPP model, to examine their managerial value-addition. We found that e-government projects require a carefully crafted structuring strategy and that innovative financing is more suitable in facilitating flexible decision making, building core capabilities, managing and sharing project risks, providing funds needed for growth and innovation, and customising tailor-made project governance strategy. Based on our findings, we develop five theoretical propositions.

  9. Application of Matrix Projection Exposure Using a Liquid Crystal Display Panel to Fabricate Thick Resist Molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, Hirotoshi; Horiuchi, Toshiyuki

    2009-08-01

    The patterning characteristics of matrix projection exposure using an analog liquid crystal display (LCD) panel in place of a reticle were investigated, in particular for oblique patterns. In addition, a new method for fabricating practical thick resist molds was developed. At first, an exposure system fabricated in past research was reconstructed. Changes in the illumination optics and the projection lens were the main improvements. Using fly's eye lenses, the illumination light intensity distribution was homogenized. The projection lens was changed from a common camera lens to a higher-grade telecentric lens. In addition, although the same metal halide lamp was used as an exposure light source, the central exposure wavelength was slightly shortened from 480 to 450 nm to obtain higher resist sensitivity while maintaining almost equivalent contrast between black and white. Circular and radial patterns with linewidths of approximately 6 µm were uniformly printed in all directions throughout the exposure field owing to these improvements. The patterns were smoothly printed without accompanying stepwise roughness caused by the cell matrix array. On the bases of these results, a new method of fabricating thick resist molds for electroplating was investigated. It is known that thick resist molds fabricated using the negative resist SU-8 (Micro Chem) are useful because very high aspect patterns are printable and the side walls are perpendicular to the substrate surfaces. However, the most suitable exposure wavelength of SU-8 is 365 nm, and SU-8 is insensitive to light of 450 nm wavelength, which is most appropriate for LCD matrix exposure. For this reason, a novel multilayer resist process was proposed, and micromolds of SU-8 of 50 µm thickness were successfully obtained. As a result, feasibility for fabricating complex resist molds including oblique patterns was demonstrated.

  10. Strategy for effective participation in the RCA projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kong

    1998-12-01

    This report attempts briefly to bring to light the current RCA programmes and to suggest ways of implementing future RCA programmes effectively. It is based principally upon the discussions and proposals made by the Member States of the RCA at the 20th Regular Meeting of Representative of RCA Member States at Taupo, New Zealand in April 1998 and at the 27th General Conference Meeting at Vienna, Austria in September 1998. The Asia-Pacific region is slowly but steadily growing in importance. With its vast human and natural resources, strategic geographical location and its scientific and technological backing, the countries in the region have tremendous potential to become the most dynamic, even leading nations of the world in the 21st century. During the past years, RCA has experienced great changes in its policies, strategies. These changes have also affected in the role of the Member States and the relation between the Agency and Member States. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  11. Contracting and project strategy to reduce the costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moum, I.O.; Mosbergvik, O.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Norwegian oil industry has developed and grown to a significant size from the 1970's through the 80's, and numerous large fields were developed under a business environment with high oil prices. The technological challenges were significant, but the expectation of high volumes of produced oil and increasing oil prices, secured the funding for development of these large fields. Today this situation is dramatically changed, and the low oil price alone would make it uneconomic to develop the new fields. In addition to low oil prices, people are now also facing smaller reservoirs, deeper water and more sever environmental conditions. The general competitiveness of the Norwegian Continental Shelf is challenged. Many initiatives have been launched in Norway to support the necessary improvements in business performance. The Norwegian oil and gas industry together with the authorities have through 1994 worked together in the NORSOK initiative to identify means to save 40--50% in cost and time for development of new fields. The industry has developed new technology. The authorities have been addressing the fiscal conditions and general framework for the oil companies, and several areas of improvement have been identified and to some degree implemented by the operators. The most important improvements are probably those that are directly implemented in actual development projects, and Statoil/Kvaerner have together some joint experiences that can illustrate how such ideas successfully can be implemented

  12. Fault Zone Resistivity Structure and Monitoring at the Taiwan Chelungpu Drilling Project (TCDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wen Chiang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Taiwan Chelungpu-fault drilling project (TCDP has undertaken scientific drilling and directly sampled the sub-surface rupture of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT measurements were used to investigate electrical resistivity structure at the TCDP site from 2004 - 2006. These data show a geoelectric strike direction of N15°E to N30°E. Inversion and forward modeling of the AMT data were used to generate a 1-D resistivity model that has a prominent low resistivity zone (< 10 ohm-m between depths of 1100 and 1500 m. When combined with porosity measurements, theAMT measurements imply that the ground water has a resistivity of 0.55 ohm-m at the depth of the fault zone.

  13. Translational research strategy: an essential approach to fight the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconelli, Evelina; Peschel, Andreas; Autenrieth, Ingo B

    2014-11-01

    Translation research strategy in infectious diseases, combining the results from basic research with patient-orientated research, aims to bridge the gap between laboratory findings and clinical infectious disease practice to improve disease management. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, there are four main areas of clinical and scientific uncertainty that need to be urgently addressed by translational research: (i) early diagnosis of antibiotic-resistant infections and the appropriateness of empirical antibiotic therapy; (ii) the identification of reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant pathogens; (iii) the development of new antibiotics with lower propensities to evoke resistance; and (iv) the development of new non-antibiotic drugs to be used in the prevention of the spread of resistant bacterial strains. Strict European collaboration among major stakeholders is therefore essential. Appropriate educational tools to train a new generation of scientists with regard to a multifaceted approach to antimicrobial resistance research should be developed. Key areas include the support and implementation of European networks focused on translational research and related education activities, making potential therapeutics more attractive to investors and helping academic investigators to determine whether new molecules can be developed with clinical applicability. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Decision Process Analysis on Project Priority Strategy: A Case Study of an ICT Design Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent F. Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Project priority strategy is the benchmarking of a corporate operation management strategy and in particular is used by a projects-based research and development firm in the complex competence environment of the information and communication technology (ICT industry. This research takes the variables of external environments and internal resources into account for a firm’s market, technology, and finance assets in order to present a decision process on a project priority strategy. This empirical study also addresses the key factors of the interaction between business on a project development’s supply chain: clients, the examined firm, and suppliers. The findings indicate that a profit-driven project can dominate the firm’s strategic operations and management from the resource-based view and analytic hierarchy process technique perspectives. At the same time, the analysis results contribute significant values to project decision management, which is highly recommended for small-medium enterprises conducting product/project development, project portfolio management, and strategic business management.

  15. Optimising strategies for Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination in Cambodia: primaquine, mass drug administration and artemisinin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Maude

    Full Text Available Malaria elimination requires a variety of approaches individually optimized for different transmission settings. A recent field study in an area of low seasonal transmission in South West Cambodia demonstrated dramatic reductions in malaria parasite prevalence following both mass drug administration (MDA and high treatment coverage of symptomatic patients with artemisinin-piperaquine plus primaquine. This study employed multiple combined strategies and it was unclear what contribution each made to the reductions in malaria.A mathematical model fitted to the trial results was used to assess the effects of the various components of these interventions, design optimal elimination strategies, and explore their interactions with artemisinin resistance, which has recently been discovered in Western Cambodia. The modelling indicated that most of the initial reduction of P. falciparum malaria resulted from MDA with artemisinin-piperaquine. The subsequent continued decline and near elimination resulted mainly from high coverage with artemisinin-piperaquine treatment. Both these strategies were more effective with the addition of primaquine. MDA with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT increased the proportion of artemisinin resistant infections, although much less than treatment of symptomatic cases with ACT, and this increase was slowed by adding primaquine. Artemisinin resistance reduced the effectiveness of interventions using ACT when the prevalence of resistance was very high. The main results were robust to assumptions about primaquine action, and immunity.The key messages of these modelling results for policy makers were: high coverage with ACT treatment can produce a long-term reduction in malaria whereas the impact of MDA is generally only short-term; primaquine enhances the effect of ACT in eliminating malaria and reduces the increase in proportion of artemisinin resistant infections; parasite prevalence is a better surveillance measure for

  16. Multistrain models predict sequential multidrug treatment strategies to result in less antimicrobial resistance than combination treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Zachariasen, Camilla; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Combination treatment is increasingly used to fight infections caused by bacteria resistant to two or more antimicrobials. While multiple studies have evaluated treatment strategies to minimize the emergence of resistant strains for single antimicrobial treatment, fewer studies have...... the sensitive fraction of the commensal flora.Growth parameters for competing bacterial strains were estimated from the combined in vitro pharmacodynamic effect of two antimicrobials using the relationship between concentration and net bacterial growth rate. Predictions of in vivo bacterial growth were...... (how frequently antibiotics are alternated in a sequential treatment) of the two drugs was dependent upon the order in which the two drugs were used.Conclusion: Sequential treatment was more effective in preventing the growth of resistant strains when compared to the combination treatment. The cycling...

  17. Strategies for Prevention of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections and Decolonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Ashlesha; Wagner, Cassie; Consoer, Hollie; Chatterjee, Archana

    2016-12-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) invasive infections can be severe in the pediatric population with high morbidity and mortality. MRSA colonization can predispose to recurrent skin and soft tissue infections and invasive MRSA disease and is a frequent challenge faced by clinicians. This article reviews the importance of MRSA as a pathogen, MRSA colonization and various MRSA decolonization strategies. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  18. Doing Projects in a Foreign Language — Communications Management, Issues and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Deling

    The Qinghai Salt Lake Industry Co. Ltd. (QSLIC) smelter project involves a Chinese state-owned client, a Canadian engineering company, their American technology partner, several Chinese design institutes and international vendors. Proper technical communication plays an important role during the development of a project in a foreign language and across cultures. Using the QSLIC project as an example, this paper presents the role of Communications Manager and personal qualifications required, as well as technical communications management, issues and strategies, lessons learnt while doing smelter projects in China and Chinese business culture and etiquette.

  19. Using the project management office to connect the dots between projects and strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Jacqueline

    2015-03-01

    Project management is recognized as an essential skill required for healthcare leadership and as a result, Project Management Offices (PMOs) in healthcare organizations have become commonplace. When PMOs are well suited and fit to their organization, they are being valued for their ability to support appropriate trade-offs between investments, capacity, and quality. This article provides an overview of healthcare PMOs and advocates for elevating the role of the healthcare PMO from a monitoring and reporting function to a leader and the engine for strategic change within an organization. © 2015 The Canadian College of Health Leaders.

  20. Probing strategy-project alignment: The case of the South African Social Security Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Van Der Waldt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Public institutions, such as the South African Social Security Agency (SASSA increasingly function in multi-project environments to translate strategies successfully into service-delivery initiatives. However, this ‘projectification’ often causes projects to be designed and executed haphazardly. This can lead to budget and schedule overruns, and the general wastage of an organisation’s resources. Project failures often occur where organisations do not ensure that specific projects are aligned with their core strategies. The purpose of this article is to combine the theories and principles of organisation, management, strategic management, and project management in an effort to pinpoint core determinants that can help establish the extent to which an organisation manages the alignment of its strategic projects. In the present study, the author applied the principles of interdisciplinarity, systems thinking, and organisational integration. The combined core determinants that were uncovered were then used in an empirical investigation of SASSA. The purpose of this investigation is to identify particular challenges the organisation faces in aligning their strategies and projects successfully. Thereafter, a number of recommendations follow to address these challenges.

  1. Security strategy of powered-off SRAM for resisting physical attack to data remanence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Kai; Zou Xuecheng; Yu Guoyi; Wang Weixu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a security strategy for resisting a physical attack utilizing data remanence in powered-off static random access memory (SRAM). Based on the mechanism of physical attack to data remanence, the strategy intends to erase data remanence in memory cells once the power supply is removed, which disturbs attackers trying to steal the right information. Novel on-chip secure circuits including secure power supply and erase transistor are integrated into conventional SRAM to realize erase operation. Implemented in 0.25 μm Huahong-NEC CMOS technology, an SRAM exploiting the proposed security strategy shows the erase operation is accomplished within 0.2 μs and data remanence is successfully eliminated. Compared with conventional SRAM, the retentive time of data remanence is reduced by 82% while the operation power consumption only increases by 7%.

  2. Introduction to biomass energy project financing, funding sources and government strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordlinger, D E [Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher and Flom, London (United Kingdom); Shaw, F C [Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher and Flom, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Biomass projects can help developing countries to protect their environment as well as to build a modem infrastructure. However, such projects present, in addition to the more typical risks associated with fossil-fuel projects, certain risks relating to the unique technologies and fuels used in such projects. Further, their location in developing countries regularly creates enhanced political and credit risk as well. Biomass power projects, like any other power project, must be financed. To be financeable, a power project should allocate risk in the most efficient way, so as to maximize return on investment. This paper examines the way in which various project documents can be structured to allocate most efficiently the technology and fuel risks unique to biomass projects, as well as the more typical risks, such as construction risk, permitting risk, expropriation risk, currency risk, country risk, sovereign risks, operating risks and credit risk. In addition, this paper summarizes the public financing sources and support that are available to assist in meeting the unique risk profiles of biomass projects. Specifically, it examines some of the principal multilateral and export credit agencies having involvement in this area. Finally, it examines potential strategies available to the developer of a biomass project for soliciting the involvement of, and negotiating with, local governments and public financing agencies. (author)

  3. Introduction to biomass energy project financing, funding sources and government strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordlinger, D.E.; Shaw, F.C.

    1995-01-01

    Biomass projects can help developing countries to protect their environment as well as to build a modem infrastructure. However, such projects present, in addition to the more typical risks associated with fossil-fuel projects, certain risks relating to the unique technologies and fuels used in such projects. Further, their location in developing countries regularly creates enhanced political and credit risk as well. Biomass power projects, like any other power project, must be financed. To be financeable, a power project should allocate risk in the most efficient way, so as to maximize return on investment. This paper examines the way in which various project documents can be structured to allocate most efficiently the technology and fuel risks unique to biomass projects, as well as the more typical risks, such as construction risk, permitting risk, expropriation risk, currency risk, country risk, sovereign risks, operating risks and credit risk. In addition, this paper summarizes the public financing sources and support that are available to assist in meeting the unique risk profiles of biomass projects. Specifically, it examines some of the principal multilateral and export credit agencies having involvement in this area. Finally, it examines potential strategies available to the developer of a biomass project for soliciting the involvement of, and negotiating with, local governments and public financing agencies. (author)

  4. Different regulatory strategies in regulation of nuclear power projects: An Indian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Sohail Ahmad

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory strategy needed for management of safety and safety culture involves careful planning and use of engineering concepts keeping in mind feasibility to implement certain safety requirements. It also requires adequate attention on working environment and mental conditions of designers, operating and maintenance staff and regulators. Different strategies followed during safety review and regulatory inspection of nuclear power projects for improving status of safety management and safety cultures have given certain results. The present paper brings out certain experience gained during regulation of Indian Nuclear Power Projects by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board of India in the area of management of safety and safety culture. (author)

  5. Sampling strategy for a large scale indoor radiation survey - a pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Stranden, E.

    1986-01-01

    Optimisation of a stratified random sampling strategy for large scale indoor radiation surveys is discussed. It is based on the results from a small scale pilot project where variances in dose rates within different categories of houses were assessed. By selecting a predetermined precision level for the mean dose rate in a given region, the number of measurements needed can be optimised. The results of a pilot project in Norway are presented together with the development of the final sampling strategy for a planned large scale survey. (author)

  6. Local protest and resistance to the Rupert Diversion Project, Northern Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, M.; Mulrennan, M.E. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Geography, Planning and Environment

    2009-12-15

    The political strategies used by Nemaska Crees to defend their land and way of life against a hydroelectric project located in northern Quebec were discussed. The case study was based on a literature review and field research conducted over a 2-year period with the Nemaska Cree community in eastern James Bay. Social and environmental assessments were not required when the original hydroelectric project was constructed in the region in 1971. An injunction on the project was sought by the Crees and Inuits in 1972, in which the Crees and Inuit successfully won access rights to resources and wildlife harvesting under a 3-tiered land regime. A later agreement for an expansion of the project signed in secrecy by Cree leaders was rejected by other members of the Cree community as the decision-making process occurred 3 years before the environmental impacts assessment took place. The local opposition group is comprised of Native leaders and environmental activists dedicated to increasing awareness about the potential impacts of the hydroelectric project. Strategies used by the group have included protest walks; confrontations with the regional Cree leadership; forming alliances with other activist groups; promoting wind energy; using information and communication technologies to support protest efforts; engaging with the public consultation process; and identifying weaknesses and gaps in technical and environmental impact studies. It was concluded that the strategies have resulted in increased media coverage and public awareness. 57 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Optimizing strategy software for repetitive construction projects within multi-mode resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimating tender data for specific project is the most essential part in construction areas as of contractor’s view such as: proposed project duration with corresponding gross value and cash flows. This paper focuses on how to calculate tender data using Optimizing Strategy Software (OSS for repetitive construction projects with identical activity’s duration in case of single number of crew such as: project duration, project/bid price, project maximum working capital, and project net present value of the studied project. A simplified multi-objective optimization software (OSS will be presented that creates best tender data to contractor compared with more feasible options generated from multi-mode resources in a given project. OSS is intended to give more scenarios which provide practical support for typical construction contractors who need to optimize resource utilization in order to minimize project duration, project/bid price, and project maximum working capital while maximizing its net present value simultaneously. OSS is designed by java programing code system to provide a number of new and unique capabilities, including: (1 Ranking the obtained optimal plans according to a set of planner specified weights representing the relative importance of duration, price, maximum working capital and net present value in the analyzed project; (2 Visualizing and viewing the generated optimal trade-off; and (3 Providing seamless integration with available project management calculations. In order to provide the aforementioned capabilities of OSS, the system is implemented and developed in four main modules: (1 A user interface module; (2 A database module; (3 A running module; (4 A connecting module. At the end of the paper, an illustrative example will be presented to demonstrate and verify the applications of the proposed software (OSS to an optimization expressway of repetitive construction project.

  8. Development of radiation resistant magnets for JHF/J-PARC project

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, K H; Takahashi, H; Agari, K; Toyoda, A; Sato, Y; Minakawa, M; Noumi, H; Yamanoi, Y; Ieiri, M; Katoh, Y; Yamada, Y; Suzuki, Y; Takasaki, M; Birumachi, T; Tsukuda, S; Saitoh, Y; Saitô, N; Yahata, K; Kato, K; Tanaka, H; 10.1109/TASC.2004.829681

    2004-01-01

    A series of the R&D works on the radiation resistant magnets for the Japan Hadron Facility (JHF) project has been continued at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The JHF is a high- energy part of the Japanese high intensity Particle Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), which is Japanese next-generation high- intensity accelerator project. The main JHF accelerator is the 50 GeV proton synchrotron and will provide high intensity 15 mu A proton beam for various nuclear and particle physics experiments. This time, the actual sized completely-inorganic radiation-resistant quadrupole magnet, designed for the 50 GeV proton beam transportation, was manufactured successfully by using mineral insulation magnet cable (MIC). The assembling procedure and the test results are presented in this issue. (8 refs).

  9. Conducting a Multisite Education Research Project: Strategies to Overcome the Barriers to Achieve the Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beischel, Kelly P; Hart, Julie; Turkelson, Sandra L

    2016-01-01

    Multisite education research projects have many benefits as well as perceived barriers. In this article, we share our experiences with a multisite education research project and the barriers we overcame to reap the benefits. The outcome of our research resulted in increased rigor, role-modeling professional collaboration, and promotion of future multisite education studies. The strategies presented in this article will help alleviate perceived barriers and ameliorate the process of conducting multisite education research studies.

  10. MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES TO EMERGING MARKETS: A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF TURNKEY PROJECT DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bistra Vassileva; Miroslav Nikolov

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to analyse the international market entry strategies in the light of globalisation processes and to propose a conceptual model of turnkey projects as market entry mode. The specific research objectives are as follows: 1. to develop an integrated framework of the turnkey marketing process as a conceptual model; 2. to analyse BRICS countries as potential host countries for turnkey projects implementation; 3. to assess potential implications of proposed concep...

  11. The strategy of parallel approaches in projects with unforeseeable uncertainty: the Manhattan case in retrospect

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvain Lenfle

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This paper discusses the literature on the management of projects with unforeseeable uncertainty. Recent work demonstrates that, when confronted with unforeseeable uncertainties, managers can adopt either a learning, trial-and-error-based strategy, or a parallel approach. In the latter, different solutions are developed in parallel and the best one is chosen when enough information becomes available. Studying the case of the Manhattan Project, which historically exempl...

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Antibiotic Prophylaxis Strategies for Transrectal Prostate Biopsy in an Era of Increasing Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyueun; Drekonja, Dimitri M; Enns, Eva A

    2018-03-01

    To determine the optimal antibiotic prophylaxis strategy for transrectal prostate biopsy (TRPB) as a function of the local antibiotic resistance profile. We developed a decision-analytic model to assess the cost-effectiveness of four antibiotic prophylaxis strategies: ciprofloxacin alone, ceftriaxone alone, ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone in combination, and directed prophylaxis selection based on susceptibility testing. We used a payer's perspective and estimated the health care costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) associated with each strategy for a cohort of 66-year-old men undergoing TRPB. Costs and benefits were discounted at 3% annually. Base-case resistance prevalence was 29% to ciprofloxacin and 7% to ceftriaxone, reflecting susceptibility patterns observed at the Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Health Care System. Resistance levels were varied in sensitivity analysis. In the base case, single-agent prophylaxis strategies were dominated. Directed prophylaxis strategy was the optimal strategy at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000/QALY gained. Relative to the directed prophylaxis strategy, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the combination strategy was $123,333/QALY gained over the lifetime time horizon. In sensitivity analysis, single-agent prophylaxis strategies were preferred only at extreme levels of resistance. Directed or combination prophylaxis strategies were optimal for a wide range of resistance levels. Facilities using single-agent antibiotic prophylaxis strategies before TRPB should re-evaluate their strategies unless extremely low levels of antimicrobial resistance are documented. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Information Technology Project Portfolio and Strategy Alignment Assessment Based on Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Analía Sánchez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent researches have shown that companies face considerable difficulties in assessing the strategy value contribution of Information Technology (IT investments. One of the major obstacles to achieving strategy alignment is that organizations find extremely difficult to link and quantify the IT investments benefits with strategic goals. The aim of this paper is to define an approach to assess portfolio-strategy alignment. To this end a formal specification of Kaplan and Norton Strategy Map is developed utilizing Unified Modeling Language (UML. The approach uses the Strategy Map as a framework for defining the portfolio value contribution and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is used as the methodology for measuring efficiency of project portfolios.DOI:10.5585/gep.v3i2.66

  14. Molecular mechanisms of resistance to Rituximab and pharmacologic strategies for its circumvention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Claudia; Schuler, Martin

    2009-06-01

    The introduction of Rituximab has greatly improved therapeutic options for patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). However, a substantial fraction of patients with aggressive B-NHL fails first-line therapy, and most patients with relapsing indolent B-NHL eventually acquire Rituximab resistance. Molecular understanding of the underlying mechanisms facilitates the development of pharmacologic strategies to overcome resistance. Rituximab exerts its activity on CD20-expressing B-cells by indirect and direct effector mechanisms. Indirect mechanisms are complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Direct activities, such as growth inhibition, induction of apoptosis and chemosensitisation, have been reported, but are less defined. Moreover, the relative contribution of CDC, ADCC and direct mechanisms to the activity of Rituximab in vivo is unclear. Down-regulation of CD20 and expression of complement inhibitors have been described as escape mechanisms in B-NHL. Recent reports suggest that deregulated phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, mitogen-activated kinases (MAPK) and nuclear-factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), as well as up-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins may determine the efficacy of Rituximab to kill B-NHL cells in vitro and in vivo. The latter signalling pathways are attractive targets for pharmacologic modulation of resistance to Rituximab. With the advent of new inhibitors and antibodies, rationally designed clinical trials addressing Rituximab resistance are feasible.

  15. ANALYTICAL AND SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OF PROJECTS AND PROGRAMMES ON CHANGES STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MLODETSKYY V. R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. Sustainable and successful functioning of the organization in today's competitive market conditions is possible if the organization is an open dynamic system capable of timely and adequately adapt to changes in the environment, this organization should initiate the implementation of innovations, both in production and organizational structure. Most suited for these conditions are project-oriented organizations, when the program's development strategy is developed with a detailed individual relatively independent stages, which are implemented as part of projects. In accordance with the development and improvement of the organization of control systems in the direction of increasing emphasis on the development strategy in relation to operating activities is an important task. Goal and tasks. Explore the hierarchical control system of project-oriented organization towards establishing information flows combine program management system with project management subsystems, included in this program. Conclusions. Concretized the concept of "program" and "project" as a result assumed that the program management is a permanent process in the organization that is adaptable to external changes, and project management (as defined is temporary, so the project management structure are subject to program management structures and are not permanent in the organization's management system.

  16. Community-based management of multiple drug resistant tuberculosis in a tertiary hospital in Tanzania: a best practice implementation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelly, Isaya; Peters, Micah D J

    2017-12-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has prioritized collaboration with communities in its 2016 "End TB" implementation strategy. Acknowledging the difficulties that some communities face in gaining access to health facilities due to barriers such as stigma, discrimination, healthcare expenditure, transport and income loss, partnering with communities in the roll-out of community-based TB management activities is vital. The aim of this project was to make a contribution to promoting evidence-based practice with regards to the community-based management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) at Kibong'oto National Infectious Disease Hospital, Tanzania, and thereby supporting improvements in patient outcomes and resource utilization. The project utilized the Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System (JBI PACES) program to facilitate the collection of pre- and post-audit data. The Getting Research into Practice (GRiP) module was also used to analyze the potential barriers and for designing the final action plan. This project was conducted in three phases over a three-month period at the MDR-TB unit in a referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. The project showed that there were significant improvements in compliance rates in staff education and documentation of patients' suitability and preferences in receiving community-based care for MDR-TB. The compliance rate of criterion 2, which was already 100% at baseline, was slightly lower at follow-up. The project achieved significant improvements in the delivery of evidence-based practice with regards to community-based management of MDR-TB.

  17. Strategies to overcome or circumvent P-glycoprotein mediated multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongyu; Li, Xun; Wu, Jifeng; Li, Jinpei; Qu, Xianjun; Xu, Wenfang; Tang, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Cancer patients who receive chemotherapy often experience intrinsic or acquired resistance to a broad spectrum of chemotherapeutic agents. The phenomenon, termed multidrug resistance (MDR), is often associated with the over-expression of P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane protein pump, which can enhance efflux of a various chemicals structurally unrelated at the expense of ATP depletion, resulting in decrease of the intracellular cytotoxic drug accumulation. The MDR has been a big threaten to the human health and the war fight for it continues. Although several other mechanisms for MDR are elucidated in recent years, considerable efforts attempting to inverse MDR are involved in exploring P-glycoprotein modulators and suppressing P-glycoprotein expression. In this review, we will report on the recent advances in various strategies for overcoming or circumventing MDR mediated by P-glycoprotein.

  18. Nature-inspired design strategies in sustainable product development : A case study of student projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.; Karana, E.; Kandachar, P.V.

    2012-01-01

    In design practice, Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) can be applied when developing sustainable products. However, knowledge on how this actually helps designers is lacking. This study explores the effects of applying Cradle to Cradle and Biomimicry in student projects, as compared to using

  19. Fundraising Strategies Developed by MBA students in Project-Based Learning Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Alberto Arantes do Amaral

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to raise funds is a skill that most modern project managers need. While a good deal of literature exists on the strategies NGOs employ to raise funds for their operations, less attention has been paid to the strategies used by students involved in Project-Based Learning courses that often partner with NGOs. Fundraising is an important skill that not only provides students with opportunities for creativity, but also helps them develop the communication skills they will need in the work they do after they graduate.In this paper, we discuss the fundraising strategies developed by MBA students in 204 social projects completed between 2002 and 2014. The projects were done in partnership with 39 community partners in Sao Paulo, Brazil (NGOs and Public Institutions. In our study, we followed quantitative and qualitative research methods, analyzing data and documents from the projects’ databases. We identified six different fundraising strategies: organizing raffles, soliciting donations from private corporations, organizing paying events, utilizing online social networks developing crowdfunding, and soliciting individual donations.

  20. COMPETITIVE BROWNFIELD REDEVELOPMENT - PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING STRATEGIES (CD 2 OF 6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this interactive CD is to inform urban planners and State and Federal Brownfield development personnel of new and innovative project management and marketing strategies related to brownfield activities. To order this CD by email: www.epa.gov/ncepi/ or phone 1-800-490-...

  1. Student-Led Project Teams: Significance of Regulation Strategies in High- and Low-Performing Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Judith

    2016-01-01

    We studied group and individual co-regulatory and self-regulatory strategies of self-managed student project teams using data from intragroup peer evaluations and a postproject survey. We found that high team performers shared their research and knowledge with others, collaborated to advise and give constructive criticism, and demonstrated moral…

  2. Rapid E-learning Development Strategies and a Multimedia Project Design Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sözcü, Ömer Faruk; Ipek, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to discuss e-learning design strategies which can be used for multimedia projects as a design model. Recent advances in instructional technologies have been found to be very important in the design of training courses by using rapid instructional design (ID) approaches. The approaches were developed to use in training…

  3. Simple strategy to assess linezolid exposure in patients with multi-drug-resistant and extensively-drug-resistant tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Jasper; Bolhuis, Mathieu S; Tiberi, Simon; Akkerman, Onno W; Centis, Rosella; de Lange, Wiel C; Kosterink, Jos G; van der Werf, Tjip S; Migliori, Giovanni B; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

    2017-06-01

    Linezolid is used increasingly for the treatment of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB). However, linezolid can cause severe adverse events, such as peripheral and optical neuropathy or thrombocytopenia related to higher drug exposure. This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic model to predict the area under the concentration curve (AUC) for linezolid using a limited number of blood samples. Data from patients with MDR-/XDR-TB who received linezolid and therapeutic drug monitoring as part of their TB treatment were used. Mw\\Pharm 3.82 (Mediware, Zuidhorn, The Netherlands) was used to develop a population pharmacokinetic model and limited sampling strategy (LSS) for linezolid. LSS was evaluated over a time span of 6 h. Blood sampling directly before linezolid administration and 2 h after linezolid administration were considered to be the most clinically relevant sampling points. The model and LSS were evaluated by analysing the correlation between AUC 12h,observed and AUC 12h,estimated . In addition, LSS was validated with an external group of patients with MDR-/XDR-TB from Sondalo, Italy. Fifty-two pharmacokinetic profiles were used to develop the model. Thirty-three profiles with a 300 mg dosing regimen and 19 profiles with a 600 mg dosing regimen were obtained. Model validation showed prediction bias of 0.1% and r 2 of 0.99. Evaluation of the most clinically relevant LSS showed prediction bias of 4.8% and r 2 of 0.97. The root mean square error corresponding to the most relevant LSS was 6.07%. The developed LSS could be used to enable concentration-guided dosing of linezolid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  4. Hawaii energy strategy project 3: Renewable energy resource assessment and development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    RLA Consulting (RLA) has been retained by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) to conduct a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment and Development Program. This three-phase program is part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES), which is a multi-faceted program intended to produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. The purpose of Phase 1 of the project, Development of a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment Plan, is to better define the most promising potential renewable energy projects and to establish the most suitable locations for project development in the state. In order to accomplish this goal, RLA has identified constraints and requirements for renewable energy projects from six different renewable energy resources: wind, solar, biomass, hydro, wave, and ocean thermal. These criteria were applied to areas with sufficient resource for commercial development and the results of Phase 1 are lists of projects with the most promising development potential for each of the technologies under consideration. Consideration of geothermal energy was added to this investigation under a separate contract with DBEDT. In addition to the project lists, a monitoring plan was developed with recommended locations and a data collection methodology for obtaining additional wind and solar data. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1. 11 figs., 22 tabs.

  5. Proliferation Resistance and Safeguards by Design: The Safeguardability Assessment Tool Provided by the INPRO Collaborative Project ''INPRO'' (Proliferation Resistance and Safeguardability Assessment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, E.; Chang, H.-L.; Phillips, J.R.; Listner, C.

    2015-01-01

    Since the INPRO Collaborative Project on Proliferation Resistance and Safeguardability Assessment Tools (PROSA) was launched in 2011, Member State experts have worked with the INPRO Section and the IAEA Department of Safeguards to develop a revised methodology for self-assessment of sustainability in the area of proliferation resistance of a nuclear energy system (NES). With the common understanding that there is ''no proliferation resistance without safeguards'' the revised approach emphasizes the evaluation of a new 'User Requirement' for ''safeguardability'', that combines metrics of effective and efficient implementation of IAEA Safeguards including ''Safeguards-by-Design'' principles. The assessment with safeguardability as the key issue has been devised as a linear process evaluating the NES against a ''Basic Principle'' in the area of proliferation resistance, answering fundamental questions related to safeguards: 1) Do a State's legal commitments, policies and practices provide credible assurance of the exclusively peaceful use of the NES, including a legal basis for verification activities by the IAEA? 2) Does design and operation of the NES facilitate the effective and efficient implementation of IAEA safeguards? To answer those questions, a questionnaire approach has been developed that clearly identifies gaps and weaknesses. Gaps include prospects for improvements and needs for research and development. In this context, the PROSA approach assesses the safeguardability of a NES using a layered ''Evaluation Questionnaire'' that defines Evaluation Parameters (EP), EP-related questions, Illustrative Tests and Screening Questions to present and structure the evidence of findings. An integral part of the assessment process is Safeguards-by-Design, the identification of potential diversion, misuse and concealment strategies (coarse diversion path

  6. Implementing national strategies on antimicrobial resistance in Thailand: potential challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommanustweechai, A; Tangcharoensathien, V; Malathum, K; Sumpradit, N; Kiatying-Angsulee, N; Janejai, N; Jaroenpoj, S

    2018-04-01

    Thailand has developed a national strategic plan on antimicrobial resistance (NSP-AMR) and endorsed by the Cabinet in August 2016. This study reviewed the main contents of the NSP-AMR and the mandates of relevant implementing agencies and identified challenges and recommends actions to mitigate implementation gaps. This study analysed the contents of NSP-AMR, reviewed institutional mandates and assessed the implementation gaps among agencies responsible for NSP-AMR. Two of six strategies are related to monitoring and surveillance of AMR and antimicrobial consumption in human and animal. Two other strategies aim to improve antibiotic stewardship and control the spread of AMR in both clinical and farm settings. The remaining two strategies aim to increase knowledge and public awareness on AMR and establish national governance for inter-sectoral actions. Strategies to overcome implementation challenges are sustaining cross-sectoral policy commitments, effective cross-sectoral coordination using One Health approach, generating evidence which guides policy implementation, and improving enforcement capacities in regulatory authorities. To address AMR, Thailand requires significant improvements in implementation capacities in two dimensions. First, technical capacities among implementing agencies are needed to translate policies into practice. Second, governance and organizational capacities enable effective multi-sectoral actions across human, animal, and environmental sectors. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor steam cycle/cogeneration: lead project strategy plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The strategy, contained herein, for developing the HTGR system and introducing it into the energy marketplace is based on using the most developed technology path to establish a HTGR-Steam Cycle/Cogeneration (SC/C) Lead Project. Given the status of the HTGR-SC/C technology, a Lead Plant could be completed and operational by the mid 1990s. While there is remaining design and technology development that must be accomplished to fulfill technical and licensing requirements for a Lead Project commitment, the major barriers to the realization a HTGR-SC/C Lead Project are institutional in nature, e.g. budget priorities and constraints, cost/risk sharing between the public and private sector, Project organization and management, and Project financing. These problems are further complicated by the overall pervading issues of economic and regulatory instability that presently confront the utility and nuclear industries. This document addresses the major institutional issues associated with the HTGR-SC/C Lead Project and provides a starting point for discussions between prospective Lead Project participants toward the realization of such a Project

  8. Multi-resistance strategy for viral diseases and short hairpin RNA verification method in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-nam Oh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective Foot and mouth disease (FMD and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS are major diseases that interrupt porcine production. Because they are viral diseases, vaccinations are of only limited effectiveness in preventing outbreaks. To establish an alternative multi-resistant strategy against FMD virus (FMDV and PRRS virus (PRRSV, the present study introduced two genetic modification techniques to porcine cells. Methods First, cluster of differentiation 163 (CD163, the PRRSV viral receptor, was edited with the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated protein 9 technique. The CD163 gene sequences of edited cells and control cells differed. Second, short hairpin RNA (shRNAs were integrated into the cells. The shRNAs, targeting the 3D gene of FMDV and the open reading frame 7 (ORF7 gene of PRRSV, were transferred into fibroblasts. We also developed an in vitro shRNA verification method with a target gene expression vector. Results shRNA activity was confirmed in vitro with vectors that expressed the 3D and ORF7 genes in the cells. Cells containing shRNAs showed lower transcript levels than cells with only the expression vectors. The shRNAs were integrated into CD163-edited cells to combine the two techniques, and the viral genes were suppressed in these cells. Conclusion We established a multi-resistant strategy against viral diseases and an in vitro shRNA verification method.

  9. Toolbox for uncertainty; Introduction of adaptive heuristics as strategies for project decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stingl, Verena; Geraldi, Joana

    2017-01-01

    This article presents adaptive heuristics as an alternative approach to navigate uncertainty in project decision-making. Adaptive heuristic are a class of simple decision strategies that have received only scant attention in project studies. Yet, they can strive in contexts of high uncertainty...... they are ‘ecologically rational’. The model builds on the individual definitions of ecological rationality and organizes them according to two types of uncertainty (‘knowable’ and ‘unknowable’). Decision problems and heuristics are furthermore grouped by decision task (choice and judgement). The article discusses...... and limited information, which are the typical project decision context. This article develops a conceptual model that supports a systematic connection between adaptive heuristics and project decisions. Individual adaptive heuristics succeed only in specific decision environments, in which...

  10. Impact of weed control strategies on resistance evolution in Alopecurus myosuroides – a long-term field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulber, Lena

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of various herbicide strategies on populations of Alopecurus myosuroides is investigated in a longterm field trial situated in Wendhausen (Germany since 2009. In the initial years of the field experiment, resistant populations were selected by means of repeated application of the same herbicide active ingredients. For the selection of different resistance profiles, herbicides with actives from different HRAC groups were used. The herbicide actives flupyrsulfuron, isoproturon und fenoxaprop-P were applied for two years on large plots. In a succeeding field trial starting in 2011, it was investigated if the now existing resistant field populations could be controlled by various herbicide strategies. Eight different strategies consisting of various herbicide combinations were tested. Resistance evolution was investigated by means of plant counts and molecular genetic analysis.

  11. THE APPLICATION OF FORESIGHT PROJECTS IN FORMATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL COMPANIES’ INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Zolotareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article is considered the possibility of application of methodology of foresight to the formation of strategy of innovative development of technological companies. The application of existing approaches to defining targets and goals of innovation development does not meet the requirements of the nonlinearity of the modern processes of technological companies’ innovation development.The goals and objectives. The purpose of this article is to study the possibilities of application of methods of foresight in forming of technological companies’ innovation development strategy. To achieve the goal, the author has solved the following problems: considered the interrelationship and interdependence between corporate strategy and technological companies’ innovation development strategy; defined the main problems of formation technological companies’ innovation development strategies; revealed the concept of "foresight" and diff erence in methodology of foresight and traditional forecasting techniques; defined the basic principles of foresight; presents the main stages of the foresight project implementation in technological companies.Research methods. The theoretical basis of the study are the publications of Russian and foreign scientists in the field of formation and development of innovation strategies through the application of foresight methods at the level of national innovation system and at company level. As a methodological basis of the study used methods of analysis, synthesis, induction method, deduction method, the comparison, was applied certain aspects of the synergetic analysis.Summary. The results of Russian and foreign researchers systematized by author confirm the possibility and necessity foresight projects implementation in formation and adjustment of technological companies’ innovation development strategies and in the national innovation system development. The principles of engagement of various social forces

  12. Test and characterization of multigap resistive plate chambers for the EEE project

    CERN Document Server

    Bossini, E

    2016-01-01

    The Extreme Energy Events project is based on the deployment of cosmic-ray telescopes in Italian high schools with the active contribution of students and teachers. Each telescope is made by three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers readout by strips. With around 50 telescopes already built and others under construction, specific systems to test and characterize the chambers are needed. In this article I will present a flexible and software-configurable solution to perform chamber efficiency studies with a set of scintillators and hardware to automatically scan detector strips to identify electrical issues. Both systems can provide accurate information but at the same time they can be easily operated by students.

  13. Study on creep behavior of Grade 91 heat-resistant steel using theta projection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Facai; Tang, Xiaoying

    2017-10-01

    Creep behavior of Grade 91 heat-resistant steel used for steam cooler was characterized using the theta projection method. Creep tests were conducted at the temperature of 923K under the stress ranging from 100-150MPa. Based on the creep curve results, four theta parameters were established using a nonlinear least square fitting method. Four theta parameters showed a good linearity as a function of stress. The predicted curves coincided well with the experimental data and creep curves were also modeled to the low stress level of 60MPa.

  14. MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES TO EMERGING MARKETS: A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF TURNKEY PROJECT DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bistra Vassileva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to analyse the international market entry strategies in the light of globalisation processes and to propose a conceptual model of turnkey projects as market entry mode. The specific research objectives are as follows: 1. to develop an integrated framework of the turnkey marketing process as a conceptual model; 2. to analyse BRICS countries as potential host countries for turnkey projects implementation; 3. to assess potential implications of proposed conceptual model for global market entry decisions.

  15. Translation of SNOMED CT - strategies and description of a pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Gunnar O; Chen, Rong

    2009-01-01

    The translation and localization of SNOMED CT (Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms) have been initiated in a few countries. In Sweden, we conducted the first evaluation of this terminology in a project called REFTERM in which we also developed a software tool which could handle a large scale translation with a number of translators and reviewers in a web-based environment. The system makes use of existing authorized English-Swedish translations of medical terminologies such as ICD-10. The paper discusses possible strategies for a national project to translate and adapt this terminology.

  16. Unfulfilled farmer expectations: the case of the Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA project in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabeya Justin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maize is the most important staple food in Kenya; any reduction in production and yield therefore often becomes a national food security concern. To address the challenge posed by the maize stem borer, the Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA agricultural biotechnology public-private partnership (PPP project was launched in 1999. There were, however, pre-existing concerns regarding the use of genetic engineering in crop production and skepticism about private sector involvement. The purpose of this case study was to understand the role of trust in the IRMA partnership by identifying the challenges to, and practices for, building trust in the project. Methods Data were collected by conducting face-to-face, semi-structured interviews; reviewing publicly available project documents; and direct observations. The data were analyzed to generate recurring and emergent themes on how trust is understood and built among the partners in the IRMA project and between the project and the community. Results Clear and continued communication with stakeholders is of paramount importance to building trust, especially regarding competition among partners about project management positions; a lack of clarity on ownership of intellectual property rights (IPRs; and the influence of anti-genetic modification (GM organizations. Awareness creation about IRMA’s anticipated products raised the end users’ expectations, which were unfulfilled due to failure to deliver Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-based products, thereby leading to diminished trust between the project and the community. Conclusions Four key issues have been identified from the results of the study. First, the inability to deliver the intended products to the end user diminished stakeholders’ trust and interest in the project. Second, full and honest disclosure of information by partners when entering into project agreements is crucial to ensuring progress in a project. Third

  17. Development and management of a radon assessment strategy suitable for underground railway tunnelling projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purnell, C. J.; Frommer, G.; Chan, K.; Auch, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    The construction of underground tunnels through radon-bearing rock poses a radiation health risk to tunnelling workers from exposure to radon gas and its radioactive decay products. This paper presents the development and practical application of a radon assessment strategy suitable for the measurement of radon in tunnelling work environments in Hong Kong. The assessment strategy was successfully evaluated on a number of underground railway tunnelling projects over a 3 y period. Radon measurements were undertaken using a combination of portable radon measurement equipment and track etch detectors (TEDs) deployed throughout the tunnels. The radon gas monitoring results were used to confirm that ventilation rates were adequate or identified, at an early stage, when further action to reduce radon levels was required. Exposure dose estimates based on the TED results showed that the exposure of tunnel workers to radon did not exceed 3 mSv per annum for the duration of each project. (authors)

  18. PNL vitrification technology development project glass formulation strategy for LLW vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.; Hrma, P.R.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    This Glass Formulation Strategy describes development approaches to optimize glass compositions for Hanford's low-level waste vitrification between now and the projected low-level waste facility start-up in 2005. The objectives of the glass formulation task are to develop optimized glass compositions with satisfactory long-term durability, acceptable processing characteristics, adequate flexibility to handle waste variations, maximize waste loading to practical limits, and to develop methodology to respond to further waste variations

  19. BRAF-mutant melanoma: treatment approaches, resistance mechanisms, and diagnostic strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spagnolo F

    2015-01-01

    available today for patients affected by BRAF V600-mutated metastatic melanoma, as well as to summarize the mechanisms of resistance to BRAF inhibitors and discuss the possible strategies to overcome them. Moreover, since the molecular analysis of tumor specimens is now a pivotal and decisional factor in the treatment strategy of metastatic melanoma patients, the advances in the molecular detection techniques for the BRAF V600 mutation will be reported. Keywords: melanoma, BRAF, vemurafenib, dabrafenib, resistance, BRAF inhibitor

  20. Correspondence of Charles Darwin on James Torbitt's project to breed blight-resistance potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeArce, M

    2008-01-01

    The most prolific of Darwin's correspondents from Ireland was James Torbitt, an enterprising grocer and wine merchant of 58 North Street, Belfast. Between February 1876 and March 1882, 141 letters were exchanged on the feasibility and ways of supporting one of Torbitt's commercial projects, the large-scale production and distribution of true potato seeds (Solan um tuberosum) to produce plants resistant to the late blight fungus Phytophthora infestans, the cause of repeated potato crop failures and thus the Irish famines in the nineteenth century. Ninety-three of these letters were exchanged between Torbitt and Darwin, and 48 between Darwin and third parties, seeking or offering help and advice on the project. Torbitt's project required selecting the small proportion of plants in an infested field that survived the infection, and using those as parents to produce seeds. This was a direct application of Darwin's principle of selection. Darwin cautiously lobbied high-ranking civil servants in London to obtain government funding for the project, and also provided his own personal financial support to Torbit.

  1. Update of the INPRO Collaborative Project, Proliferation Resistance and Safeguard ability Assessment (Prosta) Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H. L.; Kwon, E. H.; Ahn, S. K.; Ko, W. I.; Kim, H. D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The objectives of the INPRO Collaborative Project, Proliferation Resistance and Safeguard ability Assessment (PROSA) Tools are to make the INPRO proliferation resistance (PR) assessment methodology simpler and easier to use, to allow for different users and depths of analysis, to demonstrate the value and its usefulness of the refined assessment methodology to potential users, through a test with a reference case, and to provide input to a revision of the INPRO PR assessment manual. A summary of the project is described herein, including the procedure of PR assessment process and a case study using a SFR metal fuel manufacturing facility (SFMF) which is currently in the conceptual design phase at KAERI. The PROSA process with questionnaire approach is simpler and easier to perform that the original INPRO PR methodology with qualitative scale from 'weak' to 'very strong' to be determined by expert judgment. The PROSA process can be applied from the early stage of design showing the relationship of PR assessment to the SBD process.

  2. Great Apes and Biodiversity Offset Projects in Africa: The Case for National Offset Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Rebecca; Kormos, Cyril F.; Humle, Tatyana; Lanjouw, Annette; Rainer, Helga; Victurine, Ray; Mittermeier, Russell A.; Diallo, Mamadou S.; Rylands, Anthony B.; Williamson, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The development and private sectors are increasingly considering “biodiversity offsets” as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1) takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2) identifies priority offset sites, (3) promotes aggregated offsets, and (4) integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available. PMID:25372894

  3. Estimation of weld nugget temperature by thermography method in resistance projection welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setty, D.S.; Rameswara Roa, A.; Hemantha Rao, G.V.S.; Jaya Raj, R.N.

    2008-01-01

    In the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) fuel manufacturing, zirconium alloy appendages like spacer and bearing pads are welded to the thin wall zirconium alloy fuel tubes by using resistance projection welding process. Out of many joining processes available, resistance-welding process is reliable, environment friendly and best suitable for mass production applications. In the fuel assembly, spacer pads are used to get the required inter-element spacing and Bearing pads are used to get the required load-bearing surface for the fuel assembly. Performance of the fuel assembly in the reactor is greatly influenced by these weld joint's quality. Phase transformation from α to β phase is not acceptable while welding these tiny appendages. At present only destructive metallography test is available for this purpose. This can also be achieved by measuring weld nugget temperature where in the phase transformation temperature for zirconium alloy material is 853 o C. The temperature distribution during resistance welding of tiny parts cannot be measured by conventional methods due to very small space and short weld times involved in the process. Shear strength, dimensional accuracy and weld microstructures are some of the key parameters used to measure the quality of appendage weld joints. Weld parameters were optimized with the help of industrial experimentation methodology. Individual projection welding by split electrode concept, and during welding on empty tube firm support is achieved on inner side of the tube by using expandable pneumatic mandrel. In the present paper, an attempt was made to measure the weld nugget temperature by thermography technique and is correlated with standard microstructures of zirconium alloy material. The temperature profiles in the welding process are presented for different welding conditions. This technique has helped in measuring the weld nugget temperature more accurately. It was observed that in the present appendage welding

  4. Coordination of Project and Current Activities on the Basis of the Strategy Alignment Metamodel in the Oil and Gas Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yu. Dashkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the purpose of this article is to describe the Strategy Alignment Metamodel of the project and current activities, which allows us to connect the Goals and Strategies for Phases of the project with the Goals and Strategies of the company at all levels of the organization through targeted measurement and application of Interpretive Models. Building Networks of Goals and Strategies, and adopting organizational solutions, you coordinate the interaction of the Project office and departments of the company. This methodology is based on a Logical Rationale of the Contexts and Assumptions for establishing Goals and Strategies both for the project and for the company, and on preparation of Contexts and Assumptions, Goals and Strategies Alignment Matrices, which provides a flexible adaptation to the internal and external environment in the process of selecting the most successful Strategies to achieve the Goals. Methods: this article is based on the concept of Goals-Questions-Metrics+ Strategies, which is adapted as another concept of strategic monitoring and control system of projects: Goals-Phases-Metrics+Strategies. These concepts have formed the basis of the Strategy Alignment Metamodel, where a technology of Phases Earned Value Management is used as a measurement system for the project activity, and Balanced scorecard is applied for current operations. Results: strategy Alignment Metamodel of the project and current activities of the company is proposed hereby. It uses modern strategic monitoring and control systems for projects: Goals-Phases-Metrics+Strategies, and for the company: Goals-Questions-Metrics+ Strategies. The interaction between these systems is based on Contexts and Assumptions, Goals and Strategies Alignment Matrices. The existence of such matrices greatly simplifies management decisions and prevents the risk of delays in the execution of project Phases based on rational participation and coordination of the company

  5. Damage to the microbial cell membrane during pyrolytic sugar utilization and strategies for increasing resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Rover, Marjorie R; Petersen, Elspeth M; Chi, Zhanyou; Smith, Ryan G; Brown, Robert C; Wen, Zhiyou; Jarboe, Laura R

    2017-09-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an appealing feedstock for the production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals, and thermochemical processing is a promising method for depolymerizing it into sugars. However, trace compounds in this pyrolytic sugar syrup are inhibitory to microbial biocatalysts. This study demonstrates that hydrophobic inhibitors damage the cell membrane of ethanologenic Escherichia coli KO11+lgk. Adaptive evolution was employed to identify design strategies for improving pyrolytic sugar tolerance and utilization. Characterization of the resulting evolved strain indicates that increased resistance to the membrane-damaging effects of the pyrolytic sugars can be attributed to a glutamine to leucine mutation at position 29 of carbon storage regulator CsrA. This single amino acid change is sufficient for decreasing EPS protein production and increasing membrane integrity when exposed to pyrolytic sugars.

  6. hp-HGS strategy for inverse 3D DC resistivity logging measurement simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Gajda-Zaǵorska, Ewa

    2012-06-02

    In this paper we present a twin adaptive strategy hp-HGS for solving inverse problems related to 3D DC borehole resistivity measurement simulations. The term “simulation of measurements” is widely used by the geophysical community. A quantity of interest, voltage, is measured at a receiver electrode located in the logging instrument. We use the self-adaptive goal-oriented hp-Finite Element Method (hp-FEM) computer simulations of the process of measurements in deviated wells (when the angle between the borehole and formation layers are < 90 deg). We also employ the hierarchical genetic search (HGS) algorithm to solve the inverse problem. Each individual in the population represents a single configuration of the formation layers. The evaluation of the individual is performed by solving the direct problem by means of the hp-FEM algorithm and by comparison with measured logging curve. We conclude the paper with some discussion on the parallelization of the algorithm.

  7. hp-HGS strategy for inverse 3D DC resistivity logging measurement simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Gajda-Zaǵorska, Ewa; Paszý nski, Maciej; Schaefer, Robert; Pardo, David; Calo, Victor M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a twin adaptive strategy hp-HGS for solving inverse problems related to 3D DC borehole resistivity measurement simulations. The term “simulation of measurements” is widely used by the geophysical community. A quantity of interest, voltage, is measured at a receiver electrode located in the logging instrument. We use the self-adaptive goal-oriented hp-Finite Element Method (hp-FEM) computer simulations of the process of measurements in deviated wells (when the angle between the borehole and formation layers are < 90 deg). We also employ the hierarchical genetic search (HGS) algorithm to solve the inverse problem. Each individual in the population represents a single configuration of the formation layers. The evaluation of the individual is performed by solving the direct problem by means of the hp-FEM algorithm and by comparison with measured logging curve. We conclude the paper with some discussion on the parallelization of the algorithm.

  8. Targeted therapy and personalized medicine in hepatocellular carcinoma: drug resistance, mechanisms, and treatment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galun D

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Danijel Galun,1,2 Tatjana Srdic-Rajic,3 Aleksandar Bogdanovic,1 Zlatibor Loncar,2,4 Marinko Zuvela1,2 1Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Unit, University Clinic for Digestive Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, 2Medical School, University of Belgrade, 3Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia/Unit for Experimental Oncology, 4Emergency Center, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is characterized by a growing number of new cases diagnosed each year that is nearly equal to the number of deaths from this cancer. In a majority of the cases, HCC is associated with the underlying chronic liver disease, and it is diagnosed in advanced stage of disease when curative treatment options are not applicable. Sorafenib is a treatment of choice for patients with performance status 1 or 2 and/or macrovascular invasion or extrahepatic spread, and regorafenib is the only systemic treatment found to provide survival benefit in HCC patients progressing on sorafenib treatment. Other drugs tested in different trials failed to demonstrate any benefit. Disappointing results of numerous trials testing the efficacy of various drugs indicate that HCC has low sensitivity to chemotherapy that is in great part caused by multidrug resistance. Immunotherapy for HCC is a new challenging treatment option and involves immune checkpoint inhibitors/antibody-based therapy and peptide-based vaccines. Another challenging approach is microRNA-based therapy that involves two strategies. The first aims to inhibit oncogenic miRNAs by using miRNA antagonists and the second strategy is miRNA replacement, which involves the reintroduction of a tumor-suppressor miRNA mimetic to restore a loss of function. Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, drug resistance, multimodal treatment, chemotherapy 

  9. Modeling and evaluating proliferation resistance of nuclear energy systems for strategy switching proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, M.; Cheng, L.-Y.; Bari, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sensitivity analysis is carried out for the model and physical input parameters. ► Interphase drag has minor effect on the dryout heat flux (DHF) in 1D configuration. ► Model calibration on pressure drop experiments fails to improve prediction of DHF. ► Calibrated classical model provides the best agreement with DHF data from 1D tests. ► Further validation of drag models requires data from 2D and 3D experiments on DHF. - Abstract: This paper reports a Markov model based approach to systematically evaluating the proliferation resistance (PR) of nuclear energy systems (NESs). The focus of the study is on the development of the Markov models for a class of complex PR scenarios, i.e., mixed covert/overt strategy switching proliferation, for NESs with two modes of material flow, batch and continuous. In particular, a set of diversion and/or breakout scenarios and covert/overt misuse scenarios are studied in detail for an Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR) system. Both probabilistic and deterministic PR measures are calculated using a software tool that implements the proposed approach and can be used to quantitatively compare proliferation resistant characteristics of different scenarios for a given NES, according to the computed PR measures

  10. Biofilm-mediated Antibiotic-resistant Oral Bacterial Infections: Mechanism and Combat Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Indulata; Sah, Abhishek K; Suresh, Preeti K

    2017-01-01

    Oral diseases like dental caries and periodontal disease are directly associated with the capability of bacteria to form biofilm. Periodontal diseases have been associated to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria forming a subgingival plaque (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Biofilm is a complex bacterial community that is highly resistant to antibiotics and human immunity. Biofilm communities are the causative agents of biological developments such as dental caries, periodontitis, peri-implantitis and causing periodontal tissue breakdown. The review recapitulates the latest advancements in treatment of clinical biofilm infections and scientific investigations, while these novel anti-biofilm strategies are still in nascent phases of development, efforts dedicated to these technologies could ultimately lead to anti-biofilm therapies that are superior to the current antibiotic treatment. This paper provides a review of the literature focusing on the studies on biofilm in the oral cavity, formation of dental plaque biofilm, drug resistance of bacterial biofilm and the antibiofilm approaches as biofilm preventive agents in dentistry, and their mechanism of biofilm inhibition. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Renal Denervation Using an Irrigated Catheter in Patients with Resistant Hypertension: A Promising Strategy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armaganijan, Luciana; Staico, Rodolfo; Moraes, Aline; Abizaid, Alexandre; Moreira, Dalmo; Amodeo, Celso; Sousa, Márcio; Borelli, Flávio; Armaganijan, Dikran; Sousa, J. Eduardo; Sousa, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Systemic hypertension is an important public health problem and a significant cause of cardiovascular mortality. Its high prevalence and the low rates of blood pressure control have resulted in the search for alternative therapeutic strategies. Percutaneous renal sympathetic denervation emerged as a perspective in the treatment of patients with resistant hypertension. To evaluate the feasibility and safety of renal denervation using an irrigated catheter. Ten patients with resistant hypertension underwent the procedure. The primary endpoint was safety, as assessed by periprocedural adverse events, renal function and renal vascular abnormalities at 6 months. The secondary endpoints were changes in blood pressure levels (office and ambulatory monitoring) and in the number of antihypertensive drugs at 6 months. The mean age was 47.3 (± 12) years, and 90% of patients were women. In the first case, renal artery dissection occurred as a result of trauma due to the long sheath; no further cases were observed after technical adjustments, thus showing an effect of the learning curve. No cases of thrombosis/renal infarction or death were reported. Elevation of serum creatinine levels was not observed during follow-up. At 6 months, one case of significant renal artery stenosis with no clinical consequences was diagnosed. Renal denervation reduced office blood pressure levels by 14.6/6.6 mmHg, on average (p = 0.4 both for systolic and diastolic blood pressure). Blood pressure levels on ambulatory monitoring decreased by 28/17.6 mmHg (p = 0.02 and p = 0.07 for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively). A mean reduction of 2.1 antihypertensive drugs was observed. Renal denervation is feasible and safe in the treatment of resistant systemic arterial hypertension. Larger studies are required to confirm our findings

  12. Renal Denervation Using an Irrigated Catheter in Patients with Resistant Hypertension: A Promising Strategy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armaganijan, Luciana, E-mail: luciana-va@hotmail.com; Staico, Rodolfo; Moraes, Aline; Abizaid, Alexandre; Moreira, Dalmo; Amodeo, Celso; Sousa, Márcio; Borelli, Flávio; Armaganijan, Dikran; Sousa, J. Eduardo; Sousa, Amanda [Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    Systemic hypertension is an important public health problem and a significant cause of cardiovascular mortality. Its high prevalence and the low rates of blood pressure control have resulted in the search for alternative therapeutic strategies. Percutaneous renal sympathetic denervation emerged as a perspective in the treatment of patients with resistant hypertension. To evaluate the feasibility and safety of renal denervation using an irrigated catheter. Ten patients with resistant hypertension underwent the procedure. The primary endpoint was safety, as assessed by periprocedural adverse events, renal function and renal vascular abnormalities at 6 months. The secondary endpoints were changes in blood pressure levels (office and ambulatory monitoring) and in the number of antihypertensive drugs at 6 months. The mean age was 47.3 (± 12) years, and 90% of patients were women. In the first case, renal artery dissection occurred as a result of trauma due to the long sheath; no further cases were observed after technical adjustments, thus showing an effect of the learning curve. No cases of thrombosis/renal infarction or death were reported. Elevation of serum creatinine levels was not observed during follow-up. At 6 months, one case of significant renal artery stenosis with no clinical consequences was diagnosed. Renal denervation reduced office blood pressure levels by 14.6/6.6 mmHg, on average (p = 0.4 both for systolic and diastolic blood pressure). Blood pressure levels on ambulatory monitoring decreased by 28/17.6 mmHg (p = 0.02 and p = 0.07 for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively). A mean reduction of 2.1 antihypertensive drugs was observed. Renal denervation is feasible and safe in the treatment of resistant systemic arterial hypertension. Larger studies are required to confirm our findings.

  13. Simple strategy to assess linezolid exposure in patients with multi-drug-resistant and extensively-drug-resistant tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, Jasper; Bolhuis, Mathieu S.; Tiberi, Simon; Akkerman, Onno W.; Centis, Rosella; de lange, Wiel C.; Kosterink, Jos G.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Migliori, Giovanni B.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.

    Linezolid is used increasingly for the treatment of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB). However, linezolid can cause severe adverse events, such as peripheral and optical neuropathy or thrombocytopenia related to higher drug exposure. This study aimed

  14. Building effective partnerships: the role of trust in the Virus Resistant Cassava for Africa project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virus Resistant Cassava for Africa (VIRCA is an agricultural biotechnology public-private partnership (PPP comprising the Donald Danforth Plant Sciences Center (DDPSC, National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO of Uganda and Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI. The project seeks to develop virus-resistant cassava for farmers in Kenya and Uganda. Yet, there is much public skepticism about the use of genetically modified (GM crops and private sector involvement in Africa. This case study sought to understand the role of trust in the VIRCA partnership. Methods We conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to obtain stakeholders’ views on the challenges to, and practices for, building trust in the VIRCA partnership. Interviewee responses, together with relevant documents and articles, were analyzed to generate descriptions of how trust is operationalized in this evolving agbiotech PPP. Data were analyzed based on recurring and emergent themes from the interviewee responses. Results Various factors undermine and build trust in agbiotech PPPs. Individual and institutional enthusiasm and detailed collaborative agreements stipulating partner roles and responsibilities are likely to enhance trust among partners. On the other hand, negative perceptions propagated by international partners about the capacities of African institutions and scientists, coupled with slow regulatory processes in Africa, are likely to be impediments to trust building. Conclusions Based on the findings of this study, we have derived four key lessons. First, differences in the capacity of the partner institutions and individuals should be respected. Second, technical and infrastructural capacity support for regulatory processes in Africa must be built. Third, detailed agreements and open and transparent partner practices during project implementation are necessary to dispel perceptions of inequality among partners. Fourth, institutional

  15. Sampling strategies in antimicrobial resistance monitoring: evaluating how precision and sensitivity vary with the number of animals sampled per farm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehisa Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Because antimicrobial resistance in food-producing animals is a major public health concern, many countries have implemented antimicrobial monitoring systems at a national level. When designing a sampling scheme for antimicrobial resistance monitoring, it is necessary to consider both cost effectiveness and statistical plausibility. In this study, we examined how sampling scheme precision and sensitivity can vary with the number of animals sampled from each farm, while keeping the overall sample size constant to avoid additional sampling costs. Five sampling strategies were investigated. These employed 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6 animal samples per farm, with a total of 12 animals sampled in each strategy. A total of 1,500 Escherichia coli isolates from 300 fattening pigs on 30 farms were tested for resistance against 12 antimicrobials. The performance of each sampling strategy was evaluated by bootstrap resampling from the observational data. In the bootstrapping procedure, farms, animals, and isolates were selected randomly with replacement, and a total of 10,000 replications were conducted. For each antimicrobial, we observed that the standard deviation and 2.5-97.5 percentile interval of resistance prevalence were smallest in the sampling strategy that employed 1 animal per farm. The proportion of bootstrap samples that included at least 1 isolate with resistance was also evaluated as an indicator of the sensitivity of the sampling strategy to previously unidentified antimicrobial resistance. The proportion was greatest with 1 sample per farm and decreased with larger samples per farm. We concluded that when the total number of samples is pre-specified, the most precise and sensitive sampling strategy involves collecting 1 sample per farm.

  16. Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Diesel Bus (E-3) and Switchgear Replacement Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckwitz, Noel

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,' safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, 'Facility Safety,' and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, 'Integration of Safety into the Design Process,' provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

  17. Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Emergency Firewater Injection System Replacement Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckwitz, Noel

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,' safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, 'Facility Safety,' and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, 'Integration of Safety into the Design Process,' provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

  18. A Health Care Project Management Office's Strategies for Continual Change and Continuous Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Aubry, Monique; Richer, Marie-Claire; Cyr, Guylaine

    Health care organizations need project and change management support in order to achieve successful transformations. A project management office (PMO) helps support the organizations through their transformations along with increasing their capabilities in project and change management. The aim of the present study was to extend understanding of the continuous improvement mechanisms used by PMOs and to describe PMO's strategies for continual change and continuous improvement in the context of major transformation in health care. This study is a descriptive case study design with interviews conducted from October to December 2015 with PMO's members (3 managers and 1 director) and 3 clients working with the PMO after a major redevelopment project ended (transition to the new facility). Participants suggested a number of elements including carefully selecting the members of the PMO, having a clear mandate for the PMO, having a method and a discipline at the same time as allowing openness and flexibility, clearly prioritizing projects, optimizing collaboration, planning for everything the PMO will need, not overlooking organizational culture, and retaining the existing support model. This study presents a number of factors ensuring the sustainability of changes.

  19. Virtual resistance-based control strategy for DC link regeneration protection and current sharing in uninterruptible power supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jinghang; Guan, Yajuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    To address the DC link voltage regeneration issue in parallel Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) system, a DC link voltage protection (DCVP) method through online virtual resistance regulation is proposed. The proposed control strategy is able to protect the DC link from overvoltage that may...... trigger the protection mechanism of the UPS system. Moreover, a current sharing control strategy by regulating the virtual resistance is proposed to address the circulating current caused by the active power feeding. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method is verified by experimental results from...

  20. Current status of decommissioning projects and their strategies in advanced countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, U. S.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, S. T.; Paik, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. I.; Hong, S. B.

    2007-06-01

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The number of nuclear facilities to be dismantled will be much increased in future and the decommissioning industries will be enlarged. Keeping pace with this increasing tendency, each country formulated their own strategies and regulation systems, and applied their own technologies. The international organizations such as the IAEA and the OECD/NEA also prepared standards in technologies and regulation upon decommissioning and recommended to adopt them to the decommissioning projects. These strategies and technologies are very different country by country due to the different site dependent conditions and it will not be reasonable to evaluate their merits and weakness. The world wide status of the decommissioning, highlighted on that of 5 countries of USA, UK, France, Germany and Japan because they are advanced counties in nuclear industries, are summarized and their site specific conditions are evaluated. The scopes of the evaluation are decommissioning strategies, licensing procedures and requirements focused on decommissioning plan, waste management, technology development and so on. The detailed decommissioning progresses of several typical example sites were introduced. The activities on decommissioning field of the international organization, increased according to the enlarged decommissioning industries, are also summarized

  1. Current status of decommissioning projects and their strategies in advanced countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, U. S.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, S. T.; Paik, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. I.; Hong, S. B

    2007-06-15

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The number of nuclear facilities to be dismantled will be much increased in future and the decommissioning industries will be enlarged. Keeping pace with this increasing tendency, each country formulated their own strategies and regulation systems, and applied their own technologies. The international organizations such as the IAEA and the OECD/NEA also prepared standards in technologies and regulation upon decommissioning and recommended to adopt them to the decommissioning projects. These strategies and technologies are very different country by country due to the different site dependent conditions and it will not be reasonable to evaluate their merits and weakness. The world wide status of the decommissioning, highlighted on that of 5 countries of USA, UK, France, Germany and Japan because they are advanced counties in nuclear industries, are summarized and their site specific conditions are evaluated. The scopes of the evaluation are decommissioning strategies, licensing procedures and requirements focused on decommissioning plan, waste management, technology development and so on. The detailed decommissioning progresses of several typical example sites were introduced. The activities on decommissioning field of the international organization, increased according to the enlarged decommissioning industries, are also summarized.

  2. Multigap resistive plate chambers for EAS study in the EEE Project

    CERN Document Server

    An, S; Badalà, A; Zichichi, A

    2007-01-01

    The EEE (Extreme Energy Events) Project, conceived by its leader Antonino Zichichi, is an experiment to study very high-energetic air showers (EAS) through the detection of the shower's muon component using a network of tracking detectors, installed in Italian high schools. The single tracking telescope is composed of three large area () Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs). The data collected by the telescopes will be used for studies of air showers and also for the search of time correlations between sites which are far apart. The first telescope, recently installed in the Liceo B. Touschek in Grottaferrata (Rome), is successfully running, and other telescopes are going to be installed in a short time in other towns, opening up the way for the first search of long-distance coincidences over a total area of .

  3. Structural and process factors affecting the implementation of antimicrobial resistance prevention and control strategies in U.S. hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ann F; Yano, Elizabeth M; McCoy, Kimberly D; Willis, Deanna R; Doebbeling, Bradley N

    2008-01-01

    To address increases in the incidence of infection with antimicrobial-resistant pathogens, the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention proposed two sets of strategies to (a) optimize antibiotic use and (b) prevent the spread of antimicrobial resistance and control transmission. However, little is known about the implementation of these strategies. Our objective is to explore organizational structural and process factors that facilitate the implementation of National Foundation for Infectious Diseases/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention strategies in U.S. hospitals. We surveyed 448 infection control professionals from a national sample of hospitals. Clinically anchored in the Donabedian model that defines quality in terms of structural and process factors, with the structural domain further informed by a contingency approach, we modeled the degree to which National Foundation for Infectious Diseases and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention strategies were implemented as a function of formalization and standardization of protocols, centralization of decision-making hierarchy, information technology capabilities, culture, communication mechanisms, and interdepartmental coordination, controlling for hospital characteristics. Formalization, standardization, centralization, institutional culture, provider-management communication, and information technology use were associated with optimal antibiotic use and enhanced implementation of strategies that prevent and control antimicrobial resistance spread (all p prevention and control (p support these organizational processes. These findings suggest concrete strategies for evaluating current capabilities to implement effective practices and foster and sustain a culture of patient safety.

  4. Spin-off strategies for the improvement of the performance national nuclear R and D project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T. J.; Kim, H. J.; Jung, H. S.; Yang, M. H.; Choi, Y. M.

    1998-01-01

    In the light of the strategic utilization of the national R and D projects, this paper is to induce the spin-off strategies to improve the national R and D effectiveness through analyzing the spin-off characteristics of nuclear technologies, the spin-off status of the advanced countries and the case study of Korean nuclear spin-offs. Spin-off process is viewed as a three-stage operation, such as preparation stage, implementation stage and maintenance stage. In order to find the correlation between the influencing factors and spin-off effectiveness, the Spearman's correlation coefficient was employed as a specific statistical technique. By integrating this correlation, spin-off process and spin-off strategies, this paper presents an efficient frame work to improve the spin-off effectiveness

  5. Experiences of operational costs of HPV vaccine delivery strategies in Gavi-supported demonstration projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Taylor; Nanda, Shreya; Bloem, Paul; Griffiths, Ulla K.; Sidibe, Anissa; Hutubessy, Raymond C. W.

    2017-01-01

    From 2012 to 2016, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, provided support for countries to conduct small-scale demonstration projects for the introduction of the human papillomavirus vaccine, with the aim of determining which human papillomavirus vaccine delivery strategies might be effective and sustainable upon national scale-up. This study reports on the operational costs and cost determinants of different vaccination delivery strategies within these projects across twelve countries using a standardized micro-costing tool. The World Health Organization Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool was used to collect costing data, which were then aggregated and analyzed to assess the costs and cost determinants of vaccination. Across the one-year demonstration projects, the average economic and financial costs per dose amounted to US$19.98 (standard deviation ±12.5) and US$8.74 (standard deviation ±5.8), respectively. The greatest activities representing the greatest share of financial costs were social mobilization at approximately 30% (range, 6–67%) and service delivery at about 25% (range, 3–46%). Districts implemented varying combinations of school-based, facility-based, or outreach delivery strategies and experienced wide variation in vaccine coverage, drop-out rates, and service delivery costs, including transportation costs and per diems. Size of target population, number of students per school, and average length of time to reach an outreach post influenced cost per dose. Although the operational costs from demonstration projects are much higher than those of other routine vaccine immunization programs, findings from our analysis suggest that HPV vaccination operational costs will decrease substantially for national introduction. Vaccination costs may be decreased further by annual vaccination, high initial investment in social mobilization, or introducing/strengthening school health programs. Our analysis shows that drivers of cost are dependent on

  6. Murky Projects and Uneven Information Policies: A Case Study of the Psychological Strategy Board and CIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Maret

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This case study discusses the Truman and Eisenhower administration's (1951-1953 short-lived Psychological Strategy Board (PSB. Through the lens of declassified documents, the article recounts the history and activities of the Board, including its relationship with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA and clandestine projects that involve human experimentation. Primary documents of the period suggest that institutional secrecy, coupled with inconsistent information policies, largely shielded CIA's BLUEBIRD, ARTICHOKE, and MKULTRA from the Board. This subject has not been previously reported in the research literature, and supplements existing historical understanding of the PSB's mission under the broad umbrella of psychological warfare.

  7. Management Strategy for Hydroelectric Project Toro 2: Knowing and enhancing natural resources sustainably

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira Chaves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand and sustainably enhance the biological and ecological resources of the Hydroelectric Project of Toro 2, thus; a research was carried out to inventory the presence of birds, mammals and plants, in order to know if the site qualifies as a biological tourist attraction, as well as to know the opinion of local people. It is proposed the sustainable uses of natural resources, through a strategy of use, management and conservation of the ecosystems.

  8. Transmedia Communication to Erradicate Hunger: ProjecteFAM, a Cross-Media Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Zareceansky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Projecte FAM (project FAMINE in Catalan is the name of a living experience and ongoing research, innovation, testing and redefinition on the design of a strategy of political, social and cultural impact that uses communication as a core tool within the framework of transmedia narrative. This paper explores the innovative aspects of the diffrent narrative products that constitute this communication project of Social Change and it also addresses the conceptualization derived from the research on the collective imagination of hunger as a starting point for creating diffrent hybridizations of storytelling and the logic of audiovisual source code. This essay describes the design and formulation of the project from the perspective of communication for global citizenship and its necessary adaptation to the practice and critical theory of the communication of the Third Sector. All in all, it analyzes the diffrent products from a strategic logic, its main audiences or publics and its consequent objectives.

  9. Hamaca Heavy Oil Project : lessons learned and an evolving development strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gipson, L.J.; Owen, R.; Robertson, C.R. [Petrolera Ameriven/Phillips Petroleum, Caracas, (Venezuela)

    2002-07-01

    The Hamaca extra-heavy crude oil project is one of four integrated extra-heavy crude oil development projects underway in the Faja stratigraphic trap in the Orinoco heavy oil belt of eastern Venezuela. The Faja contains about 1.2 trillion barrels of heavy and extra heavy crude oil. It is divided into the Machete, Zuata, Hamaca and Cerro Negro regions that have been developed by Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA). The Hamaca region is further subdivided into 25 blocks. The Hamaca integrated project will involve the drilling of more than 1000 horizontal wells over a 35 year period. The project will also involve the installation of more than 200 miles of crude and naptha pipelines, plus an upgrading refinery to convert the 8 API extra heavy crude into a 26 API final product. This presentation describes the performance of the different well types and highlights Petrolera Ameriven's criteria and strategy for future development. Openhole log data superimposed on 2D and 3D seismic displays are presented to show how they can be used for geosteering. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  10. A LOCAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT IN THE FRAMEWORK OF PUBLIC POLICIES FOCUSED ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Schin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at outlining a successful implementation of a project within LEADER framework, which is a local development method which allows local actors to develop an area by using its endogenous development potential. After a brief presentation of the characteristics of regional development strategies in Romania, there were emphasized the objectives and activities encompassed in a local development plan, managed by the leaders of the local action group called ‘Vrancea County’. In order to reinforce the strengths of Vrancea County and implicitly to assure a sustainable development of this area from the South-East part of Romania, a LAG constituted through a partnership between public and private actors settled a set of priorities to be exploited by means of specific actions. The goal of this paper is to highlight these priorities, by integrating them in a project management approach. The paper concludes with specifications about how Microsoft Project software could support project management initiatives that will be developed by the LAG Vrancea County in the next period.

  11. Resistance delaying strategies on UK sheep farms: A cost benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmount, Jane; Glover, Mike J; Taylor, Mike A

    2018-04-30

    UK guidelines for the sustainable control of parasites in sheep (SCOPS) were formulated with the primary aim of delaying development of anthelmintic resistance (AR) on UK sheep farms. Promoting their use requires the engagement and commitment of stakeholders. An important driver for behavioural change in sheep farmers is evidence of economic benefits. A recent evaluation of SCOPS guidance in practice demonstrated a significant reduction in anthelmintic use, suggesting economic benefits through a direct reduction in product and labour costs. However, in order to maintain production, a range of alternative control strategies are advised, resulting in additional costs to farmers and so a full cost benefit analysis of best practice management was undertaken. We allocated financial values to the management recommendations described in the SCOPS technical manual. Benefits were calculated using data for production variables and anthelmintic use measured during studies to evaluate the effect of SCOPS recommendations on 16 UK sheep farms and from other published work. As SCOPS control is not prescriptive and a range of different diagnostics are available, best and worst case scenarios were presented, comparing the cheapest methods (e.g. egg counts without larval culture) and management situations (e.g closed flocks not requiring quarantine treatments) with the most laborious and expensive. Simulations were run for farms with a small, medium or large flock (300; 1000; 1900 ewes) as well as comparing scenarios with and without potential production benefits from using effective wormers. Analysis demonstrated a moderate cost for all farms under both scenarios when production benefits were not included. A cost benefit was demonstrated for medium and large farms when production benefits were included and the benefit could be perceived as significant in the case of the large farms for the best case scenario (>£5000 per annum). Despite a significant potential reduction in

  12. Resisting Pressure from Peers to Engage in Sexual Behavior: What Communication Strategies Do Early Adolescent Latino Girls Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Anne E.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.; Hutchison, Janet; Campoe, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    A content analysis of early adolescent X-bar = 12.02 years) Latino girls' (n = 44) responses to open-ended questions embedded in an electronic survey was conducted to explore strategies girls may use to resist peer pressure with respect to sexual behavior. Analysis yielded 341 codable response units, 74% of which were consistent with the REAL…

  13. Evaluation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft-tissue infection prevention strategies at a military training center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Stephanie M; Blaesing, Carl R; Millar, Eugene V; Chukwuma, Uzo; Schlett, Carey D; Wilkins, Kenneth J; Tribble, David R; Ellis, Michael W

    2013-08-01

    Military trainees are at high risk for skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), especially those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A multicomponent hygiene-based SSTI prevention strategy was implemented at a military training center. After implementation, we observed 30% and 64% reductions in overall and MRSA-associated SSTI rates, respectively.

  14. Impact of Rapid Susceptibility Testing and Antibiotic Selection Strategy on the Emergence and Spread of Antibiotic Resistance in Gonorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, Ashleigh R; Gift, Thomas L; Chesson, Harrell W; Hsu, Katherine; Salomon, Joshua A; Grad, Yonatan H

    2017-11-27

    Increasing antibiotic resistance limits treatment options for gonorrhea. We examined the impact of a hypothetical point-of-care (POC) test reporting antibiotic susceptibility profiles on slowing resistance spread. A mathematical model describing gonorrhea transmission incorporated resistance emergence probabilities and fitness costs associated with resistance based on characteristics of ciprofloxacin (A), azithromycin (B), and ceftriaxone (C). We evaluated time to 1% and 5% prevalence of resistant strains among all isolates with the following: (1) empiric treatment (B and C), and treatment guided by POC tests determining susceptibility to (2) A only and (3) all 3 antibiotics. Continued empiric treatment without POC testing was projected to result in >5% of isolates being resistant to both B and C within 15 years. Use of either POC test in 10% of identified cases delayed this by 5 years. The 3 antibiotic POC test delayed the time to reach 1% prevalence of triply-resistant strains by 6 years, whereas the A-only test resulted in no delay. Results were less sensitive to assumptions about fitness costs and test characteristics with increasing test uptake. Rapid diagnostics reporting antibiotic susceptibility may extend the usefulness of existing antibiotics for gonorrhea treatment, but ongoing monitoring of resistance patterns will be critical. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  15. Simple screening strategy with only water bath needed for the identification of insect-resistant genetically modified rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Liu; Wang, Rui; Ying, Yibin; Wu, Jian

    2015-02-03

    An informative, with simple instrument needed, rapid and easily updated strategy for the identification of insect-resistant genetically modified (GM) rice has been described. Such strategy is based on a parallel series of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reactions targeting the rice endogenous gene sucrose phosphate synthase (Sps), the top two most frequently used genetic elements (Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase terminator (Nos) and Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (CaMV35S)), and an insect-resistant specific gene (Cry1Ac) and detected visually by phosphate ion (Pi)-induced coloration reaction. After a logical judgment of visible readouts has been obtained, three popular insect-resistant GM rice events in China can be successfully identified within 35 min, using either microwell strips or paper bases.

  16. Infection control strategies for preventing the transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nursing homes for older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Carmel; Tunney, Michael; Bradley, Marie C

    2013-11-19

    Nursing homes for older people provide an environment likely to promote the acquisition and spread of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), putting residents at increased risk of colonisation and infection. It is recognised that infection prevention and control strategies are important in preventing and controlling MRSA transmission. To determine the effects of infection prevention and control strategies for preventing the transmission of MRSA in nursing homes for older people. In August 2013, for this third update, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE, The Cochrane Library), Ovid MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE (In-process and Other Non-Indexed Citations), Ovid EMBASE, EBSCO CINAHL, Web of Science and the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) website. Research in progress was sought through Current Clinical Trials, Gateway to Reseach, and HSRProj (Health Services Research Projects in Progress). All randomised and controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series studies of infection prevention and control interventions in nursing homes for older people were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently reviewed the results of the searches. Another review author appraised identified papers and undertook data extraction which was checked by a second review author. For this third update only one study was identified, therefore it was not possible to undertake a meta-analysis. A cluster randomised controlled trial in 32 nursing homes evaluated the effect of an infection control education and training programme on MRSA prevalence. The primary outcome was MRSA prevalence in residents and staff, and a change in infection control audit scores which measured adherence to infection control standards. At the end of the 12 month study, there was no change in MRSA

  17. Infection control strategies for preventing the transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nursing homes for older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Carmel; Smith, Michael; Tunney, Michael; Bradley, Marie C

    2011-12-07

    Nursing homes for older people provide an environment likely to promote the acquisition and spread of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), putting residents at increased risk of colonisation and infection. It is recognised that infection prevention and control strategies are important in preventing and controlling MRSA transmission. To determine the effects of infection prevention and control strategies for preventing the transmission of MRSA in nursing homes for older people. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 2), the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched May 27th, 2011). We also searched Ovid MEDLINE (from 1950 to April Week 2 2011), OVID MEDLINE (In-process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, April 26th 2011) Ovid EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 16), EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to April 21st 2011), DARE (1992 to 2011, week 16), Web of Science (1981 to May 2011), and the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) website (1988 to May 2011). Research in progress was sought through Current Clinical Trials (www.controlled-trials.com), Medical Research Council Research portfolio, and HSRPRoj (current USA projects). All randomised and controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series studies of infection prevention and control interventions in nursing homes for older people were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently reviewed the results of the searches. Another review author appraised identified papers and undertook data extraction which was checked by a second review author. For this second update only one study was identified, therefore it was not possible to undertake a meta-analysis. A cluster randomised controlled trial in 32 nursing homes evaluated the effect of an infection control education and training programme on MRSA prevalence. The primary outcome was MRSA prevalence in residents and staff, and a change in infection

  18. Evidence-based tick acaricide resistance intervention strategy in Uganda: Concept and feedback of farmers and stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vudriko, Patrick; Okwee-Acai, James; Byaruhanga, Joseph; Tayebwa, Dickson Stuart; Omara, Robert; Muhindo, Jeanne Bukeka; Lagu, Charles; Umemiya-Shirafuji, Rika; Xuan, Xuenan; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    The emergence of multi-acaricide resistant ticks has led to unprecedented level of acaricide failure in central and western Uganda. In the absence of a national acaricide resistance management strategy, the country's dairy sector is threatened by upsurge of ticks and tick-borne diseases. In this study, we developed a short-to-medium-term intervention approach called Evidence-Based Acaricide Tick Control (EBATIC): Identify, Test, Intervene and Eradicate (IT-IE). Furthermore, the perception of 199 farmers and extension workers, 12 key informants in four districts and 47 stakeholders in the animal industry in Uganda were assessed using semi-structured questionnaires. We report that the establishment of a specialized laboratory is pivotal in identifying and testing (IT) acaricide resistant ticks for prompt intervention and eradication (IE). The laboratory test results and the farm tick control gaps identified are very important in guiding acaricide resistance management strategies such as evidence-based acaricide rotation, development and dissemination of extension materials, training of farmers and extension workers, and stakeholders' engagement towards finding sustainable solutions. All the 47 stakeholders and 91.0% (181/199) of the farmers and extension workers reported that the EBATIC approach will help in solving the tick acaricide resistance crisis in Uganda. Similarly, all the 12 key informants and 92.5% (184/199) of the farmers and extension workers suggested that the EBATIC approach should be sustained and rolled out to other districts. The EBATIC stakeholders' dialogue generated both short-to-medium and long-term strategies for sustainable management of tick acaricide resistance in the country. Overall, the positive feedback from farmers, district veterinarians and stakeholders in the animal industry suggest that the EBATIC approach is a useful proof-of-concept on scalable intervention pathway against tick acaricide resistance in Uganda with possibility of

  19. Interest in an online smoking cessation program and effective recruitment strategies: results from Project Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jennifer B; Greene, Sarah M; Wiese, Cheryl; Johnson, Karin E; Alexander, Gwen; Strecher, Victor

    2006-08-22

    The Internet is a promising venue for delivering smoking cessation treatment, either as a stand-alone program or as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy. However, there is little data to indicate what percent of smokers are interested in receiving online smoking cessation services or how best to recruit smokers to Internet-based programs. Using a defined recruitment sample, this study aimed to identify the percentage of smokers who expressed interest in or enrolled in Project Quit, a tailored, online, cognitive-behavioral support program offered with adjunctive nicotine replacement therapy patches. In addition, we examined the effectiveness of several individual-level versus population-level recruitment strategies. Members from two large health care organizations in the United States were invited to participate in Project Quit. Recruitment efforts included proactive invitation letters mailed to 34533 likely smokers and reactive population-level study advertisements targeted to all health plan members (> 560000 adults, including an estimated 98000 smokers across both health care organizations). An estimated 1.6% and 2.5% of adult smokers from each health care organization enrolled in Project Quit. Among likely smokers who received proactive study invitations, 7% visited the Project Quit website (n = 2260) and 4% (n = 1273) were eligible and enrolled. Response rates were similar across sites, despite using different sources to assemble the invitation mailing list. Proactive individual-level recruitment was more effective than other forms of recruitment, accounting for 69% of website visitors and 68% of enrollees. Smokers were interested in receiving online smoking cessation support, even though they had access to other forms of treatment through their health insurance. Uptake rates for this program were comparable to those seen when smokers are advised to quit and are referred to other forms of smoking cessation treatment. In this sample, proactive mailings were the best

  20. An Exploratory Study of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in a Design Project by Students in Grades 9-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Butler, Deborah; Cartier, Sylvie; Santoso, Harry; Lawanto, Kevin; Clark, David

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study evaluated self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies of 27 students in grades 9-12 during an engineering design project. The specific focus of the study was on student task interpretation and its relation to planning and cognitive strategies in design activities. Two research questions guided the study: (1) To what degree was…

  1. Code of Conduct for wind-power projects - Phase 3; Code of Conduct fuer windkraftprojekte. Phase 3 Machbarkeit und Strategie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strub, P. [Pierre Strub, freischaffender Berater, Binningen (Switzerland); Ziegler, Ch. [Inter Act, Basel (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    This paper discusses the results of phase three of a project concerning wind-power projects. Feasibility and strategy aspects are examined and discussed. The current state of the wind power market is discussed on the basis of the results of a survey made on the subject. The social acceptance of wind power installations is discussed, whereby the rejection of particular projects is compared with a general lack of acceptance. Requirements placed on such projects and possible solutions are discussed. Finally, the feasibility of setting up a code of conduct in the area of wind-power projects is discussed and the definition of further instruments is examined

  2. Evaluation of the Parent-Implemented Communication Strategies (PiCS) Project Using the Multiattribute Utility (MAU) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Julia B.; Meadan, Hedda; Angell, Maureen E.; Daczewitz, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a multiattribute utility (MAU) evaluation to assess the Parent-Implemented Communication Strategies (PiCS) project which was funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES). In the PiCS project parents of young children with developmental disabilities are trained and coached in their homes on naturalistic and visual teaching…

  3. Implementing practice management strategies to improve patient care: the EPIC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwell, David; Rogers-Warnock, Leslie; Nemis-White, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare gaps, the difference between usual care and best care, are evident in Canada, particularly with respect to our aging, ailing population. Primary care practitioners are challenged to identify, prevent and close care gaps in their practice environment given the competing demands of informed, litigious patients with complex medical needs, ever-evolving scientific evidence with new treatment recommendations across many disciplines and an enhanced emphasis on quality and accountability in healthcare. Patient-centred health and disease management partnerships using measurement, feedback and communication of practice patterns and outcomes have been shown to narrow care gaps. Practice management strategies such as the use of patient registries and recall systems have also been used to help practitioners better understand, follow and proactively manage populations of patients in their practice. The Enhancing Practice to Improve Care project was initiated to determine the impact of a patient-centred health and disease management partnership using practice management strategies to improve patient care and outcomes for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Forty-four general practices from four regions of British Columbia participated and, indeed, demonstrated that care and outcomes for patients with CKD could be improved via the implementation of practice management strategies in a patient-centred partnership measurement model of health and disease management.

  4. The Climaware project: Impacts of climate change on water resources management - regional strategies and European view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirel, Guillaume; D'Agostino, Daniela; Démerliac, Stéphane; Dorchies, David; Flörke, Martina; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Jost, Claudine; Kehr, Katrin; Perrin, Charles; Scardigno, Alessandra; Schneider, Christof; Theobald, Stephan; Träbing, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Climate projections produced with CMIP5 and applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its fifth assessment report indicate that changes in precipitation and temperature are expected to occur throughout Europe in the 21th century, with a likely decrease of water availability in many regions. Besides, water demand is also expected to increase, in link with these expected climate modifications, but also due to socio-economic and demographic changes. In this respect, the use of future freshwater resources may not be sustainable from the current water management perspective. Therefore adaptation strategies will most likely be needed to cope with these evolutions. In this context, the main objective of the ClimAware project (2010-2013 - www.uni-kassel.de/fb14/wasserbau/CLIMAWARE/, a project implemented within the IWRM-NET Funding Initiative) was to analyse the impacts of climate change (CC) on freshwater resources at the continental and regional scales and to identify efficient adaptation strategies to improve water management for various socio-economic sectors. This should contribute to a more effective implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its instruments (river basin management plans, programmes of measures). The project developed integrated measures for improved freshwater management under CC constraints. More specifically, the objectives of the ClimAware project were to: • elaborate quantitative projections of changes in river flows and consequences such as flood frequency, drought occurrence and sectorial water uses. • analyse the effect of CC on the hydromorphological reference conditions of rivers and therefore the definition of "good status". • define management rules/strategies concerning dam management and irrigation practices on different time perspectives. • investigate uncertainties in climate model - scenario combinations. The research approach considered both European and regional perspectives, to get

  5. Hawaii Energy Strategy Project 2: Fossil Energy Review. Task IV. Scenario development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Breazeale, K. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    The Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES) Program is a seven-project effort led by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism (DBEDT) to investigate a wide spectrum of Hawaii energy issues. The East-West Center`s Program on Resources: Energy and Minerals, has been assigned HES Project 2, Fossil Energy Review, which focuses on fossil energy use in Hawaii and the greater regional and global markets. HES Project 2 has four parts: Task I (World and Regional Fossil Energy Dynamics) covers petroleum, natural gas, and coal in global and regional contexts, along with a discussion of energy and the environment. Task II (Fossil Energy in Hawaii) focuses more closely on fossil energy use in Hawaii: current utilization and trends, the structure of imports, possible future sources of supply, fuel substitutability, and energy security. Task III`s emphasis is Greenfield Options; that is, fossil energy sources not yet used in Hawaii. This task is divided into two sections: first, an in-depth {open_quotes}Assessment of Coal Technology Options and Implications for the State of Hawaii,{close_quotes} along with a spreadsheet analysis model, which was subcontracted to the Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Division of Argonne National Laboratory; and second, a chapter on liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the Asia-Pacific market and the issues surrounding possible introduction of LNG into the Hawaii market.

  6. "I No Like Get Caught Using Drugs": Explanations for Refusal as a Drug-Resistance Strategy for Rural Native Hawaiian Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the use of explanations for refusal as a drug-resistance strategy for rural Native Hawaiian youths. Fourteen gender-specific focus groups were conducted within seven middle or intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i (N = 64). Participants were asked to describe drug-resistance strategies in response to 15…

  7. Density-independent population projection trajectories of chromosome-substituted lines resistant and susceptible to organophosphate insecticides in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyo Takahiro

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seasonal fluctuations in susceptibility to organophosphate insecticides were observed in the Katsunuma population of Drosophila melanogaster for two consecutive years; susceptibility to three organophosphates tended to increase in the fall. To examine the hypothesis that variation in fitness among resistant and susceptible genotypes could trigger the change of genetic constitution within the fall population, we investigated density-independent population projection trajectories starting from single adult females with characteristics of chromosome-substituted lines resistant and susceptible to the three organophosphates. Results Density-independent population projection trajectories, expressed as the ratios of the number of each chromosome-substituted line to that of line SSS, for which all chromosomes were derived from the susceptible line, showed significant declines in numbers with time for all the resistant chromosome-substituted lines. Conclusion The declining tendency in the density-independent population projection trajectories of the resistant chromosome-substituted lines could explain the simultaneous decline in the levels of resistance to the three organophosphates, observed in the Katsunuma population in the fall.

  8. Recombinant Endolysins as Potential Therapeutics against Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Current Status of Research and Novel Delivery Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad Kashani, Hamed; Schmelcher, Mathias; Sabzalipoor, Hamed; Seyed Hosseini, Elahe; Moniri, Rezvan

    2018-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens of humans and animals, where it frequently colonizes skin and mucosal membranes. It is of major clinical importance as a nosocomial pathogen and causative agent of a wide array of diseases. Multidrug-resistant strains have become increasingly prevalent and represent a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. For this reason, novel strategies to combat multidrug-resistant pathogens are urgently needed. Bacteriophage-derived enzymes, so-called endolysins, and other peptidoglycan hydrolases with the ability to disrupt cell walls represent possible alternatives to conventional antibiotics. These lytic enzymes confer a high degree of host specificity and could potentially replace or be utilized in combination with antibiotics, with the aim to specifically treat infections caused by Gram-positive drug-resistant bacterial pathogens such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus . LysK is one of the best-characterized endolysins with activity against multiple staphylococcal species. Various approaches to further enhance the antibacterial efficacy and applicability of endolysins have been demonstrated. These approaches include the construction of recombinant endolysin derivatives and the development of novel delivery strategies for various applications, such as the production of endolysins in lactic acid bacteria and their conjugation to nanoparticles. These novel strategies are a major focus of this review. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Evaluation of the Strategy Management Implementation in Project- Oriented Service Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Sherafat

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although developing strategic and operational plans is a difficult and complicated process, their successful implementation is much more difficult. Many organizations fail in the full implementation of their strategies. This is not due to the partial definition of strategies and organization‘s operational plan, but this is likely due to the lack of strong framework for creating alignment between employees and operational process and the organizational goals. To implement strategies effectively and to develop a comprehensive management system and to improve the performance, Robert Kaplan and David Norton introduced a modern management system which is Balanced ScoreCard. Likewise they introduced five main criteria: leadership, translation, alignment, every day process and ongoing process for a strategy oriented organization. This paper is intended to offer a systematic approach for measuring the effectiveness and efficiency of the strategic plan performance. For this study the questionnaire was distributed in a project- orientated service organization and after collection, by the use of statistical. Analysis especially factor analysis the grouping of sub-criteria under the five main criteria was confirmed. The statistical analysis showed that, two criteria of alignment and every day work had the lowest scores in terms of both implementation and effectiveness in the organization‘s senior and executive manager‘s point of view. With deep interview, studying of scorecards and meeting of the strategic committee of the studied organization, the two dimension of alignment and every day work were further examined and after identifying upgradeable areas, some suggestions for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the studied organization were presented.

  10. Evaluation of intensified behaviour change communication strategies in an artemisinin resistance setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavati, Sara E; de Beyl, Celine Zegers; Ly, Po; Shafique, Muhammad; Boukheng, Thavrin; Rang, Chandary; Whittaker, Maxine Anne; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Sintasath, David

    2016-04-30

    In Cambodia, behaviour change communication (BCC) represents an integral component of malaria efforts aimed at fighting artemisinin resistant parasites and achieving elimination. The multi-pronged BCC interventions include interpersonal communication through village health volunteers (VHVs) and village malaria workers (VMWs), broadcasting malaria prevention, diagnosis and treatment messages via TV, radio and mobile broadcasting units (MBUs), distributing information education and communication (IEC) materials and introducing mobile malaria workers (MMWs) in endemic villages. This was a cross sectional household survey using a stratified multi-stage cluster sampling approach, conducted in December 2012. A stratified multi-stage cluster sampling approach was used; 30 villages were selected (15 in each stratum) and a total of 774 households were interviewed. This survey aimed to assess the potential added effect of 'intense' BCC interventions in three Western provinces. Conducted 2 years after start of these efforts, 'non-intense' BCC (niBBC) interventions (e.g., radio or TV) were compared to "intense" BCC (iBBC) implemented through a set of interpersonal communication strategies such as VMWs, VHVs, mobile broadcasting units and listener viewer clubs. In both groups, the knowledge of the mode of malaria transmission was high (96.9 vs 97.2 %; p = 0.83), as well as of fever as a symptom (91.5 vs 93.5 %; p = 0.38). Knowledge of local risk factors, such as staying in the forest (39.7 vs 30.7 %; p = 0.17) or the farm (7.1 vs 5.1 %; p = 0.40) was low in both groups. Few respondents in either group knew that they must get tested if they suspected malaria (0.3 vs 0.1; p = 0.69). However, iBBC increased the discussions about malaria in the family (51.7 vs 35.8 %; p = 0.002) and reported prompt access to treatment in case of fever (77.1 vs 59.4 %; p Strategic Plan in the Cambodia Malaria Elimination Action Framework (2016-2020). Therefore, this study

  11. Safety assessment and regulatory strategy for NPP I and C modernization projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manners, S.; Blocquel, Ch

    1999-10-01

    IPSN is the technical support for the French nuclear safety authority (DSIN), but also acts independently. Through our participation at this IAEA meeting we wish to further our appreciation of the industry position for I and C modernization projects. We will present some of the concerns of the safety assessor and safety authority for such projects. We hope to share our experiences and views concerning current strategies for I and C modernization and licensing from. In our experience with NPP I and C programmes, the need for modification is most often not directly linked to safety. For our safety assessment we have to identify clearly and, as far as possible, categorize the safety relevance of the specified modifications and all safety impact in its implementation. Modernization can be simply for reasons of replacement of obsolete existing equipment or it can be linked to functional evolutions; safety functions may be directly or indirectly affected. The state of the art I and C solutions proposed by today's modernization programs have many benefits, but also pose a certain number of difficulties for the safety demonstration. On the implementation side, the safety assessment for a modernization project has to take into consideration specific issues compared with that for new plant. These include interface and compatibility with the existing installation, issues relating to 'on line' installation and commissioning, as well as operational issues concerning the changeover and trail periods. A further subject for discussion concerns how our regulatory requirements apply to modernization. We must as a minima comply with the requirements of the period. To what measure must we apply current or future (under development or for future reactor designs) standards? How can we tie in with requirements and legislation for new projects? Do we make a special case for back-fits? (authors)

  12. Safety assessment and regulatory strategy for NPP I and C modernization projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manners, S.; Blocquel, Ch.

    1999-10-01

    IPSN is the technical support for the French nuclear safety authority (DSIN), but also acts independently. Through our participation at this IAEA meeting we wish to further our appreciation of the industry position for I and C modernization projects. We will present some of the concerns of the safety assessor and safety authority for such projects. We hope to share our experiences and views concerning current strategies for I and C modernization and licensing from. In our experience with NPP I and C programmes, the need for modification is most often not directly linked to safety. For our safety assessment we have to identify clearly and, as far as possible, categorize the safety relevance of the specified modifications and all safety impact in its implementation. Modernization can be simply for reasons of replacement of obsolete existing equipment or it can be linked to functional evolutions; safety functions may be directly or indirectly affected. The state of the art I and C solutions proposed by today's modernization programs have many benefits, but also pose a certain number of difficulties for the safety demonstration. On the implementation side, the safety assessment for a modernization project has to take into consideration specific issues compared with that for new plant. These include interface and compatibility with the existing installation, issues relating to 'on line' installation and commissioning, as well as operational issues concerning the changeover and trail periods. A further subject for discussion concerns how our regulatory requirements apply to modernization. We must as a minima comply with the requirements of the period. To what measure must we apply current or future (under development or for future reactor designs) standards? How can we tie in with requirements and legislation for new projects? Do we make a special case for back-fits? (authors)

  13. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Américo David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.

  14. A Nursing Workforce Diversity Project: Strategies for Recruitment, Retention, Graduation, and NCLEX-RN Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ted A; Pole, David C; Ciarlo, Erica M; Holmes, Shearon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a collaborative project designed to recruit and retain students from underrepresented minorities and disadvantaged backgrounds into nursing education. Ethnic minorities remain underrepresented in the nursing workforce in comparison to the general population. The numbers of minorities enrolled in nursing education programs are insufficient to meet the health care workforce diversity needs of the future. High school students were provided with a preprofessional education program to prepare them for admission into a nursing program. Retention strategies were implemented for newly admitted and enrolled nursing education students. Twenty-one high school students enrolled in a nursing education program. The students enrolled in the nursing education program graduated and passed the licensure examination. Early recruitment and multiprong retention programs can be successful in diversifying the registered nurse workforce.

  15. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 1: World and regional fossil energy dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Isaak, D.T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Fridley, D.; Johnson, C.; Long, S.

    1993-12-01

    This report in the Hawaii Energy Strategy Project examines world and regional fossil energy dynamics. The topics of the report include fossil energy characteristics, the world oil industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, refining, products and their uses, history and trends in the global oil market and the Asia-Pacific market; world gas industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, processing, gas-based products, international gas market and the emerging Asia-Pacific gas market; the world coal industry including reserves, classification and quality, utilization, transportation, pricing, world coal market, Asia-Pacific coal outlook, trends in Europe and the Americas; and environmental trends affecting fossil fuels. 132 figs., 46 tabs.

  16. [The Pro-ABEn project: contributions and reflexions for a marketing strategy for the association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Isília Aparecida; Felli, Vanda Elisa Andres; Ciampone, Maria Helena Trench

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, an internal analysis of the Brazilian Association of Nursing (ABEn) was carried out in order to identify the representations of the members of the national and regional management departments of ABEn, regarding this association. The objective was to gather subsidies for the planning and implementation of a project aiming at institutional empowerment. The scenarios for data collection were the regional and national management departments, as well as all the members available from the each regional section and two members from the national office. Data collection was done through a form, which was answered by 15 sections during the period between 1997 and 2002. The analysis of the empirical data material was done in two ways. The first analysis was based on the Discourse of the Collective Subject--DCS, and the second through Institutional Analysis. The representations of the subjects interviewed could be identified, enabling the planning of marketing strategies for ABEn.

  17. Evolution of flowering strategies in Oenothera glazioviana: an integral projection model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Mark; Rose, Karen E

    2002-07-22

    The timing of reproduction is a key determinant of fitness. Here, we develop parameterized integral projection models of size-related flowering for the monocarpic perennial Oenothera glazioviana and use these to predict the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) for flowering. For the most part there is excellent agreement between the model predictions and the results of quantitative field studies. However, the model predicts a much steeper relationship between plant size and the probability of flowering than observed in the field, indicating selection for a 'threshold size' flowering function. Elasticity and sensitivity analysis of population growth rate lambda and net reproductive rate R(0) are used to identify the critical traits that determine fitness and control the ESS for flowering. Using the fitted model we calculate the fitness landscape for invading genotypes and show that this is characterized by a ridge of approximately equal fitness. The implications of these results for the maintenance of genetic variation are discussed.

  18. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew; Gautier, Laurent; Willis, Scooter; Fields, Christopher; Katayama, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor. In this chapter, we compare the two principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: either by remote procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy, and languages sharing the Java Virtual Machine stack. This functionality provides strategies for sharing of software between Bio* projects, which can be exploited more often. Here, we present cross-language examples for sequence translation, and measure throughput of the different options. We compare calling into R through native R, RSOAP, Rserve, and RPy interfaces, with the performance of native BioPerl, Biopython, BioJava, and BioRuby implementations, and with call stack bindings to BioJava and the European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite. In general, call stack approaches outperform native Bio* implementations and these, in turn, outperform RPC-based approaches. To test and compare strategies, we provide a downloadable BioNode image with all examples, tools, and libraries included. The BioNode image can be run on VirtualBox-supported operating systems, including Windows, OSX, and Linux.

  19. Gender Differences in the Use of Drug Resistance Strategies: An Analysis of Rural Asian/Pacific Islander Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Pel, Suzanne; Helm, Susana; Valdez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in the use of drug resistance strategies for rural Asian/Pacific Islander youth. Multi-ethnic Asian/Pacific Islander youth (N = 213) from 6 middle/intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai’i participated in the study, and gender differences in their real-world use of specific strategies (e.g., refuse, explain, avoid, leave) were examined. Despite similar levels of exposure to situations where drugs and/or alcohol were offered, girls indicated significa...

  20. Resistance in bacteria of the food chain: epidemiology and control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are widely used for treatment of animals and humans as well as for production purposes in livestock production in several countries. This is exerting a major selective pressure on bacterial populations, and is selecting for populations resistant to the antimicrobials used....... The emergence and spread of resistant bacteria in the food chain is a major concern as food-producing animals may constitute a huge reservoir for antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, food animals and food of animal origin is traded worldwide, which means that the occurrences of antimicrobial resistance...

  1. Data management strategies for multinational large-scale systems biology projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wruck, Wasco; Peuker, Martin; Regenbrecht, Christian R A

    2014-01-01

    Good accessibility of publicly funded research data is essential to secure an open scientific system and eventually becomes mandatory [Wellcome Trust will Penalise Scientists Who Don't Embrace Open Access. The Guardian 2012]. By the use of high-throughput methods in many research areas from physics to systems biology, large data collections are increasingly important as raw material for research. Here, we present strategies worked out by international and national institutions targeting open access to publicly funded research data via incentives or obligations to share data. Funding organizations such as the British Wellcome Trust therefore have developed data sharing policies and request commitment to data management and sharing in grant applications. Increased citation rates are a profound argument for sharing publication data. Pre-publication sharing might be rewarded by a data citation credit system via digital object identifiers (DOIs) which have initially been in use for data objects. Besides policies and incentives, good practice in data management is indispensable. However, appropriate systems for data management of large-scale projects for example in systems biology are hard to find. Here, we give an overview of a selection of open-source data management systems proved to be employed successfully in large-scale projects.

  2. Learning With E-books and Project-based Strategy in a Community Health Nursing Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Tien-Wen; Wu, Ting-Ting

    2018-03-01

    With advances in information technology, "information-assisted instruction" has been gradually introduced to nursing education curricula. Specifically, the integration of an e-book system can effectively enhance nursing students' attention and interest. Most studies on nursing education that incorporated e-books have focused on the advantages of convenience and assistance provided by e-books. Few studies have addressed community health nursing and off-campus practice activities in relation to suitable teaching strategies for learning activities. This study involved designing and planning a multimedia e-book learning system with a project-based learning activity that conforms to the curriculum and practical requirements of a community health nursing course. The purpose was to reduce the gap between theory and practice and realize an effective learning process. For learning evaluations, a final examination analysis with an independent sample t test; a scoring scheme with intrateam, interteam, and expert ratings; and Bloom's taxonomy-based analysis were conducted. The evaluation results indicated that the comprehension and learning abilities of the experimental group using the e-book system with a mobile device were effectively improved. In addition, the exploratory process involved in project-based learning can develop multiple cognitive skills and problem-solving ability, thereby realizing effective learning.

  3. Overview of the NKS/RAK-1 project 'Strategies for reactor safety' and linkages to piping reliability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell

    1997-01-01

    The NKS/RAK-1 project forms part of a four-year research program (1994-97) in the Nordic countries. The general objective of NKS/RAK-1 project is to explore strategies for reactor safety: to investigate and evaluate the safety work, to increase realism and reliability of safety analysis; and to increase the safety of nuclear installations in selected areas. The project has done extensive interview work at utilities and authorities, and analysed a number of case studies. Brief highlights and overviews of the sub-projects are presented in this paper

  4. A strategy to seal exploratory boreholes in unsaturated tuff; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Case, J.B.; Givens, C.A.; Carney, B.C. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a strategy for sealing exploratory boreholes associated with the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Over 500 existing and proposed boreholes have been considered in the development of this strategy, ranging from shallow (penetrating into alluvium only) to deep (penetrating into the groundwater table). Among the comprehensive list of recommendations are the following: Those boreholes within the potential repository boundary and penetrating through the potential repository horizon are the most significant boreholes from a performance standpoint and should be sealed. Shallow boreholes are comparatively insignificant and require only nominal sealing. The primary areas in which to place seals are away from high-temperature zones at a distance from the potential repository horizon in the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff and the upper portion of the Topopah Spring Member and in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico Hills Unit. Seals should be placed prior to waste emplacement. Performance goals for borehole seals both above and below the potential repository are proposed. Detailed construction information on the boreholes that could be used for future design specifications is provided along with a description of the environmental setting, i.e., the geology, hydrology, and the in situ and thermal stress states. A borehole classification scheme based on the condition of the borehole wall in different tuffaceous units is also proposed. In addition, calculations are presented to assess the significance of the boreholes acting as preferential pathways for the release of radionuclides. Design calculations are presented to answer the concerns of when, where, and how to seal. As part of the strategy development, available technologies to seal exploratory boreholes (including casing removal, borehole wall reconditioning, and seal emplacement) are reviewed.

  5. Anti-S1P Antibody as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy for VEGFR TKI-Resistant Renal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Xiaoen; Bullock, Andrea J; Callea, Marcella; Shah, Harleen; Song, Jiaxi; Moreno, Kelli; Visentin, Barbara; Deutschman, Douglas; Alsop, David C; Atkins, Michael B; Mier, James W; Signoretti, Sabina; Bhasin, Manoj; Sabbadini, Roger A; Bhatt, Rupal S

    2015-04-15

    VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase inhibition (TKI) is a valuable treatment approach for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, resistance to treatment is inevitable. Identification of novel targets could lead to better treatment for patients with TKI-naïve or -resistant RCC. In this study, we performed transcriptome analysis of VEGFR TKI-resistant tumors in a murine model and discovered that the SPHK-S1P pathway is upregulated at the time of resistance. We tested sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) pathway inhibition using an anti-S1P mAb (sphingomab), in two mouse xenograft models of RCC, and assessed tumor SPHK expression and S1P plasma levels in patients with metastatic RCC. Resistant tumors expressed several hypoxia-regulated genes. The SPHK1 pathway was among the most highly upregulated pathways that accompanied resistance to VEGFR TKI therapy. SPHK1 was expressed in human RCC, and the product of SPHK1 activity, S1P, was elevated in patients with metastatic RCC, suggesting that human RCC behavior could, in part, be due to overproduction of S1P. Sphingomab neutralization of extracellular S1P slowed tumor growth in both mouse models. Mice bearing tumors that had developed resistance to sunitinib treatment also exhibited tumor growth suppression with sphingomab. Sphingomab treatment led to a reduction in tumor blood flow as measured by MRI. Our findings suggest that S1P inhibition may be a novel therapeutic strategy in patients with treatment-naïve RCC and also in the setting of resistance to VEGFR TKI therapy. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. The Virtual Resistance Control Strategy for HVRT of Doubly Fed Induction Wind Generators Based on Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grid voltage swell will cause transient DC flux component in the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG stator windings, creating serious stator and rotor current and torque oscillation, which is more serious than influence of the voltage dip. It is found that virtual resistance manages effectively to suppress rotor current and torque oscillation, avoid the operation of crowbar circuit, and enhance its high voltage ride through technology capability. In order to acquire the best virtual resistance value, the excellent particle library (EPL of dynamic particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is proposed. It takes the rotor voltage and rotor current as two objectives, which has a fast convergence performance and high accuracy. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the virtual resistance control strategy.

  7. The KnowRISK project: Tools and strategies to reduce non-structural damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Oliveira, Carlos; Lopes, Mário; Mota de Sá, Francisco; Amaral Ferreia, Mónica; Candeias, Paulo; Campos Costa, Alfredo; Rupakhety, Rajesh; Meroni, Fabrizio; Azzaro, Raffaele; D'Amico, Salvatore; Langer, Horst; Musacchio, Gemma; Sousa Silva, Delta; Falsaperla, Susanna; Scarfì, Luciano; Tusa, Giuseppina; Tuvé, Tiziana

    2016-04-01

    The project KnowRISK (Know your city, Reduce seISmic risK through non-structural elements) is financed by the European Commission to develop prevention measures that may reduce non-structural damage in urban areas. Pilot areas of the project are within the three European participating countries, namely Portugal, Iceland and Italy. Non-structural components of a building include all those components that are not part of the structural system, more specifically the architectural, mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems, as well as furniture, fixtures, equipment, and contents. Windows, partitions, granite veneer, piping, ceilings, air conditioning ducts and equipment, elevators, computer and hospital equipment, file cabinets, and retail merchandise are all examples of non-structural components that are vulnerable to earthquake damage. We will use the experience gained during past earthquakes, which struck in particular Iceland, Italy and Portugal (Azores). Securing the non-structural elements improves the safety during an earthquake and saves lives. This paper aims at identifying non-structural seismic protection measures in the pilot areas and to develop a portfolio of good practices for the most common and serious non-structural vulnerabilities. This systematic identification and the portfolio will be achieved through a "cross-knowledge" strategy based on previous researches, evidence of non-structural damage in past earthquakes. Shake table tests of a group of non-structural elements will be performed. These tests will be filmed and, jointly with portfolio, will serve as didactic supporting tools to be used in workshops with building construction stakeholders and in risk communication activities. A Practical Guide for non-structural risk reduction will be specifically prepared for citizens on the basis of the outputs of the project, taking into account the local culture and needs of each participating country.

  8. Detroit Works Long-Term Planning Project: Engagement Strategies for Blending Community and Technical Expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni L. Griffin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In January 2013, civic leaders, community stakeholders, and residents came together to release Detroit Future City: 2012 Detroit Strategic Framework Plan, a guiding blueprint for transforming Detroit from its current state of population loss and excessive vacancy into a model for the reinvention of post-industrial American cities. Three years prior, the U.S. Census had reported that the city had lost 24% of its population over the last decade and had experienced a 20% increase in vacant and abandoned property, bringing total vacancy to roughly the size of Manhattan. In addition to physical and economic challenges, Detroiters had also acknowledged significant barriers to effective civic engagement. Foremost among these barriers were a profound sense of immobilization, planning fatigue, and a general perception of cynicism about planning and engagement efforts. These challenges were compounded by historic racial dynamics and tension. This case study elaborates on the comprehensive and innovative civic engagement executed in a citywide planning process called the Detroit Works Project, which took place from late 2010 through late 2012. For the citywide planning process to be successful and sustainable, civic leaders and project funders committed to a planning initiative that would be different from previous efforts, in large part because the “owners” of the process would be diverse and inclusive across all community sectors. The case study, written by three of the key consultants from the project, describes four key civic engagement strategies deployed in the creation of the strategic framework: (1 addressing profound challenges of culture, race, and politics by deliberately building trust; (2 elevating community expertise by fostering a sense of ownership of the process; (3 blending technical and community expertise; and (4 viewing civic engagement as an ongoing two-way conversation rather than a series of large-scale episodic events. This

  9. So They Are Resistant to Change? Strategies for Moving an Immovable Object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Rosemary; And Others

    Although the reality of change is ever present, educators are often resistant to it. Three barriers to change in colleges or other organizations are a lack of strategic vision and mission; low commitment, trust, and teamwork; and a bureaucratic organizational culture. Resistance to change can manifest itself in various ways, including regression…

  10. A Typology of Consumer Strategies for Resisting Advertising, and a Review of Mechanisms for Countering Them

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, M.L.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Kirmani, A.; Smit, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a typology of the different ways in which consumers resist advertising, and the tactics that can be used to counter or avoid such resistance. It brings together literatures from different fields of study, including advertising, marketing, communication science and psychology.

  11. A typology of consumer strategies for resisting advertising, and a review of mechanisms for countering them

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, M.L.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Kirmani, A.; Smit, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a typology of the different ways in which consumers resist advertising, and the tactics that can be used to counter or avoid such resistance. It brings together literatures from different fields of study, including advertising, marketing, communication science and psychology.

  12. Evidence-based treatment strategies for treatment-resistant bipolar depression: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sienaert, P.; Lambrichts, L.; Dols, A.; De Fruyt, J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Treatment resistance in bipolar depression is a common clinical problem that constitutes a major challenge for the treating clinician as there is a paucity of treatment options. The objective of this paper was to review the evidence for treatment options in treatment-resistant bipolar

  13. Assessing the oseltamivir-induced resistance risk and implications for influenza infection control strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh NH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nan-Hung Hsieh,1 Yi-Jun Lin,2 Ying-Fei Yang,2 Chung-Min Liao2 1Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA; 2Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Background: Oseltamivir-resistant mutants with higher drug resistance rates and low transmission fitness costs have not accounted for influenza (subtype viruses. Predicting the impacts of neuraminidase inhibitor therapy on infection rates and transmission of drug-resistant viral strains requires further investigation.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the potential risk of oseltamivir-induced resistance for influenza A (H1N1 and A (H3N2 viruses.Materials and methods: An immune-response-based virus dynamic model was used to best fit the oseltamivir-resistant A (H1N1 and A (H3N2 infection data. A probabilistic risk assessment model was developed by incorporating branching process-derived probability distribution of resistance to estimate oseltamivir-induced resistance risk.Results: Mutation rate and sensitive strain number were key determinants in assessing resistance risk. By increasing immune response, antiviral efficacy, and fitness cost, the spread of resistant strains for A (H1N1 and A (H3N2 were greatly decreased. Probability of resistance depends most strongly on the sensitive strain number described by a Poisson model. Risk of oseltamivir-induced resistance increased with increasing the mutation rate for A (H1N1 only. The ≥50% of resistance risk induced by A (H1N1 and A (H3N2 sensitive infected cells were 0.4 (95% CI: 0.28–0.43 and 0.95 (95% CI 0.93–0.99 at a mutation rate of 10−6, respectively. Antiviral drugs must be administrated within 1–1.5 days for A (H1N1 and 2–2.5 days for A (H3N2 virus infections to limit viral production.Conclusion: Probabilistic risk assessment of antiviral drug

  14. Comparison between project-based learning and discovery learning toward students' metacognitive strategies on global warming concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumewu, Widya Anjelia; Wulan, Ana Ratna; Sanjaya, Yayan

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to know comparing the effectiveness of learning using Project-based learning (PjBL) and Discovery Learning (DL) toward students metacognitive strategies on global warming concept. A quasi-experimental research design with a The Matching-Only Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design was used in this study. The subjects were students of two classes 7th grade of one of junior high school in Bandung City, West Java of 2015/2016 academic year. The study was conducted on two experimental class, that were project-based learning treatment on the experimental class I and discovery learning treatment was done on the experimental class II. The data was collected through questionnaire to know students metacognitive strategies. The statistical analysis showed that there were statistically significant differences in students metacognitive strategies between project-based learning and discovery learning.

  15. Thermal load resistance of erosion-monitoring beryllium maker tile for JET ITER like wall project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, T.; Linke, J.; Sundelin, P.; Rubel, M.; Coad, J.P.; Matthews, G.F.; Lungu, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The ITER reference materials, beryllium (Be), carbon fibre composite (CFC) and tungsten (W), have been tested separately in tokamaks. An integrated test demonstrating both compatibility of metal plasma facing components with high-power operation and acceptable tritium retention has not yet been carried out. At JET, the size, magnetic field strength and high plasma current allow to conducting tests with the combination of the materials. Thus, the ITER-like Wall (ILW) project has been launched. In the project, Be will be the plasmafacing material on the main chamber wall of JET. To assess the erosion of the Be tiles, a Be marker tile was proposed and designed. The test samples which simulate the JET Be marker tile have been produced in MEdC, Romania in order to study the thermal load resistance of the JET Be marker (20 x 20 mm 2 size with 30 mm height). The marker tile sample consists of bulk Be, high-Z interlayer (2-3 μm Ni coating) and 8-9 μm Be coating. Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) techniques based on the electron-induced evaporation have been selected for this purpose. In the present work, the global characterization of the maker tile samples and thermal load tests were performed. After the pre-characterization (microstructure observation by scanning electron microscope and elemental analysis by means of Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy), the thermal loading tests were performed in the electron beam facility JUDITH. The coating consisted of tiny platelets of ∝0.1 um in diameter and localized larger platelets of 1 um in diameter. The surface and bulk temperature were observed during the tests. In the screening thermal load test, the samples were loaded to 6 MW/m 2 for 10 s. The layers did not show any macroscopic damages at up to 4.5 MW/m 2 for 10 s (45 MJ/m 2 ). However, the coating delaminated and the maker was damaged when the thermal loading reached at 5 MW/m 2 (∝50 MJ/m 2 ). Cyclic heat load tests were

  16. A change in strategy for a CERCLA Removal Action Demolition Project in progress results in overall project enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertin, M.; Nichols, R.M.; Edwards, D.T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses changes made in a demolition project at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), a site on the National Priorities list (NPL), owned by the Department of Energy. The project, to demolish fourteen uranium ore silos and their structure, was based on a Removal Action Work Plan, submitted and approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), that integrated Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements to remove the source of contamination and threat to public health and the environment. After the demolition contractor defaulted at 30% complete, completion of the project by the USEPA deadline was threatened. The recovery plan included re-evaluation of project documents in addition to the schedule. It was determined that re-interpretation of the removal action criteria, including design and Removal Action Work Plan, would eliminate road-blocks, and optimize resources, resulting in project completion by the original deadline even after lost-time in mobilizing another contractor. This presentation will discuss the open-quotes lessons learnedclose quotes by the project team and illustrate how simplification of construction methods resulted in enhancements to the environmental controls, improved material handing, and created a safer work environment

  17. Spatial scan statistics to assess sampling strategy of antimicrobial resistance monitoring programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Antonio; Houe, Hans; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2009-01-01

    Pie collection and analysis of data on antimicrobial resistance in human and animal Populations are important for establishing a baseline of the occurrence of resistance and for determining trends over time. In animals, targeted monitoring with a stratified sampling plan is normally used. However...... sampled by the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP), by identifying spatial Clusters of samples and detecting areas with significantly high or low sampling rates. These analyses were performed for each year and for the total 5-year study period for all...... by an antimicrobial monitoring program....

  18. Polyfire project- an example of an industrial research project promoting safe industrial production of fire-resistant nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaquero, C; Lopez de Ipina, J; Galarza, N [TECNALIA, Leonardo Da Vinci No 11, 01510 Minano (Alava) (Spain); Hargreaves, B; Weager, B [NetComposites Ltd, 4A Broom Business Park, Chesterfield S41 9QG (United Kingdom); Breen, C, E-mail: celinav@leia.es [Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-06

    New developments based on nanotechnology have to guarantee safe products and processes to be accepted by society. The Polyfire project will develop and scale-up techniques for processing halogen-free, fire-retardant nanocomposite materials and coatings based on unsaturated polyester resins and organoclays. The project includes a work package that will assess the Health and Environmental impacts derived from the manipulation of nanoparticles. This work package includes the following tasks: (1) Identification of Health and Environment Impacts derived from the processes, (2) Experimentation to study specific Nanoparticle Emissions, (3) Development of a Risk Management Methodology for the process, and (4) A Comparison of the Health and Environmental Impact of New and Existing Materials. To date, potential exposure scenarios to nanomaterials have been identified through the development of a Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the new production processes. In the next step, these scenarios will be studied and simulated to evaluate potential emissions of nanomaterials. Polyfire is a collaborative European project, funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme (Grant Agreement No 229220). It features 11 partners from 5 countries (5 SMEs, 3 research institutes, 2 large companies, 1 association) and runs for three years (1st September 2009 - 31st August 2012). This project is an example of an industrial research development which aims to introduce to the market new products promoting the safe use of nanomaterials.

  19. Polyfire project- an example of an industrial research project promoting safe industrial production of fire-resistant nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaquero, C; Lopez de Ipina, J; Galarza, N; Hargreaves, B; Weager, B; Breen, C

    2011-01-01

    New developments based on nanotechnology have to guarantee safe products and processes to be accepted by society. The Polyfire project will develop and scale-up techniques for processing halogen-free, fire-retardant nanocomposite materials and coatings based on unsaturated polyester resins and organoclays. The project includes a work package that will assess the Health and Environmental impacts derived from the manipulation of nanoparticles. This work package includes the following tasks: (1) Identification of Health and Environment Impacts derived from the processes, (2) Experimentation to study specific Nanoparticle Emissions, (3) Development of a Risk Management Methodology for the process, and (4) A Comparison of the Health and Environmental Impact of New and Existing Materials. To date, potential exposure scenarios to nanomaterials have been identified through the development of a Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the new production processes. In the next step, these scenarios will be studied and simulated to evaluate potential emissions of nanomaterials. Polyfire is a collaborative European project, funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme (Grant Agreement No 229220). It features 11 partners from 5 countries (5 SMEs, 3 research institutes, 2 large companies, 1 association) and runs for three years (1st September 2009 - 31st August 2012). This project is an example of an industrial research development which aims to introduce to the market new products promoting the safe use of nanomaterials.

  20. An Integrated Mixed Methods Research Design: Example of the Project Foreign Language Learning Strategies and Achievement: Analysis of Strategy Clusters and Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Vlčková Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    The presentation focused on an so called integrated mixed method research design example on a basis of a Czech Science Foundation Project Nr. GAP407/12/0432 "Foreign Language Learning Strategies and Achievement: Analysis of Strategy Clusters and Sequences". All main integrated parts of the mixed methods research design were discussed: the aim, theoretical framework, research question, methods and validity threats. Prezentace se zaměřovala na tzv. integrovaný vícemetodový výzkumný design na...

  1. Resistance in bacteria of the food chain: epidemiology and control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Collignon, P.

    2008-01-01

    quantification of the transmission difficult. The exposure of humans to antimicrobial resistance from food animals can be controlled by either limiting the selective pressure from antimicrobial usage or by limiting the spread of the bacteria/genes. A number of control options are reviewed, including drug...... licensing, removing financial incentives, banning or restricting the use of certain drugs, altering prescribers behavior, improving animal health, improving hygiene and implementing microbial criteria for certain types of resistant pathogens for use in the control of trade of both food animals and food.......Bacteria have evolved multiple mechanisms for the efficient evolution and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Modern food production facilitates the emergence and spread of resistance through the intensive use of antimicrobial agents and international trade of both animals and food products...

  2. Strategies for Optimizing Strength, Power, and Muscle Hypertrophy in Women: Contribution of Upper Body Resistance Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraemer, William

    1999-01-01

    To determine the performance and physiological effects of various physical conditioning programs in women, total body, upper-body resistance training groups, field training and aerobic training groups (n = 11 to 21...

  3. Development of novel strategies to combat multidrug resistance mediated by efflux transporters and intracellular bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Kuriakose, Jerrin

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the condition where cancer cells or microorganisms cease to respond to multiple drugs. MDR conferred by efflux transporters, that deprive the bioavailability of drugs at their site of action, are a threat to cancer and malarial chemotherapy. Specifically, the mammalian ABC transporter Pglycoprotein (P-gp) has undermined many drugs in treatment of cancer and other disease states. Mutations in the parasitic transporter Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance t...

  4. Optimizing strategy for repetitive construction projects within multi-mode resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimating tender data for specific project is the most essential part in construction areas as of a contractor’s view such as: proposed project duration with corresponding gross value and cash flows. Cash flow analysis of construction projects has a long history and has been an important topic in construction management. Determination of project cash flows is very sensitive, especially for repetitive construction projects. This paper focuses on how to calculate tender data for repetitive construction projects such as: project duration, project cost, project/bid price, project cash flows, project maximum working capital and project net present value that is equivalent to net profit at the beginning of the project. A simplified multi-objective optimization formulation will be presented that creates best tender data to contractor comparing with more feasible options that are generated from multi-mode resources in a given project. This mathematical formulation is intended to give more scenarios which provide a practical support for typical construction contractors who need to optimize resource utilization in order to minimize project duration, project/bid price and project maximum working capital while maximizing its net present value simultaneously. At the end of the paper, an illustrative example will be presented to demonstrate the applications of proposed technique to an optimization expressway of repetitive construction project.

  5. Direct-current resistivity profiling at the Pecos River Ecosystem Project study site near Mentone, Texas, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeple, Andrew; McDonald, Alyson K.; Payne, Jason; Kress, Wade H.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Texas A&M University AgriLife, did a surface geophysical investigation at the Pecos River Ecosystem Project study site near Mentone in West Texas intended to determine shallow (to about 14 meters below the water [river] surface) subsurface composition (lithology) in and near treated (eradicated of all saltcedar) and control (untreated) riparian zone sites during June-August 2006. Land-based direct-current resistivity profiling was applied in a 240-meter section of the riverbank at the control site, and waterborne direct-current continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) was applied along a 2.279-kilometer reach of the river adjacent to both sites to collect shallow subsurface resistivity data. Inverse modeling was used to obtain a nonunique estimate of the true subsurface resistivity from apparent resistivity calculated from the field measurements. The land-based survey showed that the sub-surface at the control site generally is of relatively low resis-tivity down to about 4 meters below the water surface. Most of the section from about 4 to 10 meters below the water surface is of relatively high resistivity. The waterborne CRP surveys convey essentially the same electrical representation of the lithology at the control site to 10 meters below the water surface; but the CRP surveys show considerably lower resistivity than the land-based survey in the subsection from about 4 to 10 meters below the water surface. The CRP surveys along the 2.279-kilometer reach of the river adjacent to both the treated and control sites show the same relatively low resistivity zone from the riverbed to about 4 meters below the water surface evident at the control site. A slightly higher resistivity zone is observed from about 4 to 14 meters below the water surface along the upstream approximately one-half of the profile than along the downstream one-half. The variations in resistivity could not be matched to variations in lithology because

  6. Alternative strategies: A means for saving money and time on the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is undertaking studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain (YM) as a potential site for disposal of high level nuclear waste. Yucca Mountain is located in an arid environment. Many processes that could contribute to mobilization of radionuclides are either absent or minimized in a dry site. Therefore, Yucca Mountain should have the potential of being a veryfavorable site for disposal of waste. The determination of suitability has no precedence, and the characterization of an and site is complex, requiring intensive studies to determine suitability. The studies undertaken by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) are very costly. By a process called performance allocation, the YMP determined strategies to satisfy regulations or meet performance while minimizing costs and schedules. Those involved recognized that allocations should be reviewed as additional information became available. The allocation has not been reviewed nor revised since the initial allocation in the Site Characterization Plan (SCP). The purpose of this paper is to outline alternative allocations that the author feels should be considered based on the additional information that is available at this time

  7. Instantaneous Project Controls: Current Status, State of the Art, Benefits, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadegan, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Despite advancements in construction and construction-related technology, capital project performance deviations, typically overruns, remain endemic within the capital projects industry. Currently, management is generally unaware of the current status of their projects, and thus monitoring and control of projects are not achieved effectively. In…

  8. Taxane resistance in breast cancer: mechanisms, predictive biomarkers and circumvention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S; Briasoulis, E; Linardou, H; Bafaloukos, D; Papadimitriou, C

    2012-11-01

    Taxanes are established in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and early breast cancer (EBC) as potent chemotherapy agents. However, their therapeutic usefulness is limited by de-novo refractoriness or acquired resistance, which are common drawbacks to most anti-cancer cytotoxics. Considering that the taxanes will remain principle chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of breast cancer, we reviewed known mechanisms of resistance in with an outlook of optimizing their clinical use. We searched the PubMed and MEDLINE databases for articles (from inception through to 9th January 2012; last search 10/01/2012) and journals known to publish information relevant to taxane chemotherapy. We imposed no language restrictions. Search terms included: cancer, breast cancer, response, resistance, taxane, paclitaxel, docetaxel, taxol. Due to the possibility of alternative mechanisms of resistance all combination chemotherapy treated data sets were removed from our overview. Over-expression of the MDR-1 gene product Pgp was extensively studied in vitro in association with taxane resistance, but data are conflicting. Similarly, the target components microtubules, which are thought to mediate refractoriness through alterations of the expression pattern of tubulins or microtubule associated proteins and the expression of alternative tubulin isoforms, failed to confirm such associations. Little consensus has been generated for reported associations between taxane-sensitivity and mutated p53, or taxane-resistance and overexpression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL or NFkB. In contrary sufficient in vitro data support an association of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) defects with resistance. Clinical data have been limited and inconsistent, which relate to the variety of methods used, lack of standardization of cut-offs for quantitation, differences in clinical endpoints measured and in methods of tissue collection preparation and storage, and study/patient heterogeneity. The most

  9. Modelling the consequences of targeted selective treatment strategies on performance and emergence of anthelmintic resistance amongst grazing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Berk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of anthelmintic resistance by helminths can be slowed by maintaining refugia on pasture or in untreated hosts. Targeted selective treatments (TST may achieve this through the treatment only of individuals that would benefit most from anthelmintic, according to certain criteria. However TST consequences on cattle are uncertain, mainly due to difficulties of comparison between alternative strategies. We developed a mathematical model to compare: 1 the most ‘beneficial’ indicator for treatment selection and 2 the method of selection of calves exposed to Ostertagia ostertagi, i.e. treating a fixed percentage of the population with the lowest (or highest indicator values versus treating individuals who exceed (or are below a given indicator threshold. The indicators evaluated were average daily gain (ADG, faecal egg counts (FEC, plasma pepsinogen, combined FEC and plasma pepsinogen, versus random selection of individuals. Treatment success was assessed in terms of benefit per R (BPR, the ratio of average benefit in weight gain to change in frequency of resistance alleles R (relative to an untreated population. The optimal indicator in terms of BPR for fixed percentages of calves treated was plasma pepsinogen and the worst ADG; in the latter case treatment was applied to some individuals who were not in need of treatment. The reverse was found when calves were treated according to threshold criteria, with ADG being the best target indicator for treatment. This was also the most beneficial strategy overall, with a significantly higher BPR value than any other strategy, but its degree of success depended on the chosen threshold of the indicator. The study shows strong support for TST, with all strategies showing improvements on calves treated selectively, compared with whole-herd treatment at 3, 8, 13 weeks post-turnout. The developed model appeared capable of assessing the consequences of other TST strategies on calf populations.

  10. Progress of implementation of the World Health Organization strategy for HIV drug resistance control in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravasi, Giovanni; Jack, Noreen; Alonso Gonzalez, Mónica; Sued, Omar; Pérez-Rosales, María Dolores; Gomez, Bertha; Vila, Marcelo; Riego, Amalia del; Ghidinelli, Massimo

    2011-12-01

    By the end of 2010, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) achieved 63% antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage. Measures to control HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) at the country level are recommended to maximize the efficacy and sustainability of ART programs. Since 2006, the Pan American Health Organization has supported implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) strategy for HIVDR prevention and assessment through regional capacity-building activities and direct technical cooperation in 30 LAC countries. By 2010, 85 sites in 19 countries reported early warning indicators, providing information about the extent of potential drivers of drug resistance at the ART site. In 2009, 41.9% of sites did not achieve the WHO target of 100% appropriate first-line prescriptions; 6.3% still experienced high rates (> 20%) of loss to follow-up, and 16.2% had low retention of patients (< 70%) on first-line prescriptions in the first year of treatment. Stock-outs of antiretroviral drugs occurred at 22.7% of sites. Haiti, Guyana, and the Mesoamerican region are planning and implementing WHO HIVDR monitoring surveys or threshold surveys. New HIVDR surveillance tools for concentrated epidemics would promote further scale-up. Extending the WHO HIVDR lab network in Latin America is key to strengthening regional lab capacity to support quality assured HIVDR surveillance. The WHO HIVDR control strategy is feasible and can be rolled out in LAC. Integrating HIVDR activities in national HIV care and treatment plans is key to ensuring the sustainability of this strategy.

  11. Management Strategies for Curbing the Prevalence of Plagiarism in Project Writing amongst Students of Imo State University Oweeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenalo, Florence Chizoba

    2016-01-01

    Many undergraduate students copy a lot from other people's research project reports and many graduate students lack the capacity to carry out and report the research work required of them for graduation. This research ascertained the views of Science and Arts Education students on the causes of the problem, types, and the strategies the university…

  12. An empirical study on key factors for purchasing strategy on project based organizations: A case study of gas field development projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboulfazl Kazazi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns in development of oil and gas resources is to find the critical success factors associated with different important projects. Purchasing and procurement plays a key role in these projects. There is no doubt that in history of similar studies, there are not much studies to determine key factors. The proposed study of this paper presents an empirical study to find these factors in one of the most important gas filed in Iran is now South Pars Gas Field. The study distributes a questionnaire consists of various questions associated with purchasing activities. We investigate the feedbacks gathered from decision makers using factor analysis. The results of our survey reveal that there are three categories of organizational strategy, the relative importance of strategy and risk according to factor analysis. Each factor consists of many other factors and the relative importance of all factors are investigated.

  13. An evaluation of the total quality management implementation strategy for the advanced solid rocket motor project at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. M.S. Thesis - Tennessee Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Sullivan, Kenneth W.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation of the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) strategy to implement Total Quality Management (TQM) in the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Project is presented. The evaluation of the implementation strategy reflected the Civil Service personnel perspective at the project level. The external and internal environments at MSFC were analyzed for their effects on the ASRM TQM strategy. Organizational forms, cultures, management systems, problem solving techniques, and training were assessed for their influence on the implementation strategy. The influence of ASRM's effort was assessed relative to its impact on mature projects as well as future projects at MSFC.

  14. Design of a testing strategy using non-animal based test methods: lessons learnt from the ACuteTox project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Prieto, Pilar; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Stanzel, Sven

    2013-06-01

    In the framework of toxicology, a testing strategy can be viewed as a series of steps which are taken to come to a final prediction about a characteristic of a compound under study. The testing strategy is performed as a single-step procedure, usually called a test battery, using simultaneously all information collected on different endpoints, or as tiered approach in which a decision tree is followed. Design of a testing strategy involves statistical considerations, such as the development of a statistical prediction model. During the EU FP6 ACuteTox project, several prediction models were proposed on the basis of statistical classification algorithms which we illustrate here. The final choice of testing strategies was not based on statistical considerations alone. However, without thorough statistical evaluations a testing strategy cannot be identified. We present here a number of observations made from the statistical viewpoint which relate to the development of testing strategies. The points we make were derived from problems we had to deal with during the evaluation of this large research project. A central issue during the development of a prediction model is the danger of overfitting. Procedures are presented to deal with this challenge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The KnowRISK project: Tools and strategies for risk communication and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchio, Gemma; Amaral Ferreira, Mónica; Falsaperla, Susanna; Piangiamore, Giovanna Lucia; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Solarino, Stefano; Crescimbene, Massimo; Eva, Elena; Reitano, Danilo; Þorvaldsdottir, Solveig; Sousa Silva, Delta; Rupakhety, Rajesh; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Damage of non-structural elements of buildings (i.e. partitions, ceilings, cladding, electrical and mechanical systems and furniture) is known to cause injuries and human losses. Also it has a significant impact on earthquake resilience and is yet being worldwide underestimated. The project KnowRISK (Know your city, Reduce seISmic risK through non-structural elements) is financed by the European Commission to develop prevention measures that may reduce non-structural damage in urban areas. Pilot areas of the project are within the three European participating countries, namely Portugal, Iceland and Italy. They were chosen because they are prone to damage level 2 and 3 (EMS-98, European Macroseismic Scale) that typically affects non-structural elements. We will develop and test a risk communication strategy taking into account the needs of households and schools, putting into practice a portfolio of best practice to reduce the most common non-structural vulnerabilities. We will target our actions to different societal groups, considering their cultural background and social vulnerabilities, and implement a participatory approach that will promote engagement and interaction between the scientific community, practitioners and citizens to foster knowledge on everyone's own neighborhoods, resilience and vulnerability. A Practical Guide for citizens will highlight that low-cost actions can be implemented to increase safety of households, meant as being the places where the most vulnerable societal groups, including children and elderly people, spend much of their time. Since our actions towards communication will include education, we will define tools that allow a clear and direct understanding of elements exposed to risk. Schools will be one of our target societal groups and their central role played at the community level will ensure spreading and strengthening of the communication process. Schools are often located in old or re-adapted buildings, formerly used for

  16. Limited Sampling Strategies for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Linezolid in Patients With Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; van Altena, Richard; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Proost, Johannes H.

    Introduction: Linezolid is a potential drug for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis but its use is limited because of severe adverse effects such as anemia, thrombocytopenia, and peripheral neuropathy. This study aimed to develop a model for the prediction of linezolid area. under the

  17. Drug ratio-dependent antagonism: a new category of multidrug resistance and strategies for its circumvention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasym, Troy O; Liboiron, Barry D; Mayer, Lawrence D

    2010-01-01

    A newly identified form of multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor cells is presented, pertaining to the commonly encountered resistance of cancer cells to anticancer drug combinations at discrete drug:drug ratios. In vitro studies have revealed that whether anticancer drug combinations interact synergistically or antagonistically can depend on the ratio of the combined agents. Failure to control drug ratios in vivo due to uncoordinated pharmacokinetics could therefore lead to drug resistance if tumor cells are exposed to antagonistic drug ratios. Consequently, the most efficacious drug combination may not occur at the typically employed maximum tolerated doses of the combined drugs if this leads to antagonistic ratios in vivo after administration and resistance to therapeutic effects of the drug combination. Our approach to systematically screen a wide range of drug ratios and concentrations and encapsulate the drug combination in a liposomal delivery vehicle at identified synergistic ratios represents a means to mitigate this drug ratio-dependent MDR mechanism. The in vivo efficacy of the improved agents (CombiPlex formulations) is demonstrated and contrasted with the decreased efficacy when drug combinations are exposed to tumor cells in vivo at antagonistic ratios.

  18. Resistance to anticoccidial drugs : Alternative strategies to control coccidiosis in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Manuscripts documenting the occurrence of resistance against all commonly used anticoccidial drugs abroad, together with the high incidence of clinical coccidiosis in the field (60-90% of flocks) in the Netherlands, were the reasons to start investigations on the occurrence of anticoccidial drug

  19. Strategies for transferring resistance into wheat: from wide crosses to GM cassettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brande B. H. Wulff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The domestication of wheat in the Fertile Crescent 10,000 years ago led to a genetic bottleneck. Modern agriculture has further narrowed the genetic base by introducing extreme levels of uniformity on a vast spatial and temporal scale. This reduction in genetic complexity renders the crop vulnerable to new and emerging pests and pathogens. The wild relatives of wheat represent an important source of genetic variation for disease resistance. For nearly a century farmers, breeders, and cytogeneticists have sought to access this variation for crop improvement. Several barriers restricting interspecies hybridization and introgression have been overcome, providing the opportunity to tap an extensive reservoir of genetic diversity. Resistance has been introgressed into wheat from at least 52 species from 13 genera, demonstrating the remarkable plasticity of the wheat genome and the importance of such natural variation in wheat breeding. Two main problems hinder the effective deployment of introgressed resistance genes for crop improvement: (1 the simultaneous introduction of genetically linked deleterious traits and (2 the rapid breakdown of resistance when deployed individually. In this review we discuss how recent advances in molecular genomics are providing new opportunities to overcome these problems.

  20. LQR pitch control strategy of AUVs based on the optimum of sailing resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAO Xuliang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available When an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle(AUV sails near the surface of the sea,it will inevitably be subjected to wave disturbance. The heave and pitch motion caused by wave disturbance not only affects the navigation attitude of the AUV,but also leads to an increase in sailing resistance. As such, its energy consumption is increased. In this paper,the six degrees of freedom model of AUVs is established and linearized in order to achieve the weighted optimization of the sailing attitude and the resistance of the AUVs. The drag force model of the AUV is derived using the theory of potential flow. The Q matrix and R matrix are determined in the controller based on research into the drag force model. The Linear Quadratic Regulator(LQRcontroller of the AUV is designed using the drag force model as the performance index. The simulation results show that after adding the LQR controller,the effects of reducing heave motion and pitch motion are 46.64% and 77.62% respectively, and the increased resistance caused by the pitch motion is reduced to 1/6 of its original value. The results show that the multiple optimum of attitude and sailing resistance is realized,the energy consumption is decreased and the endurance of the AUV is increased.

  1. Risk assessment with current deployment strategies for fusiform rust-resistant loblolly and slash pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd Bridgwater; Tom Kubisiak; Tom Byram; Steve Mckeand

    2004-01-01

    In the southeastern USA, fusiform rust resistant loblolly and slash pines may be deployed as 1) ulked seed orchard mixes. 2) half-sibling (sib) family mixtures. 3) single half-sib families. 4) full-sib cross seeds or as 6) clones of individual genotypes. These deployment types are respectively greater genetic gains from higher selection intensity. Currently, bulked...

  2. Strategy and Resistance: How Native American Students Engage in Accommodation in Mainstream Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masta, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of a group of Native American 8th graders who attend a mainstream school and how they engage in accommodation as an act of agency and resistance to protect and maintain their identities in their school environment. By using tribal critical race theory to examine these experiences, this study raises important…

  3. Heavy Metal Resistance Strategies of Acidophilic Bacteria and Their Acquisition: Importance for Biomining and Bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial solubilizing of metals in acid environments is successfully used in industrial bioleaching of ores or biomining to extract metals such as copper, gold, uranium and others. This is done mainly by acidophilic and other microorganisms that mobilize metals and generate acid mine drainage or AMD, causing serious environmental problems. However, bioremediation or removal of the toxic metals from contaminated soils can be achieved by using the specific properties of the acidophilic microorganisms interacting with these elements. These bacteria resist high levels of metals by using a few "canonical" systems such as active efflux or trapping of the metal ions by metal chaperones. Nonetheless, gene duplications, the presence of genomic islands, the existence of additional mechanisms such as passive instruments for pH and cation homeostasis in acidophiles and an inorganic polyphosphate-driven metal resistance mechanism have also been proposed. Horizontal gene transfer in environmental microorganisms present in natural ecosystems is considered to be an important mechanism in their adaptive evolution. This process is carried out by different mobile genetic elements, including genomic islands (GI, which increase the adaptability and versatility of the microorganism. This mini-review also describes the possible role of GIs in metal resistance of some environmental microorganisms of importance in biomining and bioremediation of metal polluted environments such as Thiomonas arsenitoxydans, a moderate acidophilic microorganism, Acidithiobacillus caldus and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strains ATCC 23270 and ATCC 53993, all extreme acidophiles able to tolerate exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Some of these bacteria contain variable numbers of GIs, most of which code for high numbers of genes related to metal resistance. In some cases there is an apparent correlation between the number of metal resistance genes and the metal tolerance of each

  4. PENGARUH STRATEGI PROJECT BASED LEARNING (PJBL TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR KRITIS SISWA KELAS XI IPA PADA MATERI KOLOID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hikmah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century education aims to develop the ability of intelligence of students in order to resolve the problems faced in real life. Project-Based Learning is one instructional strategies to develop the skills required in the 21st century. Through a given project, students are not only required to achieve the learning objectives that have been set, but students will be trained to face the world of work that requires their ability to access, mesintesis, communicating information, and work together to solve complex problems so as to improve the ability of students critical thinking. This research is a quasi-experimental research (quasy experiment with posttest only control group design. This research aims to determine the influence of Project Based Learning Strategy (PjBL to the critical thinking skills of students of class XI IPA at SMAN 1 Malua on colloidal material. The research population includes students of class XI IPA at SMAN 1 Malua, with random cluster sampling technique sampling. Data were analyzed using independent sample t-test in SPSS 20 for windows at the 0.05 level of significance. The result showed that the significance level of critical thinking skills of 0.001 which indicates that there are differences between students' critical thinking skills that learned using a strategy of Project Based Learning (PjBL with students that learned using conventional methods. Pendidikan abad 21 bertujuan untuk membangun kemampuan intelegensi siswa dalam pembelajaran agar mampu menyelesaikan permasalahan yang dihadapi. salah satu strategi pembelaj aran di abad 21 yang mengembangkan keterampilan siswa ialah Project Based Learning. Melalui proyek yang diberikan, siswa tidak hanya dituntut untuk mencapai tujuan pembelajaran yang telah ditetapkan, tetapi siswa akan lebih terlatih menghadapi dunia kerja yang membutuhkan kemampuan mereka dalam mengakses, mesintesis, mengomunikasikan infomasi, dan bekerja sama memecahkan masalah yang kompleks

  5. Addressing the need for a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) specific project management strategy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lotz, M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects have additional technical, financial and regulatory requirements that are not fully addressed by classic project management approaches. Research has been done on individual novel concepts of the CDM, like...

  6. Cost and effects of different admission screening strategies to control the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Gurieva

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infection rates due to antibiotic-resistant bacteriae, e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA remain high in most countries. Screening for MRSA carriage followed by barrier precautions for documented carriers (so-called screen and isolate (S&I has been successful in some, but not all settings. Moreover, different strategies have been proposed, but comparative studies determining their relative effects and costs are not available. We, therefore, used a mathematical model to evaluate the effect and costs of different S&I strategies and to identify the critical parameters for this outcome. The dynamic stochastic simulation model consists of 3 hospitals with general wards and intensive care units (ICUs and incorporates readmission of carriers of MRSA. Patient flow between ICUs and wards was based on real observations. Baseline prevalence of MRSA was set at 20% in ICUs and hospital-wide at 5%; ranges of costs and infection rates were based on published data. Four S&I strategies were compared to a do-nothing scenario: S&I of previously documented carriers ("flagged" patients; S&I of flagged patients and ICU admissions; S&I of flagged and group of "frequent" patients; S&I of all hospital admissions (universal screening. Evaluated levels of efficacy of S&I were 10%, 25%, 50% and 100%. Our model predicts that S&I of flagged and S&I of flagged and ICU patients are the most cost-saving strategies with fastest return of investment. For low isolation efficacy universal screening and S&I of flagged and "frequent" patients may never become cost-saving. Universal screening is predicted to prevent hardly more infections than S&I of flagged and "frequent" patients, albeit at higher costs. Whether an intervention becomes cost-saving within 10 years critically depends on costs per infection in ICU, costs of screening and isolation efficacy.

  7. Competitive strategy for the proposed Texas high speed rail project : a system dynamics/ CLIOS process approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-10

    The Texas High-Speed Rail (HSR) is an unprecedented US project proposed by a private company. This project has many uncertainties because it will be funded only by the private sectors and it is the first US HSR project using foreign technology. The H...

  8. Strategies for cultural resources management. The ARAMIS Project; Strategie per la gestione delle risorse culturali. Il progetto ARAMIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cessari, L. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Ist. per le Tecnologie Applicate ai Beni Culturali, Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    The ARAMIS project, presented here, is an example of an integrated project that is implemented within the framework of the Raphael Community Programme. Begun in 1998 the project is of two years duration, with overall funding of 400,000 Euro. Promoted and co-ordinated by ITABC, it is being implemented in collaboration with Spain, Greece, Malta and France. The aims of the ARAMIS project is to encourage the study and protection of the vast pre-industrial heritage (infrastructures, buildings and machinery) represented by agricultural irrigation systems, water supply canals and water mills built in Europe by the Arab populations during the period of the Islamic invasions, which goes from the 9. to the 15. century. The main activities, may be summarised as follows: a) surveys and cataloguing; b) information network; c) restoration and museum set up; d) promotion and dissemination of knowledge. One conservation programme involves the Acquias mill, situated in the Lecrin Valley. This reasonably well preserved mill was used to grind flour using a water-powered wheel. The complete restoration of the building is completed as the replacement of the original. A small water mill museum will be set up inside. The documented results of the ARAMIS project are collected and displayed in the Water and Mill Museum, that is housed in the Arab-Norman castle of Castellammare del Golfo. [Italian] Il progetto denominato ARAMIS, acronimo di Arab Mills and Irrigation Systems in the Mediterranean Basin, ha avuto una durata di due anni, una dotazione finanziaria di 40.000 ecu, ed e' stato coordinato dall'ITABC, in collaborazione con Spagna, Grecia, Malta e Francia, con la finalita' di ricostruire un brano della storia della societa' europea. Considerando la presenza estesa e capillare di sistemi di irrigazione e di mulini ad acqua a ruota orizzontale dell'epoca delle invasioni arabe in Europa, nel bacino del Mediterraneo, e' nata l'idea di documentare in

  9. Cancer multidrug resistance: mechanisms involved and strategies for circumvention using a drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Golam; Hatakeyama, Hiroto; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR), the principal mechanism by which many cancers develop resistance to chemotherapy, is one of the major obstacles to the successful clinical treatment of various types of cancer. Several key regulators are responsible for mediating MDR, a process that renders chemotherapeutic drugs ineffective in the internal organelles of target cells. A nanoparticulate drug delivery system (DDS) is a potentially promising tool for circumventing such MDR, which can be achieved by targeting tumor cells themselves or tumor endothelial cells that support the survival of MDR cancer cells. The present article discusses key factors that are responsible for MDR in cancer cells, with a specific focus on the application of DDS to overcome MDR via the use of chemotherapy or macromolecules.

  10. Muscle Wasting and Resistance of Muscle Anabolism: The “Anabolic Threshold Concept” for Adapted Nutritional Strategies during Sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Dardevet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle loss is observed in several physiopathological situations. Strategies to prevent, slow down, or increase recovery of muscle have already been tested. Besides exercise, nutrition, and more particularly protein nutrition based on increased amino acid, leucine or the quality of protein intake has generated positive acute postprandial effect on muscle protein anabolism. However, on the long term, these nutritional strategies have often failed in improving muscle mass even if given for long periods of time in both humans and rodent models. Muscle mass loss situations have been often correlated to a resistance of muscle protein anabolism to food intake which may be explained by an increase of the anabolic threshold toward the stimulatory effect of amino acids. In this paper, we will emphasize how this anabolic resistance may affect the intensity and the duration of the muscle anabolic response at the postprandial state and how it may explain the negative results obtained on the long term in the prevention of muscle mass. Sarcopenia, the muscle mass loss observed during aging, has been chosen to illustrate this concept but it may be kept in mind that it could be extended to any other catabolic states or recovery situations.

  11. Muscle wasting and resistance of muscle anabolism: the "anabolic threshold concept" for adapted nutritional strategies during sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardevet, Dominique; Rémond, Didier; Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Papet, Isabelle; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Mosoni, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle loss is observed in several physiopathological situations. Strategies to prevent, slow down, or increase recovery of muscle have already been tested. Besides exercise, nutrition, and more particularly protein nutrition based on increased amino acid, leucine or the quality of protein intake has generated positive acute postprandial effect on muscle protein anabolism. However, on the long term, these nutritional strategies have often failed in improving muscle mass even if given for long periods of time in both humans and rodent models. Muscle mass loss situations have been often correlated to a resistance of muscle protein anabolism to food intake which may be explained by an increase of the anabolic threshold toward the stimulatory effect of amino acids. In this paper, we will emphasize how this anabolic resistance may affect the intensity and the duration of the muscle anabolic response at the postprandial state and how it may explain the negative results obtained on the long term in the prevention of muscle mass. Sarcopenia, the muscle mass loss observed during aging, has been chosen to illustrate this concept but it may be kept in mind that it could be extended to any other catabolic states or recovery situations.

  12. INPRO Collaborative Project: Proliferation Resistance: Acquisition/Diversion Pathway Analysis (PRADA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    This publication contributes to strengthening the assessment area of proliferation resistance of the INPRO methodology. The basic principle for this area requires that multiple intrinsic features and extrinsic measures of proliferation resistance be implemented throughout the full life cycle of an innovative nuclear energy system to help ensure that the system will continue to be an unattractive means of acquiring fissile material for a nuclear weapons programme. A typical intrinsic feature is the dilution of plutonium with fission products as found in irradiated material, and a typical extrinsic measure is the placing of nuclear material under international safeguards.

  13. Framework for Testing the Effectiveness of Bat and Eagle Impact-Reduction Strategies at Wind Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Karin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeGeorge, Elise [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-13

    The objectives of this framework are to facilitate the study design and execution to test the effectiveness of bat and eagle impact-reduction strategies at wind energy sites. Through scientific field research, the wind industry and its partners can help determine if certain strategies are ready for operational deployment or require further development. This framework should be considered a living document to be improved upon as fatality-reduction technologies advance from the initial concepts to proven readiness (through project- and technology-specific testing) and as scientific field methods improve.

  14. Qualitative Examination of Strategies to Overcome Resistance to Change in Lean Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 80% of lean manufacturing program initiatives are abandoned in the first year of implementation. Only 2% of organizations that embark on the lean journey complete it with the results and the sustainability they expected. There is a gap in past research regarding, the leadership strategies organizations can use to overcome resistance…

  15. Mobilizable genomic islands, different strategies for the dissemination of multidrug resistance and other adaptive traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carraro, N.; Rivard, N.; Burrus, V.; Ceccarelli, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements are near ubiquitous DNA segments that revealed a surprising variety of strategies for their propagation among prokaryotes and between eukaryotes. In bacteria, conjugative elements were shown to be key drivers of evolution and adaptation by efficiently disseminating genes

  16. High-throughput crystal-optimization strategies in the South Paris Yeast Structural Genomics Project: one size fits all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leulliot, Nicolas; Trésaugues, Lionel; Bremang, Michael; Sorel, Isabelle; Ulryck, Nathalie; Graille, Marc; Aboulfath, Ilham; Poupon, Anne; Liger, Dominique; Quevillon-Cheruel, Sophie; Janin, Joël; van Tilbeurgh, Herman

    2005-06-01

    Crystallization has long been regarded as one of the major bottlenecks in high-throughput structural determination by X-ray crystallography. Structural genomics projects have addressed this issue by using robots to set up automated crystal screens using nanodrop technology. This has moved the bottleneck from obtaining the first crystal hit to obtaining diffraction-quality crystals, as crystal optimization is a notoriously slow process that is difficult to automatize. This article describes the high-throughput optimization strategies used in the Yeast Structural Genomics project, with selected successful examples.

  17. Collective knowledge sharing as a social justice strategy: the difference it made in a service project about preterm birth disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutain, Doris M

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge about how health disparities are created and sustained from those affected is needed. Collective knowledge sharing is one way to redefine and revalue dialogue and critique processes with the aim of promoting just relationships of knowledge production. This article describes how a community service project focused on using collective knowledge sharing as a social justice strategy with health ministry volunteers produced insights about preterm birth disparity issues. Project insights related to (1) the connection between faith and health, (2) the significance of family and congregational stories, and (3) the importance of praising assets in the context of disparity recognition.

  18. Library sequencing strategies for comparative analysis of stress resistance mechanisms in Escherichia coli strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lennen, Rebecca; Bonde, Ida; Koza, Anna

    2014-01-01

    and subjected to growth selections. Following selection, the locations of all insertions in the population are counted and can be compared between a control and a target condition, enabling the identification of genes that are both conditionally essential and conditionally detrimental. We have exploited Tn....... Tn-Seq revealed many differences and similarities in resistance mechanisms at the genetic level across strains, allowing correlations to be made with growth phenotypes. Cross-strain comparisons of conditionally essential genes and their relative essentiality also suggest a large degree of variation...

  19. Understanding resistant effect of mosquito on fumigation strategy in dengue control program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldila, D.; Situngkir, N.; Nareswari, K.

    2018-01-01

    A mathematical model of dengue disease transmission will be introduced in this talk with involving fumigation intervention into mosquito population. Worsening effect of uncontrolled fumigation in the form of resistance of mosquito to fumigation chemicals will also be included into the model to capture the reality in the field. Deterministic approach in a 9 dimensional of ordinary differential equation will be used. Analytical result about the existence and local stability of the equilibrium points followed with the basic reproduction number will be discussed. Some numerical result will be performed for some scenario to give a better interpretation for the analytical results.

  20. Study On Risk Handling Strategy Of Road Contruction Projects In Jayapura City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irianto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Project risk is an event or an uncertain condition which if it appears will have a threat on the project object. Many contractors still do not understand the threats that occur in the project they still assume that risks are always harmful. Based on data from the Papua Public Works procurement service that the implementation of road improvement projects always faces problems. This research is an explorative and descriptive study which explores the risks threats that occur in the project from the contractors perspective in Jayapura Papua Province Indonesia. The object of this research is the company contractor involved in the implementation of road improvement project in Jayapura whereas the respondent is the project manager and the field supervisor involved in the implementation of road improvement project The analysis result shows that the overall level of risk is in very low category and the biggest risks affecting contractors in sequence are 1 material delays from suppliers 2 material inventories 3 design difficulties 4 incorrectly shipped material volumes 5 changes to specifications by the owner 6 difficulty in obtaining materials and equipment 7 material price increases 8 over quality 9 damage to machine tools 10 weakening the bearing capacity of subgrade soil. While the response to risks threats that occur in road improvement projects is to reduce and avoid.

  1. Project Financing Strategy and Risk Control%项目融资策略及风险防范探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军

    2013-01-01

      文章对项目融资模式的各种风险进行分析,并提出相应的风险防范对策。为此,在项目融资过程中,要根据项目战略决定其融资策略,继而选择适合自己的最佳资本结构和融资方式,防范项目风险。%This paper analyzes the various risks of project financing mode, And proposes the corresponding risk prevention measures. Therefore, in the process of financing, according to firms' own development strategy to determine their financing strategy, th us choose the appropriate optimal capital structure and financing mode, to prevent the project risk.

  2. The Strategy Project: Promoting Self-Regulated Learning through an Authentic Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Hillary H.

    2016-01-01

    Success in college requires the development of self-regulated learning strategies that move beyond high school skills. First-year students of all ability levels benefit when given instruction in how to use these strategies in an authentic context. This paper presents an instructional method that requires deliberate practice of self-regulated…

  3. Improving Nursing Communication Skills in an Intensive Care Unit Using Simulation and Nursing Crew Resource Management Strategies: An Implementation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkelson, Carman; Aebersold, Michelle; Redman, Richard; Tschannen, Dana

    Effective interprofessional communication is critical to patient safety. This pre-/postimplementation project used a multifaceted educational strategy with high-fidelity simulation to introduce evidence-based communication tools, adapted from Nursing Crew Resource Management, to intensive care unit nurses. Results indicated that participants were satisfied with the education, and their perceptions of interprofessional communication and knowledge improved. Teams (n = 16) that used the communication tools during simulation were more likely to identify the problem, initiate key interventions, and have positive outcomes.

  4. Dissemination of sustainable irrigation strategies for almond and olive orchards via a participatory approach. Project LIFE+IRRIMAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vila, Margarita; Gamero-Ojeda, Pablo; Ascension Carmona, Maria; Berlanga, Jose; Fereres, Elias

    2017-04-01

    Dissemination of sustainable irrigation strategies for almond and olive orchards via a participatory approach. Project LIFE+IRRIMAN Spain is the world's first and third largest producer of olive oil and almond, respectively. Despite huge efforts in the last years by the production sector towards intensification, cultural issues relative to the traditional rain-fed crop management know how, prevent farmers from adoption of sustainable irrigation management practices. Consequently, even though there has been progress in irrigation management research for these two crops, adoption of modern irrigation techniques by farmers has been slow. Sustainable irrigation strategies for olive and almond orchards are being designed, implemented, validated and disseminated under the framework of the LIFE+ IRRIMAN project, through a participatory approach. The implementation of the LIFE+ IRRIMAN innovative and demonstrative actions has been carried out in an irrigation district of Southern Spain (Genil-Cabra Irrigation Scheme, Andalusia). The approach designed has four phases: i) design and implementation of sustainable irrigation strategies in demonstration farms; ii) dissemination of best irrigation practices which were tested in the initial year throughout the irrigation scheme by the irrigation advisory service; iii) assessment of degree of adoption and re-design of the dissemination strategies; and, iv) based on the results obtained, elaboration of sustainable irrigation guidelines for knowledge transfer in the district at regional and national levels to promote changes in irrigation practices. Participatory approaches have proven to be effective tools for successful irrigation strategies design and diffusion, especially in traditional rain fed crops such as olive and almond trees in the Mediterranean countries. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project IRRIMAN (LIFE13 ENV/ES/000539).

  5. A Service-Learning Project Using Crowdfunding Strategy: Students' Experience and Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat-jizat, Jessnor Elmy; Khalid, Khalizul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore students' experience and reflection in doing a Service Learning project as part of their course work. The Service Learning project allows the students to practice their knowledge of raising capital through crowdfunding, and at the same time situates them in an environment where they could learn from the…

  6. Quality of diabetes care worldwide and feasibility of implementation of the Alphabet Strategy: GAIA project (Global Alphabet Strategy Implementation Audit).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James D; Saravanan, Ponnusamy; Varadhan, Lakshminarayanan; Morrissey, John R; Patel, Vinod

    2014-10-11

    The Alphabet Strategy (AS) is a diabetes care checklist ensuring "important, simple things are done right all the time." Current audits of diabetes care in developed countries reveal wide variations in quality with performance of care processes frequently sub-optimal. This study had three components:• an audit to assess diabetes care quality worldwide,• a questionnaire study seeking opinions on the merits of the AS,• a pilot study to assess the practicality of implementation of the AS in a low socioeconomic setting. Audit data was collected from 52 centres across 32 countries. Data from 4537 patients were converted to Quality and Outcome Framework (QOF) scores to enable inter-centre comparison. These were compared to each country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and Total Health Expenditure percentage per capita (THE%). The opinions of diabetes patients and healthcare professionals from the diabetes care team at each of these centres were sought through a structured questionnaire. A retrospective audit on 100 randomly selected case notes was conducted prior to AS implementation in a diabetes outpatient clinic in India, followed by a prospective audit after four months to assess its impact on care quality. QOF scores showed wide variation across the centres (mean 49.0, range 10.2-90.1). Although there was a positive relationship between GDP and THE% to QOF scores, there were exceptions. 91% of healthcare professionals felt the AS approach was practical. Patients found the checklist to be a useful education tool. Significant improvements in several aspects of care as well as 36% improvement in QOF score were seen following implementation. International centres observed large variations in care quality, with standards frequently sub-optimal. 71% of health care professionals would consider adopting the AS in their daily practice. Implementation in a low resource country resulted in significant improvements in some aspects of diabetes care. The AS checklist for

  7. Marketing the 'Sex Check': evaluating recruitment strategies for a telephone-based HIV prevention project for gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Michael B; Picciano, Joseph F; Roffman, Roger A; Swanson, Fred; Kalichman, Seth C

    2006-04-01

    Designing effective marketing and recruitment strategies for HIV prevention research requires attention to cultural relevance, logistical barriers, and perceived psychosocial barriers to accessing services. McGuire's communication/persuasion matrix (1985) guided our evaluation, with particular attention to success of each marketing "channel" (i.e., strategy) vis-à-vis the number of all callers, eligible callers, and enrolled callers, as well as reaching so-called "hard-to-serve" individuals. Nearly all channels offered success in reaching specific subgroups. Latinos responded favorably to posters, bisexuals responded favorably to paid media in an alternative (non-gay) publication, and precontemplators responded to referrals by family and friends. Although multiple recruitment strategies were used, three were crucial to the success of the project: (a) recruiters' presence in gay venues, (b) referrals by family and friends (snowball technique), and (c) paid advertisements in alternative (non-gay) local newspapers. Resource allocation and costs are also presented for each channel.

  8. Comparison of calibration strategies for optical 3D scanners based on structured light projection using a new evaluation methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Ölsner, Sandy; Kühmstedt, Peter; Notni, Gunther

    2017-06-01

    In this paper a new evaluation strategy for optical 3D scanners based on structured light projection is introduced. It can be used for the characterization of the expected measurement accuracy. Compared to the procedure proposed in the VDI/VDE guidelines for optical 3D measurement systems based on area scanning it requires less effort and provides more impartiality. The methodology is suitable for the evaluation of sets of calibration parameters, which mainly determine the quality of the measurement result. It was applied to several calibrations of a mobile stereo camera based optical 3D scanner. The performed calibrations followed different strategies regarding calibration bodies and arrangement of the observed scene. The results obtained by the different calibration strategies are discussed and suggestions concerning future work on this area are given.

  9. Alternating current electrical stimulation enhanced chemotherapy: a novel strategy to bypass multidrug resistance in tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janigro, Damir; Perju, Catalin; Fazio, Vincent; Hallene, Kerri; Dini, Gabriele; Agarwal, Mukesh K; Cucullo, Luca

    2006-01-01

    Tumor burden can be pharmacologically controlled by inhibiting cell division and by direct, specific toxicity to the cancerous tissue. Unfortunately, tumors often develop intrinsic pharmacoresistance mediated by specialized drug extrusion mechanisms such as P-glycoprotein. As a consequence, malignant cells may become insensitive to various anti-cancer drugs. Recent studies have shown that low intensity very low frequency electrical stimulation by alternating current (AC) reduces the proliferation of different tumor cell lines by a mechanism affecting potassium channels while at intermediate frequencies interfere with cytoskeletal mechanisms of cell division. The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that permeability of several MDR1 over-expressing tumor cell lines to the chemotherapic agent doxorubicin is enhanced by low frequency, low intensity AC stimulation. We grew human and rodent cells (C6, HT-1080, H-1299, SKOV-3 and PC-3) which over-expressed MDR1 in 24-well Petri dishes equipped with an array of stainless steel electrodes connected to a computer via a programmable I/O board. We used a dedicated program to generate and monitor the electrical stimulation protocol. Parallel cultures were exposed for 3 hours to increasing concentrations (1, 2, 4, and 8 μM) of doxorubicin following stimulation to 50 Hz AC (7.5 μA) or MDR1 inhibitor XR9576. Cell viability was assessed by determination of adenylate kinase (AK) release. The relationship between MDR1 expression and the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin as well as the cellular distribution of MDR1 was investigated by computerized image analysis immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques. By the use of a variety of tumor cell lines, we show that low frequency, low intensity AC stimulation enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy. This effect was due to an altered expression of intrinsic cellular drug resistance mechanisms. Immunohistochemical, Western blot and fluorescence analysis revealed

  10. Seasonal changes in morphophysiological traits of two native Patagonian shrubs from Argentina with different drought resistance strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, M Celeste; Reinoso, Herminda; Luna, Virginia; Cenzano, Ana M

    2018-06-01

    In semi-arid regions, plants develop various biochemical and physiological strategies to adapt to dry periods. Understanding the resistance mechanisms to dry periods under field conditions is an important topic in ecology. Larrea divaricata and Lycium chilense provide various ecological services. The aim of this work is to elucidate new morpho-histological, biochemical and hormonal traits that contribute to the drought resistance strategies of two native shrubs. Green leaves and fine roots from L. divaricata and L. chilense were collected in each season for one year, and various traits were measured. The hormone (abscisic acid, ABA-glucose ester, gibberellins A 1 and A 3 , and indole acetic acid) contents were determined by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Rainfall data and the soil water content were also measured. A multivariate analysis showed that green leaves from L. divaricata showed high values for the leaf dry weight, blade leaf thickness and ABA content in the summer compared with those from L. chilense. Fine roots from L. divaricata had high RWC and high IAA levels during the autumn-dry period compared with those from L. chilense, but both had similar levels during the winter and spring. Our results support the notion that species with different drought resistance mechanisms (avoidance or tolerance) display different responses to dry periods throughout the year. Larrea divaricata, which exhibits more xerophytic traits, modified its morphology and maintained its physiological parameters (high RWC in leaves and roots, high ABA levels in leaves during summer, high GA 3 in leaves and high IAA in roots during autumn) to tolerate dry periods, whereas Lycium chilense, which displays more mesophytic traits, uses strategies to avoid dry periods (loss of leaves during autumn and winter, high RWC in leaves, high ABA-GE and GA 3 in leaves during summer, high GA 1 and GA 3 in roots during summer, and high IAA in roots during autumn and summer) and

  11. Encountering Spaces of Resistance When Implementing Research-Based Strategies for English Language Learners (ELLs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xaé Alicia Reyes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses research findings from follow-up studies on the effects of purposeful programming designed to prepare educators who participated in either of two professional development federal grants funded by the U.S. Department of Education (REALL 2007 and LEAD 2012 to address the needs of English Language Learners (ELLs. The qualitative data gleaned through focus group interviews and responses to questionnaires collected in these studies describe both educators’ sense of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1994 and their students’ transformations as they experience success. The longitudinal data collected over a 6-year period include narratives of resistance encountered by the grant participants in spaces such as schools, districts, and the broader community, and how these challenges were approached.

  12. Challenges and Strategies for Prevention of Multidrug-Resistant Organism Transmission in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumyati, Ghinwa; Stone, Nimalie D; Nace, David A; Crnich, Christopher J; Jump, Robin L P

    2017-04-01

    Nursing home residents are at high risk for colonization and infection with bacterial pathogens that are multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). We discuss challenges and potential solutions to support implementing effective infection prevention and control practices in nursing homes. Challenges include a paucity of evidence that addresses MDRO transmission during the care of nursing home residents, limited staff resources in nursing homes, insufficient infection prevention education in nursing homes, and perceptions by nursing home staff that isolation and contact precautions negatively influence the well being of their residents. A small number of studies provide evidence that specifically address these challenges. Their outcomes support a paradigm shift that moves infection prevention and control practices away from a pathogen-specific approach and toward one that focuses on resident risk factors.

  13. The integrated project: a promising promotional strategy for primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, C; Mora, B

    1985-10-01

    The integrated project using parasite control and nutrition as entry points for family planning practice has shown considerable success in promoting health consciousness among health workers and project beneficiaries. This progress is evident in the Family Planning, Parasite Control and Nutrition (FAPPCAN) areas. The project has also mobilized technical and financial support from the local government as well as from private and civic organizations. The need for integration is underscored by the following considerations: parasite control has proved to be effective for preventive health care; the integrated project uses indigenous community health workers to accomplish its objectives; the primary health care (PHC) movement depends primarily on voluntary community participation and the integrated project has shown that it can elicit this participation. The major health problems in the Philippines are: a prevalence of communicable and other infectious diseases; poor evironmental sanitation; malnutrition; and a rapid population growth rate. The integrated program utilizes the existing village health workers in identifying problems related to family planning, parasite control and nutrition and integrates these activities into the health delivery system; educates family members on how to detect health and health-related problems; works out linkages with government agencies and the local primary health care committee in defining the scope of health-related problems; mobilizes community members to initiate their own projects; gets the commitment of village officials and committe members. The integrated project operates within the PHC. A health van with a built-in video playback system provides educational and logistical support to the village worker. The primary detection and treatment of health problems are part of the village health workers' responsibilities. Research determines the project's capability to reactivate the village primary health care committees and sustain

  14. Process and outcomes evaluation of retention strategies within a nursing workforce diversity project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escallier, Lori A; Fullerton, Judith T

    2009-09-01

    A commitment to enhancing the diversity of the nursing workforce is reflected in the recruitment and retention strategies designed by Stony Brook University with support of a grant received from the Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration. Three specific student retention strategies are evaluated in terms of their influence on student inclusion and promotion of student success. A review of the cultural competence of teaching and learning strategies and the promotion of cultural self-awareness underpinned these strategies. A mentorship program designed to provide individual support for students, particularly for those engaged in distance learning, proved to be challenging to implement and underused by students. Students found other means of support in their workplace and through individual connections with the faculty. Instructional programs that enhanced individual skills in the use of computer hardware and software were particularly effective in promoting student success.

  15. Effects of Ala-Gln feeding strategies on growth, metabolism, and crowding stress resistance of juvenile Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-Mei; Guo, Gui-Liang; Sun, Li; Yang, Qiu-Shi; Wang, Gui-Qin; Qin, Gui-Xin; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different L-alanyl-l-glutamine (Ala-Gln) feeding strategies on the growth performance, metabolism and crowding stress resistance related parameters in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) under crowded condition (80 g/L). Juvenile Jian carp (initial weight 26.1 ± 0.6 g) were distributed into five groups which fed with graded concentrations (0% or 1.0%) of Ala-Gln for eight weeks. Control group (I, 0/0) fed with control diet (0% Ala-Gln) throughout the feeding trial. The other four groups employed different control and experimental diet feeding strategies ranging from two weeks control diet fed and two weeks experimental diet (1% Ala-Gln) fed (II, 0/2) to eight weeks experimental diet fed (V, 4/4). Results revealed that Mean weight gain (MEG) under all different feeding strategies of Ala-Gln were significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05), and MEG of group II (201.90%) was even higher than that of group IV (184.70%). Liver glycogen and blood total protein of groups II, III and V were significantly higher than that in groups I and IV (p < 0.05). The highest level of serum thyroxine (10.07 ng/ml), insulin-like growth factor-I (52.40 ng/ml) and insulin (9.73 μ IU/mL) were observed in group V. However, diet supplemented with Ala-Gln did not affect the levels of serum glucose, cortisol and catecholamine in fish. The mRNA expression of GR1a, GR1b and GR2 were also significantly changed in Ala-Gln supplementation groups compared with control group (p < 0.05). After fish intraperitoneally injected with virulent Aeromonas hydrophila, the fish survival rates were significantly increased in all Ala-Gln supplementation groups compared with control group (p < 0.05). Results from the present experiment showed the importance of dietary supplementation of Ala-Gln in benefaction of the growth performance, metabolism and crowding stress resistance in Jian carp breeding. The

  16. Oral history and memories of Hansen's disease patients in two Colombian leper colonies: life trajectories, conflicts and resistance strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero-Jaramillo, Natalia; Mora-Blanco, Jessica; Quesada-Jiménez, Nelson Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The paper examines the oral history of Hansen's disease in two Colombian communities that were leper colonies until 1961. The oral history around the disease allows us to connect individuals' memories with collective memory. This history remains an oral one, and few academic studies have documented it. We use oral history as a qualitative research method in order to analyze how the patients and those who lived alongside them positioned themselves in terms of the disease and how it permeated their entire existence, re-signifying the concepts of health and disease, normality and abnormality. We examine how, over the course of their lives, they engaged in resistance strategies that allowed them to get closer to normality, in their own sociocultural terms.

  17. Alternate bidding strategies for asphalt and concrete pavement projects utilizing life cycle cost analysis (LCCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Recent changes in pavement materials costs have impacted the competitive environment relative to the : determination of the most cost effective pavement structure for a specific highway project. In response, State : highway agencies have renewed thei...

  18. Comparing investment projects of innovative developing strategies of municipalities, based on a set of indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurenko Tatiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of comparison by a set of indicators which show the quality of investment projects and embody innovative policy of developing municipal entities is proposed. The method is based on establishing preferences for individual quality indicators of projects in accordance with the principle of maximum uncertainty (entropy and representing their aggregate in the form of a scalar function as an argument of the vector.

  19. Brand Awareness Strategy for Fashion Urban Youth Local Brand "Pinx Project"

    OpenAIRE

    Insania, Rima; Mutiaz, Intan Rizky

    2013-01-01

    Indonesian young designers have a very strong potential to explore the International level with the achievements that gradually starts to open the eyes of the global fashion world.urban youth local label movement which spreading in 5 years, glance Indonesia fashion industry. One of the is Pinx Project. Pinx Project, found in late November 2011, grew along with urban youth fashion which was booming among young people and many other emerging fashion lines. Pinx, which can still be considered as...

  20. The Innovative Medicines Initiative's New Drugs for Bad Bugs programme: European public-private partnerships for the development of new strategies to tackle antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyanev, T; Bonten, M J M; O'Brien, S; Steel, H; Ross, S; François, B; Tacconelli, E; Winterhalter, M; Stavenger, R A; Karlén, A; Harbarth, S; Hackett, J; Jafri, H S; Vuong, C; MacGowan, A; Witschi, A; Angyalosi, G; Elborn, J S; deWinter, R; Goossens, H

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a global public health threat. Despite the emergence of highly resistant organisms and the huge medical need for new drugs, the development of antibacterials has slowed to an unacceptable level worldwide. Numerous government and non-government agencies have called for public-private partnerships and innovative funding mechanisms to address this problem. To respond to this public health crisis, the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking programme has invested more than €660 million, with a goal of matched contributions from the European Commission and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations, in the development of new antibacterial strategies. The New Drugs for Bad Bugs (ND4BB) programme, an Innovative Medicines Initiative, has the ultimate goal to boost the fight against ABR at every level from basic science and drug discovery, through clinical development to new business models and responsible use of antibiotics. Seven projects have been launched within the ND4BB programme to achieve this goal. Four of them will include clinical trials of new anti-infective compounds, as well as epidemiological studies on an unprecedented scale, which will increase our knowledge of ABR and specific pathogens, and improve the designs of the clinical trials with new investigational drugs. The need for rapid concerted action has driven the funding of seven topics, each of which should add significantly to progress in the fight against ABR. ND4BB unites expertise and provides a platform where the commitment and resources required by all parties are streamlined into a joint public-private partnership initiative of unprecedented scale. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The EEE Project: Cosmic rays, multigap resistive plate chambers and high school students

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M.; Antolini, R; Avanzini, C; Baldini Ferroli, R; Bencivenni, G; Bossini, E; Bressan, E; Chiavassa, A; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Coccia, E; De Gruttula, D; De Pasquale, S; Di Giovanni, A; D'Incecco, M; Doroud, K; Dreucci, M; Fabbri, FL; Frolov, V; Garbini, M; Gemme, G; Gnesi, I; Gustavino, C; Hatzifotiadu, D; La Rocca, P; Li, S; Moro, R; Miozzi, S; Massai, M; Maggiora, A; Librizzi, F; Piragino, G; Pilo, F; Perasso, L; Paoletti, R; Righini, GC; Scapparone, E; Sartorelli, G; Romano, F; Serci, S; Selvi, M; Scribano, A; Riggi, F; Regano, A; Squarcia, S; Spandre, G; Toselli, F; Taiuti, M; Zichichi, A; Zouyevski, R; Williams, MCS; Votano, L; Siddi, E; Panareo, M

    2012-01-01

    The Gas Gain Monitoring (GGM) system of the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) muon detector in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment provides fast and accurate determination of the stability in the working point conditions due to gas mixture changes in the closed loop recirculation system. In 2011 the GGM began to operate using a feedback algorithm to control the applied voltage, in order to keep the GGM response insensitive to environmental temperature and atmospheric pressure variations. Recent results are presented on the feedback method used and on alternative algorithms.

  2. Are we investing wisely? A systematic analysis of nationally funded antimicrobial resistance projects in Republic of Korea, 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sukhyun; Head, Michael G; Kim, Bryan I; Hwang, Juchul; Cho, En-Hi

    2016-09-01

    From 2003 to 2013, South Korea has conducted the National Antimicrobial Resistance Safety Control Program (NARSCP). The purpose of the current study was to systematically review national antimicrobial resistance (AMR) research trends and to provide guidance on future allocation of research funding to enable a comprehensive approach in AMR control. This study collected project reports related to AMR published by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, the Ministry of Health and Welfare and the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention between 2003 and 2013. These reports were analysed by topics based on the AMR action plan of the World Health Organization (WHO), period of study, categories along the research pipeline and types of receiving institution. A total of 198 project reports were included, with total funding of US$18.3 million. Mean funding per award was US$92,750, with a median of US$71,714. Among the WHO-suggested criteria, the basic microbial research and surveillance sector accounts for 143 (72.2%) of all awards. Yearly project funding increased from US$961,476 in 2003 to US$1,553,294 in 2013. Operational research was 61.5% and product development was 0.7% of the basic microbial research and surveillance sector. By institution, academia received 145 awards (73.2%). During progress of the NARSCP, total research funding increased significantly, but most awards were focused on understanding the overall picture of the nationwide AMR status. More balanced funding is needed, and encouraging active participation of private and international sectors is also required in reducing AMR. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human Coronaviruses: Insights into Environmental Resistance and Its Influence on the Development of New Antiseptic Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Chloé; Varbanov, Mihayl; Duval, Raphaël E.

    2012-01-01

    The Coronaviridae family, an enveloped RNA virus family, and, more particularly, human coronaviruses (HCoV), were historically known to be responsible for a large portion of common colds and other upper respiratory tract infections. HCoV are now known to be involved in more serious respiratory diseases, i.e. bronchitis, bronchiolitis or pneumonia, especially in young children and neonates, elderly people and immunosuppressed patients. They have also been involved in nosocomial viral infections. In 2002–2003, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), due to a newly discovered coronavirus, the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV); led to a new awareness of the medical importance of the Coronaviridae family. This pathogen, responsible for an emerging disease in humans, with high risk of fatal outcome; underline the pressing need for new approaches to the management of the infection, and primarily to its prevention. Another interesting feature of coronaviruses is their potential environmental resistance, despite the accepted fragility of enveloped viruses. Indeed, several studies have described the ability of HCoVs (i.e. HCoV 229E, HCoV OC43 (also known as betacoronavirus 1), NL63, HKU1 or SARS-CoV) to survive in different environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and humidity), on different supports found in hospital settings such as aluminum, sterile sponges or latex surgical gloves or in biological fluids. Finally, taking into account the persisting lack of specific antiviral treatments (there is, in fact, no specific treatment available to fight coronaviruses infections), the Coronaviridae specificities (i.e. pathogenicity, potential environmental resistance) make them a challenging model for the development of efficient means of prevention, as an adapted antisepsis-disinfection, to prevent the environmental spread of such infective agents. This review will summarize current knowledge on the capacity of human coronaviruses to survive in the

  4. STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION AS A POSSIBLE STRATEGY FOR TREATING STANDARD THERAPY-RESISTANT ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Z. Gaidukova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have analyzed the literature dealing with studies of the efficiency and safety of stem cell transplantation (SCT in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS through the electronic resources Pubmed and Medline by using the keywords «bone marrow transplantation», «hematopoietic stem cell transplantation», «ankylosing spondylitis», «autoimmune diseases», and «sacroiliac joint biopsy». The paper describes four cases of SCT in AS patients, including transplantation that was carried out in one patient with lymphoma concurrent with AS, in two AS patients without blood cancers, and in one patient with AS concurrent with myeloid leukemia. Drug-free remission was achieved in 3 cases: lymphoma concurrent with AS (n=1, AS concurrent with myeloid leukemia (n=1, and AS without comorbidities (n=1. In addition to an improvement in the course of AS, there were also two cases with clinical presentations of AS after SCT. The given cases show that SCT can be basically used to induce drug-free remission in patients with severe forms of standard therapy-resistant AS. However, the introduction of SCT in clinical practice needs to adjust the technique to the specific features of AS patients. 

  5. Strategies to improve the mechanical strength and water resistance of agar films for food packaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana M M; Gonçalves, Maria P

    2015-11-05

    Agar films possess several properties adequate for food packaging applications. However, their high cost-production and quality variations caused by physiological and environmental factors affecting wild seaweeds make them less attractive for industries. In this work, native (NA) and alkali-modified (AA) agars obtained from sustainably grown seaweeds (integrated multi-trophic aquaculture) were mixed with locust bean gum (LBG) to make 'knife-coated' films with fixed final concentration (1 wt%) and variable agar/LBG ratios. Agar films were easier to process upon LBG addition (viscosity increase and gelling character decrease of the film-forming solutions observed by dynamic oscillatory and steady shear measurements). The mechanical properties and water resistance were optimal for films with 50 and/or 75% LBG contents and best in the case of NA (cheaper to extract). These findings can help reduce the cost-production of agar packaging films. Moreover, the controlled cultivation of seaweeds can provide continuous and reliable feedstock for transformation industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Strategy of gene silencing in cassava for validation of resistance genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, Simon; Lopez, Camilo

    2010-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major source of food for more than 1000 million people in the world and constitutes an important staple crop. Cassava bacterial blight, caused by the gram negative bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis, is one of the most important constraints for this crop. A candidate resistance gene against cassava bacterial blight, named RXam1, has been identified previously. In this work, we employed the gene silencing approach using the African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) to validate the function of the RXam1 gene. We used as positive control the su gen, which produce photo blanching in leaves when is silenced. Plants from the SG10735 variety were bombardment with the ACMV-A-SU+ACMV-B y ACMV-A-RXam1+ACMV-B constructions. The silencing efficiency employing the su gene was low, only one of seven plants showed photo blanching. In the putative silenced plants for the RXam1 gene, no presence of siRNAs corresponding to RXam1 was observed; although a low diminution of the RXam1 gene expression was obtained. The growth curves for the Xam strain CIO136 in cassava plants inoculated showing a little but no significance difference in the susceptibility in the silenced plants compared to not silenced

  7. Prevention strategies for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alvarez

    Full Text Available After the first reports of the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in the 1970s, numerous measures intended to prevent its transmission were initiated in hospitals. However, in most cases, large-scale measures failed to be implemented and the transmission of MRSA has since led to a global pandemic. Presently, doubts still remain about the best approach to prevent and control MRSA and more often than not, control measures are not implemented. Therefore, we review here the current situation in Latin America with respect to existing policies for control of MRSA, and evaluate the evidence for control measures in hospitals and the community. We look at the risk factors for infection and transmission of MRSA between hospital patients and within specific populations in the community, and at the effect of antibiotic usage on the spread of MRSA in these settings. Finally, we summarize recommendations for the prevention and control of MRSA, which can be applied to the Latin American hospital environment and community setting

  8. Grassroots Technological Resistance: The People's Power Project and the Impossible Dream of Wireless Transmission of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Pete

    2017-09-01

    In 1972, the Minnesota United Power Association (UPA) teamed up with the Minnesota Cooperative Power Association (CPA) to initiate an electrification project designed to bring power from North Dakota to the Twin Cities area. A significant backlash and protest began once farmers across the state became aware of the plan and the potential impending land seizure. In the midst of these actions, one group sought to create an alternative to the power line transmission system by designing a system of wireless energy transmission based on the plans of Nikola Tesla. This self-funded conglomeration of farmers and amateur researchers formed the People's Power Project (PPP) and set about building Tesla's system for the wireless transmission of energy. Using archival documents, this paper recounts this episode and argues that, in this case, the potential for successful grassroots action was derailed by the influence of longstanding myths about Tesla and his devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Numerical and experimental analysis of resistance projection welding of square nuts to sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Zhang, Wenqi; Martins, Paulo A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Projection welding of nuts to sheets is a widely utilized manufacturing process in the automotive industry. The process entails challenges due the necessity of joining different sheet thicknesses and nut sizes made from dissimilar materials, and due to the fact of experiencing large local deforma...... of the square nut to the sheet under different operating conditions. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license...

  10. Using real options to determine optimal funding strategies for CO2 capture, transport and storage projects in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhause, Jeremy; Herold, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Several projects in the European Union (EU) are currently under development to implement the carbon capture, transport and storage (CCS) technology on a large scale and may be subject to public funding under EU support initiatives. These CCS projects may develop any combination of three types of operating levels: pilot, demonstration and full-scale, representing progressing levels of electric power generation capability. Several projects have commenced at the demonstration level, with full-scale commercial levels planned for approximately 2020. Taking the perspective of a funding agency, we employ a real options framework for determining an optimal project selection and funding strategy for the development of full-scale CCS plants. Specifically, we formulate and solve a stochastic dynamic program (SDP) for obtaining optimal funding solutions in order to achieve at least one successfully operating full-scale CCS plant by a target year. The model demonstrates the improved risk reduction by employing such a multi-stage competition. We then extend the model to consider two sensitivities: (1) the flexibility to spend that budget among the time periods and (2) optimizing the budget, but specifying each time period's allocation a priori. State size and runtimes of the SDP model are provided. - Highlights: • Projects implementing three different CCS technology types are described. • We obtain projects’ transition probabilities and costs from expert interviews. • We use a multi-stage real options model to obtain optimal funding strategies. • Using this approach, actual decision-makers could reduce risks in CCS development

  11. The Cosmetics Europe strategy for animal-free genotoxicity testing: project status up-date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfuhler, S; Fautz, R; Ouedraogo, G; Latil, A; Kenny, J; Moore, C; Diembeck, W; Hewitt, N J; Reisinger, K; Barroso, J

    2014-02-01

    The Cosmetics Europe (formerly COLIPA) Genotoxicity Task Force has driven and funded three projects to help address the high rate of misleading positives in in vitro genotoxicity tests: The completed "False Positives" project optimized current mammalian cell assays and showed that the predictive capacity of the in vitro micronucleus assay was improved dramatically by selecting more relevant cells and more sensitive toxicity measures. The on-going "3D skin model" project has been developed and is now validating the use of human reconstructed skin (RS) models in combination with the micronucleus (MN) and Comet assays. These models better reflect the in use conditions of dermally applied products, such as cosmetics. Both assays have demonstrated good inter- and intra-laboratory reproducibility and are entering validation stages. The completed "Metabolism" project investigated enzyme capacities of human skin and RS models. The RS models were shown to have comparable metabolic capacity to native human skin, confirming their usefulness for testing of compounds with dermal exposure. The program has already helped to improve the initial test battery predictivity and the RS projects have provided sound support for their use as a follow-up test in the assessment of the genotoxic hazard of cosmetic ingredients in the absence of in vivo data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation and status report on HYDROCOIN at midway (HYDROCOIN: An international project for studying groundwater hydrology modelling strategies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.R.

    1986-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is participating in the international hydrologic code intercomparison (HYDROCOIN) project organized by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) for the purpose of improving our knowledge about the influence of various strategies for ground-water flow modeling for the safety assessment of final repositories for nuclear waste. The HYDROCOIN project consists of three levels of effort: Level One is concerned with verifying the numerical accuracy of codes, Level Two is involved with validation of models using field experiments, and Level Three is concerned with sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The need for the HYDROCOIN project emerged from an earlier international study for the intercomparison of computer codes for radionuclide transport (INTRACOIN). The HYDROCOIN project began in May 1984 with a group of fourteen organizations from eleven countries participating; currently twenty organizations are involved. Five teams from DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) are participating in the HYDROCOIN project, and this document presents the results of a review of this participation and an analysis of the benefits of OCRWM participation in the first 2 years (i.e., through May 1986) of the 3-year HYDROCOIN project. Efforts on the seven Level One cases are nearly complete. Level Two problems have been formulated and are in final draft form, and Level Three problems have been identified and are in first draft form. This report details the motivation, need, and benefits from HYDROCOIN through a chronological synopsis of the project's progress to date, brief description and intercomparison of preliminary Level One results prepared by OCRWM participants, and discussion of OCRWM contributions and plans for HYDROCOIN Level Two and Three efforts

  13. Exploring surface cleaning strategies in hospital to prevent contact transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hao; Jones, Rachael M; Li, Yuguo

    2017-01-18

    Cleaning of environmental surfaces in hospitals is important for the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other hospital-acquired infections transmitted by the contact route. Guidance regarding the best approaches for cleaning, however, is limited. In this study, a mathematical model based on ordinary differential equations was constructed to study MRSA concentration dynamics on high-touch and low-touch surfaces, and on the hands and noses of two patients (in two hospitals rooms) and a health care worker in a hypothetical hospital environment. Two cleaning interventions - whole room cleaning and wipe cleaning of touched surfaces - were considered. The performance of the cleaning interventions was indicated by a reduction in MRSA on the nose of a susceptible patient, relative to no intervention. Whole room cleaning just before first patient care activities of the day was more effective than whole room cleaning at other times, but even with 100% efficiency, whole room cleaning only reduced the number of MRSA transmitted to the susceptible patient by 54%. Frequent wipe cleaning of touched surfaces was shown to be more effective that whole room cleaning because surfaces are rapidly re-contaminated with MRSA after cleaning. Wipe cleaning high-touch surfaces was more effective than wipe cleaning low-touch surfaces for the same frequency of cleaning. For low wipe cleaning frequency (≤3 times per hour), high-touch surfaces should be targeted, but for high wipe cleaning frequency (>3 times per hour), cleaning should target high- and low-touch surfaces in proportion to the surface touch frequency. This study reproduces the observations from a field study of room cleaning, which provides support for the validity of our findings. Daily whole room cleaning, even with 100% cleaning efficiency, provides limited reduction in the number of MRSA transmitted to susceptible patients via the contact route; and should be supplemented with frequent targeted

  14. Tribal and stakeholder communication and participation strategy for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoofer, V.L.

    1995-12-01

    This document outlines a plan to ensure the effective involvement of the Hanford stakeholders and Tribal Governments in Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project issues and decisions. Stakeholders are defined as the public, news media, regulators, employees, Hanford Advisory Board and members of local, state, and federal governments. Experience at Hanford has shown that early and continued involvement of all interested parties in decision making is absolutely essential for fostering project success. Failure to recognize the importance of this interaction has resulted in significant cost in terms of time and money for several site programs

  15. Strategies, Obstacles, and Attitudes: Student Collaboration in Information Seeking and Synthesis Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeder, Chris; Shah, Chirag

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: While group work that takes place in education contexts has been studied by researchers, student collaborative research behaviour has received less attention. This empirical case study examined the strategies that students use and the obstacles they encounter while working in collaborative information seeking contexts on an in-class…

  16. Final report on LDRD project : coupling strategies for multi-physics applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Moffat, Harry K.; Carnes, Brian; Hooper, Russell Warren; Pawlowski, Roger P.

    2007-11-01

    Many current and future modeling applications at Sandia including ASC milestones will critically depend on the simultaneous solution of vastly different physical phenomena. Issues due to code coupling are often not addressed, understood, or even recognized. The objectives of the LDRD has been both in theory and in code development. We will show that we have provided a fundamental analysis of coupling, i.e., when strong coupling vs. a successive substitution strategy is needed. We have enabled the implementation of tighter coupling strategies through additions to the NOX and Sierra code suites to make coupling strategies available now. We have leveraged existing functionality to do this. Specifically, we have built into NOX the capability to handle fully coupled simulations from multiple codes, and we have also built into NOX the capability to handle Jacobi Free Newton Krylov simulations that link multiple applications. We show how this capability may be accessed from within the Sierra Framework as well as from outside of Sierra. The critical impact from this LDRD is that we have shown how and have delivered strategies for enabling strong Newton-based coupling while respecting the modularity of existing codes. This will facilitate the use of these codes in a coupled manner to solve multi-physic applications.

  17. Corporate social responsibility as a business strategy: Stora Enso-WWF partnership project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tysiachniouk, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes the strategic partnership between transnational corporation Stora-Enso and international nongovernmental organization NGO WWF as a business strategy that helps the company to adopt its business to the turbulent environment of the economy in transition. In this paper I draw from

  18. Using Qualitative Research Strategies in Cross-National Projects: The English-Finnish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulliamy, Graham; Webb, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    Some methodological issues are discussed that arise from our comparative research conducted since the early 1990s into primary schooling in Finland and England. This research has been identified as part of a "new" comparative education that uses qualitative research strategies and which prioritises sensitivity to cultural context in data…

  19. The EEE Project: cosmic rays, multigap resistive plate chambers and high school students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbrescia, M; Aiola, S; Antolini, R; Coccia, E; Giovanni, A Di; D'Incecco, M; Avanzini, C; Bossini, E; Ferroli, R Baldini; Bressan, E; Bencivenni, G; Dreucci, M; Fabbri, F L; Chiavassa, A; Frolov, V; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Gruttula, D De; Pasquale, S De; Doroud, K

    2012-01-01

    The Extreme Energy Events Project has been designed to join the scientific interest of a cosmic rays physics experiment with the enormous didactic potentiality deriving from letting it be carried out by high school students and teachers. After the initial phase, the experiment is starting to take data continuously, and the first interesting physics results have been obtained, demonstrating the validity of the idea of running a real physics investigation in these peculiar conditions. Here an overview of its structure and status is presented, together with some studies about detector performance and first physics results. (technical report)

  20. Education as life project: A strategy for educational psychotherapy and counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    According to parts of the existential psychology and psychotherapy the individual's exploration and compliance of his or her life project is central to the experience of living a meaningful life. In many ways, becoming a fully adult individual is about identifying and taking responsibility for th...

  1. Strategies for Effective Dissemination of the Outcomes of Teaching and Learning Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Deborah; Gannaway, Deanne; Orrell, Janice; Chalmers, Denise; Abraham, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an empirical study that addresses the question of how higher education institutions can disseminate effectively the outcomes of projects that seek to achieve large-scale change in teaching and learning. Traditionally, dissemination of innovation and good practice is strongly advocated within universities, but little…

  2. Two Project-Based Strategies in an Interdisciplinary Mathematical Modeling in Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Patrice; Tongen, Anthony; Walton, Brian

    2018-01-01

    James Madison University faculty team-teach an interdisciplinary mathematical modeling course for mathematics and biology students. We have used two different project-based approaches to emphasize the mathematical concepts taught in class, while also exposing students to new areas of mathematics not formally covered in class. The first method…

  3. Communication Strategies in a Telecollaboration Project with a Focus on Latin American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Susana S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper will present and discuss the linguistic challenges that Argentinian university students of history and Danish university students of Spanish met during the course of a telecollaboration project based on synchronous communication in Skype. The purpose of this discussion is to identify linguistic pitfalls and the solutions adopted by both…

  4. Integrating ergonomic aspects into research and development projects as a preventive strategy in the food industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Iben Posniak; Broberg, Ole

    1997-01-01

    As part of a national research and development programme for food technology it was formulated as a demand to applicants to describe the potential ergonomics impact of the research and development (R&D) projects. As the primary purpose of the research programme was to strengthen the Danish food...

  5. The international hydrocoin project - Groundwater hydrology modelling strategies for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The international cooperation project HYDROCOIN for studying groundwater flow modelling in the context of radioactive waste disposal was initiated in 1984. Thirteen organisations from ten countries and two international organisations have participated in the project which has been managed by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI. This report summarises the results from the third phase of HYDROCOIN, Level 3, which has addressed the issues of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of groundwater flow problems and how uncertainties affect the modelling results. Seven test cases were selected for the project, representing a variety of flow situations in different media, as well as variety of temporal and spatial scales. These test cases were tackled by the participating organisations (Project Teams) using a number of different codes. An overview of the methodologies used in uncertainty and sensitivity analysis is given. Results from the various Teams attempting the Test Cases are presented and conclusions are drawn as to the applicability of the results obtained to the test cases being analysed as well as the general applicability of the results. The importance of making uncertainty and sensitivity analysis as part of a performance analysis of the safety of a nuclear waste repository is stressed. The conclusion is drawn that the HYDROCOIN Level 3 study has greatly contributed to the understanding of these issues. 42 refs., 159 figs., 61 tabs

  6. Strategies and guidance for establishing an inclusive radiation monitoring in case of long term radioactive contamination: the SAGE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepicard, S.

    2004-01-01

    The evaluation of the rehabilitation strategies implemented in the CIS countries affected by the Chernobyl catastrophe pointed out the importance to involve the population in the day-to-day management of the radiological situation. The ETHOS experience in Belarus has revealed that to be effective and sustainable, this involvement must rely on the dissemination of a practical radiological protection culture within the population and especially within health professionals. As part of this culture, the implementation of an inclusive radiation monitoring system is a key element to allow the population and the local professionals to regain control on the day-to-day situation as far as the radiological risk is concerned. The SAGE Project, funded by the European Commission, started in October 2002 and will last 30 months. The objective is to develop strategies and guidance for disseminating such a system in Western Europe, in case of a long-term radiological contamination. The partnership of the Project is composed of 5 teams of researchers from the following institutions: BB RIR (the Brest Branch of the Research Institute of Radiology - Belarus), BELRAD (the Institute of Radiation Safety - Belarus), CEPN (France), GSF (Germany) and NRPB (United Kingdom). The key output of the project will be a handbook giving a comprehensive guidance on how to tackle the questionings and problems faced by the population. The proposed strategies and guidance are developed by national 'stakeholders panels' involving representatives from the society (medical doctors, radiation protection experts, teachers, representatives from NGOs,...) both in the contaminated territories of Belarus and in the above mentioned three Member States. This paper will present the methodology of work with the stakeholder panels and the major findings so far, especially the elements they have pointed out to be of a particular importance. The preliminary contents of the handbook will be presented as well. (author)

  7. The inter-agency joint project decades: a framework for comparatively assessing electricity generation options and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental and health-related impacts of different energy systems are become some the important issues for the years to come. The fact that all fuel chains for the electricity generation system involve some health risks and lead to some environmental impacts and that many countries have the need to define their energy programmes for the coming decades, have arouse a growing interest in the application of improved data, tools and techniques for comparative assessment of different electricity systems, and more specially for theirs environmental and human health aspects. The need to design and implement sustainable strategies in the electricity sector has been stressed in many international fora. The essential goal of sustainable strategies is to provide the energy services required for supporting economic growth and improving quality of life, especially in developing countries, while minimizing the health and environmental impacts of human activities. The inter-agency joint project on data bases and methodologies for comparative assessment of different energy sources for electricity generation (DECADES) has been established with the objective of enhancing capabilities for incorporating health and environmental issues in the comparative assessment of different electricity generation chains and strategies in the process of planning and decision making for the electricity sector. This project is carried out jointly by a number of international organizations. In order to cover the main issues to be addressed for carrying out this comparative assessment the DECADES project focuses on: technology inventory, development of an integrated software package for electricity system analysis and expansion planning, compilation and review of methodologies, analytical models and computerized tools for comparative assessment, some case studies addressing specific national or regional issues. (author). 3 boxes

  8. An Integrated Data-Driven Strategy for Safe-by-Design Nanoparticles: The FP7 MODERN Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Martin; Kafka, Alexander; Bamler, Markus; Kühne, Ralph; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Sikk, Lauri; Burk, Jaanus; Burk, Peeter; Tamm, Tarmo; Tämm, Kaido; Pokhrel, Suman; Mädler, Lutz; Kahru, Anne; Aruoja, Villem; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck; Sorensen, Peter B; Escorihuela, Laura; Roca, Carlos P; Fernández, Alberto; Giralt, Francesc; Rallo, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The development and implementation of safe-by-design strategies is key for the safe development of future generations of nanotechnology enabled products. The safety testing of the huge variety of nanomaterials that can be synthetized is unfeasible due to time and cost constraints. Computational modeling facilitates the implementation of alternative testing strategies in a time and cost effective way. The development of predictive nanotoxicology models requires the use of high quality experimental data on the structure, physicochemical properties and bioactivity of nanomaterials. The FP7 Project MODERN has developed and evaluated the main components of a computational framework for the evaluation of the environmental and health impacts of nanoparticles. This chapter describes each of the elements of the framework including aspects related to data generation, management and integration; development of nanodescriptors; establishment of nanostructure-activity relationships; identification of nanoparticle categories; hazard ranking and risk assessment.

  9. The STRATEGY project: decision tools to aid sustainable restoration and long-term management of contaminated agricultural ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Nisbet, A; Cox, G; Oughton, D H; Hunt, J; Alvarez, B; Andersson, K G; Liland, A; Voigt, G

    2005-01-01

    The STRATEGY project (Sustainable Restoration and Long-Term Management of Contaminated Rural, Urban and Industrial Ecosystems) aimed to provide a holistic decision framework for the selection of optimal restoration strategies for the long-term sustainable management of contaminated areas in Western Europe. A critical evaluation was carried out of countermeasures and waste disposal options, from which compendia of state-of-the-art restoration methods were compiled. A decision support system capable of optimising spatially varying restoration strategies, that considered the level of averted dose, costs (including those of waste disposal) and environmental side effects was developed. Appropriate methods of estimating indirect costs associated with side effects and of communicating with stakeholders were identified. The importance of stakeholder consultation at a local level and of ensuring that any response is site and scenario specific were emphasised. A value matrix approach was suggested as a method of addressing social and ethical issues within the decision-making process, and was designed to be compatible with both the countermeasure compendia and the decision support system. The applicability and usefulness of STRATEGY outputs for food production systems in the medium to long term is assessed.

  10. The STRATEGY project: decision tools to aid sustainable restoration and long-term management of contaminated agricultural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Beresford, N.A.; Nisbet, A.; Cox, G.; Oughton, D.H.; Hunt, J.; Alvarez, B.; Andersson, K.G.; Liland, A.; Voigt, G.

    2005-01-01

    The STRATEGY project (Sustainable Restoration and Long-Term Management of Contaminated Rural, Urban and Industrial Ecosystems) aimed to provide a holistic decision framework for the selection of optimal restoration strategies for the long-term sustainable management of contaminated areas in Western Europe. A critical evaluation was carried out of countermeasures and waste disposal options, from which compendia of state-of-the-art restoration methods were compiled. A decision support system capable of optimising spatially varying restoration strategies, that considered the level of averted dose, costs (including those of waste disposal) and environmental side effects was developed. Appropriate methods of estimating indirect costs associated with side effects and of communicating with stakeholders were identified. The importance of stakeholder consultation at a local level and of ensuring that any response is site and scenario specific were emphasised. A value matrix approach was suggested as a method of addressing social and ethical issues within the decision-making process, and was designed to be compatible with both the countermeasure compendia and the decision support system. The applicability and usefulness of STRATEGY outputs for food production systems in the medium to long term is assessed

  11. Corporate social responsibility as a business strategy: Stora Enso-WWF partnership project

    OpenAIRE

    Tysiachniouk, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes the strategic partnership between transnational corporation Stora-Enso and international nongovernmental organization NGO WWF as a business strategy that helps the company to adopt its business to the turbulent environment of the economy in transition. In this paper I draw from the theory of institutional sociology to explain complex interaction between transnational actors and actors in localities that jointly form a governance generating network in order to implement the ...

  12. Climate Variability and Its Effects on Gender and Coping Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    observed here that the least long term coping strategy adopted is finding alternative job as reputed ... Special intervention projects such as rain water harvesting techniques, drought resistant crops, short term ... severe drought in living memory.

  13. Bidding Strategy to Support Decision-Making Based on Comprehensive Information in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a unified method to support contractor for bidding selection in construction projects. A cross-functional contractor with 28 candidate units distributed in the three departments (construction units, design units, and suppliers is used as an example. This problem is first formulated as a 0-1 quadratic programming problem through optimizing individual performance and collaborative performance of the candidate units based on individual information and collaborative information. Then, a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm is designed to solve this problem and a bidding selection problem for a major bridge project is used to demonstrate our proposed method. The results show that the decision-maker (DM obtains a better contractor if he pays more attention to collaborative performance.

  14. Fighting organized crime through open source intelligence: regulatory strategies of the CAPER Project

    OpenAIRE

    Casanovas, Pompeu

    2014-01-01

    OSINT stands for Open Source Intelligence. The CAPER project has built an OSINT solution oriented to the prevention of organised crime. We offer in this paper an overall view of some results, embedding into the system legal and ethical issues raised by the General Data Reform Package (GDRP) in Europe. We briefly describe CAPER architecture, workflow, functionalities, modules and ontologies (European LEAs Interoperability ELIO, and Multi-Lingual Crime Ontology MCO). This paper is focused on th...

  15. The projected effectiveness of Clostridium difficile vaccination as part of an integrated infection control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Esther; Deeny, Sarah R; Jit, Mark; Cookson, Barry; Goldenberg, Simon D; Edmunds, W John; Robotham, Julie V

    2016-11-04

    Early clinical trials of a Clostridium difficile toxoid vaccine show efficacy in preventing C. difficile infection (CDI). The optimal patient group to target for vaccination programmes remains unexplored. This study performed a model-based evaluation of the effectiveness of different CDI vaccination strategies, within the context of existing infection prevention and control strategies such as antimicrobial stewardship. An individual-based transmission model of CDI in a high-risk hospital setting was developed. The model incorporated data on patient movements between the hospital, and catchment populations from the community and long-term care facilities (LTCF), using English national and local level data for model-parameterisation. We evaluated vaccination of: (1) discharged patients who had an CDI-occurrence in the ward; (2) LTCF-residents; (3) Planned elective surgical admissions and (4) All three strategies combined. Without vaccination, 10.9 [Interquartile range: 10.0-11.8] patients per 1000 ward admissions developed CDI, of which 31% were ward-acquired. Immunising all three patient groups resulted in a 43% [42-44], reduction of ward-onset CDI on average. Among the strategies restricting vaccination to one target group, vaccinating elective surgical patients proved most effective (35% [34-36] reduction), but least efficient, requiring 146 [133-162] courses to prevent one ICU-onset case. Immunising LTCF residents was most efficient, requiring just 13 [11-16] courses to prevent one case, but considering this only comprised a small group of our hospital population, it only reduced ICU-onset CDI by 9% [8-11]. Vaccination proved most efficient when ward-based transmission rates and antimicrobial consumption were high. Strategy success depends on the interaction between hospital and catchment populations, and importantly, consideration of importations of CDI from outside the hospital which we found to substantially impact hospital dynamics. Vaccination may be most

  16. Comparing different maize supplementation strategies to improve resilience and resistance against gastrointestinal nematode infections in browsing goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gárate-Gallardo, Leslie; Torres-Acosta, Juan Felipe de Jesús; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando Jacinto; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos Alfredo; Cámara-Sarmiento, Ramón; Canul-Ku, Hilda Lorena

    2015-01-01

    The effect of maize grain supplementation on the resilience and resistance of browsing Criollo goat kids against gastrointestinal nematodes was evaluated. Five-month-old kids (n = 42), raised worm-free, were allocated to five groups: infected + not supplemented (I-NS; n = 10), infected + maize supplement at 108 g/d (I-S108; n = 8), maize supplement at 1% of body weight (BW) (I-S1%; n = 8), maize supplement at 1.5% BW (I-S1.5%; n = 8), or infected + supplemented (maize supplement 1.5% BW) + moxidectin (0.2 mg/kg BW subcutaneously every 28 d) (T-S1.5%; n = 8). Kids browsed daily (7 h) in a tropical forest for 112 days during the rainy season. Kids were weighed weekly to adjust supplementary feeding. Hematocrit (Ht), hemoglobin (Hb), and eggs per gram of feces were determined fortnightly. On day 112, five goat kids were slaughtered per group to determine worm burdens. Kids of the I-S1.5% group showed similar body-weight change, Ht and Hb, compared to kids without gastrointestinal nematodes (T-S1.5%), as well as lower eggs per gram of feces and Trichostrongylus colubriformis worm burden compared to the I-NS group (P > 0.05). Thus, among the supplement levels tested, increasing maize supplementation at 1.5% BW of kids was the best strategy to improve their resilience and resistance against natural gastrointestinal nematode infections under the conditions of forage from the tropical forest. © L. Gárate-Gallardo et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  17. Recent results and performance of the multi-gap resistive plate chambers network for the EEE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbrescia, M.; Avanzini, C.; Baldini, L.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Batignani, G.; Bencivenni, G.; Bossini, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cicalò, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Coccia, E.; Corvaglia, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Pasquale, S.; Di Giovanni, A.; D`Incecco, M.; Dreucci, M.; Fabbri, F. L.; Fattibene, E.; Ferraro, A.; Frolov, V.; Galeotti, P.; Garbini, M.; Gemme, G.; Gnesi, I.; Grazzi, S.; Gustavino, C.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; La Rocca, P.; Licciulli, F.; Maggiora, A.; Maragoto Rodriguez, O.; Maron, G.; Martelli, B.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Miozzi, S.; Nania, R.; Noferini, F.; Nozzoli, F.; Panareo, M.; Panetta, M. P.; Paoletti, R.; Park, W.; Perasso, L.; Pilo, F.; Piragino, G.; Riggi, F.; Righini, G. C.; Sartorelli, G.; Scapparone, E.; Schioppa, M.; Scribano, A.; Selvi, M.; Serci, S.; Siddi, E.; Squarcia, S.; Stori, L.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Visnyei, O. B.; Vistoli, M. C.; Votano, L.; Williams, M. C. S.; Zani, S.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyeusky, R.

    2016-11-01

    The Extreme Energy Events (EEE) Project is devoted to the study of Extensive Atmospheric Showers through a network of muon telescopes, installed in High Schools, with the further aim of introducing young students to particle and astroparticle physics. Each telescope is a tracking detector composed of three Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) with an active area of 1.60 × 0.80 m2. Their characteristics are similar to the ones built for the Time Of Flight array of the ALICE Experimentat LHC . The EEE Project started with a few pilot towns, where the telescopes have been taking data since 2008, and it has been constantly extended, reaching at present more than 50 MRPCs telescopes. They are spread across Italy with two additional stations at CERN, covering an area of around 3 × 105 km2, with a total surface area for all the MRPCs of 190 m2. A comprehensive description of the MRPCs network is reported here: efficiency, time and spatial resolution measured using cosmic rays hitting the telescopes. The most recent results on the detector and physics performance from a series of coordinated data acquisition periods are also presented.

  18. Training Project Management Complexity in Postgraduate And Continuing Education Programs: A Learning Strategy in The Eshe (European Space of Higher Education) Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Mtnez-Almela, Jesús; de los Rios, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to address the methodological process of a teaching strategy for training project managment complexity in postgraduate programs. The proposal is made up of different methods —intuitive, comparative, deductive, case study, problem-solving Project-Based Learning— and different activities inside and outside the classroom. This integration of methods motivated the current use of the concept of “learning strategy”. The strategy has two phases: firstly, the integra...

  19. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  20. Linking Effective Project Management to Business Strategy in Oil and Gas Industry through Decision-making Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Adeyinka

    The construction project in the oil and gas industry covers the entire spectrum of hydrocarbon production from the wellhead (upstream) to downstream facilities. In each of these establishments, the activities in a construction project include: consulting, studies, front-end engineering, detail engineering, procurement, program management, construction, installation, commissioning and start-up. Efficient management of each of the activities involved in construction projects is one of the driving forces for the successful completion of the project. Optimizing the crucial factors in project management during each phase of a project in an oil and gas industry can assist managers to maximize the use of available resources and drive the project to successful conclusions. One of these factors is the decision-making process in the construction project. Current research effort investigated the relationship between decision-making processes and business strategy in oil and gas industry using employee surveys. I recruited employees of different races, age group, genders, and years of experience in order understand their influence on the implementation of the decision-making process in oil and gas industry through a quantitative survey. Decision-making was assessed using five decision measures: (a) rational, (b) intuitive, (c) dependent, (d) avoidant, and (e) spontaneous. The findings indicated gender, age, years of work experience and job titles as primary variables with a negative relationship with decision-making approach for employees working in a major oil and gas industry. The study results revealed that the two most likely decision-making methods in oil and gas industry include: making a decision in a logical and systematic way and seek assistance from others when making a decision. Additionally, the two leading management approaches to decision-making in the oil and gas industry include: decision analysis is part of organization culture and management is committed to

  1. Assessment of possible strategies to reduce mobile sources emissions in Costa Rica, 2010-2015 projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera-Murillo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of the possible strategies to reduce the emissions from mobile sources in Costa Rica were evaluated for the 2010-2015 period. The total emissions were estimated using emission factors obtained from Mobile 6 model and activity data like fuel and vehicle type distribution. This study found that 50% substitution of public transport vehicles was the most effective measure to lower the anual rate increase for NOx and Total Organic Gases (TOG. Both around 14,3% and 11,7% anually, respectively.

  2. Special Operations Forces Language Transformation Strategy Needs Assessment Project: Air Force Operator Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-15

    CAT III/IV Language More difficult languages to acquire for native English speakers. Examples: Cantonese , Japanese, Arabic, Dari, Pashto, Turkish...conversations on practical, social , and professional topics in my required AOR language. 64.1 62.0 68.8 SOF Language Transformation Strategy Needs...practical, social , and professional topics in the language required by my AOR assignment. 39 3.6 1.29 64.1 7.7 17.9 12.8 33.3 28.2 SOF

  3. High-Energy Physics Strategies and Future Large-Scale Projects

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F

    2015-01-01

    We sketch the actual European and international strategies and possible future facilities. In the near term the High Energy Physics (HEP) community will fully exploit the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). Post-LHC options include a linear e+e- collider in Japan (ILC) or at CERN (CLIC), as well as circular lepton or hadron colliders in China (CepC/SppC) and Europe (FCC). We conclude with linear and circular acceleration approaches based on crystals, and some perspectives for the far future of accelerator-based particle physics.

  4. Controlled motion in an elastic world. Research project: Manipulation strategies for massive space payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Book, Wayne J.

    1992-01-01

    The flexibility of the drives and structures of controlled motion systems are presented as an obstacle to be overcome in the design of high performance motion systems, particularly manipulator arms. The task and the measure of performance to be applied determine the technology appropriate to overcome this obstacle. Included in the technologies proposed are control algorithms (feedback and feed forward), passive damping enhancement, operational strategies, and structural design. Modeling of the distributed, nonlinear system is difficult, and alternative approaches are discussed. The author presents personal perspectives on the history, status, and future directions in this area.

  5. Meeting the requirements for a DOE environmental restoration project. The Fernald strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanoss, R.L.; Risenhoover, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental Restoration (ER) of five Operable Units (OU) at Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) includes compliance with the requirements of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and DOE Orders. Each regulatory driver has differing procedural requirements for documenting calculations, decisions, and actions involved in site cleanup. Integration of documentation and avoidance of duplication can save time and money. Such savings are being achieved by OU specific application of supporting studies, revised procedures, and guidance documents. Each OU is seeking appropriate opportunities to produce single documents that simultaneously fulfill the important requirements of the other regulations and DOE orders. These opportunities are evaluated at all phases of decision making, remedial design, and remedial action. Three essential processes precede environmental restoration/remedial action at a DOE site/project: 1. Completion of decision-making documents required by governing or applicable statutes. 2. Completion of important scientific and engineering analyses of remedial alternatives, and design and implementation of the remedial solution established in the CERCLA Record of Decision (ROD). 3. Preparation of DOE-mandated documentation to record engineering evaluations and cost estimates required for budgeting, decision making, and project management. Methodology and requirements for each process have developed from long, successful practice, but independently of each other. FERMCO, as new DOE contractor at Fernald and first Environmental Restoration Management Contractor (ERMC), is committed to a process of Continuous Performance Improvement (CPI). A major reevaluation of documentation and processes for support of environmental decision-making and design of cleanup activities to remediate the five OUs at the FEMP is being undertaken

  6. Horizontal infection control strategy decreases methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection and eliminates bacteremia in a surgical ICU without active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traa, Maria X; Barboza, Lorena; Doron, Shira; Snydman, David R; Noubary, Farzad; Nasraway, Stanley A

    2014-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients worldwide. Numerous healthcare bodies in Europe and the United States have championed active surveillance per the "search and destroy" model. However, this strategy is associated with significant economic, logistical, and patient costs without any impact on other hospital-acquired pathogens. We evaluated whether horizontal infection control strategies could decrease the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection in the ICU, without the need for active surveillance. Retrospective, observational study in the surgical ICU of a tertiary care medical center in Boston, MA, from 2005 to 2012. A total of 6,697 patients in the surgical ICU. Evidence-based infection prevention strategies were implemented in an iterative fashion, including 1) hand hygiene program with refresher education campaign, 2) chlorhexidine oral hygiene program, 3) chlorhexidine bathing, 4) catheter-associated bloodstream infection program, and 5) daily goals sheets. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection fell from 2.66 to 0.69 per 1,000 patient days from 2005 to 2012, an average decrease of 21% per year. The biggest decline in rate of infection was detected in 2008, which may suggest that the catheter-associated bloodstream infection prevention program was particularly effective. Among 4,478 surgical ICU admissions over the last 5 years, not a single case of methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia was observed. Aggressive multifaceted horizontal infection control is an effective strategy for reducing the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection and eliminating methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia in the ICU without the need for active surveillance and decontamination.

  7. Data integration through brain atlasing: Human Brain Project tools and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, Ingvild E; Øvsthus, Martin; Papp, Eszter A; Yates, Sharon C; Silvestri, Ludovico; Fiorilli, Julien; Pennartz, Cyriel M A; Pavone, Francesco S; Puchades, Maja A; Leergaard, Trygve B; Bjaalie, Jan G

    2018-04-01

    The Human Brain Project (HBP), an EU Flagship Initiative, is currently building an infrastructure that will allow integration of large amounts of heterogeneous neuroscience data. The ultimate goal of the project is to develop a unified multi-level understanding of the brain and its diseases, and beyond this to emulate the computational capabilities of the brain. Reference atlases of the brain are one of the key components in this infrastructure. Based on a new generation of three-dimensional (3D) reference atlases, new solutions for analyzing and integrating brain data are being developed. HBP will build services for spatial query and analysis of brain data comparable to current online services for geospatial data. The services will provide interactive access to a wide range of data types that have information about anatomical location tied to them. The 3D volumetric nature of the brain, however, introduces a new level of complexity that requires a range of tools for making use of and interacting with the atlases. With such new tools, neuroscience research groups will be able to connect their data to atlas space, share their data through online data systems, and search and find other relevant data through the same systems. This new approach partly replaces earlier attempts to organize research data based only on a set of semantic terminologies describing the brain and its subdivisions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  8. Project Strategy For The Remediation And Disposition Of Legacy Transuranic Waste At The Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the Savannah River Site Accelerated Transuranic (TRU) Waste Project that was initiated in April of 2009 to accelerate the disposition of remaining legacy transuranic waste at the site. An overview of the project execution strategy that was implemented is discussed along with the lessons learned, challenges and improvements to date associated with waste characterization, facility modifications, startup planning, and remediation activities. The legacy waste was generated from approximately 1970 through 1990 and originated both on site as well as at multiple US Department of Energy sites. Approximately two thirds of the waste was previously dispositioned from 2006 to 2008, with the remaining one third being the more hazardous waste due to its activity (curie content) and the plutonium isotope Pu-238 quantities in the waste. The project strategy is a phased approach beginning with the lower activity waste in existing facilities while upgrades are made to support remediation of the higher activity waste. Five waste remediation process lines will be used to support the full remediation efforts which involve receipt of the legacy waste container, removal of prohibited items, venting of containers, and resizing of contents to fit into current approved waste shipping containers. Modifications have been minimized to the extent possible to meet the accelerated goals and involve limited upgrades to address life safety requirements, radiological containment needs, and handling equipment for the larger waste containers. Upgrades are also in progress for implementation of the TRUPACT III for the shipment of Standard Large Boxes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, the US TRU waste repository. The use of this larger shipping container is necessary for approximately 20% of the waste by volume due to limited size reduction capability. To date, approximately 25% of the waste has been dispositioned, and several improvements have been made to the overall processing

  9. Applying the Creativity in Oder to Generate Innovation Projects: the Practical Case Study of a Didactic Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria dos Santos Pereira Alves

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A current challenge in teaching practice is to transform classrooms into laboratories to exchange experiences in courses whose goal is to enhance the professional skills in a practical and meaningful way. The search for improvement demonstrates that, increasingly, professionals become aware that organizations coexist in highly competitive environments, seeking to conquer more markets based on sustainable competitive advantages demanding fast responses of its employees. Considering that the process of creativity can be stimulated through the establishment of a suitable environment, this study aims to discuss the application of a didactic strategy developed for this purpose. Using the single case study methodology, it was used the technique of unstructured observation (informal or single to carry out the collection and the recording of events that occurred during the strategy application. It discusses elements such as identifying opportunities, creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship, seeking their relationships to understand how it is possible to motivate the generation of proposals for innovative projects in educational environments. As a result, it is presented the perceptions of teachers on the didactic strategy applied, emphasizing that a suitable environment for the development of ideas encourages the student to propose solutions for the improbabilities, creating innovative alternatives to the identified needs.

  10. Altered Cross-linking of HSP27 by Zerumbone as a Novel Strategy for Overcoming HSP27- mediated Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seo Hyun; Lee, Yoon Jin; Lee, Hae June; Lee, Yun Sil; Kim, Joon; Seo, Woo Duck; Nam, Joo Won; Lee, Yoo Jin; Seo, Eun Kyung

    2010-01-01

    HSPs have diverse roles in the regulation of signal transduction and in numerous aspects of cell growth and death. Indeed, HSP90, HSP70, and HSP27 have each been implicated in promoting cancer. Most HSP27 exists as large oligomeric complexes ranging from 100- 800 kDa, which are probably stabilized by complex interactions between dimeric building blocks. The functional properties of HSP27 are dependent on the quaternary structure of the protein. For example, HSP27 acts as a chaperone and binds to cytochrome c or Daxx as a dimer. Therefore, the oligomerization pattern of HPS27 is believed to have HSP27-mediated protective functions. In this study, zerumbone (ZER), the cytotoxic component isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith, induced cross-linking of HSP27 protein by its insertion between the disulfide bond of HSP27, and ZERmediated altered cross-linking of HSP27 modified normal HSP27 dimerization, which resulted in a sensitizing effect to tumors after treatment with radiation. Therefore, altered cross-linking by ZER may be a novel strategy for inhibition of HSP27-mediated resistance

  11. FEAR BOUDARIES: RESISTENCE TO TOURISM PROJECTS AT ILHA DO MEDO (ISLE OF FEAR – MARANHÃO STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilene Leite de Sousa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses a project for communitarian tourism at Ilha do Medo, Maranhão State and the local‟s reaction to tourists. It also analyses dialogues between natives people and tourism planners in the place. Local´s reaction to the attempt of turning the island into a new attraction at San Luis indicates their concern in preserving their way of life. To do so they use fear as a strategy to keep “invaders” at a distance. The analysis made possible to reflect on relationships between tourists and native people, understand the social network woven among tourism planners, natives and ethnographers in the field, as well as learning the flux at the boundaries of fear.

  12. Integrated viral clearance strategies-reflecting on the present, projecting to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, David J

    2018-01-20

    Viral clearance and inactivation are critical steps in ensuring the safety of biological products derived from mammalian cell culture and are a component of an adventitious agent control strategy which spans both upstream and downstream processes. Although these approaches have been sufficient to support the development of biologics to date, the empirical and semi-quantitative nature of the approach leaves some potential gaps. For example, the concept of performing a quantitative risk assessment for the downstream components of virus safety was introduced in ICH Q5A for XMuLV. An ideal future state would be to perform a similar quantitative risk assessment for a range of viruses based on an assessment of potential virus risk in both upstream and downstream processes. This assessment combined with an integrated control strategy (including monitoring) would be extremely beneficial in minimizing potential adventitious agent risks. Significant progress has been achieved towards this goal in the last several years including recent advances in quantification of virus sequences in cell banks (ADVTIG), development of truly modular or generic viral clearance claims for specific unit operations, enhanced controls of upstream media (HTST/nanofiltration) and the use of RVLP for in-process monitoring. The recent shift towards continuous processing has the potential to enhance the criticality of in-line monitoring and the complexity of viral clearance and inactivation (owing to a wide range of potential 'worst case' viral clearance scenarios). However, gaps exist in, firstly, the ability to quantify potential virus risk levels in process streams in real-time, secondly, mechanistic understanding of virus/chromatography media interactions, and thirdly, mechanistic understanding of virus/filter interactions. Some new technologies may also need to be developed to allow for real-time confirmation of virus inactivation and clearance to support process development (both batch and

  13. Strategies for Reforming Initial Vocational Education and Training in Europe. Final Report of the Project. Leonardo da Vinci/Transnational Pilot Projects: Multiplier Effect, Strand III.3.a. Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies by Horizontal and Vertical Networking (1997-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenstrom, Marja-Leena, Ed.; Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

    This document contains 24 papers examining strategies for reforming initial vocational education and training (VET) in Europe. The following papers are included: "Reassessing VET Reform Strategies in a New Context: Implementation of the SPES-NET (Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies by Horizontal and Vertical Networking) Project"…

  14. Strategies towards a 100% renewable energy system for Denmark in the Future Climate Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2009-01-01

    energy system by the year 2050 are presented. Two short term transition target years in the process towards this goal are analysed for 2015 and 2030. The analyses reveal that implementing energy savings, renewable energy and more efficient conversion technologies can have positive socioeconomic effects......, create employment and potentially lead to large earnings on exports. If externalities such as health effects etc. are included, even more benefits can be expected. 100 per cent renewable energy systems will be technically possible in the future, and may even be economically beneficial compared......Greenhouse gas mitigation strategies are generally considered costly with world leaders often engaging in debate concerning the costs of mitigation and the distribution of these costs between different countries. In this paper, the analyses and results of the design of a 100 per cent renewable...

  15. Project ARES analysis of strategies of greenhouse effect gases emissions reduction. Synthesis report july 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, P.; Blanchard, O.; Kitous, A.; Hourcade, J.Ch.; Ghersi, F.; Kousnetzoff, N.; Genet, J.; Fahr, St.; Soria, A.; Russ, P.

    2002-07-01

    The ARES project was realized around three main activities. The first part was the elaboration by the CEPII of a scenario of a world economic growth, detailed by region for the year 2030. The second part develops by the IEPE a scenario of allocation of emission quotas for the year 2030, by a gradual reduction of the emissions growth in the developing countries, the evaluation of the scenario from the POLES model, with a comparison of the results with the alternative models described in literature or proposed by the negotiation. The last part is the extension and the development by the CIRED of the 14 zones IMACLIM model, the elaboration of interfaces with POLES and the study of the general equilibrium effects of the different attribution scenari studied by the IEPE. (A.L.B.)

  16. Project Cerberus: tobacco industry strategy to create an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2008-09-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry.

  17. A conservation strategy in San Andres Island: school projects and values in environmental education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero M, German; Mahecha G, Ana Maria

    2006-01-01

    With the scope of showing and preserving an island endangered species, the Swanka turtle, a campaign and an environmental education program were conducted. The campaign consisted in showing the species to the community, its characteristics and its threats, through mass media and visits to different local schools. The environmental education program was carried out through a Scholar Environmental Project, which consisted on the conformation of an environmental group, where cognitive, attitudinal and participative aspects were worked together. Using a constrictive methodology the children developed some knowledge about the species and Its habitats. The scope was that they modified attitudes and behaviors towards situations that contribute to environmental damage; the reinforcement of values was the central point during all the activities. The knowledge gained by the pupils and the observed changes on their attitudes and participation show the positive results that arise when the action of environmental education focuses on the people and not the resources that are to be preserved

  18. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times...... for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor. In this chapter, we compare the two principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: either by remote...... procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy...

  19. IU.R Residential Urban Interfaces. Strategies and tools for a renewal project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Borgianni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary city, quality of urban space is a key element in life quality and a driving force for the competitiveness. The increasing complexity of relationships and the evolving needs and use patterns reflect urban complexity in a corresponding physical space: the urban interface, an entity that mediates the sociospatial relationships between public and private sphere and that assumes strategic importance in redevelopment of suburbs. Research, carried out on a case ‘study project’, defines the criteria for a Residential Urban Interface approach as a tool for micro-urban redevelopment which merge into the proposed Project Plan, the metaproject field aimed at process design, space design and design of management and use scenario.

  20. The international hydrocoin project. Groundwater hydrology modelling strategies for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The international co-operation project HYDROCOIN for studying groundwater flow modelling in the context of radioactive waste disposal was initiated in 1984. Thirteen organizations from ten countries and two international organizations have participated in the project which has been managed by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI. This report summarizes the results from the second phase of HYDROCOIN, Level 2, which has addressed the issue of validation by testing the capabilities of groundwater flow models to describe five field and laboratory experiments: . Thermal convection and conduction around a field heat transfer experiment in a quarry, . A laboratory experiment with thermal convection as a model for variable density flow, . A small groundwater flow system in fractured monzonitic gneiss, . Three-dimensional regional groundwater flow in low permeability rocks, and . Soil water redistribution near the surface at a field site. The five test cases cover various media of interest for final disposal such as low permeability saturated rock, unsaturated rock, and salt formations. They also represent a variety of spatial and temporal scales. From model simulations on the five test cases conclusions are drawn regarding the applicability of the models to the experimental and field situations and the usefulness of the available data bases. The results are evaluated with regard to the steps in an ideal validation process. The data bases showed certain limitations for validation purposes with respect to independent data sets for calibration and validation. In spite of this, the HYDROCOIN Level 2 efforts have significantly contributed to an increased confidence in the applicability of groundwater flow models to different situations relevant to final disposal. Furthermore, the work has given much insight into the validation process and specific recommendations for further validation efforts are made

  1. How Much Do We Know about Drug Resistance Due to PrEP Use? Analysis of Experts' Opinion and Its Influence on the Projected Public Health Impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobromir T Dimitrov

    Full Text Available Randomized controlled trials reported that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP with tenofovir and emtricitabine rarely selects for drug resistance. However, drug resistance due to PrEP is not completely understood. In daily practice, PrEP will not be used under the well-controlled conditions available in the trials, suggesting that widespread use of PrEP can result in increased drug resistance.We surveyed expert virologists with questions about biological assumptions regarding drug resistance due to PrEP use. The influence of these assumptions on the prevalence of drug resistance and the fraction of HIV transmitted resistance was studied with a mathematical model. For comparability, 50% PrEP-coverage of and 90% per-act efficacy of PrEP in preventing HIV acquisition are assumed in all simulations.Virologists disagreed on the following: the time until resistance emergence (range: 20-180 days in infected PrEP users with breakthrough HIV infections; the efficacy of PrEP against drug-resistant HIV (25%-90%; and the likelihood of resistance acquisition upon transmission (10%-75%. These differences translate into projections of 0.6%- 1% and 3.5%-6% infected individuals with detectable resistance 10 years after introducing PrEP, assuming 100% and 50% adherence, respectively. The rate of resistance emergence following breakthrough HIV infection and the rate of resistance reversion after PrEP use is discontinued, were the factors identified as most influential on the expected resistance associated with PrEP. Importantly, 17-23% infected individuals could virologically fail treatment as a result of past PrEP use or transmitted resistance to PrEP with moderate adherence.There is no broad consensus on quantification of key biological processes that underpin the emergence of PrEP-associated drug resistance. Despite this, the contribution of PrEP use to the prevalence of the detectable drug resistance is expected to be small. However, individuals who become

  2. Tuber resistance and slow rotting characteristics of potato clones associated with the Solanaceae Coordinated Agricultural Project to the US-24 clonal lineage of Phytophthora infestans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease on potato worldwide and new lineages of the pathogen continue to develop in the U.S. Breeding for resistance is important for economic and environmental purposes. The Solanaceae Coordinated Agricultural Project (SolCAP) focuses ...

  3. Development of an effective communication strategy for the prevention of burns in children: the PRIUS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedri, S; Briguglio, E; Cedri, C; Masellis, A; Crenca, A; Pitidis, A

    2015-06-30

    This study has developed a learning kit for the prevention of domestic burns in childhood. The main objective was to trial an educational package for children (nursery and primary classes), for the prevention of burns, to be implemented through education in schools. The educational kit comprises posters, information leaflets, comic books, and pre and post education evaluation materials for school children, parents and teachers. Recipients of the preliminary study were the students of nine schools in the eight Italian cities where Burn Centers are located. In order to reach the target groups of children, it was necessary to identify the most effective communication strategy to convey the burn prevention message. For nursery school children, it was not possible to use tools with written texts alone, as they were not yet literate. Moreover, even for older children, it was necessary to find an attractive tool to catch their attention and interest, promoting the understanding and memorization of lessons learned. The most suitable means was found to be comic strips, allowing the messages to be conveyed through images as well as words. A total of 370 children (195 from nurseries and 175 from primary schools) participated in the trial of the educational kit. Overall, for every environment represented in the evaluation table, the ability to recognize the dangers among both the pre-school and primary school children increased significantly after the training activity. In conclusion, the educational kit has been positively assessed.

  4. School Board as a Pedagogical Strategy for Sustainability in Environmental Education. (Project execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayr Del Valle Rivas Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was designed as a purpose to establish the school garden as a pedagogical strategy of sustainability in environmental education with the students of the National Basic School "Sebastián Araujo Briceño" of the Pedraza Municipality Barinas State; The nature of research is qualitative, the method is Research Action. For the purposes of the present study, three (03 teachers and three (03 students who belong to the institution will participate as informers and enjoy recognized responsibility and commitment at the "Sebastián Araujo Briceño" National Basic School. The technique used is the semistructured interview, And the instrument the interview guide. The analysis of the information will be done through the codification, categorization, triangulation and structuring of theories. After implementing the activities with the school garden, it is hoped to conclude that children contribute to the care of the environment and maintain in harmony the ecological balance that should reign in any space where human beings live and coexist. In this way the educational institution will present an environmental aspect in accordance with the ecological principles of environmental education immersed in the National Basic Curriculum.

  5. Development of an effective communication strategy for the prevention of burns in children: the PRIUS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedri, S.; Briguglio, E.; Cedri, C.; Masellis, A.; Crenca, A.; Pitidis, A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary This study has developed a learning kit for the prevention of domestic burns in childhood. The main objective was to trial an educational package for children (nursery and primary classes), for the prevention of burns, to be implemented through education in schools. The educational kit comprises posters, information leaflets, comic books, and pre and post education evaluation materials for school children, parents and teachers. Recipients of the preliminary study were the students of nine schools in the eight Italian cities where Burn Centers are located. In order to reach the target groups of children, it was necessary to identify the most effective communication strategy to convey the burn prevention message. For nursery school children, it was not possible to use tools with written texts alone, as they were not yet literate. Moreover, even for older children, it was necessary to find an attractive tool to catch their attention and interest, promoting the understanding and memorization of lessons learned. The most suitable means was found to be comic strips, allowing the messages to be conveyed through images as well as words. A total of 370 children (195 from nurseries and 175 from primary schools) participated in the trial of the educational kit. Overall, for every environment represented in the evaluation table, the ability to recognize the dangers among both the pre-school and primary school children increased significantly after the training activity. In conclusion, the educational kit has been positively assessed. PMID:27252606

  6. The Test Blanket Modules project in Europe: From the strategy to the technical plan over next ten years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitevin, Y.; Zmitko, M.; Orco, G. dell; Laesser, R.; Diegele, E.; Sundstroem, J.; Boccaccini, L.; Salavy, J.-F.

    2006-01-01

    The testing of Breeding Blanket concepts in ITER is recognized as an essential milestone in the development of a future reactor ensuring tritium self-sufficiency, extraction of high grade heat and electricity production. Europe is currently developing two reference breeding blankets for DEMO reactor specifications that will be tested in ITER: the Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead (HCLL) blanket which uses the eutectic Pb-15. 7 Li as both breeder and neutron multiplier, and the Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) blanket which features lithiated ceramic pebbles (Li 4 SiO 4 or Li 2 TiO 3 ) as breeder and beryllium pebbles as neutron multiplier. Both blankets are using the pressurized He technology for heat extraction (8 MPa, inlet/outlet temperature 300/500 o C) and a 9% CrWVTa Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) steel as structural material, the EUROFER. Referring to the so called '' fast-track '' EU scenario, those concepts are intended to be tested in ITER, getting the maximum of information required for launching the DEMO blanket design and construction after the first 10 years of ITER operation. For that, the EU has adopted a blanket testing strategy based on the development of Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) that are expected to use DEMO relevant technologies and are designed for each ITER plasma phase to optimize the feedback and to avoid any impact on ITER availability. Following the decision on ITER construction, the EU has reviewed and detailed the fundamental elements for an implementation of the future EU TBMs Project aimed at delivering TBMs Systems to ITER under suitable schedule and acceptance standards. For that the following items have been analyzed in detail and are reported in the present paper: · Impact of the ITER environment (design, standards, schedule, operational scheme) on the TBM systems design and development plan · Project technical plan with focus on the next ten years up to the installation of the first TBMs in ITER · Project risk

  7. Construction strategies and lifetime uncertainties for nuclear projects: A real option analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Shashi, E-mail: s.jain@cwi.nl [TU Delft, Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics, Delft (Netherlands); Nuclear Research Group, Petten (Netherlands); Roelofs, Ferry, E-mail: roelofs@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research Group, Petten (Netherlands); Oosterlee, Cornelis W., E-mail: c.w.oosterlee@cwi.nl [CWI – Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); TU Delft, Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Real options can be used to value flexibility of modular reactors. • Value of NPPs increases with implementation of long term cost reductions. • Levels of uncertainties affect the choice between projects. -- Abstract: Small and medium sized reactors, SMRs (according to IAEA, ‘small’ are reactors with power less than 300 MWe, and ‘medium’ with power less than 700 MWe) are considered as an attractive option for investment in nuclear power plants. SMRs may benefit from flexibility of investment, reduced upfront expenditure, and easy integration with small sized grids. Large reactors on the other hand have been an attractive option due to economy of scale. In this paper we focus on the advantages of flexibility due to modular construction of SMRs. Using real option analysis (ROA) we help a utility determine the value of sequential modular SMRs. Numerical results under different considerations, like possibility of rare events, learning, uncertain lifetimes are reported for a single large unit and modular SMRs.

  8. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 3 -- Greenfield options: Prospects for LNG use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Pezeshki, S.; Wu, K.

    1993-12-01

    This paper begins with an overview of the Asia-Pacific LNG market, its major players, and the likely availability of LNG supplies in the region. The discussion then examines the possibilities for the economic supply of LNG to Hawaii, the potential Hawaiian market, and the viability of an LNG project on Oahu. This survey is far from a complete technical assessment or an actual engineering/feasibility study. The economics alone cannot justify LNG`s introduction. The debate may continue as to whether fuel diversification and environmental reasons can outweigh the higher costs. Several points are made. LNG is not a spot commodity. Switching to LNG in Hawaii would require a massive, long-term commitment and substantial investments. LNG supplies are growing very tight in the Asia-Pacific region. Some of the environmental benefits of LNG are not entirely relevant in Hawaii because Hawaii`s air quality is generally excellent. Any air quality benefits may be more than counterbalanced by the environmental hazards connected with large-scale coastal zone construction, and by the safety hazards of LNG carriers, pipelines, etc. Lastly, LNG is not suitable for all energy uses, and is likely to be entirely unsuitable for neighbor island energy needs.

  9. Construction strategies and lifetime uncertainties for nuclear projects: A real option analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Shashi; Roelofs, Ferry; Oosterlee, Cornelis W.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Real options can be used to value flexibility of modular reactors. • Value of NPPs increases with implementation of long term cost reductions. • Levels of uncertainties affect the choice between projects. -- Abstract: Small and medium sized reactors, SMRs (according to IAEA, ‘small’ are reactors with power less than 300 MWe, and ‘medium’ with power less than 700 MWe) are considered as an attractive option for investment in nuclear power plants. SMRs may benefit from flexibility of investment, reduced upfront expenditure, and easy integration with small sized grids. Large reactors on the other hand have been an attractive option due to economy of scale. In this paper we focus on the advantages of flexibility due to modular construction of SMRs. Using real option analysis (ROA) we help a utility determine the value of sequential modular SMRs. Numerical results under different considerations, like possibility of rare events, learning, uncertain lifetimes are reported for a single large unit and modular SMRs

  10. Project first and eye on the sky: strategies for teaching space science in the early grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglierani, R.; Hawkins, I.

    Elementary educators typically have only limited opportunity to teach substantive science units. This is due, in great part, to the current primary focus on literacy and mathematics instruction in the early grades. It is not surprising then, that the time and resources allocated to science teaching are significantly less than those allocated to language arts and mathematics. The integration of elementary science curricula with language arts provides one means of addressing the challenge of maintaining a robust science presence in the elementary classroom. Project FIRST's Eye on the Sky suggests a model for the successful integration of science instruction with language arts through inquiry-based learning. The model has been adopted by other Education/Public Outreach efforts, most recently, the Cassini- Huygens Mission and the Space Telescope Institute. We will present Eye on the Sky: Our Star the Sun, a suite of integrated, inquiry-based lessons designed specifically for K-4 students and discuss data showing the program's impact on the user audience. These materials offer an exciting opportunity to explore the dynamic Sun and share research discoveries of NASA's Sun-Earth Connection with the elementary education community. The lessons were developed and tested by UC Berkeley educators and NASA scientists in partnership with classroom teachers. We will review the program components and examine the benefits and challenges inherent in implementing such a program in the elementary school setting.

  11. Project management as a tool to implement the strategy, the realities and prospects of oil and gas enterprises in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Medet Sapiuly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Project leadership is an important part of organizations’ activities. Project management makes it possible to solve some business tasks more effectively than the means of traditional and operational management. Projects hold a key role in the implementation of the organization’s strategy. Using the project leadership approach yielded uniting the functional units of the organization in a whole single team to achieve the goals and indicators of the strategy. Employing of project management in commercial and government organizations gets common in the CIS countries, including Republic of Kazakhstan. It is revealed that the implementation of a strategic management system will make it possible to minimize the consequences of the economic crisis for the oil and gas producing companies of Kazakhstan. A specific feature of Kazakhstan’s oil and gas industry lays in management system based on a functional approach, insufficient level of strategic management system and project management implementation. It is established that there are significant prospects for the development of project management in the oil and gas industry of Kazakhstan. Adoption and optimization of project leadership at the enterprises of the oil and gas industry in Kazakhstan will lead to the appropriate implementation of a strategic management system. In this regard, following measures are suggested to implement by enterprises: development of unified industry standards for project leadership; design of a training system for managers and employees; implementation of the process approach in the company’s management system; design and implementation of a Project Management Office (PMO in the company; development of a fair and progressive employees incentive program based on key performance indicators (KPI; implementation of specialized software for project management. The fulfillment of the above suggestions will significantly improve efficiency of the project management system

  12. Analysis of Branding Strategy through Instagram with Storytelling in Creating Brand Image on Proud Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handy Martinus

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the article were to study the branding strategy of a new age media company through social media with storytelling, how it could be utilized in the building of brand image, and what were the special characteristics of storytelling in social media environment, especially Instagram. The study provided an overview of factors in the online content update from social media to elevate interaction and to maintain the relationship between the company and its audience. Also specifying the points on how the information looked desirable to the customer. The qualitative descriptive content analysis was conducted to investigate how a new age media company with Instagram as the platform, which products were intangible and used storytelling in the delivery utilizes and mixes both components. Data were obtained by conducting the in-depth interview with company’s representative, public relations practitioner, and a follower of the company’s Instagram account, which then analyzed through data reduction. The research suggests that storytelling combined with social media features potentially strengthens all dimensions of brand equity with the brand image as the focus, primarily due to its engaging content, its ability to enhance the formation of an emotional connection, and its capabilities in improving recall and recognition. Branding activities conducted by Proud through Instagram can be said to be effective, taking into account the six main factors in providing updates, namely vividness, interactivity, informational content, entertaining content, position and valence of comments. Storytelling plays a role in communicating the company's brand and value. In addition, storytelling is also a branding tool that becomes an element that uniquely unveils a company with a competitor.

  13. Redeploying β-Lactam Antibiotics as a Novel Antivirulence Strategy for the Treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, Elaine M.; Rudkin, Justine K.; Coughlan, Simone; Clair, Geremy C.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Gore, Suzanna; Xia, Guoqing; Black, Nikki S.; Downing, Tim; O' Neill, Eoghan; Kadioglu, Aras; O' Gara, James P.

    2016-11-14

    Innovative approaches to the use of existing antibiotics is an important strategy in efforts to address the escalating antimicrobial resistance crisis. Here, the beta-lactam antibiotic oxacillin was shown to significantly attenuate the virulence of MRSA despite the pathogen being resistant to this drug. Oxacillin-mediated repression of the Agr quorum-sensing system and altered cell wall architecture, was associated with reduced cytolytic activity and increased susceptibility to host killing. These findings support the inclusion of -lactam antibiotics as an adjunctive anti-virulence therapy in the treatment of MRSA infections, with the potential to significantly improve patient outcomes in a safe, cost effective manner.

  14. Applying the min-projection strategy to improve the transient performance of the three-phase grid-connected inverter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baygi, Mahdi Oloumi; Ghazi, Reza; Monfared, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    Applying the min-projection strategy (MPS) to a three-phase grid-connected inverter to improve its transient performance is the main objective of this paper. For this purpose, the inverter is first modeled as a switched linear system. Then, the feasibility of the MPS technique is investigated and the stability criterion is derived. Hereafter, the fundamental equations of the MPS for the control of the inverter are obtained. The proposed scheme is simulated in PSCAD/EMTDC environment. The validity of the MPS approach is confirmed by comparing the obtained results with those of VOC method. The results demonstrate that the proposed method despite its simplicity provides an excellent transient performance, fully decoupled control of active and reactive powers, acceptable THD level and a reasonable switching frequency. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using public relations strategies to prompt populations at risk to seek health information: the Hanford Community Health Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gregory D; Smith, Stephen M; Turcotte, Joseph A

    2009-01-01

    The Hanford Community Health Project (HCHP) addressed health concerns among "downwinders" exposed to releases of radioactive iodine (I-131) from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in the 1940s and 1950s. After developing educational materials and conducting initial outreach, HCHP had to decide whether to apply its limited resources to an advertising or public relations approach. The decision to apply public relations strategies was effective in driving awareness of the risk communication message at the community level, reinvigorating the affected community, and ultimately increasing the number of people who sought information about their risk of exposure and related health issues. HCHP used a series of communication tools to reach out to local and regional media, medical and health professionals, and community organizations. The campaign was successful in increasing the number of unique visitors to HCHP Web site and educating and activating the medical community around the releases of I-131 and patient care choices.

  16. The Establishment of the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (COIPARS): A Pilot Project on Poultry Farms, Slaughterhouses and Retail Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado-Godoy, P; Castellanos, R; León, M; Arevalo, A; Clavijo, V; Bernal, J; León, D; Tafur, M A; Byrne, B A; Smith, W A; Perez-Gutierrez, E

    2015-04-01

    The development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria (AMR) is currently one of the world's most pressing public health problems. The use of antimicrobial agents in humans and animals has resulted in AMR which has narrowed the potential use of antibiotics for the treatment of infections in humans. To monitor AMR and to develop control measures, some countries, such as the USA, Canada and Denmark, have established national integrated surveillance systems (FDA, , CIPARS, 2007, DANMAP,2002). The components of these programs monitor changes in susceptibility/resistance to antimicrobial agents of selected zoonotic pathogens and commensal organisms recovered from animals, retail meats and humans. The rapid development of Colombia's animal production industry has raised food safety issues including the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The Colombian Integrated Surveillance Program for Antimicrobial Resistance (COIPARS) was established as a pilot project to monitor AMR on poultry farms, slaughter houses and retail markets. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Insecticide resistance in Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) could compromise the sustainability of malaria vector control strategies in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnankiné, Olivier; Bassolé, Imael H N; Chandre, Fabrice; Glitho, Isabelle; Akogbeto, Martin; Dabiré, Roch K; Martin, Thibaud

    2013-10-01

    Insecticides from the organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid (PY) chemical families, have respectively, been in use for 50 and 30 years in West Africa, mainly against agricultural pests, but also against vectors of human disease. The selection pressure, with practically the same molecules year after year (mainly on cotton), has caused insecticide resistance in pest populations such as Bemisia tabaci, vector of harmful phytoviruses on vegetables. The evolution toward insecticide resistance in malaria vectors such as Anopheles gambiae sensus lato (s.l.) is probably related to the current use of these insecticides in agriculture. Thus, successful pest and vector control in West Africa requires an investigation of insect susceptibility, in relation to the identification of species and sub species, such as molecular forms or biotypes. Identification of knock down resistance (kdr) and acetylcholinesterase gene (Ace1) mutations modifying insecticide targets in individual insects and measure of enzymes activity typically involved in insecticide metabolism (oxidase, esterase and glutathion-S-transferase) are indispensable in understanding the mechanisms of resistance. Insecticide resistance is a good example in which genotype-phenotype links have been made successfully. Insecticides used in agriculture continue to select new resistant populations of B. tabaci that could be from different biotype vectors of plant viruses. As well, the evolution of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae threatens the management of malaria vectors in West Africa. It raises the question of priority in the use of insecticides in health and/or agriculture, and more generally, the question of sustainability of crop protection and vector control strategies in the region. Here, we review the susceptibility tests, biochemical and molecular assays data for B. tabaci, a major pest in cotton and vegetable crops, and An. gambiae, main vector of malaria. The data reviewed was collected in Benin and Burkina

  18. Identification of an Antimicrobial Agent Effective against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Persisters Using a Fluorescence-Based Screening Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooseong Kim

    Full Text Available Persisters are a subpopulation of normal bacterial cells that show tolerance to conventional antibiotics. Persister cells are responsible for recalcitrant chronic infections and new antibiotics effective against persisters would be a major development in the treatment of these infections. Using the reporter dye SYTOX Green that only stains cells with permeabilized membranes, we developed a fluorescence-based screening assay in a 384-well format for identifying compounds that can kill methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA persisters. The assay proved robust and suitable for high throughput screening (Z`-factor: >0.7. In screening a library of hits from a previous screen, which identified compounds that had the ability to block killing of the nematode Caenorhabditis by MRSA, we discovered that the low molecular weight compound NH125, a bacterial histidine kinase inhibitor, kills MRSA persisters by causing cell membrane permeabilization, and that 5 μg/mL of the compound can kill all cells to the limit of detection in a 108 CFU/mL culture of MRSA persisters within 3h. Furthermore, NH125 disrupts 50% of established MRSA biofilms at 20 μg/mL and completely eradicates biofilms at 160 μg/mL. Our results suggest that the SYTOX Green screening assay is suitable for large-scale projects to identify small molecules effective against MRSA persisters and should be easily adaptable to a broad range of pathogens that form persisters. Since NH125 has strong bactericidal properties against MRSA persisters and high selectivity to bacteria, we believe NH125 is a good anti-MRSA candidate drug that should be further evaluated.

  19. Identification of an Antimicrobial Agent Effective against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Persisters Using a Fluorescence-Based Screening Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooseong; Conery, Annie L; Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Ausubel, Frederick M; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-01-01

    Persisters are a subpopulation of normal bacterial cells that show tolerance to conventional antibiotics. Persister cells are responsible for recalcitrant chronic infections and new antibiotics effective against persisters would be a major development in the treatment of these infections. Using the reporter dye SYTOX Green that only stains cells with permeabilized membranes, we developed a fluorescence-based screening assay in a 384-well format for identifying compounds that can kill methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) persisters. The assay proved robust and suitable for high throughput screening (Z`-factor: >0.7). In screening a library of hits from a previous screen, which identified compounds that had the ability to block killing of the nematode Caenorhabditis by MRSA, we discovered that the low molecular weight compound NH125, a bacterial histidine kinase inhibitor, kills MRSA persisters by causing cell membrane permeabilization, and that 5 μg/mL of the compound can kill all cells to the limit of detection in a 108 CFU/mL culture of MRSA persisters within 3h. Furthermore, NH125 disrupts 50% of established MRSA biofilms at 20 μg/mL and completely eradicates biofilms at 160 μg/mL. Our results suggest that the SYTOX Green screening assay is suitable for large-scale projects to identify small molecules effective against MRSA persisters and should be easily adaptable to a broad range of pathogens that form persisters. Since NH125 has strong bactericidal properties against MRSA persisters and high selectivity to bacteria, we believe NH125 is a good anti-MRSA candidate drug that should be further evaluated.

  20. A projection-based model reduction strategy for the wave and vibration analysis of rotating periodic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beli, D.; Mencik, J.-M.; Silva, P. B.; Arruda, J. R. F.

    2018-05-01

    The wave finite element method has proved to be an efficient and accurate numerical tool to perform the free and forced vibration analysis of linear reciprocal periodic structures, i.e. those conforming to symmetrical wave fields. In this paper, its use is extended to the analysis of rotating periodic structures, which, due to the gyroscopic effect, exhibit asymmetric wave propagation. A projection-based strategy which uses reduced symplectic wave basis is employed, which provides a well-conditioned eigenproblem for computing waves in rotating periodic structures. The proposed formulation is applied to the free and forced response analysis of homogeneous, multi-layered and phononic ring structures. In all test cases, the following features are highlighted: well-conditioned dispersion diagrams, good accuracy, and low computational time. The proposed strategy is particularly convenient in the simulation of rotating structures when parametric analysis for several rotational speeds is usually required, e.g. for calculating Campbell diagrams. This provides an efficient and flexible framework for the analysis of rotordynamic problems.

  1. Evaluation of alternative groundwater-management strategies for the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Project, Oregon and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Brian J.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    2014-01-01

    The water resources of the upper Klamath Basin, in southern Oregon and northern California, are managed to achieve various complex and interconnected purposes. Since 2001, irrigators in the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Irrigation Project (Project) have been required to limit surface-water diversions to protect habitat for endangered freshwater and anadromous fishes. The reductions in irrigation diversions have led to an increased demand for groundwater by Project irrigators, particularly in drought years. The potential effects of sustained pumping on groundwater and surface-water resources have caused concern among Federal and state agencies, Indian tribes, wildlife groups, and groundwater users. To aid in the development of a viable groundwater-management strategy for the Project, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Klamath Water and Power Agency and the Oregon Water Resources Department, developed a groundwater-management model that links groundwater simulation with techniques of constrained optimization. The overall goal of the groundwater-management model is to determine the patterns of groundwater pumping that, to the extent possible, meet the supplemental groundwater demands of the Project. To ensure that groundwater development does not adversely affect groundwater and surface-water resources, the groundwater-management model includes constraints to (1) limit the effects of groundwater withdrawal on groundwater discharge to streams and lakes that support critical habitat for fish listed under the Endangered Species Act, (2) ensure that drawdowns do not exceed limits allowed by Oregon water law, and (3) ensure that groundwater withdrawal does not adversely affect agricultural drain flows that supply a substantial portion of water for irrigators and wildlife refuges in downslope areas of the Project. Groundwater-management alternatives were tested and designed within the framework of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (currently [2013

  2. Strategies for the structural analysis of multi-protein complexes: lessons from the 3D-Repertoire project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinet, B; Friberg, A; Brooks, M A; van den Elzen, T; Henriot, V; Dziembowski, A; Graille, M; Durand, D; Leulliot, N; Saint André, C; Lazar, N; Sattler, M; Séraphin, B; van Tilbeurgh, H

    2011-08-01

    Structural studies of multi-protein complexes, whether by X-ray diffraction, scattering, NMR spectroscopy or electron microscopy, require stringent quality control of the component samples. The inability to produce 'keystone' subunits in a soluble and correctly folded form is a serious impediment to the reconstitution of the complexes. Co-expression of the components offers a valuable alternative to the expression of single proteins as a route to obtain sufficient amounts of the sample of interest. Even in cases where milligram-scale quantities of purified complex of interest become available, there is still no guarantee that good quality crystals can be obtained. At this step, protein engineering of one or more components of the complex is frequently required to improve solubility, yield or the ability to crystallize the sample. Subsequent characterization of these constructs may be performed by solution techniques such as Small Angle X-ray Scattering and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance to identify 'well behaved' complexes. Herein, we recount our experiences gained at protein production and complex assembly during the European 3D Repertoire project (3DR). The goal of this consortium was to obtain structural information on multi-protein complexes from yeast by combining crystallography, electron microscopy, NMR and in silico modeling methods. We present here representative set case studies of complexes that were produced and analyzed within the 3DR project. Our experience provides useful insight into strategies that are more generally applicable for structural analysis of protein complexes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. DO INTERVENTION STRATEGIES OF WOMEN HEALTHY HEART PROJECT (WHHP IMPACT ON DIFFERENTLY ON WORKING AND HOUSEWIVES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possible difference of the impact of Women Healthy Heart Project on lifestyle, as well as physical/biochemical parameters of working women and housewives.    METHODS: This was a community-based intervention study conducted over 5 years (2002-2007 in the counties of Isfahan and Najafabad (intervention areas and Arak (control. Pre-study situation analysis of women was followed by 5 years of wide-ranging interventions (educational/environmental conducted by various organizations using different methodologies. The interventions were aimed at modifying/improving lifestyle by increasing physical activity, encouraging healthy eating, and tobacco use cessation. The organizations involved in performing the interventions included the local radio and television authority, health/treatment centers, the Red Crescent Society, Municipalities, the Relief Committee, the Center for Retirees’ Welfare, and the Literacy Campaign Organization. After 5 years, final phase same as first phase was planed. The subjects studied in all phases` the pre- and post-intervention phases consisted of 10586 women aged above 18 years. Demographic data, obesity index, smoking, physical activity and eating habit were assessed before and after the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 using Student’s t-test, chi-square test, the general linear model of ANOVA, and logistic regression.    RESULTS: We studied 10586 women (6105 and 4481 women, pre- and post-intervention, respectively. Mean age of working women was 34.14 ± 10.09 and 34.08 ± 9.35 years before and after the study, respectively. Mean age of housewives before and after the study was 40.05 ± 14.61 and 40.36 ± 15.32 years, respectively. Interventions conducted during 5 years improved eating habits and decreased tobacco use in working women and housewives. In every phase of the study, there was a significant age difference between housewives and working women

  4. The SCIDIP-ES project - towards an international collaboration strategy for long term preservation of earth science data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, Andrew; Glaves, Helen; Marelli, Fulvio; Albani, Mirko; Tona, Calogera; Marketakis, Yannis; Tzitzikas, Yannis; Guarino, Raffaele; Giaretta, David; Di Giammatteo, Ugo

    2013-04-01

    The capability for long term preservation of earth science data is a key requirement to support on-going research and collaboration within and between many earth science disciplines. A number of critically important current research directions (e.g. understanding climate change, and ensuring sustainability of natural resources) rely on the preservation of data often collected over several decades in a form in which it can be accessed and used easily. Another key driver for strategic long term data preservation is that key research challenges (such as those described above) frequently require cross disciplinary research utilising raw and interpreted data from a number of earth science disciplines. Effective data preservation strategies can support this requirement for interoperability and collaboration, and thereby stimulate scientific innovation. The SCIDIP-ES project (EC FP7 grant agreement no. 283401) seeks to address these and other data preservation challenges by developing a Europe wide infrastructure for long term data preservation comprising appropriate software tools and infrastructure services to enable and promote long term preservation of earth science data. Because we define preservation in terms of continued usability of the digitally encoded information, the generic infrastructure services will allow a wide variety of data to be made usable by researchers from many different domains. This approach promotes international collaboration between researchers and will enable the cost for long-term usability across disciplines to be shared supporting the creation of strong business cases for the long term support of that data. This paper will describe our progress to date, including the results of community engagement and user consultation exercises designed to specify and scope the required tools and services. Our user engagement methodology, ensuring that we are capturing the views of a representative sample of institutional users, will be described. Key

  5. Mapping of a Novel Race Specific Resistance Gene to Phytophthora Root Rot of Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Using Bulked Segregant Analysis Combined with Specific Length Amplified Fragment Sequencing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomei; Chao, Juan; Cheng, Xueli; Wang, Rui; Sun, Baojuan; Wang, Hengming; Luo, Shaobo; Xu, Xiaowan; Wu, Tingquan; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici) is a serious limitation to pepper production in Southern China, with high temperature and humidity. Mapping PRR resistance genes can provide linked DNA markers for breeding PRR resistant varieties by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two BC1 populations and an F2 population derived from a cross between P. capsici-resistant accession, Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334) and P. capsici-susceptible accession, New Mexico Capsicum Accession 10399 (NMCA10399) were used to investigate the genetic characteristics of PRR resistance. PRR resistance to isolate Byl4 (race 3) was controlled by a single dominant gene, PhR10, that was mapped to an interval of 16.39Mb at the end of the long arm of chromosome 10. Integration of bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and Specific Length Amplified Fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) provided an efficient genetic mapping strategy. Ten polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were found within this region and used to screen the genotypes of 636 BC1 plants, delimiting PhR10 to a 2.57 Mb interval between markers P52-11-21 (1.5 cM away) and P52-11-41 (1.1 cM). A total of 163 genes were annotated within this region and 31 were predicted to be associated with disease resistance. PhR10 is a novel race specific gene for PRR, and this paper describes linked SSR markers suitable for marker-assisted selection of PRR resistant varieties, also laying a foundation for cloning the resistance gene.

  6. Mapping of a Novel Race Specific Resistance Gene to Phytophthora Root Rot of Pepper (Capsicum annuum Using Bulked Segregant Analysis Combined with Specific Length Amplified Fragment Sequencing Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Xu

    Full Text Available Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici is a serious limitation to pepper production in Southern China, with high temperature and humidity. Mapping PRR resistance genes can provide linked DNA markers for breeding PRR resistant varieties by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS. Two BC1 populations and an F2 population derived from a cross between P. capsici-resistant accession, Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334 and P. capsici-susceptible accession, New Mexico Capsicum Accession 10399 (NMCA10399 were used to investigate the genetic characteristics of PRR resistance. PRR resistance to isolate Byl4 (race 3 was controlled by a single dominant gene, PhR10, that was mapped to an interval of 16.39Mb at the end of the long arm of chromosome 10. Integration of bulked segregant analysis (BSA and Specific Length Amplified Fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq provided an efficient genetic mapping strategy. Ten polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR markers were found within this region and used to screen the genotypes of 636 BC1 plants, delimiting PhR10 to a 2.57 Mb interval between markers P52-11-21 (1.5 cM away and P52-11-41 (1.1 cM. A total of 163 genes were annotated within this region and 31 were predicted to be associated with disease resistance. PhR10 is a novel race specific gene for PRR, and this paper describes linked SSR markers suitable for marker-assisted selection of PRR resistant varieties, also laying a foundation for cloning the resistance gene.

  7. Human cytosolic glutathione-S-transferases: quantitative analysis of expression, comparative analysis of structures and inhibition strategies of isozymes involved in drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohana, Krishnamoorthy; Achary, Anant

    2017-08-01

    Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) inhibition is a strategy to overcome drug resistance. Several isoforms of human GSTs are present and they are expressed in almost all the organs. Specific expression levels of GSTs in various organs are collected from the human transcriptome data and analysis of the organ-specific expression of GST isoforms is carried out. The variations in the level of expressions of GST isoforms are statistically significant. The GST expression differs in diseased conditions as reported by many investigators and some of the isoforms of GSTs are disease markers or drug targets. Structure analysis of various isoforms is carried out and literature mining has been performed to identify the differences in the active sites of the GSTs. The xenobiotic binding H site is classified into H1, H2, and H3 and the differences in the amino acid composition, the hydrophobicity and other structural features of H site of GSTs are discussed. The existing inhibition strategies are compared. The advent of rational drug design, mechanism-based inhibition strategies, availability of high-throughput screening, target specific, and selective inhibition of GST isoforms involved in drug resistance could be achieved for the reversal of drug resistance and aid in the treatment of diseases.

  8. What Is Normal, True, and Right: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Students' Written Resistance Strategies on LGBTQ Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how students perform resistance to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer topics in their written reflections in a higher education diversity course. Using a three-tiered critical discourse analysis , this article maps students' resistant textual devices in their written reflections, analyzes the institutional setting…

  9. Strategy For Implementing The UN "Zero-Gravity Instrument Project" To Promote Space Science Among School Children In Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, O.; Agbaje, G.; Akinyede, J.

    2015-12-01

    The United Nations "Zero Gravity Instrument Project" (ZGIP) is one of the activities coordinated under the Space Education Outreach Program (SEOP) of the African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in English (ARCSSTE-E) to popularize space science among pre-collegiate youths in Nigeria. The vision of ZGIP is to promote space education and research in microgravity. This paper will deliberate on the strategy used to implement the ZGIP to introduce school children to authentic scientific data and inquiry. The paper highlights how the students learned to collect scientific data in a laboratory environment, analyzed the data with specialized software, obtained results, interpreted and presented the results of their study in a standard format to the scientific community. About 100 school children, aged between 7 and 21 years, from ten public and private schools located in Osun State, Nigeria participated in the pilot phase of the ZGIP which commenced with a 1-day workshop in March 2014. During the inauguration workshop, the participants were introduced to the environment of outer space, with special emphasis on the concept of microgravity. They were also taught the basic principle of operation of the Clinostat, a Zero-Gravity Instrument donated to ARCSSTE-E by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UN-OOSA), Vienna, under the Human Space Technology Initiative (UN-HSTI). At the end of the workshop, each school designed a project, and had a period of 1 week, on a planned time-table, to work in the laboratory of ARCSSTE-E where they utilized the clinostat to examine the germination of indigenous plant seeds in simulated microgravity conditions. The paper also documents the post-laboratory investigation activities, which included presentation of the results in a poster competition and an evaluation of the project. The enthusiasm displayed by the students, coupled with the favorable responses recorded during an oral interview conducted to

  10. A strategy of chemical control of Apera spica-venti L. resistant to sulfonylureas traced on the molecular level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankiewicz-Kosyl Marta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Three populations of silky bent grass (Apera spica-venti L. were tested – one that is susceptible and two that are resistant to sulfonylureas. This study assessed the efficacy of control by different herbicides in a pot experiment and estimated the molecular status of resistance to sulfonylureas in analysed populations and its effect on the efficacy of different chemical treatments. The three most effective herbicide rotation schemes were: 1 chlorsulfuron + isoproturon, ethametsulfuron + metazachlor + quinmerac, chlorsulfuron + isoproturon; 2 prosulfocarb + diflufenican, ethametsulfuron + quizalofop-p-ethyl, prosulfocarb + diflufenican; 3 diflufenican + flufenacet, quizalofop-p-ethyl, diflufenican + flufenacet. In most cases it was more difficult to destroy 100% of the resistant population from Modgarby where the majority of plants had no mutation in the als gene. In the resistant population from Babin there were significantly more individuals with mutation in the als gene, therefore exhibiting target-site resistance.

  11. COMPAS: a European project on the ''comparison of alternative waste management strategies for long-lived radioactive wastes''. Scope, working methods and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, L.M.C.; Hillis, Z.K.; Roehlig, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the content and major findings of a project on the ''COMParison of Alternative waste management Strategies for long-lived radioactive wastes'' (COMPAS) carried out within the 5 th framework programme of the European commission. Under the leadership of NNC (UK), the project was carried out by individuals representing waste management organisations from 15 European countries. After having compiled information on the nature and amount of long-lived radioactive waste to be managed, issues influencing the selection of waste management strategies and options, presently adopted national strategies as well as options for the future were addressed. Conclusions concerning key issues for the success or otherwise of strategies and management solutions were drawn. (orig.)

  12. Therapeutic strategies to overcome crizotinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancers harboring the fusion oncogene EML4-ALK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Ryohei; Khan, Tahsin M.; Benes, Cyril; Lifshits, Eugene; Ebi, Hiromichi; Rivera, Victor M.; Shakespeare, William C.; Iafrate, A. John; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Shaw, Alice T.

    2011-01-01

    The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene represents a molecular target in a small subset of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). This fusion leads to constitutive ALK activation with potent transforming activity. In a pivotal phase 1 clinical trial, the ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) crizotinib (PF-02341066) demonstrated impressive antitumor activity in the majority of patients with NSCLC harboring ALK fusions. However, despite these remarkable initial responses, cancers eventually develop resistance to crizotinib, usually within 1 y, thereby limiting the potential clinical benefit. To determine how cancers acquire resistance to ALK inhibitors, we established a model of acquired resistance to crizotinib by exposing a highly sensitive EML4-ALK–positive NSCLC cell line to increasing doses of crizotinib until resistance emerged. We found that cells resistant to intermediate doses of crizotinib developed amplification of the EML4-ALK gene. Cells resistant to higher doses (1 μM) also developed a gatekeeper mutation, L1196M, within the kinase domain, rendering EML4-ALK insensitive to crizotinib. This gatekeeper mutation was readily detected using a unique and highly sensitive allele-specific PCR assay. Although crizotinib was ineffectual against EML4-ALK harboring the gatekeeper mutation, we observed that two structurally different ALK inhibitors, NVP-TAE684 and AP26113, were highly active against the resistant cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, these resistant cells remained highly sensitive to the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG. Thus, we have developed a model of acquired resistance to ALK inhibitors and have shown that second-generation ALK TKIs or Hsp90 inhibitors are effective in treating crizotinib-resistant tumors harboring secondary gatekeeper mutations. PMID:21502504

  13. Science framework for the conservation and restoration strategy of DOI secretarial order 3336: Utilizing resilience and resistance concepts to assess threats to sagebrush ecosystems and greater sage-grouse, prioritize conservation and restoration actions, and inform management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Campbell, Steve; Carlson, John; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Clause, Karen J.; Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Espinosa, Shawn; Griffin, Kathleen A.; Christiansen, Thomas J.; Crist, Michele R.; Hanser, Steven E.; Havlina, Douglas W.; Henke, Kenneth F.; Hennig, Jacob D.; Kurth, Laurie L.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Mayer, Kenneth E.; Manning, Mary E.; Mealor, Brian A.; McCarthy, Clinton; Pellant, Mike; Prentice, Karen L.; Perea, Marco A.; Pyke, David A.; Wiechman , Lief A.; Wuenschel, Amarina

    2016-01-01

    The Science Framework for the Conservation and Restoration Strategy of the Department of the Interior, Secretarial Order 3336 (SO 3336), Rangeland Fire Prevention, Management and Restoration, provides a strategic, multiscale approach for prioritizing areas for management and determining effective management strategies across the sagebrush biome. The emphasis of this version is on sagebrush ecosystems and greater sage-grouse. The Science Framework uses a six step process in which sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to nonnative, invasive annual grasses is linked to species habitat information based on the distribution and abundance of focal species. The predominant ecosystem and anthropogenic threats are assessed, and a habitat matrix is developed that helps decision makers evaluate risks and determine appropriate management strategies at regional and local scales. Areas are prioritized for management action using a geospatial approach that overlays resilience and resistance, species habitat information, and predominant threats. Decision tools are discussed for determining the suitability of priority areas for management and the most appropriate management actions at regional to local scales. The Science Framework and geospatial crosscut are intended to complement the mitigation strategies associated with the Greater Sage-Grouse Land Use Plan amendments for the Department of the Interior Bureaus, such as the Bureau of Land Management, and the U.S. Forest Service.

  14. Decubitus Ulcers of Soft Tissues in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Clinical Strategies, Insulin Resistance Indicators, Comprehensive Treatment Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Vergun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The causes of decubitus ulcers include ischaemia and neurotrophic tissue changes induced by their chronic compression, continuous pathologic moisture and shift of tissues that determine local ishaemia. The aim of the article: to study clinical options and suppurative complications of decubitus ulcers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM in terms of insulin resistance (IR in the context of combined treatment optimization. Materials and methods. Total sample of retro- and prospective analyses involved results of comprehensive treatment of 112 patients. Type 2 DM was diagnosed in 37 patients, I comparison group included 27 patients with decubitus ulcers without complications (I–III stages and DM, with decubitus ulcers stage IV — II comparison group; and the control group included other 75 individuals. Results. The patients with type 2 DM (I comparison group had considerable decrease in HOMA index of β-cell function and increased HOMA index of IR (8.31 ± 0.02, р < 0.01. Patients with type 2 DM with complicated decubitus ulcers (II comparison group had more significant increase of circulating insulin indexes (p2 < 0.01, HOMA index of IR (p2 < 0.05, and considerable decrease on HOMA index of β-cell function (p2 < 0.05. The correlation analysis of HOMA-IR indicators and element concentration in the blood revealed the correlation only in patients with type 2 DM (I and II comparison groups: potent negative correlation (r = –0.72; p < 0.001 was revealed between the HOMA-IR and Mg2+ content in erythrocytes; intermediate negative correlation (r = –0.66; p < 0.01 — between HOMA-IR and Zn2+ concentration in the blood serum; and a negative one (r = –0.69; p < 0.01 — between HOMA-IR and Cr3+ level in the blood serum. Conclusions. The advantage of the proposed classification of decubitus ulcers of soft tissue and a sequence of comprehensive treatment is considering the features of

  15. New process modeling[sic], design, and control strategies for energy efficiency, high product quality, and improved productivity in the process industries. Final project report; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, W. Harmon

    2002-01-01

    This project was concerned with the development of process design and control strategies for improving energy efficiency, product quality, and productivity in the process industries. In particular, (i) the resilient design and control of chemical reactors, and (ii) the operation of complex processing systems, was investigated. Specific topics studied included new process modeling procedures, nonlinear controller designs, and control strategies for multiunit integrated processes. Both fundamental and immediately applicable results were obtained. The new design and operation results from this project were incorporated into computer-aided design software and disseminated to industry. The principles and design procedures have found their way into industrial practice

  16. Blue ocean strategy application in the course of planning and implementation of construction projects in the area of SMART housing and social infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Alexandr K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with approaches to the analysis of competitiveness in the construction field. The methodology of blue ocean strategy was analyzed. Based on the conducted analysis a set of measures related to blue ocean strategy application in the course of planning and implementation of construction projects in the area of SMART housing and social infrastructure was developed. Implementation of the proposed methodological provisions will allow improving investment efficiency in the course of construction projects implementation and enhancing the competitive ability of the developer.

  17. Providing an integrated waste management strategy and operation focused on project end states at the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackford, L.

    2009-01-01

    responsibilities; 3) provides a basis for budgeting; and 4) reflects a concerted goal of achieving full regulatory compliance and remediation (with enforceable milestones) in an aggressive manner. CHPRC's approach to safely accelerate and accomplish solid waste stabilization and disposition provides an integrated waste management (WM) strategy and operation focused on project end states. CHPRC will present planned approaches for waste stabilization and disposition based on lessons learned at other DOE sites and discuss optimizing solutions to accelerating TPA milestone M-91 TRU waste retrieval activities through innovation and increased production, Point of Generation waste management, unique transport and packaging systems that are re-usable, and in-field waste handling and treatment processes that have generated cost saving and are generating early-completion cost savings of $66 million on the PRC that can be redirected to other pressing Hanford Plateau Remediation Contract (PRC) projects. (authors)

  18. An efficient sequential strategy for realizing cross-gradient joint inversion: method and its application to 2-D cross borehole seismic traveltime and DC resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ji; Zhang, Haijiang

    2018-05-01

    Cross-gradient joint inversion that enforces structural similarity between different models has been widely utilized in jointly inverting different geophysical data types. However, it is a challenge to combine different geophysical inversion systems with the cross-gradient structural constraint into one joint inversion system because they may differ greatly in the model representation, forward modelling and inversion algorithm. Here we propose a new joint inversion strategy that can avoid this issue. Different models are separately inverted using the existing inversion packages and model structure similarity is only enforced through cross-gradient minimization between two models after each iteration. Although the data fitting and structural similarity enforcing processes are decoupled, our proposed strategy is still able to choose appropriate models to balance the trade-off between geophysical data fitting and structural similarity. This is realized by using model perturbations from separate data inversions to constrain the cross-gradient minimization process. We have tested this new strategy on 2-D cross borehole synthetic seismic traveltime and DC resistivity data sets. Compared to separate geophysical inversions, our proposed joint inversion strategy fits the separate data sets at comparable levels while at the same time resulting in a higher structural similarity between the velocity and resistivity models.

  19. Toward a bioethical framework for antibiotic use, antimicrobial resistance and for empirically designing ethically robust strategies to protect human health: a research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Marrero, Pablo; Martins Pereira, Sandra; de Sá Brandão, Patrícia Joana; Araújo, Joana; Carvalho, Ana Sofia

    2017-12-01

    Introduction Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a challenging global and public health issue, raising bioethical challenges, considerations and strategies. Objectives This research protocol presents a conceptual model leading to formulating an empirically based bioethics framework for antibiotic use, AMR and designing ethically robust strategies to protect human health. Methods Mixed methods research will be used and operationalized into five substudies. The bioethical framework will encompass and integrate two theoretical models: global bioethics and ethical decision-making. Results Being a study protocol, this article reports on planned and ongoing research. Conclusions Based on data collection, future findings and using a comprehensive, integrative, evidence-based approach, a step-by-step bioethical framework will be developed for (i) responsible use of antibiotics in healthcare and (ii) design of strategies to decrease AMR. This will entail the analysis and interpretation of approaches from several bioethical theories, including deontological and consequentialist approaches, and the implications of uncertainty to these approaches.

  20. The ability to manage self-proposed projects between 1;3 and 2;0 years old: a study of inhibition and resistance to interference

    OpenAIRE

    Estanislao Pastor-Mallol; Edith Santó-Rañé

    2015-01-01

    This study examines very young children's ability to manage self-proposed projects by using the inhibitory function and resistance to interference. In a natural environment and using an observational method, we conducted a longitudinal study of a sample observed at 1;3, 1;6, 1;9 and 2;0 years old. The research was divided into two studies which followed different procedures and looked at the projects carried out, the interferences produced and the functioning of inhibition. We observed signif...

  1. The International hydrocoin project. Groundwater hydrology modelling strategies for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1984 the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, initiated the international cooperation project HYDROCOIN for the study of groundwater flow modelling in the context of radioactive waste disposal. The objective of HYDROCOIN was to improve knowledge of the influence of various strategies for groundwater flow modelling for the safety assessment of final repositories for radioactive wastes. The study comprised: the impact on the groundwater flow calculations of different solution algorithms, the capabilities of different models to describe field tests and bench-scale experiments, and the impact on the groundwater flow calculations of incorporating various physical phenomena. The work was conducted at three levels addressing code verification (Level 1), model validation (Level 2), and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of groundwater flow calculations (Level 3). This report gives an overview and summary of test cases of HYDROCOIN Level 1, the issue of validation groundwater flow models (HYDROCOIN Level 2), the methodologies used in uncertainty and sensitivity analysis (HYDROCOIN Level 3). 108 figs., 24 tabs., 2 appendices

  2. Drug discovery strategies in the field of tumor energy metabolism: Limitations by metabolic flexibility and metabolic resistance to chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoedo, N D; Obre, E; Rossignol, R

    2017-08-01

    The search for new drugs capable of blocking the metabolic vulnerabilities of human tumors has now entered the clinical evaluation stage, but several projects already failed in phase I or phase II. In particular, very promising in vitro studies could not be translated in vivo at preclinical stage and beyond. This was the case for most glycolysis inhibitors that demonstrated systemic toxicity. A more recent example is the inhibition of glutamine catabolism in lung adenocarcinoma that failed in vivo despite a strong addiction of several cancer cell lines to glutamine in vitro. Such contradictory findings raised several questions concerning the optimization of drug discovery strategies in the field of cancer metabolism. For instance, the cell culture models in 2D or 3D might already show strong limitations to mimic the tumor micro- and macro-environment. The microenvironment of tumors is composed of cancer cells of variegated metabolic profiles, supporting local metabolic exchanges and symbiosis, but also of immune cells and stroma that further interact with and reshape cancer cell metabolism. The macroenvironment includes the different tissues of the organism, capable of exchanging signals and fueling the tumor 'a distance'. Moreover, most metabolic targets were identified from their increased expression in tumor transcriptomic studies, or from targeted analyses looking at the metabolic impact of particular oncogenes or tumor suppressors on selected metabolic pathways. Still, very few targets were identified from in vivo analyses of tumor metabolism in patients because such studies are difficult and adequate imaging methods are only currently being developed for that purpose. For instance, perfusion of patients with [ 13 C]-glucose allows deciphering the metabolomics of tumors and opens a new area in the search for effective targets. Metabolic imaging with positron emission tomography and other techniques that do not involve [ 13 C] can also be used to evaluate tumor

  3. Samba for solar modules. Brazil decides reimbursement strategy and starts pilot projects; Samba fuer Solarmodule. Brasilien macht den Weg fuer die Einspeisung von Solarstrom frei und startet Pilotprojekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosell, Alejandro Diego

    2012-06-15

    Better late than never: After long years of discussion, Brazil recently decided on a reimbursement strategy. Further, pilot projects with a total of 24 MW are in te planning stage. While some expect a major invitation for tender, local experts warn of rough times ahead.

  4. Evaluation of a Mixing versus a Cycling Strategy of Antibiotic Use in Critically-Ill Medical Patients: Impact on Acquisition of Resistant Microorganisms and Clinical Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazaret Cobos-Trigueros

    Full Text Available To compare the effect of two strategies of antibiotic use (mixing vs. cycling on the acquisition of resistant microorganisms, infections and other clinical outcomes.Prospective cohort study in an 8-bed intensive care unit during 35- months in which a mixing-cycling policy of antipseudomonal beta-lactams (meropenem, ceftazidime/piperacillin-tazobactam and fluoroquinolones was operative. Nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs and respiratory secretions were obtained within 48h of admission and thrice weekly thereafter. Target microorganisms included methicillin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters.A total of 409 (42% patients were included in mixing and 560 (58% in cycling. Exposure to ceftazidime/piperacillin-tazobactam and fluoroquinolones was significantly higher in mixing while exposure to meropenem was higher in cycling, although overall use of antipseudomonals was not significantly different (37.5/100 patient-days vs. 38.1/100 patient-days. There was a barely higher acquisition rate of microorganisms during mixing, but this difference lost its significance when the cases due to an exogenous Burkholderia cepacia outbreak were excluded (19.3% vs. 15.4%, OR 0.8, CI 0.5-1.1. Acquisition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to the intervention antibiotics or with multiple-drug resistance was similar. There were no significant differences between mixing and cycling in the proportion of patients acquiring any infection (16.6% vs. 14.5%, OR 0.9, CI 0.6-1.2, any infection due to target microorganisms (5.9% vs. 5.2%, OR 0.9, CI 0.5-1.5, length of stay (median 5 d for both groups or mortality (13.9 vs. 14.3%, OR 1.03, CI 0.7-1.3.A cycling strategy of antibiotic use with a 6-week cycle duration is similar to mixing in terms of acquisition of resistant microorganisms, infections, length of stay and mortality.

  5. Effect of the pacing strategy during half-duration resistance test on the mechanic, metabolic and cardio-respiratory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pérez-Guerra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Changes in pacing rhythm are translated into functional and metabolic changes that can be significantly reflected in the final results of an athlete. Method: Ten male subjects, with moderate performance level (age: 25.2 ± 2.2 years; VO2max: 56.9 ± 5.7 ml kg−1 min−1, performed four 5-min races with different pacing strategies: constant-pace (CP, record-pace (RP, kicker-pace (KP, incremental-pace (IP. Results: The cardio-respiratory response did not show statistically significant. There were statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 in the energetic efficiency among the protocols CP vs. RP, CP vs. KP and RP vs. IP. When results were analyzed by partials (1-min duration phases, significant differences were observed in the energetic efficiency during the 3rd-min among CP vs. KP, RP vs. KP and KP vs. IP. These significant differences were extended to the 4th-min when comparing CP vs. IP, CP vs. KP, KP vs. RP and KP vs. IP. In the last minute of the test, there were significant differences among CP vs. KP. No significant differences were found in any of the variables assessing anaerobic metabolism (accumulated oxygen deficit, oxygen debt, oxygen uptake kinetics and blood lactate between both protocols. Conclusions: Results suggest that the main functional systems response are significantly affected by the pacing strategy used by middle-level subjects during middle-distance running. Resumen: Objetivo: Los cambios en el ritmo de carrera se traducen en cambios funcionales y metabólicos que pueden reflejarse significativamente en los resultados finales de un atleta. Método: Diez sujetos varones, con un nivel medio (edad: 25.2 ± 2.2 años; VO2max: 56.9 ± 5.7 mlkg−1min−1, llevaron a cabo carreras de 5 minutos con diferentes estrategias: ritmo constante (RC, ritmo récord (RR, ritmo kicker (RK y ritmo incremental (RI. Resultados: La respuesta

  6. The use of transgenic fruit trees as a resistance strategy for virus epidemics: the plum pox (sharka) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelonandro, M; Scorza, R; Callahan, A; Levy, L; Jacquet, C; Monsion, M; Damsteegt, V

    2000-11-01

    Sharka or plum pox, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV: genus Potyvirus; Family Potyviridae), is the most serious disease of Prunus. Most cultivated Prunus species are highly susceptible and conventional breeding has not produced highly resistant and commercially acceptable varieties. Success in developing virus-resistant herbaceous crops through genetic engineering led us to investigate this approach for resistance to PPV. Our programme aims to develop a biotechnological approach to PPV control that is effective and shown to be environmentally safe. The programme began with the cloning of the PPV coat protein (CP) gene and the development of a transformation system for plum (Prunus domestica). The CP construct was first tested in Nicotiana benthamiana in which it proved effective in producing transgenic plants with varying levels of CP expression. Some of these plants, particularly low PPV CP expressers, were resistant to PPV, or recovered from initial infection. Based on these results plum was transformed using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens system and both low and high PPV CP-expressing transgenic plum lines were obtained. These were inoculated with PPV by bud grafts in the greenhouse. Line C-5 proved to be highly resistant. It contained multiple copies of the insert, produced low levels of PPV CP mRNA, no detectable CP and the insert appeared to be methylated. These characteristics all suggest that the resistance of the C-5 clone is based on post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Field tests of C-5 and other transgenic lines in Poland, Romania and Spain have demonstrated that such trees when inoculated by bud-grafts allow a low level of PPV multiplication, from which they rapidly recover. C-5 plants exposed to natural infection for 3 years did not become infected, whereas control trees were infected in the first year. Hybrid plums having the C-5 PPV CP insert inherited from C-5 are virus-resistant, demonstrating the usefulness of C-5 as a parent in developing

  7. A retrospective critic Re-Debate on Stakeholders’ resistance checklist in software project management within multi-cultural, multi-ethnical and cosmopolitan society context: The Malaysian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Taherdoost

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Risks stemming from software projects were extensively studied. However, software project risk management has rarely researched organizational risks within multi-cultural and multi-ethnical atmospheres. The fact of the matter is that problems occur when the stakeholders’ cultural and ethnical aspects are not addressed, especially in multi-cultural, multi-ethnical, and cosmopolitan society such as Malaysia. To avoid analyzing something that has already been studied in detail, this study conducted based on in-depth literature review considering key word search in subject-specific databases. Journal articles published in reputed journals were reviewed. By employing Rumelt’s resistance to change checklist and culture gap tool source, this paper develops an organizational risk framework considering cross-cultural and cross-ethnical critical factors in order to show how can risks be better comprehended and managed. The significance of bio-cultural dimensions was scrutinized as vital criteria which should be considered in international project sphere, so that, not only the odds of project success would be increased but also the risks can be mitigated significantly. A review of the risk management process, Rumelt’s Checklist, cultural issues in international project environment allows a better understanding of the importance of cultural dimensions in project spheres.

  8. Platelet-camouflaged nanococktail: Simultaneous inhibition of drug-resistant tumor growth and metastasis via a cancer cells and tumor vasculature dual-targeting strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Lijia; Qu, Haijing; Wu, Dongqi; Zhu, Chaojian; Yang, Yongbo; Jin, Xing; Zheng, Jian; Shi, Xiangsheng; Yan, Xiufeng; Wang, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) poses a great challenge to cancer therapy. It is difficult to inhibit the growth of MDR cancer due to its chemoresistance. Furthermore, MDR cancers are more likely to metastasize, causing a high mortality among cancer patients. In this study, a nanomedicine RGD-NPVs@MNPs/DOX was developed by encapsulating melanin nanoparticles (MNPs) and doxorubicin (DOX) inside RGD peptide (c(RGDyC))-modified nanoscale platelet vesicles (RGD-NPVs) to efficiently inhibit the growth and metastasis of drug-resistant tumors via a cancer cells and tumor vasculature dual-targeting strategy. Methods: The in vitro immune evasion potential and the targeting performance of RGD-NPVs@MNPs/DOX were examined using RAW264.7, HUVECs, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-231/ADR cells lines. We also evaluated the pharmacokinetic behavior and the in vivo therapeutic performance of RGD-NPVs@MNPs/DOX using a MDA-MB-231/ADR tumor-bearing nude mouse model. Results: By taking advantage of the self-recognizing property of the platelet membrane and the conjugated RGD peptides, RGD-NPVs@MNPs/DOX was found to evade immune clearance and target the αvβ3 integrin on tumor vasculature and resistant breast tumor cells. Under irradiation with a NIR laser, RGD-NPVs@MNPs/DOX produced a multipronged effect, including reversal of cancer MDR, efficient killing of resistant cells by chemo-photothermal therapy, elimination of tumor vasculature for blocking metastasis, and long-lasting inhibition of the expressions of VEGF, MMP2 and MMP9 within the tumor. Conclusion: This versatile nanomedicine of RGD-NPVs@MNPs/DOX integrating unique biomimetic properties, excellent targeting performance, and comprehensive therapeutic strategies in one formulation might bring opportunities to MDR cancer therapy.

  9. Effects of different volume-equated resistance training loading strategies on muscular adaptations in well-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Peterson, Mark D; Contreras, Bret; Sonmez, G T; Alvar, Brent A

    2014-10-01

    Regimented resistance training has been shown to promote marked increases in skeletal muscle mass. Although muscle hypertrophy can be attained through a wide range of resistance training programs, the principle of specificity, which states that adaptations are specific to the nature of the applied stimulus, dictates that some programs will promote greater hypertrophy than others. Research is lacking, however, as to the best combination of variables required to maximize hypertophic gains. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscular adaptations to a volume-equated bodybuilding-type training program vs. a powerlifting-type routine in well-trained subjects. Seventeen young men were randomly assigned to either a hypertrophy-type resistance training group that performed 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum (RM) with 90 seconds rest or a strength-type resistance training (ST) group that performed 7 sets of 3RM with a 3-minute rest interval. After 8 weeks, no significant differences were noted in muscle thickness of the biceps brachii. Significant strength differences were found in favor of ST for the 1RM bench press, and a trend was found for greater increases in the 1RM squat. In conclusion, this study showed that both bodybuilding- and powerlifting-type training promote similar increases in muscular size, but powerlifting-type training is superior for enhancing maximal strength.

  10. Biological degradation of wood-plastic composites (WPC) and strategies for improving the resistance of WPC against biological decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anke Schirp; Rebecca E. Ibach; David E. Pendleton; Michael P. Wolcott

    2008-01-01

    Much of the research on wood-plastic composites (WPC) has focused on formulation development and processing while high biological durability of the material was assumed. The gap between assumption and knowledge in biodeterioration of WPC needs to be reduced. Although some information on the short-term resistance of WPC against biological degradation is available, long-...

  11. Effects of Disclosing Sponsored Content in Blogs: How the Use of Resistance Strategies Mediates Effects on Persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. van Reijmersdal (Eva); M.L. Fransen (Marieke); G. van Noort (Guda); S.J. Opree (Suzanna); L. Vandeberg (Lisa); Reusch, S. (Sanne); van Lieshout, F. (Floor); Boerman, S.C. (Sophie C.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis article presents two studies examining the effects of disclosing online native advertising (i.e., sponsored content in blogs) on people’s brand attitude and purchase intentions. To investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects, we integrated resistance theories with the

  12. Effects of disclosing sponsored content in blogs : how the use of resistance strategies mediates effects on persuasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Fransen, M.L.; van Noort, G.; Opree, S.J.; Vandeberg, L.; Reusch, S.; van Lieshout, F.; Boerman, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents two studies examining the effects of disclosing online native advertising (i.e., sponsored content in blogs) on people’s brand attitude and purchase intentions. To investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects, we integrated resistance theories with the persuasion

  13. The AVuPUR project (Assessing the Vulnerability of Peri-Urban Rivers) : experimental and modelling strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braud, I.; Chancibault, K.; Debionne, S.; Lieme Kouyi, G.; Sarrazin, B.; Jacqueminet, C.

    2009-04-01

    ézine catchment (34 km2) located close to the city of Nantes (west of France). Both catchments are part of hydrometeorological observatories which ensures a long-term monitoring of the catchments. Both catchments experience a rapid increase of urbanisation. They are located in two contrasted climates and physiographic contexts: Mediterranean type climate and marked topography for the Yzeron catchment and oceanic climate with rather flat areas for the Chézine catchment. This will allow testing the robustness and transferability of the developed approaches. The presentation will focus on the data which are currently acquired in the framework of the project: rainfall, streamflow, water levels in ephemeral reaches, lidar survey, geophysical surveys, infiltration tests. A diachronic analysis of land use since the 50th is also performed using satellite and aerial photographs. Some work is also planned to determine future land use scenarios of urbanisation and water management. Urban data bank provided by the Grand Lyon and Nantes-Métropole services are also analysed in order to document the change in water pathways due to urbanisation. The paper will present an overview of these data and first results of their analysis in terms of hydrological functioning and water pathways. The modelling strategy, which will rely on these data, will also be presented.

  14. ESTRUCTURAS DEL HABITAR. COLECTIVIDAD Y RESILIENCIA COMO ESTRATEGIAS DE PROYECTO / HABITATIONAL STRUCTURES. COLLECTIVITY AND RESILIENCE AS PROJECT STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Peñín Llobell

    2016-05-01

    it the resilient dwelling. It will take many different forms; progressive, unfinished, refurbished, adaptable dwelling, etc. In both cases, it is but a matter of systematizing previous experiences, among which it is remarkable a sort of historic continuity between the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the 1960s, and the contemporary era, interrupted by periods of non-critical development. Today, unlike in earlier periods, these new habitational structures integrate in contemporary projects in an articulated manner, questioning its limits, both legal and in regards to authorship, and opening up the field for academic research. Lastly, the article proposes some project mechanisms that will help characterize and promote these new strategies.

  15. Selection strategies of segregant soybean populations for resistance to Asian rust Estratégias de seleção de populações segregantes de soja para resistência à ferrugem-asiática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliny Simony Ribeiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify the best selection strategies for the more promising parental combinations to obtain lines with good resistance to soybean Asian rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi. Two experiments were carried out in the field during the 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 growing seasons, to determine the percentage of infected leaf area of individual plants of five parents and their segregant F2 and F3 populations. The data obtained indicates that additive genetic variance predominates in the control of soybean resistance to Asian rust, and that the year and time of assessment do not significantly influence the estimates of the genetic parameters obtained. The narrow-sense heritability (h²r ranged from 23.12 to 55.83%, and indicates the possibility of successful selection of resistant individuals in the early generations of the breeding program. All the procedures used to select the most promising populations to generate superior inbred lines for resistance to P. pachyrhizi presented similar results and identified the BR01-18437 x BRS 232 population as the best for inbred line selection.O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar as estratégias mais eficientes para selecionar as combinações parentais mais promissoras e obter linhas com bom grau de resistência à ferrugem-asiática da soja (Phakopsora pachyrhizi. Dois experimentos foram realizados em campo nos anos agrícolas 2006/2007 e 2007/2008, para avaliar a percentagem da área foliar infectada em plantas individuais de cinco parentais e das suas populações segregantes F2 e F3. Os dados obtidos indicam que a variância genética aditiva predomina no controle da resistência da soja à ferrugem-asiática e que os anos e as épocas de avaliação não influenciaram significativamente as estimativas dos parâmetros genéticos obtidos. A herdabilidade no sentido restrito (h²r variou de 23,12 a 55,83%, o que indica a possibilidade de sucesso com a seleção de indiv

  16. Patterns of HIV-1 drug resistance after first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure in 6 sub-Saharan African countries: implications for second-line ART strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Raph L; Sigaloff, Kim C E; Wensing, Annemarie M; Wallis, Carole L; Kityo, Cissy; Siwale, Margaret; Mandaliya, Kishor; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette E; Wellington, Maureen; Osibogun, Akin; Stevens, Wendy S; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Schuurman, Rob

    2012-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance may limit the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This cohort study examined patterns of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) in individuals with virological failure on first-line ART at 13 clinical sites in 6 African countries and predicted their impact on second-line drug susceptibility. A total of 2588 antiretroviral-naive individuals initiated ART consisting of different nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbones (zidovudine, stavudine, tenofovir, or abacavir, plus lamivudine or emtricitabine) with either efavirenz or nevirapine. Population sequencing after 12 months of ART was retrospectively performed if HIV RNA was >1000 copies/mL. The 2010 International Antiviral Society-USA list was used to score major DRMs. The Stanford algorithm was used to predict drug susceptibility. HIV-1 sequences were generated for 142 participants who virologically failed ART, of whom 70% carried ≥1 DRM and 49% had dual-class resistance, with an average of 2.4 DRMs per sequence (range, 1-8). The most common DRMs were M184V (53.5%), K103N (28.9%), Y181C (15.5%), and G190A (14.1%). Thymidine analogue mutations were present in 8.5%. K65R was frequently selected by stavudine (15.0%) or tenofovir (27.7%). Among participants with ≥1 DRM, HIV-1 susceptibility was reduced in 93% for efavirenz/nevirapine, in 81% for lamivudine/emtricitabine, in 59% for etravirine/rilpivirine, in 27% for tenofovir, in 18% for stavudine, and in 10% for zidovudine. Early failure detection limited the accumulation of resistance. After stavudine failure in African populations, zidovudine rather than tenofovir may be preferred in second-line ART. Strategies to prevent HIV-1 resistance are a global priority.

  17. Infection Prevention Strategy in Hospitals in the Era of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the Asia-Pacific Region: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun Young; Chung, Doo Ryeon

    2017-05-15

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has emerged as an important cause of healthcare-associated infection. CA-MRSA clones have replaced classic hospital MRSA clones in many countries and have shown higher potential in transmission and virulence than hospital MRSA clones. In particular, the emergence of CA-MRSA in the Asia-Pacific region is concerning owing to insufficient infection control measures in the region. The old strategies for infection prevention and control of MRSA comprised adherence to standard precaution and policy of active screening of MRSA carriers and decolonization, and it has been controversial which strategy is better in terms of outcome and cost-effectiveness. Epidemiological changes in MRSA has made the development of infection prevention strategy more complicated. Based on the literature review and the questionnaire survey, we considered infection prevention strategies for healthcare settings in the Asia-Pacific region in the era of CA-MRSA. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Engineered Sulfur‐Resistant Catalyst System with an Assisted Regeneration Strategy for Lean‐Burn Methane Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallinen, Kauko; Maunula, Teuvo; Suvanto, Mika

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Catalytic combustion of methane, the main component of natural gas, is a challenge under lean‐burn conditions and at low temperatures owing to sulfur poisoning of the Pd‐rich catalyst. This paper introduces a more sulfur‐resistant catalyst system that can be regenerated during operation. The developed catalyst system lowers the barrier that has restrained the use of liquefied natural gas as a fuel in energy production. PMID:29780434

  19. Multi-targeted therapy for leprosy: insilico strategy to overcome multi drug resistance and to improve therapeutic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusuya, Shanmugam; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2012-12-01

    Leprosy remains a major public health problem, since single and multi-drug resistance has been reported worldwide over the last two decades. In the present study, we report the novel multi-targeted therapy for leprosy to overcome multi drug resistance and to improve therapeutic efficacy. If multiple enzymes of an essential metabolic pathway of a bacterium were targeted, then the therapy would become more effective and can prevent the occurrence of drug resistance. The MurC, MurD, MurE and MurF enzymes of peptidoglycan biosynthetic pathway were selected for multi targeted therapy. The conserved or class specific active site residues important for function or stability were predicted using evolutionary trace analysis and site directed mutagenesis studies. Ten such residues which were present in at least any three of the four Mur enzymes (MurC, MurD, MurE and MurF) were identified. Among the ten residues G125, K126, T127 and G293 (numbered based on their position in MurC) were found to be conserved in all the four Mur enzymes of the entire bacterial kingdom. In addition K143, T144, T166, G168, H234 and Y329 (numbered based on their position in MurE) were significant in binding substrates and/co-factors needed for the functional events in any three of the Mur enzymes. These are the probable residues for designing newer anti-leprosy drugs in an attempt to reduce drug resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Design and deployment strategies for small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) to overcome loss of economies of scale and incorporate increased proliferation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.

    2007-01-01

    The designers of innovative small and medium sized reactors pursue new design and deployment strategies making use of certain advantages provided by smaller reactor size and capacity to achieve reduced design complexity and simplified operation and maintenance requirements, and to provide for incremental capacity increase through multi-module plant clustering. Competitiveness of SMRs (Small and Medium size Reactor) depends on the incorporated strategies to overcome loss of economies of scale but equally it depends on finding appropriate market niches for such reactors. For many less developed countries, these are the features of enhanced proliferation resistance and increased robustness of barriers for sabotage protection that may ensure the progress of nuclear power. For such countries, small reactors without on-site refuelling, designed for infrequent replacement of well-contained fuel cassette(s) in a manner that impedes clandestine diversion of nuclear fuel material, may provide a solution. Based on the outputs of recent IAEA activities for innovative SMRs, the paper provides a summary of the state-of-the-art in approaches to improve SMR competitiveness and incorporate enhanced proliferation resistance and energy security. (author)

  1. Biotin-targeted Pluronic(®) P123/F127 mixed micelles delivering niclosamide: A repositioning strategy to treat drug-resistant lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Annapina; Pellosi, Diogo Silva; Pagliara, Valentina; Milone, Maria Rita; Pucci, Biagio; Caetano, Wilker; Hioka, Noboru; Budillon, Alfredo; Ungaro, Francesca; Russo, Giulia; Quaglia, Fabiana

    2016-09-10

    With the aim to develop alternative therapeutic tools for the treatment of resistant cancers, here we propose targeted Pluronic(®) P123/F127 mixed micelles (PMM) delivering niclosamide (NCL) as a repositioning strategy to treat multidrug resistant non-small lung cancer cell lines. To build multifunctional PMM for targeting and imaging, Pluronic(®) F127 was conjugated with biotin, while Pluronic(®) P123 was fluorescently tagged with rhodamine B, in both cases at one of the two hydroxyl end groups. This design intended to avoid any interference of rhodamine B on biotin exposition on PMM surface, which is a key fundamental for cell trafficking studies. Biotin-decorated PMM were internalized more efficiently than non-targeted PMM in A549 lung cancer cells, while very low internalization was found in NHI3T3 normal fibroblasts. Biotin-decorated PMM entrapped NCL with good efficiency, displayed sustained drug release in protein-rich media and improved cytotoxicity in A549 cells as compared to free NCL (Pbiotin-decorated PMM carrying NCL at low doses demonstrated a significantly higher cytotoxicity than free NCL in CPr-A549. These results point at NCL-based regimen with targeted PMM as a possible second-line chemotherapy for lung cancer showing cisplatin or multidrug resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Encountering Gender: Resisting a Neo-Liberal Political Rationality for Sexuality Education as an HIV Prevention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacoin, Andrée E.

    2017-01-01

    Globally, sexuality education is framed as a key programmatic strategy for achieving HIV prevention among youth. In particular, sexuality education is positioned as a way to address gender inequalities and promote youth empowerment in relation to gendered identities. In this paper, I argue that the focus on what content should be taught and…

  3. Strategy-Based Development of Teacher Educators' ICT Competence through a Co-operative Staff Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavonen, Jari; Lattu, Matti; Juuti, Kalle; Meisalo, Veijo

    2006-01-01

    An ICT strategy and an implementation plan for teacher education were created in a co-operative process. Visions and expectations of staff members and students were registered by questionnaires and by making notes during sessions in which the strategy was created. Thereafter, an implementation document, where the staff development programme and…

  4. The ability to manage self-proposed projects between 1;3 and 2;0 years old: a study of inhibition and resistance to interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estanislao Pastor-Mallol

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines very young children's ability to manage self-proposed projects by using the inhibitory function and resistance to interference. In a natural environment and using an observational method, we conducted a longitudinal study of a sample observed at 1;3, 1;6, 1;9 and 2;0 years old. The research was divided into two studies which followed different procedures and looked at the projects carried out, the interferences produced and the functioning of inhibition. We observed significant differences in the execution of inhibition at the different age groups. We also describe general cognitive functions in terms of significant patterns, and determine that the use of inhibition is linked not only to age but also to the activity complexity level and the type of interference.

  5. Sexual Behavior, Risk Compensation, and HIV Prevention Strategies Among Participants in the San Francisco PrEP Demonstration Project: A Qualitative Analysis of Counseling Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Hojilla, J; Koester, Kimberly A; Cohen, Stephanie E; Buchbinder, Susan; Ladzekpo, Deawodi; Matheson, Tim; Liu, Albert Y

    2016-07-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a viable HIV prevention strategy but risk compensation could undermine potential benefits. There are limited data that examine this phenomenon outside of clinical trials. We conducted a qualitative analysis of counseling notes from the San Francisco site of the US PrEP demonstration project to assess how men who have sex with men used PrEP as a prevention strategy and its impact on their sexual practices. Four major themes emerged from our analysis of 130 distinct notes associated with 26 participants. Prevention strategy decision-making was dynamic, often influenced by the context and perceived risk of a sexual encounter. Counselors noted that participants used PrEP in conjunction with other health promotion strategies like condoms, asking about HIV status of their sex partners, and seroadaptation. With few exceptions, existing risk reduction strategies were not abandoned upon initiation of PrEP. Risk-taking behavior was 'seasonal' and fluctuations were influenced by various personal, psychosocial, and health-related factors. PrEP also helped relieve anxiety regarding sex and HIV, particularly among serodiscordant partners. Understanding sexual decision-making and how PrEP is incorporated into existing prevention strategies can help inform future PrEP implementation efforts.

  6. Emergency monitoring strategy and radiation measurements document of the NKS project emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, J. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    This report is one of the deliverables of the NKS Project Emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD) (20022005). The project and the overall results are briefly described in the NKS publication 'Emergency Management and Radiation Monitoring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents. Summary Report on the NKS Project EMARAD' (NKS-137, April 2006). In a nuclear or radiological emergency, all radiation measurements must be performed efficiently and the results interpreted correctly in order to provide the decision-makers with adequate data needed in analysing the situation and carrying out countermeasures. Managing measurements in different situations in a proper way requires the existence of pre-prepared emergency monitoring strategies. Preparing a comprehensive yet versatile strategy is not an easy task to perform because there are lots of different factors that have to be taken into account. The primary objective of this study was to discuss the general problematics concerning emergency monitoring strategies and to describe a few important features of an efficient emergency monitoring system as well as factors affecting measurement activities in practise. Some information concerning the current situation in the Nordic countries has also been included. (au)

  7. Emergency monitoring strategy and radiation measurements. Working document of the NKS project emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, J.

    2006-04-01

    This report is one of the deliverables of the NKS Project Emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD) (20022005). The project and the overall results are briefly described in the NKS publication 'Emergency Management and Radiation Monitoring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents. Summary Report on the NKS Project EMARAD' (NKS-137, April 2006). In a nuclear or radiological emergency, all radiation measurements must be performed efficiently and the results interpreted correctly in order to provide the decision-makers with adequate data needed in analysing the situation and carrying out countermeasures. Managing measurements in different situations in a proper way requires the existence of pre-prepared emergency monitoring strategies. Preparing a comprehensive yet versatile strategy is not an easy task to perform because there are lots of different factors that have to be taken into account. The primary objective of this study was to discuss the general problematics concerning emergency monitoring strategies and to describe a few important features of an efficient emergency monitoring system as well as factors affecting measurement activities in practise. Some information concerning the current situation in the Nordic countries has also been included. (au)

  8. EUBerry: Competitiveness and marketing strategies of sustainable berries validated for improved health benefits - Introduction to the project and preliminary results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Roelofs, P.F.M.M.; Kaim, E.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Zmarlicki, K.

    2014-01-01

    The EUBerry project is not only building on technical research but also studies berry production and consumption from a social sciences perspective. This paper aims to describe the approach used in the EUBerry project about business economics as well as marketing. In addition some preliminary

  9. Overview of Strategies for High-Temperature Creep and Oxidation Resistance of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Brady, M. P.; Santella, M. L.; Bei, H.; Maziasz, P. J.; Pint, B. A.

    2011-04-01

    A family of creep-resistant, alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel alloys is under development for structural use in fossil energy conversion and combustion system applications. The AFA alloys developed to date exhibit comparable creep-rupture lives to state-of-the-art advanced austenitic alloys, and superior oxidation resistance in the ~923 K to 1173 K (650 °C to 900 °C) temperature range due to the formation of a protective Al2O3 scale rather than the Cr2O3 scales that form on conventional stainless steel alloys. This article overviews the alloy design approaches used to obtain high-temperature creep strength in AFA alloys via considerations of phase equilibrium from thermodynamic calculations as well as microstructure characterization. Strengthening precipitates under evaluation include MC-type carbides or intermetallic phases such as NiAl-B2, Fe2(Mo,Nb)-Laves, Ni3Al-L12, etc. in the austenitic single-phase matrix. Creep, tensile, and oxidation properties of the AFA alloys are discussed relative to compositional and microstructural factors.

  10. TP53 suppression promotes erythropoiesis in del(5q) MDS, suggesting a targeted therapeutic strategy in lenalidomide-resistant patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Gisela; McGraw, Kathy; Yip, Bon Ham; Pellagatti, Andrea; Johnson, Joseph; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Kenian; Zhang, Lan Min; Fulp, William J.; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Al Ali, Najla H.; Basiorka, Ashley; Smith, Larry J.; Daugherty, F. Joseph; Littleton, Neil; Wells, Richard A.; Sokol, Lubomir; Wei, Sheng; Komrokji, Rami S.; Boultwood, Jacqueline; List, Alan F.

    2013-01-01

    Stabilization of p53 in erythroid precursors in response to nucleosomal stress underlies the hypoplastic anemia in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with chromosome 5q deletion [del(5q)]. We investigated whether cenersen, a clinically active 20-mer antisense oligonucleotide complementary to TP53 exon10, could suppress p53 expression and restore erythropoiesis in del(5q) MDS. Cenersen treatment of ribosomal protein S-14-deficient erythroblasts significantly reduced cellular p53 and p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis expression compared with controls, accompanied by a significant reduction in apoptosis and increased cell proliferation. In a two-stage erythroid differentiation assay, cenersen significantly suppressed nuclear p53 in bone marrow CD34+ cells isolated from patients with del(5q) MDS, whereas erythroid burst recovery increased proportionally to the magnitude of p53 suppression without evidence of del(5q) clonal suppression (r = −0.6; P = 0.005). To explore the effect of p53 suppression on erythropoiesis in vivo, dexamethasone, a glucocorticoid receptor-dependent p53 antagonist, was added to lenalidomide treatment in eight lower-risk, transfusion-dependent, del(5q) MDS patients with acquired drug resistance. Transfusion independence was restored in five patients accompanied by expansion of erythroid precursors and decreased cellular p53 expression. We conclude that targeted suppression of p53 could support effective erythropoiesis in lenalidomide-resistant del(5q) MDS. PMID:24043769

  11. Engineering human T cells for resistance to methotrexate and mycophenolate mofetil as an in vivo cell selection strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Jonnalagadda

    Full Text Available Gene transfer and drug selection systems that enforce ongoing transgene expression in vitro and in vivo which are compatible with human pharmaceutical drugs are currently underdeveloped. Here, we report on the utility of incorporating human enzyme muteins that confer resistance to the lymphotoxic/immunosuppressive drugs methotrexate (MTX and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF in a multicistronic lentiviral vector for in vivo T lymphocyte selection. We found that co-expression of human dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR(FS; L22F, F31S and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase II (IMPDH2(IY; T333I, S351Y conferred T cell resistance to the cytocidal and anti-proliferative effects of these drugs at concentrations that can be achieved clinically (up to 0.1 µM MTX and 1.0 µM MPA. Furthermore, using a immunodeficient mouse model that supports the engraftment of central memory derived human T cells, in vivo selection studies demonstrate that huEGFRt(+DHFR(FS+IMPDH2(IY+ T cells could be enriched following adoptive transfer either by systemic administration of MTX alone (4.4 -fold, MMF alone (2.9-fold, or combined MTX and MMF (4.9-fold. These findings demonstrate the utility of both DHFR(FS/MTX and IMPDH2(IY/MMF for in vivo selection of lentivirally transduced human T cells. Vectors incorporating these muteins in combination with other therapeutic transgenes may facilitate the selective engraftment of therapeutically active cells in recipients.

  12. Engineering human T cells for resistance to methotrexate and mycophenolate mofetil as an in vivo cell selection strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Mahesh; Brown, Christine E; Chang, Wen-Chung; Ostberg, Julie R; Forman, Stephen J; Jensen, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Gene transfer and drug selection systems that enforce ongoing transgene expression in vitro and in vivo which are compatible with human pharmaceutical drugs are currently underdeveloped. Here, we report on the utility of incorporating human enzyme muteins that confer resistance to the lymphotoxic/immunosuppressive drugs methotrexate (MTX) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in a multicistronic lentiviral vector for in vivo T lymphocyte selection. We found that co-expression of human dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR(FS); L22F, F31S) and inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase II (IMPDH2(IY); T333I, S351Y) conferred T cell resistance to the cytocidal and anti-proliferative effects of these drugs at concentrations that can be achieved clinically (up to 0.1 µM MTX and 1.0 µM MPA). Furthermore, using a immunodeficient mouse model that supports the engraftment of central memory derived human T cells, in vivo selection studies demonstrate that huEGFRt(+)DHFR(FS+)IMPDH2(IY+) T cells could be enriched following adoptive transfer either by systemic administration of MTX alone (4.4 -fold), MMF alone (2.9-fold), or combined MTX and MMF (4.9-fold). These findings demonstrate the utility of both DHFR(FS)/MTX and IMPDH2(IY)/MMF for in vivo selection of lentivirally transduced human T cells. Vectors incorporating these muteins in combination with other therapeutic transgenes may facilitate the selective engraftment of therapeutically active cells in recipients.

  13. Collaborative Project: The problem of bias in defining uncertainty in computationally enabled strategies for data-driven climate model development. Final Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, Gabriel [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-10

    The objective of the project is to develop strategies for better representing scientific sensibilities within statistical measures of model skill that then can be used within a Bayesian statistical framework for data-driven climate model development and improved measures of model scientific uncertainty. One of the thorny issues in model evaluation is quantifying the effect of biases on climate projections. While any bias is not desirable, only those biases that affect feedbacks affect scatter in climate projections. The effort at the University of Texas is to analyze previously calculated ensembles of CAM3.1 with perturbed parameters to discover how biases affect projections of global warming. The hypothesis is that compensating errors in the control model can be identified by their effect on a combination of processes and that developing metrics that are sensitive to dependencies among state variables would provide a way to select version of climate models that may reduce scatter in climate projections. Gabriel Huerta at the University of New Mexico is responsible for developing statistical methods for evaluating these field dependencies. The UT effort will incorporate these developments into MECS, which is a set of python scripts being developed at the University of Texas for managing the workflow associated with data-driven climate model development over HPC resources. This report reflects the main activities at the University of New Mexico where the PI (Huerta) and the Postdocs (Nosedal, Hattab and Karki) worked on the project.

  14. A new aspects for project of subsequent thermal resistance extension at old-timer timbering constructions of wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Havířová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the reliability of subsequent thermal resistance extension at old-timer timbering constructions of wood for the period of their supposed service life a more profound analysis of construction is necessary from the aspect of a global thermal/technical evaluation. Service life of these buildings is dependent on temperature and moisture conditions in layers of the building cladding where the wood framework is built in. Temperature/moisture conditions or the corresponding equilibrium moisture content (EMC of the construction show considerable effects on the functional reliability of the whole building from the viewpoint of mechanical resistance and stability, energy savings and thermal protection and hygiene, health and environment protection.

  15. Project Access: Strategies to improve care for children and youth with epilepsy: illustrations of recommendations in the IOM report on the epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Janelle L; Levisohn, Paul M; Onufer, Charles N; Uchegbu, Gloria C; Fletcher, Linda; Zupanc, Mary; Browne, Mimi

    2013-10-01

    Project Access (PA), funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), provided grants to state and local agencies to improve awareness, provide education, design, test, pilot and evaluate system changes, and improve quality of services and access to early diagnosis and comprehensive, coordinated health care and related services for children and youth with epilepsy residing in rural and medically underserved areas. In 2011, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (IOM) published a series of 13 recommendations addressing unmet psychosocial, medical, and public health needs of individuals with epilepsy, including children and youth. This paper examines the synergy between these two projects showing how the strategies utilized in the PA demonstration projects can address the IOM recommendations and how these recommendations can inform future initiatives for improving care for children and youth with epilepsy. © 2013.

  16. Novel strategy in increasing stability and corrosion resistance for super-hydrophobic coating on aluminum alloy surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Bo [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044 (China); Fang Liang, E-mail: fangliangcqu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044 (China); Tang Anqiong; Huang Qiuliu; Hu Jia; Mao Jianhui [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044 (China); Bai, Ge; Bai, Huan [State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment and System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044 (China)

    2011-10-15

    A novel super-hydrophobic coating was prepared by chemical modification on the anodized aluminum alloy surface. The surface structure was characterized by water contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the composition was measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The corrosion behavior of the super-hydrophobic coating was evaluated by the polarization curve and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It was found that the static water contact angle on the surface of super-hydrophobic coating was as high as 167.7 {+-} 1.2 deg., and the sliding angle was 5 deg. The super-hydrophobic coating resulted in excellent corrosion resistance property and the super-hydrophobic coating showed a good stability.

  17. A Network Meta-Analysis of Clinical Management Strategies for Treatment-Resistant Hypertension: Making Optimal Use of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makai, Peter; IntHout, Joanna; Deinum, Jaap; Jenniskens, Kevin; Wilt, Gert Jan van der

    2017-08-01

    With the addition of surgical interventions to current medicinal treatments, it is increasingly challenging for clinicians to rationally choose among the various options for treating patients with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (ATRHTN). This study aims to establish the comparative effectiveness of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA), renal denervation (RDN), darusentan and central arteriovenous anastomosis (CAA) for patients with ATRHTN by performing a network meta-analysis. Data Sources: Studies from recent meta-analyses for RDN and placebo effect were supplemented with a systematic search for MRAs in ATRHTN in the Pubmed, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through November 2016. Randomized controlled trials comparing treatment options for patients with ATRHTN. Data were extracted using predefined data extraction forms, including the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. A Bayesian random effects model was used to conduct a network meta-analysis. Spironolactone was used as the main comparator. Main Outcomes and Measures: Reduction in 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM). Twenty articles met our inclusion criteria, and seven treatment alternatives were compared. Compared to MRA, CAA had the highest probability of being more effective, further reducing 24-h SBP (-4.8 mmHg [-13.0, 3.7]) and 24-h DBP (-9.7 mmHg [-18, -0.63]). This difference is likely to be clinically meaningful, with a probability of 78 and 96% at a threshold of a 2-mmHg reduction in blood pressure. When compared to MRA as anchor, darusentan, CAA and RDN are not more effective in achieving a clinically significant reduction in ambulatory blood pressure in individuals with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension.

  18. Multi-Drug Resistance Transporters and a Mechanism-Based Strategy for Assessing Risks of Pesticide Combinations to Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseman, Alex J; Miller, Kaliah; Kunkle, Grace; Dively, Galen P; Pettis, Jeffrey S; Evans, Jay D; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Hawthorne, David J

    2016-01-01

    Annual losses of honey bee colonies remain high and pesticide exposure is one possible cause. Dangerous combinations of pesticides, plant-produced compounds and antibiotics added to hives may cause or contribute to losses, but it is very difficult to test the many combinations of those compounds that bees encounter. We propose a mechanism-based strategy for simplifying the assessment of combinations of compounds, focusing here on compounds that interact with xenobiotic handling ABC transporters. We evaluate the use of ivermectin as a model substrate for these transporters. Compounds that increase sensitivity of bees to ivermectin may be inhibiting key transporters. We show that several compounds commonly encountered by honey bees (fumagillin, Pristine, quercetin) significantly increased honey bee mortality due to ivermectin and significantly reduced the LC50 of ivermectin suggesting that they may interfere with transporter function. These inhibitors also significantly increased honey bees sensitivity to the neonicotinoid insecticide acetamiprid. This mechanism-based strategy may dramatically reduce the number of tests needed to assess the possibility of adverse combinations among pesticides. We also demonstrate an in vivo transporter assay that provides physical evidence of transporter inhibition by tracking the dynamics of a fluorescent substrate of these transporters (Rhodamine B) in bee tissues. Significantly more Rhodamine B remains in the head and hemolymph of bees pretreated with higher concentrations of the transporter inhibitor verapamil. Mechanism-based strategies for simplifying the assessment of adverse chemical interactions such as described here could improve our ability to identify those combinations that pose significantly greater risk to bees and perhaps improve the risk assessment protocols for honey bees and similar sensitive species.

  19. Antimicrobial resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health challenge, which has accelerated by the overuse of antibiotics worldwide. Increased antimicrobial resistance is the cause of severe infections, complications, longer hospital stays and increased mortality. Overprescribing of antibiotics......-the-counter sale of antibiotics, the use of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, the active participation of clinicians in audits, the utilization of valid rapid point-of-care tests, the promotion of delayed antibiotic prescribing strategies, the enhancement of communication skills with patients with the aid...

  20. The Quebec Rural Emergency Department Project: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Potential Two-Pronged Strategy in the Knowledge Transfer Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitras, Julien; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric; Ouimet, Mathieu; Dupuis, Gilles; Tanguay, Alain; Simard-Racine, Geneviève

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Health services research generates useful knowledge. Promotion of implementation of this knowledge in medical practice is essential. Prior to initiation of a major study on rural emergency departments (EDs), we deployed two knowledge transfer strategies designed to generate interest and engagement from potential knowledge users. The objective of this paper was to review: 1) a combined project launch and media press release strategy, and 2) a pre-study survey designed to survey potential knowledge users’ opinions on the proposed study variables. Materials and Methods We evaluated the impact of the project launch (presentation at two conferences hosted by key stakeholders) and media press release via a survey of participants/stakeholders and by calculating the number of media interview requests and reports generated. We used a pre-study survey to collect potential key stakeholder’ opinions on the study variables. Results Twenty-one of Quebec’s 26 rural EDs participated in the pre-study survey (81% participation rate). The press release about the study generated 51 press articles and 20 media request for interviews, and contributed to public awareness of a major rural research initiative. In the pre-study survey, thirteen participants (46%) mentioned prior knowledge of the research project. Results from the pre-study survey revealed that all of the potential study variables were considered to be relevant for inclusion in the research project. Respondents also proposed additional variables of interest, including factors promoting retention of human resources. Conclusions The present study demonstrated the potential utility of a two-pronged knowledge transfer strategy, including a combined formal launch and press release, and a pre-study survey designed to ensure that the included variables were of interest to participants and stakeholders. PMID:25849328