WorldWideScience

Sample records for resistance strategies project

  1. Strategy as Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Pedersen, Carsten; Ritter, Thomas; Andersen, Torben Juul

    This paper proposes the adoption of a project-based view to analyze strategy formation and strategic renewal over time. Projects are resource-committing, empirically-tracable investments, and as such, particularly suitable for the analysis of different manifestations of intended strategies as well...... as post-hoc manifestations of deviant, even rebellious, actions taken in opposition to the initial strategy announcement. The paper presents an analytical framework (a 5x2 matrix) of ten different project categories that together allows researchers to investigate how strategic renewal is realized through...... the enactment of different types of project initiatives throughout the organization. The developed framework is validated by two field studies that outline the robustness of the proposed matrix. In addition to the demonstration of the advantages of the framework, we discuss the limitations of the strategy-as-projects...

  2. Resistance governance in IT projects

    OpenAIRE

    Vrhovec, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The failure rate of projects introducing major changes is worrying. Resistance to change is recognized as an important factor in project failure. Resistance is a natural part of the change process and is therefore present in all changes. IS changes are mostly evolutionary. Organizations infrequently implement more important strategic changes with a broader scope. Resistance often remains overlooked and usually does not constitute a serious threat to the change as it is proportional to the cha...

  3. Strategies to combat antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchil, Rajesh R; Kohli, Gurdeep Singh; Katekhaye, Vijay M; Swami, Onkar C

    2014-07-01

    The global burden of antimicrobial resistance is rising and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in clinical and community setting. Spread of antibiotic resistance to different environmental niches and development of superbugs have further complicated the effective control strategies. International, national and local approaches have been advised for control and prevention of antimicrobial resistance. Rational use of antimicrobials, regulation on over-the-counter availability of antibiotics, improving hand hygiene and improving infection prevention and control are the major recommended approaches. Thorough understanding of resistance mechanism and innovation in new drugs and vaccines is the need. A multidisciplinary, collaborative, regulatory approach is demanded for combating antimicrobial resistance.

  4. Math Fact Strategies Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boso, Annie

    2011-01-01

    An action research project was conducted in order to determine effective math fact strategies for first graders. The traditional way of teaching math facts included using timed tests and flashcards, with most students counting on their fingers or a number line. Six new research-based strategies were taught and analyzed to decide which methods…

  5. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hee Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic (PD properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST, clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care, the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing. The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics.

  6. Random Assignment of Schools to Groups in the Drug Resistance Strategies Rural Project: Some New Methodological Twists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice L.; Zhou, Jiangxiu; Hecht, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Random assignment to groups is the foundation for scientifically rigorous clinical trials. But assignment is challenging in group randomized trials when only a few units (schools) are assigned to each condition. In the DRSR project, we assigned 39 rural Pennsylvania and Ohio schools to three conditions (rural, classic, control). But even with 13 schools per condition, achieving pretest equivalence on important variables is not guaranteed. We collected data on six important school-level variables: rurality, number of grades in the school, enrollment per grade, percent white, percent receiving free/assisted lunch, and test scores. Key to our procedure was the inclusion of school-level drug use data, available for a subset of the schools. Also, key was that we handled the partial data with modern missing data techniques. We chose to create one composite stratifying variable based on the seven school-level variables available. Principal components analysis with the seven variables yielded two factors, which were averaged to form the composite inflate-suppress (CIS) score which was the basis of stratification. The CIS score was broken into three strata within each state; schools were assigned at random to the three program conditions from within each stratum, within each state. Results showed that program group membership was unrelated to the CIS score, the two factors making up the CIS score, and the seven items making up the factors. Program group membership was not significantly related to pretest measures of drug use (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, chewing tobacco; smallest p>.15), thus verifying that pretest equivalence was achieved. PMID:23722619

  7. Project management strategies for prototyping breakdowns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granlien, Maren Sander; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2009-01-01

    of strategies for coping with escalation in troubled prototyping projects; the framework is based on project management triangle theory and is useful when considering how to manage prototype breakdown and escalation. All strategies were applied in the project case at different points in time. The strategies led......, managing the explorative and iterative aspects of prototyping projects is not a trivial task. We examine the managerial challenges in a small scale prototyping project in the Danish healthcare sector where a prototype breakdown and project escalation occurs. From this study we derive a framework......Prototyping is often presented as a universal solution to many intractable information systems project problems. Prototyping is known to offer at least three advantages (1) provide users with a concrete understanding, (2) eliminate the confusion, (3) cope with uncertainty. On the other hand...

  8. A critical evaluation of the strategy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B. J.; Liland, A.; Beresford, N. A.; Andersson, K. G.; Cox, G.; Gil, J. M.; Hunt, J.; Nisbet, A.; Oughton, D. H.; Voigt, G.

    2004-01-01

    The STRATEGY project (sustainable restoration and long-term management of contaminated rural, urban and industrial ecosystems; www.strategy-ec.org.uk) addressed the need for a holistic decision framework for the selection of optimal remediation strategies for long-term sustainable management of contaminated areas in Western Europe. The project considered both technical and social aspects of implementing restoration strategies for urban and rural environments. The importance of considering socially relevant objectives in addition to the dose reduction was emphasised. A critical evaluation was carried out on 101 selected countermeasures, (including rural waste disposal options), a model was developed to aid optimising countermeasure strategies and a method of carrying out participatory decision-making suggested. The outputs of the project are described and critically evaluated. (authors)

  9. A critical evaluation of the STRATEGY project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, B.J.; Liland, A.; Beresford, N.A.

    2004-01-01

    The STRATEGY project (sustainable restoration and long-term management of contaminated rural, urban and industrial ecosystems; www.strategy-ec.org.uk) addressed the need for a holistic decision framework for the selection of optimal remediation strategies for long-term sustainable management...... of contaminated areas in Western Europe. The project considered both technical and social aspects of implementing restoration strategies for urban and rural environments. The importance of considering socially relevant objectives in addition to the dose reduction was emphasised. A critical evaluation was carried...... out on 101 selected countermeasures, (including rural waste disposal options), a model was developed to aid optimising countermeasure strategies and a method of carrying out participatory decision-making suggested. The outputs of the project are described and critically evaluated....

  10. Like Islam Project, Strategi Dakwah Masa Kini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahida Yasya Moeniri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Islam is the religion with aesthetics. It is Muslim’s obligation to generously spread the beauty of Islamic teachings in all aspects of life, health, education and economy. For that reason, Like Islam Project tries to promote da’wah Islam through its business, a creative home industry. Like Islam Project uses Islamic quotes in their merchandise products to convey Islamic teachings. This study is a qualitative descriptive study. Data is collected through face-to-face interview with the owner and an online interview, using Whatsappplatform, with 2 of their resellers. To validate observation and documentation are performed. Result shows that Like Islam Project has special strategies to reach their goals. Those strategies are clear intention, qualified human resources, setting da’wah targets, selecting appropriate media, and also having original idea and concept. Background and da’wah style of Like Islam Project are also discussed.

  11. Strategies for local community wind energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Garry

    1993-01-01

    This paper sets out some near term actions and policies which may improve the prospects for 'local group owned' wind turbines in the UK. Topics covered briefly include the advantages and disadvantages of local group owned wind projects, legal and institutional structures, the scale of projects and investment, subsidies and the NFFO, debt guarantees, public electricity supply franchises and finally the elements of a local ownership strategy for the UK. (UK)

  12. Integrating Project Portfolio With Business Strategy: Imagineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Buaes Dal Maso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aligning project management to the strategy of a big company is a difficult job. Through Imagineering (the business department and project management program, The Walt Disney Company has done this alignment in an exemplary way. Using a theoretical investigation, this study analyzed the Imagineering as a reference in strategic management of global projects through Disney´s business portfolio, a global benchmarking and with Malmberg et al. (2010 as a company guide. As the main results of the correlations carried out, it was noted that the Imagineers who work in project teams apply tools and techniques with a strategic vision focused on differentiation, generating value, and mixing imagination with technical capacity. The Blue Sky department and its integrated units make possible the creation and deployment of the attractions, the theme parks, hotels, resorts and the Disney sea cruises, demonstrating in this way, to be a highly effective project management office.

  13. Water Integration Project Science Strategies White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan K. Yonk

    2003-09-01

    This white paper has been prepared to document the approach to develop strategies to address Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) science and technology needs/uncertainties to support completion of INEEL Idaho Completion Project (Environmental Management [EM]) projects against the 2012 plan. Important Idaho Completion Project remediation and clean-up projects include the 2008 OU 10-08 Record of Decision, completion of EM by 2012, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tanks, INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility, and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The objective of this effort was to develop prioritized operational needs and uncertainties that would assist Operations in remediation and clean-up efforts at the INEEL and develop a proposed path forward for the development of science strategies to address these prioritized needs. Fifteen needs/uncertainties were selected to develop an initial approach to science strategies. For each of the 15 needs/uncertainties, a detailed definition was developed. This included extracting information from the past interviews with Operations personnel to provide a detailed description of the need/uncertainty. For each of the 15 prioritized research and development needs, a search was performed to identify the state of the associated knowledge. The knowledge search was performed primarily evaluating ongoing research. The ongoing research reviewed included Environmental Systems Research Analysis, Environmental Management Science Program, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, Inland Northwest Research Alliance, United States Geological Survey, and ongoing Operations supported projects. Results of the knowledge search are documented as part of this document.

  14. Bacterial strategies of resistance to antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hwang-Soo; Fu, Chih-Iung; Otto, Michael

    2016-05-26

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a key component of the host's innate immune system, targeting invasive and colonizing bacteria. For successful survival and colonization of the host, bacteria have a series of mechanisms to interfere with AMP activity, and AMP resistance is intimately connected with the virulence potential of bacterial pathogens. In particular, because AMPs are considered as potential novel antimicrobial drugs, it is vital to understand bacterial AMP resistance mechanisms. This review gives a comparative overview of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strategies of resistance to various AMPs, such as repulsion or sequestration by bacterial surface structures, alteration of membrane charge or fluidity, degradation and removal by efflux pumps.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Innovative Strategies to Overcome Biofilm Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Taraszkiewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the recent literature concerning the efficiency of antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation toward various microbial species in planktonic and biofilm cultures. The review is mainly focused on biofilm-growing microrganisms because this form of growth poses a threat to chronically infected or immunocompromised patients and is difficult to eradicate from medical devices. We discuss the biofilm formation process and mechanisms of its increased resistance to various antimicrobials. We present, based on data in the literature, strategies for overcoming the problem of biofilm resistance. Factors that have potential for use in increasing the efficiency of the killing of biofilm-forming bacteria include plant extracts, enzymes that disturb the biofilm structure, and other nonenzymatic molecules. We propose combining antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with various antimicrobial and antibiofilm approaches to obtain a synergistic effect to permit efficient microbial growth control at low photosensitizer doses.

  16. Innovative strategies to overcome biofilm resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Fila, Grzegorz; Grinholc, Mariusz; Nakonieczna, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    We review the recent literature concerning the efficiency of antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation toward various microbial species in planktonic and biofilm cultures. The review is mainly focused on biofilm-growing microrganisms because this form of growth poses a threat to chronically infected or immunocompromised patients and is difficult to eradicate from medical devices. We discuss the biofilm formation process and mechanisms of its increased resistance to various antimicrobials. We present, based on data in the literature, strategies for overcoming the problem of biofilm resistance. Factors that have potential for use in increasing the efficiency of the killing of biofilm-forming bacteria include plant extracts, enzymes that disturb the biofilm structure, and other nonenzymatic molecules. We propose combining antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with various antimicrobial and antibiofilm approaches to obtain a synergistic effect to permit efficient microbial growth control at low photosensitizer doses.

  17. Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Jonas; Rollenhagen, Carl; Hollnagel, Erik; Rankin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance. This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigat...

  18. A critical evaluation of the strategy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Liland, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Experience after the Chernobyl accident has shown that remediation strategies need to consider a wide range of different issues to ensure the long-term sustainability of radioactively contaminated areas. The STRATEGY project (Sustainable Restoration And Long-Term Management Of Contaminated Rural, Urban And Industrial Ecosystems (www.strategy-ec.org.uk) had the overall objective of establishing a holistic decision framework for the selection of optimal remediation strategies for long-term sustainable management of contaminated areas in Western Europe. The project carried out a critical evaluation of a series of countermeasures and waste disposal options including a consideration of their technical feasibility and practicality and whether they (i) incur considerable direct or side-effect costs; (ii) have significant environmental side effects; and (iii) are acceptable to society. A main output was a comprehensive, documented evaluation of more than 100 countermeasures (in the form of standardized templates) that would be relevant for off-site nuclear emergency management in the mid to long term. Stakeholder participation is an important mechanism to explore these additional benefits or disadvantages to the use of countermeasures, and is an essential step in developing a decision framework which avoids problems previously experienced in emergency management. Close liaison with the FARMING stakeholder network facilitated evaluation of countermeasure templates for rural ecosystems. Stakeholder opinion suggested that some countermeasures were as likely to be rejected an socio-ethical grounds as technical and economic grounds. Rejection of specific countermeasures would be expected to show site, context and national differences. Suitable approaches for successfully communicating with a wide range of stakeholders were explored. The way in which countermeasure evaluation and selection is carried out is particularly relevant for ethical evaluation of remediation

  19. Final Project Report for "Interfacial Thermal Resistance of Carbon Nanotubes”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumings, John [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-04-15

    This report describes an ongoing project to comprehensively study the interfacial thermal boundary resistance (Kapitza resistance) of carbon nanotubes. It includes a list of publications, personnel supported, the overall approach, accomplishments and future plans.

  20. Research Activities at IPT, DTU on Resistance Projection Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Resistance welding processes and among these especially the resistance projection welding is considered an industrially strategic process with increasing applications as alternative to other welding processes, soldering, brazing and mechanical assembling. This is due to increasing requirements as...... as regards quality assurance and the special possibilities of joining complex metal combinations and geometries using resistance projection welding.......Resistance welding processes and among these especially the resistance projection welding is considered an industrially strategic process with increasing applications as alternative to other welding processes, soldering, brazing and mechanical assembling. This is due to increasing requirements...

  1. Strategies for improving rust resistance in oats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, D.E.; McKenzie, R.I.H.; Martens, J.W.; Brown, P.D.

    1977-01-01

    During the history of breeding oats for rust resistance in Canada the known sources of resistance proved inadequate to counter the virulence potential of both stem rust (Puccinia graminis avenae) and crown rust (P. coronata avenae). A major programme to overcome the rust problem was undertaken at Winnipeg, involving four alternate approaches: (1) A search for new resistance in wild oat species, particularly Avena sterilis, has provided a wealth of good resistance to crown rust, but less to stem rust. Much of the A. sterilis-derived crown rust resistance is now being used world-wide; (2) Efforts at synthesizing new resistance by mutation breeding methods have not been successful. Of about seven million plants examined, only one showed significant new resistance, but this was associated with poor plant type; (3) Resistance with low levels of expression but which appears broadly effective has been observed against both stem and crown rusts. It appears that numbers of these low-level genes exist, and that they can be accumulated to provide increasingly effective resistance. Problems in using this type of resistance in a practical way are discussed; (4) Excellent rust resistance has been found in lower ploidy species such as A. barbata, but it was not previously possible to stabilize this resistance in hexaploid species. By using mutagenic treatments attempts have been made to translocate smaller portions of the A. barbata chromosome carrying the resistance to the hexaploid cultivar Rodney. In conclusion, mutation breeding methods at present appear to have limited application in synthesizing new rust-resistant genotypes in oats. The search for already existing genetic resistance and its synthesis into multi-genic resistant lines appears to be the most effective way at present of resolving the rust problem in oats. (author)

  2. Transgenic strategies for improving rice disease resistance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... proteins of both plant origin and non-plant origin that positively regulates the signaling of systemic acquired resistance, which provides broad-spectrum resistance against viruses, bacteria, and fungi, will be useful sources for genetic engineering of broad-spectrum resistance in rice against multiple types of ...

  3. Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, J.; Rollenhagen, C.; Hollnagel, E.

    2012-01-01

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance....... This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of effective...... strategies for achieving change associated with accident investigation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Strategies for dealing with resistance to recommendations from accident investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Jonas; Rollenhagen, Carl; Hollnagel, Erik; Rankin, Amy

    2012-03-01

    Accident investigation reports usually lead to a set of recommendations for change. These recommendations are, however, sometimes resisted for reasons such as various aspects of ethics and power. When accident investigators are aware of this, they use several strategies to overcome the resistance. This paper describes strategies for dealing with four different types of resistance to change. The strategies were derived from qualitative analysis of 25 interviews with Swedish accident investigators from seven application domains. The main contribution of the paper is a better understanding of effective strategies for achieving change associated with accident investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Project n.4: local strategies for decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Ph.; Antsypov, G.; Sobotovich, E.; Anisimova, L.

    1995-01-01

    The efficiencies of a great number of techniques for decontamination or dose reduction in contaminated areas have been investigated by several teams of E.C. and CIS scientists (ECP4 project). Modelling, laboratory and field experiments, and a return from experience from the area contaminated by the Chernobyl accident allowed to assess radiological efficiencies and requirements for the operation of numerous practical solutions. Then those data were supplemented with data on cost and waste generation in order to elaborate all the information for the optimisation of decontamination strategies. Results are presented for about 70 techniques. However, a technique cannot be compared to another from a generic point of view. Rather it is designed for a specific target and the best technology depends on the objectives. It has been decided to implement decision analyses on case studies and the local conditions and objectives have been investigated. Individual doses ranged from 1 to 5 mSv, with the contrasted contributions of internal and external doses. The desire to restore a normal activity in a partially depopulated settlement and concerns about the recent increase in internal doses were typical incentives for action. The decision aiding analysis illustrated that actions can be usually recommended. Results are outlined. (authors)

  6. Project n.4: local strategies for decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, Ph. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Ramzaev, V. [Branch of Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Karchovka, Bryandk (Russian Federation); Antsypov, G. [Chernobyl State Committee of the Republic of Belarus, (Belarus); Sobotovich, E. [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Ore formation, Kiev (Ukraine); Anisimova, L. [EMERCOM, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The efficiencies of a great number of techniques for decontamination or dose reduction in contaminated areas have been investigated by several teams of E.C. and CIS scientists (ECP4 project). Modelling, laboratory and field experiments, and a return from experience from the area contaminated by the Chernobyl accident allowed to assess radiological efficiencies and requirements for the operation of numerous practical solutions. Then those data were supplemented with data on cost and waste generation in order to elaborate all the information for the optimisation of decontamination strategies. Results are presented for about 70 techniques. However, a technique cannot be compared to another from a generic point of view. Rather it is designed for a specific target and the best technology depends on the objectives. It has been decided to implement decision analyses on case studies and the local conditions and objectives have been investigated. Individual doses ranged from 1 to 5 mSv, with the contrasted contributions of internal and external doses. The desire to restore a normal activity in a partially depopulated settlement and concerns about the recent increase in internal doses were typical incentives for action. The decision aiding analysis illustrated that actions can be usually recommended. Results are outlined. (authors). 23 refs.

  7. Counteracting antibiotic resistance: breaking barriers among antibacterial strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M; Cantón, Rafael

    2014-08-01

    To fight against antibiotic resistance, prevention-only is no longer an acceptable strategy. The old concept 'one-infection, one-bug, one-drug', genocentrism in antibiotic discovery, and lack of integration between different antimicrobial strategies have probably contributed to current weaknesses in confronting antibiotic resistance. Resistance should be combatted in all fronts simultaneously, in the patient (complex therapy), the group (where resistance is maintained), and the significant environment (polluted by resistance). This paper is reviewing why specific 'therapeutic' approaches are needed in each of these fronts, using different types of 'drugs' directed to a variety of targets, in the goal of inhibiting antibiotic resistant bacteria. Multi-target integrated combination strategies and therapies should be more extensively evaluated, not only in the infected patient (using novel formats for clinical trials), but as associations of 'therapeutic strategies' in the different compartments where antibiotic resistance emerges and flows (measuring global effects in resistance). Multi-targeted therapeutic approaches require a relaxation of barriers among the various compounds, including systemic and topic antibiotics, antiseptics, biocides, anti-resistant clones vaccination, phages, decontamination products, and in general eco-evo drugs acting on factors influencing ecology and evolution of resistant bacteria. The application of methods of systems biology will facilitate such a multi-lateral attack to antibiotic resistance. Such advances should be paralleled by a simultaneous progress in regulatory sciences and close coordination among all stakeholders.

  8. Strategies and motives for resistance to persuasion: A integrative framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke L. Fransen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Persuasion is an important element of human communication. But in many situations, we resist rather than embrace persuasive attempts. Resistance to persuasion has been studied in many different disciplines, including communication science, psychology and marketing. The present paper reviews and connects these diverse literatures, and provides an organizing framework for understanding and studying resistance. Four clusters of resistance strategies are defined (avoidance, contesting, biased processing, and empowerment, and these clusters are related to different motivations for resisting persuasion (threat to freedom, reluctance to change, and concerns of deception. We propose that, while avoidance strategies may be triggered by any of these motivations, contesting strategies are linked primarily to concerns of deception, while empowerment and biased processing strategies are most common when people are reluctant to change.

  9. Strategies and motives for resistance to persuasion: an integrative framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Marieke L.; Smit, Edith G.; Verlegh, Peeter W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Persuasion is an important element of human communication. But in many situations, we resist rather than embrace persuasive attempts. Resistance to persuasion has been studied in many different disciplines, including communication science, psychology, and marketing. The present paper reviews and connects these diverse literatures, and provides an organizing framework for understanding and studying resistance. Four clusters of resistance strategies are defined (avoidance, contesting, biased processing, and empowerment), and these clusters are related to different motivations for resisting persuasion (threat to freedom, reluctance to change, and concerns of deception). We propose that, while avoidance strategies may be triggered by any of these motivations, contesting strategies are linked primarily to concerns of deception, while empowerment and biased processing strategies are most common when people are reluctant to change. PMID:26322006

  10. MARKETING STRATEGIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитрий Георгиевич БЕЗУГЛЫЙ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to marketing in project management, as the scope of activities aimed at improving the quality characteristics of the project for its further effective market promotion in an increasingly competitive environment. Particular attention is paid to marketing strategies during the development and subsequent sale of the project to the investor. The problem of effective combination of marketing strategies and project management process is being solved.

  11. Project Management and the Project Manager: A Strategy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to establish how project management and the project manager can be used as a panacea for preventing building and infrastructural collapse in Nigeria. The paper is necessary because of the importance of proper planning and monitoring of project activities in order to avoid building and ...

  12. 12 strategies for managing capital projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoudt, Richard L

    2013-05-01

    To reduce the amount of time and cost associated with capital projects, healthcare leaders should: Begin the project with a clear objective and a concise master facilities plan. Select qualified team members who share the vision of the owner. Base the size of the project on a conservative business plan. Minimize incremental program requirements. Evaluate the cost impact of the building footprint. Consider alternative delivery methods.

  13. Developing Learning Strategies Based on Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampuero-Canellas, Olga; Gonzalez-Del-Rio, Jimena; Jorda-Albinana, Begona; Rojas-Sola, Jose Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Research projects are a very important part of any professor life sheet. Through these projects, they use their knowledge to solve real problems within professional area. Besides being an advance in research area, they can essentially contribute to improving teaching process. This work originates from the idea that the experienced gotten from…

  14. Strategies to introduce resistance to viroids (Book Chapter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little or no naturally occurring durable resistance to viroids has been found in most viroid host species; therefore efforts to engineer viroid resistance in these plant hosts have been made. These efforts include strategies that incorporate viroid-specific antisense RNAs, sense and antisense viroid...

  15. Phalaris minor control, resistance development and strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But this practice enhances the development of resistant biotypes of P. minor. Different management approaches like preference of mechanical weeding over chemical weed control, integration of competitive varietal selection, crop rotation and herbicide rotation can be long duration strategies of resistance management in P.

  16. Coping Strategies for Resistance to Microcomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Barbara; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Strategies which may be used to overcome opposition to microcomputers by faculty, students, and administrators are detailed. It is felt that, ultimately, all three groups will have to work together toward the establishment of the computer in the classroom. (MP)

  17. Development of a resistance management strategy for ixodid ticks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strategy developed for managing resistance in ticks with the acaricidal products on the market was based on mode of action of the active ingredients. The strategy requires the rotaional use of the acaricidal products in ways that reduces the selection pressure of active ingredients of same chemistry on the target-site in ...

  18. Forty project management strategies for the medical practice staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2010-01-01

    Most every medical practice will embark at one time or another on a large and complex new project. The practice may, for instance, undertake a project in office construction or renovation, practice expansion, new technology, or a new large-scale event. The medical practice staff may find itself creating the project plan, overseeing its execution, and working through the plan day to day until its completion. In short, the staff may find itself responsible for project management. This article contains 40 specific, easy-to-implement project management strategies medical practice employees can use to manage both the large and small projects they undertake on behalf of the practice. It suggests effective project management strategies the staff can use before the onset of a new project as well as strategies to help define the project, to deliver the project, and to close and review the project. This article also describes five reasons medical practices often fail at project management and suggests more effective approaches that will ensure that the projects the medical practice undertakes are completed well, on time, and within budget.

  19. Contractor firm strategies in delivering green project: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powmya, Ayisha; Abidin, Nazirah Zainul; Azizi, Nurul Sakina Mokhtar

    2017-10-01

    Building green requires effort from various parties, from those who plan, design, manage and construct the building. Contractors are responsible for converting the design on paper into a real building and their role at the construction site support environmental sustainability by implementing responsible construction practices. Inefficient or inexperienced contractor in green construction project may find that delivering this type of project is not an easy task due to added requirement in design, stringent practices at site and the use of green technology and materials. Adopting suitable strategies at firm level will assist in preparatory process and readiness of delivering the green project. This paper reviews the strategies at firm level to deliver green construction project. From extensive literature review, it was discovered that there are six strategies to be adopted by the contractor. Understanding these strategies is expected to promote more contractors to be proactive in delivering green projects.

  20. Knowledge Governance Strategies in Project-based Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Müller, Ralf; Söderlund, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge governance (KG) aims at strategically influencing knowledge processes by implementing governance mechanisms. Little is known about whether, how, or why such strategies differ among firms. We utilize a large-scale empirical study of 20 organizations to develop a typology of KG strategies...... strategies. We uncover three main drivers of organizations' chosen knowledge governance strategies-namely, attitudes about humans, knowledge, and knowledge control....... in project-based organizations; we then explore how these strategies emerge and affect organizational knowledge processes. Six strategies are identified: Protector, Deliverer, Polisher, Explorer, Supporter, and Analyzer. This paper posits a multi-level categorization model to facilitate comparisons among KG...

  1. Exploring Post-Treatment Reversion of Antimicrobial Resistance in Enteric Bacteria of Food Animals as a Resistance Mitigation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Victoriya V; KuKanich, Butch; Riviere, Jim E

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial drug use in food animals is associated with an elevation in relative abundance of bacteria resistant to the drug among the animal enteric bacteria. Some of these bacteria are potential foodborne pathogens. Evidence suggests that at least in the enteric nontype-specific Escherichia coli, after treatment the resistance abundance reverts to the background pre-treatment levels, without further interventions. We hypothesize that it is possible to define the distribution of the time period after treatment within which resistance to the administered drug, and possibly other drugs in case of coselection, in fecal bacteria of the treated animals returns to the background pre-treatment levels. Furthermore, it is possible that a novel resistance mitigation strategy for microbiological food safety could be developed based on this resistance reversion phenomenon. The strategy would be conceptually similar to existing antimicrobial drug withdrawal periods, which is a well-established and accepted mitigation strategy for avoiding violative drug residues in the edible products from the treated animals. For developing resistance-relevant withdrawals, a mathematical framework can be used to join the necessary pharmacological, microbiological, and animal production components to project the distributions of the post-treatment resistance reversion periods in the production animal populations for major antimicrobial drug classes in use. The framework can also help guide design of empirical studies into the resistance-relevant withdrawal periods and development of mitigation approaches to reduce the treatment-associated elevation of resistance in animal enteric bacteria. We outline this framework, schematically and through exemplar equations, and how its components could be formulated.

  2. Natural gas projects, strategies and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaide, G.

    2000-01-01

    This article summarizes the content of some of the posters presented during the WOC 9 working committee of the CMG 2000 worldwide gas congress: natural gas in the new worldwide energy balance; eastern Russia: the last gas projects; the new underwater technologies and the availability of natural gas. (J.S.)

  3. Focus on climate projections for adaptation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijt, Arnout; Appenzeller, Christof; Siegmund, Peter; von Storch, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Most papers in this focus issue on ‘climate and climate impact projections for adaptation strategies’ are solicited by the guest editorial team and originate from a cluster of projects that were initiated 5 years ago. These projects aimed to provide climate change and climate change adaptation information for a wide range of societal areas for the lower parts of the deltas of the Rhine and Meuse rivers, and particularly for the Netherlands. The papers give an overview of our experiences, methods, approaches, results and surprises in the process to developing scientifically underpinned climate products and services for various clients. Although the literature on interactions between society and climate science has grown over the past decade both with respect to policy-science framing in post-normal science (Storch et al 2011 J. Environ. Law Policy 1 1-15, van der Sluijs 2012 Nature and Culture 7 174-195), user-science framing (Berkhout et al 2014 Regional Environ. Change 14 879-93) and joint knowledge production (Hegger et al 2014 Regional Environ. Change 14 1049-62), there is still a lot to gain. With this focus issue we want to contribute to best practices in this quickly moving field between science and society.

  4. Strategies for Overcoming Resistance in Tumours Harboring BRAF Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourah Mohammad Obaid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of resistance to previously effective treatments has been a challenge for health care providers and a fear for patients undergoing cancer therapy. This is an unfortunately frequent occurrence for patients undergoing targeted therapy for tumours harboring the activating V600E mutation of the BRAF gene. Since the initial identification of the BRAF mutation in 2002, a series of small molecular inhibitors that target the BRAFV600E have been developed, but intrinsic and acquired resistance to these drugs has presented an ongoing challenge. More recently, improvements in therapy have been achieved by combining the use of BRAF inhibitors with other drugs, such as inhibitors of the downstream effector mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK/extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK kinase (MEK. Despite improved success in response rates and in delaying resistance using combination therapy, ultimately, the acquisition of resistance remains a concern. Recent research articles have shed light on some of the underlying mechanisms of this resistance and have proposed numerous strategies that might be employed to overcome or avoid resistance to targeted therapies. This review will explore some of the resistance mechanisms, compare what is known in melanoma cancer to colorectal cancer, and discuss strategies under development to manage the development of resistance.

  5. Accidental oil spills - project management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobic, V.; Benkovic, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Planning and organisation, as well as actions taken during accidental discharging of hazardous substances (hydrocarbons) into the soil and water, show that without integrating all the functions of safety, occupational safety, fire and explosion protection, technical safety, all the way to the environmental protection, procedure of cleaning, rehabilitation and remediation of polluted areas into their original state cannot be successfully carried out. Neglecting any of the mentioned links/components of the procedure represents a risk to people's health and life, while pollution to the environment remains a constant threat. Development of technologies is quickly transforming the environment in which the professionals of all disciplines work. Therefore, the response to changes by application of new technologies and procedures in all domains is indispensable, however, through a comprehensive and expert perception and consideration of each of the essential correlations comprising the safety management in all the fields. Through management of safety projects in environmental protection, it has become obvious that a united management of different fields is necessary, as well as management of safety in general. Engineering, health, legislation, public, environmental standards, occupational safety, hazards, biophysical and socio-economic aspects are parts of an integral management. Experts joined efforts through interaction and communications are inter-disciplinary characteristics, i.e. multi-disciplinary safety management, but also the management of each project separately. Exactly this knowledge exchange is highly productive and becomes an indispensable element in recognition of indirect and cumulative actions, thus applicable in any field. Implementation of European standards and accreditation of procedures pursuant to the corresponding standards, from risk assessment through rehabilitation to independent expert confirmation of efficiency in implementing the entire

  6. Insecticide Resistance and Management Strategies in Urban Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased urbanization of a growing global population makes imperative the development of sustainable integrated pest management (IPM strategies for urban pest control. This emphasizes pests that are closely associated with the health and wellbeing of humans and domesticated animals. Concurrently there are regulatory requirements enforced to minimize inadvertent exposures to insecticides in the urban environment. Development of insecticide resistance management (IRM strategies in urban ecosystems involves understanding the status and mechanisms of insecticide resistance and reducing insecticide selection pressure by combining multiple chemical and non-chemical approaches. In this review, we will focus on the commonly used insecticides and molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying insecticide resistance in six major urban insect pests: house fly, German cockroach, mosquitoes, red flour beetle, bed bugs and head louse. We will also discuss several strategies that may prove promising for future urban IPM programs.

  7. Conflict resolution strategies on community-driven projects in private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conflict resolution strategies on community-driven projects in private and public housing estates in Lagos state, Nigeria. ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... Keywords: Community-driven facilities, Community elders, Conflict resolution strategies, Housing estates, Residents association ...

  8. Optimised Selection and use of Project Procurement Strategy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Like every other procurement selection exercise, the process adopt in-depth construction industry tested parameters for appraising and advising on the most suitable procurement strategy based on eight project success criteria. The project organisation accepted both the innovation to adopt the process for change and the ...

  9. Strategy for implementing a bioremediation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memood, T.; Malik, S.A.; Kazmi, S.A.R.; Alam, T.

    2005-01-01

    Biodegradation, is the partial simplification or complete destruction of the molecular structure of environmental pollutants by physiological reactions catalyzed by microorganisms, by applying chemical and physiological assays to laboratory incubations of flasks containing pure culture of microorganism, mixed cultures or environmental. whereas Bioremediation is the intentional use of biodegradation process to eliminate environmental pollutants from sites where they have been released either intentionally or inadvertently, as documented most readily in laboratory assays to eliminate or reduce the concentration of environmental pollutants in field sites to levels that acceptable to site owners or Regulatory Agencies. The poster highlights the demonstration, how the diverse techniques derived from the Science of microbial contaminants from field sites., which is inherently multidisciplinary Bioremediation integrate the approaches, protocols, strategies and analysis from Microbiology, Molecular Biology, Hydrology, Soil Science, Physiology and Analytical Chemistry. (author)

  10. An Assessment of risk response strategies practiced in software projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita Bhoola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk management and success in projects are highly intertwined – better approaches to project risk management tend to increase chances of project success in terms of achieving scope & quality, schedule and cost targets. The process of responding to risk factors during a project’s life cycle is a crucial aspect of risk management referred to as risk response strategies, in this paper. The current research explores the status of risk response strategies applied in the software development projects in India. India provides a young IT-savvy English-speaking population, which is also cost effective. Other than the workforce, the environment for implementation of software projects in India is different from the matured economies. Risk management process is a commonly discussed theme, though its implementation in practice has a huge scope for improvement in India. The paper talks about four fundamental treatments to risk response – Avoidance, Transference, Mitigation and Acceptance (ATMA. From a primary data of 302 project managers, the paper attempts to address the risk response factors that lead to successful achievement of project scope & quality, schedule and cost targets, by using a series of regressions followed with Seemingly Unrelated Regression Equations (SURE modelling. Mitigation emerged as the most significant risk response strategy to achieve project targets. Acceptance, transference, and avoidance of risk were mostly manifested in the forms of transparency in communication across stakeholders, careful study of the nature of risks and close coordination between project team, customers/end-users and top management.

  11. Civil Resistance: An Essential Element of a Total Defense Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    during occupation on several occasions. Roberts and Ash cite the resistance campaign faced by the Apartheid Republic of South Africa in 1983‒1994. The... Apartheid regime encountered insurgency. This mixed strategy was successful and the white minority government was replaced.400 The same strategy was...unconventional warfare in case of occupation. 400 Tom Lodge, “The Interplay of Non-violent and Violent Action in the Movement against Apartheid in

  12. PARC (Plutonium Accident Resistant Container) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Response by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to a public law limiting the air transport of plutonium resulted in a new Qualification Criteria and led to the PARC project. The PARC project resulted in the design, development, and certification testing of a crashworthy air transportable radioactive materials package for certification by the NRC. This package, identified by the NRC as the Model PAT-1 Package (PAT = Plutonium Air Transportable), has a mass capacity of 2 kg of PuO 2 and a thermal capacity of 25 watts; the internal volume of the inner containment vessel is 1460 cm 3 ; the package dimensions are 62 cm (24 - 1/2 in.) O.D. x 108 cm (42 - 1/2 in.) length and a mass of 227 kg (500 lbs). The design rationale for very high energy absorption (impact, crush, puncture, and slash protection) with residual high-level fire protection, resulted in a reasonably small air-transportable package, advancing the packaging state-of-the-art. Optimization design interactions were utilized in the areas of impact energy absorption and stress and thermal analysis. Package test results are presented in relation to the containment acceptance criteria of the Qualification Criteria and ANSI N 14.5 leaktight standards and the IAEA Safety Series No. 6 A2 radioactive material release quantities. Acceptability of the pre-accident and post-accident package configuration with respect to shielding and criticality standards are ascertained

  13. Strategies for the prevention and containment of antibiotic resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic resistance may emerge by antibiotic selection pressure but is perpetuated by diverse risk factors and maintained within environments as a result of poor infection control. Population-specific drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics also play a role. The WHO, US, UK and EU have initiated strategies for the ...

  14. Pharmacological strategies in treatment-resistant depression | Alao ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment-resistant depression may be due to factors such as co-morbid psychiatric or medical illnesses, chronic psychosocial stresses, and medication nonadherence. Alternative treatment strategies such as optimization, switching to a different antidepressant, augmentation or combination with another antidepressant are ...

  15. Alcohol and Other Drug Resistance Strategies Employed by Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice; Hecht, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to identify how rural adolescents make health decisions and utilize communication strategies to resist influence attempts in offers of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 113 adolescents from rural school districts to solicit information on ATOD norms, past ATOD experiences, and…

  16. Evaluation of stem borer resistance management strategies for Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-06-01

    Jun 1, 2011 ... However, for successful management of a refugia strategy, strict stewardship is required from appropriate government or community institutions. Key words: Refugia, cost-benefit analysis, Bt-maize, insect pest resistance management. INTRODUCTION. Maize is the leading staple food in the world with two-.

  17. Antibiotic Resistance: The Need For a Global Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, David P; Kuentz, Martin; Holm, René

    2016-08-01

    The development of antibiotic resistance is a major problem for mankind and results in fatal consequences on a daily basis across the globe. There are a number of reasons for this situation including increasing globalization with worldwide travel, health tourism, over use and ineffective use (both in man and animals), and counterfeiting of the antimicrobial drug products we have available currently. Although there are huge economical, demographic, legal and logistic differences among the global communities, there are also differences regarding the best approach to dealing with antibiotic resistance. However, as resistant bacteria do not respect international borders, there is clearly a need for a global strategy to minimize the spread of antibiotic resistance, to optimize the use of antibiotics, and to facilitate the development of new and effective medications. This commentary provides an insight into the issues and some of the ongoing programs to ensure an effective treatment for the future. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Universal precautions: employee resistance and strategies for planned organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, K P; Hogg, M

    1988-01-01

    Health care organizations have been strongly encouraged to design and implement procedures to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS in the workplace. The procedures will have a dramatic impact on the work habits of health care workers and may even challenge some dominant health care values. Therefore, precautionary procedures are likely to meet with mixed reactions and, perhaps, outright resistance from health care workers. This article identifies some plausible causes for employee resistance to precautionary procedures. After describing the dilemma in terms of competing values and conflicting objectives, some practical managerial strategies for reconciling differences and securing broad-based commitment to preventive policies and procedures are proposed.

  19. Effective Strategies for Teaching Evolution: The Primary Evolution Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    When Chris Hatcher joined the Primary Evolution Project team at the University of Reading, his goal was to find effective strategies to teach evolution in a way that keeps children engaged and enthused. Hatcher has collaborated with colleagues at the University's Institute of Education to break the evolution unit down into distinct topics and…

  20. Overcoming ABC transporter-mediated multidrug resistance: Molecular mechanisms and novel therapeutic drug strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Zhang, Han; Assaraf, Yehuda G; Zhao, Kun; Xu, Xiaojun; Xie, Jinbing; Yang, Dong-Hua; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Multidrug resistance is a key determinant of cancer chemotherapy failure. One of the major causes of multidrug resistance is the enhanced efflux of drugs by membrane ABC transporters. Targeting ABC transporters projects a promising approach to eliminating or suppressing drug resistance in cancer treatment. To reveal the functional mechanisms of ABC transporters in drug resistance, extensive studies have been conducted from identifying drug binding sites to elucidating structural dynamics. In this review article, we examined the recent crystal structures of ABC proteins to depict the functionally important structural elements, such as domains, conserved motifs, and critical amino acids that are involved in ATP-binding and drug efflux. We inspected the drug-binding sites on ABC proteins and the molecular mechanisms of various substrate interactions with the drug binding pocket. While our continuous battle against drug resistance is far from over, new approaches and technologies have emerged to push forward our frontier. Most recent developments in anti-MDR strategies include P-gp inhibitors, RNA-interference, nano-medicines, and delivering combination strategies. With the advent of the 'Omics' era - genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics - these disciplines play an important role in fighting the battle against chemoresistance by further unraveling the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance and shed light on medical therapies that specifically target MDR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Strategies to Combat Antibiotic Resistance in the Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Barancheshme

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this manuscript is to review different treatment strategies and mechanisms for combating the antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs in the wastewater environment. The high amount of antibiotics is released into the wastewater that may promote selection of ARB and ARGs which find their way into natural environments. Emerging microbial pathogens and increasing antibiotic resistance among them is a global public health issue. The propagation and spread of ARB and ARGs in the environment may result in an increase of antibiotic resistant microbial pathogens which is a worldwide environmental and public health concern. A proper treatment of wastewater is essential before its discharge into rivers, lake, or sewage system to prevent the spread of ARB and ARGs into the environment. This review discusses various treatment options applied for combating the spread of ARB and ARGs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. It was reported that low-energy anaerobic–aerobic treatment reactors, constructed wetlands, and disinfection processes have shown good removal efficiencies. Nanomaterials and biochar combined with other treatment methods and coagulation process are very recent strategies regarding ARB and ARGs removal and need more investigation and research. Based on current studies a wide-ranging removal efficiency of ARGs can be achieved depending on the type of genes present and treatment processes used, still, there are gaps that need to be further investigated. In order to find solutions to control dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the environment, it is important to (1 study innovative strategies in large scale and over a long time to reach an actual evaluation, (2 develop risk assessment studies to precisely understand occurrence and abundance of ARB/ARGs so that their potential risks to human health can be determined, and (3 consider operating and environmental factors that affect the

  2. Spent nuclear fuels project characterization data quality objectives strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, L.A.; Thornton, T.A.; Redus, K.S.

    1994-12-01

    A strategy is presented for implementation of the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process to the Spent Nuclear Fuels Project (SNFP) characterization activities. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are teaming in the characterization of the SNF on the Hanford Site and are committed to the DQO process outlined in this strategy. The SNFP characterization activities will collect and evaluate the required data to support project initiatives and decisions related to interim safe storage and the path forward for disposal. The DQO process is the basis for the activity specific SNF characterization requirements, termed the SNF Characterization DQO for that specific activity, which will be issued by the WHC or PNL organization responsible for the specific activity. The Characterization Plan prepared by PNL defines safety, remediation, and disposal issues. The ongoing Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) requirement and plans and the fuel storage and disposition options studies provide the need and direction for the activity specific DQO process. The hierarchy of characterization and DQO related documentation requirements is presented in this strategy. The management of the DQO process and the means of documenting the DQO process are described as well as the tailoring of the DQO process to the specific need of the SNFP characterization activities. This strategy will assure stakeholder and project management that the proper data was collected and evaluated to support programmatic decisions

  3. Resisting chocolate temptation using a brief mindfulness strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kim T; Tapper, Katy

    2014-09-01

    We examined the effects of two mindfulness-based strategies on chocolate consumption amongst individuals who were trying to reduce the amount of chocolate they consumed. Participants (n = 137) were allocated to one of three conditions and employed either cognitive defusion, acceptance, or relaxation (control) techniques to help them resist chocolate over 5 days. During this period, they carried a bag of chocolates with them and recorded any chocolate or chocolate-related products they consumed. They also completed a questionnaire measure of the extent to which chocolate consumption was automatic, both before and after the 5-day period. Results showed that compared to controls, those in the cognitive defusion group ate significantly less chocolate from the bag (p = .046) and less chocolate according to the diary measure (p = .053). There was evidence that these changes were brought about by reductions in the extent to which chocolate consumption was automatic. There were no differences in chocolate consumption between the acceptance and control groups. Our results point to a promising brief intervention strategy and highlight the importance of disentangling the effects of different mindfulness-based techniques. What is already known on this subject? Multicomponent mindfulness interventions have been successfully applied to a range of health behaviours. Low levels of self-control are associated with weight gain and a higher BMI. What does this study add? The results show that a brief mindfulness strategy (defusion) helps individuals resist chocolate over 5 days. The results suggest this may be brought about by reductions in the extent to which eating chocolate is automatic. A second brief mindfulness strategy (acceptance) failed to help individuals resist chocolate. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Strategies for sustainable households. The SusHouse project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergragt, Ph.J.; Knot, J.M.C.

    2001-01-01

    The international SusHouse project has developed a strategy design approach that can contribute to major (factor 20) efficiency improvements in household activities. Stakeholder workshops have been held to develop scenarios for a sustainable future (2050). These scenarios were evaluated on their economic consequences, environmental impacts and consumer acceptance. the results were then used as the input for a second round of stakeholder workshops, which aimed at developing short-term strategies and implementation plans. This Research Note reviews the SusHouse approach and its results. It ends with suggestions for further steps to be taken. A SusHouse CD-ROM is available, containing all final project reports as well as a scenario presentation in the form of images and short texts. 22 refs

  5. Habitat Demonstration Unit Project Leadership and Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) led multi-center Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) project leadership and management strategies. The HDU project team constructed and tested an analog prototype lunar surface habitat/laboratory called the Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) during 2010. The prototype unit subsystems were integrated in a short amount of time, utilizing a tiger team approach that brought together over 20 habitation-related technologies and innovations from a variety of NASA centers. This paper describes the leadership and management strategies as well as lessons learned pertaining to leading and managing a multi-center diverse team in a rapid prototype environment. The PEM configuration went from a paper design to an operational surface habitat demonstration unit in less than 12 months. The HDU project is part of the strategic plan from the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Directorate Integration Office (DIO) and the Exploration Mission Systems Office (EMSO) to test destination elements in analog environments. The 2011 HDU-Deep Space Habitat (DSH) configuration will build upon the PEM work, and emphasize validity of crew operations (remote working and living), EVA operations, mission operations, logistics operations, and science operations that might be required in a deep space context for Near Earth Object (NEO) exploration mission architectures. The 2011 HDU-DSH will be field-tested during the 2011 Desert Research and Technologies Studies (DRaTS) field tests. The HDU project is a "technology-pull" project that integrates technologies and innovations from multiple NASA centers. This project will repurpose the HDU 2010 demo unit that was field tested in the 2010 DRaTS, adding habitation functionality to the prototype unit. This paper will describe the strategy of establishing a multi-center project management team that put in place the key multi-center leadership skills and

  6. Sustainability of insect resistance management strategies for transgenic Bt corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, John A; Matten, Sharlene R

    2003-12-01

    Increasing interest in the responsible management of technology in the industrial and agricultural sectors of the economy has been met thorough the development of broadly applicable tools to assess the "sustainability" of new technologies. An arena ripe for application of such analysis is the deployment of transgenic crops. The new transgenic pesticidal or plant-incorporated protectant (PIP) crops have seen widespread application in the United States based on the features of higher yield, lower applications of insecticides, and control of mycotoxin content. However, open rejection of these new crops in Europe and in other countries has been a surprising message and has limited their worldwide acceptance. The US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) has worked on the development and analysis of insect resistance management (IRM) strategies and has mandated specific IRM requirements for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops since 1995 under the Food, Fungicide, Insecticide, and Rodenticide Act. Improvement of data quality and sustainability of IRM strategies have been targeted in an ongoing partnership between the USEPA Office of Research and Development and the Office of Pesticide Programs that will further enhance the agency's ability to develop sustainable insect resistance management strategies for transgenic field corn (Bt corn) producing B. thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins.

  7. Antimicrobial Peptides: A Promising Therapeutic Strategy in Tackling Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, Ramya; Goud, Nerella S; Saraswati, A Prasanth; Alvala, Ravi; Alvala, Mallika

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has posed a serious threat to global public health and it requires immediate action, preferably long term. Current drug therapies have failed to curb this menace due to the ability of microbes to circumvent the mechanisms through which the drugs act. From the drug discovery point of view, the majority of drugs currently employed for antimicrobial therapy are small molecules. Recent trends reveal a surge in the use of peptides as drug candidates as they offer remarkable advantages over small molecules. Newer synthetic strategies like organometalic complexes, Peptide-polymer conjugates, solid phase, liquid phase and recombinant DNA technology encouraging the use of peptides as therapeutic agents with a host of chemical functions, and tailored for specific applications. In the last decade, many peptide based drugs have been successfully approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This success can be attributed to their high specificity, selectivity and efficacy, high penetrability into the tissues, less immunogenicity and less tissue accumulation. Considering the enormity of AMR, the use of Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs) can be a viable alternative to current therapeutics strategies. AMPs are naturally abundant allowing synthetic chemists to develop semi-synthetics peptide molecules. AMPs have a broad spectrum of activity towards microbes and they possess the ability to bypass the resistance induction mechanisms of microbes. The present review focuses on the potential applications of AMPs against various microbial disorders and their future prospects. Several resistance mechanisms and their strategies have also been discussed to highlight the importance in the current scenario. Breakthroughs in AMP designing, peptide synthesis and biotechnology have shown promise in tackling this challenge and has revived the interest of using AMPs as an important weapon in fighting AMR. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries

  8. Knowledge Sharing Strategies for Large Complex Building Projects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Bektas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is a project-based sector with a myriad of actors such as architects, construction companies, consultants, producers of building materials (Anumba et al., 2005. The interaction between the project partners is often quite limited, which leads to insufficient knowledge sharing during the project and knowledge being unavailable for reuse (Fruchter et al. 2002. The result can be a considerable amount of extra work, delays and cost overruns. Design outcomes that are supposed to function as boundary objects across different disciplines can lead to misinterpretation of requirements, project content and objectives. In this research, knowledge is seen as resulting from social interactions; knowledge resides in communities and it is generated through social relationships (Wenger 1998, Olsson et al. 2008. Knowledge is often tacit, intangible and context-dependent and it is articulated in the changing responsibilities, roles, attitudes and values that are present in the work environment (Bresnen et al., 2003. In a project environment, knowledge enables individuals to solve problems, take decisions, and apply these decisions to actions. In order to achieve a shared understanding and minimize the misunderstanding and misinterpretations among project actors, it is necessary to share knowledge (Fong 2003. Sharing knowledge is particularly crucial in large complex building projects (LCBPs in order to accelerate the building process, improve architectural quality and prevent mistakes or undesirable results. However, knowledge sharing is often hampered through professional or organizational boundaries or contractual concerns. When knowledge is seen as an organizational asset, there is little willingness among project organizations to share their knowledge. Individual people may recognize the need to promote knowledge sharing throughout the project, but typically there is no deliberate strategy agreed by all project partners to address

  9. Applying Project Management Strategies in a Large Curriculum Conversion Project in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Joel; Bennett, Patrick A.; Hyatt, Niccole; Stoker, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Higher education is undergoing great changes that require universities to adapt quickly, and making these changes can be difficult. One discipline that can aid in executing change is project management, which has developed a set of clear processes and strategies for completing initiatives quickly and effectively. Several authors have identified…

  10. Offset-electrode profile acquisition strategy for electrical resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Austin R.; Plattner, Alain

    2018-04-01

    We present an electrode layout strategy that allows electrical resistivity profiles to image the third dimension close to the profile plane. This "offset-electrode profile" approach involves laterally displacing electrodes away from the profile line in an alternating fashion and then inverting the resulting data using three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography software. In our synthetic and field surveys, the offset-electrode method succeeds in revealing three-dimensional structures in the vicinity of the profile plane, which we could not achieve using three-dimensional inversions of linear profiles. We confirm and explain the limits of linear electrode profiles through a discussion of the three-dimensional sensitivity patterns: For a homogeneous starting model together with a linear electrode layout, all sensitivities remain symmetric with respect to the profile plane through each inversion step. This limitation can be overcome with offset-electrode layouts by breaking the symmetry pattern among the sensitivities. Thanks to freely available powerful three-dimensional resistivity tomography software and cheap modern computing power, the requirement for full three-dimensional calculations does not create a significant burden and renders the offset-electrode approach a cost-effective method. By offsetting the electrodes in an alternating pattern, as opposed to laying the profile out in a U-shape, we minimize shortening the profile length.

  11. Current status of RCA projects and strategies for future implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Pyo; Lee, Jeong Kong

    1998-12-01

    This report is intended to provide basic overall information about ways to promote technical cooperation within the framework of RCA to accelerate and coordinate cooperative activities in nuclear science and technology in Asia and the Pacific region through a thorough review on the current status and through suggesting future implementation strategies. The contents of this report include an overall introduction of RCA, guidelines and operating rules for RCA programmes, current status and future plans for RCA projects as well as the RCA vision for the next 25 years. By reviewing the current status and future implementation strategies for RCA projects, it will help to set up a national nuclear policy aimed at seeking maximum benefits from participation in RCA projects and to implement programmes for nuclear cooperation with Asian-Pacific countries. It is expected that as a lead country for the energy sector, which is one of five thematic areas for the year 1999 - 2000 cycle programmes, Korea will continue to make significant contributions towards the implementation of RCA programmes in the future. With this report, we plan to keep up with future developments as well as implement an effective cooperation with the countries in the region so that the opinion of Korea, one of the nuclear advanced countries in the region, can be fully reflected in the establishment of future plans for RCA programmes. (author). 3 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  12. MARKETING STRATEGIES AND TACTICS OF ADVERTISING PROJECTS FOR TOURISM COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Tolmachev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject / topic. The relevance of the article is that today tourism is a massive social and economic phenomenon of global scale, as is known, any vacation begins with advertising. Therefore, for the progressive development of tourism companies need to develop an eff ective strategy and tactics of advertising projects. Potential consumers have become more discerning and prudent, so a consultant position with the fl ood of information does not work. Works expert position, when the product is as if created for the client, that is, the product exists only in synchronism with the buyer. In view of this increased competition between operators of tourist services, and certain segments of the market saturation of a significant amount of travel products with a similar orientation, a unique role for the positioning on the basis of marketing strategy as a process for creating a unique tourism product in the market.The purpose / goal. The aim of the article is to study the features of the marketing strategies of advertising processes in the market of travel agencies and find directions of their improvement in current economic conditions.Article Objectives: To investigate the nature and content of the concept of "marketing strategy of advertising processes"; systematize criteria for the classification of the Company's strategy in the market of tourist services; analyze the features of advertising projects and identify promising directions for improving the marketing strategies.Methodology. The methodological basis of this article are comparative analysis methods.Results. The essence and content of the concept of "marketing strategy of advertising processes." The features of the market of tourist services, allocated target audiences, identifies key factors and trends in the development of this market.The new system is a product of values, square S. Kovalev, who identified four existing mentality of the person. When advertising article or video include

  13. Unexpected drought resistance strategies in seedlings of four Brachychiton species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Victoria A; Anderegg, Leander D L; Loy, Xingwen; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Mayfield, Margaret M

    2017-11-28

    Functional traits associated with drought resistance can be useful for predicting tree responses to a drying climate. Yet drought resistance is likely achieved through a complex combination of constitutive traits (traits expressed even in benign environments) and plastic traits (traits expressed only in response to drought). Because few studies measure multiple traits for multiple species under both well-watered and drought conditions, we often struggle to identify suites of constitutive and plastic traits indicative of drought resistance strategies. Using a greenhouse experiment, we examined nine drought resistance traits (six morphological/allocation traits plus assimilation, stomatal conductance and water-use efficiency) in well-watered and water-stressed seedlings of four Brachychiton (Malvaceae Juss.) species with ranges spanning a strong aridity gradient in east-central Australia. In benign conditions, constitutive biomass allocation was consistent with expectations, with xeric species investing more heavily in roots and stem tissue and less in leaf tissue than mesic species (P = 0.004). Under drought conditions, xeric species decreased relative biomass allocation below-ground while mesic species increased relative below-ground allocation (treatment × species interaction P = 0.0015). Relative water content of the stems was slightly higher in xeric species (P = 0.055), and remained stable during drought while decreasing in mesic species (treatment × species P = 0.001). Specific leaf area (SLA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC) did not fit with expectations under either benign or water-limited conditions. Moreover, stomatal conductance and carbon assimilation were unexpectedly highest and intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi) lowest in the xeric species in benign conditions. Only under drought did the xeric species manifest higher WUEi than the mesic species (treatment × species P resistance traits. Notably, traits commonly used as proxies for drought

  14. Some Convergence Strategies for the Alternating Generalized Projection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricarmen Andrade

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we extend the application of the alternating projection algorithm to solve the problem of finding a point in the intersection of $n$ sets ($n\\geq2$, which are not all of them convex sets. Here we term such method as alternating generalized projection (AGP method. In particular, we are interested in addressing the problem of avoiding the so-called trap points, which may prevent an algorithm to obtain a feasible solution in two or more sets not all convex. Some strategies that allow us to reach the feasible solution are established and conjectured. Finally, we present simple numerical results that illustrate the efficiency of the iterative methods considered.

  15. Using historical crash data as part of traffic work zone safety planning and project management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This funding enabled the project entitled, USING HISTORICAL CRASH DATA AS PART OF TRAFFIC WORK ZONE SAFETY : PLANNING AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES to address the following: : Evaluate current organizational strategies with respect to w...

  16. Habitat Demonstration Unit Project: Leadership and Management Strategies for a Rapid Prototyping Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Toup, Larry; Gill, Tracy; Tri, Terry; Howe, Scott; Smitherman, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) led multi-center Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) project leadership and management strategies being used by the NASA HDU team for a rapid prototyping project. The HDU project team constructed and tested an analog prototype lunar surface habitat/laboratory called the Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) during 2010. The prototype unit subsystems were integrated in a short amount of time, utilizing a tiger team rapid prototyping approach that brought together over 20 habitation-related technologies and innovations from a variety of NASA centers. This paper describes the leadership and management strategies as well as lessons learned pertaining to leading and managing a multi-center diverse team in a rapid prototype environment. The PEM configuration went from a paper design to an operational surface habitat demonstration unit in less than 12 months. The HDU project is part of the strategic plan from the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Directorate Integration Office (DIO) and the Exploration Mission Systems Office (EMSO) to test destination elements in analog environments. The 2011 HDU-Deep Space Habitat (DSH) configuration will build upon the PEM work, and emphasize validity of crew operations (remote working and living), EVA operations, mission operations, logistics operations, and science operations that might be required in a deep space context for Near Earth Object (NEO) exploration mission architectures. The 2011 HDU-DSH will be field-tested during the 2011 Desert Research and Technologies Studies (DRaTS) field tests. The HDU project is a "technology-pull" project that integrates technologies and innovations from multiple NASA centers. This project will repurpose the HDU 2010 demo unit that was field tested in the 2010 DRaTS, adding habitation functionality to the prototype unit. This paper will describe the strategy of establishing a multi-center project

  17. Managing the Right Projects: Best Practices to Align Project and Corporate Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Bobby

    2012-01-01

    If there's a human endeavor that exemplifies teamwork, it is space exploration. And that teamwork absolutely cannot happen effectively if the boots on the ground the people doing the work - don't understand how their work aligns with the larger goal. This presentation will discuss some best management practices from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center that have succeeded in helping employees become informed, engaged and committed to the space agency's important missions. Specific topics include: Alignment Criteria: Linking Projects To Corporate Strategy. Resource Management: Best Practices For Resource Management. Strategic Analysis: Supporting Decision Making In A Changing Environment. Communication Strategies: Best Practices To Communicate Change. Benefits Achieved And Lessons Learned.

  18. Russian neo-revisionist strategy and the Eurasian Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Dzarasov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the real meaning of the Eurasian Integration Project for East–West relations. The author departs from Sakwa’s treatment of Russian strategy as neo-revisionist. It does not aspire to change the current world order while trying to make the West observe its national interests within the existing framework. This perspective is treated in the article from the standpoint of world-systems analysis. The Eurasian Project is understood as a reaction of the Russian state to the failure of the neoliberal attempt to integrate into the world economy and the international security system. The two great trade mega-unions—the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP and the Trans-Atlantic Partnership—are seen as geoeconomic bolt clamps, which put Russia under enormous pressure. The Russian strategy in the Ukrainian and Syrian crises is designed to find the way out of strategic isolation. The Eurasian Union is expected by the Russian ruling elite to be an important tool to forestall the isolation of the country and secure her economic, military and international security.

  19. Guanacaste Geothermal Project. Technical prefeasibility report. Annex C. Electric resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    This report is the third of six annexes to the Summary Report on the First Phase of the Guanacaste Geothermal Project. The studies covered an area of 500 km/sup 2/ on the SW flanks of the Rincon de la Vieja and Miravalles volcanoes of the Guanacaste Volcanic Range in NW Costa Rica, and were aimed at locating zones of high geothermal gradient, and reconstruction of the stratigraphic column. The formations in the area under study can be grouped into six resistivity ranges, varying from less than 5 to more than 200 ohm-meters. Values from 200 to as high as 30,000 ohm-meters generally correspond to fractured and porous lavas, their fracturing and porosity, as well as their drainability, increasing with resistivity. The values above 100 ohm-meters were recorded in zones of recent lava flows, in spurs of the volcanoes Rincon de la Vieja and Santa Maria, and in the slopes of the Miravalles volcano, and correspond to shallow formations (maximum depths of 150 meters) which may constitute recharge zones for the underground aquifiers. The values in the 100 to 200 ohm-meter range were generally recorded directly under layers constituted by drained, porous lavas, or under shallow layers where no recent lavas are present. The third group comprises materials with resistivities in the 25 to 100 ohm-meter range, occurring at two different depth levels: a deep one (more than 1000 meters) and a shallow one (less than 400 meters). Resistivities less than 25 ohm-meters were recorded at depths of 250 meters and more, and may correspond to material typical of the Aguacate formation, which probably constitutes the reservoir rock of the geothermal fluids. In order to locate the zones of most geothermal interest, this range was classified into the three remaining of the six groups, viz 10 to 25, 5 to 10, and less than 5 ohm-meters, the last group appearing to be that of greatest geothermal potential.

  20. Comparing the impact of explicit and implicit resistance induction strategies on message persuasiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, M.L.; Fennis, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional strategies that help people to resist persuasive communication, such as warnings of persuasive intent, are explicit, effortful, and require cognitive capacity. Typically, however, message recipients are unable or unmotivated to allocate their cognitive resources to adopting resistance

  1. Insecticide resistance management strategies against the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielza, Pablo

    2008-11-01

    Western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is an economically important pest of a wide range of crops grown throughout the world. Insecticide resistance has been documented in many populations of WFT. Biological and behavioural characteristics and pest management practices that promote insecticide resistance are discussed. In addition, an overview is provided of the development of insecticide resistance in F. occidentalis populations and the resistance mechanisms involved. Owing to widespread resistance to most conventional insecticides, a new approach to insecticide resistance management (IRM) of F. occidentalis is needed. The IRM strategy proposed consists of two parts. Firstly, a general strategy to minimise the use of insecticides in order to reduce selection pressure. Secondly, a strategy designed to avoid selection of resistance mechanisms, considering cross-resistance patterns and resistance mechanisms. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Cellular resistance in radio- and chemotherapy: biological basis and strategies for circumvention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twentyman, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    In this review the author points out that resistance to cytotoxic drugs is a complex, multifactorial phenomenon involving a range of mechanisms. There is accumulating evidence that these are of relevance to both inherent and acquired resistance in the clinic. Demonstration that mechanisms of drug and radiation resistance are closely linked provides a basis for the related patterns of responsiveness observed in clinical practice. Strategies for circumvention of resistance mechanisms will depend for success upon finding ways of improving therapeutic ratio. Optimal clinical trial of resistance circumvention strategies will require the use of quantitative markers of resistance mechanisms in tumour and normal tissues. (author)

  3. Goal, strategy and project selection for the radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Z.; Zhou, L.

    1984-01-01

    In the past two decades, a number of results in the field of R/D of the radiation processing have been attained in China. Many of them are of great value in application and have been put into pilot plant or trial production. From the viewpoint of system analysis, the radiation processing as a technological system follows its own law of development, now entering a stage of rapid development in the areas of R/D and application. As a favourable factor for the development of radiation, two significant policies have been formulated; first, the policy of development of science and technology should contribute to the development of national economy; secondly the policy of the development of atomic science and technology emphasis should be shifted to civil purposes. These two policies are bound to greatly promote the R/D of the radiation processing, especially its transfer and diffusion. Now, the linkage between the radiation processing and national economy is getting closer and closer. A lot of proposals for investment in this field have been put forward recently. Therefore, it is vital to make investigations into the strategy for the developing, economic effectiveness and the criteria in project selection of the radiation processing. In this article, we study the present state and the characteristics of the technology transfer of radiation processing in China from the viewpoint of system analysis and of effectiveness. We also analyse this issue in the light of the concept of life cycle of technology so as to establish, we hope, a realistic goal and an appropriate development strategy. Based on this, a model of project selection and suitable forms of diffusion and transfer are suggested

  4. The deregulated global economy: women workers and strategies of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, A

    1996-10-01

    This article discusses the lack of input from women in international debates about the global economy. Women in the South are the most vulnerable to exploitation and most ignored in international discussions of how to protect fair labor standards. Restructuring has led to loss of secure jobs in the public sector and the expansion of female employment in low-paid, insecure, unskilled jobs. Businesses desire a cheap and flexible workforce. Declines in social services, the elimination of subsidies on basic goods, and the introduction of user fees puts pressure on women to supplement family income. A parallel outcome is reduced employment rights, neglect of health and safety standards, and increased disregard among women for their domestic responsibilities. There is a need for alternative models of development. The Self-Employed Women's Organization in India serves as a model for resisting exploitation among self-employed and home-based employees. Female industrial strikers are demanding attention to excessive hours of work, enforced overtime, bullying, and lack of sanitary and medical facilities. There is always fear that organized resistance will lead to industrial relocation or loss of jobs. The International Labor Organization has had a code for 20 years, but the threat of exposure to the press is sometimes more effective. There must be regulation throughout subcontracting chains of transnational companies. International alliances should revolve around issues/strategies identified by workers. International alliances are needed for influencing multinational companies and national governments and lobbying global economic and financial institutions. Standards that are included in social clause discussions are minimum requirements that do not address gender-specific issues. Women Working Worldwide is developing a position statement of social clauses that incorporates a women's perspective.

  5. Fuel strategies for natural gas fired cogeneration and IPP projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper as published is the outline of a presentation on managing the risk of varying fuel costs as part of a successful fuel strategy for natural gas fired cogeneration and Independent Power Producer (IPP) projects. So long as the fuel cost that electric utilities recover from their ratepayers differs from the fuel costs incurred by IPP and Qualifying Facility (QF) plant operators, the largest variable cost risk of any QF or IPP will continue to be the cost of fuel. Managing that risk is the mission of any successful fuel procurement strategy. Unfortunately, a quick review of the last 20 years in the oil and gas industry reveals dramatic and substantial changes in price and fuel availability that few, if any, industry experts could have predicted in 1971. Recognizing that the fuel cost risk to a QF or IPP investor also spans a 20 year period, the typical term of a QF or IPP power purchase contract, a successful fuel procurement strategy must consider and address the likelihood of future changes. Due to federal and state regulatory changes made from 1978 to 1989, the current structure of the oil and gas industry appears to provide end-users with the tools to improve the manageability of fuel cost risks. QF and IPP developers can choose the type of service they desire and can negotiate most of the contractual elements of that service. Until electric utilities are allowed to flow through their rates the fuel costs incurred by QFs and IPPs, a thorough analysis of the available fuel procurement options prior to development of a QF or IPP will continue to be absolutely necessary

  6. Quantitative Resistance to Plant Pathogens in Pyramiding Strategies for Durable Crop Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laure Pilet-Nayel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative resistance has gained interest in plant breeding for pathogen control in low-input cropping systems. Although quantitative resistance frequently has only a partial effect and is difficult to select, it is considered more durable than major resistance (R genes. With the exponential development of molecular markers over the past 20 years, resistance QTL have been more accurately detected and better integrated into breeding strategies for resistant varieties with increased potential for durability. This review summarizes current knowledge on the genetic inheritance, molecular basis, and durability of quantitative resistance. Based on this knowledge, we discuss how strategies that combine major R genes and QTL in crops can maintain the effectiveness of plant resistance to pathogens. Combining resistance QTL with complementary modes of action appears to be an interesting strategy for breeding effective and potentially durable resistance. Combining quantitative resistance with major R genes has proven to be a valuable approach for extending the effectiveness of major genes. In the plant genomics era, improved tools and methods are becoming available to better integrate quantitative resistance into breeding strategies. Nevertheless, optimal combinations of resistance loci will still have to be identified to preserve resistance effectiveness over time for durable crop protection.

  7. Radiation Resistant Hybrid Lotus Effect Photoelectrocatalytic Self-Cleaning Anti-Contamination Coatings Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop radiation resistant hybrid Lotus Effect photoelectrocatalytic self-cleaning anti-contamination coatings for application to Lunar...

  8. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevention strategies in the ICU: a clinical decision analysis*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziakas, Panayiotis D; Zacharioudakis, Ioannis M; Zervou, Fainareti N; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-02-01

    ICUs are a major reservoir of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Our aim was to estimate costs and effectiveness of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevention policies. We evaluated three up-to-date methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevention policies, namely, 1) nasal screening and contact precautions of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-positive patients; 2) nasal screening, contact precautions, and decolonization (targeted decolonization) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers; and 3) universal decolonization without screening. We implemented a decision-analytic model with deterministic and probabilistic analyses. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections averted, quality-adjusted life years gained, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated. Cost-effectiveness planes and acceptability curves were plotted for various willingness-to-pay thresholds to address uncertainty. At base-case scenario, universal decolonization was the dominant strategy; it averted 1.31% and 1.59% of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections over targeted decolonization and screening and contact precautions, respectively, and saved $16,203/quality-adjusted life year over targeted decolonization and 14,562/quality-adjusted life year over screening and contact precautions. Results were robust in sensitivity analysis for a wide range of input variables. In probabilistic analysis, universal decolonization increased quality-adjusted life years by 1.06% (95% CI, 1.02-1.09) over targeted decolonization and by 1.29% (95% CI, 1.24-1.33) over screening and contact precautions; universal decolonization resulted in average savings of $172 (95% CI, $168-$175) and $189 (95% CI, $185-$193) over targeted decolonization and screening and contact precautions, respectively. With willingness-to-pay threshold per quality-adjusted life year gained ranging from $0 to $50,000, universal decolonization was dominant

  9. Exploring Culturally Specific Drug Resistance Strategies of Hawaiian Youth in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Po'a-Kekuawela, Ka'ohinani; Chin, Coralee I. H.; Nebre, La Risa H.; Helm, Susana

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the drug resistance strategies of Hawaiian youth residing in rural communities in Hawai'i. Forty seven youth participated in 14 focus groups which focused on the social and environmental context of drug use for these youth. The findings indicated that there were 47 references to resistance strategies used in drug…

  10. The Crop Evaluation Research for Environmental Strategies (CERES) Remote Sensing 2008 Project Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Joseph C.; Glaser, John A.; Copenhaver, Kenneth L.; May, George

    2009-01-01

    resistance development. The two agencies have entered into an agreement which could potentially lead to the development of next generation NASA sensors that will more specifically address the requirements of the USEPA's resistance development strategy and offer opportunities to study the ever changing ecosystem complexities. The USEPA/NASA/ITD team has developed a broad research project entitled CERES (Crop Evaluation Research for Environmental Strategies). CERES is a research effort leading to decision support system tools that are designed to integrate multi-resolution NASA remote sensing data products and USEPA geo -spatial models to monitor the potential for insect pest resistance development from the regional to the landscape and then to the field level.

  11. Strategies and motives for resistance to persuasion: an integrative framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, M.L.; Smit, E.G.; Verlegh, P.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Persuasion is an important element of human communication. But in many situations, we resist rather than embrace persuasive attempts. Resistance to persuasion has been studied in many different disciplines, including communication science, psychology, and marketing. The present paper reviews and

  12. [Strategies for improving care of oncologic patients: SHARE Project results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reñones Crego, María de la Concepción; Fernández Pérez, Dolores; Vena Fernández, Carmen; Zamudio Sánchez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Cancer treatment is a major burden for the patient and its family that requires an individualized management by healthcare professionals. Nurses are in charge of coordinating care and are the closest healthcare professionals to patient and family; however, in Spain, there are not standard protocols yet for the management of oncology patients. The Spanish Oncology Nursing Society developed between 2012 and 2014 the SHARE project, with the aim of establishing strategies to improve quality of life and nursing care in oncology patients. It was developed in 3 phases. First, a literature search and review was performed to identify nursing strategies, interventions and tools to improve cancer patients' care. At the second stage, these interventions were agreed within a group of oncology nursing experts; and at the third phase, a different group of experts in oncology care categorized the interventions to identify the ones with highest priority and most feasible to be implemented. As a result, 3 strategic actions were identified to improve nursing care during cancer treatment: To provide a named nurse to carry out the follow up process by attending to the clinic or telephonic consultation, develop therapeutic education with adapted protocols for each tumor type and treatment and ensure specific training for nurses on the management of the cancer patients. Strategic actions proposed in this paper aim to improve cancer patients' healthcare and quality of life through the development of advanced nursing roles based on a higher level of autonomy, situating nurses as care coordinators to assure an holistic care in oncology patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Fuel supply strategy for power projects in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, D.

    1997-01-01

    Electricity generation is forecast to grow in Asia over the next twenty years. This will bring with it a significant growth in demand for energy resources. Major Asian utility coal procurement strategy to date has aimed at securing a balance between two conflicting needs - security of supply and low cost of supply. Despite the oversupply of coal in the eighties, the two countries experiencing significant growth in demand, Japan and Korea, planned their fuel strategies to ensure security of supply. The supply shortage over the past two years has justified their forward thinking in keeping long term coal contracts in place. Changes are already happening. Recent developments are seeing a move towards the positive attributes of low ash/low sulphur coals appropriately focusing suppliers thoughts on the need in the future to develop and concentrate on environmentally attractive coals to achieve greater returns. Indeed, generally there is a trend in North Asia to demand coal with lower sulphur, and lower ash. The aim now should be to persuade consumers to amend the narrow benchmark view in favour of one that considers the value in use of a particular coal to the customer. The method of pricing thermal coals is also likely to be influenced by the liberalization of the electricity market itself. The introduction of competition amongst generators and the appearance and growth of the Independent Power Producers could well see further pressure on the current simplistic benchmark system. Those financing such projects will seek to reduce risk by every means possible and, in particular, will want to be confident of the long term security of coal supplies

  14. Antibiotic consumption and resistance: results of the SPIN-UTI project of the GISIO-SItI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agodi, Antonella; Auxilia, Francesco; Barchitta, Martina; Brusaferro, Silvio; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Pasquarella, Cesira; Tardivo, Stefano; Mura, Ida

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate trends and association between antibiotic consumption and resistance during an eight-year period, from 2006 to 2013. Prospective multicenter study. Intensive Care Units (ICUs) participating in the four editions of the Italian nosocomial infections surveillance in the ICU Network (Sorveglianza Prospettica delle Infezioni Nosocomiali nelle Unità di Terapia Intensiva, SPIN-UTI project). The isolation density of selected species of microorganisms, antibiotic resistance rates (RRs), incidence density of resistant isolates and antimicrobial usage density were calculated. RRs of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, of third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant K. pneumoniae and of 3GC-resistant Escherichia coli showed significant increasing trends (p ≤0.001). The consumption of each antibiotic class varied with years, although not significantly. Significant strongly positive correlations were detected between RRs and antibiotic consumption. The present study describes high RRs and increasing trends of resistant microorganisms and highlights the need for continuous comprehensive strategies targeting not only the prudent use of antibiotics, but also infection control measures to limit the epidemic spread of resistant isolates.

  15. Antibiotic Stewardship Initiatives as Part of the UK 5-Year Antimicrobial Resistance Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Alan P.; Ashiru-Oredope, Diane; Beech, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic use is a major driver for the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes aim to improve antibiotic prescribing with the objectives of optimizing clinical outcomes while at the same time minimizing unintended consequences such as adverse effects and the selection of antibiotic resistance. In 2013, a five-year national strategy for tackling antimicrobial resistance was published in the UK. The overarching goal of the strategy is to slow the de...

  16. Internalised abortion stigma: Young women’s strategies of resistance and rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Hoggart, Lesley

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which young women articulated strategies of resistance to internalised abortion stigma. It does so through secondary analysis of young women’s narratives from two qualitative studies in England and Wales. Whilst participants felt stigmatised by their abortion[s] in different ways, many also resisted stigmatisation. They did this through different stigma resistance strategies that were shaped by a number of different interactions: their socio-economic situations...

  17. Operations Strategy Development in Project-based Production – a building contractor implements Lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Friis, Ole Uhrskov

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study how operations strategy innovation occurs in project-based production and organisation. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal case study encompassing the processes at the company headquarters and in two projects using Lean. Findings: The operations strategy development...... commences at a middle level in the organisation, is underpinned and embedded in production projects, and only after several years becomes embedded in the corporate operations strategy. The projects use Lean principles in a differentiated manner. Research limitations/implications: A qualitative case study...... operations strategy development. Originality/value: The present study contributes to the small body of studies of operations strategy development processes by providing insight into how project-based companies renew their operations strategy. Key words: Lean, Construction, Operations Strategy, Political...

  18. The role of project portfolio management in fostering both deliberate and emergent strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Kopmann, Julian; Kock, Alexander; Killen, Catherine P.; Gemünden, Hans Georg

    2017-01-01

    Formal strategy processes have been shown to be insufficient in shaping strategy, particularly in turbulent environments. Emerging strategies that constitute independently from deliberate top-down strategy processes are important for organizational adaptability. This study explores strategic control mechanisms at the project portfolio level and their influence on emergent and deliberate strategies. Based on a sample of 182 firms, we show that both deliberate and emerging strategies positively...

  19. Transgenic strategies for improving rice disease resistance | Zhang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improvement of virus resistance can be achieved by generating transgenic rice lines with expression of genes encoding viral coat protein or replication enzymes, expression of RNA interference constructs and suppression of insect vectors. Varieties with improved resistance against fungal and bacterial pathogens can be ...

  20. Insulin resistance : pathophysiology in South Asians & therapeutic strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleddering, Maria Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the pathophysiology of insulin resistance in the South Asian population and comprises studies on pharmacological and weight loss interventions in insulin resistant patients. Because of the increasing number of patients with obesity and T2DM, more research is needed to identify

  1. Herbicide-resistant weeds: Management strategies and upcoming technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicides have contributed to substantial increase in crop yields over the past seven decades. Over reliance on herbicides for weed control has led to rapid evolution of herbicide-resistant (HR) weeds. Increased awareness of herbicide resistance and adoption of diversified weed control tactics by f...

  2. Evaluation of construction strategies for PCC pavement rehabilitation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    This study investigated project management level solutions to optimizing resources, minimizing costs : (including user costs) and time for PCC pavement rehabilitation projects. This study extensively : evaluated the applicability of the Construction ...

  3. Using project management strategy to evaluate the challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is based on a study which analysed the use of the project management methodology, Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) to manage the University of Malawi, Chancellor College Library floor covering renovation project in various stages from initiation through to closing. A case study approach ...

  4. Resistance projection welding of complex metal combinations and geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars; Bay, Niels; Malberg, Michael Peter

    Final report about the results and research in the MUPII-project "Pressvejsning af komplekse geometrier og materialer"......Final report about the results and research in the MUPII-project "Pressvejsning af komplekse geometrier og materialer"...

  5. Utilising Planning and Financing Strategies in the Management of Community Development Projects in Enugu State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obetta, Chukwuemeka K.; Oreh, Catherine I.

    2017-01-01

    Utilisation of community management strategies is an approach to governance that is based on community and organisational involvement. Communities with development projects have formed community projects management committees (CPMCs) that are encouraged to adopt the community management strategy in the planning and financing of community…

  6. Knowledge Sharing Strategies for Large Complex Building Projects.

    OpenAIRE

    Esra Bektas

    2013-01-01

    The construction industry is a project-based sector with a myriad of actors such as architects, construction companies, consultants, producers of building materials (Anumba et al., 2005). The interaction between the project partners is often quite limited, which leads to insufficient knowledge sharing during the project and knowledge being unavailable for reuse (Fruchter et al. 2002). The result can be a considerable amount of extra work, delays and cost overruns. Design outcomes that are sup...

  7. Antibiotic Stewardship Initiatives as Part of the UK 5-Year Antimicrobial Resistance Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan P. Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic use is a major driver for the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes aim to improve antibiotic prescribing with the objectives of optimizing clinical outcomes while at the same time minimizing unintended consequences such as adverse effects and the selection of antibiotic resistance. In 2013, a five-year national strategy for tackling antimicrobial resistance was published in the UK. The overarching goal of the strategy is to slow the development and spread of resistance and to this end it has three strategic aims, namely to improve knowledge and understanding of resistance, to conserve and steward the effectiveness of existing treatments and to stimulate the development of new antibiotics, diagnostics and novel therapies. This article reviews the antimicrobial stewardship activities included in the strategy and describes their implementation and evaluation.

  8. THE STRATEGY ESTABLISHMENT THROUGH A PROJECT: THE CARANDIRU CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Rabechini Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one case study about strategic transformation with project. It was built a theoretical frame literature on the project management contingency theory. The case study methodology was used in the creation project of Parque da Juventude, the former Carandiru prison complex in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. As a result it was found the adoption of a traditional management practice with emphasis variables of high intensity and high complexity. Therefore, it was possible to give a practical contribution to understanding the contingency theory applied in the project management.

  9. A new strategy to fight antimicrobial resistance: the revival of old antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim eCassir

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of hospital- and community-acquired infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens is limiting the options for effective antibiotic therapy. Moreover, this alarming spread of antimicrobial resistance has not been paralleled by the development of novel antimicrobials. Resistance to the scarce new antibiotics is also emerging. In this context, the rational use of older antibiotics could represent an alternative for the treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens. This strategy would help to optimize the armamentarium of antibiotics so as to preserve the effectiveness of new antibiotics and avoid the prescription of drugs known to favor the spread of resistance (i.e., quinolones. Furthermore, from a global economic perspective, this strategy could be useful in public health, given that several of these cheapest forgotten antibiotics are not available in many countries. We will review here the successful treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections with old antibiotics and discuss their place in current practice.

  10. Insecticide resistance in the horn fly: alternative control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, M P; Quiroz, A; Birkett, M A

    2008-09-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most widespread and economically important pests of cattle. Although insecticides have been used for fly control, success has been limited because of the development of insecticide resistance in all countries where the horn fly is found. This problem, along with public pressure for insecticide-free food and the prohibitive cost of developing new classes of compounds, has driven the investigation of alternative control methods that minimize or avoid the use of insecticides. This review provides details of the economic impact of horn flies, existing insecticides used for horn fly control and resistance mechanisms. Current research on new methods of horn fly control based on resistant cattle selection, semiochemicals, biological control and vaccines is also discussed.

  11. Gene pyramiding as a Bt resistance management strategy: How ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports on the emergence of insect resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis delta endotoxins have raised doubts on the sustainability of Bt-toxin based pest management technologies. Corporate industry has responded to this challenge with innovations that include gene pyramiding among others. Pyramiding entails stacking ...

  12. World Health Organization/HIVResNet drug resistance laboratory strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertognolio, Silvio; Derdelinckx, Inge; Parker, Monica; Fitzgibbon, Joseph; Fleury, Herve; Peeters, Martin; Schuurman, Rob; Pillay, Deenan; Morris, Lynn; Tanuri, Amilcar; Gershy-Damet, Guy-Michel; Nkengasong, John; Gilks, Charles F.; Sutherland, Donald; Sandstrom, Paul

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly increasing access to antiretroviral drugs globally, HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) has become a significant public health issue, This requires a coordinated and collaborative response from country level to international level to assess the extent of HIVDR and the establishment of efficient

  13. Church Asylum - new strategies, alliances and modes of resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the possibilities for democratic transformation in a landscape of political closure. Taking the case of Church Asylum [Kirkeasyl] as an example of new ways of resistance and participation in contemporary Denmark the articles argues that although the established political ch....... The article draws on a framework derived from political sociology and critical theory....

  14. Phalaris minor control, resistance development and strategies for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... High production of wheat is associated with its continuous use. But this practice enhances the development of resistant biotypes of P. minor. Different management approaches like preference of mechanical weeding over chemical weed control, integration of competitive varietal selection, crop rotation and ...

  15. Evaluation of stem borer resistance management strategies for Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem borers are the major insect pests of maize in Kenya. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) technology is an effective way of controlling lepidopteran pests. However, the likelihood of development of resistance to the Bt toxins by the target stem borer species is a concern. Forages, sorghum and maize varieties were ...

  16. Evaluation of stem borer resistance management strategies for Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-06-01

    Jun 1, 2011 ... Stem borers are the major insect pests of maize in Kenya. The use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) technology is an effective way of controlling lepidopteran pests. However, the likelihood of development of resistance to the Bt toxins by the target stem borer species is a concern. Forages, sorghum and maize ...

  17. Recycling antibiotics into GUMBOS: A new combination strategy to combat multi-drug resistant bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria, coupled with the lack of new antibiotics in development, is fast evolving into a global crisis. New strategies utilizing existing antibacterial agents are urgently needed. We propose one such strategy in which four outmoded ß-lactam antibiotics (amp...

  18. Strategies to prevent the occurrence of resistance against antibiotics by using advanced materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassegoda, Arnau; Ivanova, Kristina; Ramon, Eva; Tzanov, Tzanko

    2018-03-01

    Drug resistance occurrence is a global healthcare concern responsible for the increased morbidity and mortality in hospitals, time of hospitalisation and huge financial loss. The failure of the most antibiotics to kill "superbugs" poses the urgent need to develop innovative strategies aimed at not only controlling bacterial infection but also the spread of resistance. The prevention of pathogen host invasion by inhibiting bacterial virulence and biofilm formation, and the utilisation of bactericidal agents with different mode of action than classic antibiotics are the two most promising new alternative strategies to overcome antibiotic resistance. Based on these novel approaches, researchers are developing different advanced materials (nanoparticles, hydrogels and surface coatings) with novel antimicrobial properties. In this review, we summarise the recent advances in terms of engineered materials to prevent bacteria-resistant infections according to the antimicrobial strategies underlying their design.

  19. Antibiotic adjuvants - A strategy to unlock bacterial resistance to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Bello, Concepción

    2017-09-15

    Resistance to available antibiotics in pathogenic bacteria is currently a global challenge since the number of strains that are resistant to multiple types of antibiotics has increased dramatically each year and has spread worldwide. To unlock this problem, the use of an 'antibiotic adjuvant' in combination with an antibiotic is now being exploited. This approach enables us to prolong the lifespan of these life-saving drugs. This digests review provides an overview of the main types of antibiotic adjuvants, the basis of their operation and the remaining issues to be tackled in this field. Particular emphasis is placed on those compounds that are already in clinical development, namely β-lactamase inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. A methodology for resistance to change management in information systems projects

    OpenAIRE

    Vrhovec, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The rate of failed information systems development projects remains high despite increasing investments into information systems and their major importance for contemporary organizations. Resistance to change is one of the critical reasons for such high failure rates. Organizations faced resistance to change long before the emergence of first computers as it is a natural reaction to change. With the emergence of computers and introduction of information technology to organizations, resistance...

  1. Improved projects execution and contract strategies. The Hyde experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the obtained experience from the Hyde development project on the UK continental shelf. The industry is searching for more effective ways to develop North Sea oil and gas assets. Hyde, like many other projects, was uneconomic using current industry development and operation norms. BP, as a results, challenged its management to change the norms and achieve new levels of performance. The Hyde field was discovered in 1967. At that time, and until late 1991, it was assessed non-commercial. Between discovery and late 1991, gas prices increased in real terms but not as much as capital and operating costs. The initial BP challenge for Hyde was to make it commercial. The paper discusses the sanction phase, the mould breaking, and the project development breakthrough. 2 figs

  2. Current scenario of antibiotic resistance and latest strategies to overcome it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohankumar J Megha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in microorganisms has become a critical health issue these days and has evolved to become a worldwide health threat. Over a decade, the resistance level of bacteria has increased many folds due to various factors, accounting to the added pressure on the environmental resistome. Infections that are resistant to these antibiotics show potentially devastating effects on public health, often affecting developing countries. This review focuses on the present scenario of antibiotic resistance and enlists some of the strategies to combat this global community threat.

  3. High Radiation Resistance Inverted Metamorphic Solar Cell Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation in the proposed SBIR Phase I project is the development of a unique triple unction inverted metamorphic technology (IMM), which will enable the...

  4. Strategies for Impact: Enabling E-Learning Project Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csete, Josephine; Evans, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to focus on institutional initiatives to embed e-learning in a university in Hong Kong, from 2006-12, through large-scale funding of 43 e-learning projects. It outlines the guiding principles behind the university's e-learning development and discusses the significance of various procedures and practices in project…

  5. Psychological strategies to reduce energy consumption: project summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, L J; Seligman, C; Darley, J M

    1979-06-30

    This report reviews the research conducted in connection with a project to apply psychological theory and procedures to the problems of encouraging residential energy conservation. A major part of the project involved surveys of residents' energy-related attitudes. The best (and only consistent) attitudinal predictor of residents' actual energy consumption was their attitude about thermal comfort. A number of other attitudes that could conceivably have been related to consumption, such as attitudes about the reality of the crisis, were not found to be related to consumption. Another major focus of the project was on the effectiveness of feedback (that is, giving residents information about their energy use) as an aid to residents' conservation efforts. A series of experiments demonstrated that frequent, credible energy-consumption feedback, coupled with encouragement to adopt a reasonable but difficult energy-conservation goal, could facilitate conservation. However, these studies also demonstrated that residents could not be given just any kind of information about their energy use as feedback and that even proper feedback would not lead to conservation in all households. Conditions that are crucial for the success of feedback as a conservation aid are discussed. Other studies conducted by the project looked at the effect on energy consumption of (1) a device to reduce air-conditioning waste by signalling when it is cool outside, (2) an automatic multi-setback thermostat, and (3) utility companies' average payment plans. A survey of residents' knowledge of their energy use also was conducted. 23 references.

  6. Nucleotide variation and identification of novel blast resistance alleles of Pib by allele mining strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, G; Madhav, M S; Devi, S J S Rama; Prasad, M S; Babu, V Ravindra

    2015-04-01

    Pib is one of significant rice blast resistant genes, which provides resistance to wide range of isolates of rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae. Identification and isolation of novel and beneficial alleles help in crop enhancement. Allele mining is one of the best strategies for dissecting the allelic variations at candidate gene and identification of novel alleles. Hence, in the present study, Pib was analyzed by allele mining strategy, and coding and non-coding (upstream and intron) regions were examined to identify novel Pib alleles. Allelic sequences comparison revealed that nucleotide polymorphisms at coding regions affected the amino acid sequences, while the polymorphism at upstream (non-coding) region affected the motifs arrangements. Pib alleles from resistant landraces, Sercher and Krengosa showed better resistance than Pib donor variety, might be due to acquired mutations, especially at LRR region. The evolutionary distance, Ka/Ks and phylogenetic analyzes also supported these results. Transcription factor binding motif analysis revealed that Pib (Sr) had a unique motif (DPBFCOREDCDC3), while five different motifs differentiated the resistance and susceptible Pib alleles. As the Pib is an inducible gene, the identified differential motifs helps to understand the Pib expression mechanism. The identified novel Pib resistant alleles, which showed high resistance to the rice blast, can be used directly in blast resistance breeding program as alternative Pib resistant sources.

  7. Exploring organisational competences in Human Factors and UX project work: managing careers, project tactics and organisational strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furniss, Dominic; Curzon, Paul; Blandford, Ann

    2018-06-01

    Organisational competence in Human Factors and UX (user experience) has not been looked at before despite its relevance to project success. We define organisational competence as the collective competence of the individuals, bringing together their complementary abilities to deliver an outcome that is typically more than the sum of its parts. Twenty-two UX and Human Factors practitioners were interviewed about their project work in two contrasting domains: web design and safety-critical systems to explore organisational competences. Through doing a FRAM analysis, 29 functions and 6 main areas of competences were identified: the central project process; the process of learning about the problem; maintaining and developing client relations; staff development; evolving practices; and the management of documentation for audit and quality control. These dynamic and situated competences form a web of interactions. Managing competences is essential for project success. Implications for managing careers, project tactics and organisational strategy are discussed. Practitioner Summary: Organisational competences impact how routine and non-routine project work is performed, but these have received little attention in the literature. Six key areas of competences in Human Factors and UX project work were identified from practitioner interviews. Managing combinations of adaptive competences is important for developing careers, project tactics and organisational strategies.

  8. Green Performance Contracting Strategy for Highway Construction Projects

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    With the growing awareness of sustainability and global climate change, state highway agencies are taking essential steps to reduce carbon emissions from highway infrastructure on a life cycle basis. While much is known regarding climate change mitigation and adaption strategies during highway operation, very little is understood about how climate change issues should be integrated into highway planning, delivery, and construction processes. This paper presents the current contracting pra...

  9. Synenco Energy's Northern Lights Project : update and key strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshka, E.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation described the Northern Lights Project and addressed the unique characteristics of oil sands which have led to innovative mine and extraction techniques. A table indicating the mining projects in development was presented with reference to recoverable bitumen and ore grade. The marketing aspects of synthetic crude that influence the choice of bitumen upgrader design and economics were discussed. It was noted that new pipeline developments should open up new market opportunities. The expected market for Synenco crude is the northern portion of the United States Midwest. There may also be a possibility to sell the product as diluent because Synenco crude has a lower vacuum gas oil (VGO) content and more naphtha than other synthetic crude. The properties of Synenco crude components were listed with reference to gravity, density, sulfur content, cetane number, smoke point, and feed quality. The trade-off between capital costs, operating cost and risk mitigation was also examined. tabs., figs

  10. Strategies for financing energy projects in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortino, S.E. [Texaco Inc., White Plains, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses financing options available for energy (power/steam) projects in East Central Europe. It is intended to be an overview and practical guide to such options in today`s environment. A survey is made of the principal multilateral and other financial institutions providing funding and/or credit support in the region. These include the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation, the export credit agencies, and the commercial banks. Specific guarantee and other support mechanisms which some of these institutions provide are covered, including the latest developments. In addition to loan financing, potential sources of equity financing are discussed. Next, a description of the credit rating process by such institutions as Standard and Poor`s, and an example of a successful rating effort in the Czech Republic, lead into a discussion of accessing foreign and domestic bond markets to finance energy projects in the region.

  11. Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) Project Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-18

    The E3SM project will assert and maintain an international scientific leadership position in the development of Earth system and climate models at the leading edge of scientific knowledge and computational capabilities. With its collaborators, it will demonstrate its leadership by using these models to achieve the goal of designing, executing, and analyzing climate and Earth system simulations that address the most critical scientific questions for the nation and DOE.

  12. Forecasting for the second half-century of nuclear energy using. Projection and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a professional, global and unrestricted overview of the nuclear energy development and using, and the worldwide related research. The document also presents the projection and strategies for the second half-century

  13. Environmental education activities in Rondon Project: a strategy transformation multiplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milina Oliveira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The proposal of the "Amazon portal" through the Rondon project consisted of expository workshops in the period from 27 January to 09 February 2014. The proposal was implemented at Dom Bosco Catholic University (UCDB, who was served by a teacher and three academic area of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering. This article describes an experience report lived in the municipality of Tocantinópolis - TO / Brazil, through academic extension with context that brings academic and practical application of knowledge, adding new human values and aimed to improve the living conditions and the training of multipliers. The action had as a result the interaction of the community where activities have been implemented, both for young students in the city, and for indigenous, steadying the project commitment in terms of a sustainable youth, promoting this improvement in the formation of academics and favors the exercise of social commitment. Interactions such as occur during the Rondon Project makes every worker reflects on their education, not only as a professional, but certainly as a citizen.

  14. Low-Level Waste Vitrification Plant Project contracting strategy decision analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felise, P.; Phillips, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Ten basic contracting strategies were developed after a review of past strategies that had been used at the Hanford Site, other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites, other US government agencies, and in the private sector. As applicable to the Low-Level Waste Vitrification Plant (LLWVP) Project, each strategy was described and depicted in a schedule format to assess compatibility with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, al so known as the Tri-Party Agreement (Ecology et al. 1994) milestones, key decision points, and other project requirements. The-pro and con aspects of each strategy also were tabulated. Using this information as a basis, the LLWVP Project team members, along with representatives of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Engineering, TWRS Programs, and Procurement Materials Management, formed a Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) evaluation team to select the best strategy. Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis techniques were used in facilitated meetings to arrive at the best balanced choice

  15. Low-Level Waste Vitrification Plant Project contracting strategy decision analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felise, P.; Phillips, J.D.

    1994-10-17

    Ten basic contracting strategies were developed after a review of past strategies that had been used at the Hanford Site, other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites, other US government agencies, and in the private sector. As applicable to the Low-Level Waste Vitrification Plant (LLWVP) Project, each strategy was described and depicted in a schedule format to assess compatibility with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, al so known as the Tri-Party Agreement (Ecology et al. 1994) milestones, key decision points, and other project requirements. The-pro and con aspects of each strategy also were tabulated. Using this information as a basis, the LLWVP Project team members, along with representatives of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Engineering, TWRS Programs, and Procurement Materials Management, formed a Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) evaluation team to select the best strategy. Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis techniques were used in facilitated meetings to arrive at the best balanced choice.

  16. Transportation energy strategy: Project {number_sign}5 of the Hawaii Energy Strategy Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This study was prepared for the State Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) as part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy program. Authority and responsibility for energy planning activities, such as the Hawaii Energy Strategy, rests with the State Energy Resources Coordinator, who is the Director of DBEDT. Hawaii Energy Strategy Study No. 5, Transportation Energy Strategy Development, was prepared to: collect and synthesize information on the present and future use of energy in Hawaii`s transportation sector, examine the potential of energy conservation to affect future energy demand; analyze the possibility of satisfying a portion of the state`s future transportation energy demand through alternative fuels; and recommend a program targeting energy use in the state`s transportation sector to help achieve state goals. The analyses and conclusions of this report should be assessed in relation to the other Hawaii Energy Strategy Studies in developing a comprehensive state energy program. 56 figs., 87 tabs.

  17. Antimicrobial Resistance Control Strategies: A Coordinated Research Initiative Experience in the Asia Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Lisette; Asenjo, Gabriela; Vergara, Constanza; Cornejo, Javiera

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to gather information on the status of antimicrobial surveillance in the Asia Pacific region and suggest control strategies. Twenty-one economies of the Asia Pacific region participated in this initiative. A survey was conducted on antimicrobial use and surveillance throughout the region. A workshop was carried out to create awareness about the issue and discuss the implementation of control strategies. Based on the survey results and workshop conclusions, it can be established that there is better understanding of the implications of antimicrobial resistance in the human medicine area. Only few economies take actions to control antimicrobial resistance on a veterinary/agricultural level. To confront antimicrobial resistance, it is critical to raise awareness; cooperation between all countries is needed to apply international standards, to be able to have harmonized public policies. Countries must align and improve their systems for surveillance and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in human, animals, and the environment.

  18. A study on strategies for effective participation in the IAEA/RCA projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Joon Keuk; Jun, Byung Jin; Lee, Man Ki; Jin, Joon Ha; Choi, Pyung Hoon; Kim, Myung Ro; Min, Do Young

    2002-07-01

    In an effort to achieve the objectives, the following provisions were made. First of all, how this project supported RCA events that were held in Korea during the project period was described. Also, participation in RCA major policy level meetings, RCA-30 Scientific Forum, RCA Regional Office Opening were briefly reviewed. Secondly, RCA's general features including history and objective of its establishment, basic policy, administrative structure, major meetings was also reviewed. Thirdly, Overview of RCA projects, project implementation mechanism, on-going and planned project, review of technology utilization so fat and success stories were described. Fourthly, the issues related to the effective RCA management such as lead countries, Regional Resources Units (RRUs), RCA future vision and outsourcing of technical cooperation projects were reviewed. Finally, proper strategies and recommendations for active implementation of RCA projects were presented. This study can be utilized as basic reference material in the efficient implementation of RCA programmes in the future and for the personnel involved in the RCA projects as the fundamental elements for implementing the RCA cooperation are presented. The effective implementation direction for RCA programmes and strategies for strengthening Korea's participation in RCA projects can be utilized as basic reference material for the effective planning and implementation of RCA projects. It is hoped that this study will be widely utilized for expanding Korea's participation in the RCA project and for establishing a future direction for RCA projects by the governments, industries, academic circles and research institutions

  19. Impact of government and corporate strategy on the performance of technology projects in road construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caerteling, Jasper; Halman, Johannes I.M.; Song, Michael; Song, Michael; Doree, Andries G.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we focus on road construction and analyze technology development projects. Based on the business strategy literature and literature on technology policy, we test the relative importance of a firm's strategies and government as a buyer and champion. Our empirical findings stress the

  20. Strategies of the High School Geography Project for the Colleges: A New Heresy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A. David

    Arguing that new strategies can improve upon traditional college and university geography teaching, based on a "feeding-in-of-information" model, selected assumptions of the High School Geography Project (HSGP) strategies are presented. The HSGP has utilized new findings in learning theory and studies of the structure of knowledge. (1)…

  1. Obtaining of coffee varieties with durable resistance to illnesses, using the genetic diversity as improvement strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Ruiz, German

    2004-01-01

    With the purpose of producing improved coffee varieties with resistance to the leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix), the national federation of coffee growers of Colombia initiated in 1970 a research program, whose first results achieved in 1982 were the abstention of the Colombia coffee variety. The use of genetic variability as a strategy in plant breeding for a durable resistance is discussed. In addition, the breeding outline is described and the main features of the developed materials are presented

  2. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: Resources and Strategies for the Use of Writing Projects in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latulippe, Joe; Latulippe, Christine

    2014-01-01

    As an often recommended but under-utilized pedagogical strategy, writing in mathematics has many benefits for students. However, creating and grading worthwhile writing projects can be more time-consuming than utilizing more traditional forms of assessment. This paper provides a concrete example of a writing project prompt, questions, directions,…

  3. How Teaching Science Using Project-Based Learning Strategies Affects the Classroom Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugerat, Muhamad

    2016-01-01

    This study involved 458 ninth-grade students from two different Arab middle schools in Israel. Half of the students learned science using project-based learning strategies and the other half learned using traditional methods (non-project-based). The classes were heterogeneous regarding their achievements in the sciences. The adapted questionnaire…

  4. Combined strategies to control antinematicidal -resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants on organized farms in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, K.K.

    2014-01-01

    Combined strategies to control antinematicidal -resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants on organized farms in Pakistan Antinematicidal resistance has been rooted on all the continents particularly in areas where ovine and caprine are being reared intensively due to frequent annual use of broad-spectrum dewormers. Farmers rely on mono-strategic scheme by using synthetic drugs to treat their livestock which is deemed the easier way to control gastrointestinal nematode infections as compared to the other strategies. On the other hand, recurrent employment of antinematicidal chemotherapeutics has conduced to development and prevalence of resistance among nematode populations. In this regard, other advocating strategies such as grazing management, rotation of antinematicidal drugs (although it is too late), amelioration of animal immunity, genetic approaches, biological control, nutritional supplementation, avoidance of mass treatment, improvement of management, eradication of concurrent diseases, and phytotherapy should be considered too. Although, by far there are no commercialized substantial alternatives to chemotherapy, but the current substitutes could decrease the parasitic burden, which, in turn, restrict indiscriminate use of synthetic drugs. The resistance is more rampant on organized farms as compared to non organized farms in rural areas in Asian, African and South Latin American countries because tamed animal raisers in those areas depend on ethnobotanicals to treat parasitism due to high cost of allopathic drugs. Therefore, in this review, the different strategies to control the antinematicidal resistance on organized farms in Pakistan will be elaborated. (author)

  5. Antimicrobial resistance in Helicobacter pylori: current situation and management strategy in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Trung Nam; Tran, Van Huy; Tran, Thi Nhu Hoa; Le, Van An; Santona, Antonella; Rubino, Salvatore; Paglietti, Bianca

    2015-07-04

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance to key antibiotics in Helicobacter pylori has become a main cause of treatment failures in many countries, including Vietnam. For this reason it is advisable to perform antimicrobial sensitivity tests to provide more focused regimens for H. pylori eradication. However, this approach is generally unavailable for H. pylori in Vietnam and the selection of treatment regimens is mainly based on the trend of antibiotic use in the population, resistance development in the region, and history of H. pylori eradication of patients. The aim of this review is to examine the current situation of antimicrobial resistance in Vietnam and suggest management strategies for treatment selection.

  6. Management and financing of e-Government projects in India: Does financing strategy add value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Ojha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available How do managers structure e-government projects and address challenges of risks, lack of technical expertise, and mitigation of strategic error for preventing loss of investments? Our aim was to compare the traditional finance approach and the strategy-driven, innovative financing approaches under the PPP model, to examine their managerial value-addition. We found that e-government projects require a carefully crafted structuring strategy and that innovative financing is more suitable in facilitating flexible decision making, building core capabilities, managing and sharing project risks, providing funds needed for growth and innovation, and customising tailor-made project governance strategy. Based on our findings, we develop five theoretical propositions.

  7. A review of the influence of treatment strategies on antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Virender K; Johnson, Natalie; Cizmas, Leslie; McDonald, Thomas J; Kim, Hyunook

    2016-05-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in the aquatic environment have become an emerging contaminant issue, which has implications for human and ecological health. This review begins with an introduction to the occurrence of ARB and ARG in different environmental systems such as natural environments and drinking water resources. For example, ARG or ARB with resistance to ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, quinolone, vancomycin, or tetracycline (e.g., tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), tet(G), tet(O), tet(M), tet(W), sul I, and sul II) have been detected in the environment. The development of resistance may be intrinsic, may be acquired through spontaneous mutations (de novo), or may occur due to horizontal gene transfer from donor bacteria, phages, or free DNA to recipient bacteria. An overview is also provided of the current knowledge regarding inactivation of ARB and ARG, and the mechanism of the effects of different disinfection processes in water and wastewater (chlorination, UV irradiation, Fenton reaction, ozonation, and photocatalytic oxidation). The effects of constructed wetlands and nanotechnology on ARB and ARG are also summarized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Information literacy: using LISTEN project strategies to equip nurses worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ramona; Carter-Templeton, Heather; Russell, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    The 21st century presents a major challenge in the form of information overload. In a profession where new knowledge is ever expanding, nurse educators must equip nurses to find the information they need to provide safe evidence-based care. Information literacy and information technology competencies have become a priority in nursing education, but inconsistencies in definitions, frameworks, content, and design, combined with ill-equipped faculty have hindered the development of a transferable model geared toward improving nurses' information literacy. Challenges are compounded for nurses in developing nations, where access to information and training for information literacy are both problematic. This paper describes experiences from the LISTEN project, during the 1st year of a 3-year funded Nurse Education Practice and Retention grant. Designed to improve information literacy competencies of student and workforce nurses, using individualized learning via interactive web-based modules, LISTEN provides on its' website a Did You Know video dramatizing the importance of information literacy to nurses, and offers resources for information literacy, information technology, and evidence-based nursing practice. Preliminary findings from beta testing reveal the module content is realistic, complete, and logical. The website and video have generated worldwide interest. Future possibilities include nationwide implementation and adaptation for the international arena.

  9. Decision Process Analysis on Project Priority Strategy: A Case Study of an ICT Design Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent F. Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Project priority strategy is the benchmarking of a corporate operation management strategy and in particular is used by a projects-based research and development firm in the complex competence environment of the information and communication technology (ICT industry. This research takes the variables of external environments and internal resources into account for a firm’s market, technology, and finance assets in order to present a decision process on a project priority strategy. This empirical study also addresses the key factors of the interaction between business on a project development’s supply chain: clients, the examined firm, and suppliers. The findings indicate that a profit-driven project can dominate the firm’s strategic operations and management from the resource-based view and analytic hierarchy process technique perspectives. At the same time, the analysis results contribute significant values to project decision management, which is highly recommended for small-medium enterprises conducting product/project development, project portfolio management, and strategic business management.

  10. Addressing the need for a clean development mechanism (CDM specific project management strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Lotz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Clean Development Mechanism (CDM projects have additional technical, financial and regulatory requirements that are not fully addressed by classic project management approaches. Research has been done on individual novel concepts of the CDM, like additionality, but little has been achieved to address an overall CDM project management approach. CDM and project management literature was reviewed and the South African CDM Industry Association was used as a case study to gain insight into an appropriate CDM specific project management strategy. A stage-gate model was subsequently derived to align classic project management approaches with the additional requirements of CDM projects. Further research will, in time, determine the completeness and practicability of the proposed model.

  11. Six Strategies for Breaking Out of Another HRD Box--Management's Resistance to Change Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Robert; Mok, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Many human resources development (HRD) people play out self-fulfilling roles of incongruency with top management, but when management resistance to change is real, the six strategies offered in the article can be used by HRD specialists to help themselves and their companies. (Author/AJ)

  12. Situational Influences on the Selection of Strategies to Resist Compliance-Gaining Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Margaret L.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Investigates the effects of situational variables on the likelihood of the use of four types of strategies to resist compliance-gaining attempts: (1) identity managing, (2) negotiation, (3) justifying, and (4) nonnegotiation. Other variables considered were level of agent-target intimacy, consequences of noncompliance, and rights of the target to…

  13. Non-genetic mechanisms communicating antibiotic resistance: rethinking strategies for antimicrobial drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Halfawy, Omar M; Valvano, Miguel A

    2012-10-01

    Infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria are of great concern worldwide. In many cases, resistance is not due to the presence of specific antibiotic-modifying enzymes, but rather associated with a general impermeability of the bacterial cell envelope. The molecular bases of this intrinsic resistance are not completely understood. Moreover, horizontal gene transfers cannot solely explain the spread of intrinsic resistance among bacterial strains. This review focuses on the increased intrinsic antibiotic resistance mediated by small molecules. These small molecules can either be secreted from bacterial cells of the same or different species (e.g., indole, polyamines, ammonia, and the Pseudomonas quinolone signal) or be present in the bacterial cell milieu, whether in the environment, such as indole acetic acid and other plant hormones, or in human tissues and body fluids, such as polyamines. These molecules are metabolic byproducts that act as infochemicals and modulate bacterial responses toward antibiotics leading to increasing or decreasing resistance levels. The non-genetic mechanisms of antibiotic response modulation and communication discussed in this review should reorient our thinking of the mechanisms of intrinsic resistance to antibiotics and its spread across bacterial cell populations. The identification of chemical signals mediating increased intrinsic antibiotic resistance will expose novel critical targets for the development of new antimicrobial strategies.

  14. Doing Projects in a Foreign Language — Communications Management, Issues and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Deling

    The Qinghai Salt Lake Industry Co. Ltd. (QSLIC) smelter project involves a Chinese state-owned client, a Canadian engineering company, their American technology partner, several Chinese design institutes and international vendors. Proper technical communication plays an important role during the development of a project in a foreign language and across cultures. Using the QSLIC project as an example, this paper presents the role of Communications Manager and personal qualifications required, as well as technical communications management, issues and strategies, lessons learnt while doing smelter projects in China and Chinese business culture and etiquette.

  15. Multistrain models predict sequential multidrug treatment strategies to result in less antimicrobial resistance than combination treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Zachariasen, Camilla; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2016-01-01

    frequency did not play a role in suppressing the growth of resistant strains, but the specific order of the two antimicrobials did. Predictions made from the study could be used to redesign multidrug treatment strategies not only for intramuscular treatment in pigs, but also for other dosing routes.......Background: Combination treatment is increasingly used to fight infections caused by bacteria resistant to two or more antimicrobials. While multiple studies have evaluated treatment strategies to minimize the emergence of resistant strains for single antimicrobial treatment, fewer studies have...... considered combination treatments. The current study modeled bacterial growth in the intestine of pigs after intramuscular combination treatment (i.e. using two antibiotics simultaneously) and sequential treatments (i.e. alternating between two antibiotics) in order to identify the factors that favor...

  16. Biotechnological strategies and tools for Plum pox virus resistance: trans-, intra-, cis-genesis and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenza eIlardi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plum pox virus (PPV is the etiological agent of sharka, the most devastating and economically important viral disease affecting Prunus species. It is widespread in most stone fruits producing countries even though eradication and quarantine programs are in place. The development of resistant cultivars and rootstocks remains the most ecologically and economically suitable approach to achieve long-term control of sharka disease. However, the few PPV resistance genetic resources found in Prunus germplasm along with some intrinsic biological features of stone fruit trees pose limits for efficient and fast breeding programmes. This review focuses on an array of biotechnological strategies and tools, which have been used, or may be exploited to confer PPV resistance. A considerable number of scientific studies clearly indicate that robust and predictable resistance can be achieved by transforming plant species with constructs encoding intron-spliced hairpin RNAs homologous to conserved regions of the PPV genome. In addition, we discuss how recent advances in our understanding of PPV biology can be profitably exploited to develop viral interference strategies. In particular, genetic manipulation of host genes by which PPV accomplishes its infection cycle already permits the creation of intragenic resistant plants. Finally, we review the emerging genome editing technologies based on ZFN, TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 engineered nucleases and how the knockout of host susceptibility genes will open up next generation of PPV resistant plants.

  17. Using the project management office to connect the dots between projects and strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Jacqueline

    2015-03-01

    Project management is recognized as an essential skill required for healthcare leadership and as a result, Project Management Offices (PMOs) in healthcare organizations have become commonplace. When PMOs are well suited and fit to their organization, they are being valued for their ability to support appropriate trade-offs between investments, capacity, and quality. This article provides an overview of healthcare PMOs and advocates for elevating the role of the healthcare PMO from a monitoring and reporting function to a leader and the engine for strategic change within an organization. © 2015 The Canadian College of Health Leaders.

  18. How externalities impact an evaluation of strategies to prevent antimicrobial resistance in health care organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenine R. Leal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rates of antimicrobial-resistant organisms (ARO continue to increase for both hospitalized and community patients. Few resources have been allocated to reduce the spread of resistance on global, national and local levels, in part because the broader economic impact of antimicrobial resistance (i.e. the externality is not fully considered when determining how much to invest to prevent AROs, including strategies to contain antimicrobial resistance, such as antimicrobial stewardship programs. To determine how best to measure and incorporate the impact of externalities associated with the antimicrobial resistance when making resource allocation decisions aimed to reduce antimicrobial resistance within healthcare facilities, we reviewed the literature to identify publications which 1 described the externalities of antimicrobial resistance, 2 described approaches to quantifying the externalities associated with antimicrobial resistance or 3 described macro-level policy options to consider the impact of externalities. Medline was reviewed to identify published studies up to September 2016. Main body An externality is a cost or a benefit associated with one person’s activity that impacts others who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit. We did not identify a well-accepted method of accurately quantifying the externality associated with antimicrobial resistance. We did identify three main methods that have gained popularity to try to take into account the externalities of antimicrobial resistance, including regulation, charges or taxes on the use of antimicrobials, and the right to trade permits or licenses for antimicrobial use. To our knowledge, regulating use of antimicrobials is the only strategy currently being used by health care systems to reduce antimicrobial use, and thereby reduce AROs. To justify expenditures on programs that reduce AROs (i.e. to formally incorporate the impact of the negative externality of

  19. Probing strategy-project alignment: The case of the South African Social Security Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Van Der Waldt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Public institutions, such as the South African Social Security Agency (SASSA increasingly function in multi-project environments to translate strategies successfully into service-delivery initiatives. However, this ‘projectification’ often causes projects to be designed and executed haphazardly. This can lead to budget and schedule overruns, and the general wastage of an organisation’s resources. Project failures often occur where organisations do not ensure that specific projects are aligned with their core strategies. The purpose of this article is to combine the theories and principles of organisation, management, strategic management, and project management in an effort to pinpoint core determinants that can help establish the extent to which an organisation manages the alignment of its strategic projects. In the present study, the author applied the principles of interdisciplinarity, systems thinking, and organisational integration. The combined core determinants that were uncovered were then used in an empirical investigation of SASSA. The purpose of this investigation is to identify particular challenges the organisation faces in aligning their strategies and projects successfully. Thereafter, a number of recommendations follow to address these challenges.

  20. Potential Therapeutic Strategies to Overcome Acquired Resistance to BRAF or MEK Inhibitors in BRAF Mutant Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Ryan B.; Settleman, Jeffrey; Engelman, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent clinical trials with selective inhibitors of the BRAF and MEK kinases have shown promising results in patients with tumors harboring BRAF V600 mutations. However, as has been observed previously with similarly successful targeted therapies, acquired resistance to these agents is an emerging problem that limits their clinical benefit. Several recent studies from our laboratory and others have investigated the causes of acquired resistance to BRAF and MEK inhibitors, and multiple resistance mechanisms have been identified. Here, we review these mechanisms and suggest that they can be broadly grouped into two main classes: ERK-dependent and ERK-independent. We also propose distinct therapeutic strategies that might be employed to overcome each class of acquired resistance. PMID:21505228

  1. Introduction to biomass energy project financing, funding sources and government strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordlinger, D.E.; Shaw, F.C.

    1995-01-01

    Biomass projects can help developing countries to protect their environment as well as to build a modem infrastructure. However, such projects present, in addition to the more typical risks associated with fossil-fuel projects, certain risks relating to the unique technologies and fuels used in such projects. Further, their location in developing countries regularly creates enhanced political and credit risk as well. Biomass power projects, like any other power project, must be financed. To be financeable, a power project should allocate risk in the most efficient way, so as to maximize return on investment. This paper examines the way in which various project documents can be structured to allocate most efficiently the technology and fuel risks unique to biomass projects, as well as the more typical risks, such as construction risk, permitting risk, expropriation risk, currency risk, country risk, sovereign risks, operating risks and credit risk. In addition, this paper summarizes the public financing sources and support that are available to assist in meeting the unique risk profiles of biomass projects. Specifically, it examines some of the principal multilateral and export credit agencies having involvement in this area. Finally, it examines potential strategies available to the developer of a biomass project for soliciting the involvement of, and negotiating with, local governments and public financing agencies. (author)

  2. Inhibition of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein: time for a change of strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Richard; Luk, Frederick; Bebawy, Mary

    2014-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a key player in the multidrug-resistant phenotype in cancer. The protein confers resistance by mediating the ATP-dependent efflux of an astonishing array of anticancer drugs. Its broad specificity has been the subject of numerous attempts to inhibit the protein and restore the efficacy of anticancer drugs. The general strategy has been to develop compounds that either compete with anticancer drugs for transport or act as direct inhibitors of P-gp. Despite considerable in vitro success, there are no compounds currently available to "block" P-gp-mediated resistance in the clinic. The failure may be attributed to toxicity, adverse drug interaction, and numerous pharmacokinetic issues. This review provides a description of several alternative approaches to overcome the activity of P-gp in drug-resistant cells. These include 1) drugs that specifically target resistant cells, 2) novel nanotechnologies to provide high-dose, targeted delivery of anticancer drugs, 3) compounds that interfere with nongenomic transfer of resistance, and 4) approaches to reduce the expression of P-gp within tumors. Such approaches have been developed through the pursuit of greater understanding of resistance mediators such as P-gp, and they show considerable potential for further application.

  3. Prevention strategies for antimicrobial resistance: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney P Caron

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Whitney P Caron1, Shaker A Mousa1,21The Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Center of Excellence of Infection Prevention (CEIP, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY, USA; 2King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Antibiotics offer great benefits by reducing the duration and severity of illnesses and aiding in infection transmission control. With this being said, the inexorable process of antimicrobial drug resistance is to some degree unavoidable. Although drug resistance will likely persist and is to be expected, the overall level can be dramatically decreased with increased attention to antibiotic overuse and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of different drug formulations, and the use of proper hygiene and protective barriers. Implementation of such practices as microbial surveillance and prophylaxis has been shown to result in decreased hospital length of stay, health care costs and mortality due to drug-resistant infections. This review will summarize current progress in preventative techniques aimed at reducing the incidence of infection by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant strains. By employing a variety of prevention strategies, including proper personal hygiene, prescreening for carrier status before hospital admission, disinfection of hospital rooms, and careful monitoring of antimicrobial prescribing, marked progress can be achieved in the control of drug-resistant pathogens, which can translate into more effective antimicrobial therapy.Keywords: infection prevention, antibiotic, personal hygiene, disinfection, microbial surveillance, drug-resistant pathogen

  4. Different regulatory strategies in regulation of nuclear power projects: An Indian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Sohail Ahmad

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory strategy needed for management of safety and safety culture involves careful planning and use of engineering concepts keeping in mind feasibility to implement certain safety requirements. It also requires adequate attention on working environment and mental conditions of designers, operating and maintenance staff and regulators. Different strategies followed during safety review and regulatory inspection of nuclear power projects for improving status of safety management and safety cultures have given certain results. The present paper brings out certain experience gained during regulation of Indian Nuclear Power Projects by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board of India in the area of management of safety and safety culture. (author)

  5. Resistance strategies of Phragmites australis (common reed to Pb pollution in flood and drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance strategies of clonal organs, and parent and offspring shoots of Phragmites australis (common reed to heavy metal pollution in soils are not well known. To clarify the tolerance or resistance strategies in reeds, we conducted a pot experiment with five levels of Pb concentration (0∼4,500 mg kg−1 in flood and drought conditions. Lead toxicity had no inhibitory effect on the number of offspring shoots in flood environment; however, biomass accumulation, and photosynthetic and clonal growth parameters were inhibited in both water environment. At each treatment of Pb concentration, offspring shoots had greater biomass and higher photosynthesis indicators than parent shoots. The lowest Pb allocation was found in rhizomes. More of the Pb transported to above-ground parts tended to accumulate in parent shoots rather than in offspring shoots. Biomass and photosynthesis of offspring shoots, rhizome length, and the number of buds, rhizomes and offspring shoots in the flooded treatment were significantly greater than those in the drought treatment. Our results indicated that the tolerance strategies used by reeds, including higher biomass accumulation and photosynthesis in offspring shoots, low allocation of Pb in rhizomes and offspring shoots, and stable clonal growth, maintained the stability of population propagation and productivity, improving the resistance of reeds to Pb pollution in flood environment. However, the resistance or tolerance was significantly reduced by the synergistic effect of Pb and drought, which significantly inhibited biomass accumulation, photosynthesis, and clonal growth of reeds.

  6. Nutritional regulation of muscle protein synthesis with resistance exercise: strategies to enhance anabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churchward-Venne Tyler A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Provision of dietary amino acids increases skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS, an effect that is enhanced by prior resistance exercise. As a fundamentally necessary process in the enhancement of muscle mass, strategies to enhance rates of MPS would be beneficial in the development of interventions aimed at increasing skeletal muscle mass particularly when combined with chronic resistance exercise. The purpose of this review article is to provide an update on current findings regarding the nutritional regulation of MPS and highlight nutrition based strategies that may serve to maximize skeletal muscle protein anabolism with resistance exercise. Such factors include timing of protein intake, dietary protein type, the role of leucine as a key anabolic amino acid, and the impact of other macronutrients (i.e. carbohydrate on the regulation of MPS after resistance exercise. We contend that nutritional strategies that serve to maximally stimulate MPS may be useful in the development of nutrition and exercise based interventions aimed at enhancing skeletal muscle mass which may be of interest to elderly populations and to athletes.

  7. Optimizing strategy software for repetitive construction projects within multi-mode resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimating tender data for specific project is the most essential part in construction areas as of contractor’s view such as: proposed project duration with corresponding gross value and cash flows. This paper focuses on how to calculate tender data using Optimizing Strategy Software (OSS for repetitive construction projects with identical activity’s duration in case of single number of crew such as: project duration, project/bid price, project maximum working capital, and project net present value of the studied project. A simplified multi-objective optimization software (OSS will be presented that creates best tender data to contractor compared with more feasible options generated from multi-mode resources in a given project. OSS is intended to give more scenarios which provide practical support for typical construction contractors who need to optimize resource utilization in order to minimize project duration, project/bid price, and project maximum working capital while maximizing its net present value simultaneously. OSS is designed by java programing code system to provide a number of new and unique capabilities, including: (1 Ranking the obtained optimal plans according to a set of planner specified weights representing the relative importance of duration, price, maximum working capital and net present value in the analyzed project; (2 Visualizing and viewing the generated optimal trade-off; and (3 Providing seamless integration with available project management calculations. In order to provide the aforementioned capabilities of OSS, the system is implemented and developed in four main modules: (1 A user interface module; (2 A database module; (3 A running module; (4 A connecting module. At the end of the paper, an illustrative example will be presented to demonstrate and verify the applications of the proposed software (OSS to an optimization expressway of repetitive construction project.

  8. Determination of Maximum Follow-up Speed of Electrode System of Resistance Projection Welders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Pei; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The maximum follow-up speed of electrode system represents the dynamic mechanical response capacity of resistance projection welding machines, which is important to make the diffrernce from one machine to the other and to consider the individual behavior of machines in designing or optimizing the...

  9. Increasing awareness about antibiotic use and resistance: a hands-on project for high school students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Fonseca

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health-promoting education is essential to foster an informed society able to make decisions about socio-scientific issues based on scientifically sustained criteria. Antibiotic resistance is currently a major public health issue. Considering that irrational antibiotic use has been associated with the development and widespread of antibiotic resistant bacteria, educational interventions to promote prudent antibiotic consumption are required. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study focuses on the outcomes of an interventional program implemented at the University of Porto, Portugal, to promote awareness about antibiotic resistance at high school levels (15-17 year old. The project Microbiology recipes: antibiotics à la carte articulates a set of wet and dry lab activities designed to promote the participants' understanding of concepts and processes underlying antibiotics' production and activity, such as the notion of mechanisms of action of antibiotics. Following a mix-method approach based on a pre-/post design, the effectiveness of this project was assessed by gathering data from surveys, direct observation and analysis of artifacts of 42 high school students (aged 15 and 16 years. The results indicate that the participants developed a more comprehensive picture of antibiotic resistance. The project was shown to promote more sophisticated conceptualizations of bacteria and antibiotics, increased awareness about the perils of antibiotic resistance, and enhanced consciousness towards measures that can be undertaken to mitigate the problem. The participants regarded their experiences as enjoyable and useful, and believed that the project contributed to improve their understanding and raise their interest about the issues discussed. Furthermore, there were also improvements in their procedural skills concerning the laboratory techniques performed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study evidences the possibility of increasing high

  10. Increasing awareness about antibiotic use and resistance: a hands-on project for high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Maria João; Santos, Catarina L; Costa, Patrício; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Health-promoting education is essential to foster an informed society able to make decisions about socio-scientific issues based on scientifically sustained criteria. Antibiotic resistance is currently a major public health issue. Considering that irrational antibiotic use has been associated with the development and widespread of antibiotic resistant bacteria, educational interventions to promote prudent antibiotic consumption are required. This study focuses on the outcomes of an interventional program implemented at the University of Porto, Portugal, to promote awareness about antibiotic resistance at high school levels (15-17 year old). The project Microbiology recipes: antibiotics à la carte articulates a set of wet and dry lab activities designed to promote the participants' understanding of concepts and processes underlying antibiotics' production and activity, such as the notion of mechanisms of action of antibiotics. Following a mix-method approach based on a pre-/post design, the effectiveness of this project was assessed by gathering data from surveys, direct observation and analysis of artifacts of 42 high school students (aged 15 and 16 years). The results indicate that the participants developed a more comprehensive picture of antibiotic resistance. The project was shown to promote more sophisticated conceptualizations of bacteria and antibiotics, increased awareness about the perils of antibiotic resistance, and enhanced consciousness towards measures that can be undertaken to mitigate the problem. The participants regarded their experiences as enjoyable and useful, and believed that the project contributed to improve their understanding and raise their interest about the issues discussed. Furthermore, there were also improvements in their procedural skills concerning the laboratory techniques performed. This study evidences the possibility of increasing high school students' awareness about the consequences of antibiotic resistance and the

  11. Strategies for decreasing multidrug antibiotic resistance: role of ototopical agents for treatment of middle ear infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jerome O

    2002-10-01

    Change in the susceptibility of bacterial pathogens to antimicrobial agents is constant. The efficacy of a new drug may change as it is used in clinical settings, and resistant bacterial clones result from the encounter of drug and organism. Soon after the introduction of the sulfonamides in the mid-1930s, the first effective agents of the antimicrobial era, resistance of pneumococci and group A streptococci was evident. In each of the following decades, a different problem in multidrug resistance occurred among common bacterial pathogens: beta-lactamase-producing staphylococci in the 1950s; highly resistant gram-negative enteric bacteria in the 1960s; beta-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis in the 1970s; and multidrug-resistant pneumococci in the 1980s. Antimicrobial resistance among respiratory pathogens is now a common clinical problem throughout the world, and its management is a part of routine office practice. Currently in the United States, about 25% of pneumococci are resistant to penicillin, and 25% of H influenzae and 90% of M catarrhalis produce beta-lactamase and would be inactivated by organisms producing the enzyme. The emergence of penicillin and multidrug-resistant pneumococci and beta-lactamase-producing strains of H influenzae and M catarrhalis have special importance for the management of infections of the middle ear. The widespread use of oral and parenteral antimicrobial drugs for appropriate and inappropriate uses has driven the emergence and spread of resistant organisms. This article discusses current susceptibility patterns of organisms involved in middle ear infections, risk factors associated with development of resistant strains, strategies for limiting the incidence and spread of resistant organisms and, as part of the strategy, use of ototopical rather than systemic antimicrobial drugs for chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) and acute otitis media (AOM) in children with tympanostomy tubes. Although

  12. Antimicrobial Resistance: Its Surveillance, Impact, and Alternative Management Strategies in Dairy Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Rokana, Namita; Chandra, Mudit; Singh, Brij Pal; Gulhane, Rohini Devidas; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh; Ray, Pallab; Puniya, Anil Kumar; Panwar, Harsh

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), one among the most common priority areas identified by both national and international agencies, is mushrooming as a silent pandemic. The advancement in public health care through introduction of antibiotics against infectious agents is now being threatened by global development of multidrug-resistant strains. These strains are product of both continuous evolution and un-checked antimicrobial usage (AMU). Though antibiotic application in livestock has largely contributed toward health and productivity, it has also played significant role in evolution of resistant strains. Although, a significant emphasis has been given to AMR in humans, trends in animals, on other hand, are not much emphasized. Dairy farming involves surplus use of antibiotics as prophylactic and growth promoting agents. This non-therapeutic application of antibiotics, their dosage, and withdrawal period needs to be re-evaluated and rationally defined. A dairy animal also poses a serious risk of transmission of resistant strains to humans and environment. Outlining the scope of the problem is necessary for formulating and monitoring an active response to AMR. Effective and commendably connected surveillance programs at multidisciplinary level can contribute to better understand and minimize the emergence of resistance. Besides, it requires a renewed emphasis on investments into research for finding alternate, safe, cost effective, and innovative strategies, parallel to discovery of new antibiotics. Nevertheless, numerous direct or indirect novel approaches based on host–microbial interaction and molecular mechanisms of pathogens are also being developed and corroborated by researchers to combat the threat of resistance. This review places a concerted effort to club the current outline of AMU and AMR in dairy animals; ongoing global surveillance and monitoring programs; its impact at animal human interface; and strategies for combating resistance with an extensive

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance: Its Surveillance, Impact, and Alternative Management Strategies in Dairy Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Sharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance (AMR, one among the most common priority areas identified by both national and international agencies, is mushrooming as a silent pandemic. The advancement in public health care through introduction of antibiotics against infectious agents is now being threatened by global development of multidrug-resistant strains. These strains are product of both continuous evolution and un-checked antimicrobial usage (AMU. Though antibiotic application in livestock has largely contributed toward health and productivity, it has also played significant role in evolution of resistant strains. Although, a significant emphasis has been given to AMR in humans, trends in animals, on other hand, are not much emphasized. Dairy farming involves surplus use of antibiotics as prophylactic and growth promoting agents. This non-therapeutic application of antibiotics, their dosage, and withdrawal period needs to be re-evaluated and rationally defined. A dairy animal also poses a serious risk of transmission of resistant strains to humans and environment. Outlining the scope of the problem is necessary for formulating and monitoring an active response to AMR. Effective and commendably connected surveillance programs at multidisciplinary level can contribute to better understand and minimize the emergence of resistance. Besides, it requires a renewed emphasis on investments into research for finding alternate, safe, cost effective, and innovative strategies, parallel to discovery of new antibiotics. Nevertheless, numerous direct or indirect novel approaches based on host–microbial interaction and molecular mechanisms of pathogens are also being developed and corroborated by researchers to combat the threat of resistance. This review places a concerted effort to club the current outline of AMU and AMR in dairy animals; ongoing global surveillance and monitoring programs; its impact at animal human interface; and strategies for combating resistance

  14. Fault Zone Resistivity Structure and Monitoring at the Taiwan Chelungpu Drilling Project (TCDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wen Chiang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Taiwan Chelungpu-fault drilling project (TCDP has undertaken scientific drilling and directly sampled the sub-surface rupture of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake. Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT measurements were used to investigate electrical resistivity structure at the TCDP site from 2004 - 2006. These data show a geoelectric strike direction of N15°E to N30°E. Inversion and forward modeling of the AMT data were used to generate a 1-D resistivity model that has a prominent low resistivity zone (< 10 ohm-m between depths of 1100 and 1500 m. When combined with porosity measurements, theAMT measurements imply that the ground water has a resistivity of 0.55 ohm-m at the depth of the fault zone.

  15. Information Technology Project Portfolio and Strategy Alignment Assessment Based on Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Analía Sánchez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent researches have shown that companies face considerable difficulties in assessing the strategy value contribution of Information Technology (IT investments. One of the major obstacles to achieving strategy alignment is that organizations find extremely difficult to link and quantify the IT investments benefits with strategic goals. The aim of this paper is to define an approach to assess portfolio-strategy alignment. To this end a formal specification of Kaplan and Norton Strategy Map is developed utilizing Unified Modeling Language (UML. The approach uses the Strategy Map as a framework for defining the portfolio value contribution and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is used as the methodology for measuring efficiency of project portfolios.DOI:10.5585/gep.v3i2.66

  16. P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance: experimental and clinical strategies for its reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, J M; Yang, J M; Hait, W N

    1996-01-01

    The study of the cellular, biochemical, and molecular biology and pharmacology of MDR has provided one of the most active and exciting areas within cancer research and one that holds great promise for translation into clinical benefit. While convincing evidence for the functional role of P-gp in mediating clinical drug resistance in humans remains elusive, studies of the clinical expression of P-gp and trials of chemosensitizers with cancer chemotherapy suggest "resistance modification" strategies may be effective in some tumors with intrinsic or acquired drug resistance. However, even if P-gp-associated MDR proves to be a relevant and reversible cause of clinical drug resistance, numerous problems remain to be solved before effective clinical chemosensitization may be achieved. Such factors as absorption, distribution, and metabolism; the effect of chemosensitizers on chemotherapeutic drug clearance; toxicity to normal tissues expressing P-gp; and the most efficacious modulator regimens all remain to be defined in vivo. Clearly, the identification of more specific, potent, and less clinically toxic chemosensitizers for clinical use remains critical to the possible success of this approach. Nonetheless, the finding that a number of pharmacological agents can antagonize a well-characterized form of experimental drug resistance provides promise for potential clinical applications. Further study of chemosensitizers in humans and the rational design of novel chemosensitizers with improved activity should define the importance of MDR in clinically resistant cancer.

  17. Edulabs AGIRE Project--Evaluation of ICT Integration in Teaching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pombo, Lúcia; Carlos, Vânia; Loureiro, Maria João

    2017-01-01

    The AGIRE project, under the Edulab concept, aims to promote the adoption of innovative teaching practices. This paper reports the support strategies used to evaluate the teacher practices at the end of a teacher training course (TTC) and analyse its impact on teacher technology integration, using a design-based methodology. Teachers' initial…

  18. Student-Led Project Teams: Significance of Regulation Strategies in High- and Low-Performing Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Judith

    2016-01-01

    We studied group and individual co-regulatory and self-regulatory strategies of self-managed student project teams using data from intragroup peer evaluations and a postproject survey. We found that high team performers shared their research and knowledge with others, collaborated to advise and give constructive criticism, and demonstrated moral…

  19. Nature-inspired design strategies in sustainable product development : A case study of student projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.; Karana, E.; Kandachar, P.V.

    2012-01-01

    In design practice, Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) can be applied when developing sustainable products. However, knowledge on how this actually helps designers is lacking. This study explores the effects of applying Cradle to Cradle and Biomimicry in student projects, as compared to using

  20. Rapid E-learning Development Strategies and a Multimedia Project Design Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sözcü, Ömer Faruk; Ipek, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to discuss e-learning design strategies which can be used for multimedia projects as a design model. Recent advances in instructional technologies have been found to be very important in the design of training courses by using rapid instructional design (ID) approaches. The approaches were developed to use in training…

  1. Strategies for sustainable private sector-led urban development projects in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heurkens, E.W.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Strategies and partnerships for delivering sustainable private sector-led urban development projects are yet to be effectuated. Despite the fact that actors in real estate development increasingly incorporate sustainability features into decision-making, it seems that developing sustainable urban

  2. COMPETITIVE BROWNFIELD REDEVELOPMENT - PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND MARKETING STRATEGIES (CD 2 OF 6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this interactive CD is to inform urban planners and State and Federal Brownfield development personnel of new and innovative project management and marketing strategies related to brownfield activities. To order this CD by email: www.epa.gov/ncepi/ or phone 1-800-490-...

  3. Fundraising Strategies Developed by MBA students in Project-Based Learning Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Alberto Arantes do Amaral

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to raise funds is a skill that most modern project managers need. While a good deal of literature exists on the strategies NGOs employ to raise funds for their operations, less attention has been paid to the strategies used by students involved in Project-Based Learning courses that often partner with NGOs. Fundraising is an important skill that not only provides students with opportunities for creativity, but also helps them develop the communication skills they will need in the work they do after they graduate.In this paper, we discuss the fundraising strategies developed by MBA students in 204 social projects completed between 2002 and 2014. The projects were done in partnership with 39 community partners in Sao Paulo, Brazil (NGOs and Public Institutions. In our study, we followed quantitative and qualitative research methods, analyzing data and documents from the projects’ databases. We identified six different fundraising strategies: organizing raffles, soliciting donations from private corporations, organizing paying events, utilizing online social networks developing crowdfunding, and soliciting individual donations.

  4. Optimising strategies for Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination in Cambodia: primaquine, mass drug administration and artemisinin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Maude

    Full Text Available Malaria elimination requires a variety of approaches individually optimized for different transmission settings. A recent field study in an area of low seasonal transmission in South West Cambodia demonstrated dramatic reductions in malaria parasite prevalence following both mass drug administration (MDA and high treatment coverage of symptomatic patients with artemisinin-piperaquine plus primaquine. This study employed multiple combined strategies and it was unclear what contribution each made to the reductions in malaria.A mathematical model fitted to the trial results was used to assess the effects of the various components of these interventions, design optimal elimination strategies, and explore their interactions with artemisinin resistance, which has recently been discovered in Western Cambodia. The modelling indicated that most of the initial reduction of P. falciparum malaria resulted from MDA with artemisinin-piperaquine. The subsequent continued decline and near elimination resulted mainly from high coverage with artemisinin-piperaquine treatment. Both these strategies were more effective with the addition of primaquine. MDA with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT increased the proportion of artemisinin resistant infections, although much less than treatment of symptomatic cases with ACT, and this increase was slowed by adding primaquine. Artemisinin resistance reduced the effectiveness of interventions using ACT when the prevalence of resistance was very high. The main results were robust to assumptions about primaquine action, and immunity.The key messages of these modelling results for policy makers were: high coverage with ACT treatment can produce a long-term reduction in malaria whereas the impact of MDA is generally only short-term; primaquine enhances the effect of ACT in eliminating malaria and reduces the increase in proportion of artemisinin resistant infections; parasite prevalence is a better surveillance measure for

  5. Strategies for Prevention of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infections and Decolonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Ashlesha; Wagner, Cassie; Consoer, Hollie; Chatterjee, Archana

    2016-12-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) invasive infections can be severe in the pediatric population with high morbidity and mortality. MRSA colonization can predispose to recurrent skin and soft tissue infections and invasive MRSA disease and is a frequent challenge faced by clinicians. This article reviews the importance of MRSA as a pathogen, MRSA colonization and various MRSA decolonization strategies. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  6. Multistrain models predict sequential multidrug treatment strategies to result in less antimicrobial resistance than combination treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Amais; Zachariasen, Camilla; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2016-01-01

    generated by a mathematical model of the competitive growth of multiple strains of Escherichia coli.Results: Simulation studies showed that sequential use of tetracycline and ampicillin reduced the level of double resistance, when compared to the combination treatment. The effect of the cycling frequency...... (how frequently antibiotics are alternated in a sequential treatment) of the two drugs was dependent upon the order in which the two drugs were used.Conclusion: Sequential treatment was more effective in preventing the growth of resistant strains when compared to the combination treatment. The cycling...... frequency did not play a role in suppressing the growth of resistant strains, but the specific order of the two antimicrobials did. Predictions made from the study could be used to redesign multidrug treatment strategies not only for intramuscular treatment in pigs, but also for other dosing routes....

  7. Hawaii energy strategy project 3: Renewable energy resource assessment and development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    RLA Consulting (RLA) has been retained by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) to conduct a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment and Development Program. This three-phase program is part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES), which is a multi-faceted program intended to produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. The purpose of Phase 1 of the project, Development of a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment Plan, is to better define the most promising potential renewable energy projects and to establish the most suitable locations for project development in the state. In order to accomplish this goal, RLA has identified constraints and requirements for renewable energy projects from six different renewable energy resources: wind, solar, biomass, hydro, wave, and ocean thermal. These criteria were applied to areas with sufficient resource for commercial development and the results of Phase 1 are lists of projects with the most promising development potential for each of the technologies under consideration. Consideration of geothermal energy was added to this investigation under a separate contract with DBEDT. In addition to the project lists, a monitoring plan was developed with recommended locations and a data collection methodology for obtaining additional wind and solar data. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1. 11 figs., 22 tabs.

  8. A multistage testing strategy for detection of quantitative trait Loci affecting disease resistance in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Thomas; Fjalestad, Kjersti T; Munck, Hege; Gomez-Raya, Luis

    2004-01-01

    A multistage testing strategy to detect QTL for resistance to infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon is proposed. First, genotyping of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and a transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) were carried out using dead offspring from a disease resistance challenge test. Second, AFLP genotyping among survivors followed by a Mendelian segregation test was performed. Third, within-family survival analyses using all offspring were developed and applied to significant TDT markers with Mendelian inheritance. Maximum-likelihood methodology was developed for TDT with dominant markers to exploit linkage disequilibrium within families. The strategy was tested with two full-sib families of Atlantic salmon sired by the same male and consisting of 79 offspring in total. All dead offspring from the two families were typed for 64 primer combinations, resulting in 340 scored markers. There were 26 significant results out of 401 TDTs using dead offspring. In the second stage, only 17 marker families showed Mendelian segregation and were tested in survival analysis. A permutation test was performed for all survival analyses to compute experimentwise P-values. Two markers, aaccac356 and agccta150, were significant at P < 0.05 when accounting for multiple testing in the survival analyses. The proposed strategy might be more powerful than current mapping strategies because it reduces the number of tests to be performed in the last testing stage. PMID:15238533

  9. Bioprospecting for β-lactam resistance genes using a metagenomics-guided strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Yang, Ying; Che, You; Xia, Yu; Li, Liguan; Xiong, Wenguang; Zhang, Tong

    2017-08-01

    Emergence of new antibiotic resistance bacteria poses a serious threat to human health, which is largely attributed to the evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). In this work, a metagenomics-guided strategy consisting of metagenomic analysis and function validation was proposed for rapidly identifying novel ARGs from hot spots of ARG dissemination, such as wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and animal feces. We used an antibiotic resistance gene database to annotate 76 putative β-lactam resistance genes from the metagenomes of sludge and chicken feces. Among these 76 candidate genes, 25 target genes that shared 40~70% amino acid identity to known β-lactamases were cloned by PCR from the metagenomes. Their resistances to four β-lactam antibiotics were further demonstrated. Furthermore, the validated ARGs were used as the reference sequences to identify novel ARGs in eight environmental samples, suggesting the necessity of re-examining the profiles of ARGs in environmental samples using the validated novel ARG sequences. This metagenomics-guided pipeline does not rely on the activity of ARGs during the initial screening process and may specifically select novel ARG sequences for function validation, which make it suitable for the high-throughput screening of novel ARGs from environmental metagenomes.

  10. Security strategy of powered-off SRAM for resisting physical attack to data remanence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Kai; Zou Xuecheng; Yu Guoyi; Wang Weixu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a security strategy for resisting a physical attack utilizing data remanence in powered-off static random access memory (SRAM). Based on the mechanism of physical attack to data remanence, the strategy intends to erase data remanence in memory cells once the power supply is removed, which disturbs attackers trying to steal the right information. Novel on-chip secure circuits including secure power supply and erase transistor are integrated into conventional SRAM to realize erase operation. Implemented in 0.25 μm Huahong-NEC CMOS technology, an SRAM exploiting the proposed security strategy shows the erase operation is accomplished within 0.2 μs and data remanence is successfully eliminated. Compared with conventional SRAM, the retentive time of data remanence is reduced by 82% while the operation power consumption only increases by 7%.

  11. Implementing Extreme Programming in Distributed Software Project Teams: Strategies and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruping, Likoebe M.

    Agile software development methods and distributed forms of organizing teamwork are two team process innovations that are gaining prominence in today's demanding software development environment. Individually, each of these innovations has yielded gains in the practice of software development. Agile methods have enabled software project teams to meet the challenges of an ever turbulent business environment through enhanced flexibility and responsiveness to emergent customer needs. Distributed software project teams have enabled organizations to access highly specialized expertise across geographic locations. Although much progress has been made in understanding how to more effectively manage agile development teams and how to manage distributed software development teams, managers have little guidance on how to leverage these two potent innovations in combination. In this chapter, I outline some of the strategies and challenges associated with implementing agile methods in distributed software project teams. These are discussed in the context of a study of a large-scale software project in the United States that lasted four months.

  12. 'Are we to become a gender university?' Facets of resistance to a gender equality project

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Stina; Ah-King, Malin; Hussénius, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Gender equality (GE) is something ‘we cannot not want’. Indeed, the pursuit of equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities for all women and men throughout a society freed from gendered oppression is widely visible in recent organizational GE initiatives. In practice, however, GE initiatives often fail in challenging gendered norms and at effecting deep-seated change. In fact, GE measures tend to encounter resistance, with a gap between saying and doing. Using a GE project at a Swedish u...

  13. [Resistances to targeted therapies and strategy for following therapeutic lines in metastatic NSCLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, Solenn; Oulkhouir, Youssef; Naltet, Charles; Zalcman, Gérard

    2015-06-01

    EGFR, ALK, ROS1 Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKis) have changed natural history of 12 to 15% of patients with metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and molecular alterations (mutations or translocations) in these genes. Median Progression Free Survival (PFS) of these patients has increased from 12 months with a platinum-based chemotherapy associated with bevacizumab, to 18 months with TKIs, overall survival reaching several years in these patients. However, rare primary resistance have been described in less than 10% of patients with EGFR or ALK-mutated cancer, whereas secondary resistance occur systematically. New generations TKIs are currently in clinical development, which are active on tumor clones harboring a resistance mutation, and some of them diffuse perfectly well into brain, a classical sanctuary for metastasis. Strategies are developed to delay secondary resistance apparition, to prolong PFS, and then overall survival. These strategies use combinations, as soon as first linesetting, of TKIs with either an anti-angiogenic drug (bevacizumab), or with an immunological checkpoint inhibitors, or with Heat-Shock Protein (Hsp) inhibitors. In order to delay acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs, the French Intergroup (IFCT) has launched a combination trial of EGFR TKIs with an anti-estrogen (fulvestrant) in postmenopausal women, whereas other trials associate EGFR TKIs with EFGR monoclonal antibody cetuximab, or with a monoclonal antibody targeting c-met. Copyright © 2015 Société Françise du Cancer. Publié par Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. THE APPLICATION OF FORESIGHT PROJECTS IN FORMATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL COMPANIES’ INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Zolotareva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article is considered the possibility of application of methodology of foresight to the formation of strategy of innovative development of technological companies. The application of existing approaches to defining targets and goals of innovation development does not meet the requirements of the nonlinearity of the modern processes of technological companies’ innovation development.The goals and objectives. The purpose of this article is to study the possibilities of application of methods of foresight in forming of technological companies’ innovation development strategy. To achieve the goal, the author has solved the following problems: considered the interrelationship and interdependence between corporate strategy and technological companies’ innovation development strategy; defined the main problems of formation technological companies’ innovation development strategies; revealed the concept of "foresight" and diff erence in methodology of foresight and traditional forecasting techniques; defined the basic principles of foresight; presents the main stages of the foresight project implementation in technological companies.Research methods. The theoretical basis of the study are the publications of Russian and foreign scientists in the field of formation and development of innovation strategies through the application of foresight methods at the level of national innovation system and at company level. As a methodological basis of the study used methods of analysis, synthesis, induction method, deduction method, the comparison, was applied certain aspects of the synergetic analysis.Summary. The results of Russian and foreign researchers systematized by author confirm the possibility and necessity foresight projects implementation in formation and adjustment of technological companies’ innovation development strategies and in the national innovation system development. The principles of engagement of various social forces

  15. Projected wetland densities under climate change: Habitat loss but little geographic shift in conservation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofaer, Helen R.; Skagen, Susan K.; Barsugli, Joseph J.; Rashford, Benjamin S.; Reese, Gordon C.; Hoeting, Jennifer A.; Wood, Andrew W.; Noon, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change poses major challenges for conservation and management because it alters the area, quality, and spatial distribution of habitat for natural populations. To assess species’ vulnerability to climate change and target ongoing conservation investments, researchers and managers often consider the effects of projected changes in climate and land use on future habitat availability and quality and the uncertainty associated with these projections. Here, we draw on tools from hydrology and climate science to project the impact of climate change on the density of wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of the USA, a critical area for breeding waterfowl and other wetland-dependent species. We evaluate the potential for a trade-off in the value of conservation investments under current and future climatic conditions and consider the joint effects of climate and land use. We use an integrated set of hydrological and climatological projections that provide physically based measures of water balance under historical and projected future climatic conditions. In addition, we use historical projections derived from ten general circulation models (GCMs) as a baseline from which to assess climate change impacts, rather than historical climate data. This method isolates the impact of greenhouse gas emissions and ensures that modeling errors are incorporated into the baseline rather than attributed to climate change. Our work shows that, on average, densities of wetlands (here defined as wetland basins holding water) are projected to decline across the U.S. Prairie Pothole Region, but that GCMs differ in both the magnitude and the direction of projected impacts. However, we found little evidence for a shift in the locations expected to provide the highest wetland densities under current vs. projected climatic conditions. This result was robust to the inclusion of projected changes in land use under climate change. We suggest that targeting conservation towards wetland

  16. Acquisition Strategy for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposition Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2011-05-01

    This document describes the design-build acquisition strategy that will be applied to the Remote Handled LLW Disposal Project. The design-build delivery method will be tailored, as appropriate, to integrate the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,' with the DOE budget formulation process and the safety requirements of DOE-STD-1189, 'Integration of Safety into the Design Process.'

  17. MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES TO EMERGING MARKETS: A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF TURNKEY PROJECT DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bistra Vassileva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to analyse the international market entry strategies in the light of globalisation processes and to propose a conceptual model of turnkey projects as market entry mode. The specific research objectives are as follows: 1. to develop an integrated framework of the turnkey marketing process as a conceptual model; 2. to analyse BRICS countries as potential host countries for turnkey projects implementation; 3. to assess potential implications of proposed conceptual model for global market entry decisions.

  18. Community-based management of multiple drug resistant tuberculosis in a tertiary hospital in Tanzania: a best practice implementation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelly, Isaya; Peters, Micah D J

    2017-12-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has prioritized collaboration with communities in its 2016 "End TB" implementation strategy. Acknowledging the difficulties that some communities face in gaining access to health facilities due to barriers such as stigma, discrimination, healthcare expenditure, transport and income loss, partnering with communities in the roll-out of community-based TB management activities is vital. The aim of this project was to make a contribution to promoting evidence-based practice with regards to the community-based management of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) at Kibong'oto National Infectious Disease Hospital, Tanzania, and thereby supporting improvements in patient outcomes and resource utilization. The project utilized the Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System (JBI PACES) program to facilitate the collection of pre- and post-audit data. The Getting Research into Practice (GRiP) module was also used to analyze the potential barriers and for designing the final action plan. This project was conducted in three phases over a three-month period at the MDR-TB unit in a referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. The project showed that there were significant improvements in compliance rates in staff education and documentation of patients' suitability and preferences in receiving community-based care for MDR-TB. The compliance rate of criterion 2, which was already 100% at baseline, was slightly lower at follow-up. The project achieved significant improvements in the delivery of evidence-based practice with regards to community-based management of MDR-TB.

  19. Strategies to enhance compliance to physical activity for patients with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Alison; De Feo, Pierpaolo

    2007-06-01

    The evidence that physical activity is an effective therapeutic tool in the management of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes is well documented. Limited research has addressed how best to promote and maintain physical activity in these individuals. This paper explores strategies to enhance compliance to physical activity for patients with insulin resistance. Several evidence-based guidelines and reviews recommend that physical activity interventions are based on a valid theoretical framework. However, there is no evidence-based consensus on the best theory or the combination of theories to use. Motivational tools such as pedometers, wearable sensors measuring energy expenditure, and point of choice prompts appear to be effective at stimulating short-term substantial increases in physical activity, but further strategies to maintain physical activity behaviour change are required. Physical activity consultation has demonstrated effective physical activity promotion over periods of up to 2 years in people with type 2 diabetes. Future research should identify the longer term effects of this intervention and the effectiveness of different methods of delivery. Overall, there needs to be a lot more focus on this area of research. Without this, the abundance of research investigating the effects of physical activity on people with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes is essentially redundant.

  20. Experiência e linguagem como estratégias de resistência Experience and language as resistance strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Debieux Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo visamos apontar, apoiadas em W. Benjamim e G. Agamben, a fragilização do registro da experiência e sua incidência na lógica do poder/violência. Analisamos, pretendendo desmistificar a eficácia dos discursos mortificadores da experiência, a figura do "mulçumano"; - nome que designava os mortos-vivos nos campos de concentração, conforme relato de Primo Levi e outros. Tal figura é emblemática do estado limite a que chegaram algumas pessoas e podem expressar o destino de alguns sujeitos na contemporaneidade. Pudemos identificar nessa posição tanto um movimento na direção da perda do laço identificatório com o semelhante, como uma forma de resistência à violência perpetrada pelo discurso social. Tal resistência consiste em operar uma mimese ao objeto resto, o que permite ao sujeito a manutenção da estrutura fantasmática. Indicamos que, apesar das estratégias do poder, o sujeito reinventa modos de se situar na relação ao Outro, nos quais se fazem importantes a presença e a palavra, incluindo aí a experiência psicanalítica.Drawing on Walter Benjamin and Giorgio Agamben, this article points out the fragilization of the registration of the experience and its incidence in the logic of power / violence. Seeking to demythify the efficacy of discourses that mortify experiences, it analyzes the figure of the "Muslim"; (Muselmänn - name that conveyed the walking dead in the Nazi concentration camps, according to accounts by Primo Levi and others. Such figure is emblematic of the limit condition some people have reached and can express the fate of some subjects in contemporary society. This position allows identifying both a movement toward the loss of an identifying bond with one's kind and a means to resist the violence perpetrated by the social discourse. This resistance consists in operating a mimesis of the object-rest, which permits the subject to maintain the phantasmatic structure. The article indicates

  1. Molecular mechanisms of resistance to Rituximab and pharmacologic strategies for its circumvention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Claudia; Schuler, Martin

    2009-06-01

    The introduction of Rituximab has greatly improved therapeutic options for patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). However, a substantial fraction of patients with aggressive B-NHL fails first-line therapy, and most patients with relapsing indolent B-NHL eventually acquire Rituximab resistance. Molecular understanding of the underlying mechanisms facilitates the development of pharmacologic strategies to overcome resistance. Rituximab exerts its activity on CD20-expressing B-cells by indirect and direct effector mechanisms. Indirect mechanisms are complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Direct activities, such as growth inhibition, induction of apoptosis and chemosensitisation, have been reported, but are less defined. Moreover, the relative contribution of CDC, ADCC and direct mechanisms to the activity of Rituximab in vivo is unclear. Down-regulation of CD20 and expression of complement inhibitors have been described as escape mechanisms in B-NHL. Recent reports suggest that deregulated phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, mitogen-activated kinases (MAPK) and nuclear-factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), as well as up-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins may determine the efficacy of Rituximab to kill B-NHL cells in vitro and in vivo. The latter signalling pathways are attractive targets for pharmacologic modulation of resistance to Rituximab. With the advent of new inhibitors and antibodies, rationally designed clinical trials addressing Rituximab resistance are feasible.

  2. Concomitant resistance and early-breast cancer: should we change treatment strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmarini, Carlos M; Tredan, Olivier; Galmarini, Felipe C

    2014-03-01

    The dynamics of disease recurrence shows a bimodal pattern with a fairly broad dominant peak at about 1.5-2 years after surgery followed by a second peak at about 5 years. Nowadays, this clinical pattern is explained by assuming that primary breast tumours as well as their metastases have phases of both arrested (tumour dormancy) and active Gompertzian growth. Tumour dormancy at metastatic sites is currently ascribed to biological particularities of local tissue microenvironments that inhibit the growth of tumour cells. However, in some patients, tumour dormancy appears to also depend on the direct interplay between the primary tumour and those metastases, a biological phenomenon called "concomitant resistance". Concomitant resistance is related to three biological processes: concomitant immunity, tumour-induced angiogenesis and athrepsia. Concomitant resistance can explain the bimodal relapse pattern of breast cancer patients as well as many other clinical phenomena such as the better clinical outcome among patients surgically treated during the putative early luteal phase, or the worse clinical outcome of African-American premenopausal women. Any therapeutic interventions (even surgery) can affect concomitant resistance with the potential to induce a worse as well as a better clinical outcome. This should be taken into account when planning new treatment strategies.

  3. Emerging concepts on drug resistance in bladder cancer: Implications for future strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Francesco; Santoni, Matteo; Ciccarese, Chiara; Brunelli, Matteo; Conti, Alessandro; Santini, Daniele; Montironi, Rodolfo; Cascinu, Stefano; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-10-01

    The combination chemotherapies with methotrexate plus vinblastine, doxorubicin and cisplatin (MVAC or CMV regimens) or gemcitabine plus cisplatin represent the standard as first-line therapy for patients with metastatic urothelial cancer. In Europe, vinflunine is an option for second-line therapy for patients progressed during first-line or perioperative platinum-containing regimen. Alternative regimens containing taxanes and/or gemcitabine may be valuated case by case. Furthermore, carboplatin should be considered in patients unfit for cisplatin both in the first and second-line setting. Based on these findings, a better comprehension of the mechanisms underlying the development of drug resistance in patients with bladder cancer will represent a major step forward in optimizing patients' outcome. This article reviews the current knowledge of the mechanisms and emerging strategies to overcome resistance in patients with advanced urothelial cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Appraising contemporary strategies to combat multidrug resistant gram-negative bacterial infections--proceedings and data from the Gram-Negative Resistance Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollef, Marin H; Golan, Yoav; Micek, Scott T; Shorr, Andrew F; Restrepo, Marcos I

    2011-09-01

    The emerging problem of antibiotic resistance, especially among Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), has become a serious threat to global public health. Very few new antibacterial classes with activity against antibiotic-resistant GNB have been brought to market. Renewed and growing attention to the development of novel compounds targeting antibiotic-resistant GNB, as well as a better understanding of strategies aimed at preventing the spread of resistant bacterial strains and preserving the efficacy of existing antibiotic agents, has occurred. The Gram-Negative Resistance Summit convened national opinion leaders for the purpose of analyzing current literature, epidemiologic trends, clinical trial data, therapeutic options, and treatment guidelines related to the management of antibiotic-resistant GNB infections. After an in-depth analysis, the Summit investigators were surveyed with regard to 4 clinical practice statements. The results then were compared with the same survey completed by 138 infectious disease and critical care physicians and are the basis of this article.

  5. Great apes and biodiversity offset projects in Africa: the case for national offset strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Rebecca; Kormos, Cyril F; Humle, Tatyana; Lanjouw, Annette; Rainer, Helga; Victurine, Ray; Mittermeier, Russell A; Diallo, Mamadou S; Rylands, Anthony B; Williamson, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The development and private sectors are increasingly considering "biodiversity offsets" as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1) takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2) identifies priority offset sites, (3) promotes aggregated offsets, and (4) integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available.

  6. Great Apes and Biodiversity Offset Projects in Africa: The Case for National Offset Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Rebecca; Kormos, Cyril F.; Humle, Tatyana; Lanjouw, Annette; Rainer, Helga; Victurine, Ray; Mittermeier, Russell A.; Diallo, Mamadou S.; Rylands, Anthony B.; Williamson, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The development and private sectors are increasingly considering “biodiversity offsets” as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1) takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2) identifies priority offset sites, (3) promotes aggregated offsets, and (4) integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available. PMID:25372894

  7. Regulation and resistance: strategies of migrant domestic workers in Canada and internationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiulis, D K; Bakan, A B

    1997-01-01

    This article "is divided into three parts. The first part locates the Canadian migrant domestic/live-in caregiver program in the global context of domestic worker migration, and provides data on its scope. The second part addresses the obstacles to protection of domestic worker rights in the regulatory scheme composed of policies and laws of sending and receiving societies. The third part discusses some of the strategies employed by migrant domestic workers and their advocates to resist exploitation, and to attempt to provide meaningful rather than merely symbolic rights for migrant domestics." excerpt

  8. Coordination of Project and Current Activities on the Basis of the Strategy Alignment Metamodel in the Oil and Gas Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yu. Dashkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the purpose of this article is to describe the Strategy Alignment Metamodel of the project and current activities, which allows us to connect the Goals and Strategies for Phases of the project with the Goals and Strategies of the company at all levels of the organization through targeted measurement and application of Interpretive Models. Building Networks of Goals and Strategies, and adopting organizational solutions, you coordinate the interaction of the Project office and departments of the company. This methodology is based on a Logical Rationale of the Contexts and Assumptions for establishing Goals and Strategies both for the project and for the company, and on preparation of Contexts and Assumptions, Goals and Strategies Alignment Matrices, which provides a flexible adaptation to the internal and external environment in the process of selecting the most successful Strategies to achieve the Goals. Methods: this article is based on the concept of Goals-Questions-Metrics+ Strategies, which is adapted as another concept of strategic monitoring and control system of projects: Goals-Phases-Metrics+Strategies. These concepts have formed the basis of the Strategy Alignment Metamodel, where a technology of Phases Earned Value Management is used as a measurement system for the project activity, and Balanced scorecard is applied for current operations. Results: strategy Alignment Metamodel of the project and current activities of the company is proposed hereby. It uses modern strategic monitoring and control systems for projects: Goals-Phases-Metrics+Strategies, and for the company: Goals-Questions-Metrics+ Strategies. The interaction between these systems is based on Contexts and Assumptions, Goals and Strategies Alignment Matrices. The existence of such matrices greatly simplifies management decisions and prevents the risk of delays in the execution of project Phases based on rational participation and coordination of the company

  9. Application of quality improvement strategies in 389 European hospitals: results of the MARQuIS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombarts, M J M H; Rupp, I; Vallejo, P; Suñol, R; Klazinga, N S

    2009-02-01

    This study was part of the Methods of Assessing Response to Quality Improvement Strategies (MARQuIS) research project investigating the impact of quality improvement strategies on hospital care in various countries of the European Union (EU), in relation to specific needs of cross-border patients. This paper describes how EU hospitals have applied seven quality improvement strategies previously defined by the MARQuIS study: organisational quality management programmes; systems for obtaining patients' views; patient safety systems; audit and internal assessment of clinical standards; clinical and practice guidelines; performance indicators; and external assessment. A web-based questionnaire was used to survey acute care hospitals in eight EU countries. The reported findings were later validated via on-site survey and site visits in a sample of the participating hospitals. Data collection took place from April to August 2006. 389 hospitals participated in the survey; response rates varied per country. All seven quality improvement strategies were widely used in European countries. Activities related to external assessment were the most broadly applied across Europe, and activities related to patient involvement were the least widely implemented. No one country implemented all quality strategies at all hospitals. There were no differences between participating hospitals in western and eastern European countries regarding the application of quality improvement strategies. Implementation varied per country and per quality improvement strategy, leaving considerable scope for progress in quality improvements. The results may contribute to benchmarking activities in European countries, and point to further areas of research to explore the relationship between the application of quality improvement strategies and actual hospital performance.

  10. Use of an individual-based simulation model to explore and evaluate potential insecticide resistance management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Russell; Stratonovitch, Pierre; Elias, Jan; Semenov, Mikhail A; Denholm, Ian

    2017-07-01

    Tools with the potential to predict risks of insecticide resistance and aid the evaluation and design of resistance management tactics are of value to all sectors of the pest management community. Here we describe use of a versatile individual-based model of resistance evolution to simulate how strategies employing single and multiple insecticides influence resistance development in the pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus. Under repeated exposure to a single insecticide, resistance evolved faster to a pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin) than to a pyridine azomethane (pymetrozine), due to difference in initial efficacy. A mixture of these compounds delayed resistance compared to use of single products. The effectiveness of rotations depended on the sequence in which compounds were applied in response to pest density thresholds. Effectiveness of a mixture strategy declined with reductions in grower compliance. At least 50% compliance was needed to cause some delay in resistance development. No single strategy meets all requirements for managing resistance. It is important to evaluate factors that prevail under particular pest management scenarios. The model used here provides operators with a valuable means for evaluating and extending sound resistance management advice, as well as understanding needs and opportunities offered by new control techniques. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Photochemical internalization of therapeutic macromolecular agents: a novel strategy to kill multidrug-resistant cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbo, Pål K; Weyergang, Anette; Bonsted, Anette; Bown, Stephen G; Berg, Kristian

    2006-11-01

    Drug resistance is a major problem for chemotherapy. Entrapment of anticancer drugs in endolysosomal compartments or active extrusions by plasma membrane proteins of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily are important resistance mechanisms. This study evaluated photochemical internalization (PCI) of membrane-impermeable macromolecules that are not the target of ABC drug pumps for treating multidrug-resistant (MDR) cancer cells. We used the drug-sensitive uterine fibrosarcoma cell line MES-SA and its MDR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-overexpressing derivative MES-SA/Dx5 with the photosensitizer disulfonated meso-tetraphenylporphine (TPPS(2a)) and broad spectrum illumination. The PCI of doxorubicin, the ribosome-inactivating protein gelonin and adenoviral transduction were assessed in both cell lines, together with the uptake and excretion of TPPS(2a) and of two fluid phase markers easily detectable by fluorescence [lucifer yellow (LY) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran], as a model of gelonin uptake. Both cell lines were resistant to PCI of doxorubicin, but equally sensitive to PCI of gelonin, even though the endocytosis rates of LY and FITC-dextran were significantly lower in the MDR cells. In control studies, MES-SA/Dx5 cells were more resistant to photodynamic therapy (TPPS(2a) + light only). This was not mediated by P-gp, as there were no differences in the uptake and efflux of TPPS(2a) between the cell lines. After adenoviral infection, PCI enhanced gene delivery in both cell lines. In conclusion, PCI of macromolecular therapeutic agents that are not targets of P-gp is a novel therapeutic strategy to kill MDR cancer cells.

  12. Proliferation Resistance and Safeguards by Design: The Safeguardability Assessment Tool Provided by the INPRO Collaborative Project ''INPRO'' (Proliferation Resistance and Safeguardability Assessment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, E.; Chang, H.-L.; Phillips, J.R.; Listner, C.

    2015-01-01

    Since the INPRO Collaborative Project on Proliferation Resistance and Safeguardability Assessment Tools (PROSA) was launched in 2011, Member State experts have worked with the INPRO Section and the IAEA Department of Safeguards to develop a revised methodology for self-assessment of sustainability in the area of proliferation resistance of a nuclear energy system (NES). With the common understanding that there is ''no proliferation resistance without safeguards'' the revised approach emphasizes the evaluation of a new 'User Requirement' for ''safeguardability'', that combines metrics of effective and efficient implementation of IAEA Safeguards including ''Safeguards-by-Design'' principles. The assessment with safeguardability as the key issue has been devised as a linear process evaluating the NES against a ''Basic Principle'' in the area of proliferation resistance, answering fundamental questions related to safeguards: 1) Do a State's legal commitments, policies and practices provide credible assurance of the exclusively peaceful use of the NES, including a legal basis for verification activities by the IAEA? 2) Does design and operation of the NES facilitate the effective and efficient implementation of IAEA safeguards? To answer those questions, a questionnaire approach has been developed that clearly identifies gaps and weaknesses. Gaps include prospects for improvements and needs for research and development. In this context, the PROSA approach assesses the safeguardability of a NES using a layered ''Evaluation Questionnaire'' that defines Evaluation Parameters (EP), EP-related questions, Illustrative Tests and Screening Questions to present and structure the evidence of findings. An integral part of the assessment process is Safeguards-by-Design, the identification of potential diversion, misuse and concealment strategies (coarse diversion path

  13. Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Diesel Bus (E-3) and Switchgear Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel Duckwitz

    2011-06-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

  14. Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Emergency Firewater Injection System Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel Duckwitz

    2011-06-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

  15. Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Primary Coolant Pump and Motor Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel Duckwitz

    2011-06-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

  16. Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Diesel Bus (E-3) and Switchgear Replacement Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckwitz, Noel

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,' safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, 'Facility Safety,' and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, 'Integration of Safety into the Design Process,' provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

  17. Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Emergency Firewater Injection System Replacement Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckwitz, Noel

    2011-01-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, 'Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,' safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, 'Facility Safety,' and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, 'Integration of Safety into the Design Process,' provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

  18. A Health Care Project Management Office's Strategies for Continual Change and Continuous Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Aubry, Monique; Richer, Marie-Claire; Cyr, Guylaine

    Health care organizations need project and change management support in order to achieve successful transformations. A project management office (PMO) helps support the organizations through their transformations along with increasing their capabilities in project and change management. The aim of the present study was to extend understanding of the continuous improvement mechanisms used by PMOs and to describe PMO's strategies for continual change and continuous improvement in the context of major transformation in health care. This study is a descriptive case study design with interviews conducted from October to December 2015 with PMO's members (3 managers and 1 director) and 3 clients working with the PMO after a major redevelopment project ended (transition to the new facility). Participants suggested a number of elements including carefully selecting the members of the PMO, having a clear mandate for the PMO, having a method and a discipline at the same time as allowing openness and flexibility, clearly prioritizing projects, optimizing collaboration, planning for everything the PMO will need, not overlooking organizational culture, and retaining the existing support model. This study presents a number of factors ensuring the sustainability of changes.

  19. Current status of decommissioning projects and their strategies in advanced countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, U. S.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, S. T.; Paik, S. T.; Park, J. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. I.; Hong, S. B

    2007-06-15

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The number of nuclear facilities to be dismantled will be much increased in future and the decommissioning industries will be enlarged. Keeping pace with this increasing tendency, each country formulated their own strategies and regulation systems, and applied their own technologies. The international organizations such as the IAEA and the OECD/NEA also prepared standards in technologies and regulation upon decommissioning and recommended to adopt them to the decommissioning projects. These strategies and technologies are very different country by country due to the different site dependent conditions and it will not be reasonable to evaluate their merits and weakness. The world wide status of the decommissioning, highlighted on that of 5 countries of USA, UK, France, Germany and Japan because they are advanced counties in nuclear industries, are summarized and their site specific conditions are evaluated. The scopes of the evaluation are decommissioning strategies, licensing procedures and requirements focused on decommissioning plan, waste management, technology development and so on. The detailed decommissioning progresses of several typical example sites were introduced. The activities on decommissioning field of the international organization, increased according to the enlarged decommissioning industries, are also summarized.

  20. Numerical and experimental analysis of resistance projection welding of square nuts to sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Zhang, Wenqi; Martins, Paulo A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Projection welding of nuts to sheets is a widely utilized manufacturing process in the automotive industry. The process entails challenges due the necessity of joining different sheet thicknesses and nut sizes made from dissimilar materials, and due to the fact of experiencing large local...... materials and applications require a new level of understanding of the process by combining finite element modelling and experimentation. This paper draws from the challenge of developing a three-dimensional computer program for electro-thermo-mechanical modeling of resistance welding and presents, as far...

  1. Test and characterization of multigap resistive plate chambers for the EEE project

    CERN Document Server

    Bossini, E

    2016-01-01

    The Extreme Energy Events project is based on the deployment of cosmic-ray telescopes in Italian high schools with the active contribution of students and teachers. Each telescope is made by three Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers readout by strips. With around 50 telescopes already built and others under construction, specific systems to test and characterize the chambers are needed. In this article I will present a flexible and software-configurable solution to perform chamber efficiency studies with a set of scintillators and hardware to automatically scan detector strips to identify electrical issues. Both systems can provide accurate information but at the same time they can be easily operated by students.

  2. Unfulfilled farmer expectations: the case of the Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA project in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabeya Justin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maize is the most important staple food in Kenya; any reduction in production and yield therefore often becomes a national food security concern. To address the challenge posed by the maize stem borer, the Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA agricultural biotechnology public-private partnership (PPP project was launched in 1999. There were, however, pre-existing concerns regarding the use of genetic engineering in crop production and skepticism about private sector involvement. The purpose of this case study was to understand the role of trust in the IRMA partnership by identifying the challenges to, and practices for, building trust in the project. Methods Data were collected by conducting face-to-face, semi-structured interviews; reviewing publicly available project documents; and direct observations. The data were analyzed to generate recurring and emergent themes on how trust is understood and built among the partners in the IRMA project and between the project and the community. Results Clear and continued communication with stakeholders is of paramount importance to building trust, especially regarding competition among partners about project management positions; a lack of clarity on ownership of intellectual property rights (IPRs; and the influence of anti-genetic modification (GM organizations. Awareness creation about IRMA’s anticipated products raised the end users’ expectations, which were unfulfilled due to failure to deliver Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-based products, thereby leading to diminished trust between the project and the community. Conclusions Four key issues have been identified from the results of the study. First, the inability to deliver the intended products to the end user diminished stakeholders’ trust and interest in the project. Second, full and honest disclosure of information by partners when entering into project agreements is crucial to ensuring progress in a project. Third

  3. Correspondence of Charles Darwin on James Torbitt's project to breed blight-resistance potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeArce, M

    2008-01-01

    The most prolific of Darwin's correspondents from Ireland was James Torbitt, an enterprising grocer and wine merchant of 58 North Street, Belfast. Between February 1876 and March 1882, 141 letters were exchanged on the feasibility and ways of supporting one of Torbitt's commercial projects, the large-scale production and distribution of true potato seeds (Solan um tuberosum) to produce plants resistant to the late blight fungus Phytophthora infestans, the cause of repeated potato crop failures and thus the Irish famines in the nineteenth century. Ninety-three of these letters were exchanged between Torbitt and Darwin, and 48 between Darwin and third parties, seeking or offering help and advice on the project. Torbitt's project required selecting the small proportion of plants in an infested field that survived the infection, and using those as parents to produce seeds. This was a direct application of Darwin's principle of selection. Darwin cautiously lobbied high-ranking civil servants in London to obtain government funding for the project, and also provided his own personal financial support to Torbit.

  4. a Method for True Orthophoto Generation Based on Projection and Iteration Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Xie, J.

    2012-07-01

    The conventional orthophotos always suffer from the problems of building lean and double mapping, due to the occluding of the buildings. This paper proposed a new occlusion detection method for true orthophoto generation. This method adopts the way of projecting roof and wall polygons to the ground horizontal planes, and obtains the occlusions by iteration strategy. Experiments with the color aerial image data of the city of Kunming shows that comparing to other two representative methods, this method can obtain more accurate results. Additionally, the neighboring images are used for occlusion compensation, and finally the true orthophoto is generated.

  5. Strategies to promote evidence-based practice in pediatric physical therapy: a formative evaluation pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Joe; Stern, Perri; Marchetti, Gregory; Provident, Ingrid

    2009-09-01

    The physical therapy profession has been perceived as one that bases its practice largely on anecdotal evidence and that uses treatment techniques for which there is little scientific support. Physical therapists have been urged to increase evidence-based practice behaviors as a means to address this perception and to enhance the translation of knowledge from research evidence into clinical practice. However, little attention has been paid to the best ways in which to support clinicians' efforts toward improving evidence-based practice. The purpose of this study was to identify, implement, and evaluate the effectiveness of strategies aimed at enhancing the ability of 5 pediatric physical therapists to integrate scientific research evidence into clinical decision making. This study was a formative evaluation pilot project. The participants in this study collaborated with the first author to identify and implement strategies and outcomes aimed at enhancing their ability to use research evidence during clinical decision making. Outcome data were analyzed with qualitative methods. The participants were able to implement several, but not all, of the strategies and made modest self-reported improvements in evidence-based practice behaviors, such as reading journal articles and completing database searches. They identified several barriers, including a lack of time, other influences on clinical decision making, and a lack of incentives for evidence-based practice activities. The pediatric physical therapists who took part in this project had positive attitudes toward evidence-based practice and made modest improvements in this area. It is critical for the profession to continue to investigate optimal strategies to aid practicing clinicians in applying research evidence to clinical decision making.

  6. A LOCAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT IN THE FRAMEWORK OF PUBLIC POLICIES FOCUSED ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Schin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at outlining a successful implementation of a project within LEADER framework, which is a local development method which allows local actors to develop an area by using its endogenous development potential. After a brief presentation of the characteristics of regional development strategies in Romania, there were emphasized the objectives and activities encompassed in a local development plan, managed by the leaders of the local action group called ‘Vrancea County’. In order to reinforce the strengths of Vrancea County and implicitly to assure a sustainable development of this area from the South-East part of Romania, a LAG constituted through a partnership between public and private actors settled a set of priorities to be exploited by means of specific actions. The goal of this paper is to highlight these priorities, by integrating them in a project management approach. The paper concludes with specifications about how Microsoft Project software could support project management initiatives that will be developed by the LAG Vrancea County in the next period.

  7. Transmedia Communication to Erradicate Hunger: ProjecteFAM, a Cross-Media Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Zareceansky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Projecte FAM (project FAMINE in Catalan is the name of a living experience and ongoing research, innovation, testing and redefinition on the design of a strategy of political, social and cultural impact that uses communication as a core tool within the framework of transmedia narrative. This paper explores the innovative aspects of the diffrent narrative products that constitute this communication project of Social Change and it also addresses the conceptualization derived from the research on the collective imagination of hunger as a starting point for creating diffrent hybridizations of storytelling and the logic of audiovisual source code. This essay describes the design and formulation of the project from the perspective of communication for global citizenship and its necessary adaptation to the practice and critical theory of the communication of the Third Sector. All in all, it analyzes the diffrent products from a strategic logic, its main audiences or publics and its consequent objectives.

  8. Hamaca Heavy Oil Project : lessons learned and an evolving development strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gipson, L.J.; Owen, R.; Robertson, C.R. [Petrolera Ameriven/Phillips Petroleum, Caracas, (Venezuela)

    2002-07-01

    The Hamaca extra-heavy crude oil project is one of four integrated extra-heavy crude oil development projects underway in the Faja stratigraphic trap in the Orinoco heavy oil belt of eastern Venezuela. The Faja contains about 1.2 trillion barrels of heavy and extra heavy crude oil. It is divided into the Machete, Zuata, Hamaca and Cerro Negro regions that have been developed by Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA). The Hamaca region is further subdivided into 25 blocks. The Hamaca integrated project will involve the drilling of more than 1000 horizontal wells over a 35 year period. The project will also involve the installation of more than 200 miles of crude and naptha pipelines, plus an upgrading refinery to convert the 8 API extra heavy crude into a 26 API final product. This presentation describes the performance of the different well types and highlights Petrolera Ameriven's criteria and strategy for future development. Openhole log data superimposed on 2D and 3D seismic displays are presented to show how they can be used for geosteering. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Balancing Instrumental and Identity Goals in Relationships: The Role of Request Directness and Request Persistence in the Selection of Sexual Resistance Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Walid A.; Lee, Josephine W.

    2000-01-01

    Applies the general frameworks of Politeness Theory and Planning Theory to explain the selection of sexual resistance strategies among undergraduates following both initial and persisting requests. Investigates contingent effects of request directness on characteristics of the resistance message. Tests influence of resister sex on strategy choice.…

  10. hp-HGS strategy for inverse 3D DC resistivity logging measurement simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Gajda-Zaǵorska, Ewa

    2012-06-02

    In this paper we present a twin adaptive strategy hp-HGS for solving inverse problems related to 3D DC borehole resistivity measurement simulations. The term “simulation of measurements” is widely used by the geophysical community. A quantity of interest, voltage, is measured at a receiver electrode located in the logging instrument. We use the self-adaptive goal-oriented hp-Finite Element Method (hp-FEM) computer simulations of the process of measurements in deviated wells (when the angle between the borehole and formation layers are < 90 deg). We also employ the hierarchical genetic search (HGS) algorithm to solve the inverse problem. Each individual in the population represents a single configuration of the formation layers. The evaluation of the individual is performed by solving the direct problem by means of the hp-FEM algorithm and by comparison with measured logging curve. We conclude the paper with some discussion on the parallelization of the algorithm.

  11. A strategy for protection of high voltage systems using resistive superconducting fault current limiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, H. J.; Andrade, R. de, Jr.; Polasek, A.; Kottonau, D.; de Sousa, W. T. B.

    2018-01-01

    This work describes an use of a resistive superconducting fault current limiter (R-SFCL) device based on second generation high temperature superconductors tapes (2G tapes), using a thermal-electrical analogy method to represent heat exchanges. The considered SFCL is supposed to be inserted into the coupling point of a new generation unit to a 12 bar CIGRE benchmark transmission system. The strategy is the investigation of the limitation performance in the high voltage grid by connecting the SFCL at medium voltage grid. We evaluated the performance of the SFCL through the analysis of two cases of faults in different points of the system. Results show that a correct design of the SFCL may effectively limit the contribution of fault currents in the high voltage side. Additionally, it was possible to investigate the behavior of the device internal variables such as the temperature of the superconducting layers for the different cases studied.

  12. Building effective partnerships: the role of trust in the Virus Resistant Cassava for Africa project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virus Resistant Cassava for Africa (VIRCA is an agricultural biotechnology public-private partnership (PPP comprising the Donald Danforth Plant Sciences Center (DDPSC, National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO of Uganda and Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI. The project seeks to develop virus-resistant cassava for farmers in Kenya and Uganda. Yet, there is much public skepticism about the use of genetically modified (GM crops and private sector involvement in Africa. This case study sought to understand the role of trust in the VIRCA partnership. Methods We conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to obtain stakeholders’ views on the challenges to, and practices for, building trust in the VIRCA partnership. Interviewee responses, together with relevant documents and articles, were analyzed to generate descriptions of how trust is operationalized in this evolving agbiotech PPP. Data were analyzed based on recurring and emergent themes from the interviewee responses. Results Various factors undermine and build trust in agbiotech PPPs. Individual and institutional enthusiasm and detailed collaborative agreements stipulating partner roles and responsibilities are likely to enhance trust among partners. On the other hand, negative perceptions propagated by international partners about the capacities of African institutions and scientists, coupled with slow regulatory processes in Africa, are likely to be impediments to trust building. Conclusions Based on the findings of this study, we have derived four key lessons. First, differences in the capacity of the partner institutions and individuals should be respected. Second, technical and infrastructural capacity support for regulatory processes in Africa must be built. Third, detailed agreements and open and transparent partner practices during project implementation are necessary to dispel perceptions of inequality among partners. Fourth, institutional

  13. Targeted therapy and personalized medicine in hepatocellular carcinoma: drug resistance, mechanisms, and treatment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galun D

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Danijel Galun,1,2 Tatjana Srdic-Rajic,3 Aleksandar Bogdanovic,1 Zlatibor Loncar,2,4 Marinko Zuvela1,2 1Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Unit, University Clinic for Digestive Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, 2Medical School, University of Belgrade, 3Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia/Unit for Experimental Oncology, 4Emergency Center, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is characterized by a growing number of new cases diagnosed each year that is nearly equal to the number of deaths from this cancer. In a majority of the cases, HCC is associated with the underlying chronic liver disease, and it is diagnosed in advanced stage of disease when curative treatment options are not applicable. Sorafenib is a treatment of choice for patients with performance status 1 or 2 and/or macrovascular invasion or extrahepatic spread, and regorafenib is the only systemic treatment found to provide survival benefit in HCC patients progressing on sorafenib treatment. Other drugs tested in different trials failed to demonstrate any benefit. Disappointing results of numerous trials testing the efficacy of various drugs indicate that HCC has low sensitivity to chemotherapy that is in great part caused by multidrug resistance. Immunotherapy for HCC is a new challenging treatment option and involves immune checkpoint inhibitors/antibody-based therapy and peptide-based vaccines. Another challenging approach is microRNA-based therapy that involves two strategies. The first aims to inhibit oncogenic miRNAs by using miRNA antagonists and the second strategy is miRNA replacement, which involves the reintroduction of a tumor-suppressor miRNA mimetic to restore a loss of function. Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, drug resistance, multimodal treatment, chemotherapy 

  14. A New Laser-Processing Strategy for Improving Enamel Erosion Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves-Oliveira, M; Wollgarten, S; Liebegall, S; Jansen, P; Bilandzic, M; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Fischer, H; Stollenwerk, J; Poprawe, R

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, a new automatic laser-processing strategy allowing standardized irradiation of natural tooth areas was investigated. The objective was to find a combination of laser parameters that could cause over a 600°C temperature increase at the enamel surface while not damaging enamel, avoiding temperature change above 5.5°C in the pulp and increasing enamel erosion resistance. Seventy-seven bovine enamel samples were randomly divided into 6 laser groups and 1 negative control (C/no treatment/ n = 11). A scanning strategy (7 × 3 mm) was used for the CO 2 laser treatment (λ = 10.6 µm, 0.1-18 J/cm 2 ) with different pulse durations-namely, 20 µs (G20), 30 µs (G30), 55 µs (G55), and 490 µs (G490), as well as 2 modified pulse distances (G33d, G40d). Measurements of temperature change were performed at the surface (thermal camera/50 Hz), at the underside (thermocouples), and at the pulp chamber using a thermobath and human molars ( n = 10). In addition, histology and X-ray diffraction (XRD/ n = 10) were performed. Erosion was tested using an erosive cycling over 6 d, including immersion in citric acid (2 min/0.05 M/pH = 2.3) 6 times daily. Surface loss was measured using a profilometer and statistical analysis with a 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (α = 0.05). Only G20 fulfilled the temperature requirements at the surface (619 ± 21.8°C), at the underside (5.3 ± 1.4°C), and at the pulp (2.0 ± 1.0°C), and it caused no mineral phase change and significant reduction of enamel surface loss (-13.2 ± 4.0 µm) compared to C (-37.0 ± 10.1 µm, P resistance (64%) in vitro.

  15. Strategies to overcome resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woo-Jeong; Cha, Pu-Hyeon; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2014-08-07

    Administration of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) such as cetuximab and panitumumab in combination with conventional chemotherapy substantially prolongs survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, the efficacy of these mAbs is limited due to genetic variation among patients, in particular K-ras mutations. The discovery of K-ras mutation as a predictor of non-responsiveness to EGFR mAb therapy has caused a major change in the treatment of mCRC. Drugs that inhibit transformation caused by oncogenic alterations of Ras and its downstream components such as BRAF, MEK and AKT seem to be promising cancer therapeutics as single agents or when given with EGFR inhibitors. Although multiple therapeutic strategies to overcome EGFR mAb-resistance are under investigation, our understanding of their mode of action is limited. Rational drug development based on stringent preclinical data, biomarker validation, and proper selection of patients is of paramount importance in the treatment of mCRC. In this review, we will discuss diverse approaches to overcome the problem of resistance to existing anti-EGFR therapies and potential future directions for cancer therapies related to the mutational status of genes associated with EGFR-Ras-ERK and PI3K signalings.

  16. Validation of multiplex PCR strategy for simultaneous detection and identification of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rallapalli S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR strategy is described for rapid identification of clinically relevant methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA that targets mecA and coag ulase genes. In this study, 150 staphylococcal clinical isolates were used that included 40 isolates of MRSA, 55 isolates of methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA, 44 isolates of methicillin susceptible coag ulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (MS-CoNS and 11 isolates of methicillin resistant coag ulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (MR-CoNS. Out of 55 S. aureus strains, three strains demonstrated mecA gene, which appeared to be oxacillin sensitive by disc diffusion. When (MS-CoNS were evaluated, 10 isolates classified as oxacillin sensitive phenotypically, yielded positive results in PCR method. The results for mecA detection by PCR were more consistent with disk susceptibility tests in case of MRSA (100% and MSSA (95% isolates. In contrast to above results with MRSA and MSSA, mecA detection by PCR in MS-CoNS showed less correlation with disk susceptibility tests (77%. The results for coag detection by PCR were consistent with phenotypic tests in all isolates.

  17. Renal Denervation Using an Irrigated Catheter in Patients with Resistant Hypertension: A Promising Strategy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armaganijan, Luciana, E-mail: luciana-va@hotmail.com; Staico, Rodolfo; Moraes, Aline; Abizaid, Alexandre; Moreira, Dalmo; Amodeo, Celso; Sousa, Márcio; Borelli, Flávio; Armaganijan, Dikran; Sousa, J. Eduardo; Sousa, Amanda [Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    Systemic hypertension is an important public health problem and a significant cause of cardiovascular mortality. Its high prevalence and the low rates of blood pressure control have resulted in the search for alternative therapeutic strategies. Percutaneous renal sympathetic denervation emerged as a perspective in the treatment of patients with resistant hypertension. To evaluate the feasibility and safety of renal denervation using an irrigated catheter. Ten patients with resistant hypertension underwent the procedure. The primary endpoint was safety, as assessed by periprocedural adverse events, renal function and renal vascular abnormalities at 6 months. The secondary endpoints were changes in blood pressure levels (office and ambulatory monitoring) and in the number of antihypertensive drugs at 6 months. The mean age was 47.3 (± 12) years, and 90% of patients were women. In the first case, renal artery dissection occurred as a result of trauma due to the long sheath; no further cases were observed after technical adjustments, thus showing an effect of the learning curve. No cases of thrombosis/renal infarction or death were reported. Elevation of serum creatinine levels was not observed during follow-up. At 6 months, one case of significant renal artery stenosis with no clinical consequences was diagnosed. Renal denervation reduced office blood pressure levels by 14.6/6.6 mmHg, on average (p = 0.4 both for systolic and diastolic blood pressure). Blood pressure levels on ambulatory monitoring decreased by 28/17.6 mmHg (p = 0.02 and p = 0.07 for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively). A mean reduction of 2.1 antihypertensive drugs was observed. Renal denervation is feasible and safe in the treatment of resistant systemic arterial hypertension. Larger studies are required to confirm our findings.

  18. An Exploratory Study of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in a Design Project by Students in Grades 9-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Butler, Deborah; Cartier, Sylvie; Santoso, Harry; Lawanto, Kevin; Clark, David

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study evaluated self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies of 27 students in grades 9-12 during an engineering design project. The specific focus of the study was on student task interpretation and its relation to planning and cognitive strategies in design activities. Two research questions guided the study: (1) To what degree was…

  19. Code of Conduct for wind-power projects - Phase 3; Code of Conduct fuer windkraftprojekte. Phase 3 Machbarkeit und Strategie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strub, P. [Pierre Strub, freischaffender Berater, Binningen (Switzerland); Ziegler, Ch. [Inter Act, Basel (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    This paper discusses the results of phase three of a project concerning wind-power projects. Feasibility and strategy aspects are examined and discussed. The current state of the wind power market is discussed on the basis of the results of a survey made on the subject. The social acceptance of wind power installations is discussed, whereby the rejection of particular projects is compared with a general lack of acceptance. Requirements placed on such projects and possible solutions are discussed. Finally, the feasibility of setting up a code of conduct in the area of wind-power projects is discussed and the definition of further instruments is examined

  20. Evaluation of the Parent-Implemented Communication Strategies (PiCS) Project Using the Multiattribute Utility (MAU) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Julia B.; Meadan, Hedda; Angell, Maureen E.; Daczewitz, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a multiattribute utility (MAU) evaluation to assess the Parent-Implemented Communication Strategies (PiCS) project which was funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES). In the PiCS project parents of young children with developmental disabilities are trained and coached in their homes on naturalistic and visual teaching…

  1. Sampling strategies in antimicrobial resistance monitoring: evaluating how precision and sensitivity vary with the number of animals sampled per farm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehisa Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Because antimicrobial resistance in food-producing animals is a major public health concern, many countries have implemented antimicrobial monitoring systems at a national level. When designing a sampling scheme for antimicrobial resistance monitoring, it is necessary to consider both cost effectiveness and statistical plausibility. In this study, we examined how sampling scheme precision and sensitivity can vary with the number of animals sampled from each farm, while keeping the overall sample size constant to avoid additional sampling costs. Five sampling strategies were investigated. These employed 1, 2, 3, 4 or 6 animal samples per farm, with a total of 12 animals sampled in each strategy. A total of 1,500 Escherichia coli isolates from 300 fattening pigs on 30 farms were tested for resistance against 12 antimicrobials. The performance of each sampling strategy was evaluated by bootstrap resampling from the observational data. In the bootstrapping procedure, farms, animals, and isolates were selected randomly with replacement, and a total of 10,000 replications were conducted. For each antimicrobial, we observed that the standard deviation and 2.5-97.5 percentile interval of resistance prevalence were smallest in the sampling strategy that employed 1 animal per farm. The proportion of bootstrap samples that included at least 1 isolate with resistance was also evaluated as an indicator of the sensitivity of the sampling strategy to previously unidentified antimicrobial resistance. The proportion was greatest with 1 sample per farm and decreased with larger samples per farm. We concluded that when the total number of samples is pre-specified, the most precise and sensitive sampling strategy involves collecting 1 sample per farm.

  2. Implementing practice management strategies to improve patient care: the EPIC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwell, David; Rogers-Warnock, Leslie; Nemis-White, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare gaps, the difference between usual care and best care, are evident in Canada, particularly with respect to our aging, ailing population. Primary care practitioners are challenged to identify, prevent and close care gaps in their practice environment given the competing demands of informed, litigious patients with complex medical needs, ever-evolving scientific evidence with new treatment recommendations across many disciplines and an enhanced emphasis on quality and accountability in healthcare. Patient-centred health and disease management partnerships using measurement, feedback and communication of practice patterns and outcomes have been shown to narrow care gaps. Practice management strategies such as the use of patient registries and recall systems have also been used to help practitioners better understand, follow and proactively manage populations of patients in their practice. The Enhancing Practice to Improve Care project was initiated to determine the impact of a patient-centred health and disease management partnership using practice management strategies to improve patient care and outcomes for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Forty-four general practices from four regions of British Columbia participated and, indeed, demonstrated that care and outcomes for patients with CKD could be improved via the implementation of practice management strategies in a patient-centred partnership measurement model of health and disease management.

  3. Crossing the river: Developing a strategy to support understanding of uncertainty within probabilistic climate projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, P.; Lamb, R.

    2010-09-01

    The UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP) was established by government in 1997 to support the UK's engagement with becoming better adapted to a changing climate. As the lead organisation in the UK on climate change adaptation, UKCIP oversaw the development of the UK Climate Projections (UKCP09) which were launched in June 2009 providing, for the first time, probabilistic climate projections for the UK. As with previous generations of UKCIP climate scenarios, they were freely accessible and intended for a whole spectrum of users, from technical experts to a lay audience. . Prior to the launch of UKCP09 it was acknowledged that users would need support in understanding key concepts, such as the uncertainty inherent in the projections, to be able to use them appropriately. The user support strategy was therefore developed. It is founded on robust pedagogical principles and draws on the latest thinking on public understanding of science (PUS) that places the user at the centre of the communication process. The adopted approach first identifies profiles of the key users of the climate projections and the ways in which they would use and access the data. Based on these profiles it is possible to identify a range of mechanisms that allow the user to engage with understanding the projections in different ways and situations including lectures, workshops and online learning. Within this blended strategy an exercise was developed specifically to support users' understanding of the concept of uncertainty within the probabilistic climate projections. The ‘Crossing the River' exercise encourages the participants to actively consider the nature of information they are using, and how it could be applied in a specific decision. Reflection and discussion are key elements in supporting the users' understanding of the concept and allowing them to apply the principles in the exercise to their own context. Their reflection is facilitated through a range of mechanisms that provide

  4. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mecham

    2009-10-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  5. Hawaii Energy Strategy Project 2: Fossil Energy Review. Task IV. Scenario development and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Breazeale, K. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    The Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES) Program is a seven-project effort led by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism (DBEDT) to investigate a wide spectrum of Hawaii energy issues. The East-West Center`s Program on Resources: Energy and Minerals, has been assigned HES Project 2, Fossil Energy Review, which focuses on fossil energy use in Hawaii and the greater regional and global markets. HES Project 2 has four parts: Task I (World and Regional Fossil Energy Dynamics) covers petroleum, natural gas, and coal in global and regional contexts, along with a discussion of energy and the environment. Task II (Fossil Energy in Hawaii) focuses more closely on fossil energy use in Hawaii: current utilization and trends, the structure of imports, possible future sources of supply, fuel substitutability, and energy security. Task III`s emphasis is Greenfield Options; that is, fossil energy sources not yet used in Hawaii. This task is divided into two sections: first, an in-depth {open_quotes}Assessment of Coal Technology Options and Implications for the State of Hawaii,{close_quotes} along with a spreadsheet analysis model, which was subcontracted to the Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Division of Argonne National Laboratory; and second, a chapter on liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the Asia-Pacific market and the issues surrounding possible introduction of LNG into the Hawaii market.

  6. Strategies for annotation and curation of translational databases: the eTUMOUR project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià-Sapé, Margarida; Lurgi, Miguel; Mier, Mariola; Estanyol, Francesc; Rafael, Xavier; Candiota, Ana Paula; Barceló, Anna; García, Alina; Martínez-Bisbal, M Carmen; Ferrer-Luna, Rubén; Moreno-Torres, Ángel; Celda, Bernardo; Arús, Carles

    2012-01-01

    The eTUMOUR (eT) multi-centre project gathered in vivo and ex vivo magnetic resonance (MR) data, as well as transcriptomic and clinical information from brain tumour patients, with the purpose of improving the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of future patients. In order to carry this out, among other work, a database--the eTDB--was developed. In addition to complex permission rules and software and management quality control (QC), it was necessary to develop anonymization, processing and data visualization tools for the data uploaded. It was also necessary to develop sophisticated curation strategies that involved on one hand, dedicated fields for QC-generated meta-data and specialized queries and global permissions for senior curators and on the other, to establish a set of metrics to quantify its contents. The indispensable dataset (ID), completeness and pairedness indices were set. The database contains 1317 cases created as a result of the eT project and 304 from a previous project, INTERPRET. The number of cases fulfilling the ID was 656. Completeness and pairedness were heterogeneous, depending on the data type involved.

  7. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2015-03-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1C, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  8. Effects of an innovative strategy to contain grapevine Bois noir: field treatment with resistance inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanazzi, Gianfranco; Murolo, Sergio; Feliziani, Erica

    2013-08-01

    Grapevine Bois noir (BN) is a phytoplasma disease that is widespread in most viticultural regions of the world, and it can result in heavy reductions to yields and grape juice quality. At present, there is no effective strategy to reduce the incidence of BN-infected grapevines. However, phytoplasma-infected plants can recover through spontaneous or induced symptom remission. Five elicitors (chitosan, two glutathione-plus-oligosaccharine formulations, benzothiadiazole, and phosetyl-Al) were applied weekly to the canopy of BN-infected 'Chardonnay' grapevines from early May to late July. The best and most constant recovery inductions were obtained with benzothiadiazole and the two glutathione-plus-oligosaccharine formulations. The plants that recovered naturally or following the elicitors showed qualitative and quantitative parameters of production no different from healthy plants. In another vineyard, diseased plants showed reduced shoot length and production compared with healthy plants, and there were no negative effects on these parameters for grapevines sprayed with a glutathione-plus-oligosaccharine formulation. The application of resistance inducers promoted the recovery of BN-infected grapevines with no adverse effects on the plants. Therefore, grapevine can be used as a model species to test this innovative strategy to contain phytoplasma diseases.

  9. Simple strategy to assess linezolid exposure in patients with multi-drug-resistant and extensively-drug-resistant tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, Jasper; Bolhuis, Mathieu S.; Tiberi, Simon; Akkerman, Onno W.; Centis, Rosella; de lange, Wiel C.; Kosterink, Jos G.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Migliori, Giovanni B.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.

    Linezolid is used increasingly for the treatment of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB). However, linezolid can cause severe adverse events, such as peripheral and optical neuropathy or thrombocytopenia related to higher drug exposure. This study aimed

  10. Evaluation of the Strategy Management Implementation in Project- Oriented Service Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Sherafat

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although developing strategic and operational plans is a difficult and complicated process, their successful implementation is much more difficult. Many organizations fail in the full implementation of their strategies. This is not due to the partial definition of strategies and organization‘s operational plan, but this is likely due to the lack of strong framework for creating alignment between employees and operational process and the organizational goals. To implement strategies effectively and to develop a comprehensive management system and to improve the performance, Robert Kaplan and David Norton introduced a modern management system which is Balanced ScoreCard. Likewise they introduced five main criteria: leadership, translation, alignment, every day process and ongoing process for a strategy oriented organization. This paper is intended to offer a systematic approach for measuring the effectiveness and efficiency of the strategic plan performance. For this study the questionnaire was distributed in a project- orientated service organization and after collection, by the use of statistical. Analysis especially factor analysis the grouping of sub-criteria under the five main criteria was confirmed. The statistical analysis showed that, two criteria of alignment and every day work had the lowest scores in terms of both implementation and effectiveness in the organization‘s senior and executive manager‘s point of view. With deep interview, studying of scorecards and meeting of the strategic committee of the studied organization, the two dimension of alignment and every day work were further examined and after identifying upgradeable areas, some suggestions for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the studied organization were presented.

  11. A scalable metabolite supplementation strategy against antibiotic resistant pathogen Chromobacterium violaceum induced by NAD+/NADH+imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Deepanwita; Parmar, Dharmeshkumar; Bhattacharya, Nivedita; Ghanate, Avinash D; Panchagnula, Venkateswarlu; Raghunathan, Anu

    2017-04-26

    The leading edge of the global problem of antibiotic resistance necessitates novel therapeutic strategies. This study develops a novel systems biology driven approach for killing antibiotic resistant pathogens using benign metabolites. Controlled laboratory evolutions established chloramphenicol and streptomycin resistant pathogens of Chromobacterium. These resistant pathogens showed higher growth rates and required higher lethal doses of antibiotic. Growth and viability testing identified malate, maleate, succinate, pyruvate and oxoadipate as resensitising agents for antibiotic therapy. Resistant genes were catalogued through whole genome sequencing. Intracellular metabolomic profiling identified violacein as a potential biomarker for resistance. The temporal variance of metabolites captured the linearized dynamics around the steady state and correlated to growth rate. A constraints-based flux balance model of the core metabolism was used to predict the metabolic basis of antibiotic susceptibility and resistance. The model predicts electron imbalance and skewed NAD/NADH ratios as a result of antibiotics - chloramphenicol and streptomycin. The resistant pathogen rewired its metabolic networks to compensate for disruption of redox homeostasis. We foresee the utility of such scalable workflows in identifying metabolites for clinical isolates as inevitable solutions to mitigate antibiotic resistance.

  12. A Bim-targeting strategy overcomes adaptive bortezomib resistance in myeloma through a novel link between autophagy and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Liang; Leng, Yun; Lin, Hui; Kmieciak, Maciej; Pei, Xin-Yan; Jones, Richard; Orlowski, Robert Z; Dai, Yun; Grant, Steven

    2014-10-23

    Bim contributes to resistance to various standard and novel agents. Here we demonstrate that Bim plays a functional role in bortezomib resistance in multiple myeloma (MM) cells and that targeting Bim by combining histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) with BH3 mimetics (eg, ABT-737) overcomes bortezomib resistance. BH3-only protein profiling revealed high Bim levels (Bim(hi)) in most MM cell lines and primary CD138(+) MM samples. Whereas short hairpin RNA Bim knockdown conferred bortezomib resistance in Bim(hi) cells, adaptive bortezomib-resistant cells displayed marked Bim downregulation. HDACI upregulated Bim and, when combined with ABT-737, which released Bim from Bcl-2/Bcl-xL, potently killed bortezomib-resistant cells. These events were correlated with Bim-associated autophagy attenuation, whereas Bim knockdown sharply increased autophagy in Bim(hi) cells. In Bim(low) cells, autophagy disruption by chloroquine (CQ) was required for HDACI/ABT-737 to induce Bim expression and lethality. CQ also further enhanced HDACI/ABT-737 lethality in bortezomib-resistant cells. Finally, HDACI failed to diminish autophagy or potentiate ABT-737-induced apoptosis in bim(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Thus, Bim deficiency represents a novel mechanism of adaptive bortezomib resistance in MM cells, and Bim-targeting strategies combining HDACIs (which upregulate Bim) and BH3 mimetics (which unleash Bim from antiapoptotic proteins) overcomes such resistance, in part by disabling cytoprotective autophagy. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. Safety assessment and regulatory strategy for NPP I and C modernization projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manners, S.; Blocquel, Ch.

    1999-10-01

    IPSN is the technical support for the French nuclear safety authority (DSIN), but also acts independently. Through our participation at this IAEA meeting we wish to further our appreciation of the industry position for I and C modernization projects. We will present some of the concerns of the safety assessor and safety authority for such projects. We hope to share our experiences and views concerning current strategies for I and C modernization and licensing from. In our experience with NPP I and C programmes, the need for modification is most often not directly linked to safety. For our safety assessment we have to identify clearly and, as far as possible, categorize the safety relevance of the specified modifications and all safety impact in its implementation. Modernization can be simply for reasons of replacement of obsolete existing equipment or it can be linked to functional evolutions; safety functions may be directly or indirectly affected. The state of the art I and C solutions proposed by today's modernization programs have many benefits, but also pose a certain number of difficulties for the safety demonstration. On the implementation side, the safety assessment for a modernization project has to take into consideration specific issues compared with that for new plant. These include interface and compatibility with the existing installation, issues relating to 'on line' installation and commissioning, as well as operational issues concerning the changeover and trail periods. A further subject for discussion concerns how our regulatory requirements apply to modernization. We must as a minima comply with the requirements of the period. To what measure must we apply current or future (under development or for future reactor designs) standards? How can we tie in with requirements and legislation for new projects? Do we make a special case for back-fits? (authors)

  14. [The Pro-ABEn project: contributions and reflexions for a marketing strategy for the association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Isília Aparecida; Felli, Vanda Elisa Andres; Ciampone, Maria Helena Trench

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, an internal analysis of the Brazilian Association of Nursing (ABEn) was carried out in order to identify the representations of the members of the national and regional management departments of ABEn, regarding this association. The objective was to gather subsidies for the planning and implementation of a project aiming at institutional empowerment. The scenarios for data collection were the regional and national management departments, as well as all the members available from the each regional section and two members from the national office. Data collection was done through a form, which was answered by 15 sections during the period between 1997 and 2002. The analysis of the empirical data material was done in two ways. The first analysis was based on the Discourse of the Collective Subject--DCS, and the second through Institutional Analysis. The representations of the subjects interviewed could be identified, enabling the planning of marketing strategies for ABEn.

  15. A Nursing Workforce Diversity Project: Strategies for Recruitment, Retention, Graduation, and NCLEX-RN Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ted A; Pole, David C; Ciarlo, Erica M; Holmes, Shearon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a collaborative project designed to recruit and retain students from underrepresented minorities and disadvantaged backgrounds into nursing education. Ethnic minorities remain underrepresented in the nursing workforce in comparison to the general population. The numbers of minorities enrolled in nursing education programs are insufficient to meet the health care workforce diversity needs of the future. High school students were provided with a preprofessional education program to prepare them for admission into a nursing program. Retention strategies were implemented for newly admitted and enrolled nursing education students. Twenty-one high school students enrolled in a nursing education program. The students enrolled in the nursing education program graduated and passed the licensure examination. Early recruitment and multiprong retention programs can be successful in diversifying the registered nurse workforce.

  16. Strategies for exome and genome sequence data analysis in disease-gene discovery projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Peter N; Krawitz, P; Mundlos, S

    2011-08-01

    In whole-exome sequencing (WES), target capture methods are used to enrich the sequences of the coding regions of genes from fragmented total genomic DNA, followed by massively parallel, 'next-generation' sequencing of the captured fragments. Since its introduction in 2009, WES has been successfully used in several disease-gene discovery projects, but the analysis of whole-exome sequence data can be challenging. In this overview, we present a summary of the main computational strategies that have been applied to identify novel disease genes in whole-exome data, including intersect filters, the search for de novo mutations, and the application of linkage mapping or inference of identity-by-descent (IBD) in family studies. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 1: World and regional fossil energy dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Isaak, D.T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Fridley, D.; Johnson, C.; Long, S.

    1993-12-01

    This report in the Hawaii Energy Strategy Project examines world and regional fossil energy dynamics. The topics of the report include fossil energy characteristics, the world oil industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, refining, products and their uses, history and trends in the global oil market and the Asia-Pacific market; world gas industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, processing, gas-based products, international gas market and the emerging Asia-Pacific gas market; the world coal industry including reserves, classification and quality, utilization, transportation, pricing, world coal market, Asia-Pacific coal outlook, trends in Europe and the Americas; and environmental trends affecting fossil fuels. 132 figs., 46 tabs.

  18. NRC experiences in hydrocoin: An international project for studying ground-water flow modeling strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, T.J.; McCartin, T.J.; Davis, P.A.; Beyeler, W.

    1987-01-01

    The ''Hydrologic Code Intercomparison Study'' (HYDROCOIN) is an international study designed to investigate various ground-water modeling strategies used to analyze the performance of high-level waste disposal sites. The various ground-water models considered are to be used for safety assessments of low- and high-level radioactive waste facilities. The work completed to date has been simulations of test cases developed to verify and validate the numerical codes chosen by the individual project teams. Twenty-five computer codes were tested during the verification phase of the HYDROCOIN effort. To test the codes, seven cases, which include both saturated and unsaturated conditions in both fractured and porous media, were simulated. Simulation results from the 22 international project teams were then intercompared as well as compared to analytical solutions wherever possible. Current work deals with validation of ground-water flow models. After an exhaustive background study, it was determined that validation of complex ground-water flow models based upon a comprehensive data base is presently not possible. Therefore, the test cases accepted for the validation phase are for relatively simple ground-water flow systems where comparison of the simulation results are with limited field or laboratory data. Additionally, work dealing with uncertainty and sensitivity analyses has recently begun. This work explores appropriate ways of using hydrogeologic models in performance assessment by examining uncertainties in the conceptual models and the hydrogeologic parameters. Valuable lessons have been learned from the HYDROCOIN experiences in understanding limitations of the models, available data sets, and modeling strategies

  19. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew; Gautier, Laurent; Willis, Scooter; Fields, Christopher; Katayama, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor. In this chapter, we compare the two principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: either by remote procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy, and languages sharing the Java Virtual Machine stack. This functionality provides strategies for sharing of software between Bio* projects, which can be exploited more often. Here, we present cross-language examples for sequence translation, and measure throughput of the different options. We compare calling into R through native R, RSOAP, Rserve, and RPy interfaces, with the performance of native BioPerl, Biopython, BioJava, and BioRuby implementations, and with call stack bindings to BioJava and the European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite. In general, call stack approaches outperform native Bio* implementations and these, in turn, outperform RPC-based approaches. To test and compare strategies, we provide a downloadable BioNode image with all examples, tools, and libraries included. The BioNode image can be run on VirtualBox-supported operating systems, including Windows, OSX, and Linux.

  20. Targeting HER2 signaling pathway for radiosensitization: alternative strategy for therapeutic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    No, Mina; Choi, Eun Jung; Kim, In Ah

    2009-12-01

    Several studies have indicated the potential value of targeting HER-2 signaling to enhance the anti-tumor activity of ionizing radiation. However, therapeutic resistance resulting from several factors, including activation of the downstream pathway, represents a major obstacle to treatment. Here, we investigated whether inhibitors targeting downstream of HER-2 signaling would radiosensitize SKBR3 breast cancer cells that exhibit overamplification of HER2. Selective inhibition of MEK-ERK signaling using pharmacologic inhibitors (PD98059, UO126) did not increase the radiosensitivity of SKBR3 cells. Selective inhibition of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway using pharmacologic inhibitors (LY294002, AKT inhibitor VIII, Rapamycin) significantly attenuated expression of p-AKT and p-70S6K, respectively and radiosensitized SKBR3 cells. MCF-7 cells those did not overexpress HER-2, showed less radiosensitization compared to SKBR3 cells by inhibition of this pathway. Pre-treatment with these inhibitors also caused significant abrogation of typical G(2) arrest following ionizing radiation and induced marked prolongation of gammaH2AX foci indicating impairment of DNA damage repair. A dual inhibitor of Class I PI3K and mTOR, PI103 effectively radiosensitized SKBR3 cells and showed significant prolongation of gammaH2AX foci. Inhibition of PI3K-AKT signaling was associated with downregulation of DNA-PKs, respectively. While apoptosis was the major mode of cell death when the cells were pretreated with LY294002 or AKT inhibitor VIII, the cells were pretreated by rapamycin or PI103 showed mixed mode of cell death including autophagy. Our results suggest possible mechanisms to counteract the HER-2 prosurvival signaling implicated in radioresistance, and offer an alternative strategy to overcome resistance to HER-2 inhibitors combined with radiation.

  1. Virtual Resistance-Based Control Strategy for DC link Regeneration Protection and Current Sharing in Uninterruptible Power Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jinghang; Guan, Yajuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    To address the DC link voltage regeneration issue in parallel Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) system, a DC link voltage protection (DCVP) method through online virtual resistance regulation is proposed. The proposed control strategy is able to protect the DC link from overvoltage that may...

  2. Resisting Pressure from Peers to Engage in Sexual Behavior: What Communication Strategies Do Early Adolescent Latino Girls Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Anne E.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.; Hutchison, Janet; Campoe, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    A content analysis of early adolescent X-bar = 12.02 years) Latino girls' (n = 44) responses to open-ended questions embedded in an electronic survey was conducted to explore strategies girls may use to resist peer pressure with respect to sexual behavior. Analysis yielded 341 codable response units, 74% of which were consistent with the REAL…

  3. Evaluation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft-tissue infection prevention strategies at a military training center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Stephanie M; Blaesing, Carl R; Millar, Eugene V; Chukwuma, Uzo; Schlett, Carey D; Wilkins, Kenneth J; Tribble, David R; Ellis, Michael W

    2013-08-01

    Military trainees are at high risk for skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), especially those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A multicomponent hygiene-based SSTI prevention strategy was implemented at a military training center. After implementation, we observed 30% and 64% reductions in overall and MRSA-associated SSTI rates, respectively.

  4. Infection control strategies for preventing the transmission of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nursing homes for older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Carmel; Tunney, Michael; Bradley, Marie C

    2013-11-19

    Nursing homes for older people provide an environment likely to promote the acquisition and spread of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), putting residents at increased risk of colonisation and infection. It is recognised that infection prevention and control strategies are important in preventing and controlling MRSA transmission. To determine the effects of infection prevention and control strategies for preventing the transmission of MRSA in nursing homes for older people. In August 2013, for this third update, we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE, The Cochrane Library), Ovid MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE (In-process and Other Non-Indexed Citations), Ovid EMBASE, EBSCO CINAHL, Web of Science and the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) website. Research in progress was sought through Current Clinical Trials, Gateway to Reseach, and HSRProj (Health Services Research Projects in Progress). All randomised and controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series studies of infection prevention and control interventions in nursing homes for older people were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently reviewed the results of the searches. Another review author appraised identified papers and undertook data extraction which was checked by a second review author. For this third update only one study was identified, therefore it was not possible to undertake a meta-analysis. A cluster randomised controlled trial in 32 nursing homes evaluated the effect of an infection control education and training programme on MRSA prevalence. The primary outcome was MRSA prevalence in residents and staff, and a change in infection control audit scores which measured adherence to infection control standards. At the end of the 12 month study, there was no change in MRSA

  5. Learning With E-books and Project-based Strategy in a Community Health Nursing Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Tien-Wen; Wu, Ting-Ting

    2018-03-01

    With advances in information technology, "information-assisted instruction" has been gradually introduced to nursing education curricula. Specifically, the integration of an e-book system can effectively enhance nursing students' attention and interest. Most studies on nursing education that incorporated e-books have focused on the advantages of convenience and assistance provided by e-books. Few studies have addressed community health nursing and off-campus practice activities in relation to suitable teaching strategies for learning activities. This study involved designing and planning a multimedia e-book learning system with a project-based learning activity that conforms to the curriculum and practical requirements of a community health nursing course. The purpose was to reduce the gap between theory and practice and realize an effective learning process. For learning evaluations, a final examination analysis with an independent sample t test; a scoring scheme with intrateam, interteam, and expert ratings; and Bloom's taxonomy-based analysis were conducted. The evaluation results indicated that the comprehension and learning abilities of the experimental group using the e-book system with a mobile device were effectively improved. In addition, the exploratory process involved in project-based learning can develop multiple cognitive skills and problem-solving ability, thereby realizing effective learning.

  6. Metrics for the Human Proteome Project 2013-2014 and strategies for finding missing proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Lydie; Bairoch, Amos; Beavis, Ronald C; Deutsch, Eric W; Gaudet, Pascale; Lundberg, Emma; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2014-01-03

    One year ago the Human Proteome Project (HPP) leadership designated the baseline metrics for the Human Proteome Project to be based on neXtProt with a total of 13,664 proteins validated at protein evidence level 1 (PE1) by mass spectrometry, antibody-capture, Edman sequencing, or 3D structures. Corresponding chromosome-specific data were provided from PeptideAtlas, GPMdb, and Human Protein Atlas. This year, the neXtProt total is 15,646 and the other resources, which are inputs to neXtProt, have high-quality identifications and additional annotations for 14,012 in PeptideAtlas, 14,869 in GPMdb, and 10,976 in HPA. We propose to remove 638 genes from the denominator that are "uncertain" or "dubious" in Ensembl, UniProt/SwissProt, and neXtProt. That leaves 3844 "missing proteins", currently having no or inadequate documentation, to be found from a new denominator of 19,490 protein-coding genes. We present those tabulations and web links and discuss current strategies to find the missing proteins.

  7. Overview of the NKS/RAK-1 project 'Strategies for reactor safety' and linkages to piping reliability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell

    1997-01-01

    The NKS/RAK-1 project forms part of a four-year research program (1994-97) in the Nordic countries. The general objective of NKS/RAK-1 project is to explore strategies for reactor safety: to investigate and evaluate the safety work, to increase realism and reliability of safety analysis; and to increase the safety of nuclear installations in selected areas. The project has done extensive interview work at utilities and authorities, and analysed a number of case studies. Brief highlights and overviews of the sub-projects are presented in this paper

  8. A strategy to seal exploratory boreholes in unsaturated tuff; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Case, J.B.; Givens, C.A.; Carney, B.C. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a strategy for sealing exploratory boreholes associated with the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Over 500 existing and proposed boreholes have been considered in the development of this strategy, ranging from shallow (penetrating into alluvium only) to deep (penetrating into the groundwater table). Among the comprehensive list of recommendations are the following: Those boreholes within the potential repository boundary and penetrating through the potential repository horizon are the most significant boreholes from a performance standpoint and should be sealed. Shallow boreholes are comparatively insignificant and require only nominal sealing. The primary areas in which to place seals are away from high-temperature zones at a distance from the potential repository horizon in the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff and the upper portion of the Topopah Spring Member and in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico Hills Unit. Seals should be placed prior to waste emplacement. Performance goals for borehole seals both above and below the potential repository are proposed. Detailed construction information on the boreholes that could be used for future design specifications is provided along with a description of the environmental setting, i.e., the geology, hydrology, and the in situ and thermal stress states. A borehole classification scheme based on the condition of the borehole wall in different tuffaceous units is also proposed. In addition, calculations are presented to assess the significance of the boreholes acting as preferential pathways for the release of radionuclides. Design calculations are presented to answer the concerns of when, where, and how to seal. As part of the strategy development, available technologies to seal exploratory boreholes (including casing removal, borehole wall reconditioning, and seal emplacement) are reviewed.

  9. Impact of Rapid Susceptibility Testing and Antibiotic Selection Strategy on the Emergence and Spread of Antibiotic Resistance in Gonorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, Ashleigh R; Gift, Thomas L; Chesson, Harrell W; Hsu, Katherine; Salomon, Joshua A; Grad, Yonatan H

    2017-11-27

    Increasing antibiotic resistance limits treatment options for gonorrhea. We examined the impact of a hypothetical point-of-care (POC) test reporting antibiotic susceptibility profiles on slowing resistance spread. A mathematical model describing gonorrhea transmission incorporated resistance emergence probabilities and fitness costs associated with resistance based on characteristics of ciprofloxacin (A), azithromycin (B), and ceftriaxone (C). We evaluated time to 1% and 5% prevalence of resistant strains among all isolates with the following: (1) empiric treatment (B and C), and treatment guided by POC tests determining susceptibility to (2) A only and (3) all 3 antibiotics. Continued empiric treatment without POC testing was projected to result in >5% of isolates being resistant to both B and C within 15 years. Use of either POC test in 10% of identified cases delayed this by 5 years. The 3 antibiotic POC test delayed the time to reach 1% prevalence of triply-resistant strains by 6 years, whereas the A-only test resulted in no delay. Results were less sensitive to assumptions about fitness costs and test characteristics with increasing test uptake. Rapid diagnostics reporting antibiotic susceptibility may extend the usefulness of existing antibiotics for gonorrhea treatment, but ongoing monitoring of resistance patterns will be critical. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  10. The KnowRISK project: Tools and strategies to reduce non-structural damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Oliveira, Carlos; Lopes, Mário; Mota de Sá, Francisco; Amaral Ferreia, Mónica; Candeias, Paulo; Campos Costa, Alfredo; Rupakhety, Rajesh; Meroni, Fabrizio; Azzaro, Raffaele; D'Amico, Salvatore; Langer, Horst; Musacchio, Gemma; Sousa Silva, Delta; Falsaperla, Susanna; Scarfì, Luciano; Tusa, Giuseppina; Tuvé, Tiziana

    2016-04-01

    The project KnowRISK (Know your city, Reduce seISmic risK through non-structural elements) is financed by the European Commission to develop prevention measures that may reduce non-structural damage in urban areas. Pilot areas of the project are within the three European participating countries, namely Portugal, Iceland and Italy. Non-structural components of a building include all those components that are not part of the structural system, more specifically the architectural, mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems, as well as furniture, fixtures, equipment, and contents. Windows, partitions, granite veneer, piping, ceilings, air conditioning ducts and equipment, elevators, computer and hospital equipment, file cabinets, and retail merchandise are all examples of non-structural components that are vulnerable to earthquake damage. We will use the experience gained during past earthquakes, which struck in particular Iceland, Italy and Portugal (Azores). Securing the non-structural elements improves the safety during an earthquake and saves lives. This paper aims at identifying non-structural seismic protection measures in the pilot areas and to develop a portfolio of good practices for the most common and serious non-structural vulnerabilities. This systematic identification and the portfolio will be achieved through a "cross-knowledge" strategy based on previous researches, evidence of non-structural damage in past earthquakes. Shake table tests of a group of non-structural elements will be performed. These tests will be filmed and, jointly with portfolio, will serve as didactic supporting tools to be used in workshops with building construction stakeholders and in risk communication activities. A Practical Guide for non-structural risk reduction will be specifically prepared for citizens on the basis of the outputs of the project, taking into account the local culture and needs of each participating country.

  11. Strategy as Force : Towards Effective Strategies for Urban Development Projects: The Case of Rotterdam CityPorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daamen, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    In European urban development practices, there is a recurring need for new perspectives that provide insight into the complexity involved in the realization of projects. This need exists particularly around prestigious projects, where the tension between planning ambitions on the one hand, and the

  12. Detroit Works Long-Term Planning Project: Engagement Strategies for Blending Community and Technical Expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni L. Griffin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In January 2013, civic leaders, community stakeholders, and residents came together to release Detroit Future City: 2012 Detroit Strategic Framework Plan, a guiding blueprint for transforming Detroit from its current state of population loss and excessive vacancy into a model for the reinvention of post-industrial American cities. Three years prior, the U.S. Census had reported that the city had lost 24% of its population over the last decade and had experienced a 20% increase in vacant and abandoned property, bringing total vacancy to roughly the size of Manhattan. In addition to physical and economic challenges, Detroiters had also acknowledged significant barriers to effective civic engagement. Foremost among these barriers were a profound sense of immobilization, planning fatigue, and a general perception of cynicism about planning and engagement efforts. These challenges were compounded by historic racial dynamics and tension. This case study elaborates on the comprehensive and innovative civic engagement executed in a citywide planning process called the Detroit Works Project, which took place from late 2010 through late 2012. For the citywide planning process to be successful and sustainable, civic leaders and project funders committed to a planning initiative that would be different from previous efforts, in large part because the “owners” of the process would be diverse and inclusive across all community sectors. The case study, written by three of the key consultants from the project, describes four key civic engagement strategies deployed in the creation of the strategic framework: (1 addressing profound challenges of culture, race, and politics by deliberately building trust; (2 elevating community expertise by fostering a sense of ownership of the process; (3 blending technical and community expertise; and (4 viewing civic engagement as an ongoing two-way conversation rather than a series of large-scale episodic events. This

  13. Evidence-based tick acaricide resistance intervention strategy in Uganda: Concept and feedback of farmers and stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vudriko, Patrick; Okwee-Acai, James; Byaruhanga, Joseph; Tayebwa, Dickson Stuart; Omara, Robert; Muhindo, Jeanne Bukeka; Lagu, Charles; Umemiya-Shirafuji, Rika; Xuan, Xuenan; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    The emergence of multi-acaricide resistant ticks has led to unprecedented level of acaricide failure in central and western Uganda. In the absence of a national acaricide resistance management strategy, the country's dairy sector is threatened by upsurge of ticks and tick-borne diseases. In this study, we developed a short-to-medium-term intervention approach called Evidence-Based Acaricide Tick Control (EBATIC): Identify, Test, Intervene and Eradicate (IT-IE). Furthermore, the perception of 199 farmers and extension workers, 12 key informants in four districts and 47 stakeholders in the animal industry in Uganda were assessed using semi-structured questionnaires. We report that the establishment of a specialized laboratory is pivotal in identifying and testing (IT) acaricide resistant ticks for prompt intervention and eradication (IE). The laboratory test results and the farm tick control gaps identified are very important in guiding acaricide resistance management strategies such as evidence-based acaricide rotation, development and dissemination of extension materials, training of farmers and extension workers, and stakeholders' engagement towards finding sustainable solutions. All the 47 stakeholders and 91.0% (181/199) of the farmers and extension workers reported that the EBATIC approach will help in solving the tick acaricide resistance crisis in Uganda. Similarly, all the 12 key informants and 92.5% (184/199) of the farmers and extension workers suggested that the EBATIC approach should be sustained and rolled out to other districts. The EBATIC stakeholders' dialogue generated both short-to-medium and long-term strategies for sustainable management of tick acaricide resistance in the country. Overall, the positive feedback from farmers, district veterinarians and stakeholders in the animal industry suggest that the EBATIC approach is a useful proof-of-concept on scalable intervention pathway against tick acaricide resistance in Uganda with possibility of

  14. Comparison between project-based learning and discovery learning toward students' metacognitive strategies on global warming concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumewu, Widya Anjelia; Wulan, Ana Ratna; Sanjaya, Yayan

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to know comparing the effectiveness of learning using Project-based learning (PjBL) and Discovery Learning (DL) toward students metacognitive strategies on global warming concept. A quasi-experimental research design with a The Matching-Only Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design was used in this study. The subjects were students of two classes 7th grade of one of junior high school in Bandung City, West Java of 2015/2016 academic year. The study was conducted on two experimental class, that were project-based learning treatment on the experimental class I and discovery learning treatment was done on the experimental class II. The data was collected through questionnaire to know students metacognitive strategies. The statistical analysis showed that there were statistically significant differences in students metacognitive strategies between project-based learning and discovery learning.

  15. New Strategy and Innovative Projects at the National Biosurveillance Integration Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Steven; Quitugua, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Objective Enhance knowledge of the vision, mission, strategic goals, and objectives of the National Biosurveillance Integration Center (NBIC). Learn about innovative biosurveillance projects ongoing in NBIC. Introduction For a number of years, the federal government has provided biosurveillance in various domains within different departments and agencies. Congress recognized the need for a means of integrating these separate information sources into a more useable resource by chartering NBIC within the Department of Homeland Security. Methods NBIC engaged the biosurveillance community within and beyond the federal government through a series of extensive discussions, workshops, and symposia to define a strategy for future development of integrated biosurveillance activities grounded in legislative and presidential direction. The NBIC Strategic Plan was extensively reviewed by the twelve federal Departments that comprise the National Biosurveillance Integration System (NBIS) as well as the White House Office of Management and Budget. The NBIC Strategic Plan is currently being revised for release of a public version. The NBIC also engaged partners in the development of projects designed to develop and test new approaches to biosurveillance. Results The NBIC Strategic Plan was delivered to Congress in August, 2012. The plan explains the Center’s approach, why it is needed, and how it seeks to execute the mission of integrating national biosurveillance information to provide relevant and timely information that effectively supports decision making. Projects are underway involving text analyses of emergency medical system data, changes to poison control center data collection and analysis, and the application of machine learning to social media analyses. A sub-working group of the NBIS has been established to guide selection of future pilot project areas to address prioritized requirements for integrated biosurveillance. Conclusions NBIC has increased flexibility in

  16. A change in strategy for a CERCLA Removal Action Demolition Project in progress results in overall project enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertin, M.; Nichols, R.M.; Edwards, D.T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses changes made in a demolition project at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), a site on the National Priorities list (NPL), owned by the Department of Energy. The project, to demolish fourteen uranium ore silos and their structure, was based on a Removal Action Work Plan, submitted and approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), that integrated Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements to remove the source of contamination and threat to public health and the environment. After the demolition contractor defaulted at 30% complete, completion of the project by the USEPA deadline was threatened. The recovery plan included re-evaluation of project documents in addition to the schedule. It was determined that re-interpretation of the removal action criteria, including design and Removal Action Work Plan, would eliminate road-blocks, and optimize resources, resulting in project completion by the original deadline even after lost-time in mobilizing another contractor. This presentation will discuss the open-quotes lessons learnedclose quotes by the project team and illustrate how simplification of construction methods resulted in enhancements to the environmental controls, improved material handing, and created a safer work environment

  17. "I No Like Get Caught Using Drugs": Explanations for Refusal as a Drug-Resistance Strategy for Rural Native Hawaiian Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the use of explanations for refusal as a drug-resistance strategy for rural Native Hawaiian youths. Fourteen gender-specific focus groups were conducted within seven middle or intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i (N = 64). Participants were asked to describe drug-resistance strategies in response to 15…

  18. Western flower thrips resistance to insecticides: detection, mechanisms, and management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insecticide resistance continues to be one of the most important issues facing agricultural production. The challenges in insecticide resistance and its management are exemplified by the situation with the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). This ...

  19. Importance of hepatitis C virus-associated insulin resistance: Therapeutic strategies for insulin sensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaguchi, Takumi; Sata, Michio

    2010-01-01

    Insulin resistance is one of the pathological features in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Generally, persistence of insulin resistance leads to an increase in the risk of life-threatening complications such as cardiovascular diseases. However, these complications are not major causes of death in patients with HCV-associated insulin resistance. Indeed, insulin resistance plays a crucial role in the development of various complications and events associated with HCV infection. ...

  20. Resistance in bacteria of the food chain: epidemiology and control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Lina; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2013-01-01

    . The emergence and spread of resistant bacteria in the food chain is a major concern as food-producing animals may constitute a huge reservoir for antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, food animals and food of animal origin is traded worldwide, which means that the occurrences of antimicrobial resistance...... in the food supply of one country is currently potentially a problem for all countries....

  1. Coupling of radiofrequency with magnetic nanoparticles treatment as an alternative physical antibacterial strategy against multiple drug resistant bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh K.; Thorat, Nanasaheb D.; Tandon, Anshula; Kim, Jin-Hahn; Park, Sung Ha; Kim, Kyeong Kyu

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria not only affect human health and but also threatens the safety in hospitals and among communities. However, the emergence of drug resistant bacteria is inevitable due to evolutionary selection as a consequence of indiscriminate antibiotic usage. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a novel strategy by which pathogenic bacteria can be eliminated without triggering resistance. We propose a novel magnetic nanoparticle-based physical treatment against pathogenic bacteria, which blocks biofilm formation and kills bacteria. In this approach, multiple drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 and uropathogenic Escherichia coli CFT073 are trapped to the positively charged magnetic core-shell nanoparticles (MCSNPs) by electrostatic interaction. All the trapped bacteria can be completely killed within 30 min owing to the loss of membrane potential and dysfunction of membrane-associated complexes when exposed to the radiofrequency current. These results indicate that MCSNP-based physical treatment can be an alternative antibacterial strategy without leading to antibiotic resistance, and can be used for many purposes including environmental and therapeutic applications.

  2. Action Research Projects as a Strategy to Rediscover Ourselves from a Singular Standpoint in Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Garro-González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article systematizes a series of moments built while in the company of a fourth grader from the public school where I worked as a special education teacher in 2013. In the article, I described what I learned from the shared experiences generated from the naturalistic paradigm, the qualitative approach and the action research model, using pedagogical situations planned with the objective of understanding the reality of the student and the educational process for this particular case allowing or limiting success at school. My purpose is to reflect on issues related to the educational practice, from an individual standpoint and from the perspective of the teacher who observes and listens to his/herself in his/her daily actions and who looks for new ways to help students to find the true meaning of learning. From this perspective, the methodological design for this research project is based on the natural observation of the interaction between the teacher and the student.  Using this technique allowed identifying one of the participating subjects and choosing research activities (individual or group work sessions and strategies for data collection (photos, videos, stories and conversation recordings. After this, experiences are systematized in written and illustrated form (conversations and photographs of the participant’s drawings. The article is based on a case study that includes my individual interventions with the student, as well as planned learning moments with his class. To conclude, I interpret and analyze each of the moments meeting with the student, in the light of the scientific and theoretical findings accompanying the research project.  In addition, I reflect that my priority as a teacher in action is creating spaces that would allow students to experience sensitivity, empathy, and appreciation for people and their talents.

  3. Optimizing strategy for repetitive construction projects within multi-mode resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimating tender data for specific project is the most essential part in construction areas as of a contractor’s view such as: proposed project duration with corresponding gross value and cash flows. Cash flow analysis of construction projects has a long history and has been an important topic in construction management. Determination of project cash flows is very sensitive, especially for repetitive construction projects. This paper focuses on how to calculate tender data for repetitive construction projects such as: project duration, project cost, project/bid price, project cash flows, project maximum working capital and project net present value that is equivalent to net profit at the beginning of the project. A simplified multi-objective optimization formulation will be presented that creates best tender data to contractor comparing with more feasible options that are generated from multi-mode resources in a given project. This mathematical formulation is intended to give more scenarios which provide a practical support for typical construction contractors who need to optimize resource utilization in order to minimize project duration, project/bid price and project maximum working capital while maximizing its net present value simultaneously. At the end of the paper, an illustrative example will be presented to demonstrate the applications of proposed technique to an optimization expressway of repetitive construction project.

  4. Evaluation of intensified behaviour change communication strategies in an artemisinin resistance setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavati, Sara E; de Beyl, Celine Zegers; Ly, Po; Shafique, Muhammad; Boukheng, Thavrin; Rang, Chandary; Whittaker, Maxine Anne; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Sintasath, David

    2016-04-30

    In Cambodia, behaviour change communication (BCC) represents an integral component of malaria efforts aimed at fighting artemisinin resistant parasites and achieving elimination. The multi-pronged BCC interventions include interpersonal communication through village health volunteers (VHVs) and village malaria workers (VMWs), broadcasting malaria prevention, diagnosis and treatment messages via TV, radio and mobile broadcasting units (MBUs), distributing information education and communication (IEC) materials and introducing mobile malaria workers (MMWs) in endemic villages. This was a cross sectional household survey using a stratified multi-stage cluster sampling approach, conducted in December 2012. A stratified multi-stage cluster sampling approach was used; 30 villages were selected (15 in each stratum) and a total of 774 households were interviewed. This survey aimed to assess the potential added effect of 'intense' BCC interventions in three Western provinces. Conducted 2 years after start of these efforts, 'non-intense' BCC (niBBC) interventions (e.g., radio or TV) were compared to "intense" BCC (iBBC) implemented through a set of interpersonal communication strategies such as VMWs, VHVs, mobile broadcasting units and listener viewer clubs. In both groups, the knowledge of the mode of malaria transmission was high (96.9 vs 97.2 %; p = 0.83), as well as of fever as a symptom (91.5 vs 93.5 %; p = 0.38). Knowledge of local risk factors, such as staying in the forest (39.7 vs 30.7 %; p = 0.17) or the farm (7.1 vs 5.1 %; p = 0.40) was low in both groups. Few respondents in either group knew that they must get tested if they suspected malaria (0.3 vs 0.1; p = 0.69). However, iBBC increased the discussions about malaria in the family (51.7 vs 35.8 %; p = 0.002) and reported prompt access to treatment in case of fever (77.1 vs 59.4 %; p resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

  5. Alternative strategies: A means for saving money and time on the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is undertaking studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain (YM) as a potential site for disposal of high level nuclear waste. Yucca Mountain is located in an arid environment. Many processes that could contribute to mobilization of radionuclides are either absent or minimized in a dry site. Therefore, Yucca Mountain should have the potential of being a veryfavorable site for disposal of waste. The determination of suitability has no precedence, and the characterization of an and site is complex, requiring intensive studies to determine suitability. The studies undertaken by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) are very costly. By a process called performance allocation, the YMP determined strategies to satisfy regulations or meet performance while minimizing costs and schedules. Those involved recognized that allocations should be reviewed as additional information became available. The allocation has not been reviewed nor revised since the initial allocation in the Site Characterization Plan (SCP). The purpose of this paper is to outline alternative allocations that the author feels should be considered based on the additional information that is available at this time

  6. The CERN revamping project of the obsolete cryogenic control systems: Strategy and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglese, Vitaliano; Pezzetti, Marco; Rogez, Edouard

    2012-06-01

    The cryogenic infrastructure at CERN was originated in the 1960s with the era of bubble chambers and the associated superconducting solenoids. Since then and especially with the construction of the LHC accelerator and its detectors, large and complex cryogenics plants have been installed to provide cooling power from 800 W to 18 kW at different temperatures down to 1.9 K, demanding high and distributed technical capabilities from the control systems. The size and the complexity of the dedicated cryogenics has required the adoption of the CERN standard control framework UNICOS in order to enhance ease of operation and maintenance, and to provide long-term availability. After the completion of the LHC construction, exploiting the gained experience, CERN has started the upgrade of several obsolete cryogenic control systems. This paper describes (i) the overall project challenges, (ii) the technical procedure used in order to meet the technological operational requirements in terms of installation constraints, reduced manpower and minimal financial impact, (iii) an advanced methodology for the virtual commissioning of the new control systems, and (iv) three case studies as examples of the application of the aforementioned strategy.

  7. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Américo David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.

  8. Instantaneous Project Controls: Current Status, State of the Art, Benefits, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadegan, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Despite advancements in construction and construction-related technology, capital project performance deviations, typically overruns, remain endemic within the capital projects industry. Currently, management is generally unaware of the current status of their projects, and thus monitoring and control of projects are not achieved effectively. In…

  9. Pathogenic diversity of Phytophthora sojae and breeding strategies to develop Phytophthora-resistant soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Takuma; Kato, Masayasu; Yoshida, Shinya; Matsumoto, Isao; Kobayashi, Tamotsu; Kaga, Akito; Hajika, Makita; Yamamoto, Ryo; Watanabe, Kazuhiko; Aino, Masataka; Matoh, Toru; Walker, David R.; Biggs, Alan R.; Ishimoto, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Phytophthora stem and root rot, caused by Phytophthora sojae, is one of the most destructive diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and the incidence of this disease has been increasing in several soybean-producing areas around the world. This presents serious limitations for soybean production, with yield losses from 4 to 100%. The most effective method to reduce damage would be to grow Phytophthora-resistant soybean cultivars, and two types of host resistance have been described. Race-specific resistance conditioned by single dominant Rps (“resistance to Phytophthora sojae”) genes and quantitatively inherited partial resistance conferred by multiple genes could both provide protection from the pathogen. Molecular markers linked to Rps genes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying partial resistance have been identified on several molecular linkage groups corresponding to chromosomes. These markers can be used to screen for Phytophthora-resistant plants rapidly and efficiently, and to combine multiple resistance genes in the same background. This paper reviews what is currently known about pathogenic races of P. sojae in the USA and Japan, selection of sources of Rps genes or minor genes providing partial resistance, and the current state and future scope of breeding Phytophthora-resistant soybean cultivars. PMID:23136490

  10. Management Strategies for Curbing the Prevalence of Plagiarism in Project Writing amongst Students of Imo State University Oweeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenalo, Florence Chizoba

    2016-01-01

    Many undergraduate students copy a lot from other people's research project reports and many graduate students lack the capacity to carry out and report the research work required of them for graduation. This research ascertained the views of Science and Arts Education students on the causes of the problem, types, and the strategies the university…

  11. The Virtual Resistance Control Strategy for HVRT of Doubly Fed Induction Wind Generators Based on Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grid voltage swell will cause transient DC flux component in the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG stator windings, creating serious stator and rotor current and torque oscillation, which is more serious than influence of the voltage dip. It is found that virtual resistance manages effectively to suppress rotor current and torque oscillation, avoid the operation of crowbar circuit, and enhance its high voltage ride through technology capability. In order to acquire the best virtual resistance value, the excellent particle library (EPL of dynamic particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is proposed. It takes the rotor voltage and rotor current as two objectives, which has a fast convergence performance and high accuracy. Simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the virtual resistance control strategy.

  12. Violence and desire in Beijing: a young Chinese woman's strategies of resistance in father daughter incest and dating relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiying Wang; Ho, Petula Sik Ying

    2007-12-01

    In Mainland China, there is a lack of public awareness of and systematic research on dating violence and incest. This article fills a gap in the research in this area by examining a woman's lived experience of father-daughter incest and dating violence. The article adopts the standpoint of third-wave feminists and highlights women's agency and resistance to abuse. Meng Xi, the subject of the case study in this article, is regarded as a "survivor" rather than a "victim," and her various strategies of resistance--in particular, how she talks about her body and linghun (intelligence soul), and uses the two as sites of resistance--are examined. The article sheds light on the desire and sexuality of women in contemporary China, and especially the struggle between spiritual and material pursuits.

  13. The KnowRISK project: Tools and strategies for risk communication and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchio, Gemma; Amaral Ferreira, Mónica; Falsaperla, Susanna; Piangiamore, Giovanna Lucia; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Solarino, Stefano; Crescimbene, Massimo; Eva, Elena; Reitano, Danilo; Þorvaldsdottir, Solveig; Sousa Silva, Delta; Rupakhety, Rajesh; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Damage of non-structural elements of buildings (i.e. partitions, ceilings, cladding, electrical and mechanical systems and furniture) is known to cause injuries and human losses. Also it has a significant impact on earthquake resilience and is yet being worldwide underestimated. The project KnowRISK (Know your city, Reduce seISmic risK through non-structural elements) is financed by the European Commission to develop prevention measures that may reduce non-structural damage in urban areas. Pilot areas of the project are within the three European participating countries, namely Portugal, Iceland and Italy. They were chosen because they are prone to damage level 2 and 3 (EMS-98, European Macroseismic Scale) that typically affects non-structural elements. We will develop and test a risk communication strategy taking into account the needs of households and schools, putting into practice a portfolio of best practice to reduce the most common non-structural vulnerabilities. We will target our actions to different societal groups, considering their cultural background and social vulnerabilities, and implement a participatory approach that will promote engagement and interaction between the scientific community, practitioners and citizens to foster knowledge on everyone's own neighborhoods, resilience and vulnerability. A Practical Guide for citizens will highlight that low-cost actions can be implemented to increase safety of households, meant as being the places where the most vulnerable societal groups, including children and elderly people, spend much of their time. Since our actions towards communication will include education, we will define tools that allow a clear and direct understanding of elements exposed to risk. Schools will be one of our target societal groups and their central role played at the community level will ensure spreading and strengthening of the communication process. Schools are often located in old or re-adapted buildings, formerly used for

  14. Design of a testing strategy using non-animal based test methods: lessons learnt from the ACuteTox project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Prieto, Pilar; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Stanzel, Sven

    2013-06-01

    In the framework of toxicology, a testing strategy can be viewed as a series of steps which are taken to come to a final prediction about a characteristic of a compound under study. The testing strategy is performed as a single-step procedure, usually called a test battery, using simultaneously all information collected on different endpoints, or as tiered approach in which a decision tree is followed. Design of a testing strategy involves statistical considerations, such as the development of a statistical prediction model. During the EU FP6 ACuteTox project, several prediction models were proposed on the basis of statistical classification algorithms which we illustrate here. The final choice of testing strategies was not based on statistical considerations alone. However, without thorough statistical evaluations a testing strategy cannot be identified. We present here a number of observations made from the statistical viewpoint which relate to the development of testing strategies. The points we make were derived from problems we had to deal with during the evaluation of this large research project. A central issue during the development of a prediction model is the danger of overfitting. Procedures are presented to deal with this challenge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermal load resistance of erosion-monitoring beryllium maker tile for JET ITER like wall project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, T.; Linke, J.; Sundelin, P.; Rubel, M.; Coad, J.P.; Matthews, G.F.; Lungu, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The ITER reference materials, beryllium (Be), carbon fibre composite (CFC) and tungsten (W), have been tested separately in tokamaks. An integrated test demonstrating both compatibility of metal plasma facing components with high-power operation and acceptable tritium retention has not yet been carried out. At JET, the size, magnetic field strength and high plasma current allow to conducting tests with the combination of the materials. Thus, the ITER-like Wall (ILW) project has been launched. In the project, Be will be the plasmafacing material on the main chamber wall of JET. To assess the erosion of the Be tiles, a Be marker tile was proposed and designed. The test samples which simulate the JET Be marker tile have been produced in MEdC, Romania in order to study the thermal load resistance of the JET Be marker (20 x 20 mm 2 size with 30 mm height). The marker tile sample consists of bulk Be, high-Z interlayer (2-3 μm Ni coating) and 8-9 μm Be coating. Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) techniques based on the electron-induced evaporation have been selected for this purpose. In the present work, the global characterization of the maker tile samples and thermal load tests were performed. After the pre-characterization (microstructure observation by scanning electron microscope and elemental analysis by means of Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy), the thermal loading tests were performed in the electron beam facility JUDITH. The coating consisted of tiny platelets of ∝0.1 um in diameter and localized larger platelets of 1 um in diameter. The surface and bulk temperature were observed during the tests. In the screening thermal load test, the samples were loaded to 6 MW/m 2 for 10 s. The layers did not show any macroscopic damages at up to 4.5 MW/m 2 for 10 s (45 MJ/m 2 ). However, the coating delaminated and the maker was damaged when the thermal loading reached at 5 MW/m 2 (∝50 MJ/m 2 ). Cyclic heat load tests were

  16. A feasibility study for 3 strategies promoting HIV testing in primary health care in Madrid, Spain (ESTVIH project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Berjón, M Felicitas; Pichiule-Castañeda, Myrian; García-Riolobos, M Carmen; Esteban-Vasallo, María D; Arenas-González, Sonia M; Morán-Arribas, Mónica; Verdejo-Ortés, José; Zoni, Ana Clara; Álvarez-Castillo, M Carmen; Astray, Jenaro

    2017-12-01

    Late diagnosis of HIV infection is a public health problem. Framed by the international guidelines for improving HIV testing, in 2014, the Spanish Ministry of Health published a guide of recommendations to promote early diagnosis of HIV in health care settings. In the Community of Madrid, in order to implement these recommendations, we defined 3 new HIV testing strategies in primary health care. The objectives of this study were to know the interest of professionals and the acceptability for patients towards these strategies. We performed a quasi-experimental study to assess the feasibility of the implementation of new strategies (indicator condition, risk based, and universal offer) to promote early detection of HIV infection in the framework of the ESTVIH project. The centres participating in this project were randomly chosen among centres located in the health areas with the highest incidence of HIV infection. The feasibility was assessed in 6 centres. We considered outcomes by strategy in relation to the participation of professionals (family physician and nursing) and patients. Overall, 56.9% of eligible professionals agreed to take part in the study; however, the percentage of professionals who recruited patients was 25.9%. This percentage was higher in the indicator condition strategy (47.2%, versus 18.5% in the universal offer and 14.3% in the risk-based strategy, P-value end of the ESTVIH project, these results will be complemented with others related to the contribution of each strategy to improving the early diagnosis of HIV infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: new therapies, novel combination strategies and implications for immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drake, C.G.; Sharma, P.; Gerritsen, W.R.

    2014-01-01

    For the past decade, docetaxel has remained the global standard of care for frontline treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Until recently, there were limited options for patients with mCRPC following docetaxel failure or resistance, but now the approved treatment

  18. Evidence-based treatment strategies for treatment-resistant bipolar depression: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sienaert, P.; Lambrichts, L.; Dols, A.; De Fruyt, J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Treatment resistance in bipolar depression is a common clinical problem that constitutes a major challenge for the treating clinician as there is a paucity of treatment options. The objective of this paper was to review the evidence for treatment options in treatment-resistant bipolar

  19. A Typology of Consumer Strategies for Resisting Advertising, and a Review of Mechanisms for Countering Them

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, M.L.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Kirmani, A.; Smit, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a typology of the different ways in which consumers resist advertising, and the tactics that can be used to counter or avoid such resistance. It brings together literatures from different fields of study, including advertising, marketing, communication science and psychology.

  20. A typology of consumer strategies for resisting advertising, and a review of mechanisms for countering them

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransen, M.L.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Kirmani, A.; Smit, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a typology of the different ways in which consumers resist advertising, and the tactics that can be used to counter or avoid such resistance. It brings together literatures from different fields of study, including advertising, marketing, communication science and psychology.

  1. Melanoma Therapeutic Strategies that Select against Resistance by Exploiting MYC-Driven Evolutionary Convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Katherine R; Crawford, Lorin; Tsui, Elizabeth; Manchester, Haley E; Maertens, Ophelia; Liu, Xiaojing; Liberti, Maria V; Magpusao, Anniefer N; Stein, Elizabeth M; Tingley, Jennifer P; Frederick, Dennie T; Boland, Genevieve M; Flaherty, Keith T; McCall, Shannon J; Krepler, Clemens; Sproesser, Katrin; Herlyn, Meenhard; Adams, Drew J; Locasale, Jason W; Cichowski, Karen; Mukherjee, Sayan; Wood, Kris C

    2017-12-05

    Diverse pathways drive resistance to BRAF/MEK inhibitors in BRAF-mutant melanoma, suggesting that durable control of resistance will be a challenge. By combining statistical modeling of genomic data from matched pre-treatment and post-relapse patient tumors with functional interrogation of >20 in vitro and in vivo resistance models, we discovered that major pathways of resistance converge to activate the transcription factor, c-MYC (MYC). MYC expression and pathway gene signatures were suppressed following drug treatment, and then rebounded during progression. Critically, MYC activation was necessary and sufficient for resistance, and suppression of MYC activity using genetic approaches or BET bromodomain inhibition was sufficient to resensitize cells and delay BRAFi resistance. Finally, MYC-driven, BRAFi-resistant cells are hypersensitive to the inhibition of MYC synthetic lethal partners, including SRC family and c-KIT tyrosine kinases, as well as glucose, glutamine, and serine metabolic pathways. These insights enable the design of combination therapies that select against resistance evolution. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Perinatal vertical transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria: a systematic review and proposed research strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, J; Millar, M

    2014-07-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria contribute to both early- and late-onset sepsis and outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The extent to which vertical transmission of these resistant bacteria contributes to colonisation or infection of vulnerable infants in NICUs is unclear. Risk factors for vertical transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are not well described. To identify studies describing vertical transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, risk factors for transmission and the impact of colonisation on neonatal outcomes. EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane, PubMed, and MEDLINE databases were searched using selected terminology. Titles and abstracts were screened by two reviewers. Selected papers were reviewed in full by two individuals to ascertain whether they fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Any original article investigating perinatal vertical transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria between a mother and neonate was included. Data were extracted on study design, organism, antibiotic resistance, and means of ascertaining vertical transmission. Five papers out of 4839 titles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Four studies were predominantly observational and one was a case report. Each demonstrated perinatal transmission. No study reported risk factors for the transmission of resistant bacteria or the impact of colonisation on neonatal outcomes. There is an absence of research into the perinatal transmission of resistant organisms despite the potential implications of such a situation. We outline objectives that need to be addressed in future research and describe a study design to ascertain the prevalence and risk factors for vertical transmission. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. PENGARUH STRATEGI PROJECT BASED LEARNING (PJBL TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR KRITIS SISWA KELAS XI IPA PADA MATERI KOLOID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hikmah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century education aims to develop the ability of intelligence of students in order to resolve the problems faced in real life. Project-Based Learning is one instructional strategies to develop the skills required in the 21st century. Through a given project, students are not only required to achieve the learning objectives that have been set, but students will be trained to face the world of work that requires their ability to access, mesintesis, communicating information, and work together to solve complex problems so as to improve the ability of students critical thinking. This research is a quasi-experimental research (quasy experiment with posttest only control group design. This research aims to determine the influence of Project Based Learning Strategy (PjBL to the critical thinking skills of students of class XI IPA at SMAN 1 Malua on colloidal material. The research population includes students of class XI IPA at SMAN 1 Malua, with random cluster sampling technique sampling. Data were analyzed using independent sample t-test in SPSS 20 for windows at the 0.05 level of significance. The result showed that the significance level of critical thinking skills of 0.001 which indicates that there are differences between students' critical thinking skills that learned using a strategy of Project Based Learning (PjBL with students that learned using conventional methods. Pendidikan abad 21 bertujuan untuk membangun kemampuan intelegensi siswa dalam pembelajaran agar mampu menyelesaikan permasalahan yang dihadapi. salah satu strategi pembelaj aran di abad 21 yang mengembangkan keterampilan siswa ialah Project Based Learning. Melalui proyek yang diberikan, siswa tidak hanya dituntut untuk mencapai tujuan pembelajaran yang telah ditetapkan, tetapi siswa akan lebih terlatih menghadapi dunia kerja yang membutuhkan kemampuan mereka dalam mengakses, mesintesis, mengomunikasikan infomasi, dan bekerja sama memecahkan masalah yang kompleks

  4. Assessing the oseltamivir-induced resistance risk and implications for influenza infection control strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh NH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nan-Hung Hsieh,1 Yi-Jun Lin,2 Ying-Fei Yang,2 Chung-Min Liao2 1Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA; 2Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Background: Oseltamivir-resistant mutants with higher drug resistance rates and low transmission fitness costs have not accounted for influenza (subtype viruses. Predicting the impacts of neuraminidase inhibitor therapy on infection rates and transmission of drug-resistant viral strains requires further investigation.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the potential risk of oseltamivir-induced resistance for influenza A (H1N1 and A (H3N2 viruses.Materials and methods: An immune-response-based virus dynamic model was used to best fit the oseltamivir-resistant A (H1N1 and A (H3N2 infection data. A probabilistic risk assessment model was developed by incorporating branching process-derived probability distribution of resistance to estimate oseltamivir-induced resistance risk.Results: Mutation rate and sensitive strain number were key determinants in assessing resistance risk. By increasing immune response, antiviral efficacy, and fitness cost, the spread of resistant strains for A (H1N1 and A (H3N2 were greatly decreased. Probability of resistance depends most strongly on the sensitive strain number described by a Poisson model. Risk of oseltamivir-induced resistance increased with increasing the mutation rate for A (H1N1 only. The ≥50% of resistance risk induced by A (H1N1 and A (H3N2 sensitive infected cells were 0.4 (95% CI: 0.28–0.43 and 0.95 (95% CI 0.93–0.99 at a mutation rate of 10−6, respectively. Antiviral drugs must be administrated within 1–1.5 days for A (H1N1 and 2–2.5 days for A (H3N2 virus infections to limit viral production.Conclusion: Probabilistic risk assessment of antiviral drug

  5. Addressing the need for a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) specific project management strategy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lotz, M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects have additional technical, financial and regulatory requirements that are not fully addressed by classic project management approaches. Research has been done on individual novel concepts of the CDM, like...

  6. Toolbox for uncertainty; Introduction of adaptive heuristics as strategies for project decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stingl, Verena; Geraldi, Joana

    2017-01-01

    and limited information, which are the typical project decision context. This article develops a conceptual model that supports a systematic connection between adaptive heuristics and project decisions. Individual adaptive heuristics succeed only in specific decision environments, in which...

  7. Resistance in bacteria of the food chain: epidemiology and control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Collignon, P.

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved multiple mechanisms for the efficient evolution and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Modern food production facilitates the emergence and spread of resistance through the intensive use of antimicrobial agents and international trade of both animals and food products....... The main route of transmission between food animals and humans is via food products, although other modes of transmission, such as direct contact and through the environment, also occur. Resistance can spread as resistant pathogens or via transferable genes in different commensal bacteria, making...... quantification of the transmission difficult. The exposure of humans to antimicrobial resistance from food animals can be controlled by either limiting the selective pressure from antimicrobial usage or by limiting the spread of the bacteria/genes. A number of control options are reviewed, including drug...

  8. Polyfire project- an example of an industrial research project promoting safe industrial production of fire-resistant nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaquero, C; Lopez de Ipina, J; Galarza, N [TECNALIA, Leonardo Da Vinci No 11, 01510 Minano (Alava) (Spain); Hargreaves, B; Weager, B [NetComposites Ltd, 4A Broom Business Park, Chesterfield S41 9QG (United Kingdom); Breen, C, E-mail: celinav@leia.es [Materials and Engineering Research Institute, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-06

    New developments based on nanotechnology have to guarantee safe products and processes to be accepted by society. The Polyfire project will develop and scale-up techniques for processing halogen-free, fire-retardant nanocomposite materials and coatings based on unsaturated polyester resins and organoclays. The project includes a work package that will assess the Health and Environmental impacts derived from the manipulation of nanoparticles. This work package includes the following tasks: (1) Identification of Health and Environment Impacts derived from the processes, (2) Experimentation to study specific Nanoparticle Emissions, (3) Development of a Risk Management Methodology for the process, and (4) A Comparison of the Health and Environmental Impact of New and Existing Materials. To date, potential exposure scenarios to nanomaterials have been identified through the development of a Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the new production processes. In the next step, these scenarios will be studied and simulated to evaluate potential emissions of nanomaterials. Polyfire is a collaborative European project, funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme (Grant Agreement No 229220). It features 11 partners from 5 countries (5 SMEs, 3 research institutes, 2 large companies, 1 association) and runs for three years (1st September 2009 - 31st August 2012). This project is an example of an industrial research development which aims to introduce to the market new products promoting the safe use of nanomaterials.

  9. Polyfire project- an example of an industrial research project promoting safe industrial production of fire-resistant nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaquero, C; Lopez de Ipina, J; Galarza, N; Hargreaves, B; Weager, B; Breen, C

    2011-01-01

    New developments based on nanotechnology have to guarantee safe products and processes to be accepted by society. The Polyfire project will develop and scale-up techniques for processing halogen-free, fire-retardant nanocomposite materials and coatings based on unsaturated polyester resins and organoclays. The project includes a work package that will assess the Health and Environmental impacts derived from the manipulation of nanoparticles. This work package includes the following tasks: (1) Identification of Health and Environment Impacts derived from the processes, (2) Experimentation to study specific Nanoparticle Emissions, (3) Development of a Risk Management Methodology for the process, and (4) A Comparison of the Health and Environmental Impact of New and Existing Materials. To date, potential exposure scenarios to nanomaterials have been identified through the development of a Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the new production processes. In the next step, these scenarios will be studied and simulated to evaluate potential emissions of nanomaterials. Polyfire is a collaborative European project, funded by the European Commission 7th Framework Programme (Grant Agreement No 229220). It features 11 partners from 5 countries (5 SMEs, 3 research institutes, 2 large companies, 1 association) and runs for three years (1st September 2009 - 31st August 2012). This project is an example of an industrial research development which aims to introduce to the market new products promoting the safe use of nanomaterials.

  10. Competitive strategy for the proposed Texas high speed rail project : a system dynamics/ CLIOS process approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-10

    The Texas High-Speed Rail (HSR) is an unprecedented US project proposed by a private company. This project has many uncertainties because it will be funded only by the private sectors and it is the first US HSR project using foreign technology. The H...

  11. Strategies for cultural resources management. The ARAMIS Project; Strategie per la gestione delle risorse culturali. Il progetto ARAMIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cessari, L. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Ist. per le Tecnologie Applicate ai Beni Culturali, Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    The ARAMIS project, presented here, is an example of an integrated project that is implemented within the framework of the Raphael Community Programme. Begun in 1998 the project is of two years duration, with overall funding of 400,000 Euro. Promoted and co-ordinated by ITABC, it is being implemented in collaboration with Spain, Greece, Malta and France. The aims of the ARAMIS project is to encourage the study and protection of the vast pre-industrial heritage (infrastructures, buildings and machinery) represented by agricultural irrigation systems, water supply canals and water mills built in Europe by the Arab populations during the period of the Islamic invasions, which goes from the 9. to the 15. century. The main activities, may be summarised as follows: a) surveys and cataloguing; b) information network; c) restoration and museum set up; d) promotion and dissemination of knowledge. One conservation programme involves the Acquias mill, situated in the Lecrin Valley. This reasonably well preserved mill was used to grind flour using a water-powered wheel. The complete restoration of the building is completed as the replacement of the original. A small water mill museum will be set up inside. The documented results of the ARAMIS project are collected and displayed in the Water and Mill Museum, that is housed in the Arab-Norman castle of Castellammare del Golfo. [Italian] Il progetto denominato ARAMIS, acronimo di Arab Mills and Irrigation Systems in the Mediterranean Basin, ha avuto una durata di due anni, una dotazione finanziaria di 40.000 ecu, ed e' stato coordinato dall'ITABC, in collaborazione con Spagna, Grecia, Malta e Francia, con la finalita' di ricostruire un brano della storia della societa' europea. Considerando la presenza estesa e capillare di sistemi di irrigazione e di mulini ad acqua a ruota orizzontale dell'epoca delle invasioni arabe in Europa, nel bacino del Mediterraneo, e' nata l'idea di documentare in

  12. Combinatorial Strategies for Improving Multiple-Stress Resistance in Industrially Relevant Escherichia coli Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lennen, Rebecca; Herrgard, Markus

    2014-01-01

    conditions and two combinations of individual stresses. A subset of the identified loss-of-function mutants were selected for a combinatorial approach, where strains with combinations of two and three gene deletions were systematically constructed and tested for single and multistress resistance....... These approaches allowed identification of (i) strain-background-specific stress resistance phenotypes, (ii) novel gene deletion mutants in E. coli that confer single and multistress resistance in a strain-background-dependent manner, and (iii) synergistic effects of multiple gene deletions that confer improved...... resistance over single deletions. The results of this study underscore the suboptimality and strain-specific variability of the genetic network regulating growth under stressful conditions and suggest that further exploration of the combinatorial gene deletion space in multiple strain backgrounds is needed...

  13. Strategies for Optimizing Strength, Power, and Muscle Hypertrophy in Women: Contribution of Upper Body Resistance Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraemer, William

    1999-01-01

    To determine the performance and physiological effects of various physical conditioning programs in women, total body, upper-body resistance training groups, field training and aerobic training groups (n = 11 to 21...

  14. Accelerating the development of therapeutic strategies for drug-resistant tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vjecha, Michael J; Tiberi, Simon; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2018-03-23

    Recent progress in the discovery, development and evaluation of new drugs and combination regimens for drug-resistant tuberculosis through greater collaboration between industry, donors and academia provides renewed hope for overcoming the challenges in tuberculosis treatment.

  15. Framework for Testing the Effectiveness of Bat and Eagle Impact-Reduction Strategies at Wind Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Karin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeGeorge, Elise [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-13

    The objectives of this framework are to facilitate the study design and execution to test the effectiveness of bat and eagle impact-reduction strategies at wind energy sites. Through scientific field research, the wind industry and its partners can help determine if certain strategies are ready for operational deployment or require further development. This framework should be considered a living document to be improved upon as fatality-reduction technologies advance from the initial concepts to proven readiness (through project- and technology-specific testing) and as scientific field methods improve.

  16. Predicting response to antiretroviral treatment by machine learning: the EuResist project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazzi, Maurizio; Incardona, Francesca; Rosen-Zvi, Michal; Prosperi, Mattia; Lengauer, Thomas; Altmann, Andre; Sonnerborg, Anders; Lavee, Tamar; Schülter, Eugen; Kaiser, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    For a long time, the clinical management of antiretroviral drug resistance was based on sequence analysis of the HIV genome followed by estimating drug susceptibility from the mutational pattern that was detected. The large number of anti-HIV drugs and HIV drug resistance mutations has prompted the development of computer-aided genotype interpretation systems, typically comprising rules handcrafted by experts via careful examination of in vitro and in vivo resistance data. More recently, machine learning approaches have been applied to establish data-driven engines able to indicate the most effective treatments for any patient and virus combination. Systems of this kind, currently including the Resistance Response Database Initiative and the EuResist engine, must learn from the large data sets of patient histories and can provide an objective and accurate estimate of the virological response to different antiretroviral regimens. The EuResist engine was developed by a European consortium of HIV and bioinformatics experts and compares favorably with the most commonly used genotype interpretation systems and HIV drug resistance experts. Next-generation treatment response prediction engines may valuably assist the HIV specialist in the challenging task of establishing effective regimens for patients harboring drug-resistant virus strains. The extensive collection and accurate processing of increasingly large patient data sets are eagerly awaited to further train and translate these systems from prototype engines into real-life treatment decision support tools. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Collective knowledge sharing as a social justice strategy: the difference it made in a service project about preterm birth disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutain, Doris M

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge about how health disparities are created and sustained from those affected is needed. Collective knowledge sharing is one way to redefine and revalue dialogue and critique processes with the aim of promoting just relationships of knowledge production. This article describes how a community service project focused on using collective knowledge sharing as a social justice strategy with health ministry volunteers produced insights about preterm birth disparity issues. Project insights related to (1) the connection between faith and health, (2) the significance of family and congregational stories, and (3) the importance of praising assets in the context of disparity recognition.

  18. Direct-current resistivity profiling at the Pecos River Ecosystem Project study site near Mentone, Texas, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeple, Andrew; McDonald, Alyson K.; Payne, Jason; Kress, Wade H.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Texas A&M University AgriLife, did a surface geophysical investigation at the Pecos River Ecosystem Project study site near Mentone in West Texas intended to determine shallow (to about 14 meters below the water [river] surface) subsurface composition (lithology) in and near treated (eradicated of all saltcedar) and control (untreated) riparian zone sites during June-August 2006. Land-based direct-current resistivity profiling was applied in a 240-meter section of the riverbank at the control site, and waterborne direct-current continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) was applied along a 2.279-kilometer reach of the river adjacent to both sites to collect shallow subsurface resistivity data. Inverse modeling was used to obtain a nonunique estimate of the true subsurface resistivity from apparent resistivity calculated from the field measurements. The land-based survey showed that the sub-surface at the control site generally is of relatively low resis-tivity down to about 4 meters below the water surface. Most of the section from about 4 to 10 meters below the water surface is of relatively high resistivity. The waterborne CRP surveys convey essentially the same electrical representation of the lithology at the control site to 10 meters below the water surface; but the CRP surveys show considerably lower resistivity than the land-based survey in the subsection from about 4 to 10 meters below the water surface. The CRP surveys along the 2.279-kilometer reach of the river adjacent to both the treated and control sites show the same relatively low resistivity zone from the riverbed to about 4 meters below the water surface evident at the control site. A slightly higher resistivity zone is observed from about 4 to 14 meters below the water surface along the upstream approximately one-half of the profile than along the downstream one-half. The variations in resistivity could not be matched to variations in lithology because

  19. Breeding strategies for tick resistance in tropical cattle: a sustainable approach for tick control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyma, K P; Gupta, Jay Prakash; Singh, Veer

    2015-03-01

    About 80 % of world cattle population is under the risk of ticks and tick borne diseases (TTBDs). Losses caused by bovine tick burdens in tropical countries have a tremendous economic impact on production systems. Chemical control of disease has been found to be ineffective and also involving large cost. To reduce our reliance on these chemical products, it is necessary to embark on programs that include habitat management, genetic selection of hosts, and development of a strain capable of inducing host resistance to ticks. Selection for disease resistance provide alternate method for sustainable control of TTBDs. Domestic livestock manifests tick-resistance by skin thickness, coat type, coat color, hair density and skin secretions etc. Zebu cattle have, on average, greater tick resistance than either European cattle or African cattle. Heritability for tick burden in cattle has been shown to range about 0.30, which is sufficient to result in the success of some programs of selection for tick resistance in cattle. To select animals at younger age, to reduce generation interval and to increase genetic gain, marker assisted selection is an important tool. There are also various MHC molecules which are associated with resistance to TTBDs.

  20. Study On Risk Handling Strategy Of Road Contruction Projects In Jayapura City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irianto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Project risk is an event or an uncertain condition which if it appears will have a threat on the project object. Many contractors still do not understand the threats that occur in the project they still assume that risks are always harmful. Based on data from the Papua Public Works procurement service that the implementation of road improvement projects always faces problems. This research is an explorative and descriptive study which explores the risks threats that occur in the project from the contractors perspective in Jayapura Papua Province Indonesia. The object of this research is the company contractor involved in the implementation of road improvement project in Jayapura whereas the respondent is the project manager and the field supervisor involved in the implementation of road improvement project The analysis result shows that the overall level of risk is in very low category and the biggest risks affecting contractors in sequence are 1 material delays from suppliers 2 material inventories 3 design difficulties 4 incorrectly shipped material volumes 5 changes to specifications by the owner 6 difficulty in obtaining materials and equipment 7 material price increases 8 over quality 9 damage to machine tools 10 weakening the bearing capacity of subgrade soil. While the response to risks threats that occur in road improvement projects is to reduce and avoid.

  1. ANALYSIS OF PROJECTS AND SOCIAL EFFECTS STRATEGY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE YAMAL-NENETS AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT UP TO 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vizhina I. A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Discusses the problems of socio-economic development of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous district. Identified priority directions of development of the district and investment needs. It is shown that the economic and financial crisis may significantly affect the implementation of large-scale strategic projects. Defined organizational and economic form of interaction of public authorities, environmental NGOs and oil and gas companies in search of a compromise - minimize impact on the natural environment and the elimination of irrational use of all its components. Discusses the risks of the strategy. Estimated export risks of the project to develop the gas resources of the Yamal Peninsula in the context of refocusing energy to other European gas markets. It is shown that the failure of the implementation of the Programme Yamal will lead to such a significant loss of budget revenues of the district that fundamentally will require review of the entire regional strategy for socio-economic development of the region.

  2. Impairing methylations at ribosome RNA, a point mutation-dependent strategy for aminoglycoside resistance: the rsmG case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Páez, Alfonso; Cárdenas-Brito, Sonia; Corredor, Mauricio; Villarroya, Magda; Armengod, María Eugenia

    2014-04-01

    Aminoglycosides like streptomycin are well-known for binding at specific regions of ribosome RNA and then acting as translation inhibitors. Nowadays, several pathogens have been detected to acquire an undefined strategy involving mutation at non structural ribosome genes like those acting as RNA methylases. rsmG is one of those genes which encodes an AdoMet-dependent methyltransferase responsible for the synthesis of m 7 G527 in the 530 loop of bacterial 16S rRNA. This loop is universally conserved, plays a key role in ribosomal accuracy, and is a target for streptomycin binding. Loss of the m 7 G527 modification confers low-level streptomycin resistance and may affect ribosomal functioning. After taking into account genetic information indicating that some clinical isolates of human pathogens show streptomycin resistance associated with mutations at rsmG , we decided to explore new hot spots for mutation capable of impairing the RsmG in vivo function and of promoting low-level streptomycin resistance. To gain insights into the molecular and genetic mechanism of acquiring this aminoglycoside resistance phenotype and the emergence of high-level streptomycin resistance in rsmG mutants, we mutated Escherichia coli rsmG and also performed a genotyping study on rpsL from several isolates showing the ability to grow at higher streptomycin concentrations than parental strains. We found that the mutations at rpsL were preferentially present in these mutants, and we observed a clear synergy between rsmG and rpsL genes to induce streptomycin resistance. We contribute to understand a common mechanism that is probably transferable to other ribosome RNA methylase genes responsible for modifications at central sites for ribosome function.

  3. Modelling the consequences of targeted selective treatment strategies on performance and emergence of anthelmintic resistance amongst grazing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Berk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of anthelmintic resistance by helminths can be slowed by maintaining refugia on pasture or in untreated hosts. Targeted selective treatments (TST may achieve this through the treatment only of individuals that would benefit most from anthelmintic, according to certain criteria. However TST consequences on cattle are uncertain, mainly due to difficulties of comparison between alternative strategies. We developed a mathematical model to compare: 1 the most ‘beneficial’ indicator for treatment selection and 2 the method of selection of calves exposed to Ostertagia ostertagi, i.e. treating a fixed percentage of the population with the lowest (or highest indicator values versus treating individuals who exceed (or are below a given indicator threshold. The indicators evaluated were average daily gain (ADG, faecal egg counts (FEC, plasma pepsinogen, combined FEC and plasma pepsinogen, versus random selection of individuals. Treatment success was assessed in terms of benefit per R (BPR, the ratio of average benefit in weight gain to change in frequency of resistance alleles R (relative to an untreated population. The optimal indicator in terms of BPR for fixed percentages of calves treated was plasma pepsinogen and the worst ADG; in the latter case treatment was applied to some individuals who were not in need of treatment. The reverse was found when calves were treated according to threshold criteria, with ADG being the best target indicator for treatment. This was also the most beneficial strategy overall, with a significantly higher BPR value than any other strategy, but its degree of success depended on the chosen threshold of the indicator. The study shows strong support for TST, with all strategies showing improvements on calves treated selectively, compared with whole-herd treatment at 3, 8, 13 weeks post-turnout. The developed model appeared capable of assessing the consequences of other TST strategies on calf populations.

  4. Progress of implementation of the World Health Organization strategy for HIV drug resistance control in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravasi, Giovanni; Jack, Noreen; Alonso Gonzalez, Mónica; Sued, Omar; Pérez-Rosales, María Dolores; Gomez, Bertha; Vila, Marcelo; Riego, Amalia del; Ghidinelli, Massimo

    2011-12-01

    By the end of 2010, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) achieved 63% antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage. Measures to control HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) at the country level are recommended to maximize the efficacy and sustainability of ART programs. Since 2006, the Pan American Health Organization has supported implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) strategy for HIVDR prevention and assessment through regional capacity-building activities and direct technical cooperation in 30 LAC countries. By 2010, 85 sites in 19 countries reported early warning indicators, providing information about the extent of potential drivers of drug resistance at the ART site. In 2009, 41.9% of sites did not achieve the WHO target of 100% appropriate first-line prescriptions; 6.3% still experienced high rates (> 20%) of loss to follow-up, and 16.2% had low retention of patients (< 70%) on first-line prescriptions in the first year of treatment. Stock-outs of antiretroviral drugs occurred at 22.7% of sites. Haiti, Guyana, and the Mesoamerican region are planning and implementing WHO HIVDR monitoring surveys or threshold surveys. New HIVDR surveillance tools for concentrated epidemics would promote further scale-up. Extending the WHO HIVDR lab network in Latin America is key to strengthening regional lab capacity to support quality assured HIVDR surveillance. The WHO HIVDR control strategy is feasible and can be rolled out in LAC. Integrating HIVDR activities in national HIV care and treatment plans is key to ensuring the sustainability of this strategy.

  5. The Strategy Project: Promoting Self-Regulated Learning through an Authentic Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Hillary H.

    2016-01-01

    Success in college requires the development of self-regulated learning strategies that move beyond high school skills. First-year students of all ability levels benefit when given instruction in how to use these strategies in an authentic context. This paper presents an instructional method that requires deliberate practice of self-regulated…

  6. Improving Nursing Communication Skills in an Intensive Care Unit Using Simulation and Nursing Crew Resource Management Strategies: An Implementation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkelson, Carman; Aebersold, Michelle; Redman, Richard; Tschannen, Dana

    Effective interprofessional communication is critical to patient safety. This pre-/postimplementation project used a multifaceted educational strategy with high-fidelity simulation to introduce evidence-based communication tools, adapted from Nursing Crew Resource Management, to intensive care unit nurses. Results indicated that participants were satisfied with the education, and their perceptions of interprofessional communication and knowledge improved. Teams (n = 16) that used the communication tools during simulation were more likely to identify the problem, initiate key interventions, and have positive outcomes.

  7. Taxane resistance in breast cancer: mechanisms, predictive biomarkers and circumvention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S; Briasoulis, E; Linardou, H; Bafaloukos, D; Papadimitriou, C

    2012-11-01

    Taxanes are established in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and early breast cancer (EBC) as potent chemotherapy agents. However, their therapeutic usefulness is limited by de-novo refractoriness or acquired resistance, which are common drawbacks to most anti-cancer cytotoxics. Considering that the taxanes will remain principle chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of breast cancer, we reviewed known mechanisms of resistance in with an outlook of optimizing their clinical use. We searched the PubMed and MEDLINE databases for articles (from inception through to 9th January 2012; last search 10/01/2012) and journals known to publish information relevant to taxane chemotherapy. We imposed no language restrictions. Search terms included: cancer, breast cancer, response, resistance, taxane, paclitaxel, docetaxel, taxol. Due to the possibility of alternative mechanisms of resistance all combination chemotherapy treated data sets were removed from our overview. Over-expression of the MDR-1 gene product Pgp was extensively studied in vitro in association with taxane resistance, but data are conflicting. Similarly, the target components microtubules, which are thought to mediate refractoriness through alterations of the expression pattern of tubulins or microtubule associated proteins and the expression of alternative tubulin isoforms, failed to confirm such associations. Little consensus has been generated for reported associations between taxane-sensitivity and mutated p53, or taxane-resistance and overexpression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL or NFkB. In contrary sufficient in vitro data support an association of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) defects with resistance. Clinical data have been limited and inconsistent, which relate to the variety of methods used, lack of standardization of cut-offs for quantitation, differences in clinical endpoints measured and in methods of tissue collection preparation and storage, and study/patient heterogeneity. The most

  8. Dissemination of sustainable irrigation strategies for almond and olive orchards via a participatory approach. Project LIFE+IRRIMAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vila, Margarita; Gamero-Ojeda, Pablo; Ascension Carmona, Maria; Berlanga, Jose; Fereres, Elias

    2017-04-01

    Dissemination of sustainable irrigation strategies for almond and olive orchards via a participatory approach. Project LIFE+IRRIMAN Spain is the world's first and third largest producer of olive oil and almond, respectively. Despite huge efforts in the last years by the production sector towards intensification, cultural issues relative to the traditional rain-fed crop management know how, prevent farmers from adoption of sustainable irrigation management practices. Consequently, even though there has been progress in irrigation management research for these two crops, adoption of modern irrigation techniques by farmers has been slow. Sustainable irrigation strategies for olive and almond orchards are being designed, implemented, validated and disseminated under the framework of the LIFE+ IRRIMAN project, through a participatory approach. The implementation of the LIFE+ IRRIMAN innovative and demonstrative actions has been carried out in an irrigation district of Southern Spain (Genil-Cabra Irrigation Scheme, Andalusia). The approach designed has four phases: i) design and implementation of sustainable irrigation strategies in demonstration farms; ii) dissemination of best irrigation practices which were tested in the initial year throughout the irrigation scheme by the irrigation advisory service; iii) assessment of degree of adoption and re-design of the dissemination strategies; and, iv) based on the results obtained, elaboration of sustainable irrigation guidelines for knowledge transfer in the district at regional and national levels to promote changes in irrigation practices. Participatory approaches have proven to be effective tools for successful irrigation strategies design and diffusion, especially in traditional rain fed crops such as olive and almond trees in the Mediterranean countries. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the European Union LIFE+ project IRRIMAN (LIFE13 ENV/ES/000539).

  9. Education as life project: A strategy for educational psychotherapy and counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    for this life project. If individuals do not undertake the task to find and follow this project their life they will either come to live an empty or superficial life on other people's premises or experience a life of despair. This also includes students for whom completion of an education might be part...

  10. A Service-Learning Project Using Crowdfunding Strategy: Students' Experience and Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat-jizat, Jessnor Elmy; Khalid, Khalizul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore students' experience and reflection in doing a Service Learning project as part of their course work. The Service Learning project allows the students to practice their knowledge of raising capital through crowdfunding, and at the same time situates them in an environment where they could learn from the…

  11. Resistance, rupture and repetition: Civil society strategies against intimate partner violence in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja, Mona; Baaz, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a new interpretation of the 'resistance' carried out by local civil society organisations in Cambodia against intimate partner violence (IPV). In this, the paper explores the nexus between 'rupture', 'resistance' and 'repetition' and concludes that different 'repetitions' can contribute to acts of violence while simultaneously creating possibilities for resisting IPV. In regard to the latter, the concept of 'rupture' is investigated as a performative politics through which organisations try to disrupt the 'repetitions' of violent masculinities. Furthermore, it is argued that the importance of 'repetitions' and the concept of time should be acknowledged. The French criminal defence lawyer Jacques Vergès' understanding of 'rupture' and the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze's notions of 'repetition' inform the analysis. To exemplify our discussion and findings, the paper embraces stories of a number of civil society workers who facilitate various men's groups in Cambodia in order to negotiate the practice of IPV.

  12. Spatial scan statistics to assess sampling strategy of antimicrobial resistance monitoring programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Antonio; Houe, Hans; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2009-01-01

    Pie collection and analysis of data on antimicrobial resistance in human and animal Populations are important for establishing a baseline of the occurrence of resistance and for determining trends over time. In animals, targeted monitoring with a stratified sampling plan is normally used. However...... sampled by the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP), by identifying spatial Clusters of samples and detecting areas with significantly high or low sampling rates. These analyses were performed for each year and for the total 5-year study period for all...... collected and Susceptibility tested pig samples in Denmark between 2002 and 2006. For the yearly analysis, both high and low sampling rates areas were significant, with two clusters in 2002 (relative risk [RR]: 2.91, p

  13. Quality of diabetes care worldwide and feasibility of implementation of the Alphabet Strategy: GAIA project (Global Alphabet Strategy Implementation Audit).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James D; Saravanan, Ponnusamy; Varadhan, Lakshminarayanan; Morrissey, John R; Patel, Vinod

    2014-10-11

    The Alphabet Strategy (AS) is a diabetes care checklist ensuring "important, simple things are done right all the time." Current audits of diabetes care in developed countries reveal wide variations in quality with performance of care processes frequently sub-optimal. This study had three components:• an audit to assess diabetes care quality worldwide,• a questionnaire study seeking opinions on the merits of the AS,• a pilot study to assess the practicality of implementation of the AS in a low socioeconomic setting. Audit data was collected from 52 centres across 32 countries. Data from 4537 patients were converted to Quality and Outcome Framework (QOF) scores to enable inter-centre comparison. These were compared to each country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and Total Health Expenditure percentage per capita (THE%). The opinions of diabetes patients and healthcare professionals from the diabetes care team at each of these centres were sought through a structured questionnaire. A retrospective audit on 100 randomly selected case notes was conducted prior to AS implementation in a diabetes outpatient clinic in India, followed by a prospective audit after four months to assess its impact on care quality. QOF scores showed wide variation across the centres (mean 49.0, range 10.2-90.1). Although there was a positive relationship between GDP and THE% to QOF scores, there were exceptions. 91% of healthcare professionals felt the AS approach was practical. Patients found the checklist to be a useful education tool. Significant improvements in several aspects of care as well as 36% improvement in QOF score were seen following implementation. International centres observed large variations in care quality, with standards frequently sub-optimal. 71% of health care professionals would consider adopting the AS in their daily practice. Implementation in a low resource country resulted in significant improvements in some aspects of diabetes care. The AS checklist for

  14. A combined coating strategy based on atomic layer deposition for enhancement of corrosion resistance of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangmei; Yang, Qiuyue; Li, Zhaoyang; Yuan, Wei; Zheng, Yufeng; Cui, Zhenduo; Yang, Xianjin; Yeung, Kelvin W. K.; Wu, Shuilin

    2018-03-01

    Rapid corrosion restricts the wide application of Mg and Mg-based alloys. In this work, a combined surface strategy was employed to modify the surface of AZ31 Mg Alloy. An atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique was utilized to prepare ZrO2 nanofilm on Mg substrate. During this course, the film thickness could be precisely controlled by adjusting the ALD cycles with a deposition rate of 0.117 nm/cycle. The subsequent PLGA grafting on ZrO2 nanofilm was carried out by a spin-coating process to further enhance the corrosion resistance. The nanoscratch tests showed that this hybrid coating had good bonding strength with substrate and similar Young's modulus to natural bone. In vitro corrosion tests demonstrated that a thicker ZrO2 nanofilm on the surface could reduce the corrosion rate of Mg substrate when compared to a thinner coating. When increasing ZrO2 deposition cycles from 25 to 100, the corrosion resistance could be significantly increased by two or three orders of magnitude. Hydrogen evolution tests revealed the synergetic effects of both galvanic corrosion and local acidic action could accelerate the corrosion of the AZ31 modified with the PLGA/ZrO2 coating once the ZrO2 nanofilm was damaged. Therefore, by changing the ALD cycles, the corrosion resistance of both ZrO2 thin film and ZrO2/PLGA hybrid coatings can be adjusted. This work provides an effective combined surface strategy that can be employed to adjust the corrosion resistance of Mg-based alloys for biomedical applications.

  15. Oxidation Resistant CMC Materials Technology for Lightweight and Environmentally Durable Propulsion Components Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surmet will demonstrate a novel processing method to develop environmentally resistant C/SiC composites for turbomachinery. The need to reduce the weight, size, and...

  16. Calibration of Resistance Factors for Drilled Shafts for the New FHWA Design Method : Research Project Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and American Association of State : Highway and Transportation Offi cials (AASHTO) require that all federally funded : bridges including substructures be designed using the load and resistance : factor design...

  17. The Impact of Volunteer Corn on Crop Yields and Insect Resistance Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Marquardt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Volunteer corn (VC has reemerged as a problematic weed in corn/soybean rotational cropping systems. This reemergence and increasing prevalence of volunteer corn has been correlated to an increased adoption of herbicide-resistant (HR corn hybrids and the adoption of conservation tillage. Since the introduction of HR crops, control options, weed/crop competition, and other concerns (i.e., insect resistance management of Bt traits have increased the amount of attention that volunteer corn is receiving. The objective of this review is to discuss what is known about VC prior to and after the introduction of HR crops, and to discuss new information about this important weed.

  18. Application of 2D electrical resistivity tomography to engineering projects: Three case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rungroj Arjwech

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT is a non-invasive geophysical method of primary interest for addressing subsurface engineering problems. The method is based on the assumption that subsurface geological materials have significant resistivity contrasts that can be identified based on measurements on the surface. This paper presents three different case studies that have been carried out at different sites. The first case study visualizes the contrast between high resistivity zones of hard bedrocks and low resistivity zones of weathered rocks. Similar to the first case study, the second case study shows high resistivity contrasts that clearly distinguishes the shape of a footing located within the surrounding materials. The third case study shows no clear low resistivity zone that can be identified as a leaking zone. The 2D ERT survey method used in these three investigations has been shown to be useful as a cost-effective and rapid method to obtain wide area subsurface information that is relevant for subsurface engineering problems.

  19. The integrated project: a promising promotional strategy for primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, C; Mora, B

    1985-10-01

    The integrated project using parasite control and nutrition as entry points for family planning practice has shown considerable success in promoting health consciousness among health workers and project beneficiaries. This progress is evident in the Family Planning, Parasite Control and Nutrition (FAPPCAN) areas. The project has also mobilized technical and financial support from the local government as well as from private and civic organizations. The need for integration is underscored by the following considerations: parasite control has proved to be effective for preventive health care; the integrated project uses indigenous community health workers to accomplish its objectives; the primary health care (PHC) movement depends primarily on voluntary community participation and the integrated project has shown that it can elicit this participation. The major health problems in the Philippines are: a prevalence of communicable and other infectious diseases; poor evironmental sanitation; malnutrition; and a rapid population growth rate. The integrated program utilizes the existing village health workers in identifying problems related to family planning, parasite control and nutrition and integrates these activities into the health delivery system; educates family members on how to detect health and health-related problems; works out linkages with government agencies and the local primary health care committee in defining the scope of health-related problems; mobilizes community members to initiate their own projects; gets the commitment of village officials and committe members. The integrated project operates within the PHC. A health van with a built-in video playback system provides educational and logistical support to the village worker. The primary detection and treatment of health problems are part of the village health workers' responsibilities. Research determines the project's capability to reactivate the village primary health care committees and sustain

  20. Process and outcomes evaluation of retention strategies within a nursing workforce diversity project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escallier, Lori A; Fullerton, Judith T

    2009-09-01

    A commitment to enhancing the diversity of the nursing workforce is reflected in the recruitment and retention strategies designed by Stony Brook University with support of a grant received from the Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration. Three specific student retention strategies are evaluated in terms of their influence on student inclusion and promotion of student success. A review of the cultural competence of teaching and learning strategies and the promotion of cultural self-awareness underpinned these strategies. A mentorship program designed to provide individual support for students, particularly for those engaged in distance learning, proved to be challenging to implement and underused by students. Students found other means of support in their workplace and through individual connections with the faculty. Instructional programs that enhanced individual skills in the use of computer hardware and software were particularly effective in promoting student success.

  1. Strategy and Resistance: How Native American Students Engage in Accommodation in Mainstream Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masta, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of a group of Native American 8th graders who attend a mainstream school and how they engage in accommodation as an act of agency and resistance to protect and maintain their identities in their school environment. By using tribal critical race theory to examine these experiences, this study raises important…

  2. Limited Sampling Strategies for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Linezolid in Patients With Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; van Altena, Richard; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Proost, Johannes H.

    Introduction: Linezolid is a potential drug for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis but its use is limited because of severe adverse effects such as anemia, thrombocytopenia, and peripheral neuropathy. This study aimed to develop a model for the prediction of linezolid area. under the

  3. Treatment of Helicobacter Pylori infection: optimization strategies in a high resistance era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, Sotirios D; Papastergiou, Vasilios; Karatapanis, Stylianos

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is paramount for the management of prevalent gastrointestinal disorders and in the prevention of gastric cancer. Due to increasing antimicrobial resistance, performance of standard triple therapies has now declined to unacceptably low levels. In this article: i) we critically revise optimization tools aiming to improve the outcome of standard treatments; ii) we provide updated evidence on the efficacy and rationale for the use of several non-bismuth quadruple regimens in clinical practice, recommended as preferred empirical therapies in areas of high clarithromycin resistance. Prolonged (14-day) treatment duration may boost the efficacy of standard triple therapy by approximately 5%. Use of a high-dose PPI and/or new-generation PPIs, rabeprazole and esomeprazole, might improve eradication rates, particularly in regions where the CYP2C19 rapid metabolizer phenotype is prevalent. Adjunctive probiotics may be considered to improve treatment tolerability, though more data are required to better define their role in H. pylori eradication. Among non-bismuth quadruple regimens, both concomitant and sequential therapies are appropriate options for high-resistance settings; however, concomitant therapy appears to be less impaired by dual clarithromycin/metronidazole resistance. Hybrid therapy is a promising new alternative which seems not to be inferior to concomitant therapy.

  4. Drug ratio-dependent antagonism: a new category of multidrug resistance and strategies for its circumvention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasym, Troy O; Liboiron, Barry D; Mayer, Lawrence D

    2010-01-01

    A newly identified form of multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor cells is presented, pertaining to the commonly encountered resistance of cancer cells to anticancer drug combinations at discrete drug:drug ratios. In vitro studies have revealed that whether anticancer drug combinations interact synergistically or antagonistically can depend on the ratio of the combined agents. Failure to control drug ratios in vivo due to uncoordinated pharmacokinetics could therefore lead to drug resistance if tumor cells are exposed to antagonistic drug ratios. Consequently, the most efficacious drug combination may not occur at the typically employed maximum tolerated doses of the combined drugs if this leads to antagonistic ratios in vivo after administration and resistance to therapeutic effects of the drug combination. Our approach to systematically screen a wide range of drug ratios and concentrations and encapsulate the drug combination in a liposomal delivery vehicle at identified synergistic ratios represents a means to mitigate this drug ratio-dependent MDR mechanism. The in vivo efficacy of the improved agents (CombiPlex formulations) is demonstrated and contrasted with the decreased efficacy when drug combinations are exposed to tumor cells in vivo at antagonistic ratios.

  5. Resistance to anticoccidial drugs : Alternative strategies to control coccidiosis in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Manuscripts documenting the occurrence of resistance against all commonly used anticoccidial drugs abroad, together with the high incidence of clinical coccidiosis in the field (60-90% of flocks) in the Netherlands, were the reasons to start investigations on the occurrence of anticoccidial drug

  6. The meaning of resistance: Hezbollah’s media strategies and the articulation of a people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Houri, W.

    2012-01-01

    Since its emergence in the 1980’s, the Lebanese Shiite movement Hezbollah has played a leading role in the military struggle against Israeli occupation in Lebanon. With the liberation of Southern Lebanon in May 2000 and the 2006 war with Israel, Hezbollah emerged as a regional resistance movement

  7. Strategies for transferring resistance into wheat: from wide crosses to GM cassettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brande B. H. Wulff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The domestication of wheat in the Fertile Crescent 10,000 years ago led to a genetic bottleneck. Modern agriculture has further narrowed the genetic base by introducing extreme levels of uniformity on a vast spatial and temporal scale. This reduction in genetic complexity renders the crop vulnerable to new and emerging pests and pathogens. The wild relatives of wheat represent an important source of genetic variation for disease resistance. For nearly a century farmers, breeders, and cytogeneticists have sought to access this variation for crop improvement. Several barriers restricting interspecies hybridization and introgression have been overcome, providing the opportunity to tap an extensive reservoir of genetic diversity. Resistance has been introgressed into wheat from at least 52 species from 13 genera, demonstrating the remarkable plasticity of the wheat genome and the importance of such natural variation in wheat breeding. Two main problems hinder the effective deployment of introgressed resistance genes for crop improvement: (1 the simultaneous introduction of genetically linked deleterious traits and (2 the rapid breakdown of resistance when deployed individually. In this review we discuss how recent advances in molecular genomics are providing new opportunities to overcome these problems.

  8. Cost and effects of different admission screening strategies to control the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Gurieva

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infection rates due to antibiotic-resistant bacteriae, e.g., methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA remain high in most countries. Screening for MRSA carriage followed by barrier precautions for documented carriers (so-called screen and isolate (S&I has been successful in some, but not all settings. Moreover, different strategies have been proposed, but comparative studies determining their relative effects and costs are not available. We, therefore, used a mathematical model to evaluate the effect and costs of different S&I strategies and to identify the critical parameters for this outcome. The dynamic stochastic simulation model consists of 3 hospitals with general wards and intensive care units (ICUs and incorporates readmission of carriers of MRSA. Patient flow between ICUs and wards was based on real observations. Baseline prevalence of MRSA was set at 20% in ICUs and hospital-wide at 5%; ranges of costs and infection rates were based on published data. Four S&I strategies were compared to a do-nothing scenario: S&I of previously documented carriers ("flagged" patients; S&I of flagged patients and ICU admissions; S&I of flagged and group of "frequent" patients; S&I of all hospital admissions (universal screening. Evaluated levels of efficacy of S&I were 10%, 25%, 50% and 100%. Our model predicts that S&I of flagged and S&I of flagged and ICU patients are the most cost-saving strategies with fastest return of investment. For low isolation efficacy universal screening and S&I of flagged and "frequent" patients may never become cost-saving. Universal screening is predicted to prevent hardly more infections than S&I of flagged and "frequent" patients, albeit at higher costs. Whether an intervention becomes cost-saving within 10 years critically depends on costs per infection in ICU, costs of screening and isolation efficacy.

  9. Alternate bidding strategies for asphalt and concrete pavement projects utilizing life cycle cost analysis (LCCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Recent changes in pavement materials costs have impacted the competitive environment relative to the : determination of the most cost effective pavement structure for a specific highway project. In response, State : highway agencies have renewed thei...

  10. Heavy Metal Resistance Strategies of Acidophilic Bacteria and Their Acquisition: Importance for Biomining and Bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial solubilizing of metals in acid environments is successfully used in industrial bioleaching of ores or biomining to extract metals such as copper, gold, uranium and others. This is done mainly by acidophilic and other microorganisms that mobilize metals and generate acid mine drainage or AMD, causing serious environmental problems. However, bioremediation or removal of the toxic metals from contaminated soils can be achieved by using the specific properties of the acidophilic microorganisms interacting with these elements. These bacteria resist high levels of metals by using a few "canonical" systems such as active efflux or trapping of the metal ions by metal chaperones. Nonetheless, gene duplications, the presence of genomic islands, the existence of additional mechanisms such as passive instruments for pH and cation homeostasis in acidophiles and an inorganic polyphosphate-driven metal resistance mechanism have also been proposed. Horizontal gene transfer in environmental microorganisms present in natural ecosystems is considered to be an important mechanism in their adaptive evolution. This process is carried out by different mobile genetic elements, including genomic islands (GI, which increase the adaptability and versatility of the microorganism. This mini-review also describes the possible role of GIs in metal resistance of some environmental microorganisms of importance in biomining and bioremediation of metal polluted environments such as Thiomonas arsenitoxydans, a moderate acidophilic microorganism, Acidithiobacillus caldus and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strains ATCC 23270 and ATCC 53993, all extreme acidophiles able to tolerate exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Some of these bacteria contain variable numbers of GIs, most of which code for high numbers of genes related to metal resistance. In some cases there is an apparent correlation between the number of metal resistance genes and the metal tolerance of each

  11. Effects of Ala-Gln feeding strategies on growth, metabolism, and crowding stress resistance of juvenile Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-Mei; Guo, Gui-Liang; Sun, Li; Yang, Qiu-Shi; Wang, Gui-Qin; Qin, Gui-Xin; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different L-alanyl-l-glutamine (Ala-Gln) feeding strategies on the growth performance, metabolism and crowding stress resistance related parameters in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) under crowded condition (80 g/L). Juvenile Jian carp (initial weight 26.1 ± 0.6 g) were distributed into five groups which fed with graded concentrations (0% or 1.0%) of Ala-Gln for eight weeks. Control group (I, 0/0) fed with control diet (0% Ala-Gln) throughout the feeding trial. The other four groups employed different control and experimental diet feeding strategies ranging from two weeks control diet fed and two weeks experimental diet (1% Ala-Gln) fed (II, 0/2) to eight weeks experimental diet fed (V, 4/4). Results revealed that Mean weight gain (MEG) under all different feeding strategies of Ala-Gln were significantly higher than that of the control group (p feeding strategy was alternatively fed with control diet and then experimental diet at an interval of two weeks for juvenile Jian carp under crowded condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Muscle Wasting and Resistance of Muscle Anabolism: The “Anabolic Threshold Concept” for Adapted Nutritional Strategies during Sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Dardevet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle loss is observed in several physiopathological situations. Strategies to prevent, slow down, or increase recovery of muscle have already been tested. Besides exercise, nutrition, and more particularly protein nutrition based on increased amino acid, leucine or the quality of protein intake has generated positive acute postprandial effect on muscle protein anabolism. However, on the long term, these nutritional strategies have often failed in improving muscle mass even if given for long periods of time in both humans and rodent models. Muscle mass loss situations have been often correlated to a resistance of muscle protein anabolism to food intake which may be explained by an increase of the anabolic threshold toward the stimulatory effect of amino acids. In this paper, we will emphasize how this anabolic resistance may affect the intensity and the duration of the muscle anabolic response at the postprandial state and how it may explain the negative results obtained on the long term in the prevention of muscle mass. Sarcopenia, the muscle mass loss observed during aging, has been chosen to illustrate this concept but it may be kept in mind that it could be extended to any other catabolic states or recovery situations.

  13. Flexible CFD meshing strategy for prediction of ship resistance and propulsion performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Hwa Seo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we conducted resistance test, propeller open water test and self-propulsion test for a ship's resistance and propulsion performance, using computational fluid dynamics techniques, where a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations solver was employed. For convenience of mesh generation, unstructured meshes were used in the bow and stern region of a ship, where the hull shape is formed of delicate curved surfaces. On the other hand, structured meshes were generated for the middle part of the hull and the rest of the domain, i.e., the region of relatively simple geometry. To facilitate the rotating propeller for propeller open water test and self-propulsion test, a sliding mesh technique was adopted. Free-surface effects were included by employing the volume of fluid method for multi-phase flows. The computational results were validated by comparing with the existing experimental data.

  14. Detection of the Kondo effect in the resistivity of graphene: Artifacts and strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobst, Johannes; Kisslinger, Ferdinand; Weber, Heiko B.

    2013-10-01

    We discuss the difficulties in discovering the Kondo effect in the resistivity of graphene. Similarly to the Kondo effect, electron-electron interaction effects and weak localization appear as logarithmic corrections to the resistance. In order to disentangle these contributions, a refined analysis of the magnetoconductance and the magnetoresistance is introduced. We present numerical simulations which display the discrimination of both effects. Further, we present experimental data of magnetotransport. When magnetic molecules are added to graphene, a logarithmic correction to the conductance occurs, which apparently suggests Kondo physics. Our thorough evaluation scheme, however, reveals that this interpretation is not conclusive: The data can be equally explained by electron-electron interaction corrections in an inhomogeneous sample. Despite our refined analysis, we conclude that additional spectroscopic information will be necessary to unambiguously identify the Kondo effect.

  15. Cancer multidrug resistance: mechanisms involved and strategies for circumvention using a drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Golam; Hatakeyama, Hiroto; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR), the principal mechanism by which many cancers develop resistance to chemotherapy, is one of the major obstacles to the successful clinical treatment of various types of cancer. Several key regulators are responsible for mediating MDR, a process that renders chemotherapeutic drugs ineffective in the internal organelles of target cells. A nanoparticulate drug delivery system (DDS) is a potentially promising tool for circumventing such MDR, which can be achieved by targeting tumor cells themselves or tumor endothelial cells that support the survival of MDR cancer cells. The present article discusses key factors that are responsible for MDR in cancer cells, with a specific focus on the application of DDS to overcome MDR via the use of chemotherapy or macromolecules.

  16. INPRO Collaborative Project: Proliferation Resistance: Acquisition/Diversion Pathway Analysis (PRADA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    This publication contributes to strengthening the assessment area of proliferation resistance of the INPRO methodology. The basic principle for this area requires that multiple intrinsic features and extrinsic measures of proliferation resistance be implemented throughout the full life cycle of an innovative nuclear energy system to help ensure that the system will continue to be an unattractive means of acquiring fissile material for a nuclear weapons programme. A typical intrinsic feature is the dilution of plutonium with fission products as found in irradiated material, and a typical extrinsic measure is the placing of nuclear material under international safeguards.

  17. Investigating strategies to overcome change recipients' resistance to organisational reorientation: A salience perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Alhezzani, Yazeed Mohammad R

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London. Drawing upon punctuated equilibrium theory, stakeholder salience theory and status quo bias theory, this research develops a framework for dealing with organisational change recipients’ resistance to change. Due to the effects on the organisational environment of political, legal, and technological triggers, organisations need to change in order to survive, remain competitive and pr...

  18. The Cosmetics Europe strategy for animal-free genotoxicity testing: project status up-date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfuhler, S; Fautz, R; Ouedraogo, G; Latil, A; Kenny, J; Moore, C; Diembeck, W; Hewitt, N J; Reisinger, K; Barroso, J

    2014-02-01

    The Cosmetics Europe (formerly COLIPA) Genotoxicity Task Force has driven and funded three projects to help address the high rate of misleading positives in in vitro genotoxicity tests: The completed "False Positives" project optimized current mammalian cell assays and showed that the predictive capacity of the in vitro micronucleus assay was improved dramatically by selecting more relevant cells and more sensitive toxicity measures. The on-going "3D skin model" project has been developed and is now validating the use of human reconstructed skin (RS) models in combination with the micronucleus (MN) and Comet assays. These models better reflect the in use conditions of dermally applied products, such as cosmetics. Both assays have demonstrated good inter- and intra-laboratory reproducibility and are entering validation stages. The completed "Metabolism" project investigated enzyme capacities of human skin and RS models. The RS models were shown to have comparable metabolic capacity to native human skin, confirming their usefulness for testing of compounds with dermal exposure. The program has already helped to improve the initial test battery predictivity and the RS projects have provided sound support for their use as a follow-up test in the assessment of the genotoxic hazard of cosmetic ingredients in the absence of in vivo data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation and status report on HYDROCOIN at midway (HYDROCOIN: An international project for studying groundwater hydrology modelling strategies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.R.

    1986-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is participating in the international hydrologic code intercomparison (HYDROCOIN) project organized by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) for the purpose of improving our knowledge about the influence of various strategies for ground-water flow modeling for the safety assessment of final repositories for nuclear waste. The HYDROCOIN project consists of three levels of effort: Level One is concerned with verifying the numerical accuracy of codes, Level Two is involved with validation of models using field experiments, and Level Three is concerned with sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The need for the HYDROCOIN project emerged from an earlier international study for the intercomparison of computer codes for radionuclide transport (INTRACOIN). The HYDROCOIN project began in May 1984 with a group of fourteen organizations from eleven countries participating; currently twenty organizations are involved. Five teams from DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) are participating in the HYDROCOIN project, and this document presents the results of a review of this participation and an analysis of the benefits of OCRWM participation in the first 2 years (i.e., through May 1986) of the 3-year HYDROCOIN project. Efforts on the seven Level One cases are nearly complete. Level Two problems have been formulated and are in final draft form, and Level Three problems have been identified and are in first draft form. This report details the motivation, need, and benefits from HYDROCOIN through a chronological synopsis of the project's progress to date, brief description and intercomparison of preliminary Level One results prepared by OCRWM participants, and discussion of OCRWM contributions and plans for HYDROCOIN Level Two and Three efforts

  20. Strategy for Manipulation of Cheese Flora Using Combinations of Lacticin 3147-Producing and -Resistant Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Máire P.; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop adjunct strains which can grow in the presence of bacteriocin produced by lacticin 3147-producing starters in fermented products such as cheese. A Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei strain (DPC5336) was isolated from a well-flavored, commercial cheddar cheese and exposed to increasing concentrations (up to 4,100 arbitrary units [AU]/ml) of lantibiotic lacticin 3147. This approach generated a stable, more-resistant variant of the isolate (DPC5337), which was 32 times less sensitive to lacticin 3147 than DPC5336. The performance of DPC5336 was compared to that of DPC5337 as adjunct cultures in two separate trials using either Lactococcus lactis DPC3147 (a natural producer) or L. lactis DPC4275 (a lacticin 3147-producing transconjugant) as the starter. These lacticin 3147-producing starters were previously shown to control adventitious nonstarter lactic acid bacteria in cheddar cheese. Lacticin 3147 was produced and remained stable during ripening, with levels of either 1,280 or 640 AU/g detected after 6 months of ripening. The more-resistant adjunct culture survived and grew in the presence of the bacteriocin in each trial, reaching levels of 107 CFU/g during ripening, in contrast to the sensitive strain, which was present at levels 100- to 1,000-fold lower. Furthermore, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR was employed to demonstrate that the resistant adjunct strain comprised the dominant microflora in the test cheeses during ripening. PMID:11375183

  1. Integrating ergonomic aspects into research and development projects as a preventive strategy in the food industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Iben Posniak; Broberg, Ole

    1997-01-01

    As part of a national research and development programme for food technology it was formulated as a demand to applicants to describe the potential ergonomics impact of the research and development (R&D) projects. As the primary purpose of the research programme was to strengthen the Danish food...... are the potentials and limitations for integrating ergonomics into joint R&D projects involving companies within the food industry and the university research? The objectives were (i) to identify the R&D peoples viewpoints on potentials and limitations for integrating ergonomics into R&D projects and (ii) to study...... the R&D processes in such networks in order to obtain a better understanding of the conditions for integrating ergonomics....

  2. Qualitative Examination of Strategies to Overcome Resistance to Change in Lean Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 80% of lean manufacturing program initiatives are abandoned in the first year of implementation. Only 2% of organizations that embark on the lean journey complete it with the results and the sustainability they expected. There is a gap in past research regarding, the leadership strategies organizations can use to overcome resistance…

  3. Mobilizable genomic islands, different strategies for the dissemination of multidrug resistance and other adaptive traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carraro, N.; Rivard, N.; Burrus, V.; Ceccarelli, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements are near ubiquitous DNA segments that revealed a surprising variety of strategies for their propagation among prokaryotes and between eukaryotes. In bacteria, conjugative elements were shown to be key drivers of evolution and adaptation by efficiently disseminating genes

  4. Tribal and stakeholder communication and participation strategy for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoofer, V.L.

    1995-12-01

    This document outlines a plan to ensure the effective involvement of the Hanford stakeholders and Tribal Governments in Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project issues and decisions. Stakeholders are defined as the public, news media, regulators, employees, Hanford Advisory Board and members of local, state, and federal governments. Experience at Hanford has shown that early and continued involvement of all interested parties in decision making is absolutely essential for fostering project success. Failure to recognize the importance of this interaction has resulted in significant cost in terms of time and money for several site programs

  5. SCSEEC Successful School Attendance Strategies Evidence-Based Project: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Governments, schools and communities throughout Australia are working to improve school attendance among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students using strategies such as incentive programs, improvement to literacy and numeracy skills, school-family partnerships, transport to school, attendance monitoring, ensuring that school is a welcoming…

  6. SCSEEC Successful School Attendance Strategies Evidence-Based Project: Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Governments, schools and communities throughout Australia are working to improve school attendance among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students using strategies such as incentive programs, improvement to literacy and numeracy skills, school-family partnerships, transport to school, attendance monitoring, ensuring that school is a welcoming…

  7. Final report on LDRD project : coupling strategies for multi-physics applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Moffat, Harry K.; Carnes, Brian; Hooper, Russell Warren; Pawlowski, Roger P.

    2007-11-01

    Many current and future modeling applications at Sandia including ASC milestones will critically depend on the simultaneous solution of vastly different physical phenomena. Issues due to code coupling are often not addressed, understood, or even recognized. The objectives of the LDRD has been both in theory and in code development. We will show that we have provided a fundamental analysis of coupling, i.e., when strong coupling vs. a successive substitution strategy is needed. We have enabled the implementation of tighter coupling strategies through additions to the NOX and Sierra code suites to make coupling strategies available now. We have leveraged existing functionality to do this. Specifically, we have built into NOX the capability to handle fully coupled simulations from multiple codes, and we have also built into NOX the capability to handle Jacobi Free Newton Krylov simulations that link multiple applications. We show how this capability may be accessed from within the Sierra Framework as well as from outside of Sierra. The critical impact from this LDRD is that we have shown how and have delivered strategies for enabling strong Newton-based coupling while respecting the modularity of existing codes. This will facilitate the use of these codes in a coupled manner to solve multi-physic applications.

  8. Corporate social responsibility as a business strategy: Stora Enso-WWF partnership project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tysiachniouk, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes the strategic partnership between transnational corporation Stora-Enso and international nongovernmental organization NGO WWF as a business strategy that helps the company to adopt its business to the turbulent environment of the economy in transition. In this paper I draw from

  9. Strategies, Obstacles, and Attitudes: Student Collaboration in Information Seeking and Synthesis Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeder, Chris; Shah, Chirag

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: While group work that takes place in education contexts has been studied by researchers, student collaborative research behaviour has received less attention. This empirical case study examined the strategies that students use and the obstacles they encounter while working in collaborative information seeking contexts on an in-class…

  10. Communication Strategies in a Telecollaboration Project with a Focus on Latin American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Susana S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper will present and discuss the linguistic challenges that Argentinian university students of history and Danish university students of Spanish met during the course of a telecollaboration project based on synchronous communication in Skype. The purpose of this discussion is to identify linguistic pitfalls and the solutions adopted by both…

  11. Towards an institutional strategy for Lifelong Learning in Higher Professional Education : FLLLEX project Results and Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audrey Frith; Klaas Vansteenhuyse; Margriet de Jong

    2012-01-01

    The first section of this publication summarizes FLLLEX review on the broader context of Lifelong Learning, European and national policies and the implications for Higher education. The second section (chapter 4-6) gives an overview of the results of the project and is meant to serve as an

  12. The inter-agency joint project decades: a framework for comparatively assessing electricity generation options and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental and health-related impacts of different energy systems are become some the important issues for the years to come. The fact that all fuel chains for the electricity generation system involve some health risks and lead to some environmental impacts and that many countries have the need to define their energy programmes for the coming decades, have arouse a growing interest in the application of improved data, tools and techniques for comparative assessment of different electricity systems, and more specially for theirs environmental and human health aspects. The need to design and implement sustainable strategies in the electricity sector has been stressed in many international fora. The essential goal of sustainable strategies is to provide the energy services required for supporting economic growth and improving quality of life, especially in developing countries, while minimizing the health and environmental impacts of human activities. The inter-agency joint project on data bases and methodologies for comparative assessment of different energy sources for electricity generation (DECADES) has been established with the objective of enhancing capabilities for incorporating health and environmental issues in the comparative assessment of different electricity generation chains and strategies in the process of planning and decision making for the electricity sector. This project is carried out jointly by a number of international organizations. In order to cover the main issues to be addressed for carrying out this comparative assessment the DECADES project focuses on: technology inventory, development of an integrated software package for electricity system analysis and expansion planning, compilation and review of methodologies, analytical models and computerized tools for comparative assessment, some case studies addressing specific national or regional issues. (author). 3 boxes

  13. An Integrated Data-Driven Strategy for Safe-by-Design Nanoparticles: The FP7 MODERN Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Martin; Kafka, Alexander; Bamler, Markus; Kühne, Ralph; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Sikk, Lauri; Burk, Jaanus; Burk, Peeter; Tamm, Tarmo; Tämm, Kaido; Pokhrel, Suman; Mädler, Lutz; Kahru, Anne; Aruoja, Villem; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck; Sorensen, Peter B; Escorihuela, Laura; Roca, Carlos P; Fernández, Alberto; Giralt, Francesc; Rallo, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The development and implementation of safe-by-design strategies is key for the safe development of future generations of nanotechnology enabled products. The safety testing of the huge variety of nanomaterials that can be synthetized is unfeasible due to time and cost constraints. Computational modeling facilitates the implementation of alternative testing strategies in a time and cost effective way. The development of predictive nanotoxicology models requires the use of high quality experimental data on the structure, physicochemical properties and bioactivity of nanomaterials. The FP7 Project MODERN has developed and evaluated the main components of a computational framework for the evaluation of the environmental and health impacts of nanoparticles. This chapter describes each of the elements of the framework including aspects related to data generation, management and integration; development of nanodescriptors; establishment of nanostructure-activity relationships; identification of nanoparticle categories; hazard ranking and risk assessment.

  14. Understanding resistant effect of mosquito on fumigation strategy in dengue control program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldila, D.; Situngkir, N.; Nareswari, K.

    2018-01-01

    A mathematical model of dengue disease transmission will be introduced in this talk with involving fumigation intervention into mosquito population. Worsening effect of uncontrolled fumigation in the form of resistance of mosquito to fumigation chemicals will also be included into the model to capture the reality in the field. Deterministic approach in a 9 dimensional of ordinary differential equation will be used. Analytical result about the existence and local stability of the equilibrium points followed with the basic reproduction number will be discussed. Some numerical result will be performed for some scenario to give a better interpretation for the analytical results.

  15. The STRATEGY project: decision tools to aid sustainable restoration and long-term management of contaminated agricultural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Beresford, N.A.; Nisbet, A.; Cox, G.; Oughton, D.H.; Hunt, J.; Alvarez, B.; Andersson, K.G.; Liland, A.; Voigt, G.

    2005-01-01

    The STRATEGY project (Sustainable Restoration and Long-Term Management of Contaminated Rural, Urban and Industrial Ecosystems) aimed to provide a holistic decision framework for the selection of optimal restoration strategies for the long-term sustainable management of contaminated areas in Western Europe. A critical evaluation was carried out of countermeasures and waste disposal options, from which compendia of state-of-the-art restoration methods were compiled. A decision support system capable of optimising spatially varying restoration strategies, that considered the level of averted dose, costs (including those of waste disposal) and environmental side effects was developed. Appropriate methods of estimating indirect costs associated with side effects and of communicating with stakeholders were identified. The importance of stakeholder consultation at a local level and of ensuring that any response is site and scenario specific were emphasised. A value matrix approach was suggested as a method of addressing social and ethical issues within the decision-making process, and was designed to be compatible with both the countermeasure compendia and the decision support system. The applicability and usefulness of STRATEGY outputs for food production systems in the medium to long term is assessed

  16. Citizen cartography, strategies of resistance to established knowledge and collective forms of knowledge building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannazzaro, Jorgelina

    2016-04-01

    Cultivation of genetically modified soybeans with the use of herbicides is now becoming widespread in Argentina. This work addresses an emblematic case of knowledge articulation between experts, professionals and communities, namely, the case of an association of people affected by fumigation Grupos de Pueblos Fumigados (GPF). The GPF warns against agrochemical spraying in urban areas, and its activists collect and disseminate information about its impact with a view to banning the practice. Here, we apply Parthasarathy's framework, used to analyse the strategies employed by activists to break the expertise barrier, to the case of the GPF, adding a new category to her original four strategies. There is an institutionalizing potential in these social and environmental movements, many of which are organized in the form of Civic Assemblies. The composition of the assemblies reflects a heterogeneous and multi-sectorial character; they articulate a new kind of knowledge that can be an appropriate interlocutor for traditional expert knowledge. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Combined Phosphoproteomics and Bioinformatics Strategy in Deciphering Drug Resistant Related Pathways in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the absence of a clear therapeutic target for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC, conventional chemotherapy is the only available systemic treatment option for these patients. Despite chemotherapy treatment, TNBC patients still have worse prognosis when compared with other breast cancer patients. The study is to investigate unique phosphorylated proteins expressed in chemoresistant TNBC cell lines. In the current study, twelve TNBC cell lines were subjected to drug sensitivity assays against chemotherapy drugs docetaxel, doxorubicin, gemcitabine, and cisplatin. Based on their half maximal inhibitory concentrations, four resistant and two sensitive cell lines were selected for further analysis. The phosphopeptides from these cells were enriched with TiO2 beads and fractionated using strong cation exchange. 1,645 phosphoprotein groups and 9,585 unique phosphopeptides were identified by a high throughput LC-MS/MS system LTQ-Orbitrap. The phosphopeptides were further filtered with Ascore system and 1,340 phosphoprotein groups, 2,760 unique phosphopeptides, and 4,549 unique phosphosites were identified. Our study suggested that differentially phosphorylated Cdk5, PML, AP-1, and HSF-1 might work together to promote vimentin induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT in the drug resistant cells. EGFR and HGF were also shown to be involved in this process.

  18. Effectiveness of the high dose/refuge strategy for managing pest resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) plants expressing one or two toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryspeirt, Aiko; Grégoire, Jean-Claude

    2012-10-01

    To delay resistance development to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) plants expressing their own insecticide, the application of the Insect Resistance Management strategy called "High Dose/Refuge Strategy" (HD/R) is recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). This strategy was developed for Bt plants expressing one toxin. Presently, however, new Bt plants that simultaneously express two toxins are on the market. We used a mathematical model to evaluate the efficiency of the HD/R strategy for both these Bt toxins. As the current two-toxin Bt plants do not express two new Cry toxins but reuse one toxin already in use with a one-toxin plant, we estimated the spread of resistance when the resistance alleles are not rare. This study assesses: (i) whether the two toxins have to be present in high concentration, and (ii) the impact of the relative size of the refuge zone on the evolution of resistance and population density. We concluded that for Bt plants expressing one toxin, a high concentration is an essential condition for resistance management. For the pyramided Bt plants, one toxin could be expressed at a low titer if the two toxins are used for the first time, and a small refuge zone is acceptable.

  19. Bidding Strategy to Support Decision-Making Based on Comprehensive Information in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a unified method to support contractor for bidding selection in construction projects. A cross-functional contractor with 28 candidate units distributed in the three departments (construction units, design units, and suppliers is used as an example. This problem is first formulated as a 0-1 quadratic programming problem through optimizing individual performance and collaborative performance of the candidate units based on individual information and collaborative information. Then, a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm is designed to solve this problem and a bidding selection problem for a major bridge project is used to demonstrate our proposed method. The results show that the decision-maker (DM obtains a better contractor if he pays more attention to collaborative performance.

  20. The projected effectiveness of Clostridium difficile vaccination as part of an integrated infection control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Esther; Deeny, Sarah R; Jit, Mark; Cookson, Barry; Goldenberg, Simon D; Edmunds, W John; Robotham, Julie V

    2016-11-04

    Early clinical trials of a Clostridium difficile toxoid vaccine show efficacy in preventing C. difficile infection (CDI). The optimal patient group to target for vaccination programmes remains unexplored. This study performed a model-based evaluation of the effectiveness of different CDI vaccination strategies, within the context of existing infection prevention and control strategies such as antimicrobial stewardship. An individual-based transmission model of CDI in a high-risk hospital setting was developed. The model incorporated data on patient movements between the hospital, and catchment populations from the community and long-term care facilities (LTCF), using English national and local level data for model-parameterisation. We evaluated vaccination of: (1) discharged patients who had an CDI-occurrence in the ward; (2) LTCF-residents; (3) Planned elective surgical admissions and (4) All three strategies combined. Without vaccination, 10.9 [Interquartile range: 10.0-11.8] patients per 1000 ward admissions developed CDI, of which 31% were ward-acquired. Immunising all three patient groups resulted in a 43% [42-44], reduction of ward-onset CDI on average. Among the strategies restricting vaccination to one target group, vaccinating elective surgical patients proved most effective (35% [34-36] reduction), but least efficient, requiring 146 [133-162] courses to prevent one ICU-onset case. Immunising LTCF residents was most efficient, requiring just 13 [11-16] courses to prevent one case, but considering this only comprised a small group of our hospital population, it only reduced ICU-onset CDI by 9% [8-11]. Vaccination proved most efficient when ward-based transmission rates and antimicrobial consumption were high. Strategy success depends on the interaction between hospital and catchment populations, and importantly, consideration of importations of CDI from outside the hospital which we found to substantially impact hospital dynamics. Vaccination may be most

  1. Alternating current electrical stimulation enhanced chemotherapy: a novel strategy to bypass multidrug resistance in tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janigro, Damir; Perju, Catalin; Fazio, Vincent; Hallene, Kerri; Dini, Gabriele; Agarwal, Mukesh K; Cucullo, Luca

    2006-01-01

    Tumor burden can be pharmacologically controlled by inhibiting cell division and by direct, specific toxicity to the cancerous tissue. Unfortunately, tumors often develop intrinsic pharmacoresistance mediated by specialized drug extrusion mechanisms such as P-glycoprotein. As a consequence, malignant cells may become insensitive to various anti-cancer drugs. Recent studies have shown that low intensity very low frequency electrical stimulation by alternating current (AC) reduces the proliferation of different tumor cell lines by a mechanism affecting potassium channels while at intermediate frequencies interfere with cytoskeletal mechanisms of cell division. The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that permeability of several MDR1 over-expressing tumor cell lines to the chemotherapic agent doxorubicin is enhanced by low frequency, low intensity AC stimulation. We grew human and rodent cells (C6, HT-1080, H-1299, SKOV-3 and PC-3) which over-expressed MDR1 in 24-well Petri dishes equipped with an array of stainless steel electrodes connected to a computer via a programmable I/O board. We used a dedicated program to generate and monitor the electrical stimulation protocol. Parallel cultures were exposed for 3 hours to increasing concentrations (1, 2, 4, and 8 μM) of doxorubicin following stimulation to 50 Hz AC (7.5 μA) or MDR1 inhibitor XR9576. Cell viability was assessed by determination of adenylate kinase (AK) release. The relationship between MDR1 expression and the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin as well as the cellular distribution of MDR1 was investigated by computerized image analysis immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques. By the use of a variety of tumor cell lines, we show that low frequency, low intensity AC stimulation enhances chemotherapeutic efficacy. This effect was due to an altered expression of intrinsic cellular drug resistance mechanisms. Immunohistochemical, Western blot and fluorescence analysis revealed

  2. Glioblastoma angiogenesis: VEGF resistance solutions and new strategies based on molecular mechanisms of tumor vessel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Shingo

    2012-04-01

    Glioblastomas are highly vascular tumors. Recent preclinical and clinical investigations have revealed that agents targeting angiogenesis may have efficacy against this type of tumor. Antibodies to vascular endothelial growth factor are being studied in this patient population. Unfortunately, treatment inevitably fails. This review provides an update on recent research on the mechanisms by which tumor cells acquire resistance, and discusses recent preclinical and experimental development of novel new-generation anti-angiogenic agents that overcome this problem, especially those based on the molecular mechanisms of tumor vessel formation. The tumor vasculature not only nourishes glioblastomas, but also provides a specialized microenvironment for tumor stem-like cells and for the brain tumor. The factors, pathways, and interactions described in this review provide information about the cell biology of glioblastomas which may ultimately result in new modes of treatment.

  3. Natural refuge crops, buildup of resistance, and zero-refuge strategy for Bt cotton in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, FangBin; Huang, JiKun; Rozelle, Scott; Wilen, James

    2010-10-01

    In the context of genetically modified crops expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin, a 'refuge' refers to a crop of the same or a related species that is planted nearby to enable growth and reproduction of the target pest without the selection pressure imposed by the Bt toxin. The goal of this study is to discuss the role of natural refuge crops in slowing down the buildup of resistance of cotton bollworm (CBW), and to evaluate China's no-refuge policy for Bt cotton. We describe in detail the different factors that China should consider in relation to the refuge policy. Drawing on a review of scientific data, economic analyses of other cases, and a simulation exercise using a bio-economic model, we show that in the case of Bt cotton in China, the no-refuge policy is defensible.

  4. The Resistance Strategies of Telemarketing Operators against the Offensives of Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Duarte Cavaignac

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the forms of consciousness, organization and resistance of workers in a context of flexibilization of labor relations, fragmentation of the working class and sectorialization of the union movement, in light of studies of contemporary changes in the world of labor. It revives part of the author’s doctoral thesis, presenting results of a study about a strike by telemarketing operators at a private telecommunications company that took place in the city of Fortaleza in 2007, motivated by low salaries and precarious working conditions for young out-sourced workers. The observation of the protests and mobilizations, as well as interviews, revealed the perceptions, motivations and perspectives of the demonstrators, indicating the meanings of the movement that marked the history of these “info-proletariat”, which was more striking for the unprecedented nature of their political struggle against big capital than because of the conquest of effective rights.

  5. What is the best management strategy for patients with severe insulin resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Robert K; Williams, Rachel M; Dunger, David B

    2010-09-01

    Management of severe insulin resistance (IR) is a major clinical challenge in many patients with obesity or lipodystrophy, and also in rarer patients with proven or suspected genetic defects in the insulin receptor or downstream signalling. The latter group can present at any time between birth and early adult life, with a variable clinical course broadly correlated with the severity of IR. Primary insulin signalling defects are usually associated with poor weight gain rather than obesity. Initially, extreme hyperinsulinaemia produces ovarian enlargement and hyperandrogenism in women, and often fasting or postprandial hypoglycaemia. However, any hypoglycaemia gradually evolves into insulin-resistant hyperglycaemia when beta cell function declines. Optimal management of these complex disorders depends on early diagnosis and appropriate targeting of both high and low glucose levels. In newborns, continuous nasogastric feeding may reduce harmful glycaemic fluctuations, and in older patients, acarbose may mitigate postprandial hypoglycaemia. Insulin sensitization, initially with metformin but later with trials of additional agents such as thiazolidinediones, is the mainstay of early therapy, but insulin replacement, eventually with very high doses, is required once diabetes has supervened. Preliminary data suggest that rhIGF-1 can improve survival in infants with the most severe insulin receptor defects and also improve beta cell function in older patients with milder receptoropathies. The utility of newer therapies such as glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors remains untested in this condition. Thus, management of these patients remains largely empirical, and there is a pressing need to collate data centrally to optimize treatment algorithms.

  6. Linking Effective Project Management to Business Strategy in Oil and Gas Industry through Decision-making Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Adeyinka

    The construction project in the oil and gas industry covers the entire spectrum of hydrocarbon production from the wellhead (upstream) to downstream facilities. In each of these establishments, the activities in a construction project include: consulting, studies, front-end engineering, detail engineering, procurement, program management, construction, installation, commissioning and start-up. Efficient management of each of the activities involved in construction projects is one of the driving forces for the successful completion of the project. Optimizing the crucial factors in project management during each phase of a project in an oil and gas industry can assist managers to maximize the use of available resources and drive the project to successful conclusions. One of these factors is the decision-making process in the construction project. Current research effort investigated the relationship between decision-making processes and business strategy in oil and gas industry using employee surveys. I recruited employees of different races, age group, genders, and years of experience in order understand their influence on the implementation of the decision-making process in oil and gas industry through a quantitative survey. Decision-making was assessed using five decision measures: (a) rational, (b) intuitive, (c) dependent, (d) avoidant, and (e) spontaneous. The findings indicated gender, age, years of work experience and job titles as primary variables with a negative relationship with decision-making approach for employees working in a major oil and gas industry. The study results revealed that the two most likely decision-making methods in oil and gas industry include: making a decision in a logical and systematic way and seek assistance from others when making a decision. Additionally, the two leading management approaches to decision-making in the oil and gas industry include: decision analysis is part of organization culture and management is committed to

  7. Are we investing wisely? A systematic analysis of nationally funded antimicrobial resistance projects in Republic of Korea, 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sukhyun; Head, Michael G; Kim, Bryan I; Hwang, Juchul; Cho, En-Hi

    2016-09-01

    From 2003 to 2013, South Korea has conducted the National Antimicrobial Resistance Safety Control Program (NARSCP). The purpose of the current study was to systematically review national antimicrobial resistance (AMR) research trends and to provide guidance on future allocation of research funding to enable a comprehensive approach in AMR control. This study collected project reports related to AMR published by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, the Ministry of Health and Welfare and the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention between 2003 and 2013. These reports were analysed by topics based on the AMR action plan of the World Health Organization (WHO), period of study, categories along the research pipeline and types of receiving institution. A total of 198 project reports were included, with total funding of US$18.3 million. Mean funding per award was US$92,750, with a median of US$71,714. Among the WHO-suggested criteria, the basic microbial research and surveillance sector accounts for 143 (72.2%) of all awards. Yearly project funding increased from US$961,476 in 2003 to US$1,553,294 in 2013. Operational research was 61.5% and product development was 0.7% of the basic microbial research and surveillance sector. By institution, academia received 145 awards (73.2%). During progress of the NARSCP, total research funding increased significantly, but most awards were focused on understanding the overall picture of the nationwide AMR status. More balanced funding is needed, and encouraging active participation of private and international sectors is also required in reducing AMR. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Innovative Medicines Initiative's New Drugs for Bad Bugs programme: European public-private partnerships for the development of new strategies to tackle antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyanev, T; Bonten, M J M; O'Brien, S; Steel, H; Ross, S; François, B; Tacconelli, E; Winterhalter, M; Stavenger, R A; Karlén, A; Harbarth, S; Hackett, J; Jafri, H S; Vuong, C; MacGowan, A; Witschi, A; Angyalosi, G; Elborn, J S; deWinter, R; Goossens, H

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a global public health threat. Despite the emergence of highly resistant organisms and the huge medical need for new drugs, the development of antibacterials has slowed to an unacceptable level worldwide. Numerous government and non-government agencies have called for public-private partnerships and innovative funding mechanisms to address this problem. To respond to this public health crisis, the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking programme has invested more than €660 million, with a goal of matched contributions from the European Commission and the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations, in the development of new antibacterial strategies. The New Drugs for Bad Bugs (ND4BB) programme, an Innovative Medicines Initiative, has the ultimate goal to boost the fight against ABR at every level from basic science and drug discovery, through clinical development to new business models and responsible use of antibiotics. Seven projects have been launched within the ND4BB programme to achieve this goal. Four of them will include clinical trials of new anti-infective compounds, as well as epidemiological studies on an unprecedented scale, which will increase our knowledge of ABR and specific pathogens, and improve the designs of the clinical trials with new investigational drugs. The need for rapid concerted action has driven the funding of seven topics, each of which should add significantly to progress in the fight against ABR. ND4BB unites expertise and provides a platform where the commitment and resources required by all parties are streamlined into a joint public-private partnership initiative of unprecedented scale. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. High-Energy Physics Strategies and Future Large-Scale Projects

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F

    2015-01-01

    We sketch the actual European and international strategies and possible future facilities. In the near term the High Energy Physics (HEP) community will fully exploit the physics potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through its high-luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). Post-LHC options include a linear e+e- collider in Japan (ILC) or at CERN (CLIC), as well as circular lepton or hadron colliders in China (CepC/SppC) and Europe (FCC). We conclude with linear and circular acceleration approaches based on crystals, and some perspectives for the far future of accelerator-based particle physics.

  10. Strategies towards a 100% renewable energy system for Denmark in the Future Climate Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse gas mitigation strategies are generally considered costly with world leaders often engaging in debate concerning the costs of mitigation and the distribution of these costs between different countries. In this paper, the analyses and results of the design of a 100 per cent renewable......, create employment and potentially lead to large earnings on exports. If externalities such as health effects etc. are included, even more benefits can be expected. 100 per cent renewable energy systems will be technically possible in the future, and may even be economically beneficial compared...

  11. Meeting the requirements for a DOE environmental restoration project. The Fernald strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanoss, R.L.; Risenhoover, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental Restoration (ER) of five Operable Units (OU) at Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) includes compliance with the requirements of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA), National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), and DOE Orders. Each regulatory driver has differing procedural requirements for documenting calculations, decisions, and actions involved in site cleanup. Integration of documentation and avoidance of duplication can save time and money. Such savings are being achieved by OU specific application of supporting studies, revised procedures, and guidance documents. Each OU is seeking appropriate opportunities to produce single documents that simultaneously fulfill the important requirements of the other regulations and DOE orders. These opportunities are evaluated at all phases of decision making, remedial design, and remedial action. Three essential processes precede environmental restoration/remedial action at a DOE site/project: 1. Completion of decision-making documents required by governing or applicable statutes. 2. Completion of important scientific and engineering analyses of remedial alternatives, and design and implementation of the remedial solution established in the CERCLA Record of Decision (ROD). 3. Preparation of DOE-mandated documentation to record engineering evaluations and cost estimates required for budgeting, decision making, and project management. Methodology and requirements for each process have developed from long, successful practice, but independently of each other. FERMCO, as new DOE contractor at Fernald and first Environmental Restoration Management Contractor (ERMC), is committed to a process of Continuous Performance Improvement (CPI). A major reevaluation of documentation and processes for support of environmental decision-making and design of cleanup activities to remediate the five OUs at the FEMP is being undertaken

  12. THE STRATEGY OF FINANCING THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS THROUGH THE NATIONAL ACTION PLAN FOR ENVIRONMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPEANGĂ VASILE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental policy establishes long-term goals on environmental protection and the support of environmental policy must strike a balance between environmental investment demand and the financial offer, whose allocation mechanisms are complex and varied. In practice, the compliance with environmental objectives requires substantial financial resources that can exceed the financial capacity of operators, setting environmental objectives and selecting the optimal mix of instruments for implementation and financing mechanisms can be effective only if they are supported by clear regulations and strong enforcement measures. In this paper we have tried to highlight the main sources of financing the investment projects of environmental protection.

  13. The EEE Project: Cosmic rays, multigap resistive plate chambers and high school students

    CERN Document Server

    Abbrescia, M.; Antolini, R; Avanzini, C; Baldini Ferroli, R; Bencivenni, G; Bossini, E; Bressan, E; Chiavassa, A; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Coccia, E; De Gruttula, D; De Pasquale, S; Di Giovanni, A; D'Incecco, M; Doroud, K; Dreucci, M; Fabbri, FL; Frolov, V; Garbini, M; Gemme, G; Gnesi, I; Gustavino, C; Hatzifotiadu, D; La Rocca, P; Li, S; Moro, R; Miozzi, S; Massai, M; Maggiora, A; Librizzi, F; Piragino, G; Pilo, F; Perasso, L; Paoletti, R; Righini, GC; Scapparone, E; Sartorelli, G; Romano, F; Serci, S; Selvi, M; Scribano, A; Riggi, F; Regano, A; Squarcia, S; Spandre, G; Toselli, F; Taiuti, M; Zichichi, A; Zouyevski, R; Williams, MCS; Votano, L; Siddi, E; Panareo, M

    2012-01-01

    The Gas Gain Monitoring (GGM) system of the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) muon detector in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment provides fast and accurate determination of the stability in the working point conditions due to gas mixture changes in the closed loop recirculation system. In 2011 the GGM began to operate using a feedback algorithm to control the applied voltage, in order to keep the GGM response insensitive to environmental temperature and atmospheric pressure variations. Recent results are presented on the feedback method used and on alternative algorithms.

  14. Data integration through brain atlasing: Human Brain Project tools and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerke, Ingvild E; Øvsthus, Martin; Papp, Eszter A; Yates, Sharon C; Silvestri, Ludovico; Fiorilli, Julien; Pennartz, Cyriel M A; Pavone, Francesco S; Puchades, Maja A; Leergaard, Trygve B; Bjaalie, Jan G

    2018-04-01

    The Human Brain Project (HBP), an EU Flagship Initiative, is currently building an infrastructure that will allow integration of large amounts of heterogeneous neuroscience data. The ultimate goal of the project is to develop a unified multi-level understanding of the brain and its diseases, and beyond this to emulate the computational capabilities of the brain. Reference atlases of the brain are one of the key components in this infrastructure. Based on a new generation of three-dimensional (3D) reference atlases, new solutions for analyzing and integrating brain data are being developed. HBP will build services for spatial query and analysis of brain data comparable to current online services for geospatial data. The services will provide interactive access to a wide range of data types that have information about anatomical location tied to them. The 3D volumetric nature of the brain, however, introduces a new level of complexity that requires a range of tools for making use of and interacting with the atlases. With such new tools, neuroscience research groups will be able to connect their data to atlas space, share their data through online data systems, and search and find other relevant data through the same systems. This new approach partly replaces earlier attempts to organize research data based only on a set of semantic terminologies describing the brain and its subdivisions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  15. An evaluation of the National Curriculum Redesign Project: Eighth grade science curriculum pedagogical strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalwell-Brewley, Lavon P.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the eighth grade science National Curriculum Redesign Project. The site for this study was an urban secondary school in the British Virgin Islands. The school's population consisted of 1600 students and 120 teachers, where approximately 70% of the students were from low socioeconomic families (Secondary High School Statistical Records, 2006). The school's population was tri-cultural and consisted of approximately more Black West Indian, than Hispanic and Caucasian students and teachers. The school employed a student centered and pedagogical approach. The classroom's structure comprised of heterogeneously grouped inclusion classes with class sizes ranging between 27--40 students. The results of several studies revealed that the school's graduates did not have vital skills to work and effectively function in the work place (Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, 2000). These findings challenged the curriculum attributes and the school's pedagogical practices as it relates to providing powerful discourse in good instruction and improved academic achievement skills. Thus, the National Curriculum Redesign Project was developed to ensure teaching-learning components work together to foster significant learning practices. The review of the literature informed and substantiated the research and the related research questions. The population sample consisted of three secondary school science teachers and 26 students. Questionnaires and interview data collecting tools were employed. The data was analyzed to identify patterns and themes in responses. Descriptive statistics consisting of frequencies and percentage were used to support qualitative information and recommendations were made.

  16. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in rehabilitation and chronic-care-facilities: what is the best strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Xavier

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has been decreasing for several years in intensive care departments, but is now increasing in rehabilitation and chronic-care-facilities (R-CCF. The aim of this study was to use published data and our own experience to discuss the roles of screening for MRSA carriers, the type of isolation to be implemented and the efficiency of chemical decolonization. Discussion Screening identifies over 90% of patients colonised with MRSA upon admission to R-CCF versus only 50% for intensive care units. Only totally dependent patients acquire MRSA. Thus, strict geographical isolation, as opposed to "social reinsertion", is clearly of no value. However, this should not lead to the abandoning of isolation, which remains essential during the administration of care. The use of chemicals to decolonize the nose and healthy skin appeared to be of some value and the application of this procedure could make technical isolation unnecessary in a non-negligible proportion of cases. Summary Given the increase in morbidity associated with MRSA observed in numerous hospitals, the emergence of a community-acquired disease associated with these strains and the evolution of glycopeptide-resistant strains, the voluntary application of a strategy combining screening, technical isolation and chemical decolonization in R-CCF appears to be an urgent matter of priority.

  17. Grassroots Technological Resistance: The People's Power Project and the Impossible Dream of Wireless Transmission of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Pete

    2017-09-01

    In 1972, the Minnesota United Power Association (UPA) teamed up with the Minnesota Cooperative Power Association (CPA) to initiate an electrification project designed to bring power from North Dakota to the Twin Cities area. A significant backlash and protest began once farmers across the state became aware of the plan and the potential impending land seizure. In the midst of these actions, one group sought to create an alternative to the power line transmission system by designing a system of wireless energy transmission based on the plans of Nikola Tesla. This self-funded conglomeration of farmers and amateur researchers formed the People's Power Project (PPP) and set about building Tesla's system for the wireless transmission of energy. Using archival documents, this paper recounts this episode and argues that, in this case, the potential for successful grassroots action was derailed by the influence of longstanding myths about Tesla and his devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human Coronaviruses: Insights into Environmental Resistance and Its Influence on the Development of New Antiseptic Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Chloé; Varbanov, Mihayl; Duval, Raphaël E.

    2012-01-01

    The Coronaviridae family, an enveloped RNA virus family, and, more particularly, human coronaviruses (HCoV), were historically known to be responsible for a large portion of common colds and other upper respiratory tract infections. HCoV are now known to be involved in more serious respiratory diseases, i.e. bronchitis, bronchiolitis or pneumonia, especially in young children and neonates, elderly people and immunosuppressed patients. They have also been involved in nosocomial viral infections. In 2002–2003, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), due to a newly discovered coronavirus, the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV); led to a new awareness of the medical importance of the Coronaviridae family. This pathogen, responsible for an emerging disease in humans, with high risk of fatal outcome; underline the pressing need for new approaches to the management of the infection, and primarily to its prevention. Another interesting feature of coronaviruses is their potential environmental resistance, despite the accepted fragility of enveloped viruses. Indeed, several studies have described the ability of HCoVs (i.e. HCoV 229E, HCoV OC43 (also known as betacoronavirus 1), NL63, HKU1 or SARS-CoV) to survive in different environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and humidity), on different supports found in hospital settings such as aluminum, sterile sponges or latex surgical gloves or in biological fluids. Finally, taking into account the persisting lack of specific antiviral treatments (there is, in fact, no specific treatment available to fight coronaviruses infections), the Coronaviridae specificities (i.e. pathogenicity, potential environmental resistance) make them a challenging model for the development of efficient means of prevention, as an adapted antisepsis-disinfection, to prevent the environmental spread of such infective agents. This review will summarize current knowledge on the capacity of human coronaviruses to survive in the

  19. Induction of tumor stem cell differentiation--novel strategy to overcome therapy resistance in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieker, Derek; Bühler, Sarah; Ustündag, Zeynep; Königsrainer, Ingmar; Manncke, Sebastian; Bajaeifer, Khaled; Vollmer, Jörg; Fend, Falko; Northoff, Hinnak; Königsrainer, Alfred; Glatzle, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    Metastases are a frequent finding in gastric cancer and are associated with poor prognosis. A recently discovered link between metabolic changes, differentiation, and therapy resistance due to tumor stem cells could depict a novel approach in cancer research and therapy. Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) is a metabolic enzyme and is known to be involved in enabling gastric cancer cells to be invasive and to disseminate. In this study, we investigated if PGK1 is a promising candidate in inducing stem cell differentiation in gastric cancer. MKN45 gastric cancer cells were used due to their known cancer stem cell population, which is defined by the surface marker CD44. MKN45 cells were separated between CD44+ and CD44- cells and, in equal parts, incubated with shRNA anti-PGK1 using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis; they were then injected into nude mice to evaluate their tumor growth behavior in vivo. Further, the invasive potential of gastric cancer cells was evaluated in vitro using the xCelligence analyzing system. CD44+ gastric cancer cells treated with and without shRNA anti-PGK1 were capable to cause tumor growth in vivo, whereas tumor growth in CD44+ cells treated with shRNA anti-PGK1 was considerably smaller in comparison with that in CD44+ cells without treatment. CD44- cells did not show any noticeable tumor growth in vivo. By targeting PGK1, the invasive potential of gastric cancer cells was impressively reduced in vitro. In all our cells, which were targeted with shRNA anti-PGK1, we did not find any change that is in accordance with the phenotype of the cells using FACS analysis. Our findings suggest that targeting the key metabolic enzyme PGK1 in gastric cancer cells may open a new chapter in cancer treatment, which is well worth for further exploration in combination with recent chemotherapy, and might be a promising possibility to overcome therapy resistance in gastric cancer.

  20. Human coronaviruses: insights into environmental resistance and its influence on the development of new antiseptic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Chloé; Varbanov, Mihayl; Duval, Raphaël E

    2012-11-12

    The Coronaviridae family, an enveloped RNA virus family, and, more particularly, human coronaviruses (HCoV), were historically known to be responsible for a large portion of common colds and other upper respiratory tract infections. HCoV are now known to be involved in more serious respiratory diseases, i.e. bronchitis, bronchiolitis or pneumonia, especially in young children and neonates, elderly people and immunosuppressed patients. They have also been involved in nosocomial viral infections. In 2002-2003, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), due to a newly discovered coronavirus, the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV); led to a new awareness of the medical importance of the Coronaviridae family. This pathogen, responsible for an emerging disease in humans, with high risk of fatal outcome; underline the pressing need for new approaches to the management of the infection, and primarily to its prevention. Another interesting feature of coronaviruses is their potential environmental resistance, despite the accepted fragility of enveloped viruses. Indeed, several studies have described the ability of HCoVs (i.e. HCoV 229E, HCoV OC43 (also known as betacoronavirus 1), NL63, HKU1 or SARS-CoV) to survive in different environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and humidity), on different supports found in hospital settings such as aluminum, sterile sponges or latex surgical gloves or in biological fluids. Finally, taking into account the persisting lack of specific antiviral treatments (there is, in fact, no specific treatment available to fight coronaviruses infections), the Coronaviridae specificities (i.e. pathogenicity, potential environmental resistance) make them a challenging model for the development of efficient means of prevention, as an adapted antisepsis-disinfection, to prevent the environmental spread of such infective agents. This review will summarize current knowledge on the capacity of human coronaviruses to survive in the

  1. Applying the Creativity in Oder to Generate Innovation Projects: the Practical Case Study of a Didactic Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria dos Santos Pereira Alves

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A current challenge in teaching practice is to transform classrooms into laboratories to exchange experiences in courses whose goal is to enhance the professional skills in a practical and meaningful way. The search for improvement demonstrates that, increasingly, professionals become aware that organizations coexist in highly competitive environments, seeking to conquer more markets based on sustainable competitive advantages demanding fast responses of its employees. Considering that the process of creativity can be stimulated through the establishment of a suitable environment, this study aims to discuss the application of a didactic strategy developed for this purpose. Using the single case study methodology, it was used the technique of unstructured observation (informal or single to carry out the collection and the recording of events that occurred during the strategy application. It discusses elements such as identifying opportunities, creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship, seeking their relationships to understand how it is possible to motivate the generation of proposals for innovative projects in educational environments. As a result, it is presented the perceptions of teachers on the didactic strategy applied, emphasizing that a suitable environment for the development of ideas encourages the student to propose solutions for the improbabilities, creating innovative alternatives to the identified needs.

  2. Strategy of gene silencing in cassava for validation of resistance genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes, Simon; Lopez, Camilo

    2010-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a major source of food for more than 1000 million people in the world and constitutes an important staple crop. Cassava bacterial blight, caused by the gram negative bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis, is one of the most important constraints for this crop. A candidate resistance gene against cassava bacterial blight, named RXam1, has been identified previously. In this work, we employed the gene silencing approach using the African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) to validate the function of the RXam1 gene. We used as positive control the su gen, which produce photo blanching in leaves when is silenced. Plants from the SG10735 variety were bombardment with the ACMV-A-SU+ACMV-B y ACMV-A-RXam1+ACMV-B constructions. The silencing efficiency employing the su gene was low, only one of seven plants showed photo blanching. In the putative silenced plants for the RXam1 gene, no presence of siRNAs corresponding to RXam1 was observed; although a low diminution of the RXam1 gene expression was obtained. The growth curves for the Xam strain CIO136 in cassava plants inoculated showing a little but no significance difference in the susceptibility in the silenced plants compared to not silenced

  3. Prevention strategies for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alvarez

    Full Text Available After the first reports of the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in the 1970s, numerous measures intended to prevent its transmission were initiated in hospitals. However, in most cases, large-scale measures failed to be implemented and the transmission of MRSA has since led to a global pandemic. Presently, doubts still remain about the best approach to prevent and control MRSA and more often than not, control measures are not implemented. Therefore, we review here the current situation in Latin America with respect to existing policies for control of MRSA, and evaluate the evidence for control measures in hospitals and the community. We look at the risk factors for infection and transmission of MRSA between hospital patients and within specific populations in the community, and at the effect of antibiotic usage on the spread of MRSA in these settings. Finally, we summarize recommendations for the prevention and control of MRSA, which can be applied to the Latin American hospital environment and community setting

  4. Informal and formal reconciliation strategies of older peoples’ working carers: the European carers@work project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hoff

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Faced with a historically unprecedented process of demographic ageing, many European societies implemented pension reforms in recent years to extend working lives. Although aimed at rebalancing public pension systems, this approach has the unintended side effect that it also extends the number of years in which working carers have to juggle the conflicting demands of employment and caregiving. This not only impinges on working carers’ well-being and ability to continue providing care but also affects European enterprises’ capacity to generate growth which increasingly relies on ageing workforces. The focus of this paper will thus be a cross-national comparison of individual reconciliation strategies and workplace-related company policies aimed at enabling working carers to reconcile both conflicting roles in four different European welfare states: Germany, Italy, Poland, and the United Kingdom.

  5. Strategies for Reforming Initial Vocational Education and Training in Europe. Final Report of the Project. Leonardo da Vinci/Transnational Pilot Projects: Multiplier Effect, Strand III.3.a. Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies by Horizontal and Vertical Networking (1997-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenstrom, Marja-Leena, Ed.; Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

    This document contains 24 papers examining strategies for reforming initial vocational education and training (VET) in Europe. The following papers are included: "Reassessing VET Reform Strategies in a New Context: Implementation of the SPES-NET (Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies by Horizontal and Vertical Networking) Project"…

  6. Project ARES analysis of strategies of greenhouse effect gases emissions reduction. Synthesis report july 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, P.; Blanchard, O.; Kitous, A.; Hourcade, J.Ch.; Ghersi, F.; Kousnetzoff, N.; Genet, J.; Fahr, St.; Soria, A.; Russ, P.

    2002-07-01

    The ARES project was realized around three main activities. The first part was the elaboration by the CEPII of a scenario of a world economic growth, detailed by region for the year 2030. The second part develops by the IEPE a scenario of allocation of emission quotas for the year 2030, by a gradual reduction of the emissions growth in the developing countries, the evaluation of the scenario from the POLES model, with a comparison of the results with the alternative models described in literature or proposed by the negotiation. The last part is the extension and the development by the CIRED of the 14 zones IMACLIM model, the elaboration of interfaces with POLES and the study of the general equilibrium effects of the different attribution scenari studied by the IEPE. (A.L.B.)

  7. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor. In this chapter, we compare the two principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: either by remote......Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times...... procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy...

  8. A conservation strategy in San Andres Island: school projects and values in environmental education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero M, German; Mahecha G, Ana Maria

    2006-01-01

    With the scope of showing and preserving an island endangered species, the Swanka turtle, a campaign and an environmental education program were conducted. The campaign consisted in showing the species to the community, its characteristics and its threats, through mass media and visits to different local schools. The environmental education program was carried out through a Scholar Environmental Project, which consisted on the conformation of an environmental group, where cognitive, attitudinal and participative aspects were worked together. Using a constrictive methodology the children developed some knowledge about the species and Its habitats. The scope was that they modified attitudes and behaviors towards situations that contribute to environmental damage; the reinforcement of values was the central point during all the activities. The knowledge gained by the pupils and the observed changes on their attitudes and participation show the positive results that arise when the action of environmental education focuses on the people and not the resources that are to be preserved

  9. IU.R Residential Urban Interfaces. Strategies and tools for a renewal project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Borgianni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary city, quality of urban space is a key element in life quality and a driving force for the competitiveness. The increasing complexity of relationships and the evolving needs and use patterns reflect urban complexity in a corresponding physical space: the urban interface, an entity that mediates the sociospatial relationships between public and private sphere and that assumes strategic importance in redevelopment of suburbs. Research, carried out on a case ‘study project’, defines the criteria for a Residential Urban Interface approach as a tool for micro-urban redevelopment which merge into the proposed Project Plan, the metaproject field aimed at process design, space design and design of management and use scenario.

  10. Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB): A daunting challenge to the current End TB Strategy and policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Arifur; Sarkar, Atanu

    2017-07-01

    Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has emerged as one of the most formidable challenges to the End TB Strategy that has targeted a 95% reduction in TB deaths and 90% reduction in cases by 2035. Globally, there were an estimated 55,100 new XDR-TB cases in 2015 in 117 countries. However, only one in 30 XDR-TB cases had been reported so far. Drug susceptibility test (DST) is the mainstay for diagnosing XDR-TB, but the lack of laboratory facilities in the resource-limited endemic countries limit its uses. A few new drugs including bedaquiline and delamanid, have the potential to improve the efficiency of XDR-TB treatment, but the drugs have been included in 39 countries only. The costs of XDR-TB treatment are several folds higher than that of the MDR-TB. Despite the financing from the donors, there is an urgent need to fill the current funding gap of US$ 2 billion to ensure effective treatment and robust surveillance. In the review article we have addressed current update on XDR-TB, including surveillance, diagnosis and the interventions needed to treat and limit its spread, emphasis on extensive financial support for implementing of current recommendations to meet the goals of End TB Strategy. Copyright © 2017 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Plans, Projections and Practitioners: Engaging with Communities to Explore Adaptation Strategies for Transportation Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picketts, I. M.

    2015-12-01

    Transportation infrastructure is a significant climate change adaptation concern because it is: costly; designed for long operational lives; susceptible to both episodic and seasonal deterioration; and a significant safety concern. While examples of adaptation exist in transportation design, many communities do not have the capacity to incorporate climate change considerations into infrastructure planning and management. This presentation will overview the process and outcomes of research conducted in collaboration with the communities of Prince George and Squamish, both located in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Previous research in Prince George (in northern BC) involved applying downscaled climate projection information to assess local climate impacts, and identified transportation infrastructure as the top priority for ongoing study. In Prince George the adaptation process was oriented toward determining how the City could plan, design, and maintain roads and other structures to account for climate change. A local steering committee was formed, and created and evaluated 23 potential research topics. Two focus areas were selected for further investigation and explored during a workshop with practitioners, researchers, consultants and other representatives. The workshop precipitated additional modelling of projected impacts of climate change on road maintenance and road safety, and plans to explore the viability of alternative paving techniques. Outcomes of the case study provide insights regarding how researchers can 'combine' top down and bottom up approaches by using modelling information as part of an engagement process with local experts to explore adaptation. Ongoing research in Squamish seeks to apply lessons learned from the Prince George case study (both related to process and the application of modelling information) to a more temperate coastal region with a more climate-concerned population. In Squamish there also lies an opportunity to explicitly focus

  12. The international hydrocoin project. Groundwater hydrology modelling strategies for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The international co-operation project HYDROCOIN for studying groundwater flow modelling in the context of radioactive waste disposal was initiated in 1984. Thirteen organizations from ten countries and two international organizations have participated in the project which has been managed by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI. This report summarizes the results from the second phase of HYDROCOIN, Level 2, which has addressed the issue of validation by testing the capabilities of groundwater flow models to describe five field and laboratory experiments: . Thermal convection and conduction around a field heat transfer experiment in a quarry, . A laboratory experiment with thermal convection as a model for variable density flow, . A small groundwater flow system in fractured monzonitic gneiss, . Three-dimensional regional groundwater flow in low permeability rocks, and . Soil water redistribution near the surface at a field site. The five test cases cover various media of interest for final disposal such as low permeability saturated rock, unsaturated rock, and salt formations. They also represent a variety of spatial and temporal scales. From model simulations on the five test cases conclusions are drawn regarding the applicability of the models to the experimental and field situations and the usefulness of the available data bases. The results are evaluated with regard to the steps in an ideal validation process. The data bases showed certain limitations for validation purposes with respect to independent data sets for calibration and validation. In spite of this, the HYDROCOIN Level 2 efforts have significantly contributed to an increased confidence in the applicability of groundwater flow models to different situations relevant to final disposal. Furthermore, the work has given much insight into the validation process and specific recommendations for further validation efforts are made

  13. Exploring surface cleaning strategies in hospital to prevent contact transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hao; Jones, Rachael M; Li, Yuguo

    2017-01-18

    Cleaning of environmental surfaces in hospitals is important for the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other hospital-acquired infections transmitted by the contact route. Guidance regarding the best approaches for cleaning, however, is limited. In this study, a mathematical model based on ordinary differential equations was constructed to study MRSA concentration dynamics on high-touch and low-touch surfaces, and on the hands and noses of two patients (in two hospitals rooms) and a health care worker in a hypothetical hospital environment. Two cleaning interventions - whole room cleaning and wipe cleaning of touched surfaces - were considered. The performance of the cleaning interventions was indicated by a reduction in MRSA on the nose of a susceptible patient, relative to no intervention. Whole room cleaning just before first patient care activities of the day was more effective than whole room cleaning at other times, but even with 100% efficiency, whole room cleaning only reduced the number of MRSA transmitted to the susceptible patient by 54%. Frequent wipe cleaning of touched surfaces was shown to be more effective that whole room cleaning because surfaces are rapidly re-contaminated with MRSA after cleaning. Wipe cleaning high-touch surfaces was more effective than wipe cleaning low-touch surfaces for the same frequency of cleaning. For low wipe cleaning frequency (≤3 times per hour), high-touch surfaces should be targeted, but for high wipe cleaning frequency (>3 times per hour), cleaning should target high- and low-touch surfaces in proportion to the surface touch frequency. This study reproduces the observations from a field study of room cleaning, which provides support for the validity of our findings. Daily whole room cleaning, even with 100% cleaning efficiency, provides limited reduction in the number of MRSA transmitted to susceptible patients via the contact route; and should be supplemented with frequent targeted

  14. The EEE Project: cosmic rays, multigap resistive plate chambers and high school students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbrescia, M; Aiola, S; Antolini, R; Coccia, E; Giovanni, A Di; D'Incecco, M; Avanzini, C; Bossini, E; Ferroli, R Baldini; Bressan, E; Bencivenni, G; Dreucci, M; Fabbri, F L; Chiavassa, A; Frolov, V; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Gruttula, D De; Pasquale, S De; Doroud, K

    2012-01-01

    The Extreme Energy Events Project has been designed to join the scientific interest of a cosmic rays physics experiment with the enormous didactic potentiality deriving from letting it be carried out by high school students and teachers. After the initial phase, the experiment is starting to take data continuously, and the first interesting physics results have been obtained, demonstrating the validity of the idea of running a real physics investigation in these peculiar conditions. Here an overview of its structure and status is presented, together with some studies about detector performance and first physics results. (technical report)

  15. Development of Cefotaxime Impregnated Chitosan as Nano-antibiotics: De Novo Strategy to Combat Biofilm Forming Multi-drug Resistant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra eJamil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Frequent incidents of antibiotic-resistant biofilm forming pathogens in community-associated and hospital-acquired infections have become a global concern owing to failure of conventional therapies. Nano-antibiotics (NABs are de novo tools to overcome the multi-drug resistant mechanisms employed by the superbugs. Inhibition of biofilm formation is one of those strategies to curb multi drug resistance phenomenon. In the current study, the anti-biofilm and antibacterial potential of newly synthesized cefotaxime loaded chitosan based Nano-antibiotics (NABs have been investigated. Both bare and cefotaxime loaded NABs were prepared by ionotropic gelation method. They were found carrying positive zeta potential of more than +50 mV, indicating highly stable nano-dispersion. Moreover, microscopic studies revealed their size as less than 100nm. Nano-antibiotics (NABs were tested against clinical isolates of multi drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and wherein they demonstrated broad-spectrum anti-biofilm and anti-pathogenic activity. Thus, in vitro synergistic action of cephalosporin drugs and chitosan polymer at nano-scale in contrast to free antibiotics can be an improved broad-spectrum strategy to thwart resistance mechanisms in both Gram positive and Gram negative resistant pathogens.

  16. Development of an effective communication strategy for the prevention of burns in children: the PRIUS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedri, S.; Briguglio, E.; Cedri, C.; Masellis, A.; Crenca, A.; Pitidis, A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary This study has developed a learning kit for the prevention of domestic burns in childhood. The main objective was to trial an educational package for children (nursery and primary classes), for the prevention of burns, to be implemented through education in schools. The educational kit comprises posters, information leaflets, comic books, and pre and post education evaluation materials for school children, parents and teachers. Recipients of the preliminary study were the students of nine schools in the eight Italian cities where Burn Centers are located. In order to reach the target groups of children, it was necessary to identify the most effective communication strategy to convey the burn prevention message. For nursery school children, it was not possible to use tools with written texts alone, as they were not yet literate. Moreover, even for older children, it was necessary to find an attractive tool to catch their attention and interest, promoting the understanding and memorization of lessons learned. The most suitable means was found to be comic strips, allowing the messages to be conveyed through images as well as words. A total of 370 children (195 from nurseries and 175 from primary schools) participated in the trial of the educational kit. Overall, for every environment represented in the evaluation table, the ability to recognize the dangers among both the pre-school and primary school children increased significantly after the training activity. In conclusion, the educational kit has been positively assessed. PMID:27252606

  17. School Board as a Pedagogical Strategy for Sustainability in Environmental Education. (Project execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayr Del Valle Rivas Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was designed as a purpose to establish the school garden as a pedagogical strategy of sustainability in environmental education with the students of the National Basic School "Sebastián Araujo Briceño" of the Pedraza Municipality Barinas State; The nature of research is qualitative, the method is Research Action. For the purposes of the present study, three (03 teachers and three (03 students who belong to the institution will participate as informers and enjoy recognized responsibility and commitment at the "Sebastián Araujo Briceño" National Basic School. The technique used is the semistructured interview, And the instrument the interview guide. The analysis of the information will be done through the codification, categorization, triangulation and structuring of theories. After implementing the activities with the school garden, it is hoped to conclude that children contribute to the care of the environment and maintain in harmony the ecological balance that should reign in any space where human beings live and coexist. In this way the educational institution will present an environmental aspect in accordance with the ecological principles of environmental education immersed in the National Basic Curriculum.

  18. Strategy to increase research in Latin America: project on education in research by AOSpine Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Martins Filho, Délio Eulálio; Avila, José María Jiménez; Guyot, Juan Pablo; Gonzáles, Alvaro Silva; Riew, Daniel K

    2015-07-01

    The emancipatory nature of education requires research as its fundamental base, because physicians can only improve their skills and knowledge through enquiry. The number and quality of scientific publications by Latin-American spine surgeons found in the Medline database was low between 2000 and 2011. Nevertheless, the research Bank Survey of AOSpine Latin America (AOSLA) members showed that 96% of responders were very interested and motivated to perform scientific research. The research officer of AOSLA together with the Country Council and the AOSpine Research Commission established a competency-based curriculum to improve understanding of what is necessary to produce research and the best methods to achieve this goal. The research curriculum was divided into four main components: (1) research educational plan, (2) performing research, (3) technical and professional support and (4) assessment. The competences, learning outcomes and a syllabus on knowledge in research were developed to enable the participants to understand and perform investigations effectively. The eLearning module was designed to improve the competences to access, evaluate and use scientific information available in the main databases efficiently. Research courses were given as an isolated activity four times in Brazil and Mexico and as precourse activities six times in Brazil, Mexico and Peru. The result was an increased number of articles published and works presented at congresses. The project of education in research can be effectively disseminated and applied across regions, across students and across specialties.

  19. Project first and eye on the sky: strategies for teaching space science in the early grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglierani, R.; Hawkins, I.

    Elementary educators typically have only limited opportunity to teach substantive science units. This is due, in great part, to the current primary focus on literacy and mathematics instruction in the early grades. It is not surprising then, that the time and resources allocated to science teaching are significantly less than those allocated to language arts and mathematics. The integration of elementary science curricula with language arts provides one means of addressing the challenge of maintaining a robust science presence in the elementary classroom. Project FIRST's Eye on the Sky suggests a model for the successful integration of science instruction with language arts through inquiry-based learning. The model has been adopted by other Education/Public Outreach efforts, most recently, the Cassini- Huygens Mission and the Space Telescope Institute. We will present Eye on the Sky: Our Star the Sun, a suite of integrated, inquiry-based lessons designed specifically for K-4 students and discuss data showing the program's impact on the user audience. These materials offer an exciting opportunity to explore the dynamic Sun and share research discoveries of NASA's Sun-Earth Connection with the elementary education community. The lessons were developed and tested by UC Berkeley educators and NASA scientists in partnership with classroom teachers. We will review the program components and examine the benefits and challenges inherent in implementing such a program in the elementary school setting.

  20. Construction strategies and lifetime uncertainties for nuclear projects: A real option analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Shashi, E-mail: s.jain@cwi.nl [TU Delft, Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics, Delft (Netherlands); Nuclear Research Group, Petten (Netherlands); Roelofs, Ferry, E-mail: roelofs@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research Group, Petten (Netherlands); Oosterlee, Cornelis W., E-mail: c.w.oosterlee@cwi.nl [CWI – Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); TU Delft, Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Real options can be used to value flexibility of modular reactors. • Value of NPPs increases with implementation of long term cost reductions. • Levels of uncertainties affect the choice between projects. -- Abstract: Small and medium sized reactors, SMRs (according to IAEA, ‘small’ are reactors with power less than 300 MWe, and ‘medium’ with power less than 700 MWe) are considered as an attractive option for investment in nuclear power plants. SMRs may benefit from flexibility of investment, reduced upfront expenditure, and easy integration with small sized grids. Large reactors on the other hand have been an attractive option due to economy of scale. In this paper we focus on the advantages of flexibility due to modular construction of SMRs. Using real option analysis (ROA) we help a utility determine the value of sequential modular SMRs. Numerical results under different considerations, like possibility of rare events, learning, uncertain lifetimes are reported for a single large unit and modular SMRs.

  1. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 3 -- Greenfield options: Prospects for LNG use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Pezeshki, S.; Wu, K.

    1993-12-01

    This paper begins with an overview of the Asia-Pacific LNG market, its major players, and the likely availability of LNG supplies in the region. The discussion then examines the possibilities for the economic supply of LNG to Hawaii, the potential Hawaiian market, and the viability of an LNG project on Oahu. This survey is far from a complete technical assessment or an actual engineering/feasibility study. The economics alone cannot justify LNG`s introduction. The debate may continue as to whether fuel diversification and environmental reasons can outweigh the higher costs. Several points are made. LNG is not a spot commodity. Switching to LNG in Hawaii would require a massive, long-term commitment and substantial investments. LNG supplies are growing very tight in the Asia-Pacific region. Some of the environmental benefits of LNG are not entirely relevant in Hawaii because Hawaii`s air quality is generally excellent. Any air quality benefits may be more than counterbalanced by the environmental hazards connected with large-scale coastal zone construction, and by the safety hazards of LNG carriers, pipelines, etc. Lastly, LNG is not suitable for all energy uses, and is likely to be entirely unsuitable for neighbor island energy needs.

  2. Project management office in health care: a key strategy to support evidence-based practice change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle; Richer, Marie-Claire; Aubry, Monique; Vezina, Michel; Deme, Mariama

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the contribution of a Transition Support Office (TSO) in a health care center in Canada to supporting changes in practice based on evidence and organizational performance in the early phase of a major organizational change. Semistructured individual interviews were conducted with 11 members of the TSO and 13 managers and clinicians from an ambulatory sector in the organization who received support from the TSO. The main themes addressed in the interviews were the description of the TSO, the context of implementation, and the impact. Using the Competing Value Framework by Quinn and Rohrbaugh [Public Product Rev. 1981;5(2):122-140], results revealed that the TSO is a source of expertise that facilitates innovation and implementation of change. It provides material support and human expertise for evidence-based projects. As a single organizational entity responsible for managing change, it gives a sense of cohesiveness. It also facilitates communication among human resources of the entire organization. The TSO is seen as an expertise provider that promotes competency development, training, and evidence-based practices. The impact of a TSO on change in practices and organizational performance in a health care system is discussed.

  3. Depressive symptom clusters as predictors of 6-year increases in insulin resistance: data from the Pittsburgh Healthy Heart Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambaty, Tasneem; Stewart, Jesse C; Muldoon, Matthew F; Kamarck, Thomas W

    2014-06-01

    To examine longitudinal bidirectional associations between two depressive symptom clusters-the cognitive-affective and somatic-vegetative clusters--and insulin resistance, a marker of prediabetes. Participants were 269 adults aged 50 to 70 years without diabetes enrolled in the Pittsburgh Healthy Heart Project, a prospective cohort study. At baseline and 6-year visits, participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and underwent a blood draw to quantify fasting insulin and glucose. We examined baseline BDI-II total, cognitive-affective, and somatic-vegetative scores as predictors of 6-year change in the homeostatic model of assessment (HOMA) score, an estimate of insulin resistance computed from fasting insulin and glucose. We also examined baseline HOMA score as a predictor of 6-year change in BDI-II total and subscale scores. Regression analyses, adjusted for demographic factors and baseline HOMA score, revealed that the baseline BDI-II somatic-vegetative score (β = 0.14, p = .025), but not the cognitive-affective (β = 0.001, p = .98) or total (β = 0.10, p = .11) scores, predicted 6-year HOMA change. This result persisted in models controlling for anxiety symptoms and hostility. Several factors were examined as candidate mediators; however, only change in body mass index was a significant mediator (p = .042), accounting for 23% of the observed association. Baseline HOMA score did not predict 6-year change in BDI-II total or subscale scores (all p values >.56). Among adults aged 50 to 70 years, the somatic-vegetative symptoms of depression (e.g., fatigue, sleep disturbance, and appetite changes) may worsen insulin resistance and increase diabetes risk, partly, by increasing body mass index.

  4. Project management as a tool to implement the strategy, the realities and prospects of oil and gas enterprises in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Medet Sapiuly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Project leadership is an important part of organizations’ activities. Project management makes it possible to solve some business tasks more effectively than the means of traditional and operational management. Projects hold a key role in the implementation of the organization’s strategy. Using the project leadership approach yielded uniting the functional units of the organization in a whole single team to achieve the goals and indicators of the strategy. Employing of project management in commercial and government organizations gets common in the CIS countries, including Republic of Kazakhstan. It is revealed that the implementation of a strategic management system will make it possible to minimize the consequences of the economic crisis for the oil and gas producing companies of Kazakhstan. A specific feature of Kazakhstan’s oil and gas industry lays in management system based on a functional approach, insufficient level of strategic management system and project management implementation. It is established that there are significant prospects for the development of project management in the oil and gas industry of Kazakhstan. Adoption and optimization of project leadership at the enterprises of the oil and gas industry in Kazakhstan will lead to the appropriate implementation of a strategic management system. In this regard, following measures are suggested to implement by enterprises: development of unified industry standards for project leadership; design of a training system for managers and employees; implementation of the process approach in the company’s management system; design and implementation of a Project Management Office (PMO in the company; development of a fair and progressive employees incentive program based on key performance indicators (KPI; implementation of specialized software for project management. The fulfillment of the above suggestions will significantly improve efficiency of the project management system

  5. Using public relations strategies to prompt populations at risk to seek health information: the Hanford Community Health Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gregory D; Smith, Stephen M; Turcotte, Joseph A

    2009-01-01

    The Hanford Community Health Project (HCHP) addressed health concerns among "downwinders" exposed to releases of radioactive iodine (I-131) from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in the 1940s and 1950s. After developing educational materials and conducting initial outreach, HCHP had to decide whether to apply its limited resources to an advertising or public relations approach. The decision to apply public relations strategies was effective in driving awareness of the risk communication message at the community level, reinvigorating the affected community, and ultimately increasing the number of people who sought information about their risk of exposure and related health issues. HCHP used a series of communication tools to reach out to local and regional media, medical and health professionals, and community organizations. The campaign was successful in increasing the number of unique visitors to HCHP Web site and educating and activating the medical community around the releases of I-131 and patient care choices.

  6. Applying the min-projection strategy to improve the transient performance of the three-phase grid-connected inverter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baygi, Mahdi Oloumi; Ghazi, Reza; Monfared, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    Applying the min-projection strategy (MPS) to a three-phase grid-connected inverter to improve its transient performance is the main objective of this paper. For this purpose, the inverter is first modeled as a switched linear system. Then, the feasibility of the MPS technique is investigated and the stability criterion is derived. Hereafter, the fundamental equations of the MPS for the control of the inverter are obtained. The proposed scheme is simulated in PSCAD/EMTDC environment. The validity of the MPS approach is confirmed by comparing the obtained results with those of VOC method. The results demonstrate that the proposed method despite its simplicity provides an excellent transient performance, fully decoupled control of active and reactive powers, acceptable THD level and a reasonable switching frequency. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of alternative groundwater-management strategies for the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Project, Oregon and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Brian J.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    2014-01-01

    The water resources of the upper Klamath Basin, in southern Oregon and northern California, are managed to achieve various complex and interconnected purposes. Since 2001, irrigators in the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Irrigation Project (Project) have been required to limit surface-water diversions to protect habitat for endangered freshwater and anadromous fishes. The reductions in irrigation diversions have led to an increased demand for groundwater by Project irrigators, particularly in drought years. The potential effects of sustained pumping on groundwater and surface-water resources have caused concern among Federal and state agencies, Indian tribes, wildlife groups, and groundwater users. To aid in the development of a viable groundwater-management strategy for the Project, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Klamath Water and Power Agency and the Oregon Water Resources Department, developed a groundwater-management model that links groundwater simulation with techniques of constrained optimization. The overall goal of the groundwater-management model is to determine the patterns of groundwater pumping that, to the extent possible, meet the supplemental groundwater demands of the Project. To ensure that groundwater development does not adversely affect groundwater and surface-water resources, the groundwater-management model includes constraints to (1) limit the effects of groundwater withdrawal on groundwater discharge to streams and lakes that support critical habitat for fish listed under the Endangered Species Act, (2) ensure that drawdowns do not exceed limits allowed by Oregon water law, and (3) ensure that groundwater withdrawal does not adversely affect agricultural drain flows that supply a substantial portion of water for irrigators and wildlife refuges in downslope areas of the Project. Groundwater-management alternatives were tested and designed within the framework of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (currently [2013

  8. The SCIDIP-ES project - towards an international collaboration strategy for long term preservation of earth science data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, Andrew; Glaves, Helen; Marelli, Fulvio; Albani, Mirko; Tona, Calogera; Marketakis, Yannis; Tzitzikas, Yannis; Guarino, Raffaele; Giaretta, David; Di Giammatteo, Ugo

    2013-04-01

    The capability for long term preservation of earth science data is a key requirement to support on-going research and collaboration within and between many earth science disciplines. A number of critically important current research directions (e.g. understanding climate change, and ensuring sustainability of natural resources) rely on the preservation of data often collected over several decades in a form in which it can be accessed and used easily. Another key driver for strategic long term data preservation is that key research challenges (such as those described above) frequently require cross disciplinary research utilising raw and interpreted data from a number of earth science disciplines. Effective data preservation strategies can support this requirement for interoperability and collaboration, and thereby stimulate scientific innovation. The SCIDIP-ES project (EC FP7 grant agreement no. 283401) seeks to address these and other data preservation challenges by developing a Europe wide infrastructure for long term data preservation comprising appropriate software tools and infrastructure services to enable and promote long term preservation of earth science data. Because we define preservation in terms of continued usability of the digitally encoded information, the generic infrastructure services will allow a wide variety of data to be made usable by researchers from many different domains. This approach promotes international collaboration between researchers and will enable the cost for long-term usability across disciplines to be shared supporting the creation of strong business cases for the long term support of that data. This paper will describe our progress to date, including the results of community engagement and user consultation exercises designed to specify and scope the required tools and services. Our user engagement methodology, ensuring that we are capturing the views of a representative sample of institutional users, will be described. Key

  9. FEAR BOUDARIES: RESISTENCE TO TOURISM PROJECTS AT ILHA DO MEDO (ISLE OF FEAR – MARANHÃO STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilene Leite de Sousa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses a project for communitarian tourism at Ilha do Medo, Maranhão State and the local‟s reaction to tourists. It also analyses dialogues between natives people and tourism planners in the place. Local´s reaction to the attempt of turning the island into a new attraction at San Luis indicates their concern in preserving their way of life. To do so they use fear as a strategy to keep “invaders” at a distance. The analysis made possible to reflect on relationships between tourists and native people, understand the social network woven among tourism planners, natives and ethnographers in the field, as well as learning the flux at the boundaries of fear.

  10. Horizontal infection control strategy decreases methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection and eliminates bacteremia in a surgical ICU without active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traa, Maria X; Barboza, Lorena; Doron, Shira; Snydman, David R; Noubary, Farzad; Nasraway, Stanley A

    2014-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients worldwide. Numerous healthcare bodies in Europe and the United States have championed active surveillance per the "search and destroy" model. However, this strategy is associated with significant economic, logistical, and patient costs without any impact on other hospital-acquired pathogens. We evaluated whether horizontal infection control strategies could decrease the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection in the ICU, without the need for active surveillance. Retrospective, observational study in the surgical ICU of a tertiary care medical center in Boston, MA, from 2005 to 2012. A total of 6,697 patients in the surgical ICU. Evidence-based infection prevention strategies were implemented in an iterative fashion, including 1) hand hygiene program with refresher education campaign, 2) chlorhexidine oral hygiene program, 3) chlorhexidine bathing, 4) catheter-associated bloodstream infection program, and 5) daily goals sheets. The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection fell from 2.66 to 0.69 per 1,000 patient days from 2005 to 2012, an average decrease of 21% per year. The biggest decline in rate of infection was detected in 2008, which may suggest that the catheter-associated bloodstream infection prevention program was particularly effective. Among 4,478 surgical ICU admissions over the last 5 years, not a single case of methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia was observed. Aggressive multifaceted horizontal infection control is an effective strategy for reducing the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection and eliminating methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia in the ICU without the need for active surveillance and decontamination.

  11. Antibiotics and Resistance: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Work Contact Us ABOUT THE ISSUE What is Antibiotic Resistance? General Background Science of Resistance Glossary References ... for Adaptation Genetics and Drug Resistance Reservoirs of Antibiotic Resistance Project (ROAR) INTERNATIONAL CHAPTERS APUA Chapter Network ...

  12. Strategy For Implementing The UN "Zero-Gravity Instrument Project" To Promote Space Science Among School Children In Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, O.; Agbaje, G.; Akinyede, J.

    2015-12-01

    The United Nations "Zero Gravity Instrument Project" (ZGIP) is one of the activities coordinated under the Space Education Outreach Program (SEOP) of the African Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in English (ARCSSTE-E) to popularize space science among pre-collegiate youths in Nigeria. The vision of ZGIP is to promote space education and research in microgravity. This paper will deliberate on the strategy used to implement the ZGIP to introduce school children to authentic scientific data and inquiry. The paper highlights how the students learned to collect scientific data in a laboratory environment, analyzed the data with specialized software, obtained results, interpreted and presented the results of their study in a standard format to the scientific community. About 100 school children, aged between 7 and 21 years, from ten public and private schools located in Osun State, Nigeria participated in the pilot phase of the ZGIP which commenced with a 1-day workshop in March 2014. During the inauguration workshop, the participants were introduced to the environment of outer space, with special emphasis on the concept of microgravity. They were also taught the basic principle of operation of the Clinostat, a Zero-Gravity Instrument donated to ARCSSTE-E by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UN-OOSA), Vienna, under the Human Space Technology Initiative (UN-HSTI). At the end of the workshop, each school designed a project, and had a period of 1 week, on a planned time-table, to work in the laboratory of ARCSSTE-E where they utilized the clinostat to examine the germination of indigenous plant seeds in simulated microgravity conditions. The paper also documents the post-laboratory investigation activities, which included presentation of the results in a poster competition and an evaluation of the project. The enthusiasm displayed by the students, coupled with the favorable responses recorded during an oral interview conducted to

  13. COMPAS: a European project on the ''comparison of alternative waste management strategies for long-lived radioactive wastes''. Scope, working methods and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, L.M.C.; Hillis, Z.K.; Roehlig, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the content and major findings of a project on the ''COMParison of Alternative waste management Strategies for long-lived radioactive wastes'' (COMPAS) carried out within the 5 th framework programme of the European commission. Under the leadership of NNC (UK), the project was carried out by individuals representing waste management organisations from 15 European countries. After having compiled information on the nature and amount of long-lived radioactive waste to be managed, issues influencing the selection of waste management strategies and options, presently adopted national strategies as well as options for the future were addressed. Conclusions concerning key issues for the success or otherwise of strategies and management solutions were drawn. (orig.)

  14. Tuber resistance and slow rotting characteristics of potato clones associated with the Solanaceae Coordinated Agricultural Project to the US-24 clonal lineage of Phytophthora infestans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease on potato worldwide and new lineages of the pathogen continue to develop in the U.S. Breeding for resistance is important for economic and environmental purposes. The Solanaceae Coordinated Agricultural Project (SolCAP) focuses ...

  15. 'The body gets used to them': patients' interpretations of antibiotic resistance and the implications for containment strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookes-Howell, L.; Elwyn, G.; Hood, K.; Wood, F.; Cooper, L.; Goossens, H.; Ieven, M.; Butler, C.C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interventions promoting evidence based antibiotic prescribing and use frequently build on the concept of antibiotic resistance but patients and clinicians may not share the same assumptions about its meaning. OBJECTIVE: To explore patients' interpretations of 'antibiotic resistance' and

  16. Blue ocean strategy application in the course of planning and implementation of construction projects in the area of SMART housing and social infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Alexandr K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with approaches to the analysis of competitiveness in the construction field. The methodology of blue ocean strategy was analyzed. Based on the conducted analysis a set of measures related to blue ocean strategy application in the course of planning and implementation of construction projects in the area of SMART housing and social infrastructure was developed. Implementation of the proposed methodological provisions will allow improving investment efficiency in the course of construction projects implementation and enhancing the competitive ability of the developer.

  17. The Establishment of the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (COIPARS): A Pilot Project on Poultry Farms, Slaughterhouses and Retail Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donado-Godoy, P; Castellanos, R; León, M; Arevalo, A; Clavijo, V; Bernal, J; León, D; Tafur, M A; Byrne, B A; Smith, W A; Perez-Gutierrez, E

    2015-04-01

    The development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria (AMR) is currently one of the world's most pressing public health problems. The use of antimicrobial agents in humans and animals has resulted in AMR which has narrowed the potential use of antibiotics for the treatment of infections in humans. To monitor AMR and to develop control measures, some countries, such as the USA, Canada and Denmark, have established national integrated surveillance systems (FDA, , CIPARS, 2007, DANMAP,2002). The components of these programs monitor changes in susceptibility/resistance to antimicrobial agents of selected zoonotic pathogens and commensal organisms recovered from animals, retail meats and humans. The rapid development of Colombia's animal production industry has raised food safety issues including the emergence of antibiotic resistance. The Colombian Integrated Surveillance Program for Antimicrobial Resistance (COIPARS) was established as a pilot project to monitor AMR on poultry farms, slaughter houses and retail markets. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Redeploying β-Lactam Antibiotics as a Novel Antivirulence Strategy for the Treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, Elaine M.; Rudkin, Justine K.; Coughlan, Simone; Clair, Geremy C.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Gore, Suzanna; Xia, Guoqing; Black, Nikki S.; Downing, Tim; O' Neill, Eoghan; Kadioglu, Aras; O' Gara, James P.

    2016-11-14

    Innovative approaches to the use of existing antibiotics is an important strategy in efforts to address the escalating antimicrobial resistance crisis. Here, the beta-lactam antibiotic oxacillin was shown to significantly attenuate the virulence of MRSA despite the pathogen being resistant to this drug. Oxacillin-mediated repression of the Agr quorum-sensing system and altered cell wall architecture, was associated with reduced cytolytic activity and increased susceptibility to host killing. These findings support the inclusion of -lactam antibiotics as an adjunctive anti-virulence therapy in the treatment of MRSA infections, with the potential to significantly improve patient outcomes in a safe, cost effective manner.

  19. Impact of a malaria-control project in Benin that included the integrated management of childhood illness strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Alexander K; Onikpo, Faustin; Lama, Marcel; Osterholt, Dawn M; Deming, Michael S

    2011-12-01

    To estimate the impact of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy on early-childhood mortality, we evaluated a malaria-control project in Benin that implemented IMCI and promoted insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). We conducted a before-and-after intervention study that included a nonrandomized comparison group. We used the preceding birth technique to measure early-childhood mortality (risk of dying before age 30 months), and we used health facility surveys and household surveys to measure process indicators. Most process indicators improved in the area covered by the intervention. Notably, because ITNs were also promoted in the comparison area children's ITN use increased by about 20 percentage points in both areas. Regarding early-childhood mortality, the trend from baseline (1999-2001) to follow-up (2002-2004) for the intervention area (13.0% decrease; P < .001) was 14.1% (P < .001) lower than was the trend for the comparison area (1.3% increase; P = .46). Mortality decreased in the intervention area after IMCI and ITN promotion. ITN use increased similarly in both study areas, so the mortality impact of ITNs in the 2 areas might have canceled each other out. Thus, the mortality reduction could have been primarily attributable to IMCI's effect on health care quality and care-seeking.

  20. The International hydrocoin project. Groundwater hydrology modelling strategies for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In 1984 the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, initiated the international cooperation project HYDROCOIN for the study of groundwater flow modelling in the context of radioactive waste disposal. The objective of HYDROCOIN was to improve knowledge of the influence of various strategies for groundwater flow modelling for the safety assessment of final repositories for radioactive wastes. The study comprised: the impact on the groundwater flow calculations of different solution algorithms, the capabilities of different models to describe field tests and bench-scale experiments, and the impact on the groundwater flow calculations of incorporating various physical phenomena. The work was conducted at three levels addressing code verification (Level 1), model validation (Level 2), and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of groundwater flow calculations (Level 3). This report gives an overview and summary of test cases of HYDROCOIN Level 1, the issue of validation groundwater flow models (HYDROCOIN Level 2), the methodologies used in uncertainty and sensitivity analysis (HYDROCOIN Level 3). 108 figs., 24 tabs., 2 appendices

  1. Identification of an Antimicrobial Agent Effective against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Persisters Using a Fluorescence-Based Screening Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooseong; Conery, Annie L; Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Ausubel, Frederick M; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-01-01

    Persisters are a subpopulation of normal bacterial cells that show tolerance to conventional antibiotics. Persister cells are responsible for recalcitrant chronic infections and new antibiotics effective against persisters would be a major development in the treatment of these infections. Using the reporter dye SYTOX Green that only stains cells with permeabilized membranes, we developed a fluorescence-based screening assay in a 384-well format for identifying compounds that can kill methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) persisters. The assay proved robust and suitable for high throughput screening (Z`-factor: >0.7). In screening a library of hits from a previous screen, which identified compounds that had the ability to block killing of the nematode Caenorhabditis by MRSA, we discovered that the low molecular weight compound NH125, a bacterial histidine kinase inhibitor, kills MRSA persisters by causing cell membrane permeabilization, and that 5 μg/mL of the compound can kill all cells to the limit of detection in a 108 CFU/mL culture of MRSA persisters within 3h. Furthermore, NH125 disrupts 50% of established MRSA biofilms at 20 μg/mL and completely eradicates biofilms at 160 μg/mL. Our results suggest that the SYTOX Green screening assay is suitable for large-scale projects to identify small molecules effective against MRSA persisters and should be easily adaptable to a broad range of pathogens that form persisters. Since NH125 has strong bactericidal properties against MRSA persisters and high selectivity to bacteria, we believe NH125 is a good anti-MRSA candidate drug that should be further evaluated.

  2. Identification of an Antimicrobial Agent Effective against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Persisters Using a Fluorescence-Based Screening Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooseong Kim

    Full Text Available Persisters are a subpopulation of normal bacterial cells that show tolerance to conventional antibiotics. Persister cells are responsible for recalcitrant chronic infections and new antibiotics effective against persisters would be a major development in the treatment of these infections. Using the reporter dye SYTOX Green that only stains cells with permeabilized membranes, we developed a fluorescence-based screening assay in a 384-well format for identifying compounds that can kill methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA persisters. The assay proved robust and suitable for high throughput screening (Z`-factor: >0.7. In screening a library of hits from a previous screen, which identified compounds that had the ability to block killing of the nematode Caenorhabditis by MRSA, we discovered that the low molecular weight compound NH125, a bacterial histidine kinase inhibitor, kills MRSA persisters by causing cell membrane permeabilization, and that 5 μg/mL of the compound can kill all cells to the limit of detection in a 108 CFU/mL culture of MRSA persisters within 3h. Furthermore, NH125 disrupts 50% of established MRSA biofilms at 20 μg/mL and completely eradicates biofilms at 160 μg/mL. Our results suggest that the SYTOX Green screening assay is suitable for large-scale projects to identify small molecules effective against MRSA persisters and should be easily adaptable to a broad range of pathogens that form persisters. Since NH125 has strong bactericidal properties against MRSA persisters and high selectivity to bacteria, we believe NH125 is a good anti-MRSA candidate drug that should be further evaluated.

  3. Samba for solar modules. Brazil decides reimbursement strategy and starts pilot projects; Samba fuer Solarmodule. Brasilien macht den Weg fuer die Einspeisung von Solarstrom frei und startet Pilotprojekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosell, Alejandro Diego

    2012-06-15

    Better late than never: After long years of discussion, Brazil recently decided on a reimbursement strategy. Further, pilot projects with a total of 24 MW are in te planning stage. While some expect a major invitation for tender, local experts warn of rough times ahead.

  4. Daily 2% chlorhexidine gluconate bath wash in a tertiary adult intensive care and high dependency units to reduce risk of hospital acquired multi resistant organisms: a best practice implementation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgleish, Lizanne; Jhattu, Hardeep; Gomersall, Judith Streak

    2015-07-17

    There is growing evidence that the incidence of hospital acquired multi resistant organisms are increasing worldwide. Intensive care patients are particularly prone to hospital-acquired infections. In an effort to combat increasing nosocomial infections rates within the intensive care/high dependency unit setting, Canberra Hospital has implemented a daily 2% chlorhexidine gluconate bath wash in combination as part of a best practice policy to reduce hospital acquired multi resistant organism rates of colonization. This project focused on auditing the extent to which the protocol was implemented and on promoting its implementation. The primary aim of this evidence implementation project was to promote best practice in the use of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate body cleansing in the Canberra Hospital intensive care unit and high dependency unit settings. A secondary aim was to improve intensive care/high dependency unit patient outcomes and resource utilization. The project used the Joanna Briggs Institute's Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System and Getting Research into Practice audit tools for promoting change in 2% chlorhexidine gluconate wash health practice. A baseline audit was conducted followed by a three-prong education approach strategy targeted at clinicians and finalized using a follow-up audit. There was an improvement in best practice for all criteria monitored in the follow-up audit compared to the initial audit. The most significant improvement was education and allergy assessment with 90% and 46% improvements respectively. Wipe application compliance improved by 28% to 55%, suggesting a need for continual education. Minor decreases in compliance were also noted in allergy documentation and application technique by 2% and 7% respectively. The project was successful in increasing knowledge surrounding 2% chlorhexidine gluconate wash administration and has provided a future direction for sustaining evidence-based practice change. Further audits

  5. Mapping of a Novel Race Specific Resistance Gene to Phytophthora Root Rot of Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Using Bulked Segregant Analysis Combined with Specific Length Amplified Fragment Sequencing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomei; Chao, Juan; Cheng, Xueli; Wang, Rui; Sun, Baojuan; Wang, Hengming; Luo, Shaobo; Xu, Xiaowan; Wu, Tingquan; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici) is a serious limitation to pepper production in Southern China, with high temperature and humidity. Mapping PRR resistance genes can provide linked DNA markers for breeding PRR resistant varieties by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two BC1 populations and an F2 population derived from a cross between P. capsici-resistant accession, Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334) and P. capsici-susceptible accession, New Mexico Capsicum Accession 10399 (NMCA10399) were used to investigate the genetic characteristics of PRR resistance. PRR resistance to isolate Byl4 (race 3) was controlled by a single dominant gene, PhR10, that was mapped to an interval of 16.39Mb at the end of the long arm of chromosome 10. Integration of bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and Specific Length Amplified Fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) provided an efficient genetic mapping strategy. Ten polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were found within this region and used to screen the genotypes of 636 BC1 plants, delimiting PhR10 to a 2.57 Mb interval between markers P52-11-21 (1.5 cM away) and P52-11-41 (1.1 cM). A total of 163 genes were annotated within this region and 31 were predicted to be associated with disease resistance. PhR10 is a novel race specific gene for PRR, and this paper describes linked SSR markers suitable for marker-assisted selection of PRR resistant varieties, also laying a foundation for cloning the resistance gene.

  6. Mapping of a Novel Race Specific Resistance Gene to Phytophthora Root Rot of Pepper (Capsicum annuum Using Bulked Segregant Analysis Combined with Specific Length Amplified Fragment Sequencing Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Xu

    Full Text Available Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici is a serious limitation to pepper production in Southern China, with high temperature and humidity. Mapping PRR resistance genes can provide linked DNA markers for breeding PRR resistant varieties by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS. Two BC1 populations and an F2 population derived from a cross between P. capsici-resistant accession, Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334 and P. capsici-susceptible accession, New Mexico Capsicum Accession 10399 (NMCA10399 were used to investigate the genetic characteristics of PRR resistance. PRR resistance to isolate Byl4 (race 3 was controlled by a single dominant gene, PhR10, that was mapped to an interval of 16.39Mb at the end of the long arm of chromosome 10. Integration of bulked segregant analysis (BSA and Specific Length Amplified Fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq provided an efficient genetic mapping strategy. Ten polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR markers were found within this region and used to screen the genotypes of 636 BC1 plants, delimiting PhR10 to a 2.57 Mb interval between markers P52-11-21 (1.5 cM away and P52-11-41 (1.1 cM. A total of 163 genes were annotated within this region and 31 were predicted to be associated with disease resistance. PhR10 is a novel race specific gene for PRR, and this paper describes linked SSR markers suitable for marker-assisted selection of PRR resistant varieties, also laying a foundation for cloning the resistance gene.

  7. Human cytosolic glutathione-S-transferases: quantitative analysis of expression, comparative analysis of structures and inhibition strategies of isozymes involved in drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohana, Krishnamoorthy; Achary, Anant

    2017-08-01

    Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) inhibition is a strategy to overcome drug resistance. Several isoforms of human GSTs are present and they are expressed in almost all the organs. Specific expression levels of GSTs in various organs are collected from the human transcriptome data and analysis of the organ-specific expression of GST isoforms is carried out. The variations in the level of expressions of GST isoforms are statistically significant. The GST expression differs in diseased conditions as reported by many investigators and some of the isoforms of GSTs are disease markers or drug targets. Structure analysis of various isoforms is carried out and literature mining has been performed to identify the differences in the active sites of the GSTs. The xenobiotic binding H site is classified into H1, H2, and H3 and the differences in the amino acid composition, the hydrophobicity and other structural features of H site of GSTs are discussed. The existing inhibition strategies are compared. The advent of rational drug design, mechanism-based inhibition strategies, availability of high-throughput screening, target specific, and selective inhibition of GST isoforms involved in drug resistance could be achieved for the reversal of drug resistance and aid in the treatment of diseases.

  8. Science framework for the conservation and restoration strategy of DOI secretarial order 3336: Utilizing resilience and resistance concepts to assess threats to sagebrush ecosystems and greater sage-grouse, prioritize conservation and restoration actions, and inform management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Campbell, Steve; Carlson, John; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Clause, Karen J.; Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Espinosa, Shawn; Griffin, Kathleen A.; Christiansen, Thomas J.; Crist, Michele R.; Hanser, Steven E.; Havlina, Douglas W.; Henke, Kenneth F.; Hennig, Jacob D.; Kurth, Laurie L.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Mayer, Kenneth E.; Manning, Mary E.; Mealor, Brian A.; McCarthy, Clinton; Pellant, Mike; Prentice, Karen L.; Perea, Marco A.; Pyke, David A.; Wiechman , Lief A.; Wuenschel, Amarina

    2016-01-01

    The Science Framework for the Conservation and Restoration Strategy of the Department of the Interior, Secretarial Order 3336 (SO 3336), Rangeland Fire Prevention, Management and Restoration, provides a strategic, multiscale approach for prioritizing areas for management and determining effective management strategies across the sagebrush biome. The emphasis of this version is on sagebrush ecosystems and greater sage-grouse. The Science Framework uses a six step process in which sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to nonnative, invasive annual grasses is linked to species habitat information based on the distribution and abundance of focal species. The predominant ecosystem and anthropogenic threats are assessed, and a habitat matrix is developed that helps decision makers evaluate risks and determine appropriate management strategies at regional and local scales. Areas are prioritized for management action using a geospatial approach that overlays resilience and resistance, species habitat information, and predominant threats. Decision tools are discussed for determining the suitability of priority areas for management and the most appropriate management actions at regional to local scales. The Science Framework and geospatial crosscut are intended to complement the mitigation strategies associated with the Greater Sage-Grouse Land Use Plan amendments for the Department of the Interior Bureaus, such as the Bureau of Land Management, and the U.S. Forest Service.

  9. What Is Normal, True, and Right: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Students' Written Resistance Strategies on LGBTQ Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how students perform resistance to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer topics in their written reflections in a higher education diversity course. Using a three-tiered critical discourse analysis , this article maps students' resistant textual devices in their written reflections, analyzes the institutional setting…

  10. A strategy of chemical control of Apera spica-venti L. resistant to sulfonylureas traced on the molecular level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankiewicz-Kosyl Marta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Three populations of silky bent grass (Apera spica-venti L. were tested – one that is susceptible and two that are resistant to sulfonylureas. This study assessed the efficacy of control by different herbicides in a pot experiment and estimated the molecular status of resistance to sulfonylureas in analysed populations and its effect on the efficacy of different chemical treatments. The three most effective herbicide rotation schemes were: 1 chlorsulfuron + isoproturon, ethametsulfuron + metazachlor + quinmerac, chlorsulfuron + isoproturon; 2 prosulfocarb + diflufenican, ethametsulfuron + quizalofop-p-ethyl, prosulfocarb + diflufenican; 3 diflufenican + flufenacet, quizalofop-p-ethyl, diflufenican + flufenacet. In most cases it was more difficult to destroy 100% of the resistant population from Modgarby where the majority of plants had no mutation in the als gene. In the resistant population from Babin there were significantly more individuals with mutation in the als gene, therefore exhibiting target-site resistance.

  11. The ability to manage self-proposed projects between 1;3 and 2;0 years old: a study of inhibition and resistance to interference

    OpenAIRE

    Estanislao Pastor-Mallol; Edith Santó-Rañé

    2015-01-01

    This study examines very young children's ability to manage self-proposed projects by using the inhibitory function and resistance to interference. In a natural environment and using an observational method, we conducted a longitudinal study of a sample observed at 1;3, 1;6, 1;9 and 2;0 years old. The research was divided into two studies which followed different procedures and looked at the projects carried out, the interferences produced and the functioning of inhibition. We observed signif...

  12. Mathematical Problem Solving Project: Problem Solving Strategies and Applications of Mathematics in the Elementary School. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, John F.; Springer, George

    An overview of the Mathematical Problem Solving Project, MPSP, is given. The goals, organization, and history of the project are described and the progress toward those goals is discussed. The outcomes of the project are stated, a brief diary of activities given, and a listing of technical reports made. (MP)

  13. Decubitus Ulcers of Soft Tissues in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Clinical Strategies, Insulin Resistance Indicators, Comprehensive Treatment Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Vergun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The causes of decubitus ulcers include ischaemia and neurotrophic tissue changes induced by their chronic compression, continuous pathologic moisture and shift of tissues that determine local ishaemia. The aim of the article: to study clinical options and suppurative complications of decubitus ulcers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM in terms of insulin resistance (IR in the context of combined treatment optimization. Materials and methods. Total sample of retro- and prospective analyses involved results of comprehensive treatment of 112 patients. Type 2 DM was diagnosed in 37 patients, I comparison group included 27 patients with decubitus ulcers without complications (I–III stages and DM, with decubitus ulcers stage IV — II comparison group; and the control group included other 75 individuals. Results. The patients with type 2 DM (I comparison group had considerable decrease in HOMA index of β-cell function and increased HOMA index of IR (8.31 ± 0.02, р < 0.01. Patients with type 2 DM with complicated decubitus ulcers (II comparison group had more significant increase of circulating insulin indexes (p2 < 0.01, HOMA index of IR (p2 < 0.05, and considerable decrease on HOMA index of β-cell function (p2 < 0.05. The correlation analysis of HOMA-IR indicators and element concentration in the blood revealed the correlation only in patients with type 2 DM (I and II comparison groups: potent negative correlation (r = –0.72; p < 0.001 was revealed between the HOMA-IR and Mg2+ content in erythrocytes; intermediate negative correlation (r = –0.66; p < 0.01 — between HOMA-IR and Zn2+ concentration in the blood serum; and a negative one (r = –0.69; p < 0.01 — between HOMA-IR and Cr3+ level in the blood serum. Conclusions. The advantage of the proposed classification of decubitus ulcers of soft tissue and a sequence of comprehensive treatment is considering the features of

  14. Toward a bioethical framework for antibiotic use, antimicrobial resistance and for empirically designing ethically robust strategies to protect human health: a research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Marrero, Pablo; Martins Pereira, Sandra; de Sá Brandão, Patrícia Joana; Araújo, Joana; Carvalho, Ana Sofia

    2017-12-01

    Introduction Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a challenging global and public health issue, raising bioethical challenges, considerations and strategies. Objectives This research protocol presents a conceptual model leading to formulating an empirically based bioethics framework for antibiotic use, AMR and designing ethically robust strategies to protect human health. Methods Mixed methods research will be used and operationalized into five substudies. The bioethical framework will encompass and integrate two theoretical models: global bioethics and ethical decision-making. Results Being a study protocol, this article reports on planned and ongoing research. Conclusions Based on data collection, future findings and using a comprehensive, integrative, evidence-based approach, a step-by-step bioethical framework will be developed for (i) responsible use of antibiotics in healthcare and (ii) design of strategies to decrease AMR. This will entail the analysis and interpretation of approaches from several bioethical theories, including deontological and consequentialist approaches, and the implications of uncertainty to these approaches.

  15. Strategies to Prevent and Control the Emergence and Spread of Antimicrobial-Resistant Microorganisms in Hospitals. A challenge to hospital leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, D A; Weinstein, R A; Wenzel, R P; Tablan, O C; Duma, R J; Gaynes, R P; Schlosser, J; Martone, W J

    1996-01-17

    To provide hospital leaders with strategic goals or actions likely to have a significant impact on antimicrobial resistance, outline outcome and process measures for evaluating progress toward each goal, describe potential barriers to success, and suggest countermeasures and novel improvement strategies. A multidisciplinary group of experts was drawn from the following areas: hospital epidemiology and infection control, infectious diseases (including graduate training programs), clinical practice (including nursing, surgery, internal medicine, and pediatrics), pharmacy, administration, quality improvement, appropriateness evaluation, behavior modification, practice guideline development, medical informatics, and outcomes research. Representatives from appropriate federal agencies, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, and the pharmaceutical industry also participated. Published literature, guidelines, expert opinion, and practical experience regarding efforts to improve antibiotic utilization and prevent and control the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms in hospitals. Participants were divided into two quality improvement teams: one focusing on improving antimicrobial usage and the other on preventing and controlling transmission of resistant microorganisms. The teams modeled the process a hospital might use to develop and implement a strategic plan to combat antimicrobial resistance. Ten strategic goals and related process and outcome measures were agreed on. The five strategic goals to optimize antimicrobial use were as follows: optimizing antimicrobial prophylaxis for operative procedures; optimizing choice and duration of empiric therapy; improving antimicrobial prescribing by educational and administrative means; monitoring and providing feedback regarding antibiotic resistance; and defining and implementing health care delivery system guidelines for important types of antimicrobial use. The five

  16. Drug discovery strategies in the field of tumor energy metabolism: Limitations by metabolic flexibility and metabolic resistance to chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoedo, N D; Obre, E; Rossignol, R

    2017-08-01

    The search for new drugs capable of blocking the metabolic vulnerabilities of human tumors has now entered the clinical evaluation stage, but several projects already failed in phase I or phase II. In particular, very promising in vitro studies could not be translated in vivo at preclinical stage and beyond. This was the case for most glycolysis inhibitors that demonstrated systemic toxicity. A more recent example is the inhibition of glutamine catabolism in lung adenocarcinoma that failed in vivo despite a strong addiction of several cancer cell lines to glutamine in vitro. Such contradictory findings raised several questions concerning the optimization of drug discovery strategies in the field of cancer metabolism. For instance, the cell culture models in 2D or 3D might already show strong limitations to mimic the tumor micro- and macro-environment. The microenvironment of tumors is composed of cancer cells of variegated metabolic profiles, supporting local metabolic exchanges and symbiosis, but also of immune cells and stroma that further interact with and reshape cancer cell metabolism. The macroenvironment includes the different tissues of the organism, capable of exchanging signals and fueling the tumor 'a distance'. Moreover, most metabolic targets were identified from their increased expression in tumor transcriptomic studies, or from targeted analyses looking at the metabolic impact of particular oncogenes or tumor suppressors on selected metabolic pathways. Still, very few targets were identified from in vivo analyses of tumor metabolism in patients because such studies are difficult and adequate imaging methods are only currently being developed for that purpose. For instance, perfusion of patients with [ 13 C]-glucose allows deciphering the metabolomics of tumors and opens a new area in the search for effective targets. Metabolic imaging with positron emission tomography and other techniques that do not involve [ 13 C] can also be used to evaluate tumor

  17. Bridging the gap: evaluation of a pilot project to facilitate use of psychosocial strategies across an occupational therapy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Sarah K; Stube, Jan; Bass, Gail

    2015-04-01

     The integration of psychosocial strategies into pediatric and physical disabilities coursework presents an issue of importance to advancing the outcomes for both occupational therapy education and practice. After curriculum mapping and modification to course content, a retrospective student survey and review of educational outcomes were undertaken in one curriculum. The programmatic formative evaluation results demonstrated that all students felt moderately prepared to use cognitive-behavioral strategies in their future practices, preferring behavioral strategies over cognitive strategies for changing client thinking. Implications for the importance of integration of psychosocial content across curricula and for future study of effective teaching methods within classroom learning activities and fieldwork are included.

  18. HCHO and NO2 MAXDOAS retrieval strategies harmonization: Recent results from the EU FP7 project QA4ECV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinardi, Gaia; Peters, Enno; Hendrick, François; Gielen, Clio; Van Roozendael, Michel; Richter, Andreas; Piters, Ankie; Wagner, Thomas; Wang, Yang; Drosoglou, Theano; Bais, Alkis; Wang, Shanshan; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade, it has been extensively demonstrated that MAXDOAS is a useful and reliable technique to retrieve integrated column amounts of tropospheric trace gases and aerosols, as well as information on their vertical distributions. Since it is based on optical remote-sensing in the UV-visible region like nadir backscatter space-borne sensors, MAXDOAS is also increasingly recognized as a reference technique for validating satellite nadir observations of air quality species like NO2 and HCHO. However, building up an harmonized network of MAXDOAS spectrometers requires significant efforts in terms of common retrieval strategies and best-practices definitions. Within the EU FP7 project QA4ECV (Quality Assurance for Essential Climate Variables; see http://www.qa4ecv.eu/), harmonization activities have been initiated focusing on the two main steps of the MAXDOAS retrieval, i.e. the DOAS spectral fit providing the so-called differential slant column densities (DSCDs) and the conversion of the retrieved DSCDs to vertical profiles and/or vertical column densities (VCDs). Regarding the first step, the DOAS settings for HCHO and NO2 are optimized through an intercomparison exercise of slant column retrievals involving 15 groups of the MAXDOAS community including the QA4ECV partners, and based on the radiance spectra acquired during the MAD-CAT campaign held in Mainz (Germany) in June-July 2013 (see http://joseba.mpch-mainz.mpg.de/mad_cat.htm). The harmonization of the second step is done through the application of an AMF (aim mass factor) look-up table (LUT) approach on the optimized NO2 and HCHO DSCDs. The AMF LUTs depend on entry parameters like SZA, elevation and relative azimuth angles, wavelength, boundary layer height, AOD, and surface albedo. The advantages and drawbacks of the LUT approach are illustrated at several stations through comparison of the derived VCDs with those retrieved using the more sophisticated Optimal-Estimation-based profiling method

  19. Inhibition of protein kinase CK2 by CX-5011 counteracts imatinib-resistance preventing rpS6 phosphorylation in chronic myeloid leukaemia cells: new combined therapeutic strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salizzato, Valentina; Borgo, Christian; Cesaro, Luca; Pinna, Lorenzo A.; Donella-Deana, Arianna

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder promoted by the constitutive tyrosine kinase activity of Bcr-Abl oncoprotein. Although treatment with the Bcr-Abl-inhibitor imatinib represents the first-line therapy against CML, almost 20-30% of patients develop chemotherapeutic resistance and require alternative therapy. Here we show that a strong hyper-phosphorylation/activation of ERK1/2, Akt Ser473, and 40S ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) is detectable in imatinib-resistant KCL22 and K562 CML cells as compared to the -sensitive cell variants. In imatinib-resistant CML cells, high concentration of imatinib is required to strongly inhibit Bcr-Abl, ERK1/2 and Akt Ser473 phosphorylation, but under these conditions the phosphorylation of rpS6, a common downstream effector of MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways is only slightly reduced. By contrast, down-regulation of the protein kinase CK2 by the inhibitor CX-5011 or by silencing the CK2 subunits does not affect the activation state of MEK/ERK1/2 or PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling, but causes a drop in rpS6 phosphorylation in parallel with reduced protein synthesis. CK2-inhibition by CX-5011 induces cell death by apoptosis and acts synergistically with imatinib or the MEK-inhibitor U0126 in reducing the viability of imatinib-resistant CML cells. The ternary mixture containing CX-5011, imatinib and U0126 represents the most effective synergistic combination to counteract CML cell viability. These results disclose a novel CK2-mediated mechanism of acquired imatinib-resistance resulting in hyper-phosphorylation of rpS6. We suggest that co-targeting CK2 and MEK protein kinases is a promising strategy to restore responsiveness of resistant CML cells to imatinib. PMID:26919095

  20. Evaluation of a Mixing versus a Cycling Strategy of Antibiotic Use in Critically-Ill Medical Patients: Impact on Acquisition of Resistant Microorganisms and Clinical Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazaret Cobos-Trigueros

    Full Text Available To compare the effect of two strategies of antibiotic use (mixing vs. cycling on the acquisition of resistant microorganisms, infections and other clinical outcomes.Prospective cohort study in an 8-bed intensive care unit during 35- months in which a mixing-cycling policy of antipseudomonal beta-lactams (meropenem, ceftazidime/piperacillin-tazobactam and fluoroquinolones was operative. Nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs and respiratory secretions were obtained within 48h of admission and thrice weekly thereafter. Target microorganisms included methicillin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters.A total of 409 (42% patients were included in mixing and 560 (58% in cycling. Exposure to ceftazidime/piperacillin-tazobactam and fluoroquinolones was significantly higher in mixing while exposure to meropenem was higher in cycling, although overall use of antipseudomonals was not significantly different (37.5/100 patient-days vs. 38.1/100 patient-days. There was a barely higher acquisition rate of microorganisms during mixing, but this difference lost its significance when the cases due to an exogenous Burkholderia cepacia outbreak were excluded (19.3% vs. 15.4%, OR 0.8, CI 0.5-1.1. Acquisition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to the intervention antibiotics or with multiple-drug resistance was similar. There were no significant differences between mixing and cycling in the proportion of patients acquiring any infection (16.6% vs. 14.5%, OR 0.9, CI 0.6-1.2, any infection due to target microorganisms (5.9% vs. 5.2%, OR 0.9, CI 0.5-1.5, length of stay (median 5 d for both groups or mortality (13.9 vs. 14.3%, OR 1.03, CI 0.7-1.3.A cycling strategy of antibiotic use with a 6-week cycle duration is similar to mixing in terms of acquisition of resistant microorganisms, infections, length of stay and mortality.

  1. Pattern of Task Interpretation and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies of High School Students and College Freshmen during an Engineering Design Project

    OpenAIRE

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Butler, Deborah; Cartier, Sylvie; Santoso, Harry B.; Goodridge, Wade H.; Lawanto, Kevin N.; Clark, David

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this exploratory study was to describe patterns in self-regulated learning (SRL) for secondary school and college freshmen while engaged in a design activity. The main research question guiding the study was: In what ways did secondary and first year college students differ in addressing an engineering design project? Specific focus was given by exploring how these two groups of students compared in their (1) task interpretation in relation to reported strategy use during the...

  2. A retrospective critic Re-Debate on Stakeholders’ resistance checklist in software project management within multi-cultural, multi-ethnical and cosmopolitan society context: The Malaysian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Taherdoost

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Risks stemming from software projects were extensively studied. However, software project risk management has rarely researched organizational risks within multi-cultural and multi-ethnical atmospheres. The fact of the matter is that problems occur when the stakeholders’ cultural and ethnical aspects are not addressed, especially in multi-cultural, multi-ethnical, and cosmopolitan society such as Malaysia. To avoid analyzing something that has already been studied in detail, this study conducted based on in-depth literature review considering key word search in subject-specific databases. Journal articles published in reputed journals were reviewed. By employing Rumelt’s resistance to change checklist and culture gap tool source, this paper develops an organizational risk framework considering cross-cultural and cross-ethnical critical factors in order to show how can risks be better comprehended and managed. The significance of bio-cultural dimensions was scrutinized as vital criteria which should be considered in international project sphere, so that, not only the odds of project success would be increased but also the risks can be mitigated significantly. A review of the risk management process, Rumelt’s Checklist, cultural issues in international project environment allows a better understanding of the importance of cultural dimensions in project spheres.

  3. Effect of the pacing strategy during half-duration resistance test on the mechanic, metabolic and cardio-respiratory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pérez-Guerra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Changes in pacing rhythm are translated into functional and metabolic changes that can be significantly reflected in the final results of an athlete. Method: Ten male subjects, with moderate performance level (age: 25.2 ± 2.2 years; VO2max: 56.9 ± 5.7 ml kg−1 min−1, performed four 5-min races with different pacing strategies: constant-pace (CP, record-pace (RP, kicker-pace (KP, incremental-pace (IP. Results: The cardio-respiratory response did not show statistically significant. There were statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 in the energetic efficiency among the protocols CP vs. RP, CP vs. KP and RP vs. IP. When results were analyzed by partials (1-min duration phases, significant differences were observed in the energetic efficiency during the 3rd-min among CP vs. KP, RP vs. KP and KP vs. IP. These significant differences were extended to the 4th-min when comparing CP vs. IP, CP vs. KP, KP vs. RP and KP vs. IP. In the last minute of the test, there were significant differences among CP vs. KP. No significant differences were found in any of the variables assessing anaerobic metabolism (accumulated oxygen deficit, oxygen debt, oxygen uptake kinetics and blood lactate between both protocols. Conclusions: Results suggest that the main functional systems response are significantly affected by the pacing strategy used by middle-level subjects during middle-distance running. Resumen: Objetivo: Los cambios en el ritmo de carrera se traducen en cambios funcionales y metabólicos que pueden reflejarse significativamente en los resultados finales de un atleta. Método: Diez sujetos varones, con un nivel medio (edad: 25.2 ± 2.2 años; VO2max: 56.9 ± 5.7 mlkg−1min−1, llevaron a cabo carreras de 5 minutos con diferentes estrategias: ritmo constante (RC, ritmo récord (RR, ritmo kicker (RK y ritmo incremental (RI. Resultados: La respuesta

  4. Sexual Behavior, Risk Compensation, and HIV Prevention Strategies Among Participants in the San Francisco PrEP Demonstration Project: A Qualitative Analysis of Counseling Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojilla, J. Carlo; Koester, Kimberly A.; Cohen, Stephanie E.; Buchbinder, Susan; Ladzekpo, Deawodi; Matheson, Tim; Liu, Albert Y

    2015-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a viable HIV prevention strategy but risk compensation could undermine potential benefits. There are limited data that examine this phenomenon outside of clinical trials. We conducted a qualitative analysis of counseling notes from the San Francisco site of the US PrEP Demonstration Project to assess how men who have sex with men (MSM) used PrEP as a prevention strategy and its impact on their sexual practices. Four major themes emerged from our analysis of 130 distinct notes associated with 26 participants. Prevention strategy decision-making was dynamic, often influenced by the context and perceived risk of a sexual encounter. Counselors noted that participants used PrEP in conjunction with other health promotion strategies like condoms, asking about HIV status of their sex partners, and seroadaptation. With few exceptions, existing risk reduction strategies were not abandoned upon initiation of PrEP. Risk-taking behavior was ‘seasonal’ and fluctuations were influenced by various personal, psychosocial, and health-related factors. PrEP also helped relieve anxiety regarding sex and HIV, particularly among serodiscordant partners. Understanding sexual decision-making and how PrEP is incorporated into existing prevention strategies can help inform future PrEP implementation efforts. PMID:25835463

  5. Emergency monitoring strategy and radiation measurements document of the NKS project emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, J. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland)

    2006-04-15

    This report is one of the deliverables of the NKS Project Emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD) (20022005). The project and the overall results are briefly described in the NKS publication 'Emergency Management and Radiation Monitoring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents. Summary Report on the NKS Project EMARAD' (NKS-137, April 2006). In a nuclear or radiological emergency, all radiation measurements must be performed efficiently and the results interpreted correctly in order to provide the decision-makers with adequate data needed in analysing the situation and carrying out countermeasures. Managing measurements in different situations in a proper way requires the existence of pre-prepared emergency monitoring strategies. Preparing a comprehensive yet versatile strategy is not an easy task to perform because there are lots of different factors that have to be taken into account. The primary objective of this study was to discuss the general problematics concerning emergency monitoring strategies and to describe a few important features of an efficient emergency monitoring system as well as factors affecting measurement activities in practise. Some information concerning the current situation in the Nordic countries has also been included. (au)

  6. Emergency monitoring strategy and radiation measurements. Working document of the NKS project emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahtinen, J.

    2006-04-01

    This report is one of the deliverables of the NKS Project Emergency management and radiation monitoring in nuclear and radiological accidents (EMARAD) (20022005). The project and the overall results are briefly described in the NKS publication 'Emergency Management and Radiation Monitoring in Nuclear and Radiological Accidents. Summary Report on the NKS Project EMARAD' (NKS-137, April 2006). In a nuclear or radiological emergency, all radiation measurements must be performed efficiently and the results interpreted correctly in order to provide the decision-makers with adequate data needed in analysing the situation and carrying out countermeasures. Managing measurements in different situations in a proper way requires the existence of pre-prepared emergency monitoring strategies. Preparing a comprehensive yet versatile strategy is not an easy task to perform because there are lots of different factors that have to be taken into account. The primary objective of this study was to discuss the general problematics concerning emergency monitoring strategies and to describe a few important features of an efficient emergency monitoring system as well as factors affecting measurement activities in practise. Some information concerning the current situation in the Nordic countries has also been included. (au)

  7. Discovery of quinoline small molecules with potent dispersal activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms using a scaffold hopping strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelhassan, Yasmeen; Garrison, Aaron T; Burch, Gena M; Wong, Wilson; Norwood, Verrill M; Huigens, Robert W

    2014-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are recognized as the most frequent cause of biofilm-associated nosocomial and indwelling medical device infections. Biofilm-associated infections are known to be highly resistant to our current arsenal of clinically used antibiotics and antibacterial agents. To exacerbate this problem, no therapeutic option exists that targets biofilm-dependent machinery critical to Staphylococcal biofilm formation and maintenance. Here, we describe the discovery of a series of quinoline small molecules that demonstrate potent biofilm dispersal activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and S. epidermidis using a scaffold hopping strategy. This interesting class of quinolines also has select synthetic analogues that demonstrate potent antibacterial activity and biofilm inhibition against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Collaborative Project: The problem of bias in defining uncertainty in computationally enabled strategies for data-driven climate model development. Final Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, Gabriel [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-10

    The objective of the project is to develop strategies for better representing scientific sensibilities within statistical measures of model skill that then can be used within a Bayesian statistical framework for data-driven climate model development and improved measures of model scientific uncertainty. One of the thorny issues in model evaluation is quantifying the effect of biases on climate projections. While any bias is not desirable, only those biases that affect feedbacks affect scatter in climate projections. The effort at the University of Texas is to analyze previously calculated ensembles of CAM3.1 with perturbed parameters to discover how biases affect projections of global warming. The hypothesis is that compensating errors in the control model can be identified by their effect on a combination of processes and that developing metrics that are sensitive to dependencies among state variables would provide a way to select version of climate models that may reduce scatter in climate projections. Gabriel Huerta at the University of New Mexico is responsible for developing statistical methods for evaluating these field dependencies. The UT effort will incorporate these developments into MECS, which is a set of python scripts being developed at the University of Texas for managing the workflow associated with data-driven climate model development over HPC resources. This report reflects the main activities at the University of New Mexico where the PI (Huerta) and the Postdocs (Nosedal, Hattab and Karki) worked on the project.

  9. Strategy; Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-07-15

    Francois Loos, Minister of Industry, explains the French energy policy in the frame of Europe. ONERC is a French public body in charge of defining a national strategy against climate changes. It submits its first strategic elements to the Government. (authors)

  10. Counterproliferation strategy: The influence of technology, budget, and arms control on theater missile defenses. Strategic research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parlier, G.H.

    1996-05-20

    This paper describes the historical evolution of the theater missile threat during World War II and the Persian Gulf War, and analyzes current technological challenges, budgetary pressures, and arms control restraints which constrain the development and deployment of effective theater missile defenses. The impact of these trends on strategic concepts as outlined in the National Military Strategy and their implications for attaining national policy objectives is assessed. A systems approach is used to described analyze, and evaluate the effectiveness of emerging counterproliferation strategy within the framework of an ends-ways-means strategy formulation paradigm. I conclude that current trends will lead to a self-deterring strategy: resources are inadequate to support the ways we intend to achieve our national objectives. Recommendations are made to eliminate unacceptable risk and enhance the concept of `extended conventional deterrence` consistent with U.S. national values and security interests for our role in a new world order.

  11. Whitebark Pine Germination, Rust Resistance, and Cold Hardiness Among Seed Sources in the Inland Northwest: Planting Strategies for Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary F. Mahalovich; Karen E. Burr; David L. Foushee

    2006-01-01

    A synthesis of several studies highlights above-average performing seed sources (n = 108) of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), which practitioners can utilize for restoration, wildlife habitat improvement, and operational planting programs. It is the first report of this magnitude of blister rust resistance for this species. Whitebark pine does have...

  12. Biological degradation of wood-plastic composites (WPC) and strategies for improving the resistance of WPC against biological decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anke Schirp; Rebecca E. Ibach; David E. Pendleton; Michael P. Wolcott

    2008-01-01

    Much of the research on wood-plastic composites (WPC) has focused on formulation development and processing while high biological durability of the material was assumed. The gap between assumption and knowledge in biodeterioration of WPC needs to be reduced. Although some information on the short-term resistance of WPC against biological degradation is available, long-...

  13. Effects of different volume-equated resistance training loading strategies on muscular adaptations in well-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Peterson, Mark D; Contreras, Bret; Sonmez, G T; Alvar, Brent A

    2014-10-01

    Regimented resistance training has been shown to promote marked increases in skeletal muscle mass. Although muscle hypertrophy can be attained through a wide range of resistance training programs, the principle of specificity, which states that adaptations are specific to the nature of the applied stimulus, dictates that some programs will promote greater hypertrophy than others. Research is lacking, however, as to the best combination of variables required to maximize hypertophic gains. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscular adaptations to a volume-equated bodybuilding-type training program vs. a powerlifting-type routine in well-trained subjects. Seventeen young men were randomly assigned to either a hypertrophy-type resistance training group that performed 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum (RM) with 90 seconds rest or a strength-type resistance training (ST) group that performed 7 sets of 3RM with a 3-minute rest interval. After 8 weeks, no significant differences were noted in muscle thickness of the biceps brachii. Significant strength differences were found in favor of ST for the 1RM bench press, and a trend was found for greater increases in the 1RM squat. In conclusion, this study showed that both bodybuilding- and powerlifting-type training promote similar increases in muscular size, but powerlifting-type training is superior for enhancing maximal strength.

  14. A Strategy for Maintaining Public Opinion Support on a Controversial Issue: An Empirical Test of Resistance Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudino, James L.; Harris, Allen C.

    To extend the resistance-to-persuasion literature into a context relevant to public relations, a study examined the reactions of 147 Michigan State University students after viewing edited versions of President Ronald Reagan's televised address of February 26, 1986. Reagan's address, concerning his request for public support of an increase in…

  15. Patterns of HIV-1 drug resistance after first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure in 6 sub-Saharan African countries: implications for second-line ART strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Raph L; Sigaloff, Kim C E; Wensing, Annemarie M; Wallis, Carole L; Kityo, Cissy; Siwale, Margaret; Mandaliya, Kishor; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette E; Wellington, Maureen; Osibogun, Akin; Stevens, Wendy S; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Schuurman, Rob

    2012-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance may limit the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This cohort study examined patterns of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) in individuals with virological failure on first-line ART at 13 clinical sites in 6 African countries and predicted their impact on second-line drug susceptibility. A total of 2588 antiretroviral-naive individuals initiated ART consisting of different nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbones (zidovudine, stavudine, tenofovir, or abacavir, plus lamivudine or emtricitabine) with either efavirenz or nevirapine. Population sequencing after 12 months of ART was retrospectively performed if HIV RNA was >1000 copies/mL. The 2010 International Antiviral Society-USA list was used to score major DRMs. The Stanford algorithm was used to predict drug susceptibility. HIV-1 sequences were generated for 142 participants who virologically failed ART, of whom 70% carried ≥1 DRM and 49% had dual-class resistance, with an average of 2.4 DRMs per sequence (range, 1-8). The most common DRMs were M184V (53.5%), K103N (28.9%), Y181C (15.5%), and G190A (14.1%). Thymidine analogue mutations were present in 8.5%. K65R was frequently selected by stavudine (15.0%) or tenofovir (27.7%). Among participants with ≥1 DRM, HIV-1 susceptibility was reduced in 93% for efavirenz/nevirapine, in 81% for lamivudine/emtricitabine, in 59% for etravirine/rilpivirine, in 27% for tenofovir, in 18% for stavudine, and in 10% for zidovudine. Early failure detection limited the accumulation of resistance. After stavudine failure in African populations, zidovudine rather than tenofovir may be preferred in second-line ART. Strategies to prevent HIV-1 resistance are a global priority.

  16. Strategies of Action for Strengthening the Associated Schools Project in the Asia-Pacific Region. Final Report of a Regional Meeting to Formulate Strategies of Action for National Co-ordinators of Unesco Associated Schools Project (Bangkok, Thailand, December 16-22, 1986).

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    Results of a regional meeting to assess the current situation of the Associated Schools Project and to develop strategies of action at the national level are presented in this report. Twelve observers from China and Thailand and 16 representatives from 10 countries participated in the meeting. Participating countries included Australia,…

  17. Infection Prevention Strategy in Hospitals in the Era of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the Asia-Pacific Region: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun Young; Chung, Doo Ryeon

    2017-05-15

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has emerged as an important cause of healthcare-associated infection. CA-MRSA clones have replaced classic hospital MRSA clones in many countries and have shown higher potential in transmission and virulence than hospital MRSA clones. In particular, the emergence of CA-MRSA in the Asia-Pacific region is concerning owing to insufficient infection control measures in the region. The old strategies for infection prevention and control of MRSA comprised adherence to standard precaution and policy of active screening of MRSA carriers and decolonization, and it has been controversial which strategy is better in terms of outcome and cost-effectiveness. Epidemiological changes in MRSA has made the development of infection prevention strategy more complicated. Based on the literature review and the questionnaire survey, we considered infection prevention strategies for healthcare settings in the Asia-Pacific region in the era of CA-MRSA. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The Quebec rural emergency department project: a cross-sectional study of a potential two-pronged strategy in the knowledge transfer process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélodie-Anne Drouin

    Full Text Available Health services research generates useful knowledge. Promotion of implementation of this knowledge in medical practice is essential. Prior to initiation of a major study on rural emergency departments (EDs, we deployed two knowledge transfer strategies designed to generate interest and engagement from potential knowledge users. The objective of this paper was to review: 1 a combined project launch and media press release strategy, and 2 a pre-study survey designed to survey potential knowledge users' opinions on the proposed study variables.We evaluated the impact of the project launch (presentation at two conferences hosted by key stakeholders and media press release via a survey of participants/stakeholders and by calculating the number of media interview requests and reports generated. We used a pre-study survey to collect potential key stakeholder' opinions on the study variables.Twenty-one of Quebec's 26 rural EDs participated in the pre-study survey (81% participation rate. The press release about the study generated 51 press articles and 20 media request for interviews, and contributed to public awareness of a major rural research initiative. In the pre-study survey, thirteen participants (46% mentioned prior knowledge of the research project. Results from the pre-study survey revealed that all of the potential study variables were considered to be relevant for inclusion in the research project. Respondents also proposed additional variables of interest, including factors promoting retention of human resources.The present study demonstrated the potential utility of a two-pronged knowledge transfer strategy, including a combined formal launch and press release, and a pre-study survey designed to ensure that the included variables were of interest to participants and stakeholders.

  19. Selection strategies of segregant soybean populations for resistance to Asian rust Estratégias de seleção de populações segregantes de soja para resistência à ferrugem-asiática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliny Simony Ribeiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify the best selection strategies for the more promising parental combinations to obtain lines with good resistance to soybean Asian rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi. Two experiments were carried out in the field during the 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 growing seasons, to determine the percentage of infected leaf area of individual plants of five parents and their segregant F2 and F3 populations. The data obtained indicates that additive genetic variance predominates in the control of soybean resistance to Asian rust, and that the year and time of assessment do not significantly influence the estimates of the genetic parameters obtained. The narrow-sense heritability (h²r ranged from 23.12 to 55.83%, and indicates the possibility of successful selection of resistant individuals in the early generations of the breeding program. All the procedures used to select the most promising populations to generate superior inbred lines for resistance to P. pachyrhizi presented similar results and identified the BR01-18437 x BRS 232 population as the best for inbred line selection.O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar as estratégias mais eficientes para selecionar as combinações parentais mais promissoras e obter linhas com bom grau de resistência à ferrugem-asiática da soja (Phakopsora pachyrhizi. Dois experimentos foram realizados em campo nos anos agrícolas 2006/2007 e 2007/2008, para avaliar a percentagem da área foliar infectada em plantas individuais de cinco parentais e das suas populações segregantes F2 e F3. Os dados obtidos indicam que a variância genética aditiva predomina no controle da resistência da soja à ferrugem-asiática e que os anos e as épocas de avaliação não influenciaram significativamente as estimativas dos parâmetros genéticos obtidos. A herdabilidade no sentido restrito (h²r variou de 23,12 a 55,83%, o que indica a possibilidade de sucesso com a seleção de indiv

  20. An assessment strategy for proposals of engineering projects in the Bachelor of Biomedical Engineering Curriculum at Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Villa, N; Jiménez-González, A; Ortiz-Posadas, M R

    2015-08-01

    Since 1974, the Bachelor of Biomedical Engineering Program (BBME) is offered at Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, in Mexico City. By design, it must be completed in four years (12 trimesters) and, in the latter three, the senior students work on a BME project, which is done by completing three modules: Project Seminar (PS), Project on BME I and Project on BME II. In the PS module, the student must find a problem of interest in the BME field and suggest a solution through the development of an Engineering Project Proposal (EPP). Currently, the module is being taught by two faculty members of the BBME, who instruct students on how to develop their EPPs and evaluate their progress by reviewing a number of EPPs during the trimester. This generates a huge workload for the module instructors, which makes it necessary to involve more faculty members trimester-to-trimester (i.e. every 12 weeks) and, therefore, to create a set of systematic guidelines that ease the evaluation process for new instructors. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to present an assessment strategy (in the form of an assessment matrix) for the PS module as well as some preliminary results after two trimesters of its implementation.

  1. Nurse managers' strategies for feeling less drained by their work: an action research and reflection project for developing emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bev; Roberts, Sue; Smyth, Therese; Tulloch, Moira

    2015-10-01

    To raise nurse managers' critical awareness of practice problems; uncover practice constraints and improve work effectiveness. Nurse management requires skills and knowledge, underscored by emotional intelligence. The research improved participants' practice and personal insights. Purposive sampling targeted nurse managers interested in improving their practice. Three experienced female nurse managers met fortnightly in a group, for 1 hour, for 10 meetings. The methods included: writing and sharing de-identified journal reflections; critically analysing practice stories; identifying a thematic concern; generating action strategies; and instituting and revising the action plan. Phase One resulted in the identification of the issue of 'being drained by the intensity of nurse managers' work'. The participants adopted five strategies: debriefing problematic situations; deflecting multiple requests; diffusing issues; naming dysfunctional behaviours; and regrouping. In Phase Two, participants implemented and revised the action plan strategies, which resulted in them feeling less drained by their work. Strategies can lessen nurse managers' sense of personal depletion. However, strategies cannot guarantee success every time because the emotional intelligence is integral to nurse management. Action research and reflection assist nurse managers to improve their practice and develop their emotional intelligence. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Design and deployment strategies for small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) to overcome loss of economies of scale and incorporate increased proliferation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.

    2007-01-01

    The designers of innovative small and medium sized reactors pursue new design and deployment strategies making use of certain advantages provided by smaller reactor size and capacity to achieve reduced design complexity and simplified operation and maintenance requirements, and to provide for incremental capacity increase through multi-module plant clustering. Competitiveness of SMRs (Small and Medium size Reactor) depends on the incorporated strategies to overcome loss of economies of scale but equally it depends on finding appropriate market niches for such reactors. For many less developed countries, these are the features of enhanced proliferation resistance and increased robustness of barriers for sabotage protection that may ensure the progress of nuclear power. For such countries, small reactors without on-site refuelling, designed for infrequent replacement of well-contained fuel cassette(s) in a manner that impedes clandestine diversion of nuclear fuel material, may provide a solution. Based on the outputs of recent IAEA activities for innovative SMRs, the paper provides a summary of the state-of-the-art in approaches to improve SMR competitiveness and incorporate enhanced proliferation resistance and energy security. (author)

  3. Resistance-resistant antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Eric; Feng, Xinxin

    2014-12-01

    New antibiotics are needed because drug resistance is increasing while the introduction of new antibiotics is decreasing. We discuss here six possible approaches to develop 'resistance-resistant' antibiotics. First, multitarget inhibitors in which a single compound inhibits more than one target may be easier to develop than conventional combination therapies with two new drugs. Second, inhibiting multiple targets in the same metabolic pathway is expected to be an effective strategy owing to synergy. Third, discovering multiple-target inhibitors should be possible by using sequential virtual screening. Fourth, repurposing existing drugs can lead to combinations of multitarget therapeutics. Fifth, targets need not be proteins. Sixth, inhibiting virulence factor formation and boosting innate immunity may also lead to decreased susceptibility to resistance. Although it is not possible to eliminate resistance, the approaches reviewed here offer several possibilities for reducing the effects of mutations and, in some cases, suggest that sensitivity to existing antibiotics may be restored in otherwise drug-resistant organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Orthogonal inactivation of influenza and the creation of detergent resistant viral aggregates: towards a novel vaccine strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belanger Julie M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been previously shown that enveloped viruses can be inactivated using aryl azides, such as 1-iodo-5-azidonaphthalene (INA, plus UVA irradiation with preservation of surface epitopes in the inactivated virus preparations. Prolonged UVA irradiation in the presence of INA results in ROS-species formation, which in turn results in detergent resistant viral protein fractions. Results Herein, we characterize the applicability of this technique to inactivate influenza. It is shown that influenza virus + INA (100 micromolar + UVA irradiation for 30 minutes results in a significant (p Conclusion These orthogonally inactivated viral preparations with detergent resistant fractions are being explored as a novel route for safe, effective inactivated vaccines generated from a variety of enveloped viruses.

  5. Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: Design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barnett, Julie

    2011-05-13

    Abstract Background European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always be easily communicated into simple guidelines and advice that non-scientists like the public or the media can easily understand especially when there is conflicting, uncertain or complex information about a particular food or aspects thereof. The need for improved strategies and tools for communication about food risks and benefits is therefore paramount. The FoodRisC project ("Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks\\/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies") aims to address this issue. The FoodRisC project will examine consumer perceptions and investigate how people acquire and use information in food domains in order to develop targeted strategies for food communication across Europe. Methods\\/Design This project consists of 6 research work packages which, using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are focused on development of a framework for investigating food risk\\/benefit issues across Europe, exploration of the role of new and traditional media in food communication and testing of the framework in order to develop evidence based communication strategies and tools. The main outcome of the FoodRisC project will be a toolkit to enable coherent communication of food risk\\/benefit messages in Europe. The toolkit will integrate theoretical models and new measurement paradigms as well as building on social marketing approaches around consumer segmentation. Use of the toolkit and guides will assist policy makers, food authorities and other end users in developing common approaches to communicating

  6. Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: Design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Luisa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always be easily communicated into simple guidelines and advice that non-scientists like the public or the media can easily understand especially when there is conflicting, uncertain or complex information about a particular food or aspects thereof. The need for improved strategies and tools for communication about food risks and benefits is therefore paramount. The FoodRisC project ("Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies" aims to address this issue. The FoodRisC project will examine consumer perceptions and investigate how people acquire and use information in food domains in order to develop targeted strategies for food communication across Europe. Methods/Design This project consists of 6 research work packages which, using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are focused on development of a framework for investigating food risk/benefit issues across Europe, exploration of the role of new and traditional media in food communication and testing of the framework in order to develop evidence based communication strategies and tools. The main outcome of the FoodRisC project will be a toolkit to enable coherent communication of food risk/benefit messages in Europe. The toolkit will integrate theoretical models and new measurement paradigms as well as building on social marketing approaches around consumer segmentation. Use of the toolkit and guides will assist policy makers, food authorities and other end users in developing common approaches to

  7. Development of strategies for effective communication of food risks and benefits across Europe: design and conceptual framework of the FoodRisC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Julie; McConnon, Aine; Kennedy, Jean; Raats, Monique; Shepherd, Richard; Verbeke, Wim; Fletcher, Jon; Kuttschreuter, Margôt; Lima, Luisa; Wills, Josephine; Wall, Patrick

    2011-05-13

    European consumers are faced with a myriad of food related risk and benefit information and it is regularly left up to the consumer to interpret these, often conflicting, pieces of information as a coherent message. This conflict is especially apparent in times of food crises and can have major public health implications. Scientific results and risk assessments cannot always be easily communicated into simple guidelines and advice that non-scientists like the public or the media can easily understand especially when there is conflicting, uncertain or complex information about a particular food or aspects thereof. The need for improved strategies and tools for communication about food risks and benefits is therefore paramount. The FoodRisC project ("Food Risk Communication - Perceptions and communication of food risks/benefits across Europe: development of effective communication strategies") aims to address this issue. The FoodRisC project will examine consumer perceptions and investigate how people acquire and use information in food domains in order to develop targeted strategies for food communication across Europe. This project consists of 6 research work packages which, using qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are focused on development of a framework for investigating food risk/benefit issues across Europe, exploration of the role of new and traditional media in food communication and testing of the framework in order to develop evidence based communication strategies and tools. The main outcome of the FoodRisC project will be a toolkit to enable coherent communication of food risk/benefit messages in Europe. The toolkit will integrate theoretical models and new measurement paradigms as well as building on social marketing approaches around consumer segmentation. Use of the toolkit and guides will assist policy makers, food authorities and other end users in developing common approaches to communicating coherent messages to consumers in Europe. The

  8. Phosphorylation of mouse immunity-related GTPase (IRG resistance proteins is an evasion strategy for virulent Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Steinfeldt

    Full Text Available Virulence of complex pathogens in mammals is generally determined by multiple components of the pathogen interacting with the functional complexity and multiple layering of the mammalian immune system. It is most unusual for the resistance of a mammalian host to be overcome by the defeat of a single defence mechanism. In this study we uncover and analyse just such a case at the molecular level, involving the widespread intracellular protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii and one of its most important natural hosts, the house mouse (Mus musculus. Natural polymorphism in virulence of Eurasian T. gondii strains for mice has been correlated in genetic screens with the expression of polymorphic rhoptry kinases (ROP kinases secreted into the host cell during infection. We show that the molecular targets of the virulent allelic form of ROP18 kinase are members of a family of cellular GTPases, the interferon-inducible IRG (immunity-related GTPase proteins, known from earlier work to be essential resistance factors in mice against avirulent strains of T. gondii. Virulent T. gondii strain ROP18 kinase phosphorylates several mouse IRG proteins. We show that the parasite kinase phosphorylates host Irga6 at two threonines in the nucleotide-binding domain, biochemically inactivating the GTPase and inhibiting its accumulation and action at the T. gondii parasitophorous vacuole membrane. Our analysis identifies the conformationally active switch I region of the GTP-binding site as an Achilles' heel of the IRG protein pathogen-resistance mechanism. The polymorphism of ROP18 in natural T. gondii populations indicates the existence of a dynamic, rapidly evolving ecological relationship between parasite virulence factors and host resistance factors. This system should be unusually fruitful for analysis at both ecological and molecular levels since both T. gondii and the mouse are widespread and abundant in the wild and are well-established model species with

  9. Biotin-targeted Pluronic(®) P123/F127 mixed micelles delivering niclosamide: A repositioning strategy to treat drug-resistant lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Annapina; Pellosi, Diogo Silva; Pagliara, Valentina; Milone, Maria Rita; Pucci, Biagio; Caetano, Wilker; Hioka, Noboru; Budillon, Alfredo; Ungaro, Francesca; Russo, Giulia; Quaglia, Fabiana

    2016-09-10

    With the aim to develop alternative therapeutic tools for the treatment of resistant cancers, here we propose targeted Pluronic(®) P123/F127 mixed micelles (PMM) delivering niclosamide (NCL) as a repositioning strategy to treat multidrug resistant non-small lung cancer cell lines. To build multifunctional PMM for targeting and imaging, Pluronic(®) F127 was conjugated with biotin, while Pluronic(®) P123 was fluorescently tagged with rhodamine B, in both cases at one of the two hydroxyl end groups. This design intended to avoid any interference of rhodamine B on biotin exposition on PMM surface, which is a key fundamental for cell trafficking studies. Biotin-decorated PMM were internalized more efficiently than non-targeted PMM in A549 lung cancer cells, while very low internalization was found in NHI3T3 normal fibroblasts. Biotin-decorated PMM entrapped NCL with good efficiency, displayed sustained drug release in protein-rich media and improved cytotoxicity in A549 cells as compared to free NCL (Pbiotin-decorated PMM carrying NCL at low doses demonstrated a significantly higher cytotoxicity than free NCL in CPr-A549. These results point at NCL-based regimen with targeted PMM as a possible second-line chemotherapy for lung cancer showing cisplatin or multidrug resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. FINAL PROJECT REPORT: A Geophysical Characterization & Monitoring Strategy for Determining Hydrologic Processes in the Hyporheic Corridor at the Hanford 300-Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Slater

    2011-08-15

    The primary objective of this research was to advance the prediction of solute transport between the Uranium contaminated Hanford aquifer and the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area by improving understanding of how fluctuations in river stage, combined with subsurface heterogeneity, impart spatiotemporal complexity to solute exchange along the Columbia River corridor. Our work explored the use of continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI), in conjunction with fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (FO-DTS) and time-lapse resistivity monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for how groundwater/surface water exchange regulates uranium transport. We also investigated how resistivity and induced polarization can be used to generate spatially rich estimates of the variation in depth to the Hanford-Ringold (H-R) contact between the river and the 300 Area Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site. Inversion of the CWEI datasets (a data rich survey containing ~60,000 measurements) provided predictions of the distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units along the river corridor was reconstructed. Variation in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse-grained, high permeability Hanford Formation and the underlying finer-grained, less permeable Ringold Formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, has been resolved along ~3 km of the river corridor centered on the IFRC site in the Hanford 300 Area. Spatial variability in the thickness of the Hanford Formation captured in the CWEI datasets indicates that previous studies based on borehole projections and drive-point and multi-level sampling likely overestimate the contributing area for uranium exchange within the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area. Resistivity and induced polarization imaging between the river and the 300 Area IFRC further imaged spatial variability in

  11. MDR-TB treatment as prevention: The projected population-level impact of expanded treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kendall, Emily A.; Azman, Andrew S.; Cobelens, Frank G.; Dowdy, David W.

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, approximately 480,000 people developed active multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), while only 97,000 started MDR-TB treatment. We sought to estimate the impact of improving access to MDR-TB diagnosis and treatment, under multiple diagnostic algorithm and treatment regimen scenarios,

  12. The ability to manage self-proposed projects between 1;3 and 2;0 years old: a study of inhibition and resistance to interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estanislao Pastor-Mallol

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines very young children's ability to manage self-proposed projects by using the inhibitory function and resistance to interference. In a natural environment and using an observational method, we conducted a longitudinal study of a sample observed at 1;3, 1;6, 1;9 and 2;0 years old. The research was divided into two studies which followed different procedures and looked at the projects carried out, the interferences produced and the functioning of inhibition. We observed significant differences in the execution of inhibition at the different age groups. We also describe general cognitive functions in terms of significant patterns, and determine that the use of inhibition is linked not only to age but also to the activity complexity level and the type of interference.

  13. Encountering Gender: Resisting a Neo-Liberal Political Rationality for Sexuality Education as an HIV Prevention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacoin, Andrée E.

    2017-01-01

    Globally, sexuality education is framed as a key programmatic strategy for achieving HIV prevention among youth. In particular, sexuality education is positioned as a way to address gender inequalities and promote youth empowerment in relation to gendered identities. In this paper, I argue that the focus on what content should be taught and…

  14. An Evidence-Based Project Demonstrating Increased School Immunization Compliance Following a School Nurse-Initiated Vaccine Compliance Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Wendy; Roberts, Jill C.

    2016-01-01

    During the 2012-2013 school year, only 66% of students at a Northern Indiana High School were in compliance with school immunization requirements. We report here successful implementation of evidence-based, time, and cost-effective methods aimed at increasing school immunization compliance. A three-stage strategy initiated by the school nurse was…

  15. Project Overcoat - An Exploration of Exterior Insulation Strategies for 1-1/2-Story Roof Applications in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyk, Cindy [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Mosiman, Garrett [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Huelman, Pat [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Schirber, Tom [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Yost, Peter [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Murry, Tessa [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The development of an alternative method to interior-applied insulation strategies or exterior applied 'band-aids' such as heat tapes and ice belts may help reduce energy needs of millions of 1-1/2 story homes while reducing the risk of ice dam formation. A potential strategy for energy improvement of the roof is borrowed from new construction best practices: Here an 'overcoat' of a continuous air, moisture, and thermal barrier is applied on the outside of the roof structure for improved overall performance. The continuous insulation of this approach facilitates a reduction in thermal bridging which could further reduce energy consumption and bring existing homes closer to meeting the Building America goals for energy reduction. Research favors an exterior approach to deep energy retrofits and ice dam prevention in existing homes. The greatest amount of research focuses on whole house deep energy retrofits leaving a void in roof-only applications. The research is also void of data supporting the hygrothermal performance, durability, constructability, and cost of roof-only exterior overcoat strategies. Yet, contractors interviewed for this report indicate an understanding that exterior approaches are most promising for mitigating ice dams and energy loss and are able to sell these strategies to homeowners.

  16. Improvement Strategies at Six Culturally Different Schools. Final Report FY91-FY95, Leadership for Change Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Nancy; And Others

    School leaders have begun to understand that "change is a process." Leaders must facilitate change, not merely disseminate or direct it. This publication presents findings of the Leadership for Change Project (LFC). The LFC studied six sites at different stages of the school-improvement process, including two "developmental" sites in Arkansas and…

  17. Internet Navigation and Information Search Strategies: How Do Children Are Influenced by Their Participation in an Intensive ICT Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badilla Quintana, Maria; Cortada Pujol, Meritxell; Riera Romani, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the involvement showed by 190 students who participated in an introduction to Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) project, in public schools from Spain. By means of an Internet browsing test, access and information selection processes were afforded. The purpose of the study was to…

  18. Intergrating users in an interactive video education project: reframing the patient-centered strategy of a cystic fibrosis centre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.C. Aspria (Marcello); M. de Mul (Marleen); S.A. Adams (Samantha); R.A. Bal (Roland)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis article reports on the formative evaluation of WebPEP (“Web-Based Patient Education Program”), an interactive video education project at ErasmusMC–Sophia Children’s Hospital (SCH) in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Through monthly live webcasts, doctors, nurses, psychologists, and

  19. The Development of a Teaching Strategy for Implementing a Real-World Business Project into Database Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-Abbassi, Behrooz; King, Ronnie; Wiseman, Eddie

    2007-01-01

    Collaborations between business and academia provide valuable opportunities for students to connect classroom learning with practical work experience. To effectively reach a significant number of students, one approach is to meld a real-world business project and classroom assignment into a realistic business scenario that can be addressed by…

  20. Using SMS as a Harm Reduction Strategy: An Evaluation of the RAGE (Register and Get Educated) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Belinda; Keleher, Helen; Rudd, Annette; Klein, Ruth; Locke, Beth; Roussy, Véronique

    2013-01-01

    The RAGE (Register And Get Educated) project explored the feasibility of SMS (Short Messaging Service) as a means for communicating harm reduction messages in relation to alcohol and other drugs to young people residing in the City of Knox, Victoria. Almost 700 young people aged 12-26 years registered their mobile phone numbers to receive a series…